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Sample records for aec radioisotope customers

  1. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985

  2. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1986-08-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfer - FY 1985.

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986

  4. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983

  5. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1)isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1986.

  6. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984

  7. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamar, D.A.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms, including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: 1) isotope suppliers, facility contact, and isotopes or services supplied; 2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; 3) isotopes purchased cross- referenced with customer numbers; 4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and 5) radioisotope sales and transfers for fiscal year 1987.

  8. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1985-08-01

    This edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document describes radioisotope distribution from DOE facilities to private firms including foreign and other DOE facilities. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; (2) customers, suppliers, and isotopes purchased; (3) isotopes purchased cross-referenced with customer numbers; (4) geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1984.

  9. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Houten, N.C.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987.

  10. US Department of Energy radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this edition of the radioisotope customer list at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research (ER-73), Office of Energy Research, US Department of Energy (DOE). This is the 25th report in a series dating from 1964. This report covers DOE radioisotope sales and distribution activities by its facilities to domestic, foreign and other DOE facilities for FY 1988. The report is divided into five sections: radioisotope suppliers, facility contacts, and radioisotopes or services supplied; a list of customers, suppliers, and radioisotopes purchased; a list of radioisotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers -- FY 1988. Radioisotopes not previously reported in this series of reports were argon-37, arsenic-72, arsenic-73, bismuth-207, gadolinium-151, rhenium-188, rhodium-101, selenium-72, xenon-123 and zirconium-88. The total value of DOE radioisotope sales for FY 1988 was $11.1 million, an increase of 3% from FY 1987

  11. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope production and distribution activities by facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. are listed. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility, contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customs numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1982

  12. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D.A.

    1984-08-01

    This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Plant; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: isotope suppliers, facility contacts, and isotopes or services supplied; lists of customers, suppliers and isotopes purchased; list of isotopes purchased cross-referenced to customer codes; geographic locations of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers - FY 1983.

  13. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  14. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979

  15. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The fifteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Division of Financial Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Rocky Flats Area Office; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: Isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; geographical location of radioisotope customers; and radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1979.

  16. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlison, J.S. (comp.)

    1981-08-01

    The sixteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboraory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980.

  17. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seventeenth edition of the radioisotope customer list was prepared at the request of the Office of Health and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research, Department of Energy (DOE). This document lists DOE's radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory: Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into five sections: (1) isotope suppliers, facility, contracts and isotopes or services supplied; (2) alphabetical list of customers, and isotopes purchased; (3) alphabetical list of isotopes cross-referenced to customer numbers; (4) geographical location of radioisotope customers; and (5) radioisotope sales and transfers-FY 1980

  18. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant

  19. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc

  20. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments, FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.

    1977-03-01

    The thirteenth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Office of Program Coordination, Office of the Assistant Administrator. The purpose of the document is to list the FY 1976 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of ERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Idaho Operations Office, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Savannah River Laboratory, and United Nuclear Industries, Inc.

  1. List of ERDA radioisotope (customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, J.L.; Gano, S.R. (comp.)

    1976-01-01

    The twelfth edition of the ERDA radioisotope customer list has been prepared at the request of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research. The purpose of this document is to list the FY 1975 commercial radioisotope production and distribution activities of USERDA facilities at Argonne National Laboratory, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Brookhaven National Laboratory, United Nuclear Inc., Idaho Operations Office, Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Savannah River Plant. (TFD)

  2. List of ERDA radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1977 (plus the transition quarter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thirteenth edition of the radioisotope customer list gives ERDA's (now DOE) FY-1977 and transition quarter radioisotope production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Laboratory; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and United Nuclear Industries, Inc. The information is divided into four sections. Sect. I is an alphabetical list of domestic and foreign customers and their addresses. Sect. II is an alphabetical list of isotopes that are cross-referenced to customer numbers and divided into the domestic and foreign categories. Sect. III is an alphabetical list of states and countries, and is also cross-referenced to customer numbers, indicating geographical concentrations of isotope users. Sect. IV summarizes the FY-1977 radioisotope shipment activities of laboratories in a comprehensive table providing an alphabetical listing of the isotopes and their suppliers. The shipments, quantities, and dollars are broken down for each isotope under the domestic, foreign, and project (ERDA facilities) categories, and the total figures for each isotope are also provided

  3. List of DOE radioisotope customers with summary of radioisotope shipments FY 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the document is to list DOE's radioisotopes production and distribution activities by its facilities at Argonne National Laboratory; Pacific Northwest Laboratory; Brookhaven National Laboratory; Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory; Idaho Operations Office; Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory; Mound Facility; Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Savannah River Laboratory; and UNC Nuclear Industries, Inc

  4. AEC review 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited (AEC) are reviewed. The activities of each of the six Management Units, namely Uranium Processing, Uranium Enrichment, Research and Development, Engineering, Human Resources and Finance and Commercial Affairs, are discussed. The Uranium Processing Unit includes the two major production programmes, viz. UF6 production and fuel-element fabrication. The objective of the Uranium Enrichment Management Unit is the supply of enriched uranium. The unit operates two uranium enrichment plants, the semicommercial Z Plant and the pilot plant. The Research and Developement Unit is structured into 7 programmes which are related mainly to the fuel cycle. It concentrates on facets of the nuclear fuel cycle, by-products of the nuclear industry and research services, as well as transfer of specialized technology to private industry. The Engineering Unit includes Engineering Services, Technical Services, Nuclear Waste Technology which involves the handling and disposal of all radioactive waste in South Africa, Central Quality Services, and Safety. The Human Resources Management Unit is divided in four functional units, viz. Manpower Services, Labour Relations, Training and Development and Manpower Specialized Services. The Unit Finance and Commercial Affairs consists of Financial and Accounting Services, Management Services, Corporate Information and Marketing and Commercial Services. A list of products and services delivered by the AEC is included as well as a list of publications by staff members

  5. AEC determines uranium enrichment policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advisory Committee on Uranium Enrichment of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has submitted a report to AEC chairman concerning the promotion of the introduction of advanced material, high performance centrifuges to replace conventional metallic drum centrifuges, and the development of next generation advanced centrifuges. The report also called for the postponement until around 1997 of the decision whether the development should be continued or not on atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) and molecular laser isotope separation (MLIS) processes, as well as the virtual freezing of the construction of a chemical process demonstration plant. The report was approved by the AEC chairman in August. The uranium enrichment service market in the world will continue to be characterized by oversupply. The domestic situation of uranium enrichment supply-demand trend, progress of the expansion of Rokkasho enrichment plant, the trend in the development of gas centrifuge process and the basic philosophy of commercializing domestic uranium enrichment are reported. (K.I.)

  6. Radioisotope instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, J F; Silverleaf, D J

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Nuclear Energy, Volume 107: Radioisotope Instruments, Part 1 focuses on the design and applications of instruments based on the radiation released by radioactive substances. The book first offers information on the physical basis of radioisotope instruments; technical and economic advantages of radioisotope instruments; and radiation hazard. The manuscript then discusses commercial radioisotope instruments, including radiation sources and detectors, computing and control units, and measuring heads. The text describes the applications of radioisotop

  7. Radioisotope generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope generator is described in which it is possible to interupt the elution process at any desired time, i.e. before the electron flacon is full. The interuption is performed in such a way that sterile air is simultaneously admitted into the generator, into both the column and the elution flacon. (Th.P.)

  8. AEC testing in a CR environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Testing of x-ray machine automatic exposure control (AEC) functionality for varying kVp and patient thickness is a fundamental health physics check. Current test protocols tend to be based on testing in a film environment using film optical density as the measure of conformance. With the move into the digital x-ray image age with the use of computed radiography (CR) and digital radiography (DR) equipment and its associated image storage and retrieval system (PACS) a new AEC testing protocol is required. All CR systems provide a dose assessment tool (called Exposure Index or EI by Kodak) that could be used as a surrogate for optical density. However this work aims to derive an efficient means of assessing the functioning of the AEC of x-ray machines in a CR environment using dose measurement alone. This would eliminate the need to process the many image plates normally required for AEC testing in order to obtain and analyse the exposure measure from the CR system. The EI, and other brand's equivalents, is calibrated for a given condition (for Kodak 80kVp 0.5mmCu + 1mmAl). In order to use dose measurement alone the relationship between EI and dose must be known for varying kVp and patient thicknesses (represented by a perspex phantom). This will depend on the response of the CR plate to varying beam energies. This was assessed using a series of paired exposures at various kVp and perspex thicknesses. In the first exposure of each pair a Kodak CR plate was used, processed in the normal way, and the EI noted. In a second identical exposure an Innovision 35050A pancake ionization chamber was placed in the bucky tray within a specially modified film cassette and the dose measured. Over the 50-125kVp range of clinical use the kV response of the Kodak PSP's shown below is essentially flat for a set dose to the image plate and filtered using the standard Kodak method of 0.5mmCu + 1mmAl. Similar data will be presented showing this relationship using a perspex

  9. Interaction Dynamics in AEC Global Teamwork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renate Fruchter; Shubashri Swaminathan; Naohiro Matsumura; Yukio Ohsawa

    2008-01-01

    Architecture,engineering,and construction (AEC) global project teamwork is communication in-tensive and relies heavily on synchronous and asynchronous information and collaboration technologies (ICT).We explore in this paper how an asynchronous ICT,called ThinkTank,reshaped the work practice of design-construction global teams.and how the interaction with this ICT reshaped the purpose and benefits of its use.ThinkTank is a web-based asynchronous collaboration and discussion forum.We introduce the influence diffusion model (IDM) that formalizes the process of identifying the influence of people,messages,and terms mathematically.Discovering who the influence leaders in project teams are can be beneficial and critical from a corporate management perspective.since they can guide or motivate the team towards suc-cessful actions and outcomes.We present the ThinkTank-IDM integrated system and its validation with a testbed of 53 AEC global team project archived in ThinkTank over 8 years.

  10. Radioisotope Power Supply Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Between 1998 and 2003, Hi-Z Technology developed and built a 40 mW radioisotope power supply (RPS) that used a 1 watt radioisotope heater unit (RHU) as the energy...

  11. Nuclear criticality safety. Chapter 0530 of AEC manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme objectives of this chapter of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission manual on nuclear criticality safety are to protect the health and safety of the public and of the government and contractor personnel working in plants that handle fissionable material and to protect public and private property from the consequences of a criticality accident occurring in AEC-owned plants and other AEC-contracted activities involving fissionable materials

  12. Power from Radioisotopes (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R; Mead, Robert L

    1971-01-01

    This booklet discusses Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP), called isotope power generators, that are based on using heat from the decay of radioisotopes to produce electricity. These are the SNAP systems with odd-numbered designators. The basics of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are discussed and their uses as power sources in space exploration and on earth are described. Various radioisotope heat sources are discussed and a table of RTGs built under the SNAP program listing their uses, electrical power, weight, the radioisotope used, the radioisotope's half-life, and the generator life is given.

  13. Economical Radioisotope Power Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Almost all robotic space exploration missions and all Apollo missions to the moon used Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) to provide electrical power...

  14. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  15. A newborn with overlapping features of AEC and EEC syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celik, T.H.; Buyukcam, A.; Simsek-Kiper, P.O.; Utine, G.E.; Ersoy-Evans, S.; Korkmaz, A.; Yntema, H.G.; Bodugroglu, K.; Yurdakok, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, clefting (EEC) syndrome is the prototype of several p63 conditions, which include ankyloblepharon, ectodermal dysplasia, clefting (AEC) syndrome, limb-mammary syndrome (LMS), Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome (RHS), ADULT syndrome, and others. All these disorders include comb

  16. Exploring the Client–AEC Interface in Building Lifecycle Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Kamara

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation and management of buildings over their lifecycle involves the cooperation of many organizations, which broadly fall into a client domain and AEC (architecture, engineering, construction domain. While this mix of expertise is essential, the ineffective management of the boundaries between these organizations can undermine building lifecycle performance. This paper explores client–AEC interactions at the project development and handover stages, with a view to discovering insights into client–AEC interface management for effective building lifecycle integration (BLI. The concept of boundary objects provided the theoretical framework to discuss findings from two case studies on the project development phase of a private finance initiative project, and the asset development process in a repeat client organization. The findings suggest that there are different emphases in boundary crossing activities at different stages, with boundary roles that relate to decision-making and authority to commit resources being more relevant at the project development stage, whereas the need to explain meanings appear to be more relevant at the handover stage. AEC professionals in client organizations play a crucial role in bridging knowledge boundaries about buildings, but this professional/functional strand to BLI needs to be effectively managed alongside the organizational boundaries, since the authority to resource BLI efforts resides within organizations.

  17. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index

  18. Assessment of aec system response in ge 16 slices scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed Tomography scanners equipped with system for Automatic Exposure Control ( AEC ) have been recently installed into clinical practice in Macedonia. Assessment of their AEC settings and performances is important task from patient doses and images quality point of view . This study was done by analyzing of CT examinations in patients in the City Hospital ' 8 September' in Skopje. The examinations were carried out by GE Bright Speed 16 slices scanner equipped with AEC system . In all patients were applied the same protocol with constant acquisition parameters was applied , and images were reconstructed by standard mode . Patient dimensions and image noise were measured from the scouts and axial images. From DICOM header the information related to dose, TCM and slice position were extracted . It was found that scanner automatic exposure system adjusts exposure mainly according to maximal patient lateral dimension (LR) and applying the same Noise Index (NI) value in patients with different size does not provides necessarily the same image noise level. In patients which LR dimension was less than 30 cm it was found that AEC adjusts tube current at the minimum of m A interval with no modulation throughout different body parts. (Author)

  19. Radioisotope applications in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a short mention of the economic importance of the industrial application of radioisotopes the most necessary fundamental principles of nuclear physics are given. The nature and the laws of the radioactive decay are illustrated, the interaction of radiation with matter and the absorption laws are described and the production of radioisotopes are mentioned. Subsequent the various detectors for measuring radioactivity are described with a short reference to the problems of the electronic measuring devices. At the end the various measuring techniques and the methods of application for radioisotopes in industry are illustrated. (author)

  20. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author)

  1. AEC set-up optimisation with computed radiography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchi, S; Belli, G; Busoni, S; Gori, C; Menchi, I; Salucci, P; Taddeucci, A; Zatelli, G

    2005-01-01

    Phototimer set-up is a critical procedure for dose and image quality optimisation in computed radiography (CR) systems. While a conventional radiography automatic exposure control device (AEC) can be calibrated in order to gain a constant optical density on the film independent of beam quality and patient size, CR detectors present a high dynamic range which allows a much larger dose interval, but with different image quality levels. CR leads to a less frequent exam repetition, but may produce quite noisy images if the exposure level on the plate is not correct. The aim of this work is to evaluate the performance of a CR plate (Agfa MD40) in order to optimally calibrate an AEC device. The plate response has been characterised in terms of digital signal, exposure on the plate and signal-to-noise ratio for different beam qualities, in a patient of standard size. PMID:16461503

  2. A Radioisotope Inventory Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Inventory Program maintains an accurate and up-to-date inventory of all radioisotopes used on campus. An instruction manual provides easy to use directions for using the program. The program is implemented on a Hewlett-Packard HP-85 microcomputer and can be used on other systems. The commands allow updating and changing licensee information easily and quickly. Data Security is maintained by placing the data on a removable tape cartridge and locking the cartridge

  3. Radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author explains clearly what is radiography, enumerates four major factors in considering a practical source to use namely half-life, penetrating power, half value layer and specific activity and also the advantages and disadvantages in using isotopes. Common radioisotopes used in industrial radiography are iridium, cesium, cobalt and thulium. Main uses of the radioisotopes are for radiographic testing like welding castings, forgoings etc.; thickness, level or density measurement and tracing. (RTD)

  4. PBL Lab: AEC Global Teamwork Course, Stanford University

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Jutraž

    2012-01-01

    On the AEC Global Teamwork course, students of architecture and construction work together on demanding construction projects designed in accordance with modern standards and environmental requirements. Students work in mixed international and interdisciplinary project teams consisting of architects, structural engineers, construction managers, MEP engineers, and life-cycle financial managers.Except for two short personal meetings at Stanford University in California, (at the beginning and en...

  5. CUSTOMS DUTIES. CUSTOMS TARIFF

    OpenAIRE

    Octavian Pasat

    2013-01-01

    Romania Import Tariff is from 1 January 2007, the Common Customs Tariff of the European Union. Applicable in all EU Member States, it ensures the smtooh functioning of the European internal market. From 1 January 2007, as a member state of the European Union, Romania applies the EU Common Customs Tariff. Common Customs Tariff duties lists applied to each tariff line imports from third countries, by all EU Member States, the regime most favored nation clause. Customs duties included in the Com...

  6. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  7. Industry benefits from radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency since its inception has always sought to promote the industrial use of radioisotopes. Among other ways, it has arranged scientific conferences on various aspects of the question, and has selected and published general information. Industry's attitude to any innovation, however, is the same the world over - viz. does it pay? The Agency, therefore, decided to collect information on the economic benefits derived from the use of radioisotopes in industry, described in terms of 'savings', It arranged for an international survey of these benefits, and at the same time for the collection of information on how radioisotopes are being utilized today. In April 1962 the Agency invited selected Member States to participate in the survey, and in response national governments collected detailed information from industrial organizations in their countries in the fields of prospecting, mining and manufacturing. The radioisotope techniques were grouped under the heads of radioisotope gauging, industrial radiography, ionization applications, tracing, massive irradiation and miscellaneous applications. The national reports from the participating countries recently reached the Agency, which is preparing a comprehensive report on radioisotope use and economics. In order to assess the contents of the various reports and to establish the best means of interpreting and presenting the material, the Agency convened a Study Group in Vienna from 16 to 20 March 1964. About 60 participants from Member States and international organizations discussed the reports, the latest developments in isotope utilization, and how the use of isotopes in industry could be further encouraged. The survey was prepared with care, as there have been few precedents to guide such an investigation on such a scale. Although its main purpose is to make an economic assessment, it has necessarily had to start with the consideration of techniques, and information was collected both

  8. Radioisotope Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope power programme of the US Atomic Energy Commission has brought forth a whole new technology of the use of radioisotopes as energy sources in electric power generators. Radioisotope power systems are particularly suited for remote applications where long-lived, compact, reliable power is needed. Able to perform satisfactorily under extreme environmental conditions of temperature, sunlight and electromagnetic radiations, these ''atomic batteries'' are attractive power sources for remote data collecting devices, monitoring systems, satellites and other space missions. Radioisotopes used as fuels generally are either alpha or beta emitters. Alpha emitters are the preferable fuels but are more expensive and less available than beta fuels and are generally reserved for space applications. Beta fuels separated from reactor fission wastes are being used exclusively in land and sea applications at the present. It can be expected, however, that beta emitters such as stiontium-90 eventually will be used in space. Development work is being carried out on generators which will use mixed fission products as fuel. This fuel will be less expensive than the pure radioisotopes since the costs of isotope separation and purification are eliminated. Prototype thermoelectric generators, fuelled with strontium-90 and caesium-137, are now in operation or being developed for use in weather stations, marine navigation aids and deep sea monitoring devices. A plutonium-238 thermoelectric generator is in orbit operating as electric power source in a US Navy TRANSIT satellite. Generators are under development for use on US National Aeronautics and Space Administration missions. The large quantities of radioactivity involved in radioisotope power sources require that special attention be given to safety aspects of the units. Rigid safety requirements have been established and extensive tests have been conducted to insure that these systems can be employed without creating undue

  9. ITC-Euromaster Course Pool for AEC Engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Tibaut

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the ITC-Euromaster Course Pool. It is a concept that powers e-learning environment for conducting an international Master’s level programme in information technologies for Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC. The e-learning environment integrates resources (units of study, learning management system, virtual classroom, teachers and students from five European universities. In the paper following aspects of the system are presented: concept and methodology of the Course Pool, technology for e-learning and evaluation results.

  10. MODELAGEM SISTÊMICA DE PROJETOS DE AEC EM UML

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cristina Ferreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O uso intensivo de Sistemas de Informação é uma possível solução para a integração das atividades de projeto em AEC, permitindo que decisões sejam tomadas ainda na fase de projeto e, conseqüentemente, evitando-se retrabalhos em obra. Neste sentido, esforços têm sido realizados para padronizar conceitos e terminologias de AEC, permitindo a troca e armazenagem de informações, como a norma ISO 12006-2 e os padrões estabelecidos pelo IFC. Ambas são baseadas na linguagem EXPRESS, assim como é o padrão industrial STEP. Entretanto, as representações de informação usadas na indústria de produtos não são as mais adequadas para a Engenharia de Software, responsável pelo desenvolvimento de Sistemas de Informação, onde as representações semânticas envolvem não somente a representação estrutural da informação, mas também a representação comportamental. Este artigo contribui com uma visão de implementação em UML da informação de um projeto de AEC e tornam explícitas, sob a ótica do desenvolvimento de software, as relações semânticas existentes. Os resultados desta pesquisa foram obtidos através da realização de um estudo de caso de projeto de produção em CAD 3D dos subsistemas alvenaria e revestimento para um edifício residencial. A partir das observações do estudo de caso foi feita a modelagem em UML dos objetos pertinentes. O principal resultado obtido foi a representação explícita das interfaces entre objetos AEC.

  11. Which way radioisotopes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sion, N.

    2011-03-15

    The cancellation of the MAPLES program and the impending retirement of the NRU reactor in 2016 (all utilizing Highly Enriched Uranium HEU for their targets) plus the rigours of non proliferation treaties, has created an increasingly short supply of radioisotopes. Alternate pathways must be found, even created, to maintain the supply of radioisotopes i.e. Mo-99 (decaying into Tc-99m) as well as to provide the several other types of isotopes used in nuclear medicine in order to maintain Canada's leadership in science, innovation and public health. Medical isotopes help locate cancers with precision, therapeutically treat cancers, and provide physicians the diagnostic tools to save lives. (author)

  12. Radiation protection at radioisotope processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MDS Inc. is Canada's largest diversified health and life sciences company and provides health care services and products to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. MDS Nordion Inc. is a subsidiary of MDS Inc. and is located in Ottawa, Ontario. It provides much of the world's supply of radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine primarily to diagnose, but also to treat disease. MDS Nordion is composed of three major production divisions at its Ottawa location and serves customers in three major markets. These are primarily: radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine (Nuclear Medicine Division), radiation processing for sterilization of medical equipment and supplies, and food (Ion Technologies Division), and teletherapy equipment used in cancer treatment (Therapy Systems Division). MDS Nordion supplies customers in over 100 countries, exporting more than 95 percent of its product processed in Canada. Every year, 15 to 20 million diagnostic imaging tests are carried out in hospitals around the world, using radioisotopes supplied by MDS Nordion. In addition, 150 to 200 million cubic feet (that's enough to cover an entire CFL field - including the end zones - stacked over half a kilometer high) of single use medical products are sterilized using MDS Nordion supplied equipment. MDS Nordion receives medical isotopes from AECL, Chalk River Laboratories and processes the material to purify and quantify the radioisotope product. Sealed sources, comprised of cobalt 60, are supplied from CANDU reactors. Production processes include ventilated shielded cells with remote manipulators, gloveboxes and fumehoods, to effectively control the safety of the workplace and the environment, and to prevent contamination of the products. The facilities are highly regulated by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) for safety and environmental protection. Products are also regulated by Health Canada and the US-Food and Drug Administration (FDA). (author)

  13. Radioisotopes in education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes and nuclear techniques can in many cases greatly contribute to the value of teaching. With these techniques it is often possible to introduce demonstrations or experiments which explain phenomena otherwise difficult to understand. The choice of the program must be adapted to the teaching level. This requires previous training of the teachers and the provision of basic equipment. (author)

  14. Radioisotopes in Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Philip S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Fuccillo, Jr., Domenic A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Gerrard, Martha W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Lafferty, Jr., Robert H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1967-05-01

    Radioisotopes, man-made radioactive elements, are used in industry primarily for measuring, testing and processing. How and why they are useful is the subject of this booklet. The booklet discusses their origin, their properties, their uses, and how they may be used in the future.

  15. Radioisotopic heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 15700F to about 17200F for about one h

  16. Manual of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Manual of Radioisotope Production has been compiled primarily to help small reactor establishments which need a modest programme of radioisotope production for local requirements. It is not comprehensive, but gives guidance on essential preliminary considerations and problems that may be met in the early stages of production. References are included as an aid to the reader who wishes to seek further in the extensive literature on the subject. In preparing the Manual, which is in two parts, the Agency consulted several Member States which already have long experience in radioisotope production. An attempt has been made to condense this experience, firstly, by setting out the technical and economic considerations which govern the planning and execution of an isotope programme and, secondly, by providing experimental details of isotope production processes. Part I covers topics common to all radioisotope processing, namely, laboratory design, handling and dispensing of radioactive solutions, quality control, measurement and radiological safety. Part II contains information on the fifteen radioisotopes in most common use. These are bromine-82, cobalt-58, chromium-51, copper-64, fluorine-18, gold-198, iodine-131, iron-59, magnesium-28, potassium-42, sodium-24, phosphorus-32, sulphur-35, yttrium-90 and zinc-65. Their nuclear properties are described, references to typical applications are given and published methods of production are reviewed; also included are descriptions in detail of the production processes used at several national atomic energy organizations. No attempt has been made to distinguish the best values for nuclear data or to comment on the relative merits of production processes. Each process is presented essentially as it was described by the contributor on the understanding that critical comparisons are not necessary for processes which have been well tried in practical production for many years. The information is presented as a guide to enable

  17. Application of radioisotopes in entomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques are effective in entomology and studies on insects physiology. The study presents the use of radioisotopes in pest control programs: Methods of insects irradiation and the concept of biological half-life of the radioisotopes in comparison with physical half-life are explained. Main radioisotopes used in entomology are:3H, 14Ca, 32P, 35S, 38Cl. Other radioisotopes contributing to studies on insects are: 198Au, 134Cs, 131I, 86Rb, 65Zn, 59Fe, 45Ca, 24Na, 22Na. Radiation doses specific to each radioisotopes are given in tables. As an example of the application of radioisotopes in pest control: the determination of insects population density by means of releasing irradiated male insects than chasing them; studying of reproduction activity of Agrotis ipsilon; studying of egg laying of Heliocoverpa armigera moth. 15 refs. 2 figs. 2 tabs

  18. PBL Lab: AEC Global Teamwork Course, Stanford University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Jutraž

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the AEC Global Teamwork course, students of architecture and construction work together on demanding construction projects designed in accordance with modern standards and environmental requirements. Students work in mixed international and interdisciplinary project teams consisting of architects, structural engineers, construction managers, MEP engineers, and life-cycle financial managers.Except for two short personal meetings at Stanford University in California, (at the beginning and end of the project work, students from various universities around the world (e.g. University of California, Berkeley; University of Wisconsin, Madison; University of Puerto Rico; Bauhaus - University Weimar; Aalborg University; etc. will work remotely, using modern design tools and communication. At the end of the project work, the goal is to produce a comprehensive and integrated design for public buildings.

  19. Annual report: AEC Institute for Life Sciences, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AEC-Institute for life sciences research programme can be divided into four divisions: experimental nuclear medicine, radiobiology, radiopharmacy and hormone receptor studies. The experimental nuclear medicine division investigates and undertakes new developments in nuclear diagnostics with a view to clinical application, especially developments in dataprocessing techniques and radiopharmaceuticals. Physiological, biochemical and pharmacological problems are also investigated by using tracers and nuclear diagnostic techniques. The radiobiology division is concerned with the development of biochemical techniques for determining radiosensitivity amongst radiation workers as well as clinical-biochemical, diagnostic procedures for identifying exposure to ionizing types of radiation (X- or gamma radiation). The hormone receptor division is concerned with the study of the role of steroid hormone receptors, steroids and carcinogenes in the etiology of breast cancer. Research projects as well as completed and ongoing research are listed in this report

  20. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN) presents its radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals 2002 catalogue. In it we found physical characteristics of 9 different reactor produced radioisotopes ( Tc-99m, I-131, Sm-153, Ir-192, P-32, Na-24, K-42, Cu-64, Rb-86 ), 7 radiopharmaceuticals ( MDP, DTPA, DMSA, Disida, Phitate, S-Coloid, Red Blood Cells In-Vivo, Red Blood Cells In-Vitro) and 4 labelled compounds ( DMSA-Tc99m, DTPA-Tc99m, MIBG-I131, EDTMP-Sm153 ). In the near future the number of items will be increased with new reactor and cyclotron products. Our production system will be certified by ISO 9000 on March 2003. CCHEN is interested in being a national and an international supplier of these products (RS)

  1. Radioisotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in nuclear medicine to allow physicians to explore bodily structures. The thyroid, bones, heart, liver and many other organs can be easily imaged and disorder in their functions revealed. Technetium-99, a radioisotope is a decay product of Molybdenum-99, a radionuclide with half life of sixty-six hours is discussed. It is widely used in nuclear medical procedure. In this application, the radio nuclide is chemically attached to a drug chosen for its tendency to collect in specific organ of the body and the so is then injected into the patient's body. After a short time, half life of only six hours, an image is collected with a radio sensitive detector for analysis. Technetium-99 decays by isomeric process which emits gamma rays and low energy beta particles. (author)

  2. Radioisotopes and rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To stimulate research into problems of rice cultivation, the International Atomic Energy Agency has placed several research contracts with agricultural institutes in some of its Member States. Some of these research projects deal with problems of soil-plant relations and fertilization, and rice is one of the main crops on which studies are being made. A panel of experts convened by the Agency met in Vienna in May this year to discuss some of the outstanding problems in the uses of radioisotopes in soil-plant relations and fertilization studies, and problems concerning rice were among the principal subjects considered. In a paper presented at the panel meeting. Professor S. Mitsui, of the University of Tokyo, reviewed some of the main uses of radioisotopes in studying problems of rice soils and rice cultivation and suggested several specific topics in this field which could be investigated by isotope techniques

  3. Radio-isotope converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the surface power density required for thermoelectric and thermionic converters, available radioactive sources are surveyed and listed. Curves of specific minimum diameter versus thermal flux density are given. 210Po and 242Cm appear to be suitable for direct thermionic when alpha emitters such as 238Pu and 244Cm are still suitable for thermoelectric conversion. This mode will also work with beta emitters 170Tm, 90Sr, 144Ce and 137Cs. Some thermoelectric radioisotope heated converters are suggested. (authors)

  4. Radioisotope analyzer of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principle of operation and construction of radioisotope barium sulphate analyzer type MZB-2 for fast determination of barium sulphate content in barite ores and enrichment products are described. The gauge equipped with Am-241 and a scintillation detector enables measurement of barium sulphate content in prepared samples of barite ores in the range 60% - 100% with the accuracy of 1%. The gauge is used in laboratories of barite mine and ore processing plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  5. Radioisotope programme in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Research Centre of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran has taken up a program for the production of short-lived radioisotopes. The initial purpose of this program was to give service to isotope users, mainly researchers, who were importing radioisotopes. With the commissioning of the reactor and installation of handling facilities at the temporary isotope laboratories at NRC the scope of the production program elaborated. Meanwhile the application of radiopharmaceuticals in medicine was actively encouraged. The production of radioisotopes in medicine is one of the prime objectives. The development of Tc-99m technology in NRC of AEOI will not only meet the demands of existing nuclear medicine centres, but also help the country to develop know-how in this important area. The output of this project will be the production and supply of Tc-99m generator, which is a primary objective with the technical assistance of IAEA. At the present moment the Tc-99m is processing using Mo-99 produced in the NRC reactor by irradiation Mo03. In view of the easier availability of fission product Mo-99 from several suppliers, now the NRC is seriously considering the preparation of Tc-99m generators using imported fission Mo-99. We are also working on the production of high specific activity Cr-51, P-32, S-33 and Au-198 colloid and some other short-lived radioisotopes in milicurie level. Iodine-131 is processed using the wet distillation method with good recovery. The iodine-131 is tested for radiochemical purity tellurium content and radionuclide purity and is found to be satisfactory. With these studies the processing and quality control of I-131 can be considered complete and batches of one curie activity can be planned. Specifications have been standardized for I-131 labelled formulations radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  6. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country's main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community

  7. Radioisotopes for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, S. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Radiopharmaceuticals Division

    1998-03-01

    For more than 3 decades, the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation has been the country`s main supplier of radioisotopes for medical applications. The use of radioisotopes in medicine has revolutionised the diagnosis, management and treatment of many serious diseases such as cancer, heart disease and stroke. It is also beginning to play a key role in neurological disorders such as Parkinson and Alzheimers disease and epilepsy. More recently there has been considerable growth in the application of nuclear medicine to treat sport-related injuries - especially wrist, ankle and knees where more common techniques do not always enable accurate diagnosis. Australia is a recognised leader in nuclear medicine. This can be partially attributed to the close relationship between ANSTO and the medical community in providing opportunities to develop and evaluate new agents to support more effective patient care. A list of commercial isotopes produced in the reactor or the cyclotron and used in medical applications is given. Nuclear medicine plays an important role in the clinical environment and the timely supply of radioisotopes is a key element. ANSTO will continue to be the premier supplier of currently available and developing isotopes to support the health and well being of the Australian community 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  8. Advances in Radioisotope Handling Facilities and Automation of Radioisotope Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Founded in 1959, the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences began to produce radioactive isotopes in 1964. Since then, it has become a major Hungarian centre of research, development and production relating to the application of radioisotopes. Since 1993 a part of the former Institute has been operating as the Institute of Isotopes Co., Ltd. The main advances in radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production are presented here. (author)

  9. South Africa and the RERTR programme. Current status. An AEC perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Corporation (AEC) of South Africa fully endorses the principles of the RERTR programme. To this end in 1994 the AEC, together with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), undertook a study into the feasibility of converting the SAFARI-1 reactor to LEU silicide fuel. More details are given. Due to the commercial pressures on the AEC at that time, the AEC decided not to convert SAFARI-1 to LEU silicide fuel. The AEC did, however, undertake to reevaluate the situation periodically. Five years have passed since the detailed study of 1994 and the changing conditions now warrant another detailed study taking into account the current situation. A brief historical background is given on the RERTR activities in South Africa since 1993 followed by a summary of the current situation

  10. Radioisotopes in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedrosa de Lima, Joao Jose [Servico de Biofisica/Biomatematica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)

    1998-11-01

    Radioisotopes are extensively used in medicine for diagnosis, either in vivo or in vitro, for therapeutics and also for investigation purposes. Nuclear medicine (Nm) studies in vivo are used to detect minimal amounts of radiopharmaceuticals in organs (the morphology) and their course over time (the function), resulting from physico-chemical interactions of the tracers within the body, in the sequence of specific physiological processes. In vitro applications of radioisotopes have become a most important tool in biochemical analysis. Therapeutic uses of radioisotopes cover from external gamma-ray sources in teleradiotherapy to direct cell irradiation in metabolic therapy. The information, which is conveyed by NM, is essentially metabolic and differs from that supplied by the other imaging techniques, which is basically structural. This quality is important in early detection and diagnosis. Efforts have steadily been made to bring NM imaging as close as possible to an ideal medical diagnostic tool: non-invasive and allowing studies yielding functional, morphological, three-dimensional and quantitative information simultaneously. Of the two tomographic techniques available in NM, positron emission tomography (PET) is probably closer to this goal than single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). High-contrast functional images of the dynamics of labelled molecules (native or functionally similar) that are metabolized by the organs under investigation, are obtained with these techniques. Nuclear medicine has progressed as a result of advances in four strategic areas: the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, the technology and reliability of detectors, the capacity for modelling the metabolic fate of the inputs in the biological systems, and finally the ability to extract and process data. (author)

  11. Radioisotope powered light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, F. N.; Remini, W. C.

    1980-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed.

  12. Radioisotope powered light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years to excite phosphors to produce visible light. The advent of the nuclear age, however, made possible the preparation of radionuclides in larger quantities at relatively low prices, and with radiation properties that greatly expanded the potential applications for such lights. Current energy conservation needs and inflation leading to even higher costs for maintenance and capital equipment has provided the incentive for development of illuminators for air field markers using both byproduct krypton-85 and processed tritium. Background and current status of these developments are discussed

  13. Frontiers in radioisotope application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation are being used in numerous and diverse fields to benefit mankind. A glimpse at the recent advances in terms of usage of new radionuclides or new techniques, in some of the important areas are discussed. Use of radionuclides in medicine, industries, agriculture and water resource management are delineated. The various uses of radiation such as cancer therapy, sterilization of medical products, disinfestation of food products, food preservation, industrial radiography, nucleonic gauges, crop mutation to raise better quality seeds, cross-linking and curing of materials, coatings etc. and treatment of municipal waste are discussed. (author). 56 refs., 4 tabs

  14. Radioisotopes and radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of radioisotopes and radiation processing has grown enormously all over the world with India being no exception. The chemistry and radiochemistry related inputs to the overall technology development and achievements have been, and will continue to be, of considerable value and importance in this multi-disciplinary and multi-specialty field. Harnessing further benefits as well as sustaining proven applications should be the goal in planning for the future. An objective analysis of the socio-economic impact and benefits from this field to the society at large will undoubtedly justify assigning continued high priority, and providing adequate resources and support, to relevant new projects and programmes on the anvil in the area of radioisotopes and radiation technology. It is necessary to nurture and strengthen inter-disciplinary and multi-specialty collaborations and cooperation - at both national and international level as a rule (not as exception) - for greater efficiency, cost-effectiveness and success of ongoing endeavors and future developments in this important field

  15. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it has been considered an urgent task to provide users of radioisotopes with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. Such a manual is presented here and represents the first of a series of manuals and codes to be issued by the Agency. It has been prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety, by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. At the same time it is recommended that the manual be taken into account as a basic reference document by Member States of the Agency in the preparation of national health and safety documents covering the use of radioisotopes.

  16. Organisation of biological research carried out in the United States by the A.E.C. or under her contract (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is based on information gathered in the course of a trip to the United States, in November and December 1958 which consisted chiefly of visits to the main biological and medical research laboratories and discussions with the heads of these establishments. A description is given of the general organisation of the Atomic Energy Commission's Division of Biology and Medicine, and of the distribution of responsibility for radiation protection work and for biological, medical and agricultural research amongst the various Services attached to it; this is followed by a more detailed account of the activities carried on in this field at the great national laboratories. Finally, the systems of collaboration set up with external research organisations in the form of research contracts are examined, together with the substantial help provided by the A.E.C. for biological, medical and agricultural research in general, owing to a systematic policy of subsidising the distribution of radioisotopes for this purpose. (author)

  17. Reactor-produced therapeutic radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The significant worldwide increase in therapeutic radioisotope applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology requires the dependable production of sufficient levels of radioisotopes for these applications (Reba, 2000; J. Nucl. Med., 1998; Nuclear News, 1999; Adelstein and Manning, 1994). The issues associated with both accelerator- and reactor-production of therapeutic radioisotopes is important. Clinical applications of therapeutic radioisotopes include the use of both sealed sources and unsealed radiopharmaceutical sources. Targeted radiopharmaceutical agents include those for cancer therapy and palliation of bone pain from metastatic disease, ablation of bone marrow prior to stem cell transplantation, treatment modalities for mono and oligo- and polyarthritis, for cancer therapy (including brachytherapy) and for the inhibition of the hyperplastic response following coronary angioplasty and other interventional procedures (For example, see Volkert and Hoffman, 1999). Sealed sources involve the use of radiolabeled devices for cancer therapy (brachytherapy) and also for the inhibition of the hyperplasia which is often encountered after angioplasty, especially with the exponential increase in the use of coronary stents and stents for the peripheral vasculature and other anatomical applications. Since neutron-rich radioisotopes often decay by beta decay or decay to beta-emitting daughter radioisotopes which serve as the basis for radionuclide generator systems, reactors are expected to play an increasingly important role for the production of a large variety of therapeutic radioisotopes required for these and other developing therapeutic applications. Because of the importance of the availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes for these applications, an understanding of the contribution of neutron spectra for radioisotope production and determination of those cross sections which have not yet been established is important. This

  18. Management of Waste from the Use of Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author examines the origin and nature of radioactive waste generated in the use of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, agriculture and research and studies the relationship between types, quantities and uses of radioisotopes and disposal of the radioactive waste generated in their use. He also discusses the methods used for the disposal of such waste under the licensing controls of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. These methods include: 1. The controlled discharge of low concentrations of effluents into streams and into the atmosphere; 2. Controlled release of small quantities of soluble or readily dispersible waste products into sanitary sewage systems; 3. Burial, under controlled conditions, of small quantities of waste in the soil ; 4. Return to AEC installations of radioactive waste for storage or land burial ; 5. Treatment by incineration; and 6. Disposal of packaged waste at sea. The paper reviews the criteria and regulatory requirements applicable to cach method of disposal to accomplish the objective of preventing the waste from entering the food chain of man in hazardous quantities, or of adversely affecting the use of the environment by man. It goes on to discuss the limitations on the types, quantities, and methods of disposal for which private concerns can be licensed due to long-term responsibility for maintenance of burial grounds or storage facilities. (author)

  19. Nuclear energy in the service of biomedicine: the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's radioisotope program, 1946-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of radioisotopes as tools in biomedical research and therapy became one of the major consequences of the "physicists' war" for postwar life science. Scientists in the Manhattan Project, as part of their efforts to advocate for civilian uses of atomic energy after the war, proposed using infrastructure from the wartime bomb project to develop a government-run radioisotope distribution program. After the Atomic Energy Bill was passed and before the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was formally established, the Manhattan Project began shipping isotopes from Oak Ridge. Scientists and physicians put these reactor-produced isotopes to many of the same uses that had been pioneered with cyclotron-generated radioisotopes in the 1930s and early 1940s. The majority of early AEC shipments were radioiodine and radiophosphorus, employed to evaluate thyroid function, diagnose medical disorders, and irradiate tumors. Both researchers and politicians lauded radioisotopes publicly for their potential in curing diseases, particularly cancer. However, isotopes proved less successful than anticipated in treating cancer and more successful in medical diagnostics. On the research side, reactor-generated radioisotopes equipped biologists with new tools to trace molecular transformations from metabolic pathways to ecosystems. The U.S. government's production and promotion of isotopes stimulated their consumption by scientists and physicians (both domestic and abroad), such that in the postwar period isotopes became routine elements of laboratory and clinical use. In the early postwar years, radioisotopes signified the government's commitment to harness the atom for peace, particularly through contributions to biology, medicine, and agriculture. PMID:17575955

  20. Radioisotope production in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Anuar Wan Awang [Medical Technology Div., Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) (Malaysia)

    1998-10-01

    Production of Mo-99 by neutron activation of Mo-99 in Malaysia began as early as 1984. Regular supply of the Tc-99m extracted from it to the hospitals began in early 1988 after going through formal registration with the Malaysian Ministry of Health. Initially, the weekly demand was about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99 which catered the needs of 3 nuclear medicine centres. Sensitive to the increasing demand of Tc-99m, we have producing our own Tc-99m generator from imported TeO{sub 2} because irradiation TeO{sub 2} with our reactor give low yield of I-131. We have established the production of radioisotope for industrial use. By next year, Sm-153 EDTMP will be produce after we have license from our competent authority. (author)

  1. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  2. Radioisotopes in sedimentology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have two main uses in sedimentology: they are used for the study of sediment movements in rivers and seas, and for continuous measurements of the amount of sediment suspended in a given medium. These two uses are considered in detail, and brief accounts given of some other uses. Study of sediment movements. After describing the basic technique used in sediment movement studies (injection of a labelled sediment or a simulator into the current, followed by tracking the radioactivity), the author enumerates as fully as possible the problems that can be solved with the help of this technique. Essentially, these problems fall into two groups: 1. Problems related to civil engineering works in coastal areas: the siltation of harbour channels and docks, the formation of banks and bars, the choice of sites for disposing of dredged sediment, the siting of ports, coastline protection, etc. Problems associated with civil engineering works in and near rivers; siting of the water intakes of hydroelectric and nuclear power stations, the effects of construction work on the transport of solids, the construction of dams, the protection of river banks, the construction of jetties, the siltation of lakes, etc. Problems common to these include the transport of effluent and the calibration of hydraulic models. The bibliography is based mainly on fairly recent references and on current research work. 2. Problems related to basic or applied research conducted mainly by universities and research centres: the study of the Quarternary of a particular region, pure sedimentology, the investigation of major sediment transport currents, the confirmation or refutation of transport theories, research into fundamental transport phenomena associated with channel experiments. After referring to the possible exploitation of natural tracers (contained in radioactive waste and fallout), the author discusses the technical aspects of using artificial tracers: the choice of radioisotope

  3. Cardiovascular: radioisotopic angiocardiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic angiocardiography, performed after the intravenous injection of 99/sup m/Tc-labeled pertechnetate or albumin, is a simple, rapid, and safe procedure which permits identification and physiologic assessment of a wide variety of congenital and acquired cardiovascular lesions in infants and children. These include atrial and ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, pulmonic stenosis, aortopulmonary window, transposition of the great vessels, valvular stenosis and/or insufficiency, myocardial lesions, and lesions of the great vessels. The simplicity of the procedure lends itself to repeated measurements to assess the effects of therapy or to follow the course of the disease. A wide spectrum of congenital and acquired cardiovascular diseases have been studied which have particular application to the pediatric age group. (auth)

  4. A proposed framework for evaluating the international construction performance of AEC enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Z G; F. Deng

    2012-01-01

    Internationalization of architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) enterprises has gained significant interests as the global construction market has been integrated into a more competitive and turbulent business environment, whilst there is no consensus on how to measure the international performance of AEC firms as a result of the complicated and multifaceted nature of business performance and internationalization. The aim of this paper is to propose a conceptual framework for evalua...

  5. The search for new radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorus-30 was the first artificial radioisotope, it was produced by F. and I. Joliot-Curie in 1934, since then 2460 new nuclei have been discovered. This document reviews the radioisotopes known and the methods used to separate them. The authors describe the discovery of new radioisotopes such as Nickel-78 produced in the fission of high energy uranium ions impinging on a lead target (IPN-GSI collaboration) and the discovery of Nickel-48 by a team CENBG-Ganil. All this experience is useful for the processing of nuclear wastes by using transmutation. (A.C.)

  6. Milliwatt Radioisotope Stirling Convertor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Studies of potential space missions have highlighted the need for very small electric power supplies for a variety of applications. The light weight radioisotope...

  7. Industrial applications of radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope tracing techniques are powerful tools for analysing the behaviour of large systems and investigating industrially or economically important processes. The results of radioisotope experiments can yield important information, for example, on parameters such as flow rates, mixing phenomena, flow abnormalities and leaks. Some examples of current AAEC research are described, covering studies on hearth drainage in blast furnaces, flow behaviour in waste-water treatment ponds, and sediment transport in marine environments

  8. Medical application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: 1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial 2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research 3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology 4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments 5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body 6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed 7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography 8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer 9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease

  9. Medical application of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, S. M.; Kim, E. H. [and others

    2000-05-01

    In this project, we studied following subjects: 1. Clinical research for radionuclide therapy 2. Development of in vitro assay method with radioisotope 3. Development of binary therapy; Boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy 4. Development of diagnostic methods in radionuclide imaging. The results can be applied for the following objectives: (1) Radionuclide therapy will be applied in clinical practice to treat the cancer patients or other diseases in multi-center trial (2) The newly developed monoclonal antibodies and biomolecules can be used in biology, chemistry or other basic life science research (3) The new methods for the analysis of therapeutic effects, such as dosimetry, and quantitative analysis methods of radioactivity, can be applied in basic research, such as radiation oncology and radiation biology (4) The result of the project will be expected to develop the new radioimmunoassay for drug monitoring following the clinical experiments (5) Boron porphyrin has been successfully labeled with iodine. This enables the pharmacodynamic study of the boron compound in human body (6) A method to evaluate the biological effect of neutrons on tumor cells has been developed (7) The establishment of macro- and microscopic dose assessment using alpha-track autoradiography (8) Clinical application of PDT in bladder cancers, oropharyngeal cancer and skin cancer (9) Radionuclide imaging of estrogen receptor in breast cancer, lipid metabolism, gene therapy, cancers, brain function and heart disease.

  10. Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes find extensive applications in several fields including medicine, industry, agriculture and research. Radioisotope production to service different sectors of economic significance constitutes an important ongoing activity of many national nuclear programmes. Radioisotopes, formed by nuclear reactions on targets in a reactor or cyclotron, require further processing in almost all cases to obtain them in a form suitable for use. Specifications for final products and testing procedures for ensuring quality are also an essential part of a radioisotope production programme. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has compiled and published such information before for the benefit of laboratories of Member States. The first compilation, entitled Manual of Radioisotope Production, was published in 1966 (Technical Reports Series No. 63). A more elaborate and comprehensive compilation, entitled Radioisotope Production and Quality Control, was published in 1971 (Technical Reports Series No. 128). Both served as useful reference sources for scientists working in radioisotope production worldwide. The 1971 publication has been out of print for quite some time. The IAEA convened a consultants meeting to consider the need for compiling an updated manual. The consultants recommended the publication of an updated manual taking the following into consideration: significant changes have taken place since 1971 in many aspects of radioisotope production; many radioisotopes have been newly introduced while many others have become gradually obsolete; considerable experience and knowledge have been gained in production of important radioisotopes over the years, which can be preserved through compilation of the manual; there is still a need for a comprehensive manual on radioisotope production methods for new entrants to the field, and as a reference. It was also felt that updating all the subjects covered in the 1971 manual at a time may not be practical considering the

  11. Applications of radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, radioisotope techniques have found ever-increasing application to the investigation of industrial process plant. The chemical industry in particular was quick to appreciate this potential and in ICI the substantial scope for radioisotope applications led some 20 years ago to the establishment of a group specializing in this field. This group, Physics and Radioisotope Services has flourished and now carries out work for all parts of ICI as well as for external companies. An important factor in the growth of this organization has been the realization on the part of production management of the enormous savings which can result from the successful applications of radioisotope techniques. Measurements can, in general, be made while the plant is on-line disrupting the operating conditions and thus saving down-time. In addition, the rapidity and convenience with which the measurements can be made (utilizing as they do equipment external to the process) leads to a direct reduction in service costs. In parallel with the growth of radioisotope techniques in plant investigation, there has been a continuous development of instruments which utilize the properties of radioactive materials in process measurement and control. These so-called ''nucleonic'' instruments are now used widely throughout industry. Typically, ICI manufactures and installs over 300 such instruments every year on its own plants along-through the number of gauges installed throughout industry is much greater than this. The range of radioisotope techniques and instruments is extremely wide and this topic has itself been the subject of several symposia (1), (2), (3), (4), (5). For this reason, it is impractical to attempt a full coverage here. We have chosen rather to restrict the paper to those techniques and instruments which have been found to be used most extensively. This selection has been made by analyzing the work spectrum of Physics and Radioisotope Services which carries out in

  12. Customization Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Taps, Stig B.;

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of mass customization and product configuration in companies requires fundamental considerations about how products can fulfil the demand from customers. In order to support such decision-making, a multi-level model for customization is developed. This model identifies four different...

  13. Radioisotopes for All - Low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows. Since the development of the tracer principle by George de Hevesy in 1913, radioisotopes have become an integral part of medical practice and research. The imaging modalities Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) have significantly enhanced our understanding of human biology and the development and progression of disease. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) combines the cancer killing of radiation therapy with the targeting precision of immunotherapy to provide personalised cancer treatment. The technetium-99m crisis in 2008 highlighted the fragility of the current radioisotope supply network. Despite the significant impact of the shortages, only a handful of potential solutions have begun to be explored and developed. The supply of Tc-99m is again in doubt, with the shutdown of the High Flux Reactor (HFR) at Petten looming in 2014. Low-energy accelerators have the potential to greatly increase the availability of radioisotopes by providing a small, lower-cost production solution. Implementing these as a system of localised production centres that supply a small area would greatly reduce the impact of a facility shutdown and eliminate the risk of world-wide shortages. An accelerator system that is not tailored to the production of a single isotope will allow researchers to explore new options for SPECT, PET and RIT and improve access to radioisotopes for medical testing. The potential of low-energy accelerators for radioisotope production will be explored. Several case studies of production will be presented using both well-established and new isotopes to the fields of nuclear imaging and radiotherapy. These will include zirconium-89, iodine-123 and titanium-45. Calculated yields will be compared to predicted nuclear medicine requirements. Expected radionuclidic impurities will also be quantified with a discussion of suitable, simple radiochemical separation systems. The DC electrostatic

  14. INR capabilities for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope production at INR Pitesti was developed upon the basis of two TRIGA reactors, one stationary and the other pulsed (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR 20000 MW). The TRIGA SSR 14 MW presents two types of neutron spectra in the irradiations channels: a thermal spectrum from a water channel in the core and a channel in the reflector, suitable for irradiations of materials with high thermal neutron cross sections; a hard spectrum of the fuel type obtained through the removal of a fuel pin in a cluster, suitable for irradiations of nuclides with significant epithermal. For the radioisotope production five irradiation devices were used: capsules with the raw materials; capsules for iridium; capsules for radioisotope of medical use; irradiations pins and capsules; capsules with pins. These devices are used for irradiations in the core for production of radioisotopes of industrial use (for instance 192 Ir). For irradiations in the reflector with develop special devices for the production of radioisotope medical used (131 I, 192 Ir and 60 Co). Underway are studies for establishing the optimal conditions for the production of the fission products 99 Mo, 131 I, 133 Xe and of 125 I produce by neutron activation

  15. Radioisotope methods in environmental hydrogeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the regularities of distribution of two radioisotopes, tritium and radiocarbon, in the ground water system as well as with the applications of their indicatory feature to solve problems of environmental hydrogeology. The concept and objectives of environmental hydrogeology, methodology of radioisotopic hydrosphere studies and evolution of hydrogeological processes by radioisotopic methods have been discussed. The experience gained from applying the isotope methods for environmental hydrogeology purposes in the Baltic Artesian Basin covering all the three Baltic states - Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, as well as the Kaliningrad Region of Russia is generalized. This experience could be useful for specialists of other countries as well, especially those studying artesian basins of a platform type in the areas of former continental glaciers. 185 refs., 91 figs., 34 tabs

  16. Comparison of exposure dose by using AEC mode of abdomen AP study in radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Won [Dept. of Radiology, Gang-dong Kyung Hee Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Yong Rak; Seo, Seong Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kyung Tae [Dept. of Radiology, Dongnam Health University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Joo Young; Son, Soon Yong [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Whan [Dept. of Radiology, Shingu University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    We evaluated the effectiveness of TL (Time Limit) method by comparing with NTL (Non-time limit) method when it is used for examinations for abdomen Anterior Posterior (AP) in this paper. The evaluation was conducted based on the comparison of dose, and of signal to noise ratio (SNR) and contrast to ratio (CNR) on both methods. The experiments were conducted with XGEO GC 80 (Samsung, Korea), Unfors ThinX RAD (Unfors, Sweden) and Rando Phantom (Alderson research laboratories, USA) and shielding material with the size of 5.5 × 9 × 0.1 cm{sup 3}. It was set to activate only two upper ionization chambers in automatic exposure control (AEC) mode and the tube-voltage was set to 80kVp. When the exposure time was limited, it is limited to 51 msec. The images both by NTL AEC method and TL AEC method were acquired when with and without attachment of shielding material on the upper ionization chambers. The images were evaluated by SNR and CNR which are the image evaluation methods using ‘Image J’. The NTL AEC method showed increases in dose as much as 130.7% at maximum and 80% at minimum than other methods. The TL AEC method showed decreases in mAs and exposure dose than the NTL AEC method as much as 43.8% and 44.4% respectively. There were no significant differences in SNR or CNR for the experiments (p≥0.05). Therefore, it is suggested that the TLAEC mode is more effective when examining patients who have high BMI index or a patient with a metallic substance in the body after surgery.

  17. Apparatus for eluting a daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus for eluting a sterile daughter radioisotope from a parent radioisotope including a case, a generator having a supply of the parent radioisotope therein, a primary shield enclosing the generator for shielding against radioactive emissions from the parent radioisotope, and an annular wall extending up from the bottom of the case defining a compartment for reception of the primary shield thereby to hold the latter in position within the case is described. A vertical web extends between the annular wall and an exterior wall of the case. An auxiliary shield of suitable shielding material (e.g., lead) generally of the height of the primary shield is provided, this auxiliary shield having an inner cylindric surface conforming generally to the outer surface of the annular wall and having a slot therein for receiving the web. Thus, with the auxiliary shield positioned in the case adjacent the annular wall and with the web received by the slot, the auxiliary shield is held by the web in position in the case for shielding the user from excessive radioactive emissions from the generator in the event the radioactive emissions from the generator exceed the shielding capability of the primary shield

  18. Production and Development of Radioisotopes in HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this paper is to review the current activities at HANARO for the radioisotope production and related research activities in Korea, Also, the future directions in radioisotope production and its applications are described. (author)

  19. Product Customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Riis, Jesper

    For the majority of industrial companies, customizing products and services is among the most critical means to deliver true customer value and achieve superior competitive advantage. The challenge is not to customize products and services in itself – but to do it in a profitable way. The...... implementation of a product configuration system is among the most powerful ways of achieving this in practice, offering a reduction of the lead time for products and quotations, faster and more qualified responses to customer inquiries, fewer transfers of responsibility and fewer specification mistakes, a...... reduction of the resources spent for the specification of customized products, and the possibility of optimizing the products according to customer demands. This book presents an operational procedure for the design of product configuration systems in industrial companies, based on the experience gained...

  20. Uses of radioisotopes in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research project, an inventory for the different radioisotopes that were imported by public and private sectors of Sudan in the period between ( 2007-2011) has been set up. These organizations import the appropriates for different but in general we classify them into these applications: Medical, Industrial, Agricultural and Research. However, each broad discipline is subdivided into subgroups. This inventory will help those who are willing to establish research reactors in Sudan on the type and power of the reactors to be purchases according to the actual needs of Sudan with forecasting of the near and for future needs. Also the expenditure that has been spent by these organizations have been estimated for most of the radioisotopes. It was observed that almost 50% of the expenditure went for the fright charges as these radioisotopes need special handling and care by installing a research reactor in Sudan, the cost of purchasing will be cut down several folds. Also it will help in availability of the radioisotopes with very short half lives (hours to days). This will be reflected in the cut down the cost of tests and provision of new tests.(Author)

  1. Radioisotope methodology course radioprotection aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advancement knowledge in molecular and cell biology, biochemistry, medicine and pharmacology, which has taken place during the last 50 years, after World War II finalization, is really outstanding. It can be safely said that this fact is principally due to the application of radioisotope techniques. The research on metabolisms, biodistribution of pharmaceuticals, pharmacodynamics, etc., is mostly carried out by means of techniques employing radioactive materials. Radioisotopes and radiation are frequently used in medicine both as diagnostic and therapeutic tools. The radioimmunoanalysis is today a routine method in endocrinology and in general clinical medicine. The receptor determination and characterization is a steadily growing methodology used in clinical biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The use of radiopharmaceuticals and radiation of different origins, for therapeutic purposes, should not be overlooked. For these reasons, the importance to teach radioisotope methodology is steadily growing. This is principally the case for specialization at the post-graduate level but at the pre graduate curriculum it is worthwhile to give some elementary theoretical and practical notions on this subject. These observations are justified by a more than 30 years teaching experience at both levels at the School of Pharmacy and Biochemistry of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 1960 we began to teach Physics III, an obligatory pregraduate course for biochemistry students, in which some elementary notions of radioactivity and measurement techniques were given. Successive modifications of the biochemistry pregraduate curriculum incorporated radiochemistry as an elective subject and since 1978, radioisotope methodology, as obligatory subject for biochemistry students. This subject is given at the radioisotope laboratory during the first semester of each year and its objective is to provide theoretical and practical knowledge to the biochemistry students, even

  2. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  4. Basic data report for Drillhole AEC 7 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP). [Lea County, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    AEC 7 is a borehole drilled in western Lea County, New Mexico, in section 31, T.21S.,R.32E. AEC 7 was drilled to 3918 feet in 1974 by Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Sandia deepened the hole to 4732 ft in 1979. The borehole provided stratigraphic and lithologic information in the initial and final drilling. The borehole was used extensively for tests of borehole plugs and plugging operations. AEC 7 penetrated, in descending order, Holocene sands and Mescalero caliche (8 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (109 ft), Dewey Lake Red Beds (542 ft), Rustler Formation (325 ft), Salado Formation (2014 ft), Castile Formation (1521 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (197 ft). Cores were obtained from much of the borehole. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on stratigraphy, lithology, and structure. Beds were in normal stratigraphic sequence and without structural deformation except in the lower Castile. Anhydrite II and Halite II appear to be repeated in the borehole. This section was penetrated during deepening by Sandia; the structural complication is consistent with deformation found nearby in ERDA 6. The potential site on which AEC 7 is located was abandoned in 1976 after ERDA 6 was drilled. The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes.

  5. Present status of OAP radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope Production Program (RP), Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) is a non-profit government organization which responsible for research development and service of radioisotopes. Several research works on radioisotope production have been carried on at OAP. The radioisotope products of successful R and D have been routinely produced to supply for medical, agriculture and research application. The main products are 131I (solution and capsule), 131I-MIBG, 131I-Hippuran, 153Sm-EDTMP, 153Sm-HA, and 99mTc-radiopharmaceutical kits to serve local users. Radioisotopes are very beneficial for science and human welfare so as almost of our products and services are mainly utilized for medical purpose for both diagnosis and therapy. OAP has a policy to serve and response to that community by providing radioisotopes and services with high quality but reasonable price. This policy will give the opportunity to the community to utilize these radioisotopes for their healthcare. (author)

  6. Radioisotope handling facilities and automation of radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If a survey is made of the advances in radioisotope handling facilities, as well as the technical conditions and equipment used for radioisotope production, it can be observed that no fundamental changes in the design principles and technical conditions of conventional manufacture have happened over the last several years. Recent developments are mainly based on previous experience aimed at providing safer and more reliable operations, more sophisticated maintenance technology and radioactive waste disposal. In addition to the above observation, significant improvements have been made in the production conditions of radioisotopes intended for medical use, by establishing aseptic conditions with clean areas and isolators, as well as by introducing quality assurance as governing principle in the production of pharmaceutical grade radioactive products. Requirements of the good manufacturing practice (GMP) are increasingly complied with by improving the technical and organizational conditions, as well as data registration and documentation. Technical conditions required for the aseptic production of pharmaceuticals and those required for radioactive materials conflicting in some aspects are because of the contrasting contamination mechanisms and due consideration of the radiation safety. These can be resolved by combining protection methods developed for pharmaceuticals and radioactive materials, with the necessary compromise in some cases. Automation serves to decrease the radiation dose to the operator and environment as well as to ensure more reliable and precise radiochemical processing. Automation has mainly been introduced in the production of sealed sources and PET radiopharmaceuticals. PC controlled technologies ensure high reliability for the production and product quality, whilst providing automatic data acquisition and registration required by quality assurance. PC control is also useful in the operation of measuring instruments and in devices used for

  7. The radioisotopes and radiations program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This program of the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina refers to the application and production of radionuclides, their compounds and sealed sources. The applications are carried out in the medical, agricultural, cattle raising and industrial areas and in other engineering branches. The sub-program corresponding to the production of radioactive materials includes the production of radioisotopes and of sealed sources, and an engineering service for radioactive materials production and handling facilities. The sub-program of applications is performed through several groups or laboratories in charge of the biological and technological applications, intensive radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and training of personnel or of potential users of radioactive material. Furthermore, several aspects about technology transfer, technical assistance, manpower training courses and scholarships are analyzed. Finally, some legal aspects about the use of radioisotopes and radiations in Argentina are pointed out. (M.E.L.)

  8. Automation Systems for Radioisotope Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than 50 years the company Hans Waelischmiller GmbH (HWM) has worked in the field of nuclear technology worldwide and designed and manufactured equipment for nuclear installations as well as complete turnkey projects. This report deals with the activity of HWM in the field of production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals as well as in the handling of radioactive materials in nuclear medicine departments in hospitals. (author)

  9. Physical aspects of radioisotope brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report represents an attempt to provide, within a necessarily limited compass, an authoritative guide to all important physical aspects of the use of sealed gamma sources in radiotherapy. Within the report, reference is made wherever necessary to the more extensive but scattered literature on this subject. While this report attempts to cover all the physical aspects of radioisotope 'brachytherapy' it does not, of course, deal exhaustively with any one part of the subject. 384 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Improvement of radioisotope production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespreading and deepgoing applications of radioisotopes results the increasing demands on both quality and quantity. This in turn stimulating the production technology to be improved unceasingly to meet the different requirements on availability, variety, facility, purity, specific activity and specificity. The major approaches of achieving these improvements including: optimizing mode of production; enhancing irradiation conditions; amelioration target arrangement; adapting nuclear process and inventing chemical processing. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes for therapy: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclides made great impact in the history of nuclear sciences both at the end of 19th century with the discoveries of Becquerel and madame Curie and later in 1934, when Frederic Joliet and Irene Curie demonstrated the production of the first artificial radioisotopes, 30P, by bombardment of 27Al by alpha particles. The subsequent invention of cyclotron and setting up of nuclear reactor opened the floodgate for production of artificial radionuclides. Currently, majority of radionuclides are made artificially by transforming a stable nuclide into an unstable state and thus far over 2500 radionuclides have been produced artificially. Use of radionuclides in various fields immediately followed their production and last century has witnessed tremendous growth in the applications of radiation and radioisotopes, in diverse fields such as medicine, industry, agriculture, food preservation, water resource management, environmental studies, etc. While radiation and radioisotopes are used both for diagnosis as well as for therapy in the field of medicine, therapeutic applications are among the earliest, which began as an empirical science in the beginning and developed into a well structured modality with time. (author)

  12. 4D BIM Application in AEC Industry: Impact on Integrated Project Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Aminu Umar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As project delivery approaches that are supported by Building Information Modelling (BIM are continuously acknowledged throughout the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC industry, an innovative modelling approach called 4D BIM is starting to develop, which associates elements of 3D BIM with time and scheduling information. Traditional construction planning applications like bar charts and network diagrams fail to present and communicate the spatial and temporal or 4D components of construction schedules efficiently. As a result, they do not permit project managers to produce scheduling alternatives quickly to obtain the finest solution to develop a particular design. With 4D modelling, the whole period of a sequence of activities that is executed by those involved in the project can be presented visually. With the rising interest in BIM and the wider use of this and other technological innovations in the AEC industry, 4D BIM tools, which has been broadly employed, is becoming increasingly recognized among fundamental technological fields under BIM. This study aims to highlight and review numerous impacts of 4D applications on Integrated Project Delivery (IPD on the AEC industry and suggest the ideal strategy to optimize the tools for rapid project delivery.

  13. Variations of thermospheric composition according to AE-C data and CTIP modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rishbeth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Atmospheric Explorer C satellite, taken at middle and low latitudes in 1975-1978, are used to study latitudinal and month-by-month variations of thermospheric composition. The parameter used is the "compositional Ρ-parameter", related to the neutral atomic oxygen/molecular nitrogen concentration ratio. The midlatitude data show strong winter maxima of the atomic/molecular ratio, which account for the "seasonal anomaly" of the ionospheric F2-layer. When the AE-C data are compared with the empirical MSIS model and the computational CTIP ionosphere-thermosphere model, broadly similar features are found, but the AE-C data give a more molecular thermosphere than do the models, especially CTIP. In particular, CTIP badly overestimates the winter/summer change of composition, more so in the south than in the north. The semiannual variations at the equator and in southern latitudes, shown by CTIP and MSIS, appear more weakly in the AE-C data. Magnetic activity produces a more molecular thermosphere at high latitudes, and at mid-latitudes in summer.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (thermosphere – composition and chemistry

  14. Research trends in radioisotopes: a scientometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes or radionuclides are radioactive forms of elements and are usually produced in research reactors and accelerators. They have wide ranging applications in healthcare, industry, food and agriculture, and environmental monitoring. Following over five decades of vast experience accumulated, radioisotope technology has developed to a high degree of sophistication and it is estimated that about 200 radioisotopes are in regular use. This paper attempts to highlight the publication status and growth of radioisotope research across the world and make quantitative and qualitative assessment by way of analyzing the following features of research output based on Web of Science database during the period 1993-2012. (author)

  15. Medical radioisotopes for the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are widely used in medicine (Nuclear Medicine) for diagnosis, palliation and therapy of heart disease, cancer, muscoskeletal and neurological conditions. The radioisotopes used are both reactor and cyclotron produced. The utilisation is currently growing and is expected to continue to grow over the next 10-20 years. The combination of radioisotope and delivery vehicle can be designed to meet the intended end use. This paper will deal with the main approaches to the use of radioisotopes for Nuclear medicine ad future prospects for the area

  16. Custom Rom

    OpenAIRE

    Salminen, Jami

    2015-01-01

    Työn tavoitteena on muokata toimiva ja nopea käyttöjärjestelmä Android pohjaiselle puhelimelle, jonka mallina on Samsung Galaxy S2. Isona ongelmana on toimivan recoveryn löytäminen, joka osaa asentaa Jelly Bean versiolla varustetun custom romin /2/. Useimmat recoveryt Samsung Galaxy S2:lle olivat Ice Cream Sandwich-versioita, jotka ei osanneet asentaa custom romia toimivasti. Custom Rom on käytännössä puhelimen käyttöjärjestelmä, jonka avulla puhelinta käytetään. Työn pohjana käytetään Samsu...

  17. Customer Loyalty and Customer Relationship Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengwei; Li, Min; Jiao, Xiaojing; Zhou, Ruijin

    The contemporary company attaches great importance to marketing relationship and customer relations is the core of this relationship. Further, customer satisfaction and loyalty is the core of the customer relationship management. Sometimes, high customer satisfaction causes low profit because enterprises do not realize that strengthening the loyalty of the aimed customer is the key of customer relationship management.

  18. U.S. Space Radioisotope Power Systems and Applications: Past, Present and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.; Bennett, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    -1906) and R. J. Strut. Almost 100 years ago, in 1913, English physicist H. G. J. Moseley (1887-1915) constructed the first nuclear battery using a vacuum flask and 20 mCi of radium (Corliss and Harvey, 1964, Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1913). After World War II, serious interest in radioisotope power systems in the U.S. was sparked by studies of space satellites such as North American Aviation s 1947 report on nuclear space power and the RAND Corporation s 1949 report on radioisotope power. (Greenfield, 1947, Gendler and Kock, 1949). Radioisotopes were also considered in early studies of nuclear-powered aircraft (Corliss and Harvey, 1964). In 1951, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) signed several contracts to study a 1-kWe space power plant using reactors or radioisotopes. Several of these studies, which were completed in 1952, recommended the use of RPS. (Corliss and Harvey, 1964). In 1954, the RAND Corporation issued the summary report of the Project Feedback military satellite study in which radioisotope power was considered (Lipp and Salter, 1954, RAND). Paralleling these studies, in 1954, K. C. Jordan and J. H. Birden of the AEC s Mound Laboratory conceived and built the first RTG using chromel-constantan thermocouples and a polonium-210 (210Po or Po-210) radioisotope heat source (see Figure 2). While the power produced (1.8 mWe) was low by today s standards, this first RTG showed the feasibility of RPS. A second thermal battery was built with more Po-210, producing 9.4 mWe. Jordan and Birden concluded that the Po-210 thermal battery would have about ten times the energy of ordinary dry cells of the same mass (Jordan and Birden, 1954). The heat source consisted of a 1-cm-diameter sphere of 57 Ci (1.8 Wt) of Po-210 inside a capsule of nickel-coated cold-rolled steel all inside a container of Lucite. The thermocouples were silver-soldered chromel-constantan. The thermal battery produced 1.8 mWe.

  19. Product customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    This case study deals with the extension, customization, and profitability of two new product lines of a bicycle manufacturer. It can serve both as a discussion basis in class as well as an exam for advanced Master students in management, marketing, and ccounting. The case illustrates how variance...... analysis and Activity-based Costing help managers to better understand the different profitability of customized product lines. The rather open questions at the end of the case study allow for an adjustment to the level of knowledge of the students. Students will need to reflect on how a mechanical...

  20. Radio-isotopic myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non invasive study of the myocardium with radio-isotopes is effected either with radio-elements labeling on recently infarcted myocardium, such as PYP Tc 99m, or after I.V. injection of Tl 201 extracted by normal myocardium or after I.V. injection of radio-element which study the myocardial metabolism. The fixation of PYP Tc 99m, bordering that of calcium, appears 24 hours after the onset of the myocardial infarction; then it reduces and disappears a week later; its persistency gives evidence of an evolution to ventricular anevrism. The relatively low sensitivity and specificity of this test should induce to reserve if for precise cases. 201 Tl realizes a map of the myocardial flow because this radio-isotope reflects with damping the variations of coronary flow. The scintigraphy is made either after stress test or after I.V. injection of dipyridamole, and the sensitivity and specificity of the test is better than electrocardiographic exercise stress test. The predictive value of the test for a patient highly depends of the prevalence of the coronary disease for this patient; however the results of Tl scintigraphy are far from an ideal test; quantitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the image compared to the analogical image seems to improve sensitivity for detection of coronary disease. After myocardial infarction, its best use is to detect a left anterior descending stenosis after posterior or inferior infarction. Among the possible radio-elements of myocardial metabolism, scintigraphy with fatty acids opens interesting prospects for the study of the myocardial clearance of the radio-isotope, that reflects the global or regional myocardial metabolism

  1. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has large population which is engaged in agriculture or related activities. With many agro-climatic zones, diversity in crops and traditional largely plant food based diets, there is need to meet these and increase agricultural production in the face of increasing constraints. Radiations and radioisotopes can contribute significantly to these developments. Mutation breeding is very useful technique in Indian context. Basic technique can be applied where a radiation source or irradiation service and facility to grow few thousand plants are available. Radiation processing can save the valuable food which is subject to spoilage by microbes and insects. Value addition by export is possible by meeting the quarantine and hygienisation conditions

  2. A liquid xenon radioisotope camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaklad, H.; Derenzo, S. E.; Muller, R. A.; Smadja, G.; Smits, R. G.; Alvarez, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A new type of gamma-ray camera is discussed that makes use of electron avalanches in liquid xenon and is currently under development. It is shown that such a radioisotope camera promises many advantages over any other existing gamma-ray cameras. Spatial resolution better than 1 mm and counting rates higher than one million C/sec are possible. An energy resolution of 11% FWHM has recently been achieved with a collimated Hg-203 source using a parallel-plate ionization chamber containing a Frisch grid.

  3. Survey of industrial radioisotope savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only three decades after the discovery of artificial radioactivity and two after radioisotopes became available in quantity, methods employing these as sources or tracers have found widespread use, not only in scientific research, but also in industrial process and product control. The sums spent by industry on these new techniques amount to millions of dollars a year. Realizing the overall attitude of industry to scientific progress - to accept only methods that pay relatively quickly - one can assume that the economic benefits must be of a still larger order of magnitude. In order to determine the extent to which radioisotopes are in daily use and to evaluate the economic benefits derived from such use, IAEA decided to make an 'International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry'. In 1962, the Agency invited a number of its highly industrialized Member States to participate in this Survey. Similar surveys had been performed in various countries in the 1950's. However, the approaches and also the definition of the economic benefits differed greatly from one survey to another. Hence, the Agency's approach was to try to persuade all countries to conduct surveys at the same time, concerning the same categories of industries and using the same terms of costs, savings, etc. In total, 24 Member States of the Agency agreed to participate in the survey and in due course they submitted contributions. The national reports were discussed at a 'Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics', convened in Vienna in March 1964. Based upon these discussions, the national reports have been edited and summarized. A publication showing the administration of the Survey and providing all details is now published by the Agency. From the publication it is evident that in general the return of technical information was quite high, of the order of 90%, but, unfortunately the economic response was much lower. However, most of the reports had some bearing on the economic aspects

  4. Radioisotope studies on coconut nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on coconut nutrition using radioisotopes are reviewed. Methods of soil placement and plant injection techniques for feeding nutrients to coconut have been studied, and irrigation practices for efficient uptake and utilization of nutrients are suggested. The absorption, distribution and translocation pattern of radioactive phosphorus and its incorporation into the nucleic acid fraction in healthy and root (wilt) diseased coconut palms have been studied. Carbon assimilation rates (using carbon-14) in spherical, semispherical and erect canopied coconut palms having different yield characteristics are reviewed and discussed. (author)

  5. The Customer Service Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Chip R.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses ways to embed customer service learning and customer loyalty including making customers think, examining every aspect of customers' service encounters with staff, providing follow-up, making learning fun, and involving customers in your business. (JOW)

  6. Development of Radioisotope Tracer Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project is aimed to develop the radiotracer technology for process optimization and trouble-shooting to establish the environmental and industrial application of radiation and radioisotopes. The advanced equipment and software such as high speed data acquisition system, RTD model and high pressure injection tool have developed. Based on the various field application to the refinery/petrochemical industries, the developed technology was transfer to NDT company for commercial service. For the environmental application of radiotracer technology, injector, detector sled, core sampler, RI and GPS data logging system are developed and field tests were implemented successfully at Wolsung and Haeundae beach. Additionally tracer technology were also used for the performance test of the clarifier in a wastewater treatment plant and for the leak detection in reservoirs. From the experience of case studies on radiotracer experiment in waste water treatment facilities, 'The New Excellent Technology' is granted from the ministry of environment. For future technology, preliminary research for industrial gamma transmission and emission tomography which are new technology combined with radioisotope and image reconstruction are carried out

  7. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na2, sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10-3 μCi/cm2. This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  8. Cosmogenic radioisotopes on LDEF surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, J. C.; Albrecht, A.; Herzog, G.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.

    1992-01-01

    The radioisotope Be-7 was discovered in early 1990 on the front surface, and the front surface only, of the LDEF. A working hypothesis is that the isotope, which is known to be mainly produced in the stratosphere by spallation of nitrogen and oxygen nuclei with cosmic ray protons or secondary neutrons, diffuses upward and is absorbed onto metal surfaces of spacecraft. The upward transport must be rapid, that is, its characteristic time scale is similar to, or shorter than, the 53 day half-life of the isotope. It is probably by analogy with meteoritic metal atmospheric chemistry, that the form of the Be at a few 100 km altitude is as the positive ion Be(+) which is efficiently incorporated into the ionic lattice of oxides, such as Al2O3, Cr2O3, Fe2O3, etc., naturally occurring on surfaces of Al and stainless steel. Other radioisotopes of Be, Cl, and C are also produced in the atmosphere, and a search was begun to discover these. Of interest are Be-10 and C-14 for which the production cross sections are well known. The method of analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry. Samples from LDEF clamp plates are being chemically extracted, purified, and prepared for an accelerator run.

  9. Current Status of Radioisotope Applications in Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Bhatnagar

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Reviews the current status of radioisotope applications in Defence- R&D Establishments, Defence Inspectorates, Ordnance Factories, Public Sector Undertakings under the Defence Ministry, Army, Navy and Air Force Establishments and Military Hospitals. It also lists the users of film badge service in Defence. Training programmes in radioisotope applications in Defence conducted by DRDO organisations have also been highlighted.

  10. Trends in the development of radioisotope batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved methods for producing radioisotopes by nuclear fuel reprocessing and the rapid development of microelectronics offer new possibilities for utilizing radioisotope batteries. A review is given of the main principles of conversion of decay energy into electric power. The current state of such energy sources is evaluated. Finally, new fields of application and further trends in the development are indicated. (author)

  11. Suggestions for Customer Strategy Updates : Finnish Customs

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisto, Raisa

    2014-01-01

    The case organization Finnish Customs wanted to be provided with new suggestions for their customer strategy updates. The first objective of this study was to study how the needs of the partnership and key customers are met in the customer strategy and provide suggestions for improvements. Another objective was to research the legislation influencing the customer strategy development. The customer strategy was created in 2004 and it was combined with other strategies in 2013. The customer...

  12. Role of radioisotopes in the study of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the use of nuclear techniques, particularly radioisotopes, in entomological research is less than a century old, the contribution of radioisotopes to the science of studying insects (Entomology) is indispensable. In fact, radioisotopes provided a very important and sometimes a unique tool for solving many research problems in entomology. This article discusses the most important and widely used applications of radioisotopes in studying insect pests. In particular, it concentrates on the subject of radioisotopes used in entomological research, methods of labeling insect with radioisotopes, half life of radioisotopes, and the role of radioisotopes in physiological, ecological, biological and behavioral studies of insects. (author)

  13. Activity calculation of radioisotopes in HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity calculating method and formulas of seven kinds of radioisotopes for High Flux Engineering Test REactor (HFETR) are given. The perturbation of targets to neutron fluence rate is considered while targets are put into the neutron fluence rate field of reactor core. All perturbing factors of seven kinds of radioisotopes being used in HFETR are presented. After considering the perturbation, the calculating accuracy of radioisotope activity has been raised 10%. The given method and formulas have ended the history of all activities estimated by experiences, except for that of 60Co, in the radioisotope production of HFETR. The conclusions are also useful and instructive for the production of radioisotopes in HFETR. (8 tabs.)

  14. Neutron-rich radioisotope production in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses Australia's Replacement Research Reactor (RRR) and the applications of the range of radioisotopes it will produce. The ANSTO's RRR will produce radioisotopes that have medical., industrial and environmental applications. Medicinal radioisotopes would provide the nuclear medicine physicians and oncologists with the necessary tool to non-invasively diagnose and cure diseases, ranging from cancer to infections. Industrial radioisotopes provide the industrial community with high technology tools to evaluate and assess the status of high reliability equipment with respect to safety and functionality in a non-destructive modality. The current commercial radioisotope sources include 60Co, 169Yb and 192Ir with source strengths limited by the HlFAR neutron flux and capacity. These sources are primarily used for industrial X ray moisture, level and thickness gauging. The RRR will allow expansion of the commercial source strengths and allow ANSTO to meet the growing commercial Australasian market for radioactive sources

  15. Application of radioisotopes in pharmaceutical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: To use of radioisotopes in the processes of receiving radiopharmaceutical diagnostic means it is widely know [1]. Radioactivity labeled chemical compounds, pharmacological kinetics of which allows one solving a concrete diagnostic problem in an organism are used in radio pharmaceutics. In spite of this choice of the radioisotope, possessing the most favorable nuclei-physical characteristics for it to be detected and minimization of beam loadings, be of great importance. Development of a method of introduction of a radioisotope also has important value, as it is included into chemical structure of a radiopharmaceutical preparation. One more way of use of radioisotopes in pharmaceutics is their use as a radioactive mark at a stage of creation of a new medical product. And in this case, all those moments, which are listed above, take place. Preparations labeling by radioisotopes are used basically for their studying pharmacological kinetics. In Institute of nuclear physics AS RU, in recent years, works are done on studying pharmacological kinetics of some new medical products, which have been synthesized in the Tashkent pharmaceutical institute. These preparations are on the basis of microelements with a complex set of properties possessing expressed biological activity and have great value in pharmaceutical science of Republic of Uzbekistan. Reception of labeled compounds of all preparations was carried out by a method of introduction of a radioisotope at a stage of their synthesis. The work presents the results of researches on synthesis and study of pharmacological kinetics of radioactively labeled preparations - PIRACIN, labeled by radioisotope 69mZn; FERAMED, labeled by radioisotope 59Fe; COBAVIT, labeled by radioisotope 57Co; VUC, labeled by radioisotope57Co

  16. Customer satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    Introduction:  The popularity of the EPSI Rating framework has grown considerably over the last few years and more and more companies are using this sort of information in their strategic planning process. The primary result of interest for businesses is the level of the seven indices in the EPSI...... the effect of the transparency of products and services on customer satisfaction with respect to Danish mobile phone companies, banks and supermarkets from 2004 based on the authors' experiences from the various analyses conducted within the EPSI rating initiative....... & Westlund, 2003) as well as the structure of the framework (Eskildsen et al., 2004). We know however very little about how the structure of the individual markets with respect to, for instance, how the transparency of products and services affects customer satisfaction. The aim of this article is to analyze...

  17. French Customs

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note that the French Customs (initially located in Building 904, Prévessin) are now located in Ferney-Voltaire (FR): Mrs Catherine NEUVILLE Douane de Ferney-Voltaire Rue de Genève F – 01210 Ferney-Voltaire Phone : 33 4 50 40 51 42 Email : catherine.neuville@douane.finances.gouv.fr Tom Wegelius Tel: 79947 Logistics and Site Services

  18. Linear accelerator for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 200- to 500-μA source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-μA beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-μA beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons

  19. Radioisotope studies under pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a general discussion on salivary pathology, before dealing with the various salivary gland diseases which can draw real advantage from radioisotope studies. Clinical problems related to the salivary glands first concern diffuse or focal glandular swelling. Focal swelling includes inflammatory or metastatic deposits in preauricular or submandibular lymph nodes, cysts, abscesses, foci of inflammation, benign and malignant neoplasms of the salivary glands themselves or of surrounding blood or lymph vessels, nerves, connective tissue, and oral mucosa. Primary tumors of the salivary glands are rare and usually benign. The combination of a systemic disease with dry mouth and dry eyes due to inflamed conjunctiva and cornea because of decreased fluid production, forms Sjogren syndrome. It may also cause diffuse glandular swelling. Chronic alcoholism, cirrhosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipoproteinemia, and malnutrition are other pathologic conditions sometimes associated with diffuse salivary gland swelling

  20. Overview of radioisotope production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are in widespread and increasing daily use throughout the world. Applications include medical diagnosis, treatment of cancer, sterilization of medical disposables, the perservation of food, and the hygienization of waste products. The unique production capabilities of Canadian research reactors and CANDU electrical generating stations have enabled Atomic Energy of Canada Limited to make an important contribution to the growth of this industry. The paper describes the production, processing, transportation and applications of the major radioisotopes in use today. The equipment required for the efficient use of these radioisotopes is described and the potential for growth is discussed

  1. Knowledge Management Practice in Two Australian Architecture-Engineering-Construction (AEC Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Zou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge management (KM could be described as a management system that supports the creation, sharing and retrieving of valued information, expertise and insight within and across communities of people and related organizations using information and communication technologies and hence it is a combination of the effective application of information technlogy and management of human resources. KM is becoming a core competitive factor in construction operations. This paper presents the results of two case studies of KM practices in large AEC (architecture, engineering and construction companies through desk-top study and semi-structured interviews. The results indicate that implementing KM in AEC companies leads to competitive advantages and improved decision-making, problem solving and business performance. The results also indicateed that while technology plays an important role, top management commitment, total employee involvement, performance assessment and the culture of knowledge-learning and sharing must be considered when implementing KM. Therefore it is suggested that the implementation of KM should incorporate the company's vision, work processes, technology and culture, to improve the ability of knowledge creating, capturing, sharing, retrieving and ultimately, to improve the company's competitive advantage, decision making, problem solving and innovation.

  2. Abstracts of the third conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Third Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 8-10 October, 2002 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting

  3. Abstracts of the second conference on radioisotopes and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second Uzbekistan Conference on radioisotopes and their applications was held on 3-5 October, 2000 in Tashkent, Uzbekistan. The specialists discussed various aspects of modern problems of radiochemistry, radioisotope production, technology of radioisotopes and compounds, activations analysis applications, radionuclides, radioimmunoassays, application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine, biology and agriculture. More than 80 talks were presented in the meeting. (A.A.D.)

  4. Radioisotope Power Systems Technology Development Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) is a multicenter, multiagency (with the Department of Energy (DOE)) program whose purpose is to manage the Science Mission...

  5. Radioisotopes: problems of responsibility arising from medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have brought about great progress in the battle against illnesses of mainly tumoral origin, whether in diagnosis (nuclear medicine) or in treatment (medical radiotherapy). They are important enough therefore to warrant investigation. Such a study is attempted here, with special emphasis, at a time when medical responsibility proceedings are being taken more and more often on the medicolegal problems arising from their medical use. It is hoped that this study on medical responsibility in the use of radioisotopes will have shown: that the use of radioisotopes for either diagnosis or therapy constitutes a major banch of medicine; that this importance implies an awareness by the practitioner of a vast responsibility, especially in law where legislation to ensure protection as strict as in the field of ionizing radiations is lacking. The civil responsibility of doctors who use radioisotopes remains to be defined, since for want of adequate jurisprudence we are reduced to hypotheses based on general principles

  6. Radioisotope production at PUSPATI - five year programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the basic laboratory facilities for radioisotopes production at PUSPATI will be commissioned by September 1983. Work on setting up of production and dispensing facilities is in progress as the nuclides being worked on are those that are commonly used in medical applications, such as Tc-99m, I-131, P-32 and other nuclides such as Na-24 and K-42. Kits for compounds labelled with Tc-99m such as Stannous Pyrophosphate, Sulfur Colloid and Stannous Glucoheptonate are being prepared. The irradiation facilities available now for radioisotope production at the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor include a central thimble (flux density 1 x 10 13 n.cm-2S-1) and a rotary specimen rack (flux density 0.2 x 1013 n.cm-1S-1). Irradiation schedules and target handling techniqes are discussed. Plans for radioisotope production at PUSPATI over the period of 1983-1987, based on present demand for radioisotope, are also explained. (author)

  7. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR)

  8. Radioisotopes as Political Instruments, 1946–1953

    OpenAIRE

    Creager, Angela N. H.

    2009-01-01

    The development of nuclear «piles», soon called reactors, in the Manhattan Project provided a new technology for manufacturing radioactive isotopes. Radioisotopes, unstable variants of chemical elements that give off detectable radiation upon decay, were available in small amounts for use in research and therapy before World War II. In 1946, the U.S. government began utilizing one of its first reactors, dubbed X-10 at Oak Ridge, as a production facility for radioisotopes available for purchas...

  9. Studies on application of radiation and radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Rok; Lee, Ji Bok; Lee, Yeong Iil; Jin, Joon Ha; Beon, Myeong Uh; Park, Kyeong Bae; Han, Heon Soo; Jeong, Yong Sam; Uh, Jong Seop; Kang, Kyeong Cheol; Cho, Han Ok; Song, Hui Seop; Yoon, Byeong Mok; Jeon, Byeong Jin; Park, Hong Sik; Kim, Jae Seong; Jeong, Un Soo; Baek, Sam Tae; Cho, Seong Won; Jeon, Yeong Keon; Kim, Joon Yeon; Kwon, Joong Ho; Kim, Ki Yeop; Yang, Jae Seung; No, Yeong Chang; Lee, Yeong Keun; Shin, Byeong Cheol; Park, Sang Joon; Hong, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Seung Yeon; Kang, Iil Joon; Cho, Seong Ki; Jeong, Yeong Joo; Park, Chun Deuk; Lee, Yeong Koo; Seo, Chun Ha; Han, Kwang Hui; Shin, Hyeon Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Park, Soon Chul; Shin, In Cheol; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki Un; Lim, Yong Taek; Park, Eung Uh; Kim, Dong Soo; Jeon, Sang Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Res. Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-01

    With the completion of construction of KMRR, the facility and technology of radiation application will be greatly improved. This study was performed as follows; (1) Studies on the production and application of radioisotopes. (2) The development of radiation processing technology. (3) The application of Irradiation techniques for food preservation and process improvement. (4) Studies on the radiation application for the development of genetic resources (5) Development of the radioisotope (RI) production facilities for Korea Multipurpose Research Reactor (KMRR).

  10. Design Realization and Performance Evaluation of an Acoustic Echo Cancellation (AEC in Hands-Free Communications Using Recursive Adaptive Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Wahbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in the field of communications, AEC (acoustic echo cancellation is truly essential with respect to the quality of multimedia transmission. In this paper, we designed and developed an efficient AEC based on adaptive filters to improve quality of service in telecommunications against the phenomena of acoustic echo, which is indeed a problem in hands-free communications. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is its capacity of tracking non-stationary signals such as acoustic echo. In this work the acoustic echo cancellation (AEC is modeled using a digital signal processing technique especially Simulink Blocksets. The algorithm’s code is generated in Matlab Simulink programming environment. At simulation level, results of simulink implementation prove that module behavior is realistic when it comes to cancellation of echo in hands free communication using adaptive algorithm. Results obtained with our algorithm in terms of ERLE criteria are confronted to IUT-T recommendation G.168.

  11. Medical Radioisotopes Production Without A Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Keur, H.

    2010-05-15

    This report is answering the key question: Is it possible to ban the use of research reactors for the production of medical radioisotopes? Chapter 2 offers a summarized overview on the history of nuclear medicine. Chapter 3 gives an overview of the basic principles and understandings of nuclear medicine. The production of radioisotopes and its use in radiopharmaceuticals as a tracer for imaging particular parts of the inside of the human body (diagnosis) or as an agent in radiotherapy. Chapter 4 lists the use of popular medical radioisotopes used in nuclear imaging techniques and radiotherapy. Chapter 5 analyses reactor-based radioisotopes that can be produced by particle accelerators on commercial scale, other alternatives and the advantages of the cyclotron. Chapter 6 gives an overview of recent developments and prospects in worldwide radioisotopes production. Chapter 7 presents discussion, conclusions and recommendations, and is answering the abovementioned key question of this report: Is it possible to ban the use of a nuclear reactor for the production of radiopharmaceuticals? Is a safe and secure production of radioisotopes possible?.

  12. Thirty years history of Japan Radioisotope Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The import of radioisotopes into Japan under occupation was permitted and their utilization was reopened in 1950. The Japan Radioisotope Association was established in May, 1951. At that time, the radioisotope committee in the science and technology administration council handled the import, the spread of utilization and the safety of radioisotopes as the administration authority. In the management of the Association, most attention has been paid to secure the autonomy. The Association is responsible to develop correctly the utilization of radioisotopes, and the autonomy of the Association is indispensable to accomplish it. The first import of isotopes was nine nuclides amounting to $3905, which were used in 25 organizations. In 1980, the Association handled the isotopes totaling 28 billion yen, and about 4500 business establishments used isotopes as of March, 1981. The development of the utilization of radioisotopes during 30 years has been really conspicuous. However, one of the important problems is the treatment of wastes. In order to solve this problem, the understanding of people is a key point. The knowledge of whole nation on atomic energy must be increased. (Kako, I.)

  13. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Joon Ha; Lee, Myun Joo; Jung, Sung Hee; Park, Soon Chul; Lim, Dong Soon; Kim, Jae Ho; Lee, Jae Choon; Lee, Doo Sung; Cho, Yong Suk; Shin, Sung Kuan

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  14. Development of radioisotope tracer technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to develop the radioisotope tracer technology, which can be used in solving industrial and environmental problems and to build a strong tracer group to support the local industries. In relation to the tracer technology in 1999, experiments to estimate the efficiencies of a sludge digester of a waste water treatment plant and a submerged biological reactor of a dye industry were conducted. As a result, the tracer technology for optimization of facilities related to wastewater treatment has been developed and is believed to contribute to improve their operation efficiency. The quantification of the experimental result was attempted to improve the confidence of tracer technology by ECRIN program which basically uses the MCNP simulation principle. Using thin layer activation technique, wear of tappet shim was estimated. Thin layer surface of a tappet shim was irradiated by proton beam and the correlation between the measured activity loss and the amount of wear was established. The equipment was developed to adjust the energy of proton which collides with the surface of tappet. The tracer project team has participated into the tracer test for estimating the efficiency of RFCC system in SK cooperation. From the experiment the tracer team has obtained the primary elements to be considered for judging the efficiency of RFCC unit. By developing the tracer techniques to test huge industrial units like RFCC, the tracer team will be able to support the local industries that require technical services to solve any urgent trouble. (author)

  15. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segovia, N.; Tejera, A.; Bulbulian, S.; Palma, F

    1991-10-15

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  16. Radioisotopes In Animal Production Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Animal productivity may be measured among others, in terms of two important physiological processes of reproduction and growth each of which involves a number of integrated disciplines. Both physiological processes are controlled by interactions of genotype and environment. Reproduction essentially involves complex physiological processes controlled by secretions of endocrine glands known as hormones. On the other hand growth is determined largely by availabilty of essential nutrients. In order to achieve good reproductive and growth rates adequate and constant nutrition for livestock include pasture, cereals, tubers and their by-products as well as industrial by-products. While reproduction is essential to provide the required number and replacement of livestock, growth guarantees availability of meat. Another aspect of livestock production is disease control. An animal needs a good health to adequately express its genetic make up and utilize available nutrition. Research in animal production is aimed at improving all aspects of productivity of livestock which include reproduction, growth, milk production, egg production, good semen etc. of livestock. In order to achieve this an understanding of the biochemical and physiological processes occurring in the animal itself, and in the feedstuff fed to the animal as well as the aetiology and control of diseases affecting the animal among other factors, is desirable. A number of methods of investigation have evolved with time. These include colorimetry, spectrophotometry, chromatography, microscopy and raidoisotopic tracer methods. While most of these methods are cumbersome and use equipment with low precision, radioisotopic tracer methods utilize equipment with relatively high precision

  17. Early radioisotope uses in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexico is traditionally a mining country and the first information about the presence of uranium is related to mine exploitation. Around 1945 when uranium became economically important, a rumor had spread that large amounts of black ceramics from Oaxaca were being purchased and sent abroad because of its assumed high uranium content. It was only in 1949 when minerals containing thorium and uranium were declared by law as 'National Reserves'. In those years a radium emanation plant was installed at the 'Hospital General' in Mexico City with the main purpose of carrying out radon seed implantation in tumors. In the fifties a radium dial painting facility was operating in the city of Toluca some 70 km from Mexico City. In 1955, when the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN) was founded by a government decree, two main activities were in sight: a training program on 'Radioisotope Techniques and Nuclear Instrumentation' and the creation of specialized laboratories. In this paper a general description of these events and undertakings spanning the decades 1940 to 1970 is given. (Author)

  18. Artificial radioisotopes in food chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of uranium for nuclear fission involves the risk of environmental contamination by radiation during the processes of mining, concentration, peaceful and military application and storage, reprocessing and waste disposal. Three of the most dangerous radioisotopes have been followed here as they move through four different food chains. The main bottlenecks for fast and massive transfer are for 131I its rather short half life, for 137Cs the defective plant uptake from soil (and much less so also the pathway through the animal body), and for 90Sr its discrimination relative to calcium in several transport processes in the animal body, and its preference for the bone mass. Hence it is often of advantage for man to use animals as an additional food chain. Known exceptions are discussed: the reindeer and karibou living entirely on lichens during the winter and thereby acquiring for 137Cs nearly identical specific activity as plant food, and cow's milk for iodine during a short period after contamination. 15 refs.; 1 figure; 4 tabs

  19. Modeling customer loyalty using customer lifetime value.

    OpenAIRE

    Glady, N; Baesens, Bart; Croux, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    The definition and modeling of customer loyalty have been central issues in customer relationship management since many years. Recent papers propose solutions to detect customers that are becoming less loyal, also called churners. The churner status is then defined as a function of the volume of commercial transactions. In the context of a Belgian retail financial service company, our first contribution will be to redefine the notion of customer's loyalty by considering it from a customer-cen...

  20. Custom-made fashion : Customized fashion collection

    OpenAIRE

    Kusnezov, Xenia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the theme of customization and mass customization with the goal of creating a fashion collection in consideration of the customer’s demands. The idea was to understand the methods and function of customization in the fashion industry and to use the outcome to design and manufacture clothing garments with customer integration. Design and development of the collection was focused on the idea to give the potential customer the opportunity to modify and co-...

  1. Standalone Terrestrial Laser Scanning for Efficiently Capturing Aec Buildings for As-Built Bim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassier, M.; Vergauwen, M.; Van Genechten, B.

    2016-06-01

    With the increasing popularity of as-built building models for the architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) industry, the demand for highly accurate and dense point cloud data is rising. The current data acquisition methods are labour intensive and time consuming. In order to compete with indoor mobile mapping systems (IMMS), surveyors are now opting to use terrestrial laser scanning as a standalone solution. However, there is uncertainty about the accuracy of this approach. The emphasis of this paper is to determine the scope for which terrestrial laser scanners can be used without additional control. Multiple real life test cases are evaluated in order to identify the boundaries of this technique. Furthermore, this research presents a mathematical prediction model that provides an indication of the data accuracy given the project dimensions. This will enable surveyors to make informed discussions about the employability of terrestrial laser scanning without additional control in mid to large-scale projects.

  2. Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though radioisotope technology is applicable across a broad industrial spectrum, the petroleum and petrochemical industries and the mineral processing and wastewater treatment sectors are identified as the most appropriate target beneficiaries of radioisotope applications. Radioisotope technology is of proven benefit in optimizing mineral resource recovery. Radiotracers are tools of choice for efficiency testing of wastewater treatment installations, aiding in both their design and their performance optimization. Radioisotope technology is used to diagnose specific causes of inefficiency in plants or process operations. In very many cases the benefit is derived in the form of savings associated with plant shutdown minimization and loss prevention. Radioisotope measurements provide information that facilitates improvements in either the throughput or the product quality. Radiotracer and sealed source technology in the petrochemical industry: Radiotracers and radioisotope sealed sources are commonly applied to the solution of problems in petrochemical plants and oil refineries. Gamma scanning technique for troubleshooting inspection of columns: To carry out an internal inspection of any process equipment without interrupting production, γ scanning is the best technique. A collimated beam of penetrating γ rays (60Co or 137Cs) passing through a vessel, column or pipe is recorded by a NaI probe. Without affecting the processing unit, this reliable and accurate technique can be used to determine the liquid level on trays, as well as the presence or absence of internals, such as trays, demister pads, packing and distributors, and other anomalies. Radiotracers in oilfield production: The enhancement of oil production through the investigation of secondary recovery processes by radiotracers is estimated at 10-15% of the residual oil for each oilfield, which in terms of economic benefit means several million dollars per year. Radiotracers for testing the efficiency of

  3. Are loyal customers profitable? : customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the individual level

    OpenAIRE

    Helgesen, Øyvind

    2000-01-01

    Customer satisfaction is supposed to be positively related to profitability. This conception may be called “the paradigm of customer satisfaction”. Nevertheless, only a few studies have examined this fundamental relationship. Thus, evidence for this “much talked about relationship” is questioned. In this working paper the focus is on the individual customer with respect to the relationships between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and customer profitability at the customer level. The f...

  4. Custom controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butell, Bart

    1996-02-01

    Microsoft's Visual Basic (VB) and Borland's Delphi provide an extremely robust programming environment for delivering multimedia solutions for interactive kiosks, games and titles. Their object oriented use of standard and custom controls enable a user to build extremely powerful applications. A multipurpose, database enabled programming environment that can provide an event driven interface functions as a multimedia kernel. This kernel can provide a variety of authoring solutions (e.g. a timeline based model similar to Macromedia Director or a node authoring model similar to Icon Author). At the heart of the kernel is a set of low level multimedia components providing object oriented interfaces for graphics, audio, video and imaging. Data preparation tools (e.g., layout, palette and Sprite Editors) could be built to manage the media database. The flexible interface for VB allows the construction of an infinite number of user models. The proliferation of these models within a popular, easy to use environment will allow the vast developer segment of 'producer' types to bring their ideas to the market. This is the key to building exciting, content rich multimedia solutions. Microsoft's VB and Borland's Delphi environments combined with multimedia components enable these possibilities.

  5. Radioisotope Production for Medical and Physics Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausner, Leonard

    2012-10-01

    Radioisotopes are critical to the science and technology base of the US. Discoveries and applications made as a result of the availability of radioisotopes span widely from medicine, biology, physics, chemistry and homeland security. The clinical use of radioisotopes for medical diagnosis is the largest sector of use, with about 16 million procedures a year in the US. The use of ^99Mo/^99mTc generator and ^18F make up the majority, but ^201Tl, ^123I, ^111In, and ^67Ga are also used routinely to perform imaging of organ function. Application of radioisotopes for therapy is dominated by use of ^131I for thyroid malignancies, ^90Y for some solid tumors, and ^89Sr for bone cancer, but production of several more exotic species such as ^225Ac and ^211At are of significant current research interest. In physics ^225Ra is of interest for CP violation studies, and the actinides ^242Am, ^249Bk, and ^254Es are needed as targets for experiments to create superheavy elements. Large amounts of ^252Cf are needed as a fission source for the CARIBU experiment at ANL. The process of radioisotope production is multidisciplinary. Nuclear physics input based on nuclear reaction excitation function data is needed to choose an optimum target/projectile in order to maximize desired isotope production and minimize unwanted byproducts. Mechanical engineering is needed to address issues of target heating, induced mechanical stress and material compatibility of target and claddings. Radiochemists are involved as well since chemical separation to purify the desired final radioisotope product from the bulk target and impurities is also usually necessary. Most neutron rich species are produced at a few government and university reactors. Other radioisotopes are produced in cyclotrons in the commercial sector, university/hospital based facilities, and larger devices at the DOE labs. The landscape of US facilities, the techniques involved, and current supply challenges will be reviewed.

  6. Forms of Customs Control

    OpenAIRE

    Шевчук, Олег Анатолійович

    2015-01-01

    The research on the forms of customs control was conducted. There was analysed the specific of control activity of customs authorities in the field of financial relations, conditions and forms of its realization. The introduction into practice of customs control system analysis and risk management, customs inspection, the method of "customs audit" is suggested.

  7. From connection to customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy companies can no longer be certain that a customer today will remain a customer tomorrow. They have to work hard to achieve that. They are going from thinking in terms of connections to pampering their customers. Good Customer Relationship Management is a way to achieve a competitive advantage. The whole organisation has to adapt, particularly the customer orientation of employees

  8. Mass Customization Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years...

  9. Talking about Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Mary; Axelroth, Joan

    2001-01-01

    Discusses customer service in information centers and how to define it. Topics include the effects of competition, that give customers more choices; defining customers, and defining services; communications; physical environment; change, in customers and in technology; measuring customer service; and evaluating policies and procedures. (LRW)

  10. Creating customer loyalty through service customization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coelho, Pedro S.; Henseler, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – Although practitioners and scholars alike embrace service customization as a possibly powerful management instrument, its impact on customer relationships as well as contingencies for its effective application are not well understood. Drawing from relationship marketing and exchange theory

  11. Social Customer Relationship Management : Maximizing Customer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Leino, Jarkko

    2016-01-01

    The Internet and digitalization have changed the buying behaviour of customers and challenged businesses to create new ways to bring value to their customers. Old ways of mass mailing, pushy advertisements and cold calls are vanishing from the scene as they are only disturbing the customers and adding bringing value. The modern customer is intelligent and demanding individual who is making the decisions using lots of information and seeking experiences to fulfil their expectations. Sales ...

  12. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial action program. Radiological survey of the Harshaw Chemical Company, Cleveland, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the MED/AEC era, the Harshaw Chemical Company processed large quantities of normal uranium to produce both oxide and fluoride compounds. This work was done under contract to MED and its successor, AEC. Records indicated that at the time the AEC contract was terminated, the facility was decontaminated by Harshaw and released from AEC control in 1960. However, a search of AEC records indicated that documentation was insufficient to determine whether the decontamination work was adequate by current guidelines. Hence, a radiological assessment of the site ws initiated in 1976. The entire grounds and all buildings were surveyed using surface survey instruments to detect surface contamination and radiation detectors to determine general radiation levels. Extensive surface contamination was found throughout the site. While the major contamination was found in Plant C, significant levels of contamination also were found in 16 other buildings and at 32 exterior locations. The contaminating material seemed to be normal uranium exclusively. Air samples were taken at numerous indoor locations throughout the site, but no elevated levels of radon were detected. This was as expected since normal uranium has been separated from radium and hence radon levels are very low. Several soil samples were taken from around the site. Analyses of these samples indicated extensive soil contamination, as well as suspected contamination of the river bed in the vicinity of the plant outfall. Scheduled subsurface investigation of the site, as well as of the river bed and sewer system, have not been conducted. Levels of contamination at this site are significantly above guidelines for release of the site for unrestricted use. 57 figures, 7 tables

  13. Diffusion of Implanted Radioisotopes in Solids

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Implantation of radioisotopes into metal and semiconductor samples is performed. The implanted isotope or its decay-product should have a half-life long enough for radiotracer diffusion experiments. Such radioisotopes are utilized to investigate basic diffusion properties in semiconductors and metals and to improve our understanding of the atomic mechanisms of diffusion. For suitably chosen systems the combination of on-line production and clean implantation of radioisotopes at the ISOLDE facility opens new possibilities for diffusion studies in solids. \\\\ \\\\ The investigations are concentrated on diffusion studies of $^{195}$Au in amorphous materials. The isotope $^{195}$Au was obtained from the mass 195 of the mercury beam. $^{195}$Hg decays into $^{195}$Au which is a very convenient isotope for diffusion experiments. \\\\ \\\\ It was found that $^{195}$Au is a slow diffusor in amorphous Co-Zr alloys, whereas Co is a fast diffusor in the same matrix. The ``asymmetry'' in the diffusion behaviour is of considerab...

  14. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Leigh; R. Rechard

    2001-01-30

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR.

  15. RADIOISOTOPE INVENTORY FOR TSPA-SR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total system performance assessment for site recommendation (TSPA-SR), on Yucca Mountain, as a site (if suitable) for disposal of radioactive waste, consists of several models. The Waste Form Degradation Model (i.e, source term) of the TSPA-SR, in turn, consists of several components. The Inventory Component, discussed here, defines the inventory of 26 radioisotopes for three representative waste categories: (1) commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), (2) US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and (3) high-level waste (HLW). These three categories are contained and disposed of in two types of waste packages (WPs)--CSNF WPs and co-disposal WPs, with the latter containing both DSNF and HLW. Three topics are summarized in this paper: first, the transport of radioisotopes evaluated in the past; second, the development of the inventory for the two WP types; and third, the selection of the most important radioisotopes to track in TSPA-SR

  16. Radioisotope-applied measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji Electric developed a new type detector for gamma thickness gauges, inner-mill housing gamma thickness gauges at hot plate mills and tube-wall thickness gauges at hot seamless tube mills. This detector attained much higher gamma counting and much lower drift than our former detectors. We plan to apply this detector to our new type thickness gauges and also renewal of now working thickness gauges at customer's site. In addition, we developed a soil mass measuring instrument for on-line measurement of cutting soil mass in a waste water tube in shield tunneling. This instrument is free from legal control and can be used in every field of civil engineering. (author)

  17. Customer Data Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sehat, Mahdis; PAVEZ FLORES, RENÉ

    2012-01-01

    Abstract As the business complexity, number of customers continues to grow and customers evolve into multinational organisations that operate across borders, many companies are faced with great challenges in the way they manage their customer data. In today’s business, a single customer may have a relationship with several entities of an organisation, which means that the customer data is collected through different channels. One customer may be described in different ways by each entity, whi...

  18. Customer Equity von KMUs

    OpenAIRE

    Biemel, Friedhelm W.; Henseler, Jörg; Meyer, Jorn-Axel

    2003-01-01

    Customer relationships are most important assets of many SMEs. Customer Equity is the sum of the values of all customer relationships. Customer Equity will not be found in any balance sheet, nevertheless it has strategic importance. Even if companies do not want to publish their Customer Equity for competition reasons, it may be explicitly required and usefull in certain cases like changing ownerships in order to estimate the company’s value. This paper explains the main concept of Customer E...

  19. Production of radioisotopes using a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyclotron produced radioisotopes are generally neutron deficient and decay by EC or β+ emission. They find major applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The production processes involve rather sophisticated technology and the areas needing research and development work include nuclear data, targetry, chemical processing, remote control, automation and quality control. A comparison of the various parameters relevant to the production of radioisotopes using a nuclear reactor and a cyclotron is given. The cyclotron products are more expensive than the reactor products; they are, however, far superior to the latter as far as in-vivo functional studies are concerned. (author)

  20. Industrial applications of radioisotope techniques in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general review of applications of radioisotope techniques in the Polish industry for about 25 years is given. The radiotracer methods used in metallurgy, hydrometallurgy, glass industry, oil and petroleum industries, in material testing and in other industries are described. Neutron activation analysis methods as well as nuclear gauges for industry (thickness meters, density meters, conveyer belt weigher, acid concentration meters and others) are also presented. The economic advantages of industrial applications of radioisotope techniques are described too. 42 refs., 43 figs., 11 tabs. (author)

  1. Radioisotope producer reactor: technical report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes activities in the year of 1991 related the Project of a New Conception for the Radioisotope Producer reactor (RPR). Results as well as proposals for future studies are presented. Chapter 1 describes investigations performed for the conception of the reactor core. Chapters 2 and 3 contain preliminary results of thermal-hydraulic calculations and accident analysis respectively. Chapter 4 describes the aspects of production of 99 Mo in the RPR, concluding the body of the paper. This initial effort will continue with the Radioisotope Producer Reactor Conceptual Project, to be carried out during the year of 92. (author)

  2. Radioisotopes in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After defining nondestructive testing (NDT) and comparing this concept with destructive testing, a short description is given of NDT methods other than radiologic. The basic concepts of radiologic methods are discussed and the principles of radiography are explained. Radiation sources and gamma radiography machines are next reviewed and radiographic inspection of weldings and castings is described. A brief description is given of the radiographic darkroom and accessories. Other radioisotope methods, such as neutron radiography, are shortly reviewed. Cost estimations for radioisotopic equipment conclude the report. (author)

  3. The progress of radioisotope technology and application in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jinrong; Luo Zhifu

    2008-01-01

    The inception of radioisotope and its application in China are introduced. The research, development, produc-tion, application progress and the future development prospect of radioisotope and its products are described.

  4. Structure and manual of radioisotope-production data base, ISOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We planned on collecting the information of radioisotope production which was obtained from research works and tasks at the Department of Radioisotopes in JAERI, and constructed a proto-type data base ISOP after discussion of the kinds and properties of the information available for radioisotope production. In this report the structure and the manual of ISOP are described. (author)

  5. How to find out in radioisotope methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is dealt with in sections entitled: tracing books by topic; radioisotope methodology cross reference structure; finding a review; journals and how to trace journal articles; abstract; theses and dissertations; research and development reports; critical reviews and information summaries; data books; dictionaries and encyclopedias; guides to the literature; whom to contact; expert advice, research in progress, institutions. (U.K.)

  6. Fuel selection for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of Radioisotope Thermoeletric Generator fuels is evaluated based on the amount of fuel discharged from selected power reactors. In general, the best alternatives are either to use Plutonium-238 produced by irradiation of Neptunium-237 generated in typical thermal reactors or to use Curium-244 directly separated from the discharged fuels of fast or thermal reactors. (author)

  7. Radioisotope methods for cardio-rehabilitation diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-cardiography, radio-cyclography, and radioisotopic examinations of the pulmonary and coronary circulation are reviewed, including the instruments and labelled compounds applied to the measurements. The indications, the normal values and the information provided by the different methods are reported with special emphasis on ischaemic diseases, myocardial infarction and valve disorders. (L.E.)

  8. Application of artificial radioisotopes in hydrological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, various applications of the artificial radioisotopes in surface water and groundwater investigations are briefly reviewed with a few recent case studies. They are found to be extremely useful in understanding the hydrological processes and obtaining pertinent parameters such as dilution factors, dispersion coefficients, rate of sediment transport in surface waters and recharge rate, velocity and flow direction in groundwater systems. (author)

  9. Radioisotopes and food preservation against insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book describes how to preserve food from harmful insects by using radioisotopes. It focusses on the impact of ionized radiation on the different stages of insect growth and on its metabolism and immunity. It also discusses the relationship between radiation doses and insect reproduction. It explains the various methods to detect the irradiated foods

  10. The industrial application of radioisotopes in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past 10 years, the Australian Atomic Energy Commission has conducted a wide-ranging program of radioisotope applications to solve industrial problems of local, regional or national importance. Most of the investigations have been concerned with the behaviour of large complex systems. Broadly, the work covers such economically important fields as flow studies, environmental studies and coastal engineering studies. (author)

  11. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabalfin, E.G. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk {sup 131}I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new {sup 131}I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, research and development work on the preparation of {sup 99m}Tc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  12. Development of radioisotope production in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) started its activities on radioisotope production more than three decades ago, when the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1) started operating at its full rated power of 1 MW. Since then, several radionuclides in different chemical forms, were routinely produced and supplied for use in nuclear medicine, industry, agriculture, research and training, until the conversion of the PRR-1 to a 3 MW TRIGA type reactor. After the criticality test of the upgraded reactor, a leak was discovered in the pool liner. With the repair of the reactor still ongoing, routine radioisotope production activities have been reduced to dispensing of imported bulk 131I. In the Philippines, radioisotopes are widely used in nuclear medicine, with 131I and 99mTc as the major radionuclides of interest. Thus the present radioisotope production program of PNRI is directed to meet this demand. With the technical assistance of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), PNRI is setting up a new 131I production facility. The in-cell equipment have been installed and tested using both inactive and active target, obtained from BATAN, Indonesia. In order to meet the need of producing 99Mo-99mTc generators, based on low specific activity reactor-produced 99Mo, research and development work on the preparation of 99mTc gel generators is ongoing. (author)

  13. Radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in biological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book deals with the use of radioisotopes and ionizing radiations in the various aspects of biological research. The following topics were presented: labelled compounds; conformation-function relationships of hormonal polypeptides and their spectroscopic study; neutron scattering and neutron diffraction for biological studies; high resolution autoradiography; radioimmunoassay; nuclear medicine; transfer of excitation energy in photosynthesis; radioagronomy; radiation preservation of food

  14. Radioisotope licence application: Fixed nuclear gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide will assist you in completing and filing an application for a new licence or licence renewal for fixed nuclear gauges in accordance with the Atomic Energy Control Regulations and radioisotope licensing policies. It also provides some of the background information that you will require in order to safely use radioactive materials

  15. Production of Radioisotopes and Radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope products such as P-32, I-131, Tc-99m, Cr-51 and others are being in the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat) for medical uses. Additionally, the development of the chromatographic gel-type Tc-99m generator, new method for I-131 production, inorganic ion exchanger is introduced. (N.H.A). 3 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  16. The control of radioisotopes in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Regulations applicable to the control of radioisotopes in Canada are reviewed. The administrative procedures are described, the definition of atomic radiation workers clarified and the means for inspections and compliance indicated. An outline is provided of the main revisions currently under consideration. (author)

  17. Inorganic Salts Effect on Adsorption Behavior of Surfactant AEC at Liquid/Liquid Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhua Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Behaviors of nonionic-anionic surfactant sodium fatty Alcohol polyoxyethylene Ether Carboxylate (AEC at dodecane/water interface influenced by inorganic salts NaCl, CaCl2 and MgCl2 were investigated by interfacial tension methods and molecular dynamics simulation. Contrasted distributions of various salts at interface and in aqueous solutions and resulting lowering the interfacial tension have been observed. Composition of surfactants-salts complex at interface surrounding different cations within 2.5 Å were found to be in two categories: (i the octahedral complexation of divalent cation was generated by the participation of surfactant head group and water molecule, (ii only water molecules were involved in the complexation. According to the simulation results, all the Na+ involved in type ii, without any direct interaction with surfactant head group, while Ca2+ and Mg2+ involved in type I, following the formula: Ca2++4 (surfactant +2(H2 O⇄ [Ca (surfactant4 [(H2 O]2]2+ M2+g+(surfactant+5 (H2 O⇄[Mg (surfactant [(H2 O]5 ]2+ This strongly chelate interaction between Ca2+ and surfactants makes surfactants more stretched at interface, thus more effective in oil/water interface.

  18. Utilizing Statistical Semantic Similarity Techniques for Ontology Mapping——with Applications to AEC Standard Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Jiayi; Chin-Pang Jack Cheng; Gloria T. Lau; Kincho H. Law

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce three semi-automated approaches for ontology mapping using relatedness analysis techniques. In the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, there exist a number of ontological standards to describe the semantics of building models. Although the standards share similar scopes of interest, the task of comparing and mapping concepts among standards is challenging due to their differences in terminologies and perspectives. Ontology mapping is therefore necessary to achieve information interoperability, which allows two or more information sources to exchange data and to re-use the data for further purposes. The attribute-based approach, corpus-based approach, and name-based approach presented in this paper adopt the statistical relatedness analysis techniques to discover related concepts from heterogeneous ontologies. A pilot study is conducted on IFC and CIS/2 ontologies to evaluate the approaches. Preliminary results show that the attribute-based approach outperforms the other two approaches in terms of precision and F-measure.

  19. Second Annual AEC Scientific Computer Information Exhange Meeting. Proceedings of the technical program theme: computer graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin,A.M.; Shimamoto, Y.

    1974-01-01

    The topic of computer graphics serves well to illustrate that AEC affiliated scientific computing installations are well represented in the forefront of computing science activities. The participant response to the technical program was overwhelming--both in number of contributions and quality of the work described. Session I, entitled Advanced Systems, contains presentations describing systems that contain features not generally found in graphics facilities. These features can be roughly classified as extensions of standard two-dimensional monochromatic imaging to higher dimensions including color and time as well as multidimensional metrics. Session II presents seven diverse applications ranging from high energy physics to medicine. Session III describes a number of important developments in establishing facilities, techniques and enhancements in the computer graphics area. Although an attempt was made to schedule as many of these worthwhile presentations as possible, it appeared impossible to do so given the scheduling constraints of the meeting. A number of prospective presenters 'came to the rescue' by graciously withdrawing from the sessions. Some of their abstracts have been included in the Proceedings.

  20. Basic data report for drillhole AEC 8 (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AEC 8 was originally drilled in 1974 to a depth of 3028 ft by Oak Ridge National Laboratory as part of the initial investigations of a site for radioactive waste disposal. In 1976, Sandia National Laboratories deepened the borehole from the top of the Castile Formation into the Bell Canyon Formation to test the hydraulic properties of the Bell Canyon. The borehole encountered in descending order Holocene sands (20 ft), Mescalero caliche (6 ft), Santa Rosa Sandstone (143 ft), Dewey Lake Redbeds (491 ft), Rustler Formation (322 ft), Salado Formation (1990 ft), Castile Formation (1335 ft), and the upper Bell Canyon Formation (603 ft). The borehole stratigraphy is in normal order and there is no significant deformation. An extensive suite of geophysical logs provides information on the lithology and stratigraphy. The potentiometric surfaces of Bell Canyon fluid-bearing zones are 550 ft (for the zone at 4821 ft to 4827 ft) and 565 ft below land surface (for the zone at 4844 to 4860 ft). The WIPP is a demonstration facility for the disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste from defense programs. The WIPP will also provide a research facility to investigate the interactions between bedded salt and high level wastes

  1. Novel radioisotope applications in industry promoted by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presently, there is a lively activity in further development and use of radioisotope technology. Novel radioisotope applications in industry are promoted by the IAEA. Radioisotope technology is contributing significantly to improving and optimising process performance bringing an annual economic benefit to industry of several billion US$. Probably, an average benefit to cost ratio of 40: 1 is reasonably representative of radioisotope applications in industry. There are few short-term investments, which will give a return of this magnitude. The cost effectiveness of radioisotope applications should be widely promulgated to encourage industrialists to take full advantage of the technology. (author)

  2. Mass Customization Services

    OpenAIRE

    Friedrich, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Topics of the IMCM’08 & PETO’08 and this book are: Mass customization in service, mass customizing financial services, mass customization in supply networks, implementation issues in logistics, product life cycle and mass customization. The research field of mass customization is more than 15 years old but as the topics illustrate, quite a diverse field. This is expected to continue as long as all fields continue to evolve in their own direction. From a research point of view this provide...

  3. The first customer reference

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokolainen, Jari

    2008-01-01

    Marketing and sales have generally been recognized as typical bottlenecks for start-up technology companies which produce complex products for corporate customers. Start-up technology companies often need a customer reference to support their efforts in entering the market. Without a real-world assessment that the first customer reference represents, it is difficult to convince the next potential customer to buy. The first customer reference, the topic of this study, has not been widely ...

  4. Ionosphere-thermosphere momentum coupling at solar maximum and solar minimum from DE-2 and AE-C data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, J. J.; Killeen, T. L.; Lee, K. M.; Carignan, G. R.; Hoegy, W. R.; Brace, L. H.

    1988-01-01

    DE-2 and AE-C measurements of plasma and neutral densities were used to derive time constants for momentum transfer (MT) to neutrals from ions in the high-latitude thermosphere. The MT time constants for solar cycle maximum (DE-2) and for solar cycle minimum (AE-C) were averaged and binned according to geomagnetic latitude and LT to provide a quantitative measure for the tightness of ion-neutral momentum coupling (MC) in the 250-350-km altitude range. Comparisons with results obtained using the Chiu and MSIS-83 empirical models have provided an indication of the accuracy with which thermospheric general circulation models quantitatively reproduce the MC between ions and neutrals in the high-latitude F-region.

  5. SU-E-I-34: Evaluating Use of AEC to Lower Dose for Lung Cancer Screening CT Protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The National Lung Screening Trial mandated manual low dose CT technique factors, where up to a doubling of radiation output could be used over a regular to large patient size range. Recent guidance from the AAPM and ACR for lung cancer CT screening recommends radiation output adjustment for patient size either through AEC or a manual technique chart. This study evaluated the use of AEC for output control and dose reduction. Methods: The study was performed on a multidetector helical CT scanner (Aquillion ONE, Toshiba Medical) equipped with iterative reconstruction (ADIR-3D), AEC was adjusted with a standard deviation (SD) image quality noise index. The protocol SD parameter was incrementally increased to reduce patient population dose while image quality was evaluated by radiologist readers scoring the clinical utility of images on a Likert scale. Results: Plots of effective dose vs. body size (water cylinder diameter reported by the scanner) demonstrate monotonic increase in patient dose with increasing patient size. At the initial SD setting of 19 the average CTDIvol for a standard size patient was ∼ 2.0 mGy (1.2 mSv effective dose). This was reduced to ∼1.0 mGy (0.5 mSv) at an SD of 25 with no noticeable reduction in clinical utility of images as demonstrated by Likert scoring. Plots of effective patient diameter and BMI vs body size indicate that these metrics could also be used for manual technique charts. Conclusion: AEC offered consistent and reliable control of radiation output in this study. Dose for a standard size patient was reduced to one-third of the 3 mGy CTDIvol limit required for ACR accreditation of lung cancer CT screening. Gary Arbique: Research Grant, Toshiba America Medical Systems; Cecelia Brewington: Research Grant, Toshiba America Medical Systems; Di Zhang: Employee, Toshiba America Medical Systems

  6. SU-E-I-34: Evaluating Use of AEC to Lower Dose for Lung Cancer Screening CT Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbique, G; Anderson, J [UT Southwestern Medical Ctr at Dallas, Dallas, TX (United States); Guild, J; Duan, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Malguria, N; Omar, H; Brewington, C [Ut Southwestern, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhang, D [Toshiba America Medical Systems, Tustin, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The National Lung Screening Trial mandated manual low dose CT technique factors, where up to a doubling of radiation output could be used over a regular to large patient size range. Recent guidance from the AAPM and ACR for lung cancer CT screening recommends radiation output adjustment for patient size either through AEC or a manual technique chart. This study evaluated the use of AEC for output control and dose reduction. Methods: The study was performed on a multidetector helical CT scanner (Aquillion ONE, Toshiba Medical) equipped with iterative reconstruction (ADIR-3D), AEC was adjusted with a standard deviation (SD) image quality noise index. The protocol SD parameter was incrementally increased to reduce patient population dose while image quality was evaluated by radiologist readers scoring the clinical utility of images on a Likert scale. Results: Plots of effective dose vs. body size (water cylinder diameter reported by the scanner) demonstrate monotonic increase in patient dose with increasing patient size. At the initial SD setting of 19 the average CTDIvol for a standard size patient was ∼ 2.0 mGy (1.2 mSv effective dose). This was reduced to ∼1.0 mGy (0.5 mSv) at an SD of 25 with no noticeable reduction in clinical utility of images as demonstrated by Likert scoring. Plots of effective patient diameter and BMI vs body size indicate that these metrics could also be used for manual technique charts. Conclusion: AEC offered consistent and reliable control of radiation output in this study. Dose for a standard size patient was reduced to one-third of the 3 mGy CTDIvol limit required for ACR accreditation of lung cancer CT screening. Gary Arbique: Research Grant, Toshiba America Medical Systems; Cecelia Brewington: Research Grant, Toshiba America Medical Systems; Di Zhang: Employee, Toshiba America Medical Systems.

  7. Radioisotopes in Hydrology. Proceedings of a Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing emphasis on the development of water resources poses problems which are of interest to all countries, both developing and advanced, where the demand for water is continuously rising. There is no doubt that greater efforts must be made to evaluate, control and develop water resources using all scientific means available and during recent years increasing attention has been directed to the supplementation of hydrological methods with radioisotope techniques. These techniques have already been applied to a number of problems and their potential usefulness demonstrated. Radioisotopes can be used for stream discharge measurements with an accuracy as good as that obtainable with conventional methods. They are also finding increasing application in the measurement of groundwater direction and velocity, the study of suspected interconnections between different sources of water, and the investigation of mixing processes in rivers and lakes. Radioisotope techniques have been used in different parts of the world for studying the transport of silt in rivers and harbours. Present research is directed towards making these investigations on a quantitative basis which, if successful, would be of great importance in the design of hydraulic structures. The method of finding out the age of groundwater by measuring its natural tritium content can be applied to the determination of the recharge rate of groundwater bodies, so enabling a more rational use of the groundwater reserves without fear of overexploitation. Current research is aimed at using carbon-14 for groundwater-dating to extend the age measurable by tritium. A Symposium on the use of radioisotopes in hydrology was organized by the Agency and held in March 1963 in Tokyo in co-operation with the Japanese Government, for whose material and other assistance and generous hospitality the Agency wishes to record its grateful appreciation. The Symposium was attended by about 100 participants from 14 countries and 5

  8. Index to the 1st through 16th AEC/ERDA/DOE nuclear air cleaning conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings of the sixteen conferences comprise a vertible encyclopedia on the technology of nuclear air and gas treatment and the control of airborne nuclear waste. These Proceedings cover the history of the technology; describe most of the research and developments in the field, worldwide, since the early 1950's; describe the problems that have been encountered and the solutions found to those problems; and summarize experience with equipment and systems developed for the control of airborne radioactive wastes in laboratory, radiochemical, and reactor operations, both government and commercial. The problem with this encyclopedia is that there has been no index to it; there has been no easy way for searching it to find what was available. This index fills the gap. The first conference was an informal meeting of a number of interested parties from among the then AEC contractors. Consequently, there were no proceedings for that meeting. The subsequent conferences, with their years, locations, and Proceedings numbers, are listed. This index consists of three parts: a tabulation of papers and their authors by paper number (Part I); a tabulation of papers and their paper numbers by author (Part II); and a key-word-in context (KWIC) index of papers. The paper number is a two-part designation consisting of the number of the conference (2, 3...16) followed by the page number of the paper in the corresponding Proceedings. The author index lists each author who has participated in the air cleaning conferences over the years, and the paper index lists all authors of the respective papers. The KWIC index is, in effect, a comprehensive subject cross index; each paper is listed as many times, by keyword, as there are major terms (i.e., keywords) in its title. Although this multiple listing results in a lengthy list, it provides a very deep cross-indexing of the papers

  9. Customer satisfaction and competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gritti, Paola; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    We empirically address how customer satisfaction and loyalty in the banking industry may affect profitability. This helps to identify the strategy and competencies necessary to benefit from customer relationships which are important sources for improved performance in the banking. We do...... this by analyzing data collected on 2,105 customers of 118 branches of one of the biggest banks of an Italian banking group. We find that customer satisfaction impacts loyalty, which in turn has a direct effect on financial and non-financial customer value/total customer value/complex customer value. Moreover......, loyalty is a mediator between financial and not-financial customer value and two sources of customer satisfaction, namely relationships with the front office and the branch, on the one hand, and the products offered, on the other....

  10. Customer Lifetime Value Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Borle; Siddharth S. Singh; Dipak C. Jain

    2008-01-01

    The measurement of customer lifetime value is important because it is used as a metric in evaluating decisions in the context of customer relationship management. For a firm, it is important to form some expectations as to the lifetime value of each customer at the time a customer starts doing business with the firm, and at each purchase by the customer. In this paper, we use a hierarchical Bayes approach to estimate the lifetime value of each customer at each purchase occasion by jointly mod...

  11. Radioisotope scanning for the spinal cord tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope scanning with sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate or 67Ga-citrate for the spinal cord tumors are reported. Six patients with spinal cord tumors including 2 ependymomas, 1 neurinoma, 1 metastatic medulloblastoma, 1 metastatic astrocytoma, and 1 metastatic pinealoma as well as 6 patients with non-neoplastic lesions were examined by this method. Two out of 6 cases with tumors showed positive scans, and two showed equivocal scans. This new method is different from myeloscintigraphy or radioisotope angiography as already reported. It directly demonstrates the tumor itself like brain scanning does and is very useful as a nontraumatic method for screening spinal cord lesions, especially in poor risk patients. Both the usefulness and the limitations of this method are discussed. (auth.)

  12. Radioisotope method for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal scintigraphy with 99mTc pertechnetate was performed in 17 patients for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux. Two of these patients had sclerodermia, 2 had undergone gastric resection for gastroduodenal ulcer, 3 had chronic gastroduodenitis, 5 - duodenal ulcer, 1 - gastric ulcer, 1 - gastric ulcer+hiatus hernia, 1 six-year-old child -duodenal ulcer and 2 infants - gastritis. 99mTv-sulphocolloid was orally introduced in dose 7,40 mBq for adults, 4,44 mBq for infants, 5,18 mBq for children younger than 14 years and 5,92 mBq for patients having undergone gastric resection. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 4 patients, the data of the radioisotopic examination being verified by fibrogastroscopy. The radioisotopic method for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux is an original, physiological and noninvasive method of low radiation load for demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux, requiring no intubation

  13. The future of medical radioisotope supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NEA and its High-level Group on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes (HLG-MR) have been actively examining the causes of supply shortages of the most widely used isotope in medical diagnostic imaging, technetium-99m (99mTc), and its parent isotope molybdenum-99 (99Mo). As a result of this examination, the HLG-MR has developed a policy approach that includes principles and supporting recommendations to address the causes of these supply shortages. Six policy principles were agreed by the HLG-MR in March 2011. These are implementation of full-cost recovery and outage reserve capacity (ORC) for 99Mo production, a government role in the market, conversion to low-enriched uranium targets, international collaboration and periodic reviews of the supply chain. This article describes progress made in the implementation of the six principles and examines the projected global capacity for medical radioisotope production in the near future. (author)

  14. Radioisotopes development and production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of radioisotopes for use in medical, industrial and agriculture sector was began in 1982 after the commissioning the 1MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor. Production of Tc-99m using Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) extraction began in 1985 with the capacity about 1.2 Ci of Mo-99. By 1994, we produced Tc-99m generator using fission Molybdenum imported from Indonesia. Early 1990's, we assemble I-131 plant from Hungary for production of I-131 using TeO2 irradiated inour reactor but the yield are low. We have imported I-131 to meet the demand about 10 Ci/month. Development of Sm-153 EDTMP was began in 1994 and the trial production began in 1998. We also established the procedure for production of industrial and agriculture radioisotopes such as P-32, Na-24 and Au-198. (author)

  15. Research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in SINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief systematic account on the research and development for the application of radioisotope technology in Shanghai Institute of Nuclear Research (SINR) is presented. It comprehensively covers the following categories: 1. Radioisotopes produced by cyclotron; 2. Radioisotope-labelled compounds; 3. Radioisotope as source of energy converter; 4. Induced-radioisotope generation as a means for elemental analysis--the activation analysis; 5. Radioisotope equipped with electronic instrument for various application; and 6. Special usage of some radioisotopes

  16. Micro-battery Development using beta radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear battery which use the beta radiation sources emitting the low penetration radiation energy from radioisotope can be applied as the long term (more than 10 years) micro power source in MEMS and nano components. This report describes the basic concept and principles of nuclear micro-battery and its fabrication in space and military field. In particular direct conversion method is described by investigating the electron-hole generation and recombination in p-n junction of silicon betavoltaics with beta radiation

  17. Beneficial uses of radioisotopic waste program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities include efforts to: (1) develop a cost-effective radioisotope separation technology based on column separation techniques associated with the Sandia Solidification Process and (2) develop a broader technology for beneficial applications of the separated isotopes, including engineered radioactive sources and applications facilities and/or devices, and studies related to cost-effectiveness, safety, and security of these sources, facilities, and devices. (LK)

  18. Alternate methods for the production of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic clinical applications has increased in the past decade. The growth has been in two areas: the use of 99mTc for gamma-ray imaging and the use of 18F in positron emission tomography (PET). The 99mTc (6.01 h) is a daughter of the longer-lived precursor 99Mo (65.9 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors. Conversely, the isotopes for PET have been produced using cyclotrons at centralized hospital complexes. The economic potential of the radioisotope market has been demonstrated by the major producers of 99Mo this past year when they announced their plans to purchase two MAPLE reactors for the dedicated production of 99Mo. This market potential, coupled with the efforts by the U.S. Department of Energy to encourage the private, commercial production of radioisotopes that the government currently supplies, has provided motivation to investigate innovative technologies to produce both 99Mo and PET isotopes. Incentives for looking at alternate production methods include life-cycle cost and source portability for short-lived radioisotopes. This paper presents alternative production methods that could provide unique advantages for the production of 99Mo and tremendously higher availability of PET isotopes. We have examined the use of an existing high-current, linear accelerator for the production of 99Mo from the fission of depleted uranium and the production of short-lived isotopes used in PET using a portable source of low-energy antiprotons

  19. Utilization of radioisotopes in the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of radioisotopes utilization in the agriculture, such as, the use of gamma radiation for genetic improvement of plants; the use of C14 as tracer for comprehension of the vegetable physiology; the use of nitrogen and phosphorus isotopes in soil fertilization and plant nutrition; the use of radiation for inset sterelization and, measurement of the humidity and density of soils by neutron moderation and attenuation of gamma radiation, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  20. The efficient importation and distribution of radioisotopes. Suggestions for the most economic importation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the course of their work in many Member States, IAEA technical assistance experts have sometimes encountered difficulties in connection with the importation of radioactive isotopes. In some countries they have been consulted as to the possible improvement of import procedures. The purpose of this publication is to summarize the experience that has been gained in the hope that it may be useful both to scientists who wish to import radioisotopes for their work and to public officials who are concerned with the administrative and financial aspects of the problem. This question is of considerable importance because many countries have only limited resources of scientific man-power and foreign exchange and hence it is essential, if these resources are to be utilized fully, that efficient importing procedures be established. Furthermore, the success or failure of technical assistance activities may depend on whether radioisotopes needed for the project can be efficiently imported. Although the data summarized in this publication are based mainly on the experience of medical users of radioisotopes, they are equally applicable to their uses in other fields such as agriculture and hydrology. This publication covers the subject of importation and distribution of radioisotopes, and concludes with a brief section on the domestic production of short-lived radioisotopes in research reactors

  1. Steps of radioisotope separation in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraordinary Specialist Committee on Radioisotope Separation of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has supported various actions on foundation, application and industrialization of the radioisotope separation over past 30 years to continue wide range of actions at a standpoint of specialist, since established in Showa 44 (1969). On June 1993 (Heisei 5), a memorial lecture meeting, as the 100th committee was held at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN) of Wako-city in Saitama prefecture. At that time, a planning to publish an impressive memorial issue, to prepare orbits and episodes of actions, painful stories and fault examples of developments, and so forth like novels and to use for a future foundation, was determined. For its writing principle, it was settled to the base not to use mathematical equation as possible, to collect the essence like a tale, to collect actual and historical reports, and so on. And, for its writing content, it was determined to report on actual, painful and fault experiences in research and development, on data, topics and human relation, and on what to be remained for references. This book can be used not only for data collected on traces from fundamental to applied studies, technical development for industrialization, and so forth on radioisotope concentration, but also for a knowledge bag to give some hints to a man aiming to overcome a new problem. (G.K.)

  2. Quantitation of renal function using radioisotopic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, J P; Ziessman, H A

    1993-03-01

    Radioisotopic methods are practical for clinical use because they do not require continuous intravenous infusion or urine collection. This obviously is of great advantage in infants and small children, in whom accurate urine collection is difficult, but the techniques apply to adults as well. The ability to determine individual kidney function is a major benefit. Accuracies of the radioisotopic techniques vary but generally are within clinically acceptable ranges. The need for accuracy and reproducibility can be balanced with the desire for speed and convenience when choosing among the different techniques. Methods that use plasma sampling provide greater accuracy and are recommended in cases of severe dysfunction, whereas methods such as Gates' camera method, which eliminates plasma samples, can be completed in minutes. Radioisotopic techniques are most useful in the ranges of mild to moderately decreased function, in which serum creatinine concentration is nondiagnostic, and although they are much less accurate at markedly low renal function levels, so is 24-hour creatinine clearance. In conclusion, radiopharmaceutical agents offer a wide array of possible techniques for simple, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of global as well as individual GFR and ERPF. PMID:8462269

  3. Radioisotope applications on fluidized catalytic cracking units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes are used to trace the flow of all the phases of Fluidized Catalytic Cracking process in oil refineries. The gaseous phases, steam, hydrocarbon vapour and air, are generally traced using a noble-gas isotope, 41Ar, 79Kr or 85Kr. An appropriate tracer for the catalyst is produced by irradiating a catalyst sample in a nuclear reactor. The activation products,140La and 24Na provide appropriate radioactive 'labels' for the catalyst, which is reinjected into the FCC. An advantage of this approach is that it facilitates the study of the behaviour of different particle size fractions. Radioisotopes as sealed sources of gamma radiation are used to measure catalyst density variations and density distributions in critical parts of the unit. An important trend in radioisotope applications is the increasing use of the information they produce as inputs to or as validation of, mathematical process models. In line with the increasing sophistication of the models, the technology is undergoing continuous refinement. Developments include the investigation of more efficient, more convenient tracers, the introduction of systems to facilitate more rapid and comprehensive data acquisition and software refinements for enhanced data analysis

  4. Analysis of mathematical models of radioisotope gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope gauges as industrial sensors were briefly reviewed. Regression models of instruments based on various principles developed in Institute of Nuclear Research and Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology were analysed and their mathematical models assessed. It was found that for one - dimensional models the lowest value of standard error of estimate was achieved when calibration procedure was modelled by logarithmic function. Mathematical expressions for variance and mean value of intrinsic error for linear and non - linear one - as well as for multi - dimensional models of radioisotope gauges were derived. A conclusion was drawn that optimal model of calibration procedure determined by regression analysis method not always corresponds to the minimum value of the intrinsic error variance. Influence of cutting off of probability distribution function of measured quantity and its error at the lower upper limit of measurement range on variance and mean value of intrinsic error was evaluated. Feasibility study for application of some aspects of Shannon's information theory for evaluation of mathematical models of radioisotope gauges was accomplished. Its usefulness for complex evaluation of multidimensional models was confirmed. 105 refs. (author)

  5. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Proceedings of a Seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the many and varied uses of radioactive isotopes which have been developed in the past twenty years, their applications in medicine are among the most important. All over the world medical scientists have added radioisotopes to their armament in clinical research, diagnosis and radiotherapy. It is significant that the first scientific meeting organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency was devoted to a medical subject. It is not less significant as a symbol of the close co-operation which has been established between the Agency and other agencies of the United Nations family, that this first seminar was a joint undertaking with the World Health Organization. The determination of the distribution of a radioisotope within the human body - radioisotope scanning - is a technique which has made very rapid progress in the last few years in various medical centres throughout the world, and the necessity of providing an opportunity for an organized exchange of results, experience and opinions was clearly recognised. The value of such an exchange is demonstrated by the extensive discussions which took place and which are recorded in this volume, together with the original papers presented by those who have made such noteworthy contributions to progress in this field.

  6. NEW DIRECTIONS IN RADIOISOTOPE SPECTRUM IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salaymeh, S.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    Recent studies have found the performance of commercial handheld detectors with automatic RIID software to be less than acceptable. Previously, we have explored approaches rooted in speech processing such as cepstral features and information-theoretic measures. Scientific advances are often made when researchers identify mathematical or physical commonalities between different fields and are able to apply mature techniques or algorithms developed in one field to another field which shares some of the same challenges. The authors of this paper have identified similarities between the unsolved problems faced in gamma-spectroscopy for automated radioisotope identification and the challenges of the much larger body of research in speech processing. Our research has led to a probabilistic framework for describing and solving radioisotope identification problems. Many heuristic approaches to classification in current use, including for radioisotope classification, make implicit probabilistic assumptions which are not clear to the users and, if stated explicitly, might not be considered desirable. Our framework leads to a classification approach with demonstrable improvements using standard feature sets on proof-of-concept simulated and field-collected data.

  7. Separation of radioisotopes from fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology development of radioisotope production from fuel reprocessing high level wastes in Radioisotope Production Division is described. To develop the separation method for partitioning as the waste management and production of useful radioisotopes, the separation of 90Sr, 137Cs and rare earth elements by solvent extraction and ion-exchange has been mainly studied. Ion-exchange resin and HDEHP as the extracting agents were irradiated with a 60Co radiation source to examine their radiation resistances; Both are satisfactory in this respect. Strontium-90 and 137Cs could be separated in 99% purity from a 10l waste solution (about 2 Ci) by ion-exchange using nitric acid as the only eluant. A system of solvent extraction and ion-exchange to treat large volume of the waste was constructed in trial, and its cold test was carried out. The results were satisfactory, with a few points for further improvement. The scheme as it is can be scaled up for an experiment with about 1 KCi of the waste. (auth.)

  8. Customer-to-customer roles and impacts in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates customer-to-customer roles and impacts in the context of service encounters. This topic is studied from two angles: customer interactions during group service encounters and customer perceptions post service encounters. The first angle is a focus on group service encounters that addresses the lack of research on customer-to-customer interactions that occur in customer-to-customer interaction-intensive contexts. These are contexts where the interactions between custome...

  9. Customers' evaluation of service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tsosa

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis on the aspect chosen will provide an understanding and expand more on the strategic thinking that impact on corporate image on quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty for customers with varying degrees of service expertise.

  10. Customer Relationship Management

    OpenAIRE

    Conf. univ. dr. Enache Elena; Asist. univ. drd. Marin Carmen; Conf. univ. dr. Vechiu Camelia

    2010-01-01

    The most significant changes in the practice of marketing during the last decade in the shift in emphasis from a transaction orientation to the customer relationship management (CRM). Customer relationship management is a strategy of organization to identifying the main desire of the customer and the behaviour commercial business, the beneficial use of information acquired in order to improve relations with these factors, with the objective of increasing customer satisfaction requirements.

  11. Bank Customers Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is A...

  12. Management of customer portfolio

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Molek; Dagmar Bednářová

    2003-01-01

    There is a very actual question for many firms and their managers becoming more and more important: “Which kind of customers have we got?” It means such activities as the solving of problems connected with e.g. the customer effectiveness, his credit score, or the customer portfolio. It is a business philosophy to manage the firm not as a sum of products and services, but as a customer portfolio, and successful managers are nowadays adopting this philosophy.

  13. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn;

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  14. Customer Satisfaction Survey for Business Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Kangasniemi, Ville

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is a customer satisfaction survey and it has been conducted for Kodin Terra Nokia hardware retail store, which is part of the SOK-service network of companies operating in the Pirkanmaa region. The purpose of this thesis was to find out how satisfied the business customers are with the services and products of Kodin Terra Nokia and what could be done to increase the customer’s level of satisfaction. In addition the aim was also to find out how well the expectations of the customer...

  15. Customer loyalty building

    OpenAIRE

    Nováková, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the customer loyalty. It gives an example of CRM project which aims to build the loyalty of customers to some brand or product so the customer would return to the company and would be satisfied with all products and services he get.

  16. Feasibility study of the correlation of lifetime health and mortality experience of AEC and AEC Contractor employees with occupational radiation exposure. Progress report No. 3, June 1, 1966-May 31, 1967

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, T.F.; Sanders, B.S.; Brodsky, A.

    1967-01-01

    The objective of this 5-year project is to assess the feasibility of using personnel, employment, medical, and radiation records in establishing the relationships between mortality patterns and levels of radiation exposure. The following AEC Contractor facilities were selected for the test runs: the three Oak Ridge facilities, Hanford, and several small feed materials plants. During this project year, the recording of personal data on Oak Ridge employees and feed materials centers will be intensified, other phases of the project will be continued, and the searching for deaths through the Social Security Administration will begin. (PCS)

  17. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  18. Radioisotope techniques for problem-solving on refineries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasingly, refineries worldwide are recognizing the value of radioisotope technology in studying the operation of on-line plant. Using case studies, this paper illustrates the versatility of radioisotope techniques in a wide range of investigations: the density-profiling of distillation columns; the investigation of leaks on feed/effluent exchangers; on-line flowrate measurement; underground leakage detection. The economic benefits deriving from radioisotope applications are indicated

  19. Regulation, customer protection and customer engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Littlechild, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The UK utility regulation framework developed in the 1980s was intended to improve on the restrictive, inefficient and burdensome regulatory approach in the US. But the UK regulatory process has itself now become increasingly burdensome. Meanwhile, utilities and customer groups in the US and Canada have developed methods of negotiating and settling regulatory issues that more directly reflect the interests of customers, often embody incentive price caps as in the UK, and avoid unduly burdenso...

  20. Building online customer relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Baranov, A.

    2012-01-01

    Those companies who manage to retain their valuable clients for a long period of time are much more successful in terms of money gains, than those companies that are focusing only on customer acquisition. New customer acquisition requires a large amount of money for using the proper online marketing tools. As a lot of studies have shown, it costs much more money to gain a new customer, than to retain the already gained customers. To find the best tools for online customer retention, companies...

  1. Is Mass Customization Sustainable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn; Nielsen, Kjeld;

    2011-01-01

    Mass customizers are like other companies currently experiencing an increasing customer demand for environmentally sustainable products as well as an increasingly strict legislation regarding environmental sustainability. This paper addresses the issue whether the concepts mass customization...... and sustainability are fundamentally compatible by asking the question: can a mass customized product be sustainable? Several factors could indicate that mass customized products are less sustainable than standardized products; however other factors suggest the opposite. This paper explores these factors during...... three life cycle phases for a product: Production, Use and End of Life. It is concluded that there is not an unambiguous causal relationship between mass customization and sustainability; however several factors unique to mass customized products are essential to consider during product and process...

  2. Efficient, Long-Lived Radioisotope Power Generator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc., (RMD) proposes to develop an alternative very long term, radioisotope power source with thermoelectric power conversion with...

  3. Technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technical and economical availability of radioisotopes production in Brazil by a low power research reactor, are done. The importance of radioisotope utilization and controled radiations, in areas such as medicine, industry and cost evaluation for the production in nuclear reactors. In the cost evaluation of a radioisotope production reactor, the studies developed by the Department of Nuclear Engineering of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - DEN/UFMG were used. The information analysis justify the technical and economical availability and the necessity of the radioisotopes production in Brazil. (E.G.)

  4. Markets for reactor-produced non-fission radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current market segments for reactor produced radioisotopes are developed and reported from a review of current literature. Specific radioisotopes studied in is report are the primarily selected from those with major medical or industrial markets, or those expected to have strongly emerging markets. Relative market sizes are indicated. Special emphasis is given to those radioisotopes that are best matched to production in high flux reactors such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory or the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A general bibliography of medical and industrial radioisotope applications, trends, and historical notes is included

  5. Vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramics for immobilization of radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagh, Arun S.

    2016-04-05

    A method of immobilizing a radioisotope and vitrified chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) articles formed by the method are described. The method comprises combining a radioisotope-containing material, MgO, a source of phosphate, and optionally, a reducing agent, in water at a temperature of less than 100.degree. C. to form a slurry; curing the slurry to form a solid intermediate CBPC article comprising the radioisotope therefrom; comminuting the intermediate CBPC article, mixing the comminuted material with glass frits, and heating the mixture at a temperature in the range of about 900 to about 1500.degree. C. to form a vitrified CBPC article comprising the radioisotope immobilized therein.

  6. The law concerning prevention from radiation hazards due to radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The law regulates uses, sales and disposal of radioisotopes, uses of radiation generating apparatuses, disposal of materials contaminated with radioisotopes, and so on, in accordance with the Atomic Energy Fundamental Act, for public safety. Covered are the following: permission for and notification of the uses and permission for businesses selling and disposing of radioisotopes, and approval of designs concerning radiation hazard prevention mechanisms, obligations of the users and business enterprises selling and disposing of radioisotopes, the licensed engineers of radiation, organs, etc. for confirmation of the mechanisms, punitive provisions, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  7. Production and application of radioisotopes in Asian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Production and application of radioisotopes in some Asian countries including Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam are introduced

  8. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS...

  9. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of ω-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes

  10. Development of radioisotope preparation and application technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Hyon Soo; Park, K. B.; Bang, H. S. [and others

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utility 'HANARO' and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The developed contents and results are as follows: two types of rig for irradiation in reactor core were designed and manufactured. The safety of OR rig during irradiation was identified through various test and it is used for RI production. The prepared IR rig will be used to performance tests for safety. We prepared two welders and welding jigs for production of sealed sources, and equipments for quality control of the welded materials. Production processes and apparatus Cr-51, P-32, I-125 and Sr-89, were developed. Developed results would be used for routine production and supply of radioisotopes. The automatic Tc-99m extraction apparatus was supplied to Libya under IAEA support. For approval on special form radioactive material of the developed Ir-192 source assembly and projector documents were prepared and submitted to MOST. The high dose rate Ir-192 source(diameter 1.1 mm, length 5.2 mm) for RALS and the laser welding system for its fabrication were developed. Production technologies of Ir-192 sources for destructive test and medical therapy were transferred to private company for commercial supply. The chemical immobilization method based on the self-assemble monolayer of {omega}-functionalized thiol and the sensing scheme based on the beta-emitter labeling method were developed for the fabrication radioimmuno-sensors. Results of this study will be applied to mass production of radioisotopes 'HANARO' and are to contribute the advance of domestic medicine and industry related to radioisotopes.

  11. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Van So [Radioisotope Dept., Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat (Viet Nam)

    1998-10-01

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of {sup 131}I, {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc, {sup 32}P, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 153}Sm, {sup 46}Sc, {sup 192}Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 131}I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for {sup 99m}Tc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of {sup 131}I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of {sup 99m}Tc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for {sup 99m}Tc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable {sup 99m}Tc generator using Zr-({sup 99}Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for {sup 99m}Tc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for {sup 99}Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of {sup 99m}Tc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP, {sup 131}I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  12. The uses of radioisotope gauges in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope gauge consists basically of a sealed radioisotope source of radiation, a detector, and an electronic indicating unit for visually displaying the detector output. The degree of absorption or scattering of the radiation by a material, as measured with the detector, is used to measure properties such as thickness, density, composition and level; the different instruments being named after the property being determined, e.g. thickness gauge or level gauge. Depending on whether the source and detector are on the same or opposite sides of the material, the instruments are known as backscatter or transmission instruments respectively. They are further classified according to the type of radiation used, e. g. beta transmission thickness gauge or gamma backscattering density gauge. The physical properties which can be determined are: (a) Thickness, or mass per unit area, of homogeneous sheet materials such as aluminium or steel or of heterogeneous materials of constant composition such as paper or plastic; (b) Coating thickness, such as paper or textiles coated with rubber, plastic or abrasives; (c) Plating thickness, such as tin on steel; (d) Density of materials of constant thickness, such as liquids or slurries in a pipe, or of tobacco, in cigarettes; (e) Levels of solids or fluids in containers; (f) Elemental composition of certain materials; (g) Density of materials in large bulk, such as concrete, soil or rock strata. In addition to the above, the instruments are also used for such varied purposes as pressure gauges, flowmeters, torquemeters and as position indicators. Radioisotopes became available in quantity around 1947 from nuclear reactors and the first beta transmission thickness gauges were installed on paper mills about 1949

  13. Recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a report on the recent progress in radioisotope production in Vietnam. Using a nuclear research reactor of 500 KW with continuous operation cycles of 100 hours a month, the production of some important radioisotopes used in nuclear medicine and research was routinely carried out. More than 80 per cent of irradiation capacity of reactor for radioisotope production were exploited. The radioactivity of more than 150 Ci of 131I, 99Mo-99mTc, 32P, 51Cr, 153Sm, 46Sc, 192Ir was produced annually. Radiopharmaceuticals such as 131I-Hippuran and in-vivo Kits for 99mTc labelling were also prepared routinely and regularly. More than 10 in-vivo Kits including modern radiopharmaceuticals such as HmPAO kit were supplied to hospitals in Vietnam. The research on the improvement of dry distillation technology for production of 131I was carried out. As a result obtained a new distillation apparatus made from glass was successfully put to routine use in place of expensive quartz distillation furnace. We have also continued the research programme on the development of 99mTc generators using low power research reactors. Gel technology using Zr- and Ti- molybdate gel columns for 99mTc generator production was developed and improved continually. Portable 99mTc generator using Zr-(99Mo) molybdate gel column and ZISORB adsorbent column for 99mTc concentration were developed. The ZISORB adsorbent of high adsorption capacity for 99Mo and other parent radionuclides was also studied for the development purpose of alternative technology of 99mTc and other different radionuclide generator systems. The studies on the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals labelling with 153Sm and 131I such as 153Sm-EDTMP, 131I-MIBG were carried out. (author)

  14. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  15. Self-reliance politics in radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Energetic and Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN), owned by National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), is a non-profit government institution that produces on a national scale more than 18 radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. These radiopharmaceuticals are used in the diagnosis and treatment of more than 1.5 million people in Brazil. This level of production was achieved through the creation of new technologies and automation solutions, because of the difficulty and cost on importation of raw materials and labeling compounds ready for use. In Brazil, only CNEN has authorization to import, manipulate and distribute radiopharmaceuticals. Therefore, the quality of those radioisotopes must comply with international specifications and regulations. Much research and 40 years of improvements has won IPEN international approval for the radiopharmaceuticals that it produces, and quality standards and specifications are today as good as in any other developed country. IPEN has even developed a few solutions in radioisotope production for others countries, such as Cuba and soon Peru. The first step towards self-production was the acquisition of a cyclotron (Cyclone-30) and the improvement of the reactor power from 2 MW to 5 MW. Many technical visits were made to radiopharmaceutical institutions around the world with the purpose of bringing self-reliance and self-development solutions to IPEN. The international radiopharmaceutical community has always contributed to this effort, and only with their help our self-development and self-reliance could be possible. IPEN has ISO 9001-2000 certification and has made efforts to improve the installations in order to achieve Good Manufacturing Practice. Every effort we make today has the goal of making radiopharmaceuticals available for therapy at the most competitive price possible for our institution. (author)

  16. Experience on radioisotope waste management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kil Jeong; Ju, Jun Sik; Kim, Chong Hyun; Lee, Byung Jik; Park, Hun Hwee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-01

    The number of institutions using radioisotopes (RI) is almost 800 in total and among them RI waste is generated from 496 institutions, mainly hospitals. The amount of waste to be collected is estimated to be about 800 drums per year. Waste storage and treatment facility are scheduled to be constructed within 1991 through the licensing procedure. Treatment equipment for compaction and solidification are designed and manufactured by the domestic technology. Other related equipment such as drums for collection and transportation vehicle are prepared. RI wastes from hospitals and research institutions have been collected on a trial basis since Aug. 28, 1990.

  17. Medical Radioisotope Data Survey: 2002 Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, Edward R.

    2004-06-23

    A limited, but accurate amount of detailed information about the radioactive isotopes used in the U.S. for medical procedures was collected from a local hospital and from a recent report on the U.S. Radiopharmaceutical Markets. These data included the total number of procedures, the specific types of procedures, the specific radioisotopes used in these procedures, and the dosage administered per procedure. The information from these sources was compiled, assessed, pruned, and then merged into a single, comprehensive and consistent set of results presented in this report. (PIET-43471-TM-197)

  18. Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transport Trailer System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System system 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the US Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, Code of federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware

  19. Experience on radioisotope waste management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of institutions using radioisotopes (RI) is almost 800 in total and among them RI waste is generated from 496 institutions, mainly hospitals. The amount of waste to be collected is estimated to be about 800 drums per year. Waste storage and treatment facility are scheduled to be constructed within 1991 through the licensing procedure. Treatment equipment for compaction and solidification are designed and manufactured by the domestic technology. Other related equipment such as drums for collection and transportation vehicle are prepared. RI wastes from hospitals and research institutions have been collected on a trial basis since Aug. 28, 1990

  20. Radioisotope hepatography in patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination carried out by means of radioisotope hepatography with bengal-rose-iodine 131 in 69 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis associated with respiratory insufficiency of grades 1, 2, 3 at the phase of remission revealed disturbances of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver. A direct dependence was found between the intensity of disorder of the functionsl state of parenchymatous cells and degree of resperatory insufficiency in this category of patients. The disorders of the absorptive-excretory function of the liver were most pronounced in respiratory insufficiency of grade 3

  1. Industrial radioisotope economics. Findings of the study group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within twenty years of the availability of radioisotopes in quantity the use of these as tracers has been widely applied in scientific research and in industrial process and product control. Industry spends millions of dollars on these new techniques. Since the overall attitude of industry is to favour methods that involve rapid financial returns the economic benefits must be considerable. In promoting the peaceful uses of atomic energy, the IAEA is actively interested in the international exchange of experience in all applications of radioisotopes. This has been demonstrated by a number of scientific conferences where new results of direct importance to the industrial use of radioisotopes have been presented. In 1963 the IAEA also published literature survey on radioisotope applications described in the scientific literature up to 1960, classified according to industry. However, the available scientific literature was found insufficient to determine the extent of the use of radioisotopes and the economic benefits derived from it. Therefore, further fact-finding efforts were necessary. The IAEA thus decided to carry out an International Survey on the Use of Radioisotopes in Industry. In 1962 the IAEA's highly industrialized Member States Were invited to participate in the Survey; 25 declared their willingness to do so and in due course submitted their national reports. These included information on how radioisotopes were used by industry in each country and indicated the size and form of the economic advantages, primarily in terms of savings made by industry. The findings from the Survey were discussed at a Study Group Meeting on Radioisotope Economics, held in Vienna in March 1964. Forty participants from 22 countries were nominated for this Study Group. The program of the meeting was divided in three parts: (1) experience of the International Survey on the use of radioisotopes in industry; (2) present use of radioisotopes, technical and economic aspects; (3

  2. Case report: unusual dental morphology in a child with ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, K

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Anomalies of dental anatomy are common in the ectodermal dysplasia syndromes. These anomalies, when found in combination with dental caries, can pose a restorative challenge for the paediatric dentist. Modification of traditional techniques and approaches may help the practitioner provide a successful treatment outcome. CASE REPORT: A 3 years and 11 months old girl with a diagnosis of ankyloblepharon-ectodermal dysplasiacleft lip\\/palate (AEC) syndrome was referred for treatment to a specialist paediatric dental service. Her abnormal dental anatomy, hypodontia and dental caries formed a triad of challenges for the team. Under general anaesthesia, her dentition was restored using a combination of restorative approaches and techniques, including the placement of both composite resin and preformed metal crown restorations. FOLLOW-UP: At 18-month followup, the family had successfully implemented good home care and dietary practices, and the local dental service had instituted a preventive programme consisting of regular examination, advice and fluoride varnish placement. The restorations remained intact and no further caries was detected. At 24-month follow-up, the first permanent molars were partially erupted, and displayed unusually deep fissures. There was also a degree of ectopic eruption of the first permanent molars, and possibly of one of the maxillary permanent incisors. CONCLUSION: Dental care for children with AEC syndrome is optimised by early intervention, good home care and regular professional review. Dental care providers should be aware of the possibility of complex dental anatomy, and bear this in mind should it become necessary to formulate a restorative treatment plan.

  3. Radioisotopes in the training of medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the discovery of radioisotopes for the progress of science in general and that of biochemistry and physiology in particular has led us to provide experimental practice which enables medical students to become effectively acquainted with the properties and methods of use of radioisotopes, the measurement of their activity, and the possible risks involved in handling them. We have included in the exercises in quantitative determination for third-year medical students (the last pre-clinical year), practice in calibrating micropipettes using a 24Na solution prepared in the TRICO Centre's reactor by irradiating sodium carbonate with slow neutrons. The students make several GM-counter measurements of the activity of the stock solution over a period of time and of the activity of five samples taken with two different micropipettes. They then calculate, by measuring the decay in activity, the half-life of the isotope and relate their measurements to a reference time. In this way they calculate the volume of their micropipettes and the accuracy of the measurements. By means of a statistical analysis they compare the averages for the two pipettes and the accuracy of two operators. (author)

  4. Rhenium Radioisotopes for Therapeutic Radiopharmaceutical Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beets, A.L.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.-Y.; Pinkert, J.; Wang, S.-Y.

    1999-01-18

    The availability of therapeutic radioisotopes at reasonable costs is important for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology, Rhenium-186 (Re-186) and rhenium-1 88 (Re-188) are two reactor-produced radioisotope which are attractive for a variety of therapeutic applications, Rhenium-186 has a half-life of 90 hours and decays with emission of a &particle with a maximum energy of 1.08 MeV and a 135 keV (9Yo) gamma which permits imaging. In contrast, Re- 188 has a much shorter half-life of 16.9 hours and emits a p-particle with a much higher energy of 2.12 MeV (Em=) and a 155 keV gamma photon (15Yo) for imaging. While Re-186 is unavailable from a generator system and must be directly produced in a nuclear reactor, Re-188 can also be directly produced in a reactor with high specific activity, but is more conveniently and cost-effectively available as carrier-free sodium perrhenate by saline elution of the alumina-based tungsten-188 (W1 88)/Re-l 88 generator system [1-2]. Since a comprehensive overviewofRe-186 and Re-188 therapeutic agents is beyond the scope of this &tended Abstrac4 the goal is to provide key examples of various agents currently in clinical use and those which are being developed for important clinical applications.

  5. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Medical Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains information necessary to medical officers concerned with the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the medical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  6. Renal function studies with radioisotopes: an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radioisotopes in renal disorders has grown out of the development of scintillation detectors and gamma cameras and the availability of appropriate radioactive pharmaceuticals. It is now time to approach these studies from a different point of view. What further information would the practising nephrologist or urologist, physician or surgeon like to know about patients' kidney function that is not easily obtainable by non-radioactive methods. He would like a simple and reliable measurement of individual renal function; a test to demonstrate the presence or absence of obstruction in a patient with oliguria or uraemia; some help as to whether nephrectomy or a more difficult restorative operation is better for the patient with hydronephrosis, calculus or renal artery stenosis; a measure of the degree to which an obstructive uropathy is causing an obstructive nephropathy; clarification of which kidney to operate upon first when bilateral obstructive nephropathy presents with uraemia; a quantitative index of the progress following an operation to relieve an outflow system disorder; a screening procedure for renal disorders in the hypertensive and other populations; a prognostic guide to the likely evolution of glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, a prediction of the onset of rejection in the renal transplant, particularly in the presence of acute tubular necrosis. This review attempts to define the extent to which renal function studies with radioisotopes meet or fail to meet these needs and to indicate areas for potential development. (author)

  7. Medical research with radioisotopes in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important program of research into the nature and causes of congenital haemolytic anaemias, notably the disease known as Mediterranean anaemia or Thalassaemia, which is a serious medical problem in the Mediterranean countries, is at present being carried out in the Department of Clinical Therapeutics of the University of Athens under a research contract awarded by the International Atomic Energy Agency. This program is concerned with diseases in which there is an inherited defect or abnormality in the production of haemoglobin, the iron-containing pigment of the red blood cells which is responsible for the carriage of oxygen in the blood. Two techniques have been widely used in the studies at the University of Athens. In the first of these, a radioisotope of iron, iron-59, is used to follow iron metabolism and haemoglobin production. Iron metabolism in the body is concerned largely with the synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobin, which consists of a protein, globin, linked to an iron containing substance, haeme. The second technique makes use of a radioisotope of chromium, chromium-51, to study the fate of the red cells in the blood. By performing simultaneous studies with iron- 59 and chromium-51, a detailed picture of haemoglobin synthesis and red cell production and destruction can be built up. Such investigations have been invaluable in establishing the characteristic patterns of different congenital haemolytic anaemias

  8. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas

  9. Induced radioisotopes in a linac treatment hall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When linacs operate above 8 MV an undesirable neutron field is produced whose spectrum has three main components: the direct spectrum due to those neutrons leaking out from the linac head, the scattered spectrum due to neutrons produced in the head that collides with the nuclei in the head losing energy and the third spectrum due to room-return effect. The third category of spectrum has mainly epithermal and thermal neutrons being constant at any location in the treatment hall. These neutrons induce activation in the linac components, the concrete walls and in the patient body. Here the induced radioisotopes have been identified in concrete samples located in the hall and in one of the wedges. The identification has been carried out using a gamma-ray spectrometer. - Highlights: • Portland cement samples were located inside a treatment hall with a 15 MV linac. • Induced radioisotopes were measured with a NaI(Tl) γ-ray spectrometer. • 56Mn, 24Na, and 28Al were identified and the specific activity was estimated. • In a wedge, 56Mn was induced by the photoneutrons

  10. Preparing for Harvesting Radioisotopes from FRIB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peaslee, Graham F. [Hope College, Holland, MI (United States); Lapi, Suzanne E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2015-02-02

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is the next generation accelerator facility under construction at Michigan State University. FRIB will produce a wide variety of rare isotopes by a process called projectile fragmentation for a broad range of new experiments when it comes online in 2020. The accelerated rare isotope beams produced in this facility will be more intense than any current facility in the world - in many cases by more than 1000-fold. These beams will be available to the primary users of FRIB in order to do exciting new fundamental research with accelerated heavy ions. In the standard mode of operation, this will mean one radioisotope will be selected at a time for the user. However, the projectile fragmentation process also yields hundreds of other radioisotopes at these bombarding energies, and many of these rare isotopes are long-lived and could have practical applications in medicine, national security or the environment. This project developed new methods to collect these long-lived rare isotopes that are by-products of the standard FRIB operation. These isotopes are important to many areas of research, thus this project will have a broad impact in several scientific areas including medicine, environment and homeland security.

  11. A Hydraulic Transfer System for Producing Radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Joonho; Lee, Sangjin; Lee, Chungyoung; Lee, Jongmin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Research reactors are constructed mainly for producing radioisotopes, neutron beams and neutron irradiation research and so on. The research reactors generally have two separate area; one is the reactor area and the other is the radioisotopes (RI) production area. After various irradiation objects are irradiated in the reactor located in the reactor area, they are transferred to the RI production building for post-processing. The Hydraulic Transfer System (HTS) is one of RI production and utilization facilities of a research reactor. The HTS is for irradiating targets in the reactor core, and targets are transferred through pipes by hydraulic force. A similar system can be seen in other research reactor such as FRM II, JMTR, HFIR, etc. There are two parallel open-loops used to irradiate targets, and the HTS will circulate pool water to load/unload targets into/from the irradiation tubes and cool targets during irradiation. This paper contains the introduction and operation of the HTS. The HTS permits instantaneous irradiation activity during the reactor operation. It contributes to the RI production and utilization for public welfare, industrial applications and research areas.

  12. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. Health Physics Addendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency published in 1958 a Manual entitled ''Safe Handling of Radioisotopes'' (Safety Series No. 1 - STI/PUB/1), based on the work of an international panel convened by the Agency. As recommended by that panel and approved by the Agency's Board of Governors, this Addendum has now been prepared, primarily as a supplement to the Manual. It contains technical information necessary for the implementation of the controls given in the Manual. In addition, it is intended to serve as a brief introduction to the technical problems encountered in radiological protection work and to the methods of resolving them. As in the case of the Manual itself, the information given in this Addendum is particularly relevant to the problems encountered by the small user of radioisotopes. Although the basic principles set forth in it apply to all work with radiation sources, the Addendum is not intended to serve as a radiological protection manual for use in reactor installations or large-scale nuclear industry, where more specialized techniques and information are required.

  13. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  14. Safety test of transport packages for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, has tested safety of type B(M), A and L packages according to the regulations of RI transportation. The type B(M) package weighing about 1800 kg. Used for transport of 192Ir(6540 Ci) and 32P(188 Ci) from reactors to the Radioisotope Production Laboratory, consists of a cylindrical plywood receptacle, aluminum honeycomb shock absorbers, steel framework and a 150 mm wall thickness drawer type lead container. Safety tests for type B(M) included 9 m high free drops in four postures, vertical, horizontal, corner and reverse, 1 m free drops on to an iron rod with in two postures, vertical and horizontal (the latter for punch test) and thermal test. The maximum acceleration in the punch test showed 735 G and in the 9 m drop test 2590 G. For thermal test of the whole package, a large muffle furnace was used. When the temperature of furnace reached 9200C, the package was inserted into it and heated for 30 min. During the test surface temperature of the lead container rose only by 19.10C. In 12.2 m free drop of type A and L package as safety test, 5 ml vials containing simulation RI solution retained their integrity without breakage. (author)

  15. Customer service revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R P

    2001-03-01

    Customer service requires a system, which includes, but is not limited to having pleasant staff members. It requires a systemized approach to every patient every day. The steps of customer service are as integral to the success of the practice as are those of scheduling and case presentation. Customer service is a unique opportunity to differentiate a practice, justify the value for fees, and satisfy almost every patient. PMID:11913255

  16. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention. PMID:17345685

  17. Customs duty or duty ?

    OpenAIRE

    Iacob, Constanta; Zaharia, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The topicality of the study “The concept of a customs debt” is useful to the substantiation of customs policy as a component of commercial community policy and of domestic fiscal policy, so that the customs tax should provide the three functions: fiscal, protectionist and negotiation. The efficiency and transparency of implementation could be partially compromised by the current artificial legislative parallelism maintained between the directly applicable Romanian and community legislations. ...

  18. Production of Short-Lived Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the current literature and a bibliography given. Selected references are cited and comment made on the general techniques currently employed by short-lived radioisotope producers. A distinction is drawn between the large centrally-local high flux reactors and local reactors for producing short-lived radioisotopes; the complementary role of the two is pointed out as, for example, the need for obtaining very high specific activities in special off-site reactors or the need for high-speed transfers and fast processing in local reactors. The equipment and procedures used for irradiating target materials to produce short-lived radioisotopes in the three routinely-operated ORNL reactors are described, as well as those for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) now under construction at ORNL, which will have a maximum flux of 5 x 1015 n/cm2s. The use of the HFIR will permit production of certain short-lived radioisotopes of unprecedented specific activity. Techniques that have been developed for irradiating samples in various kinds of reactors ranging from the 1012n/cm2 s air-cooled, graphite reactor to the high flux (1014 - 1016) water-cooled, enriched uranium reactors are described. The requirements for sample irradiations in the various kinds of reactors, such as material, method of sealing, handling, method of heat removal, and kinds of sample materials, are discussed. Pneumatic transfer tubes are used for irradiations where cooling requirements are not great and fast transfer is desired. Hydraulic tubes are used for irradiation of samples with greater heat generation, although the speed of transfer is not as great as with the pneumatic tubes. The advantages in using enriched target materials in certain cases are pointed out and several illustrations are given. In some cases, where die target nuclide occurs in low abundance, such as Ca46 in calcium (0.003%), great advantage can be obtained by using enriched target materials. This may be of importance

  19. Actual and future situations of the use of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is anticipated to medium term, an increase in the demand of the radioisotopes for medicine, industry and research, as well as the application of new radioisotopes derived from the development of new radiopharmaceuticals products for diagnosis and therapy applications. The personal and clinical dosimetry will have to be prepared for the new challenges. (Author)

  20. The use of radioisotope tracers in the metallurgical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotope techniques have been widely used in the metallurgical industries for many years. They have been shown to be very suitable for studying large scale plant and, in many cases, they are the most suitable techniques for such investigations. Applications of radioisotope tracers to some specific metallurgical problems are discussed. (author)

  1. Radioisotope-thermographic studies in patients with breast tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper provides an analysis of the results of concomitant radioisotope-thermographic studies of 152 patients with malignant and benign breast tumors. The efficacy of concomitant radioisotope- thermographic studies in breast tumor diagnosis was evaluated. The efficacy of chemo- and radiotherapy was also evaluated

  2. Utilization of material testing reactor for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In April 2000, JAEA (former JAERI) and CTC reached an agreement that we took over the radioisotope production from JAEA. We set up our facility in the Tokai Research and Development Center Nuclear Science Research Institute and started services. In this paper, we state present status of the production of radioisotopes in Japan and development activities in the future. (author)

  3. Guide to the safe handling of radioisotopes in hydrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopic tracers are frequently used in hydrological investigations. This manual provides recommendations on safety measures to be used in these investigations. The annexes provide lists of radioisotopic techniques that have been employed together with an indication of the quantities of isotopes used.

  4. Production and application of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals - status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given are the main data on the use of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medical applications. Shown are the methods for their routine production including the results obtained in the Laboratory for Radioisotopes (Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences). Particular emphasis is devoted to the trends in the development of the agents suitable for specific diagnostic or therapeutic applications. (author)

  5. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management, and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Feliks Anggia Binsar Kristian P.; Hotman Panjaitan

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty.Fast Food Restaurant KFC, always strive to continue to make improvement in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on customer satisfaction increase in customer loyalty. Being able to create customer loyalty is also necessary to have a good relationship, between the custome...

  6. Customization and Customer-Product Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2011-01-01

    , through the performance level and the experience level to the learning level at the top. This model has a dual view with customers/demand at one side and product/supplier at the other side. It is developed so that it can be generally applied and, typically, product designers must decide how far up in...... levels the customisation should aim. This paper sets special focus on the upper levels of customisation, especially the learning level, and it is shown that products with a large range of user-oriented functionalities often require much training to use and that customers on the other hand are sometimes...

  7. Customer Service Action Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Department of Health (Ireland)

    2003-01-01

    Customer Service Action Plan One of the fundamental themes of Delivering Better Government (1996) is the â?oachievement of an excellent service for the Government and for the public as customers and clients at all levelsâ?Âù. In 2000, the Quality Customer Service (QCS) Working Group reviewed and revised the 1997 Principles of Quality Customer Service to take account of changes in the environment since 1997, such as the equality agenda. In July 2000, the Government decided that: Click ...

  8. Assessment of radioisotope heaters for remote terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the feasibility of using radioisotope byproducts for special heating applications at remote sites in Alaska and other cold regions. The investigation included assessment of candidate radioisotope materials for heater applications, identification of the most promising cold region applications, evaluation of key technical issues and implementation constraints, and development of conceptual heater designs for candidate applications. Strontium-90 (Sr-90) was selected as the most viable fuel for radioisotopic heaters used in terrestrial applications. Opportunities for the application of radioisotopic heaters were determined through site visits to representative Alaska installations. Candidate heater applications included water storage tanks, sludge digesters, sewage lagoons, water piping systems, well-head pumping stations, emergency shelters, and fuel storage tank deicers. Radioisotopic heaters for water storage tank freeze-up protection and for enhancement of biological waste treatment processes at remote sites were selected as the most promising applications

  9. Medical Radioisotope Scanning, Vol. II. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20-24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  10. Medical Radioisotope Scanning. Vol. I. Proceedings of the Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medical applications of radioisotopes continue to grow in number and importance and medical centres in almost all countries of the world are now using radioactive materials both in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. An increasing proportion of these applications involves studies of the spatial distribution of radioactive material within the human body, for which purpose highly specialized scanning methods have been elaborated. By these methods it is possible to study the position, size and functional state of different organs, to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities and to obtain much useful information about regions of the body that are otherwise inaccessible, except by surgery. Progress in scanning methods in recent years has been very rapid and there have been many important advances in instrumentation and technique. The development of new forms of the gamma camera and of colour-scanning techniques are but two examples of recent improvements. The production of new radioisotopes and new labelled compounds has further extended the scope of these methods. To survey these new advances the International Atomic Energy Agency held a Symposium on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Athens from 20 - 24 April 1964. The scientific programme of the meeting covered all aspects of scanning methods including theoretical principles, instrumentation, techniques and clinical applications. The World Health Organization assisted in the selection of papers by providing a consultant to the selection committee. The meeting followed the earlier IAEA/WHO Seminar on Medical Radioisotope Scanning in Vienna in 1959, which was attended by 36 participants and at which 14 papers were presented. Some idea of the growth of interest in the subject may be gained from the fact that the Symposium was attended by 160 participants from 26 countries and 4 international organizations, and that 58 papers were presented. The published proceedings, comprising two volumes, contain all the

  11. Focusing on customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    This booklet is devoted to a consideration of how good customer service in family planning programs can generate demand for products and services, bring customers back, and reduce costs. Customer service is defined as increasing client satisfaction through continuous concern for client preferences, staff accountability to clients, and respect for the rights of clients. Issues discussed include the introduction of a customer service approach and gaining staff commitment. The experience of PROSALUD in Bolivia in recruiting appropriate staff, supervising staff, soliciting client feedback, and marketing services is offered as an example of a successful customer service approach. The key customer service functions are described as 1) establishing a welcoming atmosphere, 2) streamlining client flow, 3) personalizing client services, and 4) organizing and providing clear information to clients. The role of the manager in developing procedures is explored, and the COPE (Client-Oriented Provider-Efficient) process is presented as a good way to begin to make improvements. Techniques in staff training in customer service include brainstorming, role playing, using case studies (examples of which are provided), and engaging in practice sessions. Training also leads to the development of effective customer service attitudes, and the differences between these and organizational/staff-focused attitudes are illustrated in a chart. The use of communication skills (asking open-ended questions, helping clients express their concerns, engaging in active listening, and handling difficult situations) is considered. Good recovery skills are important when things go wrong. Gathering and using client feedback is the next topic considered. This involves identifying, recording, and discussing customer service issues as well as taking action on these issues and evaluating the results. The booklet ends by providing a sample of customer service indicators, considering the maintenance of a

  12. Integro-differential equation analysis and radioisotope imaging systems. Research proposal. [Testing of radioisotope imaging system in phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, H.

    1976-03-09

    Design modifications of a five-probe focusing collimator coincidence radioisotope scanning system are described. Clinical applications of the system were tested in phantoms using radioisotopes with short biological half-lives, including /sup 75/Se, /sup 192/Ir, /sup 43/K, /sup 130/I, and /sup 82/Br. Data processing methods are also described. (CH)

  13. Notification determining details of technical standards concerning transport of radioisotopes or goods contaminated by radioisotopes outside works or enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This rule is established under the provisions of the regulation for the execution of the law on the prevention of radiation injuries by radioisotopes. Terms are used in this rule for the same meanings as in the regulation. The concentration of radioisotopes to which the technical standards for transport outside enterprises are not applied is 0.002 micro-curie per gram. The radioisotopes which can be transported as L type transported goods are defined in detail, excluding explosive or spontaneously igniting radioisotopes. The quantity limit of radioisotopes which can be transported as A type transported goods is the values A1 and A2 defined in this rule. The permissible surface density defined by the Director General of the Science and Technology Agency are 1/100,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes emitting alpha-ray, and 1/10,000 micro-curie per cm2 for the radioisotopes which do not emit alpha-ray. The leak quantity of radioisotopes specified by the Director General is 1/1,000,000 of A2 value for BM type transported goods and 1/1,000 of A2 value for BU type goods. The test conditions for each type of transported goods, dangerous goods, the limit of the number of transported goods and signs are stipulated, respectively. Permissible exposure dose is 1.5 rem a year for persons other than radiation workers. (Okada, K.)

  14. Development of radioisotopes and radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to develop RI production technology utilizing HANARO and to construct a sound infra-structure for mass production and supply to domestic users. The Ir-192 NDT sources of more than 50 Ci, equivalent in activity, are now available in KAERI and covers more than 90 % of the nationwide demand. For the commercial supply of Ir-192 industrial source, we developed irradiation target for mass-production and automatic fabrication system. The developed IR-Rigs have been used in production of various radioisotope and radiation sources in IR 1, 2 and CT irradiation holes. A Loop-Batch system for the mass-production of I-125 has been developed and tested its reliability and safety.The separation of I-125 formed from irradiated xenon gas was performed by column chromatographic technique using platinum coated on copper(PCC) granules as an adsorbent. For the preparation of I-125 seed, the retention of iodine on a ceramic rod coated with silver nitrate as an iodine absorbent was studied. The production possibility of Sr-89 using 89Y(n,p) and 88Sr(n,γ) in HANARO has been estimated. A new distillation process for P-33 production has been developed and applied for production of P-32. The current status of W-188/Re-188 generator production technology were reviewed. Main interests were given to the aspects of W-188 reactor production, irradiated targets reprocessing and generator loading technologies, such as alumina type and gel type generators. To develop the Yb-169 radiographic sources for industrial NDT application, molding machine which can apply fabrications of small pellets with various size and shapes was designed and manufactured. Automatic welding system and assembly technologies for Co-60 source fabrication were developed. The developed HDR Ir-192 source was tested for application in Microselectron [32P] γ - ATP has been developed using [32P] phosphoric acid produced by KAERI. Calibration sources for correcting of energy and detection efficiency

  15. Managing Global Customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S. Yip (George)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractMultinational companies need to manage their relationships with multinational customers in a globally integrated approach. This paper provides a systematic framework for developing and implementing such global customer management programmes. The paper is based on Chapter 1 of George S. Y

  16. Analytics for Customer Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Block, Frank; Eisenbeiss, Maik; Hardie, Bruce G. S.; Lemmens, Aurelie; Saffert, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the state of the art of models for customer engagement and the problems that are inherent to calibrating and implementing these models. The authors first provide an overview of the data available for customer analytics and discuss recent developments. Next, the authors di

  17. Customer Relationship Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayerman, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents an approach increasingly employed by businesses to track and respond to their customers to provide better and faster services: customer relationship management. Discusses its applicability to the operations of higher education and institutional research and the role it plays in the knowledge management framework. (EV)

  18. REGIONAL CUSTOMS DIRECTORATES MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    CABA STEFAN; CAUS VASILE-AUREL

    2009-01-01

    The management of a regional customs directorate is analyzed. A new approach of the managerial system, in the European integration context, is presented. The customs system is one of the first “doors” to a new economic, social and cultural community. For

  19. Customs leaflet: December 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 "Customs leaflet" is intended for Olympic and Paralympic Family organisations and provides short practical insights on how to import and export various types of goods to and from Russia for organizing and staging the Sochi 2014 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. More detailed information is provided in the “Customs and freight forwarding guide.

  20. Managing customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paget, Zoe

    2015-02-28

    Zoe Paget is the customer services manager at YourVets. Her role includes managing the company's call centre, social media marketing, working with the marketing department to develop customer care initiatives and reporting service levels to the company's directors. PMID:25722341

  1. New customer services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Møller Andersen, Frits; Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa;

    2011-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the challenge of motivating energy service customers to make best use of available smart technologies. This can be done through economic incentives, but also through information and education, regulation and reorganisation, and by improving services or customer comfort...

  2. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  3. English Idioms and Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小乔

    2015-01-01

    Customs is a kind of social phenomenon. They are not the product of individuals but that of the collective in the society,which are affected by politics, economy, religion, literary art and so on and then affect those things in reverse. English idioms aregreatly influenced by English customs.

  4. Welfare and Customs Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Kowalczyk

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes that Viner's celebrated trade diversion and trade creation terminology for the customs union problem be abandoned. As the alternative is offered a welfare calculus based upon the terms-of-trade and volume-of-trade taxonomy from the theory of tariffs. The paper discusses, by application of this calculus, the two outstanding controversies in the theory of customs unions.

  5. Dimensions of Online Customer Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Enginkaya, Ebru; Esen, Emel

    2014-01-01

    Customer engagement is about emotional connection between businesses and customers, focusing on interaction with customers and customers’ value. The development of internet changes customers, extends options, changes the way consumers interact and communicate with companies. It is obvious that internet is a way to influence customers, building relationships with current and potential customers, provide after sales support. Engaging the customers is a primary driver of business success. The pu...

  6. SU-E-I-48: The Behavior of AEC in Scan Regions Outside the Localizer Radiograph FOV: An In Phantom Study of CT Systems From Four Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supanich, M [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Bevins, N [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: This review of scanners from 4 major manufacturers examines the clinical impact of performing CT scans that extend into areas of the body that were not acquired in the CT localizer radiograph. Methods: Anthropomorphic chest and abdomen phantoms were positioned together on the tables of CT scanners from 4 different vendors. All of the scanners offered an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) option with both lateral and axial tube current modulation. A localizer radiograph was taken covering the entire extent of both phantoms and then the scanner's Chest-Abdomen-Pelvis (CAP) study was performed with the clinical AEC settings employed and the scan and reconstruction range extending from the superior portion of the chest phantom through the inferior portion of the abdomen phantom. A new study was then initiated with a localizer radiograph extending the length of the chest phantom (not covering the abdomen phantom). The same CAP protocol and AEC settings were then used to scan and reconstruct the entire length of both phantoms. Scan parameters at specific locations in the abdomen phantom from both studies were investigated using the information contained in the DICOM metadata of the reconstructed images. Results: The AEC systems on all scanners utilized different tube current settings in the abdomen phantom for the scan completed without the full localizer radiograph. The AEC system behavior was also scanner dependent with the default manual tube current, the maximum tube current and the tube current at the last known position observed as outcomes. Conclusion: The behavior of the AEC systems of CT scanners in regions not covered by the localizer radiograph is vendor dependent. To ensure optimal image quality and radiation exposure it is important to include the entire planned scan region in the localizer radiograph.

  7. Radionuclides identified at a US Customs Service site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The movement of radionuclides through the U.S. Customs Service port of entry at Blaine, Washington, has been studied using a high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer and an automated data logging system. Data covering about 10 weeks of operation were obtained and analyzed. The data-acquisition system and the site of the measurement are described. Results are reported and interpreted in light of the known traffic of radioisotopes produced at the Canadian TRIUMF facility and imported into the United States for use in radiopharmaceuticals

  8. Delivering customer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Convergence of the energy industries began with customer's demands for the best energy choice and value. In a converged energy market customers buy year-round home comfort, rather than gas heat or electric air conditioning. Union Gas has been facilitating cogeneration development to its customers since the mid 1980's. A brief description of the corporate context of Union Gas and Centra Gas was provided. Convergence at the retail level was discussed in detail. The essence of converge at the retail level is that an energy service provider will tailor products and services to meet a customer's specific needs for choice, value and best prices. Consequently, a residential customer will have the choice to select an environmentally preferred fuel source for home comfort, plus billing options, merchandise and repair services, all for one price, and from one utility

  9. Customer Innovation Process Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Peter; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Goduscheit, René Chester

    2007-01-01

    Innovation leadership has traditionally been focused on leading the companies' product development fast, cost effectively and with an optimal performance driven by technological inventions or by customers´ needs. To improve the efficiency of the product development process focus has been on...... to handle shorter and faster product life cycles. Continuously changing customer needs are pushing companies' competence of continuous innovation to a maximum - but still this seems not to be enough to stay competitive on the global market and reach the goals of growth. This article therefore...... suggests another outlook to future innovation leadership - Customer Innovation Process Leadership - CIP-leadership. CIP-leadership moves the company's innovation process closer to the customer innovation process and discusses how companies can be involved and innovate in customers' future needs and lead...

  10. Radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear medicine studies of the heart represent one of the fastest growing areas of research and clinical interest. Some years ago, nuclear medicine cardiac studies were limited to the evaluations of myocardial infraction. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals chemistry and instrumentation have made possible advances in cardiovascular nuclear medicine. Techniques and Radiopharmaceuticals no exist for the imaging of viable myocardium and the determination of myocardial tissue metabolism, as well as radionuclide angiography to obtain quantitative information of cardiac output, mean transit times, cardiac volumes, and ejection fractions. This paper will firstly describe that anatomy and physiology of the heart as to relate to the radiopharmaceuticals which will be discussed, and will secondly explore various radiopharmaceuticals which have been used for various purposes in cardiac imaging, than will explore radioisotopes which have been proposed for myocardial treatment

  11. Radioisotope heaters for spacecraft life support systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future manned space flight requires the sanitary collection and disposal of biological wastes to minimize microbial contamination hazard. The recovery and reuse of water from such wastes are also necessary to reduce the weight of vehicles at launching and resupply logistics. The development and test of an engineering model, i.e. the completely integrated waste management-water system using radioisotopes for thermal energy, are described. This is capable of collecting and processing the wastes from four men during 180-day simulated space mission. The sub-systems include collection of feces, trash and urine, water reclamation, the storage, heating and dispensing of the water, and the disposal of feces, urine residue and other non-metallic waste material by incineration. (Mori, K.)

  12. Recent progress in development of radioisotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Byung Mok [HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-10-01

    The Korea multipurpose research reactor, HANARO(Hi-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor) is designed and constructed to obtain high density neutron flux (max. 5x10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}{center_dot}sec) with relatively low thermal output (30 MW) in order to utilize for various studies such as fuel and material test, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, neutron beam experiment, neutron transmutation doping, etc. HANARO has 32 vertical channels (3 in-core, 4 out-core, 25 reflector) and 7 horizontal channels. KAERI has constructed 4 concrete hot cells for production of Co-60, Ir-192, etc. and 6 lead hot cells for production of medical RIs(I-131, Mo-99, etc.). Other 11 lead hot cells will be completed by Feb. 1998 for production of Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, etc. Clean room facilities were installed for production of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. Radioisotope Power Systems Program: A Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program continues to plan, mature research in energy conversion, and partners with the Department of Energy (DOE) to make RPS ready and available to support the exploration of the solar system in environments where the use of conventional solar or chemical power generation is impractical or impossible to meet potential future mission needs. Recent programs responsibilities include providing investment recommendations to NASA stakeholders on emerging thermoelectric and Stirling energy conversion technologies and insight on NASA investments at DOE in readying a generator for the Mars 2020 mission. This presentation provides an overview of the RPS Program content and status and the approach used to maintain the readiness of RPS to support potential future NASA missions.

  14. Current status of radio-isotopes utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilization of radioisotopes were reviewed briefly in a categorized manner. In plant biochemistry, long lived radioactive carbon ,14C, was applied to clarify such metabolic processes as photosynthesis, respiration and protein synthesis, etc., while radioactive oxygen ,18O, was used to study the O2 generation mechanism. Radioactive phosphorus ,32P, was used to detect the amount, grain size of phosphatic fertilizer as well as the time and depth for better utilization. Radioactive sulphur ,35S, and nitrogen ,15N, could be of use in studies of protein metabolism in plants. Radioactive tracers of other minerals such as N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Mo, B, and Co were also used to detect their specific role in plants. Use of radioactive isotopes in protein synthesis and transfer of genetic information was described. Radioactive iodine ,131I, binding capacity of milk proteins, and radio trace studies in the iodine turn over in the use of radioactive iodine were summarized. (Mukohata, S.)

  15. Radioisotope Power System Facility shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of calculations for the Radioisotope Power System Facility have been performed. These analyses have determined the shielding required for storage, testing, and transport of 238Pu heat source modules using the Monte Carlo code MCNP3B. The source terms and the assumptions used have been verified by comparison of calculated dose rates with measured ones. This paper describes the methodology used for shielding designs and the utilization of available variance reduction techniques to improve the computational efficiency. The new version of MCNP (MCNP3B) with a repeated structure capability was used. It decreased the chance for computer model errors and greatly decreased the model setup time. 2 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Microbiological quality control practices at Australian Radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a domestic manufacturer of therapeutic substances, Australian Radioisotopes (ARI) must adhere to guidelines set out by the Commonwealth Department of Health in the Code of Good Manufacturing Practices for Therapeutic Goods 1983 (GMP). The GMP gives guidelines for staff training, building requirements, sanitation, documentation and quality control practices. These guidelines form the basis for regular audits performed by officers of the National Biological Standards Laboratories. At Lucas Heights, ARI has combined the principles of the GMP with the overriding precautions introduced for environmental and staff safety and protection. Its policy is to maintain a high level of quality assurance for product identity, purity and sterility and apyrogenicity during all stages of product manufacture

  17. Energy Recovery Linacs for Commercial Radioisotope Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy, Amy [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Krafft, Geoffrey A. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA; Johnson, Rolland [Muons, Inc., Batavia, IL; Roberts, Tom; Boulware, Chase; Hollister, Jerry

    2015-09-01

    Photonuclear reactions with bremsstrahlung photon beams from electron linacs can generate radioisotopes of critical interest. An SRF Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) provides a path to a more diverse and reliable domestic supply of short-lived, high-value, high-demand isotopes in a more compact footprint and at a lower cost than those produced by conventional reactor or ion accelerator methods. Use of an ERL enables increased energy efficiency of the complex through energy recovery of the waste electron beam, high electron currents for high production yields, and reduced neutron production and shielding activation at beam dump components. Simulation studies using G4Beamline/GEANT4 and MCNP6 through MuSim, as well as other simulation codes, will design an ERL-based isotope production facility utilizing bremsstrahlung photon beams from an electron linac. Balancing the isotope production parameters versus energy recovery requirements will inform a choice of isotope production target for future experiments.

  18. Emerging applications of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the domain of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals has been very noteworthy over the past decade and played a major role in enhancing the Nuclear Medicine practice. A number of them have been employed in the day to day clinical practice and have benefited a large number of patients. For the purpose of systematic discussion, we shall classify into two major heads A. Recent advances in clinical applications of traditional radiotracers. B. Newer Radiopharmaceuticals and their applications. The latter could be further subdivided in to the following: (a) Diagnostic (includes i. PET radiopharmaceuticals and ii. Non-PET radiopharmaceuticals for conventional gamma camera imaging) and (b) Therapeutic advances. In the present communication, we shall explore the major developments emphasizing the country perspective

  19. Performance tuned radioisotope thermophotovoltaic space power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trend in space exploration is to use many small, low-cost, special-purpose satellites instead of the large, high-cost, multipurpose satellites used in the past. As a result of this new trend, there is a need for lightweight, efficient, and compact radioisotope fueled electrical power generators. This paper presents an improved design for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) space power system in the 10 W to 20 W class which promises up to 37.6 watts at 30.1% efficiency and 25 W/kg specific power. The RTPV power system concept has been studied and compared to radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) radioisotope, Stirling generators and alkali metal thermal electric conversion (AMTEC) generators (Schock, 1995). The studies indicate that RTPV has the potential to be the lightest weight, most efficient and most reliable of the three concepts. However, in spite of the efficiency and light weight, the size of the thermal radiator required to eliminate excess heat from the PV cells and the lack of actual system operational performance data are perceived as obstacles to RTPV acceptance for space applications. Between 1994 and 1997 EDTEK optimized the key converter components for an RTPV generator under Department of Energy (DOE) funding administered via subcontracts to Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) and EG ampersand G Mound Applied Technologies Laboratory (Horne, 1995). The optimized components included a resonant micromesh infrared bandpass filter, low-bandgap GaSb PV cells and cell arrays. Parametric data from these components were supplied to OSC who developed and analyzed the performance of 100 W, 20 W, and 10 W RTPV generators. These designs are described in references (Schock 1994, 1995 and 1996). Since the performance of each class of supply was roughly equivalent and simply scaled with size, this paper will consider the OSC 20 W design as a baseline. The baseline 20-W RTPV design was developed by Schock, et al of OSC and has been presented

  20. Recent developments in radiation equipment and radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of the technology of the uses of radiation equipment and radioisotopes, in which field Canada has long been a world leader. AECL Commercial Products has pioneered many of the most important applications. The development and sale of Co-60 radiation teletherapy units for cancer treatment is a familiar example of such an application and Commercial Products dominates the world market. Another such example is the marketing of Mo-99, which is produced in the NRX and NRU reactors at Chalk River, and from which the short-lived daughter Tc-99 is eluted as required for use in in-vivo diagnosis. New products coming into use for this purpose include Tl-201, I-123, Ga-67 and In-111, all produced in the TRIUMF cyclotron in Vancouver, while I-125 continues to be in demand for in-vitro radioimmunoassays. Radioisotopes continue to play an important part in manufacturing, where their well-known uses include controlling thickness, contents, etc., in production, and industrial radiography. The application of large industrial irradiators for the sterilization of medical products is now a major world industry for which Commercial Products is the main manufacturer. Isotopes are also used in products such as smoke detectors. Isotopes continue to find extensive use as tracers, both in industrial applications and in animal and plant biology studies. Some more recent uses include pest control by the Σsterile maleΣ technique and neutron activation and delayed neutron counting in uranium assay. The review concludes with an account of the development and prospects of AECL Commercial Products. (author)

  1. Status of the NASA Stirling Radioisotope Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Free-piston Stirling power conversion has been considered a candidate for radioisotope power systems for space for more than a decade. Prior to the free-piston Stirling architecture, systems were designed with kinematic Stirling engines that used linkages and rotary alternators to convert heat to electricity. These systems were able to achieve long life by lightly loading the linkages; however, the live was nonetheless limited. When the free-piston configuration was initially proposed, it was thought to be attractive due to the relatively high conversion efficiency, acceptable mass, and the potential for long life and high reliability based on wear-free operation. These features have consistently been recognized by teams that have studied technology options for radioisotope space power systems. Since free-piston Stirling power conversion was first considered for space power applications, there have been major advances in three general areas of development: hardware that has demonstrated long-life and reliability, the success achieved by Stirling cryocoolers in space, and the overall developmental maturity of the technology for both space and terrestrial applications. Based on these advances, free-piston Stirling convertors are currently being developed for space power, and for a number of terrestrial applications. They commonly operate with the power, efficiency, life, and reliability as intended, and much of the development now centers on system integration. This paper will summarize the accomplishments of free-piston Stirling power conversion technology over the past decade, review the status of development with regard to space power, and discuss the challenges that remain.

  2. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  3. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Alexander, C.W.

    1995-10-10

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 ({sup 252}Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, {sup 252}Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of {sup 252}Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the {sup 252}Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, {sup 252}Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of {sup 252}Cf from ORNL is summarized herein.

  4. Californium-252: a remarkable versatile radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A product of the nuclear age, Californium-252 (252Cf) has found many applications in medicine, scientific research, industry, and nuclear science education. Californium-252 is unique as a neutron source in that it provides a highly concentrated flux and extremely reliable neutron spectrum from a very small assembly. During the past 40 years, 252Cf has been applied with great success to cancer therapy, neutron radiography of objects ranging from flowers to entire aircraft, startup sources for nuclear reactors, fission activation for quality analysis of all commercial nuclear fuel, and many other beneficial uses, some of which are now ready for further growth. Californium-252 is produced in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and processed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC), both of which are located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The REDC/HFIR facility is virtually the sole supplier of 252Cf in the western world and is the major supplier worldwide. Extensive exploitation of this product was made possible through the 252Cf Market Evaluation Program, sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) [then the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and later the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)]. This program included training series, demonstration centers, seminars, and a liberal loan policy for fabricated sources. The Market Evaluation Program was instituted, in part, to determine if large-quantity production capability was required at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). Because of the nature of the product and the means by which it is produced, 252Cf can be produced only in government-owned facilities. It is evident at this time that the Oak Ridge research facility can meet present and projected near-term requirements. The production, shipment, and sales history of 252Cf from ORNL is summarized herein

  5. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  6. Development and application of industrial radioisotope instruments in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial radioisotope instruments are emerging as advanced monitoring, controlling and automation tools for industries in China. Especially the on-line analysis systems based on radioisotope instruments, referred to as nucleonic control systems (NCS), have more and more important role in the modernization and optimization of industrial processes. Over nearly four decades significant progress has been made in the development and application of radioisotope instruments in China. After a brief review of the history of radioisotope instruments, the state of the art of this kind of instruments and recent examples of their applications are given. Technical and economic benefits have resulted from the industrial applications of radioisotope instruments and the sales of products of their own in marketing. It is expected that along with the high speed growth of national economy, there will be greater demand for radioisotope instruments and nucleonic control systems in Chinese industry to promote the technological transformation and progress of traditional industries and to establish high-tech industries with technology-intensive products. Sustained efforts for the research and development of radioisotope instrument should be made to up-grade domestic instruments and to satisfy the needs of the smaller scale industries more common in China for low cost systems. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  7. Future radioisotope power needs for missions to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASA and DOE plan a cooperative team effort with industry, government laboratories and universities to develop a near term, low cost, low power (100 watt electric class), low mass (<10 kg), advanced radioisotope space power source (ARPS) and in the process reduce the plutonium-related costs as well. The near term is focused on developing an advanced energy converter to use with the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). The GPHS was developed and used for the current radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Advanced energy converter technologies are needed as a more efficient replacement for the existing thermoelectric converters so that the space radioisotope power source mass and cost can be reduced. a more advanced technology space radioisotope power system program is also planned that addresses a longer-term need. Twenty first century robotic scientific information missions to the outer planets and beyond are planned to be accomplished with microspacecraft which may demand safe, even more compact, lower-power, lower-mass radioisotope power sources than those which can be achieved as a result of the near term efforts. The longer-term program focuses not only on converter technology but also on lower power, more compact radioisotope heat source technology and smaller, lower mass radioisotope heater units for second generation microspacecraft. This more ambitious, longer time-horizon focus necessarily occurs at this time on the technology R and D level rather than at the system technology level

  8. Utilization of radioisotopes and irradiation in crop protection research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a growing realization of the benefits which may be derived from the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources in the different disciplines of crop protection research. Many investigations which might only be carried out with extreme difficulty or not all by conventional methods, could be pursued with relative ease. Radioisotopes and irradiation have been utilized in understanding the physiology and behaviour of pests and their biochemical processes and in consequence, have contributed beneficially to the development of better control techniques and more effective pesticides. On the environmental aspects, radioisotopic techniques have provided a useful tool in understanding the behaviour, metabolism and residues of pesticides in the environment. (author)

  9. Trends in indigenous radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radioisotope Production Division (RIPD) of the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology started producing radioisotopes for medical use in 1987, as soon as the 3 MW TRIGA Mark-II research reactor started operation. There are 17 nuclear medicine centres in Bangladesh and the RIPD partially meets domestic demand for medical radioisotopes, the balance being imported. The RIPD routinely produces 131I solution and 99mTc generator and from October 2005 it was scheduled to substitute the import of these items by indigenous production. The RIPD is planning to establish a 99mTc cold kit manufacturing facility by 2007-2008. (author)

  10. Radioisotope Reduction Using Solar Power for Outer Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincannon, James

    2008-01-01

    Radioisotope power systems have historically been (and still are) the power system of choice from a mass and size perspective for outer planetary missions. High demand for and limited availability of radioisotope fuel has made it necessary to investigate alternatives to this option. Low mass, high efficiency solar power systems have the potential for use at low outer planetary temperatures and illumination levels. This paper documents the impacts of using solar power systems instead of radioisotope power for all or part of the power needs of outer planetary spacecraft and illustrates the potential fuel savings of such an approach.

  11. Waste minimization in the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1970s the Los Alamos Medical Radioisotope Program has been irradiating target materials to produce and recover radioisotopes for applications in medicine, environmental science, biology, physics, materials research, and other disciplines where radiotracers find utility. By necessity, the chemical processing of targets and the isolation of radioisotopes generates radioactive waste materials. Recent years have brought pressure to discontinue the use of hazardous materials and to minimize radioactive waste volumes. Substantial waste reduction measures have been introduced at the irradiation facility, in processing approaches, and even in the ways the product isotopes are supplied to users

  12. When to "Fire" Customers: Customer Cost-Based Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Jiwoong Shin; Sudhir, K.; Dae-Hee Yoon

    2012-01-01

    The widespread adoption of activity-based costing enables firms to allocate common service costs to each customer, allowing for precise measurement of both the cost to serve a particular customer and the customer's profitability. In this paper, we investigate how pricing strategies based on customer cost information affects a firm's customer acquisition and retention dynamics, and ultimately its profit, using a two-period monopoly model with high- and low-cost customer segments. Although past...

  13. Moving from customer lifetime value to customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Drèze, Xavier; Bonfrer, André

    2009-01-01

    We study the consequence of moving from Customer Lifetime Value maximization to Customer Equity maximization. Customer equity has traditionally been seen as the discounted sum of the lifetime earnings from all current and future customers and thus it has been largely assumed that maximizing customer lifetime value would lead to maximum customer equity. We show that the transition from CLV to CE is not that straightforward. Although the CLV model is appropriate for managing a single non-replac...

  14. Customer Loyalty Research : Can customer loyalty programs really build loyalty?

    OpenAIRE

    Romppanen, Maiju; Kellgren, Cecilia; Moradi, Ladan

    2007-01-01

    Background: During the last decades the efforts to foster customer relationships have become important due to increased competition in the consumer markets. One of the most popular strategies have been to introduce customer loyalty programs which are believed to enhance the customer loyalty. The popularity of the customer loyalty programs is based on the beliefs that loyal customers are lucrative and these programs would bond the customers to the company. More recently however, the discussion...

  15. Customer Communication Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  16. Customs control of goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentor Gashi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Customs control, is regulated by law in different countries. Different countries define through the law, the control of goods.. Main purpose of this paper is to analyze two types of customs controls, and their effect in reducing avoidance of duty or tax evasion which may be caused by the import of goods of certain companies. For this reason we researched which model is implemented in developing countries and what results were reached through questionnaires. In this sense the next research question, consists in defining the moment of customs control pre or post-clearance control of goods.

  17. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management, and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feliks Anggia Binsar Kristian P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty.Fast Food Restaurant KFC, always strive to continue to make improvement in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on customer satisfaction increase in customer loyalty. Being able to create customer loyalty is also necessary to have a good relationship, between the customer with the restaurant.The research population was all KFC fast food restaurant customers at Rungkut Surabaya, Indonesia. From the results of the testing of the model in this research, by using accidental sampling, analysis of structural equation models, and using Amos 20 software support, the 200 respondents, was able to explain the relationship between the total service quality, customer relationship management, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty KFC fast food restaurants Rungkut Surabaya Indonesia.The result shows that: total quality service have significant effect on customer satisfaction; total quality service have significant effect on customer loyalty; customer relationship management have significant effect on customer satisfaction; customer relationship management have significant effect on customer loyalty; customer satisfaction significantly effect customer loyalty.

  18. Encounters with immigrant customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Espersen, Sacha; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the challenges that Danish community pharmacy staff encounter when serving non-Western immigrant customers. Special attention was paid to similarities and differences between the perceptions of pharmacists and pharmacy assistants. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed...... to one pharmacist and one pharmacy assistant employed at each of the 55 community pharmacies located in the five local councils in Denmark with the highest number of immigrant inhabitants. KEY FINDINGS: The total response rate was 76% (84/110). Most respondents found that the needs of immigrant customers...... interval, CI, 1.27-8.04). Forty-two per cent (n = 35) perceived that immigrant customers put pressure on pharmacy staff resources, while 27% (n = 23) found that the immigrant customer group make work more interesting. More pharmacists than assistants agreed on the latter (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1...

  19. Bank Customers Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebubeogu Amarachukwu Felix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is in partial fulfilment of the requirements of Bachelor of Science Hon in Information Technology. The Design and development of this Bank customers Management system provides a more secured approach in managing bank customers information which strengthens the relationships between banks and their customers by providing the right solutions that uses a multi-level security to improve customer satisfaction. The technology used in developing this project is ASP.NET and the programming language used to develop this project is C and the IDE used is Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 professional in designing the front end while the back end uses Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  20. Large Customers (DR Sellers)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiliccot, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-10-25

    State of the large customers for demand response integration of solar and wind into electric grid; openADR; CAISO; DR as a pseudo generation; commercial and industrial DR strategies; California regulations

  1. Customization through Homeschooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Describes why home school is a natural environment for customizing instruction to meet the individual needs of students, especially those with special needs and talents. (Contains 19 references.) (PKP)

  2. Arkitektur & Mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryborg Jørgensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Publikationens ambition er at udrede og give indblik i produktindustriens seneste udvikling med forretnings- og produktionsstrategien Mass Customization, og dermed en indgang til de muligheder og problemer der knytter sig til implementering af disse eller tilsvarende strategier i byggebranchen, og...

  3. ASD Customer Satisfaction Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — ASD implemented a customer satisfaction survey for our products and services. This feedback will provide a better understanding of how ASD products and services can...

  4. Utility customer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Customer issues affected by the restructuring of the $250 billion US electric power industry were discussed. In the past the industry's vertically integrated utilities conducted their business in protected geographic markets. With deregulation and greater competition, that industry structure will change. This presentation highlighted the strategies that Unicom is using to react to the restructuring of the electric power industry. The underlying principle is for the utility to reinvent itself to change its market orientation and focus on customer services, such as reliability, responsiveness, custom tailored solutions, and guaranteed savings over time. Attempting to become total energy providers and delivering integrated solutions to meet the needs of large industrial and commercial consumers, intensive market research, improved service and installation, and sophisticated customer retention initiatives will also have to be high on the agenda

  5. Fading Customer Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Åkerlund, Helena

    2004-01-01

    This dissertation is based on the assumption that fading customer relationships are important phenomena to understand in order for companies to prevent a future relationship termination, manage a desired relationship termination, or manage the situation where the relationship strength temporarily or permanently has weakened but where the customer still stays with the same service provider. It is assumed that fading could take different forms and develop through a range of different proces...

  6. The customer has escaped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paul F; Cespedes, Frank V

    2003-11-01

    Every company makes choices about the channels it will use to go to market. Traditionally, the decision to sell through a discount superstore or a pricey boutique, for instance, was guided by customer demographics. A company would identify a target segment of buyers and go with the channel that could deliver them. It was a fair assumption that certain customer types were held captive by certain channels--if not from cradle to grave, then at least from initial consideration to purchase. The problem, the authors say, is that today's customers have become unfettered. As their channel options have proliferated, they've come to recognize that different channels serve their needs better at different points in the buying process. The result is "value poaching." For example, certain channels hope to use higher margin sales to cover the cost of providing expensive high-touch services. Potential customers use these channels to do research, then leap to a cheaper channel when it's time to buy. Customers now hunt for bargains more aggressively; they've become more sophisticated about how companies market to them; and they are better equipped with information and technology to make advantageous decisions. What does this mean for your go-to-market strategy? The authors urge companies to make a fundamental shift in mind-set toward designing for buyer behaviors, not customer segments. A company should design pathways across channels to help its customers get what they need at each stage of the buying process--through one channel or another. Customers are not mindful of channel boundaries--and you shouldn't be either. Instead, they are mindful of the value of individual components in your channels--and you should be, too. PMID:14619155

  7. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Paul; Byun, Jongbok

    2008-01-01

    In order to maintain in a market economy with the competition becoming increasingly tough, with consumer preferences and demands more sophisticated and diverse, a company must manage in the best possible way the relations with the existing and potential customers to know their preferences, attitudes, purchasing behaviour, motivations, in order to attract the proper clients for their company products. These goals may be achieved by implementing a strategy called “Customer Relationship Manageme...

  8. Customer relationship marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sæter, Jan Øyvind

    2006-01-01

    Customer relationship marketing has become an interesting choice of strategy for companies in today’s competitive markets. Different positioning strategies like price and product quality are easy to imitate, eluding the importance of sustainable competitive advantage. The customers need to be attracted and bonded towards the store through relationships. The paper discusses several factors affecting relationship marketing and the advantages with this strategy. Through the the...

  9. Improving customer satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Today, the competition among enterprises is growing in intensity and organizations of all types and sizes have increasingly come to understand the importance of customer satisfaction and good services. The purpose of this study is to investigate the present level of customer satisfaction with language training institutes and find out any possible areas of improvement. This thesis will discuss and analyze the factors that influence the customer’s level of satisfaction and assist the case compa...

  10. Customer Oriented Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Pau Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Customer orientation is a complex, multidimensional concept, that includes dimensions like: motivation of an employee for meeting the customers’ requirements, abilities necessary for an employee to satisfy the customer’s needs, freedom of the employee to make decisions aimed at meeting the customer’s needs and desires. Customer oriented organisations offer services with a high level of quality that ensures the customer’s satisfaction.

  11. Who are wellness customers?

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Suzana; Raspor, Sanja; Komšić, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Although wellness is becoming an increasingly popular concept in practice, academic research regarding wellness services, in general, and tourists as wellness customers, in particular, is lacking. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify the main characteristics of wellness customers in hotel wellness settings. The study was conducted in hotel wellness centres in the Opatija Riviera (Croatia). The empirical research was organized in two steps, using two different instruments for collect...

  12. Customer satisfaction and business excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    The topic for this paper is the link between customer satisfaction and business performance, which makes it possible to use customer satisfaction measures as basis for creating business excellence. First, the paper presents microeconomic models for the relationship between customer satisfaction......, customer loyalty and performance, and optimal customer satisfaction is characterized which will help management choose the right quality parameters for improvement. Second, the paper describes empirical evidence that customer satisfaction measures, based on a modelling approach, have impact on economic...

  13. Changing tomorrow in customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Olenius, Leena

    2013-01-01

    This Master’s thesis explores the customer experience approach and considers the need of development in customer experience management in the case company. The key issues are how customer experience management, CEM, causes attention and whether it can be improved. Customer experience is important to take into account if the company wants to improve their customer satisfaction and this way to offer an added value to its important customers. Today’s business life has its own challenges and ...

  14. Engineering evaluation of a formerly utilized MED/AEC site. Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This engineering evaluation report (EER) addresses one of these MED/AEC sites known as Site A/Plot M, located in Palos Park, Illinois. The EER describes in technical detail a number of options for remedial action that could be taken with respect to the contamination at Site A/Plot M and presents estimates of the costs associated with these options. A companion document, Environmental Analysis Report on a Formerly Utilized MED/AEC Site, Site A and Plot M, Palos Forest Preserve, Palos Park, Illinois (ANL/ES-79), has also been prepared. It describes in detail the existing site environment and evaluates the environmental impacts of the various remedial options discussed in this report. This EER contributes to a better understanding of the mitigation or resolution of environmental problems posed by the subject MED/AEC site and serves as a basis for determining whether or not remedial actions are warranted. The knowledge derived from the evaluation of a number of remedial options should be helpful in the final disposition of other MED/AEC sites located elsewhere

  15. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  16. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  17. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall program objective is to develop a high temperature variable conductance heat pipe (VCHP) backup radiator, and integrate it into a Stirling radioisotope...

  18. Current utilization of research reactor on radioisotopes production in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main technical parameters of the four research reactors and their current utilization status in radioisotope manufacture and labeling compounds preparation are described. The radioisotopes, such as Co-60 sealed source, Ir-192 sealed source, γ-knife source, I-131, I-125, Sm-153, P-32 series products, In-113m generator, Tc-99m gel generator, Re-188 gel generator, C-14, Ba-131, Sr-89, 90Y, etc., and their labeling compounds prepared from the reactor produced radionuclides, such as I-131-MIBG, I-131-Hippure, I-131-capsul, Sm-153-EDTMP, Re-186-HEDP, Re-186-HA, C-14-urea, and radioimmunoassay kits etc. are presented as well. Future development plan of radioisotopes and labeling compounds in China is also given. Simultaneously, the possibility and methods of bilateral or multilateral co-operation in utilization of research reactor, personnel and technology exchange of radioisotope production and labeling compounds is also discussed. (author)

  19. Investigation of natural radioisotope activities in forest soil horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities of radioisotopes were measured in samples of forest soil. The samples were collected in forests situated along the roads from Zloty Stok (Poland) to Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic). Each soil profile was separated into individual horizons and subhorizons. Activities of radioisotopes were measured in the sample of each soil horizon. Activities of the following radioisotopes were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry: 214Pb, 214Bi, 231Th, 235U, 212Pb, 212Bi and 228Ac. Distributions of the data concerning radioactivities were positively skewed. The lowest activity was found for 235U (median value was 2.25 Bq/kg) and the highest one for 228Ac (16.26 Bq/kg in median). In organic horizons activities of radionuclides were lower than in organic ones. Interrelation between activities was examined using ordinary and robust regression methods. It was found that activities of the radioisotopes were well correlated. (authors)

  20. Short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains the papers delivered at the short course on the use of radioisotopes in agriculture held in Pretoria, South Africa, 22-24 April 1981. The following topics were discussed: principles of nuclear physics and radioactivity; biological effects of radiation; regulatory control of radioisotopes; basic radiation protection procedures; radiation detectors and counting instrumentation; statistics of radioactive observations; use of the neutron moisture meter in soil moisture determinations; soil moisture content and soil density measurements by the gamma soil moisture meter; trace element analysis; application and use of radioisotopes as tracers in soil studies; applications of isotopes in plants for the study of absorption and transportation of mineral elements; applications of radioisotopes in zoological studies

  1. Synthesis and characterization of coordination polymer nanoparticles as radioisotope tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordination polymer nanoparticles (NPs) with gamma-emitting nuclide (Au-198), 411 keV, 675 keV, 822 keV and 1087 keV were prepared by coordination polymerization of the radioisotope Au3+ ions and 1,4-bis(imidazole-1-ylmethyl)benzene in an aqueous solution at room temperature for 3 h. Here, the radioisotope Au3+ ions were prepared by dissolution of Au-198 foil, which was prepared by neutron irradiation from the HANARO reactor, in KCN aqueous solution. The successful synthesis of the radioisotope coordination polymer NPs with 5±0.5 nm was confirmed via UV–vis spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDXS), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Gamma spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized radioisotope coordination polymer NPs can be used as radiotracers in science, engineering, and industrial fields

  2. Determining Molar Combining Ratios Using Radioisotopes--A Student Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jerry A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines an experimental procedure in which an iodine radioisotope is used to determine molar combining ratios of lead and silver with the iodine. Tables and graphs show the definitive results that should be attainable. (CP)

  3. Safety Analysis for a Radioisotope Stirling Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting safety analyses of various lowpower Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) design concepts for the U. S. Department of Energy. These systems are electrical power generators converting thermal energy from plutonium (238Pu) decay to electrical energy via a Stirling cycle generator. The design and function are similar to the RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) used in space missions since the early 1960's, with a more efficient Stirling cycle generator replacing the proven thermoelectric converter. This paper discusses the methods the INL is employing in the safety analysis effort, along with the software tools, lessons learned, and results. The overall goal of our safety analyses is to determine the probability of an accidental plutonium release over the life of the generator. Historical accident rates for various transportation modes were investigated using event tree methods. Source terms were developed for these accidents including primarily impact, fire, and creep rupture. A negative result was defined as rupture of the tantalum alloy containment vessel surrounding the encapsulated plutonia pellet. Damage due to identified impact accidents was evaluated using non-linear finite element software tools. Material models, gathered from a wide variety of sources, included strain-rate and temperature dependencies on yield strength, strain hardening, and rupture. Both individual component and overall system simulation results will be validated by impact testing to be conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Results from deterministic impact, fire, and creep rupture analyses were integrated into the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment by correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. This approach presented challenges, which are addressed. Other significant issues include limitations of reliable material data at high temperatures and strain rates and development of a technique to

  4. Cores of production : reactors and radioisotopes in France

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns the technologies used in radioisotope production in the French Atomic Energy Commission (the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique) between 1946 and 1958. Particular attention is given to the various instruments used for the bombardment of isotopes, including accelerators and reactors, and their relationship with the CEA’s radioisotope preparation laboratories. Ultimately, the vast majority of bombardments took place in research reactors. These versatile machines, and the isot...

  5. Legal regulations governing workplace monitoring in radioisotope laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal regulations governing workplace monitoring in radioisotope laboratories are presented and compared on the basis of the West German and Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinances and the pertinent EC standards. The following subjects are covered: Application of the fundamentals of radiation protection; requirements to be met for licenses to handle radioisotopes; classification of monitored areas; requirements on radiation monitoring. The possible consequences of the new ICRP recommendations are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Development of a auto-loading system for radioisotope liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loading system with computer distant control for radioisotope liquor is developed. It's arm to avoid close operating to the radioactive in the radioisotope liquor. Microcontroller is used as control center, step motor and peristaltic pump as manipulator in this system. The product process is performed with real-time measurement and control. The system has many function including data storage, data query, printing, operator information management, et al. (authors)

  7. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Neilly, Brian; Allen, Sarah; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representative...

  8. The safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is given a general look on the safe use of radioisotopes in South Africa. This include general information on the history and applications of radioisotopes. The main development of industrial nuclear techniques has been in the use of radioactive tracers for process dynamics studies. Nuclear techniques for elemental analysis have also been used successfully in the monitoring of those mining and industrial processes where concentration of specific elements are needed as control parameters

  9. Formerly utilized MED/AEC sites remedial-action program. Radiological survey of Ryerson Physical Laboratory, The University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, September 11-25, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive radiological survey was conducted at the Ryerson Physical Laboratory at the University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. General radiochemistry and/or physics research was performed at this facility during the MED/AEC era in the 1940s. The building is now used as laboratories, offices, and classrooms. The survey was undertaken to determine the location and quantities of any radioactive materials remaining from the MED/AEC activities. Forty spots of contamination in 26 rooms possibly resulting from MED/AEC occupancy exceeded the allowable limits as given in ANSI Standard N13.12 for Group 1 nuclides. The potential for radiation exposure to occupants of this building from these sources of contamination is remote under current use conditions. Concentrations of radon daughters in the air of the building were less than the limit of 0.01 WL above background as given in the Surgeon General's Guidelines. Concentrations of radionuclides in soil samples collected around the facility indicated background levels. The presumed maximum potential dose for external penetrating radiation resulting from exposure to the radioactivity remaining from MED/AEC operations was calculated to be 140 mrem a year, which is 30% of the 500-mrem standard for an individual in an uncontrolled area. In order to reduce the potential for radiation exposure, remedial measures such as stabilization of the contamination in place would be applicable as a short-term measure. In order to reduce the risk in the event that building modifications take place in the future, health physics procedures and coverage are recommended. The long-term solution would involve decontamination by removal of the radioactive residues from the 26 rooms or areas where contamination possibly resulting from MED/AEC activities was detected

  10. KAERI's challenge to steady production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is a national organization in Korea, and has been doing many research and development works in radioisotope production and applications for more than 30 years. Now KAERI regularly produces radioisotopes (I-131, Tc-99m, Ho-166) for medical use and Ir-192 for industrial use. Various I-131 labeled compounds and more than 10 kinds of Tc-99m cold kits are also produced. Our multi-purpose reactor, named HANARO, has been operative since April of 1995. HANAKO is an open tank type reactor with 30 MW thermal capacity. This reactor was designed not only for research on neutron utilization but for production of radioisotopes. KAERI intended to maximize the radioisotope production capability. For this purpose, radioisotope production facilities (RIPF) have been constructed adjacent to the HANARO reactor building. There are four banks of hot cells equipped with manipulators and some of the hot cells were installed according to the KGMP standards and with clean rooms. In reviewing our RI production plan intensively, emphasis was placed on the development of new radiopharmaceuticals, development of new radiation sources for industrial and therapeutic use, and steady production of selected radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. The selected items are Ho-166 based pharmaceuticals, fission Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. solution and capsules of I-131, and Ir-192 and Co-60 for industrial use. The status and future plan of KAERI's research and development program will be introduced, and will highlight programs for steady production. (author)

  11. Radioisotopes - where have we got to, where are we going ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid growth has been achieved and there are remarkable possibilities in various fields of radioisotopes and radiation. New applications in molecular biology, in nuclear medicine, and in biotechnology are opening further opportunities for the use of radioisotopes. In the industrial field too there is growth, as microprocessor techniques extend the usefulness of radioisotope methods. And radiation engineering is a success story of its own, as ever-increasing use is made of radiation processing and sterilization, and new horizons open for food irradiation. This paper begins by recalling how isotope technology developed from the research laboratory to become the industry-scale activity it is today. A section is devoted to describing the development of a new radioisotope industry during the period from the 1930s through 1960s, focusing on the growth in the areas of nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, isotope gauging and tracing, production control, industrial processing, and production of radioisotopes. After a brief review of the present it looks into the future to suggest the directions in which new developments may lie. In particular, remarkable growth is expected in such areas as molecular biology, biotechnology, radiography, gauging, process control, radiation processing, and radiation sterilization. A review is also made of the transport and disposal of radioisotopes. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Strategy for securing the national supply of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The global supply shortage of medical radioisotopes caused by the unscheduled shutdown of the aged reactors which supply over 90% of radioisotopes overall the world, has severely affected the normal healthcare system which depend on the technology of molecular imaging for diagnoses and therapy as well as the development of nuclear molecular imaging technology. Purpose: It is urgently needed to develop new alternative technologies to solve the problem of global radioisotope supply shortage. Methods: The proton cyclotron is a potential alternative technology to produce the 99mTc and the most of medical radioisotopes of clinical importance. Results: The quality of 99mTc produced by cyclotron, such as nuclide purity, specific activity and nonradioisotope impurities, has reached and/or exceeded that eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator produced by reactor. Conclusions: It is the most operational and sustainable way to substitute the conventional global centralized supply by reactors with local centralized supply of radioisotopes by proton cyclotrons for securing the national supply of radioisotopes. (author)

  13. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service : Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service

    OpenAIRE

    Turunen, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Turunen, Susanna Marita 2011. Customer Satisfaction in Internal Customer Service. Case: Abloy Oy Internal Customer Service. Master’s thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 73. Appendix 1. This thesis discusses and studies service quality and customer satisfaction in internal customer service. The main objective is to find out what the service quality level in the internal customer service at Abloy Oy is and whether there exists a diffe...

  14. Understanding the Processes of Customer Acquisition, Customer Retention and Customer Relationship Development

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Filip; Lelia Voinea

    2012-01-01

    Attracting new customers is an objective pursued by any organization, which in the actual competitive environment is almost inevitably facing with a phenomenon of customer migration. Therefore, lost customers must be replaced and this process involves specific activities of prospects identification, communication channels selection and choice of the adequate supply for targeting potential customers. Processes of customer retention and customer relationship development are a logical continuati...

  15. The Impact of Customer-Based Brand Equity on Customer Acquisition and Customer Retention

    OpenAIRE

    F. Stahl; Heitmann, M; Lehmann, D R

    2010-01-01

    The topic of marketing accountability is of great interest to marketing researchers and professionals. In this paper, we model the impact of customer-based brand equity on customer acquisition and customer retention which can be used as the basis for calculating customer equity. Using actual purchase data of 39 automobile brands sold in the US between 1999 and 2008 we derive customer acquisition and customer retention from first-order Markov brand-switching matrices. Brand equity is defined b...

  16. Prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Utilization in Japan has been positioned, together with nuclear power generation, as one of the important cornerstones, and research and development and practical usage of it has been proceeded with steadily in the fields of industry, agriculture, medicine, and so on. In the field of medicine, SPECT and PET facilities, radio-immunoassay, radiotherapy has come widely to practical use. In the field of agriculture and fisheries, improvement of breed, sterile insect technique have been implemented, and eradication of melon fly has been achieved. In the field of industry, it is expected that the practical use of neutron radiography technique and research and development of synthesizing high performance, high function materials are progressed. In the environment preservation area, a pilot test using electron beam to treat the exhaust gases out of coal fired power plants, city garbages combustion facilities, city high way tunnels in order to establish de- sulphur/de-nitrogen technique is carried out. As the international contribution in the field of radiation utilization, the cooperation with developing countries and the cooperation among advanced countries are reported. In this paper, a prospect of radioisotopes and radiation utilization is described. (J.P.N.)

  17. Versatile PC-logger for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logger, a personal computer and software is all to set up a radioisotope measuring system. It may find numerous applications in a wide range of disciplines: kinetics description of flow process in industry, slip velocity measurements in hydrotransport, flow rates evaluation in waste water treatment plants, nucleonic gauges in industry, ect. Readings from up to 4 scintillation detectors, the user has set to log, are stored in regular intervals. The user can set the logger to start and stop logging manually, with keyboard or from a program running on a connected PC. Stored data can be transferred to any computer with RS232 serial interface. The logger works equally well together with conventional PC's and 'lap-tops' for field work. Its internal program is stored in nonvolatile RAM. This makes it possible to upgrade or change the code by just down loading a new one. The logger is internal rechargeable batteries for measuring off-line; they remain as a back-up in case the external supply is disconnected or fails. (author)

  18. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  19. Treatment of animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With increase of isotope utilizations as tracers in medicine, pharmacy, agriculture, biology and others, the management of resultant organic waste liquids and animal wastes is becoming a major problem. For the animal wastes contaminated with radioisotopes, numbers of studies and tests showed that drying them fully and the subsequent suitable disposal would be the most feasible procedures. This new method is being carried out since last year, which will shortly take the place of the keeping in formalin. For the drying, two alternative processes in particular are being investigated. As the one, freeze-drying apparatuses consist of refrigerating and freeze-drying devices. As the other, microwave-drying apparatuses feature rapid dehydration. The following matters are described: problems emerged in the course of studies and test; the drying processes, i.e. freeze-drying and microwave-drying, and their respective characteristics; and views of the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, on animal waste drying. (J.P.N.)

  20. Safe Handling of Radioisotopes. 1973 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under its Statute the International Atomic Energy Agency is empowered to provide for the application of standards of safety for protection against radiation to its own operations and to operations making use of assistance provided by it or with which it is otherwise directly associated. To this end authorities receiving such assistance are required to observe relevant health and safety measures prescribed by the Agency. As a first step, it was considered an urgent task to provide users of radionuclides with a manual of practice for the safe handling of these substances. The first edition of such a manual was published in 1958 and represented the first of the ''Safety Series'', a series of manuals and codes on health and safety published by the Agency. It was prepared after careful consideration of existing national and international codes of radiation safety by a group of international experts and in consultation with other international bodies. This edition presents the second revision. In response to the suggestion made by some Member States, the term 'radioisotopes' has been changed to 'radionuclides' in the title and, as appropriate, in the text because the term 'radionuclides' includes the radioactive element itself as well as the isotopes. The series of manuals and codes published in the Safety Series and the Technical Reports Series give more complete advice to the user on specialized topics.

  1. Accidental radioisotope burns - Management of late sequelae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Bipin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidental radioisotope burns are rare. The major components of radiation injury are burns, interstitial pneumonitis, acute bone marrow suppression, acute renal failure and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Radiation burns, though localized in distribution, have systemic effects, and can be extremely difficult to heal, even after multiple surgeries. In a 25 year old male who sustained such trauma by accidental industrial exposure to Iridium192 the early presentation involved recurrent haematemesis, pancytopenia and bone marrow suppression. After three weeks he developed burns in contact areas in the left hand, left side of the chest, abdomen and right inguinal region. All except the inguinal wound healed spontaneously but the former became a non-healing ulcer. Pancytopenia and bone marrow depression followed. He was treated with morphine and NSAIDs, epidural buprinorphine and bupivicaine for pain relief, steroids, antibiotics followed by wound excision and reconstruction with tensor fascia lata(TFL flap. Patient had breakdown of abdominal scar later and it was excised with 0.5 cm margins up to the underlying muscle and the wound was covered by a latissimis dorsi flap. Further scar break down and recurrent ulcers occurred at different sites including left wrist, left thumb and right heel in the next two years which needed multiple surgical interventions.

  2. Radioisotopes Identification Algorithm Based on Generic Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The homeland security market is seeking for advanced radiation detectors with improved isotope identification capability. This need is increasing due to the operational difficulties derived by the high probability of innocent alarm shielding and masking scenarios. The identification algorithm should focus on discrimination between Naturally Occurring radioactive Material (NORM) and medical isotopes from industrial sources or Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) following the standards for HLS. The SpecIdentifier software application developed to provide spectrum analysis and identification solutions for various types of detectors. The key requirement is identification of radio-isotopes included in standards for spectroscopic radiation detectors (SPRD).The process of isotope identification is based on spectrum analysis leaning on multi-parametric tests. The parameters include Peak-to-Compton ratio, FWHM (resolution), gain and other values. However, many obstacles are in the way to the proper determination of each parameter: Peak-to-Compton ratio varies with scintillator’s geometry; spectrum shape and resolution vary with scintillator’s physical properties; temperature dependency of scintillation light yield result in gain instability; non-proportionality in light yield as function of incident gamma energy; high count rates results in shift the calibration relation (gain)(4,5). These and other obstacles are considered by the proposed approach to the spectrum analysis and are implemented in the SpecIdentifier software

  3. Customer complaints and recovery effectiveness : A customer base approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, G.; van Oest, R.D.

    2014-01-01

    Although customer complaints are a well-studied aspect of business, no study has measured the impact of actual complaints and recoveries on subsequent customer purchasing. The authors develop a customer base model to investigate the effectiveness of recovery in preventing customer churn. They calibr

  4. Customer Engagement as a New Perspective in Customer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Reinartz, Werner J.; Krafft, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, customer management (CM) research has evolved and has had a significant impact on the marketing discipline. In an increasingly networked society where customers can interact easily with other customers and firms through social networks and other new media, the authors propose that custom

  5. Customer satisfaction toward TrueMove customer service

    OpenAIRE

    Raja Abbas, Haider; Koobgrabe, Chokaew; Chutima, Punyanuch

    2008-01-01

    Title: Customer Satisfaction toward TrueMove Customer Service Problem Statement: How are TrueMove customers satisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in Bangkok? Purpose: To evaluate “whether” and “how” TrueMove customers are satisfied or dissatisfied with the customer service provided at TrueMove shops in the Bangkok region with the help of evaluation of service quality by customers of the shop. Theory and Methods: The research bases mainly on quantitative method; that i...

  6. Customer relationship management: The evolving role of customer data

    OpenAIRE

    Saarijärvi, Hannu; Karjaluoto, Heikki; Kuusela, Hannu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Customer relationship management (CRM) developed a separate identity as a result of companies utilising customer data in managing customer relationships. In this evolution, CRM became a heavily company-oriented construct: customer data were used instrumentally to serve companies’ purposes. However, as companies increasingly shift attention from selling products to serving customers, traditional CRM activities, such as segmentation and cross-selling, may prove inappropriate owing to ...

  7. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, conta

  8. Development of a radioisotope heat source for the two-watt radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Edwin I.; McNeil, Dennis C.; Amos, Wayne R.

    1992-01-01

    Described is a radioisotope heat source for the Two-Watt Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) which is being considered for possible application by the U.S. Navy and for other Department of Defense applications. The heat source thermal energy (75 Wt) is produced from the alpha decay of plutonium-238 which is in the form of high-fired plutonium dioxide. The capsule is non-vented and consists of three domed cylindrical components each closed with a corresponding sealed end cap. Surrounding the fuel is the liner component, which is fabricated from a tantalum-based alloy, T-111. Also fabricated from T-111 is the next component, the strength member, which serves to meet pressure and impact criteria. The outermost component, or clad, is the oxidation- and corrosion-resistant nickel-based alloy, Hastelloy S. This paper defines the design considerations, details the hardware fabrication and welding processes, discusses the addition of yttrium to the fuel to reduce liner embrittlement, and describes the testing that has been conducted or is planned to assure that there is fuel containment not only during the heat source operational life, but also in case of an accident environment.

  9. Survey of literature on dispersion ratio and collection ratio of radioisotopes in animal study using radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of literature in the title was performed to know the actual status of the dispersion from excretion and expiration studies of radioisotopes since, at present, the probable dispersion ratio is assumed to be 100% in calculation for legally permitted use of radioisotopes which conceivably being far from the real status and being incompatible with the guideline for pharmacokinetic studies requiring the recovery of >95% of dosed radioactivity in balance study. There are two interpretations for the dispersion; it is the expiration ratio and it is the fraction unrecovered. Survey was done on 11 Japanese and foreign journals in 1985-1996 publishing most of pharmacokinetic studies and on 650 compounds in 358 facilities with 1,975 experiments in total. In those experiments, the total recovery of radioactivity was 95% in average, unrecovered fraction, 5% and expiration ratio, 2%. As for unclide, 14C, 3H, 125I and 35S were surveyed since they occupied 99.4% of the experiments and their dispersion was <5%. Rats were used in 70% of the experiments and the dispersion in all animal experiments was about 5%. Administration route was regardless of the dispersion. (K.H.)

  10. Enhancing customer value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion on how Westcoast Gas Services Inc., is striving to meet customer satisfaction was presented. A strategic business unit called storage, transportation and service is a customer-centered, energy service enterprise dedicated to providing value-added service. The company is placing emphasis on better coordination of sales and marketing activities, especially in areas of customer relationship management and product development. Deregulation was responsible for the changing marketplace. It resulted in increased competition, energy alliances and multi-fuel opportunities. Some of the ways Westcoast Gas Service plans to survive and prosper in this new world of competition were outlined. Among the ideas mentioned were consumer orientation, superior information about consumers and competitors, quick adaptation to changing market conditions, anticipation of consumer needs, and appropriate product development

  11. Profiling the Mobile Customer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Pernille Wegener; King, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Mobile customers are increasingly being tracked and profiled by behavioural advertisers to enhance delivery of personalized advertising. This type of profiling relies on automated processes that mine databases containing personally-identifying or anonymous consumer data, and it raises a host of...... significant concerns about privacy and data protection. This second article in a two part series on "Profiling the Mobile Customer" explores how to best protect consumers' privacy and personal data through available mechanisms that include industry self-regulation, privacy-enhancing technologies and...

  12. Alternative method for 64Cu radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for 64Cu production based on a 64Ni target using an 18 MeV proton energy beam was developed. The studies on the optimisation of targetry for the 18 MeV proton bombardments were performed in terms of the cost-effective target utilisation and purity of the 64Cu product. The thickness-specific 64Cu yield (μCi/(μAxμm)) was introduced into the optimisation calculation with respect to cost-effective target utilisation. A maximum target utilisation efficacy factor (TUE) was found for the proton energy range of 2.5-13 MeV with corresponding target thickness of 36.2 μm. With the optimised target thickness and proton energy range, the 64Ni target thickness saving of 45.6% was achieved, while the overall 64Cu yield loss is only 23.9%, compared to the use of the whole effective proton energy range of 0-18 MeV with target thickness of 66.6 μm. This optimisation has the advantage of reducing the target amount to a reasonable level, and therefore the cost of the expensive 64Ni target material. The 64Ni target electroplated on the Au-Tl multi layer coated Cu-substrate was a new and competent design for an economic production of high quality 64Cu radioisotope using an 18 MeV proton energy cyclotron or a 30 MeV cyclotron with proton beam adjustable to 18 MeV. In this design, the Au coating layer plays a role of protection of 'cold' Cu leakage from the Cu substrate and Tl serves to depress the proton beam energy (from 18 MeV to the energy optimised value 13 MeV). The ion exchange chromatographic technique with a gradient elution was applied to improve the 64Cu separation with respect to reducing the processing time and control of 64Cu product quality.

  13. Measurement cross sections for radioisotopes production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine can be produced using particle accelerators. This is one goal of Arronax, a high energy - 70 MeV - high intensity - 2*350 μA - cyclotron set up in Nantes. A priority list was established containing β- - 47Sc, 67Cu - β+ - 44Sc, 64Cu, 82Sr/82Rb, 68Ge/68Ga - and α emitters - 211At. Among these radioisotopes, the Scandium 47 and the Copper 67 have a strong interest in targeted therapy. The optimization of their productions required a good knowledge of their cross-sections but also of all the contaminants created during irradiation. We launched on Arronax a program to measure these production cross-sections using the Stacked-Foils' technique. It consists in irradiating several groups of foils - target, monitor and degrader foils - and in measuring the produced isotopes by γ-spectrometry. The monitor - natCu or natNi - is used to correct beam loss whereas degrader foils are used to lower beam energy. We chose to study the natTi(p,X)47Sc and 68Zn(p,2p)67Cu reactions. Targets are respectively natural Titanium foil - bought from Goodfellow - and enriched Zinc 68 deposited on Silver. In the latter case, Zn targets were prepared in-house - electroplating of 68Zn - and a chemical separation between Copper and Gallium isotopes has to be made before γ counting. Cross-section values for more than 40 different reactions cross-sections have been obtained from 18 MeV to 68 MeV. A comparison with the Talys code is systematically done. Several parameters of theoretical models have been studied and we found that is not possible to reproduce faithfully all the cross-sections with a given set of parameters. (author)

  14. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samejima, Natsuki; Ikeda, Koichiro; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Hirata, Satoru

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4//sup -/into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author).

  15. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, N; Ikeda, K; Yokoyama, Y; Hirata, S

    1989-05-01

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4- into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. PMID:2674500

  16. Radioisotopic splenoportography in patients with portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-isotopic splenoportography was performed by injecting 99mTcO4-into the spleens of 46 patients with portal hypertension and 14 patients with various disorders not having portal hypertension. No collateral circulation was demonstrated in the 14 patients without portal hypertension whereas some RI-images of portosystemic collaterals were found in 40 (87.0 per cent) of the 46 patients with portal hypertension. Collaterals were divided into an ascending group and a descending group, the appearance rate of ascending collaterals being 80.4 per cent and that of descending collaterals, 41.3 per cent. There were 3 image patterns in the ascending group, namely, an AZ-pattern in which the azygos vein was demonstrated; a SC-pattern in which the RI-bolus ascended along the esophagus to the neck and the subclavian vein; and an EG-pattern which showed stagnation of the RI-bolus in the esophagogastric region. There were 4 patterns in the descending group, namely; a pattern of gastro-renal caval shunt (GR-pattern); reverse flow patterns into the umbilical or paraumbilical veins (UV-pattern); into the superior mesenteric vein (SMV-pattern); and into the inferior mesenteric vein (IMV-pattern). The appearance of the EG-pattern was seen most frequently (74.4 per cent). The usefulness of this method for surveying the collateral circulation in portal hypertension, estimating the risk of esophageal variceal bleeding and evaluating its treatments, was suggested by the results of this study. (author)

  17. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS - PROFILING AND SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Mircea Andrei SCRIDON

    2008-01-01

    In any industry, the first step to finding and creating profitable customers isdetermining what drives profitability. This leads to better prospecting andmore successful customer relationship management. Any company cansegment and profile their customer base to uncover those profit drivers usingthe knowledge of their customers, products, and markets. Or they can usedata-driven techniques to find natural clusters in their customer or prospectbase. Whatever the method, the process will lead to ...

  18. Emotional Satisfaction of Customer Contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör, Hüseyin

    2007-01-01

    For marketing and customer services researchers and professionals who are interested in customer contacts, customer satisfaction and loyalty issues. Contact centers are playing a pivotal role in customer services of the 21st century. Nevertheless, despite their growing importance and presence, contact centers are increasingly becoming the center for customer frustration, and frequently associated with negative comments in the media. Therefore, this research explores the Emotional, Cognitive, ...

  19. Consumer Preferences for Mass Customization

    OpenAIRE

    Dellaert, Benedict; Stremersch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreasingly, firms adopt mass customization, which allows consumers to customize products by self-selecting their most preferred composition of the product for a predefined set of modules. For example, PC vendors such as Dell allow customers to customize their PC by choosing the type of processor, memory size, monitor, etc. However, how such firms configure the mass customization process determines the utility a consumer may obtain or the complexity a consumer may face in the mas...

  20. Customs and trade security policy

    OpenAIRE

    Adomavičiūtė, Danutė

    2014-01-01

    The aim of research is to identify the most significant and the most risky areas of the business activities’ assessment and to create a new model of the customs audit. In the article the role of customs seeking to facilitate legitimate trade has been revealed. The influence of customs on the public interests‘ protection and social as well as economic development was analysed. After analysing the customs activities monitoring and managing the international flow of goods, customs contribution e...

  1. Community and Custom in Property

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Henry Edward

    2009-01-01

    Community custom has played a limited but important role in the law of property. In addition to a few major historic examples such as mining camp rules and whaling, property law sometimes relies on community custom, for example in adverse possession, nuisance law, and beach access. This Article proposes an informational theory of custom in property law. Custom is subject to a communicative tradeoff in the law: all else being equal, informationally demanding customs require an audience with a ...

  2. Customer Satisfaction in Hotel Services

    OpenAIRE

    Bizi Mubiri, Joleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how customer satisfaction enhances customer loyalty in hotels. Specifically, the thesis used Lake Kivu Serena Hotel as a case study. Customer retention is achieved by involving customers in improving the quality of services offered by a hotel. Moreover, customers feel appreciated when they realize that the hotel is committed to improving their experience. Qualitative and quantitative methods of research were used to collect the data for the re-...

  3. Customer satisfaction research : Taitopuoti Paperinauha

    OpenAIRE

    Salokaski, Sanna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to measure the level of customer satisfaction in Taitopuoti Paperinauha. By doing the customer satisfaction research the level of satisfaction of Taitopuoti Paperinauha’s customers with its customer service and products was determined. Both the physical store and online store were included in the research. Consumer behaviour and customer satisfaction are concepts that are dealt with in the theoretical part of the thesis. After the theoretical part the result...

  4. Analysis of Customer Loyalty through Total Quality Service, Customer Relationship Management and Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binsar Kristian P., Feliks Anggia; Panjaitan, Hotman

    2014-01-01

    This research talks about total quality service and customer relationship management effects toward customer satisfaction and its impact on customer loyalty. Fast food restaurant KFC, always strives to continue to make improvements in total quality service, so that customer satisfaction can be maintained, which in turn will have an impact on…

  5. Historical nuclear materials balance report for the former AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From June 1957 through December 1966, four types of nuclear material were processed in the AEC-owned Weldon Spring Chemical Plant. These materials were: (1) natural uranium, (2) depleted uranium, (3) slightly enriched uranium, and (4) natural thorium. The summary material balances for each material are shown in Table 1. In processing these materials, discards occurred to (a) the atmosphere through stacks, (b) area waterways through sewers, and (c) to raffinate pits still in existence at the site. These discards are summarized in Table 2. Natural uranium processing accounted for more than 97% of the nuclear materials throughput (Table 1). Total material balance closures for natural uranium, depleted uranium, slightly enriched uranium, and natural thorium were 99.94%, 100%, 99.27%, and 98.52%, respectively. Of the discards, summarized in Table 2, approximately 75% went to and remain in the existing raffinate pits. Discharges to stacks and sewers account for the remaining discards. As far as can be determined, it appears all plant processes operated efficiently and all materials were well accounted for with only minimal variances

  6. Chinese Festivals and Customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Sandra Aili

    Traditional festivals and customs of the Chinese people are described in this publication which can be used with secondary level students. In the margins of the text are numbers which indicate slides and cultural objects that relate to the text. The text, however, can be used without the slides and objects. The following festivals are described:…

  7. Customer recognition and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka , Rune

    2011-01-01

    We introduce three types of consumer recognition: identity recognition, asymmetric preference recognition, and symmetric preference recognition. We characterize price equilibria and compare profits, consumer surplus, and total welfare. Asymmetric preference recognition enhances profits compared with identity recognition, but firms have no incentive to exchange information regarding customer-specific preferences (symmetric preference recognition). Consumers would benefit from a policy panning ...

  8. Family Customs and Traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Cynthia

    Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

  9. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply...

  10. The study on the management of radioisotope wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to aid the polish of radwaste treatment expecting nuclear power plant. The amount of annual radwaste generation from the institutional use of radioisotopes is predicted based on the estimation of radioisotope imports that is made in the present study for 1985-1986 in collaboration with Korea Radioisotope Association Inc. In order to survey and to realize the current status of the radiowaste management, we visited organizations using radioisotopes, i.e. medical institutions, colleges, research institutes and industries. It was revealed as a result that there was no unified treatment process and the radwaste management in those institutions has been rather expedient. The management of radwaste from RI application is controlled by the Atomic Energy Low. However, the procedures of handling and treatment suggested and the technological difficulties make it hard to conform with. Accordingly, a guide for the safe handling and treatment of radwaste(draft) is prepared to enhance the safety during the use of radioisotopes and in the management of waste generated from their application. The radwaste containers for the collation and interim storage and their materials should be specified and standardized according to the type and characteristics of radwaste. In the present study, several specific containers are selected and suggested for use. However, their performance should be tested later on. (Author)

  11. Introduction of KIRAMS activity for radioisotope production and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (KIRAMS) has a great potential for clinical and pre-clinical studies of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. For radioisotope production, we hold a lot of technologies to prepare the short-lived radioisotopes, such as F-18 and C- 11 for application of PET and the radiometals, such as Tl- 201, Ga-67 and In-111 for SPECT using 30MeV (IBA) and 50MeV (MC50) cyclotrons. Recently, we developed radioiodides like I-123 for SPECT and I-124 for PET to label monoclonal antibodies to target the cell surface markers of specific diseases. In order to improve PET radiotracers for the chelator-systems, we also developed the production techniques of new several radionuclides, such as Cu-64, Tc-94m and so on. Therefore, the radiopharmaceutical studies with various radioisotopes, produced by cyclotron, were used for the purpose of invivo imaging of tumor, brain, and organ functions. In case of clinical and pre-clinical applications, the quality control system of radiopharmaceuticals should have been carried at preparation with safety and stability. This is called QURI (QUality Examination for Radiopharmaceuticals Investigation) project as a Top Brand of KIRAMS, which is important to develop the radioisotope production and its application. The future work at KIRAMS will be focused on developing the molecular targets for the purpose of clinical and preclinical applications in order to overcome intractable diseases. (author)

  12. Optimization of radiation protection in the transportation of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective effective dose equivalent incurred by the population in Argentina as a result of the distribution of radioisotopes for medical applications is estimated. An analysis is performed on the optimization of radiation protection in the transportation of radioisotopes, following the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). In Argentina, radiopharmaceutical products are arranged and distributed in type-A packages under the regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Additionally, the national regulatory authority requires the application of the dose limitation system to all practices involving radiation exposure by man. Radioisotopes are transported in special vehicles (60%), in domestic flights (30%) and in buses (10%). The collective effective dose equivalent was estimated by taking into account the different transportation means and the storage time while radioisotopes are in transit. The differential cost-benefit analysis shows that, in order to obtain an optimized level of protection, it would be necessary to reduce the current dose rates during transportation. This is particularly worthwhile when the distribution is made through public transportation, such as commercial planes or buses. It is concluded that, for the application of the dose limitation system to the transport of radioisotopes, it would be necessary to reduce the present IAEA limits of radiation levels at a one-meter distance from the packages in about a factor of ten. 6 references, 3 tables

  13. Outlook on radioisotope production at TRIGA SSR 14 MW reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INR Pitesti, endowed with a research nuclear reactor of TRIGA SSR 14 MW type, has developed activities of radioisotope production, being at present licensed for production and selling Ir-192 sources for industrial gamma radiography and Co-60 sources (2,000 Ci) for medical uses (cobalto therapy). A collaboration was initiated with the CPR Department of IFIN-HH Bucharest, particularly after the WWR-S reactor shutdown on December 21, 1997. In the frame of this program the INR Pitesti offers services of raw material irradiations followed by the radioisotope production performed subsequently at the Radioisotope Production Department (CPR) of IFIN-HH Bucharest which also deals with selling the product on internal market . The experimental facilities with the two TRIGA reactors (TRIGA SSR 14 MW and TRIGA ACPR) of INR Pitesti are described. The maximum neutron flux is 2.9 · 1014 n/cm2s. The irradiation channels are of two neutron spectra types. Also the neutron flux is characterized by radial and axial distribution which are taken into account when a given raw material is to be irradiated, to avoid perturbing non-homogeneities in the raw material activation. Five irradiation devices are presented. Preparations are currently under way for production of fission radioisotopes Mo-99, I-131 and Xe-133 and activation radioisotope I-125 for medical application

  14. CUSTOMS POLICY, CUSTOMS BUSINESS, CUSTOMS REGULATION: TO PROBLEM OF CONCEPTION CORRELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Molokovich; K. N. Shabeka

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and methodological comprehension of customs regulation place and role in provision of trade and transport activity under conditions of world integration processes is considered in the paper.The essence of such economic categories as «customs policy», «customs regulation», «customs and tariff regulation», «customs business» is ascertained with the help of justified argumentation, clear conception approaches.

  15. Smart customers, dumb companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, C

    2000-01-01

    Customers today are being bombarded with an overwhelming array of choices. To alleviate customer frustration, say Steven Cristol and Peter Sealey in Simplicity Marketing, companies should stop creating new brands and product extensions. Better to consolidate product and service functions by following a four R approach: replace, repackage, reposition, and replenish. That's an outmoded, dictatorial view of markets, says Christopher Locke. Far from being stymied by choices, customers are rapidly becoming smarter than the companies that pretend to serve them. In this networked economy, people are talking among themselves, and that changes everything. Locke predicts we'll see a growing number of well-defined micromarkets--groups of customers converging in real time around entertaining and knowledgeable voices--such as NPR's car guys and the Motley Fool investment site. "Micromedia" Web sites will replace traditional advertising because they'll provide credible user-supplied news about products and services. Locke contends that an open exchange of information solves the "problem" of choice much better than manipulative strategies like simplicity or even permission marketing. Companies can participate in micromarkets through what Locke dubs "gonzo marketing." If Ford, for example, discovers that a subset of its employees are organic gardeners, it may offer support to a big independent organic-gardening Web site with donations and employee volunteers. This marketing effort would be driven not by advertising managers but by people with genuine interest in each micromarket, so it would have credibility with customers. With gonzo marketing, both companies and their markets will benefit. PMID:11184973

  16. Investigating the Use of PMASP-Based Project Specific Websites as a Project Management Tool in the A/E/C Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Firman, Jennifer Lynn

    2002-01-01

    The A/E/C industry faces the inability to meet client demands of projects completed on time and on schedule due to the minimal collaboration between parties, communication problems, and mistakes. The present project management system in the industry is paper-based, and requires the owners of information to distribute the knowledge at their discretion. This system has inherent delays in information transmission, which lead to miscommunications, mistakes, and costly rework, which in turn, cau...

  17. Hair radioactivity as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, W. H.; Pories, W. J.; Fratianne, R. B.; Flynn, A.

    1972-01-01

    Since many radioisotopes accumulate in hair, this tropism was investigated by comparing the radioactivity of shaved with plucked hair collected from rats at various time intervals up to 24 hrs after intravenous injection of the ecologically important radioisotopes, iodine-131, manganese-54, strontium-85, and zinc-65. The plucked hair includes the hair follicles where biochemical transformations are taking place. The data indicate a slight surge of each radioisotpe into the hair immediately after injection, a variation of content of each radionuclide in the hair, and a greater accumulation of radioactivity in plucked than in shaved hair. These results have application not only to hair as a measure of exposure to radioisotopes, but also to tissue damage and repair at the hair follicle.

  18. Alpha spectroscopy for in-situ liquid radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using calculation and SRIM simulations of alpha particle energy spectroscopy, we show that the initial energies and concentrations of alpha-emitting radioisotopes can be measured in-situ in a liquid environment. We quantify the effect on the alpha spectrum of reducing the thickness of the liquid source in front of the alpha particle detector as well as adding a cover material onto the alpha particle detector surface. In all cases, initial energies and concentrations are recoverable from the alpha particle energy spectra. By reducing the thickness of the liquid source, the contribution to the spectrum for low count rate, low energy radioisotopes can be revealed. However, adding a cover on the detector obscures the contributions of these radioisotopes

  19. Transportation and safety test of type BM packages for radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the period of May 1977 to October 1979, the Division of Radioisotope Production, JAERI, made containers for transportation of radioisotopes as type BM package, which satisfied the requirements in the amended regulations for transportation of radioisotopes. Two types of packages were prepared, accomodating a drawer type container (lead shielding 15 cm thick) and a cylinder type container (lead shielding 15 or 8 cm thick) respectively; these are for transportation of 192Ir (6540 Ci) and 32P (188 Ci) as type BM package. The package accomodating a drawer type container weighs about 1800 kg. The package accomodating a cylinder type container of 15 cm and 8 cm thick lead shielding weighs 1500 kg or 840 kg respectively. The packages were subjected to series of safety tests prescribed in the regulations, both theoretically and experimentally. Results of the tests showed constructual soundness and safety of the packages. Safety of the type A package prepared is also described in the appendix. (author)

  20. Radioisotope production at the cyclotron in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radioisotope production laboratory has been installed at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear in Rio de Janeiro. It is intended primarily for processing short-lived radioisotopes produced by a multiparticle, variable energy, isochronous, compact CV-28 Cyclotron and for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled molecules. Carrier-free iodine-123, indium-111, thalium-201, bromine-77 and gallium-67 with high purity have been produced. An irradiated target transport system has been built. Special targets that can dissipate high surface power densities are being developed. Each radioisotope is processed in a remotely controlled cell equiped with electric and pneumatic systems as well as manipulators ans tongs. Quality control is achieved by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, spot tests, gamma-ray spectroscopy and thin-layer chromatography. Biological tests in mice have confirmed the good quality of the radiopharmaceuticals. (Author)

  1. Application of radioisotopes to studies of crystal imperfections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been used in two important ways in studying imperfections in alkali halide crystals. The zone refining of the compounds has been monitored by addition of tracers, and segregation coefficients have been determined from such measurements. The other application has been to insert small concentrations of impurity ions into alkali halides in order to study the phonon scattering by such impurities or by the vacancies they introduce; these measurements are carried out at very low temperatures where the phonon mean free path is limited by lattice imperfections. The most commonly used radioisotope in this work has been Ca45. This work is reviewed and some current and possible future applications of radioisotopes in this field are mentioned. (author)

  2. Educational Web site. Radioisotopic methods of determining body composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Web site intended to inform the general public about existing nuclear technologies based on the measurement of radioisotopes in the human body has been designed. The presentation is focused on the concept of radioisotope measurements for determination of body composition (bone, muscle, water, fat), and the risks, benefits, and clinical applications of these techniques. Procedures covered are 40K whole body counting, delayed-gamma neutron activation, prompt-gamma neutron activation, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The information presented is tailored for the nonscientific public, in order to promote familiarity with and understanding of the basic concepts of radioisotope measurements in the human body. Further development of the site will include greater scientific detail, suitable for student instruction or for continuing education requirements of various certification programs. (author)

  3. Digital Data Processing and Display in Radioisotope Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In conventional radioisotope images much information is lost through taking data by analogue instruments and displaying them on analogue devices. By utilizing appropriate digital instruments, data in radioisotope imaging are taken in the form of a numerical array ('digital image') and each number corresponds to the counts in a small area that is called an 'elemental image'. If the area of an 'elemental image' is much smaller than a resolving area of the imaging system, all useful information is contained in the 'digital image'. Since the radioisotope image must be interpreted by the human visual system at present, the resulting 'digital image' should be so processed that human eyes can easily extract the diagnostic information from the image pattern. Three methods of image processing are described: (1) 'smoothing' (2) 'focusing' (restoring) and (3) 'differential imaging'. A preliminary experiment using a thyroid phantom was made and the results showed the effectiveness of the image processing. (author)

  4. Investigation of Miniaturized Radioisotope Thermionic Power Generation for General Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Duzik, Adam J.

    2016-01-01

    Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) running off the radioisotope Pu238 are the current standard in deep space probe power supplies. While reliable, these generators are very inefficient, operating at only approx.7% efficiency. As an alternative, more efficient radioisotope thermionic emission generators (RTIGs) are being explored. Like RTGs, current RTIGs concepts use exotic materials for the emitter, limiting applicability to space and other niche applications. The high demand for long-lasting mobile power sources would be satisfied if RTIGs could be produced inexpensively. This work focuses on exposing several common materials, such as Al, stainless steel, W, Si, and Cu, to elevated temperatures under vacuum to determine the efficiency of each material as inexpensive replacements for thermoelectric materials.

  5. CUSTOMER LOYALTY - THE MAJOR GOAL OF CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Assoc. Prof. Adriana Scriosteanu Ph. D.; Prof. Daniela Popescu Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the importance of customer relationship management (CRM) and customer loyalty for any organization that whishes to be successful and competitive in the market. A new emphasis in marketing and CRM is more and more widespread - creating customer relationships.In a competitive environment, the organizations have to focus their efforts towards continuous meeting both current and potential needs of all their customers. Many organizations have to consider how to enter a market a...

  6. Customer Satisfaction and Effective HRM Policies Customer and Employee Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasiou, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the possible link between employee and customer satisfaction. The service provided by employees, help to build a good relationship with customers and can help at increasing their loyalty. Published data for job satisfaction and indicators of customer services of banks were gathered from relevant published works which included data from five different countries. The scores of customers and employees satisfaction of the different published works were tran...

  7. Determination of the radiological impact of radioisotope waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) controls the uses of radioisotopes and the management of wastes resulting from radioisotope use through licences. In most cases, wastes generated through the use of radioisotopes are required by licence condition to be sent to Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories for storage but if the amounts of radioisotope are very small, have a low activity or a very short half-life, the radioisotope is permitted to be released to regular waste management systems. The AECB commissioned this study to determine the doses to individuals working in municipal waste management systems and to populations of cities where small amounts of radioisotopes are disposed of through the municipal waste managment systems. The Hamilton-Burlington area surrounding Hamilton Harbour was selected as the study area. The pathways and dosimetry models were put into a computer spread sheet, to give the model flexibility so that it could be easily modified to model other cities. Within the occupational critical group, the maximum doses were calculated for the Hamilton sewage treatment plant aeration worker at 1.2E-6 Sv/a. If this individual were also a member of the critical group in the general population, the maximum dose would be 2.0E-6 Sv/a. Individual doses to the critical group within the general population were calculated as 7.7E-7 Sv/a for adults and 6.8E-8 Sv/a for infants. These compare to AECB regulatory limits of 5.0E-2 Sv/a per person for atomic radiation workers and 5.0E-3 Sv/a per person for the general public. The collective population dose for the study area was 1.37E-1 person-Sv/a or an average dose of 2.6E-7 Sv/a per person for the 525,000 population

  8. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  9. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  10. Regulatory aspects on the utilization of radioisotopes in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal provisions to regulate the use of radioisotopes in industry are based on Sections 3e (i), (ii) and (iii) and 17 of the Atomic Energy Act 1962. The Central Government delegated the authority to enforce the safety-related rules to the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). The Board has issued codes and standards and established procedures to carry out its mandate. AERB imposed regulatory restrictions on erring institutions, wherever necessary and evolved policies on the use of equipment containing radioisotopes. (author)

  11. The application of radioisotopes in the Argentine technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different applications of radioisotopes: as sealed sources or tracers, as well as activation analysis have cast a new light on Argentine engineering and industry. The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission is carrying out an active plan for the developement and promotion of these techniques since the 60's. This report describes and analyzes the most outstanding applications, and brings up to date other previous papers on the same subject. It suggests some ideas for achieving a complete penetration of radioisotope techniques into Argentine technology. It also outlines some future perspectives, based on present statistical data. (author)

  12. Results with radioisotope techniques in veterinary science in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes have been applied to veterinary science in Hungary since the fifties. A short chronologic review on the development of isotope technology is given emphasizing the possibilities offered by the application of closed and open radiation sources, of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy, and in vitro nuclear procedures which include competitive protein-binding analysis and radioimmunoassay. The progesterone test, applicable to diagnose the pregnancy of cattles, is carried out generally by RIA. Radioisotopic methods are applied also to determine the thyroid function of cattles, swines and domestic fowls. (V.N.)

  13. The development of radioisotope applications in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first era of radioactive isotopes and radiation since the turn of the century was inevitably restricted to x-rays and radium, with the greatest application in medicine for diagnosis and therapy. In South Africa a second era began when the first artificial radioisotope was imported on 27 July 1948, and the medical practitioners, in particular, were ready to use this new modality also as a tracer. This article gives general information on radiation protection, isotope users, therapy and in vivo and in vitro tests with radioisotopes in South Africa

  14. Innovative customer loyalty programs

    OpenAIRE

    Kotel, N. M.; Котель, Н. М.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the vast majority of demanding consumers has tired of monotonous bonuses and benefits companies. Today innovations play an important role in all areas of our lives. And marketing is not an exception. So, the marketers make innovative and personalized solutions to create loyal customers. In this connection, in the present conditions the development of innovative customer loyalty program is one of the priorities of any company. Инновации в различных сферах деятельности играют важн...

  15. Customer Consumption Logging

    OpenAIRE

    Vižintin, Matija

    2014-01-01

    A major Slovenian public utility needed an application that would facilitate its customers to insert gas consumption data on its measurement places. We developed a web application to automatically retrieve gas consumption data. This automated data retrieval solution was developed to allow consumers to provide consumption data to the system operator in an electronic and secure way. We put a big effort in application security aspect, since it had to be assured on every communication layer, beca...

  16. Customized CMOS wavefront sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, D. W. L.; Vdovin, G.; Rocha, J.G.; Iordanov, V.; Loktev, M.; Sarro, P.

    2002-01-01

    We report on an integrated Hartmann wavefront sensor (WFS) using passive-pixel architecture and pixels clustered as position-sensitive detectors for dynamic wavefront analysis. This approach substitutes a conventional imager, such as a CCD or CMOS imager, by a customized detector, thus improving the overall speed performance. CMOS (complementary-metal- oxide-semiconductor) technology enables on-chip integration of several analog and digital circuitry. The sensor performance depends on the fea...

  17. CERTS customer adoption model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio, F. Javier; Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Hamachi,Kristina S.

    2000-03-01

    This effort represents a contribution to the wider distributed energy resources (DER) research of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS, http://certs.lbl.gov) that is intended to attack and, hopefully, resolve the technical barriers to DER adoption, particularly those that are unlikely to be of high priority to individual equipment vendors. The longer term goal of the Berkeley Lab effort is to guide the wider technical research towards the key technical problems by forecasting some likely patterns of DER adoption. In sharp contrast to traditional electricity utility planning, this work takes a customer-centric approach and focuses on DER adoption decision making at, what we currently think of as, the customer level. This study reports on Berkeley Lab's second year effort (completed in Federal fiscal year 2000, FY00) of a project aimed to anticipate patterns of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER). Marnay, et al., 2000 describes the earlier FY99 Berkeley Lab work. The results presented herein are not intended to represent definitive economic analyses of possible DER projects by any means. The paucity of data available and the importance of excluded factors, such as environmental implications, are simply too important to make such an analysis possible at this time. Rather, the work presented represents a demonstration of the current model and an indicator of the potential to conduct more relevant studies in the future.

  18. Customer Integration during Innovation Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex

    2012-01-01

    To stay viable, companies need to increase their innovation development investments over time. However, successful innovation development also cannot happen without customers, and thus companies seek opportunities to enhance their knowledge of current and future customer needs. As a result of...... companies’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with customers, research has investigated the importance of firm–customer interaction during innovation development. However, despite valuable insights into the performance-enhancing effects of customer integration, research has thus far overlooked...... the activities companies should engage in when integrating customers during innovation development. Thus, this study investigates how and when customer-oriented companies engage in customer interaction during innovation development. Using a multiple case study design, this study examines four...

  19. Organisational effectiveness and customer satisfaction:

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrož Milan; Praprotnik Martina

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a test of the relationship between organizational culture as a crucial indicator of organizational effectiveness and customer satisfaction using service-unit data from two health resorts. Ensuring survival of the service organisation in the long run requires adaptations which are oriented towards achieving maximum customer satisfaction. This study intended to unveil the effect organisational factors have on customer service orientation from the customer and employee point ...

  20. Customer Intimacy in Mobile Retail

    OpenAIRE

    Míček, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The master thesis deals with the topic of customer intimacy in mobile telecommunications and describes how the concept of a value-based strategic approach called "customer intimacy" can be applied in telecommunications industry, illustrated on an example of a mobile operator customer relationship lifecycle model. The goal of the thesis is to evaluate mobile telecommunications industry potential for application of the value discipline of customer intimacy and illustrate a high-level framework ...

  1. Risk management in customs control

    OpenAIRE

    Drobot, Elena; Klevleeva, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    The particularities of risk-management system implementation within customs control are discussed in the article. The authors single out the elements of risk-management system, evaluate effectiveness of risk-management in customs control. The main reasons for non-implementation of risk-management system in customs control are described, as well. Particular attention is paid to the benefits of customs risk management.

  2. Exploring Customer Value Formation: A Customer Dominant Logic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Voima, PÀivi; Heinonen, Kristina; Strandvik, Tore

    2010-01-01

    This paper extends current discussions about value creation and proposes a customer dominant value perspective. A customer-dominant marketing logic positions the customer in the center, rather than the service provider/producer or the interaction or the system. The focus is shifted from the companyÂŽs service processes involving the customer, to the customerÂŽs multi-contextual value formation, involving the company. It is argued that value is not always an active process of creation; instead...

  3. Remote control: Decommissioning RTGs [radioisotope theromelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several hundred radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) are deployed along the Russian Federation's Arctic coast to power remote lighthouses and navigation beacons. Similar RTGs were also used as power sources in other remote locations in the Russian Federation and elsewhere in the former Soviet Union. All Russian RTG's have out-lived their lifespan and are in need of decommissioning. The RTGs typically contain one or more radionuclide heat sources (RHS) each with an activity of thousands of TBq of strontium-90. This means that they are Category 1 sources as defined in the IAEA international 'Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources'. According to the Federal Atomic Energy Agency of the Russian Federation (Rosatom), there are 651 RTGs at various locations in the Russian Federation which are subject to decommissioning or replacement with alternative sources of energy. The Norwegian Government has played a significant role in international efforts, fully cooperating with Russian authorities to safely decommission RTGs and provide alternative power sources. Norway has actively supported improvement of nuclear safety and security in northwest Russia for more then ten years. Over this period, the Norwegian Government has spent approximately $150 million on a variety of industrial projects, including specific improvements in radioactive waste treatment and storage, physical security, and infrastructure support. The national authority, the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), takes an active part advising the Government regarding prioritization and quality assurance of all these activities. In addition, the Plan of Action places great emphasis on adequate regulatory supervision. Accordingly, the NRPA programme includes a variety of regulatory support projects. These are designed to assist the Russian authorities in ensuring that work is properly carried out within the framework of Russian law, taking into account international

  4. Repeat Customer Success in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, Melissa M.; Traub, Sarah M.

    2013-01-01

    Four multi-session research-based programs were offered by two Extension specialist in one rural Missouri county. Eleven participants who came to multiple Extension programs could be called "repeat customers." Based on the total number of participants for all four programs, 25% could be deemed as repeat customers. Repeat customers had…

  5. Reforming Customs Clearance in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Manzoor

    2010-01-01

    Simple, fast, transparent customs clearance procedures encourage trade-and the resulting tariffs and related taxes raise government revenue and stimulate economic development. After outsourcing failed to make customs more efficient or increase revenue, in 2002 Pakistan began pursuing a modern single window system for customs clearance. In 2005 the system was introduced at the port of Karac...

  6. Energizing Companies through Customer Compliments

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfelsberger, Petra; Bruch, Heike; Herhausen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    While complaint management has received much attention, customer compliments and their systematic handling have been largely ignored. Based on two empirical studies, this article suggests that customer compliments bear great potential for benefiting firms, and gives recommendations on how managers can enable, stimulate, and amplify positive customer feedback.

  7. Radioisotope fueled pulsed power generation system for propulsion and electrical power for deep space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Troy

    Space exploration missions to the moon, Mars, and other celestial bodies have allowed for great scientific leaps to enhance our knowledge of the universe; yet the astronomical cost of these missions limits their utility to only a few select agencies. Reducing the cost of exploratory space travel will give rise to a new era of exploration, where private investors, universities, and world governments can send satellites to far off planets and gather important data. By using radioisotope power sources and thermal storage devices, a duty cycle can be introduced to extract large amounts of energy in short amounts of time, allowing for efficient space travel. The same device can also provide electrical power for subsystems such as communications, drills, lasers, or other components that can provide valuable scientific information. This project examines the use of multiple radioisotope sources combined with a thermal capacitor using Phase Change Materials (PCMs) which can collect energy over a period of time. The result of this design culminates in a variety of possible spacecraft with their own varying costs, transit times, and objectives. Among the most promising are missions to Mars which cost less than 17M, missions that can provide power to satellite constellations for decades, or missions that can deliver large, Opportunity-sized (185kg) payloads to mars for less than 53M. All made available to a much wider range of customer with commercially available satellite launches from earth. The true cost of such progress though lies in the sometimes substantial increase in transit times for these missions.

  8. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy

  9. Radioisotope techniques for the study of protein turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before the era of isotope-labelled proteins, investigations of protein metabolism were largely based on nitrogen balance studies. They were widely applied in both animal experiments and clinical investigations. In 1959, researchers began using isotope-labelled proteins to study protein metabolism. Examples of radioisotope techniques for the study of protein metabolism are examined in this paper. 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. Optimization of water treatment facility by using radioisotope tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Jung, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    In order to get the optimization of conventional water treatment facility, radioisotope tracer technique was applied. It is desirable to set the baffles inside of mixing basin for the enhancement of mixing effect. It was appeared that most of flocs were settled down within 60 - 70 % of total length of sedimentation basin even with high flow rate. (author). 2 tabs., 32 figs.

  11. States and future trends of the studies of radioisotopic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history and current situation of radioisotopic batteries are reviewed, with the emphasis on the introduction of various power-generation mechanisms by nuclear decay energy. The newly developed theories and the new progress are presented. More than that, an insight is given into the prospect and future direction of this field

  12. Basic principles and developments of the radioisotope powered voltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles and some kinds of voltaic effect type radioisotope batteries are reviewed. This paper is focused on the micro-batteries based on radio-voltaic effect, which are widely used in micro-electromechanical systems (MEMs) and cardiac pacemakers. The prospects of such radio-voltaic isotope batteries are also reported. (authors)

  13. Future Supply of Medical Radioisotopes for the UK Report 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Neilly, Brian; Ballinger, Jim; Buscombe, John; Clarke, Rob; Ellis, Beverley; Flux, Glenn; Fraser, Louise; Hall, Adrian; Owen, Hywel; Paterson, Audrey; Perkins, Alan; Scarsbrook, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The UK has no research nuclear reactors and relies on the importation of 99Mo and other medical radioisotopes (e.g. Iodine-131) from overseas (excluding PET radioisotopes). The UK is therefore vulnerable not only to global shortages, but to problems with shipping and importation of the products. In this context Professor Erika Denton UK national Clinical Director for Diagnostics requested that the British Nuclear Medicine Society lead a working group with stakeholders including representatives from the Science & Technology Facilities Council (STFC) to prepare a report. The group had a first meeting on 10 April 2013 followed by a working group meeting with presentations on 9th September 2013 where the scope of the work required to produce a report was agreed. The objectives of the report are: to describe the status of the use of medical radioisotopes in the UK; to anticipate the potential impact of shortages for the UK; to assess potential alternative avenues of medical radioisotope production for the UK m...

  14. The use of radioisotopes for determination of complex equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes can be used for determination of complex equilibria in solution, provided this solution is in equilibrium with another phase. The most versatile systems for studying aqueous solutions use solvent-extraction and ion-exchange methods. These two methods more seen be to universally practical for determining complex equilibria than EMF, spectrophotometric and other more conventional ones. (author)

  15. Radioisotope Production Plan and Strategy of Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kye Hong; Lee, Jun Sig [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This reactor will be located at Kijang, Busan, Korea and be dedicated to produce mainly medical radioisotopes. Tc-99m is very important isotope for diagnosis and more than 80% of radiation diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine depend on this isotope. There were, however, several times of insecure production of Mo-99 due to the shutdown of major production reactors worldwide. OECD/NEA is leading member countries to resolve the shortage of this isotope and trying to secure the international market of Mo-99. The radioisotope plan and strategy of Kijang Research Reactor (KJRR) should be carefully established to fit not only the domestic but also international demand on Mo-99. The implementation strategy of 6 principles of HLG-MR should be established that is appropriate to national environments. Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning and Ministry of Health and welfare should cooperate well to organize the national radioisotope supply structure, to set up the reasonable and competitive pricing of radioisotopes, and to cope with the international supply strategy.

  16. Monte Carlo Radiation Analysis of a Spacecraft Radioisotope Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M.

    1994-01-01

    A Monte Carlo statistical computer analysis was used to create neutron and photon radiation predictions for the General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS RTG). The GPHS RTG is being used on several NASA planetary missions. Analytical results were validated using measured health physics data.

  17. Spallation production of neutron deficient radioisotopes in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamriska, D.J.; Peterson, E.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carty, J. [US Department of Energy, Office of Isotope Production and Distribution, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The United States Department of Energy produces a number of neutron deficient radioisotopes by high energy proton induced spallation reactions in accelerators at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico and Brookhaven National Laboratory in New York. Research isotopes are also recovered from targets irradiated at TRIUMF in British Columbia, Canada. The radioisotopes recovered are distributed for use in nuclear medicine, environmental research, physics research, and industry worldwide. In addition to the main product line of Sr-82 from either Mo or Rb targets, Cu-67 from ZnO targets, and Ge-68 from RbBr targets, these irradiation facilities also produce some unique isotopes in quantities not available from any other source such as Be-10, Al-26, Mg-28, Si-32, El-44, Fe-52, Gd-248, and Hg-194. We will describe the accelerator irradiation facilities at the Los Alamos and Brookhaven National Laboratories. The high level radiochemical processing facilities at Los Alamos and brief chemical processes from Los Alamos and Brookhaven will be described. Chemical separation techniques have been developed to recover the radioisotopes of interest in both high radiochemical purity and yield and at the same time trying to reduce or eliminate the generation of mixed waste. nearly 75 neutron deficient radioisotopes produced in spallation targets have been produced and distributed to researchers around the world since the inception of the program in 1974

  18. Preparation of an annual report for a consolidated radioisotope licence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consolidated radioisotope licence is a single license issued by the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) to an institution having many users of radioactive materials. The licence is issued when the institution has fulfilled the requirements set by the AECB and has implemented policies and procedures which will ensure the maintenance of an effective radiation safety program. The consolidated licence is retained only if the results of AECB inspections are satisfactory -- or remedial action is taken promptly -- and if the institution reports regularly about the status of its radiation safety program. One aspect of this reporting procedure is an annual report. This guide describes the information that the AECB requires in the annual report. The guide applies primarily to universities and research institutions where a wide variety of radioisotope uses take place. The guide does not affect most other institutions or facilities, either because the nature and extent of their operations with radioactive materials do not lend themselves to consolidated licensing or because they are not licensed by the Radioisotopes and Transportation Division. (For example, this guide does not apply to reactors, to accelerators, or to waste management or uranium mining or refining facilities.) The information in the annual report should be specific to the consolidated radioisotope licence. Incidents, staff exposures, and waste associated with accelerators, research reactors, and waste management facilities should be excluded from this report unless they affected activities under the consolidated licence

  19. Detectors for medical radioisotope imaging: demands and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, M. I.; Chepel, V.

    2004-01-01

    Radioisotope imaging is used to obtain information on biochemical processes in living organisms, being a tool of increasing importance for medical diagnosis. The improvement and expansion of these techniques depend on the progress attained in several areas, such as radionuclide production, radiopharmaceuticals, radiation detectors and image reconstruction algorithms. This review paper will be concerned only with the detector technology.

  20. Mycoremediation. Fungus-based soil remediation of radioisotope contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungal mycelia in soil can hyperaccumulate radioisotopes at up to 25,000 Bq per kg of mushrooms. Mycelium Group International (MGI) here introduces mycelial radioactive decontamination techniques (mycoremediation) that can potentially restore safe soil levels on Fukushima farmland in less than ten years with high efficiency, without loss of topsoil, and less expensively than current destructive methods. (author)

  1. UNDERSTANDING CUSTOMERS - PROFILING AND SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Andrei SCRIDON

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In any industry, the first step to finding and creating profitable customers isdetermining what drives profitability. This leads to better prospecting andmore successful customer relationship management. Any company cansegment and profile their customer base to uncover those profit drivers usingthe knowledge of their customers, products, and markets. Or they can usedata-driven techniques to find natural clusters in their customer or prospectbase. Whatever the method, the process will lead to knowledge andunderstanding that is critical to maintaining a competitive edge

  2. Customer interruption cost and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eua-Arporn, B.; Bisarnbutra, S. [Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-12-31

    Results of a comprehensive study on short-term direct impacts and consumer interruption costs, incurred as a result of power supply interruption, were discussed. The emphasis was on questionnaire development, general responses and the average customer damage function of some selected sectors. The customer damage function was established for each category of customers (agriculture, industry, mining, wholesale, retail merchandising, residential, etc) as well as for different locations. Results showed that the average customer damage function depended mostly on customer category. Size and location were not significant factors. 5 refs., 7 tabs.

  3. MASS CUSTOMIZATION and PRODUCT MODELS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Carsten; Malis, Martin

    2003-01-01

    to the product. Through the application of a mass customization strategy, companies have a unique opportunity to create increased customer satisfaction. In a customized production, knowledge and information have to be easily accessible since every product is a unique combination of information. If the dream...... of a customized alternative instead of a uniform mass-produced product shall become a reality, then the cross-organizational efficiency must be kept at a competitive level. This is the real challenge for mass customization. A radical restructuring of both the internal and the external knowledge management systems...

  4. Control of radioisotopes and radiation sources in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioisotopes and radiation sources are extensively used in Indonesia in medicine, industry, mining, agriculture and research. These materials are controlled by the regulatory authority, according to established legal procedures. The Nuclear Energy Control Board of Indonesia (BAPETEN), which was established in 1998 through the Nuclear Energy Act No. 10/1997, is entrusted with the control of any application of nuclear energy, including the application of radioisotopes and radiation sources, through regulation, licensing and inspection. The control is aimed to assure welfare, security and peace, the safety and health of workers and the public, and environmental protection. The number of licences issued to date is around 2400, consisting of 1600 licences for radioisotopes and radiation sources used in hospitals, 347 in radiography, 256 in industry, 53 in mining, and the rest in many other areas such as research and agriculture. A licence can cover one or more radioisotopes or radiation sources, depending on the location of the user institution. These radioisotopes and radiation sources are Co-60, Cs-137, Ir-192, Ra-226, Am-241, Sr-90, Kr-85, Pm-147, linear accelerator and X-ray, and short half-life radioisotopes such as I-125, I-131 and Tc-99m. There are 10 LINACs, 27 X-ray medicines, 61 radioisotope devices for Co-60 and Cs-137, and 10 mHDR Ir-192 for therapeutic purposes currently used in Indonesia and some Ra-226 in storage. Any activity related to the application of nuclear energy is required to be conducted in a manner which observes safety and security. According to the legal requirements, each user has to employ at least one radiation safety officer. To improve the control of the application of radiation sources and radioactive material in the country, BAPETEN introduced some new approaches to the users, including regular dialogues with radiation safety officers and the management of the users, requalification for radiation protection officers twice in five

  5. The impact of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. van Triest (Sander); M.J.G. Bun (Maurice); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); M.J.A. Vernooij (Maarten)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effects of customer-specific marketing expenses on customer retention and customer profitability in a business-to-business setting. Using data from a company providing hygiene services, we look at the impact of a hitherto unstudied type of expense targeted at individual cust

  6. Managing Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    Dodds, William B

    1999-01-01

    This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...

  7. Making Product Customization Profitable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Boelskifte, Per; Hansen, Christian Lindschou

    2010-01-01

    The main result presented in this paper is the Framework for Product Family Master Plan. This framework supports the identification of a product architecture for companies that customize products and services. The framework has five coherent aspects, the market, product assortment, supply-production......, organization and work processes. One of the unique results is that these aspects are linked, which make it possible to make explicit recommendations for an architecture (the way a product family should be structured with clear interfaces), architecture elements and consequences. By means of a case study it is...... shown that the potential EBIT (Earning Before Interests and Taxes) improvement of the case company is 10%....

  8. Achieving customer choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Association of Major Power Consumers in Ontario (AMPCO) is composed of 66 members representing the largest industrial consumers of electricity in Ontario. AMPCO's goal is to achieve competitive rates and a reliable supply of electricity in the province. This paper explains AMPCO's minimum conditions that customers should expect in Ontario's new restructured electricity marketplace. A review of the White Paper and what AMPCO considers to be its major weaknesses, namely the creation of one single giant generating company, (Genco), problems regarding stranded debt, market regulation, and increased volatility in the marketplace are also addressed

  9. TOTAL QUALITY CUSTOMER SATISFACTION MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Cruz Álvarez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business environment, all organizations are required to focus on their customers in order to fully understand their needs. There is a need to drive and engage strategic actions in order to close any potentials gaps between customer´s expectations and manufacture´s deliverables. Current customer satisfaction theory appears to be excluded from a holistic model that broadly covers the extent of customer satisfaction concept.This article empathizes the need of an integrated customer satisfaction model that the organization can use as a strategic platform to increase sales, business performance, branding, market share, and customer loyalty, based on specific methodology that translates customer needs into a reliable business plan. 

  10. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dien, N.N.; Quang, N.H. [Nucealr Research Institute, Dalat, (Viet Nam)

    1997-10-01

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  11. Applications of radioisotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowadays, in Vietnam radioisotopes have been used very widely in various socio-economic branches, especially in industry and healthcare. Applications of radioisotopes have significant meaning in economic development, people health protection, as well as in scientific research. In this paper, the present status and main applications of radiation and radioactive isotopes in industry and healthcare in Vietnam are reported. In order to control and monitor industrial processes, nucleonic control systems and radioactive tracer techniques have been utilized. Actually, sealed source applications are popular in Vietnam industry. A number of nuclear control devices and gauges have been used in the various industrial factories, such as liquid level gauges in steel industry, cement and beverage factories; density and moisture gauges in paper industry, etc. Tracer technique and sealed source applications have also been utilized in industrial production plants and in trouble-shooting in the petroleum industry. For medicine purposes, two departments of nuclear medicine were primarily established at the beginning of the 1970s. At the present time, a number of nuclear medicine departments have been set up and they have been equipped with advanced equipment. Main activities are focused on thyroid function studies, nuclear cardiology, brain scans, gastrointestinal studies, bone scans, etc. Since march 1984 Dalat nuclear research reactor of nominal power of 500 kW has been reconstructed and put into operation. This reactor is unique in Vietnam and has become an important scientific tool for development of nuclear techniques and radioisotope applications for socio-economic progress. Thanks to this important scientific tool, a variety of radioisotopes for medicine and industry applications as well as for scientific research has been produced. Utilization of the Dalat research reactor for radioisotope production is also summarized in this paper

  12. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schenter, R.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted.

  13. Production capabilities in US nuclear reactors for medical radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of reactor-produced radioisotopes in the United States for use in medical research and nuclear medicine has traditionally depended on facilities which are an integral part of the US national laboratories and a few reactors at universities. One exception is the reactor in Sterling Forest, New York, originally operated as part of the Cintichem (Union Carbide) system, which is currently in the process of permanent shutdown. Since there are no industry-run reactors in the US, the national laboratories and universities thus play a critical role in providing reactor-produced radioisotopes for medical research and clinical use. The goal of this survey is to provide a comprehensive summary of these production capabilities. With the temporary shutdown of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) in November 1986, the radioisotopes required for DOE-supported radionuclide generators were made available at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR). In March 1988, however, the HFBR was temporarily shut down which forced investigators to look at other reactors for production of the radioisotopes. During this period the Missouri University Research Reactor (MURR) played an important role in providing these services. The HFIR resumed routine operation in July 1990 at 85 MW power, and the HFBR resumed operation in June 1991, at 30 MW power. At the time of the HFBR shutdown, there was no available comprehensive overview which could provide information on status of the reactors operating in the US and their capabilities for radioisotope production. The obvious need for a useful overview was thus the impetus for preparing this survey, which would provide an up-to-date summary of those reactors available in the US at both the DOE-funded national laboratories and at US universities where service irradiations are currently or expected to be conducted

  14. The mismanagement of customer loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinartz, Werner; Kumar, V

    2002-07-01

    Who wouldn't want loyal customers? Surely they should cost less to serve, they'd be willing to pay more than other customers, and they'd actively market your company by word of mouth, right? Maybe not. Careful study of the relationship between customer loyalty and profits plumbed from 16,000 customers in four companies' databases tells a different story. The authors found no evidence to support any of these claims. What they did find was that the link between customers and profitability was more complicated because customers fall into four groups, not two. Simply put: Not all loyal customers are profitable, and not all profitable customers are loyal. Traditional tools for segmenting customers do a poor job of identifying that latter group, causing companies to chase expensively after initially profitable customers who hold little promise of future profits. The authors suggest an alternative approach, based on well-established "event-history modeling" techniques, that more accurately predicts future buying probabilities. Armed with such a tool, marketers can correctly identify which customers belong in which category and market accordingly. The challenge in managing customers who are profitable but disloyal--the "butterflies"--is to milk them for as much as you can while they're buying from you. A softly-softly approach is more appropriate for the profitable customers who are likely to stay loyal--your "true friends." As for highly loyal but not very profitable customers--the "barnacles"--you need to find out if they have the potential to spend more than they currently do. And, of course, for the "strangers"--those who generate no loyalty and no profits--the answer is simple: Identify early and don't invest anything. PMID:12140857

  15. Customer-driven competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro's customer-driven strategy, recently approved by Hydro's Executive Board, was described. The strategy is founded on the following components: (1) the dissolution of the Ontario power pool, i.e., the loss of Hydro's franchise monopoly on generation, leaving only power transmission in the hands of the Corporation, (2) divestment of Ontario Hydro's system operations and market operations functions to a new, independent Crown corporation called the Central Market Operator, (3) functional and organizational unbundling of Ontario Hydro into three signature businesses, Genco, Transco, and Retailco, and in the latter two, the functional unbundling of wires from sales and services, (4) a fully commercial Ontario Hydro with normal corporate powers, and (5) a corporate strategy for Ontario Hydro to grow in businesses in an open, symmetrical North American energy market. According to Ontario Hydro management this will allow competition and choice to all customers, have a disciplining effect on prices, and give rise to a retail market of new products and services, while at the same time preserve and enhance the value of public investment in the Corporation

  16. Challenges and opportunities in multichannel customer management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neslin, Scott A.; Grewal, Dhruv; Leghorn, Robert; Shankar, Venkatesh; Teerling, Marije L.; Thomas, Jacquelyn S.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    Multichannel customer management is the design, deployment, coordination, and evaluation of channels through which firms and customers interact, with the goal of enhancing customer value through effective customer acquisition, retention, and development. The authors identify five major challenges pr

  17. Customs and trade security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomavičiūtė, Danutė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to identify the most significant and the most risky areas of the business activities’ assessment and to create a new model of the customs audit. In the article the role of customs seeking to facilitate legitimate trade has been revealed. The influence of customs on the public interests‘ protection and social as well as economic development was analysed. After analysing the customs activities monitoring and managing the international flow of goods, customs contribution ensuring the increased security of goods supply network was revealed. The concepts of the business activities’ assessment have been examined, a comparative analysis of the business activities assessment’s models has been conducted, the areas of business enterprises activities’ assessment suitable for the customs audit’s model have been identified. After studying the business enterprises activities assessment’s models and the customs audit’s models of various countries – pointing out the key areas of business activities’ assessment – a theoretically reasoned and empirically based customs audit’s model which complemented the existing customs audit’s theoretical and methodological basis has been introduced. The importance of AEO (Authorised Economic Operator customs model – being a tool of enterprises activities’ assessment – was investigated.

  18. The influence of customer relationship management on customer citizenship behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Thijs, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this research was to investigate whether or not customer relationship management had a significant influence on customer citizenship behaviors. This master thesis focuses on four different kinds of methods to invest in CRM. These are direct mailing, preferential treatment, interpersonal communication and offering tangible rewards. Of course, it is also important that the customers notice the efforts that a company is doing for them. This is called the perceived relationsh...

  19. Reviewing customer value literature: Comparing and contrasting customer values perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Aija Paananen; Marko Seppänen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The paper provides a comprehensive and up-to-date literature review of customer value concepts and distinguishes complex customer value from the various perspectives. It structures the themes and dimensions between the various approaches along the customer value main lines in the literature. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current literature and illustrates different types of value representations through a case example. Findings: Based on a comprehensive literature re...

  20. customer satisfaction, customer relationship management, Fuzzy Delphi, system dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Habib A. Mirghafoori; Ali Morovati Sharifabadi; Ensiyeh Taki

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors which are affecting customers satisfaction of Mobarake steel complex . Since there is a wide rang of factors affecting customer satisfaction,this paper pays attention to those factors which have CRM approach. The investigation society of the research is the marketing experts of Moabarake steel complex who have direct relationship with customers.At first, the factors were identified by experts using Fuzzy Delphi method and then the relationship between facto...

  1. Defining Customer Boundaries: The First Steps In Customer Portfolio Management

    OpenAIRE

    Pardo, C.; Salle, R

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we focus on the relationships between a supplier and its customers through an analysis of customer portfolio methods. Indeed, several methods of customer portfolio management have been proposed in the literature for fifteen years. These methods present some strong similarities, namely the choice of two distinct dimensions, choice of different criteria qualifying those dimensions, and use of a matrix representation. But, one of the problems when using these methods, remains the c...

  2. Do LTE service customers have different customer loyalty determinants?

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Wonsuk; Kwon, Youngsun

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of customer loyalty in the Korean mobile telecommunications market with the emphasis on customer satisfaction and switching costs as major predictors of customer loyalty. South Korea has now become one of the world's most leading mobile service markets with the launch of its advanced LTE services; the LTE service subscription rate in Korea has exceeded 50% as of November 2013. This raises a question as to whether LTE service subscribers are different from ...

  3. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio-isotopes required in medicine (nuclear medicine, neurology, cardiology, orthopedics) need a deep reflection and a scientific analysis of the problems related to the human health. The utilisation of radioisotopes in other fields such as chemistry, agriculture, industry, safety, earth sciences and environmental physics is also of great importance. In pharmaceutical companies, radioisotopes used in a laboratory of imaging for small animal to check the efficiency of drugs in vivo is touched upon in this presentation. Radioisotopes are also needed for different activities in platform dedicated to the training of radio pharmacist and radio biologist. The availability of radioisotopes in a research center such as the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (NCNST) will improve the activity of existing skills and serve the country's development in the field of biomedical research. Tunisia has two projects of cyclotrons facilities: the first one is in the private sector and the second one is proposed by the NCNST. The realization of these projects requires a period of time estimated to two years for the feasibility study and two years more for constitution. In the meantime, it is necessary to establish a master's degree in radio-pharmacy / radio-biology to provide skills that may activate cyclotron facilities. One last test phase lasts 6 months to a year. The work within a cyclotron facility requires a rigorous and a lot of discipline (a little bit military) ordered by the risk of the isotope radioactive half-life and its radiation activity. Thus, it is necessary to provide to the staff, various training required for the functioning of the cyclotron. It is useful to insist on the importance of scientist's team which is going to put on the cyclotron and which consists of: radio-pharmacists, radio physicists experts in radiation protection, and engineer's operators of cyclotrons. It is useful to attract the attention that the specialties in the field of the

  4. "Sprachpraxis" and Mass Customization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conor Geiselbrechtinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The language component of a degree in English in Germany, or "Sprachpraxis" as it is known in some universities, has in recent years faced a number challenges. Not only are German universities adapting to the B.A./M.A. system but also the very nature of teaching English globally, primarily teaching English as a Lingua Franca (E.L.F., has had profound effects. This paper aims to explore the most salient questions that have arisen with regard to issues such the role of the native speaker (NS, identity, culture and language. Further, the question will be discussed as to how "mass customization" may be directly applied to the German university. While the introduction of such a system is not without its problems, it could be beneficial to the student, the practitioner and the university as a whole.

  5. Customer experiences and expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Customer experiences and expectations from competition and cogeneration in the power industry were reviewed by Charles Morton, Director of Energy at CPC International, by describing Casco's decision to get into cogeneration in the early 1990s in three small corn milling plants in Cardinal, London and Port Colborne, Ontario, mainly as result of the threat of a 40 per cent increase in power prices. He stressed that cost competitiveness of cogeneration is entirely site-specific, but it is generally more attractive in larger facilities that operate 24 hours a day, where grid power is expensive or unreliable. Because it is reliable, cogeneration holds out the prospect of increased production-up time, as well as offering a hedge against higher energy costs, reducing the company's variable costs when incoming revenues fall short of costs, and providing an additional tool in head-to-head competition

  6. Energy providers: customer expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deregulation of the gas and electric power industries, and how it will impact on customer service and pricing rates was discussed. This paper described the present situation, reviewed core competencies, and outlined future expectations. The bottom line is that major energy consumers are very conscious of energy costs and go to great lengths to keep them under control. At the same time, solutions proposed to reduce energy costs must benefit all classes of consumers, be they industrial, commercial, institutional or residential. Deregulation and competition at an accelerated pace is the most likely answer. This may be forced by external forces such as foreign energy providers who are eager to enter the Canadian energy market. It is also likely that the competition and convergence between gas and electricity is just the beginning, and may well be overshadowed by other deregulated industries as they determine their core competencies

  7. Process Improvement: Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cull, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing the comment section of patient satisfaction surveys, Clark Memorial Hospital in Jeffersonville, IN went through a thoughtful process to arrive at an experience that patients said they wanted. Two Lean Six Sigma tools were used--the Voice of the Customer (VoC) and the Affinity Diagram. Even when using these tools, a facility will not be able to accomplish everything the patient may want. Guidelines were set and rules were established for the Process Improvement Team in order to lessen frustration, increase focus, and ultimately be successful. The project's success is driven by the team members carrying its message back to their areas. It's about ensuring that everyone is striving to improve the patients' experience by listening to what they say is being done right and what they say can be done better. And then acting on it. PMID:26571974

  8. Customer Touch Point Histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, Suzanne C.; Haurum, Helle

    Customers’ engagement behaviours are considered an important source of value to the firm. So far, the discussion has mainly been conceptual and focused on the company’s perspective. By adopting the customer’s perspective we investigated what drive and explain customers’ engagement behaviours as...... reactions to their service encounters over time with a firm, using in-depth interviews. We found the following key factors driving and explaining customers’ engagement behaviours: (1) mundane product and service environment indeed drives customers’ engagement behaviours and mediating capabilities are...... identified, (2) customers produce (positive) value for the firm through engagement behaviours when perceived alignment between firm-initiated experience and product/service is present, and (3) transactions matter and drive (other) engagement behaviours....

  9. Customer Loyalty in Internet Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aysha Fathima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. Pre analysis data screening was done to ensure that the study is fit for further statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship of constructs on customer loyalty. Results of the analysis identified customer satisfaction; bank’s reputation trust and habit were having significant influence on customer loyalty. Among the four factors, reputation of the bank and its corporate image is found to be more influential. Based on the findings, the implications and suggestions are made.

  10. Predictive Systems for Customer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Ravi; Albert, Sam; Singh, Vinod Kumar; Kannan, Pallipuram V.

    With the coming of age of web as a mainstream customer service channel, B2C companies have invested substantial resources in enhancing their web presence. Today customers can interact with a company, not only through the traditional phone channel but also through chat, email, SMS or web self-service. Each of these channels is best suited for some services and ill-matched for others. Customer service organizations today struggle with the challenge of delivering seamlessly integrated services through these different channels. This paper will evaluate some of the key challenges in multi-channel customer service. It will address the challenge of creating the right channel mix i.e. providing the right choice of channels for a given customer/behavior/issue profile. It will also provide strategies for optimizing the performance of a given channel in creating the right customer experience.

  11. Mobile-Customer Identity Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhan; XU Ji-sheng; XU Min; SUN Hong

    2005-01-01

    By utilizing artificial intelligence and pattern recognition techniques, we propose an integrated mobile-customer identity recognition approach in this paper, based on customer's behavior characteristics extracted from the customer information database. To verify the effectiveness of this approach, a test has been run on the dataset consisting of 1 000 customers in 3 consecutive months. The result is compared with the real dataset in the fourth month consisting of 162 customers, which has been set as the customers for recognition. The high correct rate of the test (96.30%), together with 1.87% of the judge-by-mistake rate and 7.82% of the leaving-out rate, demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach.

  12. Detecting drugs at customs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle of measuring ions by their drift times at atmospheric pressure is not new, but it has been only recently that ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) has been realised as a powerful method of identifying certain molecules of importance at low concentrations. The impetus has arisen initially from the desire of the military to detect chemical warfare agents in the field but more recently has been taken up by police and customs services to monitor drugs of abuse and explosives. The Australian Customs Service (Border Technology) has purchased a number of IM spectrometers and has installed them in all international ports and airports. The first cases of persons apprehended for importation of controlled substances with evidence from IMS have appeared in the courts and the legal system is coming to terms with this new forensic tool. Ion mobility spectrometry may be thought of as time of flight mass spectrometry at atmospheric pressure. The presence of gas gives the possibility of a number of ion-molecule reactions, and the time taken to traverse drift tubes of a few centimetres at a field of typically 25 kV m-1 is around 10-20 ms. Ions are generated by a 63Ni source, which ionises the carrier gas (dry air), which in turn ionises the injected analyte. Detection limits in the low ppb range are found for many substances. Details of sample collection, sensitivity and limitations of the ion mobility spectrometry are given. Extensions to IMS include the use of Fourier Transform method, electro spray and neural networks

  13. What Customer Orders Really Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Robert J; Larry J. Rankin

    1998-01-01

    Manufacturing companies facing significant pricing competition need customer cost informations systems (CCISs) that reliably measure the resource costs of serving individual customers. Prices are often set by the market and competition, particularly from foreign imports, and severely restricts marketingÕs ability to adjust prices to cover costs. It is important that marketing personnel have access to accurate product and customer cost information. With such information, marketing personnel ca...

  14. Utility competition and residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  15. Customer experiences receiving investment services

    OpenAIRE

    Szepe, Sanna

    2015-01-01

    Today the customers are able to compare the products of the different services available easily and between service companies, the experience the customer receives has become more and more important. Banking services have experienced the same evolution than the other surrounding service companies, and the importance of more complicated advisory services is sought after, when simpler transactions are taken care by the customers themselves. Investment services are one of the highest profiti...

  16. Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition

    OpenAIRE

    Storubleva, Ekaterina; Milosch, Gregor; Neumann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Title: Volvo Trucks' Customer Value Proposition Authors: Ekaterina Storubleva, Gregor Milosch, Christian Neumann Tutor: Erik Hunter Date: May 2009 Keywords: Volvo Truck Corporation, truck industry, customer value, value drivers, retail strategy, communication, relationship marketing Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the general composition of Volvo Trucks' customer value proposition in Europe and to examine possible ways of enhancing it using Volvo's retailing strategy as a t...

  17. Customer Experience in Banking Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Michálková, Anna

    2015-01-01

    This thesis analyzes the field of Customer Experience. The goal is to apply these issues to the banking market and understand what role has the relationship between the bank and the customer due to the prosperity of the bank. The paper describes the current Czech banking market, its trends in recent years and segmentation of bank clients. One of the major changes on the Czech banking market concerns ever increasing competition between banks and increase competition for consumers. Customer Exp...

  18. Customer Loyalty in Internet Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Aysha Fathima; S. Muthumani

    2015-01-01

    In the era of challenges and cut throat competition in banking sector it has become inevitable for the banks to devise defensive strategies to retain their customers and build customer loyalty. The main aim of this study is to examine the factors affecting customer loyalty in online banks. To achieve this purpose, a detailed review of relevant literature was made and seven constructs were identified for the study. A survey was conducted and data was collected with a structured questionnaire. ...

  19. Custom-made ocular prosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar Gunaseelaraj; Suma Karthikeyan; Kumar, Mohan N.; T Balamurugan; Jagadeeshwaran, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    An ocular defect may affect a patient psychologically. An ocular prosthesis is given to uplift the patient psychologically and improve the confidence. Ocular prosthesis can be custom made or a stock shell. To improve the comfort and matching of the prosthesis with that of the adjacent natural eye an custom made ocular prosthesis is preferred. Different techniques are available to fabricate a custom ocular prosthesis, here we have used paper iris disk technique.

  20. Customer Behavior Clustering Using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongying; Su, Xiaolong

    In order to supply better service for network customers, deeply analyzing customers' behavior is required. This paper extracts three features from customers' network behavior which is divided into different categories, such as browsing news, downloading shared resources and real-time communications etc. Support vector machine is used to perform clustering, thanks to its fast and valid executing, especially in the situation of small datasets. Using the analysis results, we can make our applications and services more personalized and easier to be used.