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Sample records for adyacente al litoral

  1. Geomorfología de la zona costera adyacente al piedemonte occidental de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta entre los sectores de Pozos Colorados y el Río Córdoba, Caribe Colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Posada, B. O.; Idarraga García, J.; Guzman, G.

    2011-01-01

    Se llevó a cabo un estudio geomorfológico a escala 1:23000 de la zona costera adyacente al flanco occidental de la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (SNSM) entre el sector de Pozos Colorados (en las afueras de Santa Marta) y el río Córdoba. Esta zona se caracteriza por presentar geoformas de diversos orígenes que son producto de procesos tectónicos, denudativos y sedimentarios fluviales. Desde estse punto de vista se tienen Unidades de Origen Estructural-Denudativo, representadas por montañas y co...

  2. Disseny d'un parc eòlic offshore al litoral català

    OpenAIRE

    Ros Adellach, Cédric; Alonso Falip, Lluís

    2013-01-01

    En el present projecte es proposa l’estudi del disseny d’un parc eòlic offshore, situat a la costa catalana, amb l’objectiu de produir energia elèctrica neta per poder-la injectar a la xarxa de distribució elèctrica, i així aconseguir fomentar el respecte pel medi ambient, al mateix temps que es pal•lia la situació de dependència energètica que pateix el país envers els països veïns. El parc eòlic instal•lat constarà de 9 aerogeneradors amb una potència unitària de 6 MW, el que significa q...

  3. El litoral : naturalesa domada?

    OpenAIRE

    Serra, Jordi; Roca, Elisabet

    2004-01-01

    La singularitat del sistema litoral ens ve donada per la seva complexitat i per les relacions que s’estableixen entre els diferents subsistemes que el componen. Com a medi físic i biològic cal tenir present que els ecosistemes més productius i amb una biodiversitat més elevada del planeta, com són els aiguamolls i els esculls coralins, es troben a la franja litoral i concentren una important varietat de recursos genètics. Tanmateix, la seva funció esmorteïdora de l’energia marina protegeix le...

  4. TURISMO Y CUERPOS DESNUDOS Moda y culto al sol en el litoral marítimo argentino

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    Regina Schlüter

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Resumen: Los cambios en la estructura social que se observaron en Argentina después de la Primera Guerra Mundial le dieron a la mujer una mayor libertad de acción permitiéndole ingresar en el campo laboral, practicar deportes y participar del turismo. Esto tuvo un gran impacto en la moda de la época y modificó las formas de socialización lo que se observa en los destinos de sol y playa de la época. La vestimenta femenina que se caracterizaba por una extrema formalidad que no dejaba nada al descubierto fue dejando a la vista cada vez mayores partes del cuerpo y se comenzó a priorizar la comodidad. También la moda del bronceado jugó un rol preponderante en las costumbres de la época ya que se convirtió en un elemento importante de diferenciación social.

  5. Estudio de la germinación de las semillas de flora representativa de litoral de Galicia

    OpenAIRE

    Domínguez Martínez, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    La flora litoral desempeña una función capital en el mantenimiento de los sistemas costeros, uno de los ecosistemas más sensibles y vulnerables de nuestro territorio con diferentes tipos de hábitats de interés para conservación y/o prioritarios según la Directiva Hábitats europea; bien representados en Galicia (NW España). Se ha analizado la germinación de veintisiete especies características de hábitats de litoral atlántico, con el objetivo de contribuir al conocimiento de su ...

  6. Paisagem do litoral de Icaraí

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    José Falcão Sobrinho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho consta de uma análise da paisagem do litoral de Icaraí, localizada no município de Caucaia/Ce, distando, aproximadamente, vinte quilômetros de Fortaleza. Sabe-se que a paisagem apresenta-se sempre em constante evolução, e que neste processo dinâmico, seja por causas naturais, sociais ou integradas, cria e recria novas paisagens. O trabalho enfoca questões ligadas à especulação imobiliária influenciando de forma ativa na dinâmica da paisagem natural e cultural. Relata os prejuízos ao meio ambiente em seus componentes naturais e culturais, decorrentes do uso e ocupação do solo

  7. La construcción del espacio litoral : el caso de la costa de Cartagena

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alonso, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    El litoral ha constituido a lo largo de la historia una importante fuente de recursos económicos además de un punto estratégico para la defensa del territorio. El comercio, la pesca o la industria de la sal han propiciado la formación de poblaciones y ciudades al borde del mar. La costa funcionó como un ámbito defensivo, peligroso e insalubre durante siglos donde el mar modulaba el frente costero sin grandes interacciones con un entorno prácticamente deshabitado. A mediados del siglo XIX, las...

  8. Síndrome adyacente Síndrome adjacente Adjacent segment disease

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    Gustavo Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudiamos la incidencia de SDA quirúrgico de localización lumbar y los factores relacionados con el mismo. MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo de corte transversal. RESULTADOS: Encontramos 50 casos operados por SDA en 1662 cirugías realizadas, 530 en columna lumbar; incidencia 9,4%. Edad promedio 62 años. Síntoma principal: claudicación radicular (80%. Las Rx previas a la primera cirugía del nivel que sufrirá SDA: UCLA 1 (45% y 2 (27%; lordosis prerrevisión: 36° promedio y pos 44°. Prerrevisión: IP55°, VP26°, PS29° y posoperatoria IP56°, VP22° y PS34°. Desequilibrio sagital prerrevisión 60% y posoperatorio 27%, equilibrio coronal recuperado en los 2 casos. IRM previa a la primera intervención mostró 83% con Pfirmann IV. Tipos de SDA: estenosis lumbar monosegmentaria agravada por antelistesis en 20 y por retrolistesis en 14; estenosis multisegmentaria 4, hernia discal 4, fractura por aplastamiento 4, estenosis sin listesis 4. Período entre las 2 cirugías: 6 años promedio. CONCLUSIÓN: Una incidencia de 9,4% de reintervenciones a causa de un Síndrome Adyacente, hace de esta patología un importante problema a largo plazo, lo que obligaría al cirujano a tomar las medidas que sean posibles para evitarlo. Con los resultados de este estudio retrospectivo solo podríamos decir que tendrían más posibilidades de desarrollar un SDA los segmentos con Pfirmann IV en la IRM y que se debería tener en cuenta las relaciones VP (20% y PS (80% pre y pos operatorias para devolver las condiciones mecánicas ideales al raquis. Se necesitarían estudios clínicos prospectivos para tener conclusiones más firmes.OBJETIVO: Estudamos a incidência de SA de localização lombar tratada por cirurgia e fatores associados. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 50 casos de SA em 1.662 casos operados, 530 na coluna lombar, incidência de 9,4%. A média de idade foi 62 anos. Principais sintomas: claudica

  9. Registro de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) en la Ciudad de México y áreas adyacentes.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge E Ramírez-Albores

    2012-01-01

    Reporto registros de la cotorra argentina (Myiopsitta monachus) en seis sitios de la Ciudad de México y áreas adyacentes. Observé varios individuos de esta especie, así como nidos entre agosto de 2008 y marzo de 2012. Los nidos localizados fueron construidos sobre eucaliptos y palmeras, y sólo en un sitio observé la especie anidando y con polluelos. El tamaño de los grupos observados sobrevolando y en nidos varió de 2 a 14 individuos. Estas observaciones son notables ya que el número de regis...

  10. Textos en contexto: activismo de las mujeres afrocolombianas en el litoral pacífico colombiano

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    Kiran Asher Traducción Adriana Escobar

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Este documento recorre la línea divisoria entre teóricos feministas y expertos de género que se orientan hacia la praxis, con el fin de apoyar una lectura más adecuada de las críticas feministas poscoloniales en torno al género y al desarrollo.Inspirándose en el activismo de las mujeres afrocolombianas del Litoral Pacífico de Colombia, este texto argumenta que el «lenguaje teórico denso» de feministas poscoloniales no está dirigido a las mujeres del Tercer Mundo. Así mismo, fundamenta el hecho de que las mujeres de esta región poseen una habilidad independiente para actuar y reflexionar sobre su propia realidad y afirma que tales enfoques exhortan a los investigadores, académicos, activistas y expertos en género del Norte y el Sur a hacer una reflexión crítica de sus deseos y métodos para mejorar la vida de las mujeres del Tercer Mundo, así como a comprometerse con políticas feministas estratégicas más inclusivas.

  11. Caracterización de los bosques de manglar y las praderas de Thalassia testudinum de la Isla La Tortuga y cayos adyacentes, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    del Mónaco, C.; Giménez, E.; Narciso, S.; Alfonso, F.; Bustillos, F.

    2010-01-01

    Los bosques de manglar y las praderas de fanerógamas marinas representan ecosistemas tropicales costeros muy productivos, con una alta diversidad de especies. El objetivo fue caracterizar los bosques de manglar y las praderas de Thalassia testudinum de la isla La Tortuga y los cayos adyacentes. Las localidades donde se evaluaron los bosques de manglar fueron Punta del Este, Los Tortuguillos, Boca de Cangrejo, Boca de Palo y Los Mogotes mientras que de las praderas fueron Punta del Este, Boca ...

  12. Sobre Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 e sua ocorrência no litoral sul do Brasil (Mollusca, Polyplacophora On Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 and its records in the south coast of Brazil (Mollusca, Polyplacophora

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    Orlando Guerra Júnior

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available São indicadas novas localizações geográficas para Ischnoplax pectinatus (sowerby, 1840 no litoral sul do Brasil. Além disso são estudados sua morfologia e alguns aspectos biogeográficos.New geographic records of Ischnoplax pectinatus (Sowerby, 1840 are pointed out on the south coast of Brazil; its morphology and some biogeographic aspects are also studied.

  13. Degradación del espacio público litoral: criterios de políticas e instrumentos para el borde costero de Ensenada

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    Ríos, Licia

    2007-01-01

    Se sintetiza un proceso de indagación desarrollado en el marco una beca de formación en investigación que indaga en la form ulación de criterios de políticas e instrumentos para atenuar la degradación del sistema de espacios públicos del borde costero de Ensenada. Se busca aportar herramientas teóricas/metodológicas para el análisis de las problemáticas del espacio público y de las políticas territoriales con incidencia en el mismo y con ello al mejoramiento ambiental del litoral. En el...

  14. Evaluación de las asociaciones de peces arrecifales en el oeste del litoral de La Habana, zona noroccidental de Cuba

    OpenAIRE

    García-Rodríguez, Alain; Lara-Lorenzo, Ariagna; González-Rodríguez, Naima

    2012-01-01

    Se realizó una evaluación rápida de las asociaciones de peces en el sector oeste del litoral norte de La Habana, el cual está sometido a un alto nivel de estrés ambiental. Se hicieron censos visuales mediante transeptos lineales en siete estaciones de dicha zona, en cada una de ellas se realizaron 6 réplicas de 50 m de largo por 2 m de ancho, siguiendo la metodología AGRRA. Los valores más bajos de densidad y biomasa se encontraron en las estaciones situadas al este del área de estudio (La Pu...

  15. ARQUEOLOGÍA DEL LITORAL. INTRODUCCIÓN.

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    Mariano Bonomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El dossier Arqueología del Litoral reúne una selección de las comunicaciones presentadas en la Mesa de Arqueología del Nordeste Argentino (NEA del XVIII Congreso Nacional de Arqueología Argentina (CNAA, organizado por la Universidad Nacional de La Rioja en abril de 2013. Esta mesa incluyó veinticuatro trabajos originales de especialistas de distintas instituciones de Argentina, Uruguay y Brasil. Fue a partir de la importante cantidad de trabajos recibidos para la mesa -el mayor número de los últimos 20 años-, de la calidad de las exposiciones y las discusiones que generaron que se decidió publicar el presente dossier. El mismo constituye un esfuerzo colectivo de los autores que respondieron a la invitación, los evaluadores que contribuyeron a mejorar cada trabajo y el equipo editorial de la Revista del Museo de Antropología de la FFyH de la Universidad Nacional de Córdoba; a todos ellos nuestro agradecimiento.

  16. Agroecologia: um caminho multidimensional para o desenvolvimento agrário do Litoral Paranaense.

    OpenAIRE

    Borsatto, Ricardo Serra

    2007-01-01

    Ao se estudar o meio agrário do litoral paranaense é fácil constatar as dificuldades que este enfrenta para encontrar um caminho que permita o seu desenvolvimento sustentável. A presente dissertação visa contribuir nas discussões e consequentemente na procura de soluções para este panorama, objetivando conhecer e discutir se o conhecimento gerado pela Agroecologia pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento sustentável do litoral paranaense. Para tanto é utilizada a teoria do pensamento complexo, ...

  17. Actividad fosfatasa y pH del suelo adyacente a la rizosfera de maíz, trigo y triticale en suelos ácidos

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    Gerardo Cruz-Flores; David Flores Román; Gabriel Alcántar González; Antonio Trinidad Santos; Ma. Edna Alvarez Sánchez; Araceli Bautista Acevedo

    2007-01-01

    La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de determinar la relación entre el desarrollo de algunos genotipos de maíz (Zea mays L.), trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) y triticale (X Triticosecale Witmack), con mayor y menor eficiencia (+E y -E) de uso de N y P, y su actividad radical, medida a través de las variaciones de la actividad fosfatasa ácida y el pH del suelo adyacente a la rizosfera (AFASAR y pHSAR, respectivamente). En condiciones de invernadero, se trabajó con dos Andosoles ...

  18. Propuesta metodológica para la evaluación y regeneración integral del espacio turístico litoral: la Costa del Sol Occidental

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    Gallardo Ramírez, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    La actividad investigadora que se presenta, en fase inicial, forma parte de una futura tesis doctoral, cuyo objetivo es la definición de una Metodología para evaluar y plantear estrategias de regeneración integral del espacio turístico litoral, surgido a mediados del siglo XX con la expansión del turismo de masas en el Mediterráneo peninsular, al constatarse la escasez de intervenciones para la recuperación del espacio turístico tradicional, además de su carácter eminentemente sectorial, a pe...

  19. Análisis de la dinámica y de las transformaciones de la franja litoral de la provincia de Málaga (España) desde la irrupción del turismo (1950-2010).

    OpenAIRE

    Galacho Jiménez, Federico Benjamín

    2011-01-01

    En este texto se hace un análisis de las principales transformaciones que han afectado directamente al espacio litoral de la provincia de Málaga y que se enmarcan en la dinámica urbana de los últimos sesenta años. Se parte de la consideración de que dichas actuaciones son llevadas a cabo bajo un modelo de ocupación territorial intensivo y que, por tanto mientras este modelo se mantenga será muy difícil, sino imposible, el desarrollo de cualquier iniciativa de sostenibilidad ambiental en los e...

  20. Comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo

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    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em região de alta incidência de dengue, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, selecionaram-se 9 áreas, com objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: As 9 áreas foram agrupadas em 4 estratos, diferenciados pelo uso e ocupação do solo. Foram coletadas larvas e pupas numa amostra de cerca de 500 imóveis em cada área. RESULTADOS: Apesar do pneu e lona apresentarem as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti, o ralo, juntamente com outros recipientes fixos nas edificações foram altamente predominantes entre os recipientes positivos (32 a 76% dos recipientes positivos. As áreas coletivas de prédios e os imóveis não residenciais de grande porte apresentaram as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti enquanto os apartamentos, as menores. Os níveis de infestação foram maiores na área residencial com predominância de prédios de apartamentos, onde 76% dos criadouros detectados foram recipientes fixos nas edificações. CONCLUSÕES: Esses conhecimentos são importantes subsídios para a estratégia de controle, pois reforçam a necessidade de atenção especial para determinados tipos de imóveis, bem como da adequação da norma técnica de ralo de água pluvial e da melhoria de manutenção das edificações. Além disso, são necessárias observações sistemáticas que permitam acompanhar a dinâmica de ocupação de diferentes imóveis e recipientes por Aedes aegypti e a incorporação desses conhecimentos nas ações de controle do vetor na região.

  1. Formações pioneiras do litoral centro-sul do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Bornschein, Marcos Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Devido à carência de informações sobre muitas das formações pioneiras do litoral do Paraná, especialmente no que tange à identificação de locais de ocorrência e quantificação de áreas, efetuou-se o presente estudo que buscou suprir essas duas deficiências. A região trabalhada foi o litoral centro-sul do Paraná e do extremo norte de Santa Catarina, Sul do Brasil. A identificação de locais de ocorrência foi efetuada mediante interpretação de fotografias aéreas de 1980, na escala 1:25000, e a qu...

  2. Fraturas vertebrais adjacentes: cifoplastia versus vertebroplastia Fracturas vertebrales adyacentes: cifoplastía vs vertebroplastía Adjacent vertebral fractures: kyphoplasty versus vertebroplasty

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    Luis Cláudio Schettino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a incidência de fraturas de vértebras adjacentes nos pacientes submetidos à vertebroplastia e cifoplastia. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo baseado na análise de prontuários e exames radiográficos pré e pós-operatórios de janeiro de 2002 a janeiro de 2009. O seguimento mínimo foi de três meses. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos distintos: Vertebroplastia (V e Cifoplastia (C, de acordo com o procedimento realizado. Foram comparadas entre os dois grupos, a altura dos corpos vertebrais e a cifose angular antes e depois de cada procedimento e correlacionadas com a incidência de fraturas vertebrais adjacentes. A análise estatística foi feita pelos testes qui-quadrado, t de Student e ANOVA de dois fatores seguida por teste post-hoc de Bonferroni. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados os prontuários de 55 pacientes. Dez pacientes foram excluídos do estudo. Vinte e seis pacientes realizaram vertebroplastia e dezenove pacientes realizaram cifoplastia. Foi observada redução da cifose angular média nos pacientes do grupo C de 1,81 graus quando comparados aos pacientes do grupo V. Não houve diferença estatística entre os dois grupos quanto à altura média do corpo vertebral pré- e pós-operatória. Três pacientes do grupo V e dois pacientes do grupo C apresentaram fratura vertebral adjacente. Os dois pacientes com fraturas adjacentes do grupo C estavam em uso de corticosteroides. Os três pacientes do grupo V com fraturas adjacentes apresentaram extravasamento de cimento. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve diferença na incidência de fraturas vertebrais adjacentes entre os dois grupos.OBJETIVO: Comparar la incidencia de fracturas de vértebras adyacentes en los pacientes sometidos a vertebroplastía y cifoplastía. MÉTODOS: Estudio retrospectivo basado en el análisis de historias médicas y exámenes radiográficos pre y posoperatorios, de enero de 2002 a enero de 2009. El seguimiento mínimo fue de tres meses. Los

  3. Fragilidad de los espacios litorales: Lineamientos para comprender la erosión costera inducida en el litoral marítimo bonaerense. El caso de la localidad de Mar del Tuyú

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    Gabriela D'Amico

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El litoral atlántico bonaerense asiste en la actualidad a numerosas problemáticas ambientales, derivadas principalmente de un proceso de organización territorial que se ha llevado a cabo paralelamente al desarrollo y la creciente masificación de la actividad turística en nuestro país. La ausencia de un ordenamiento en cuanto al avance de la actividad, y el impacto que esta pudiera tener a futuro, avasallada por la lógica de acumulación de capital, han sido los factores desencadenantes de distintos conflictos, entre ellos la erosión costera. En el presente trabajo se hará un abordaje de la problemática en la localidad de Mar del Tuyú, cabecera del Partido de la Costa, enfatizando en indagar cómo se ha llevado a cabo el proceso de organización del espacio litoral, para intentar desentrañar las herencias territoriales que han inducido la problemática mencionada.

  4. Biomarkers of Canadian High Arctic Litoral Sediments for Assessment of Organic Matter Sources and Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautler, B. G.; Austin, J.; Otto, A.; Stewart, K.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Simpson, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    Carbon stocks in the High Arctic are particularly sensitive to global climate change, and investigation of variations in organic matter (OM) composition is beneficial for the understanding of the alteration of organic carbon under anticipated future elevated temperatures. Molecular-level characterization of solvent extractable compounds and CuO oxidation products of litoral sedimentary OM at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago was conducted to determine the OM sources and decomposition patterns. The solvent extracts contained a series of aliphatic lipids, steroids and one triterpenoid primarily of higher plant origin and new biomarkers, iso- and anteiso-alkanes originating from cerastium arcticum (Arctic mouse-ear chickweed, a native angiosperm) were discovered. Carbon preference index (CPI) values for the n-alkanes, n-alkanols and n-alkanoic acids suggests that the OM biomarkers result from fresh material input in early stage of degradation. The CuO oxidation products were comprised of benzyls, lignin phenols and short-chain diacids and hydroxyacids. High abundance of terrestrial OM biomarkers observed at sites close to the river inlet suggests fluvial inputs as an important pathway to deliver OM into the lake. The lignin phenol vegetation index (LPVI) also suggests that the OM origin is mostly from non-woody angiosperms. A relatively high degree of lignin alteration in the litoral sediments is evident from the abundant ratio of acids and aldehydes of the vanillyl and syringyl monomers. This suggests that the lignin contents have been diagenetically altered as the result of a long residence time in this ecosystem. The molecular-level characterization of litoral sedimentary OM in Canadian High Arctic region provides insight into current OM composition,potential responses to future disturbances and the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in the Arctic.

  5. Etnoarqueologia MBYA Guarani no Tekoa Pindoty (Ilha da Cotinga), litoral do Estado do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade, Sabrina de Assis

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Esta dissertação tem como finalidade apresentar as discussões e os resultados de uma análise etnoarqueológica realizada junto aos Mbya Guarani do Tekoa Pindoty ou Terra Indígena Ilha da Cotinga, no litoral do Estado do Paraná. Objetivou-se compreender qual a relação estabelecida entre os indígenas e este local, sob o ponto de uma pesquisa que integrasse estudos arqueológicos e etnológicos buscando novos referenciais para a reflexão sobre a cultura material remanescente nessas áreas. S...

  6. Geodiversidad de la franja litoral Deba-Zumaia. Un paseo geológico virtual

    OpenAIRE

    Baceta, Juan Ignacio; Orue-Etxebarria González, Pablo Xabier; Apellaniz, Estíbaliz; Martín Rubio, Maite; Bernaola, Gilen

    2012-01-01

    El tramo litoral entre Deba y Zumaia constituye una de las zonas más conocidas y mejor estudiadas de todo el ámbito geológico de los Pirineos y, más particularmente, de su porción más occidental: la denominada cuenca o Región Vasco Cantábrica. Tal circunstancia deriva de los atributos particulares de su registro geológico: un potente conjunto de rocas sedimentarias de persistente estratificación, formadas en un antiguo fondo marino que, a pesar de grandes semejanzas, era muy distinto a los fo...

  7. Estudo das fracções arenosas dos sedimentos do litoral Tróia - Sines

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    Miranda, Paulo Fernando das Neves

    2007-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como principais objectivos a caracterização dos sedimentos do troço costeiro entre Tróia e Sines, a determinação de possíveis fontes sedimentares e a sua expressividade, permitindo melhorar o conhecimento da dinâmica deste troço litoral. Para atingir estes objectivos foi efectuada a separação granulométrica dos sedimentos de praia, duna e arribas costeiras, obtendo-se os valores dos parâmetros texturais. Por sua vez, as fracções de areia média e fina ...

  8. POTENCIALIDADES DO ECOTURISMO NO LITORAL MÉDIO E SUL DO RIO GRANDE DO SUL

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    Rosane Maria Lanzer; Laura Rudzewicz; Alois Eduard Schäfer

    2011-01-01

    As áreas de interesse ao ecoturismo geralmente estão distantes dos centros urbanos e historicamente “ilhadas” nos aspectos geográfico, político ou social, mantendo ecossistemas preservados ao longo dos tempos. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar alguns resultados do Projeto Lagoas Costeiras referentes às potencialidades do turismo em municípios do litoral médio e sul do Rio Grande do Sul, destacando o ecoturismo. O estudo foi desenvolvido entre 2007 e 2009, nos municípios de Mostardas, Tav...

  9. Tipos de trabalho da mulher na pesca do Litoral do Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Mello, Carolina de Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Este estudo trata dos tipos de trabalho realizados pelas mulheres na pesca do litoral do Paraná. A investigação foi realizada em três etapas. A primeira tratou-se de uma fase exploratória, de revisão bibliográfica e visitas as comunidades pesqueiras para identificação de casos representativos dos tipos de trabalho realizados pelas mulheres. A segunda etapa incluiu a aplicação de um questionário semi-estruturado, a realização de entrevistas abertas com roteiro, conversas informais e ob...

  10. Patrimonio e memoria do litoral catarinense: grupo arcos, um estudo de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Ana Lucia

    2016-01-01

    [ES]El Patrimonio y la Memoria cuando discutido sobre los aspectos que tienen relación con las diversas interpretaciones conceptuales con la expresión cultura, memoria e identidad agrega las informaciones de diferentes bibliografías y documento, produce una lista y la descripción etnográfica de los bienes culturales con relación a las fiestas (religiosidad); las Formas de Expresión, los Oficios y modos de Hacer y formas de Saber del litoral de Santa Catarina, asociada con la cultura azoriana,...

  11. Micropaleontología del Cuaternario del sector austral del litoral, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia, Román

    2015-01-01

    El propósito de la presente tesis es contribuir a la caracterización de las unidades geológicas del Cuaternario del sector austral del litoral, sobre la base de su contenido micropaleotológico. Todo ello, dentro de un estudio contextual de los aspectos epistemológicos y metodológicos subyacentes a un abordaje de este tipo. Desde dicho marco, se llevaron a cabo los análisis y las comparaciones dictados por las diferentes tareas, resultando de esa manera un entramado robusto y congruente para e...

  12. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata) en el litoral peruano

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Paredes; Aldo Indacochea; Franz Cardoso; Kelly Ortega

    2013-01-01

    Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835) y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842), Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835), Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852) y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en la...

  13. Caracterização de argilas plásticas do tipo "ball clay" do litoral paraibano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes R. R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Os depósitos de argilas plásticas para cerâmica branca ("ball clays" de alta qualidade não são comuns, estando localizados basicamente nos Estados Unidos e no Reino Unido. As "ball clays" são utilizadas em uma série de indústrias que vão desde a indústria cerâmica à de cosméticos. Assim, este trabalho tem por objetivo analisar argilas do tipo "ball clay" extraídas do litoral paraibano, realizando sua caracterização para fins cerâmicos. Sua caracterização foi realizada por meio da determinação da massa específica real, CTC, área superficial (BET, distribuição granulométrica, composição química, ATD/ATG, DRX e MET. Após caracterização, foram conduzidos ensaios tecnológicos para fins cerâmicos com as amostras. Com base nos resultados pode-se concluir que as amostras são argilas basicamente cauliníticas com queima branca em temperaturas de 1250 ºC e 1450 ºC. Além disso, apresentaram propriedades físico-mecânicas dentro das faixas indicadas na literatura para "ball clays" utilizadas em tecnologia cerâmica.

  14. Los usos humanos del litoral. Complementariedades y conflictos

    OpenAIRE

    Naranjo-Ramírez, J.

    2001-01-01

    El trabajo presenta el texto de lo que constituyó la relatoría de la ponencia cuyo título da nombre al artículo. Algunos de los temas que se consideraron –y que son resumidos y comentados- son el proceso de turistificación de los espacios costeros, la competencia por los usos del suelo (contemplada desde el punto de vista regional), las interrelaciones entre economía y realidad urbana, los problemas de ordenación territorial en los espacios litorales y, por último, las fuentes y metodologías ...

  15. Familia Ellobiidae (Gastropoda: Archaeopulmonata en el litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan 8 especies de Ellobiidae para la Costa Peruana, pertenecientes a las subfamilias Ellobiinae: Ellobium stagnale (Orbigny, 1835 y Sarnia frumentum Petit, 1842; Melampodinae: Melampus carolianus (Lesson, 1842, Melampus olivaceus Carpenter, 1857 y Detracia graminea Morrison, 1846; y Pedipedinae: Marinula acuta (Orbigny, 1835, Marinula concinna (C.B Adams, 1852 y Marinula pepita King, 1831. Seis especies viven asociadas al bosque de manglar en el departamento de Tumbes, y dos en las playas de canto rodado en los límites de la Provincia Peruana. Cuatro especies tropicales se registran por primera vez para el mar peruano: E. stagnale, M. olivaceus, D. graminea y M. acuta.

  16. Notas sobre tres especies de Gigartinaceae (Rhodophyta del litoral peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Calderón

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La gran variabilidad morfológica de la familia Gigartinaceae ha producido constantes cambios taxonómicos en sus especies miembros. Tradicionalmente su taxonomía ha estado basada en caracteres de la morfología externa; sin embargo, recientes estudios morfológicos, respaldados con trabajos moleculares, han delimitado los géneros en base a al desarrollo del cistocarpo y de los tetrasporangios. El presente trabajo revisa y comenta sobre las estructuras morfológicas vegetativas y reproductivas de tres especies presentes en Perú: Chondracanthus chamissoi, Mazzaella denticulata y Chondrus canaliculatus.

  17. (SIGLA: Sistema de Información Geográfica del Litoral de Andalucia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ojeda Zujar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta el diseño y funcionalidades de un visor desarrollado inicialmente para proporcionar un fácil acceso a la información contenida en el SIGLA (Sistema de Información Geográfica del Litoral Andaluz, mantenido por la Consejería de Obras Publicas de la Junta de Andalucía (Vuelo interactivo del litoral Andaluz. El visor presenta dos versiones según el usuario: (i para un usuario no especialista permite la visualización 2D y 2,5D, así como vuelos virtuales, sobre información geográfica georreferenciada en varios formatos (tif, jpg, ecw, msid, shp, dxf, bip…, teniendo acceso a la información alfanumérica asociada en el caso de los «shapes». Permite igualmente el acceso a información multimedia georreferenciada (fotos, videos, etc…; (ii Para usuarios técnicos, a las funcionalidades anteriores se le añaden la posibilidad de generar videos (.avi e imágenes tridimensionales, así como digitalizar puntos, líneas y polígonos en formato shape, editando los atributos alfanúmericos. Igualmente el visor permite, en tiempo real, calcular parámetros derivados del Modelo Digital de Elevaciones utilizado (pendientes, sombras, zonas ocultas, etc..

  18. Resistencia mecánica de la interfase y de la dentina adyacente. Estudio comparativo de microtracción // Micro-tensile bond strength of the interface of an adhesive restorative system

    OpenAIRE

    Perálvarez Aguilera, Francisca; Escribano Mediavilla, Nuria; Macorra García, José Carlos de la

    2001-01-01

    Introducción: se describe y aplica un sistema de microtracción, que permite comparar las fuerzas de resistencia a la tracción de la dentina intacta y las de la interfase adyacente creada entre dentina y material restaurador, dentro de un mismo espécimen. Material y método: se emplearon segmentos coronarios de terceros molares humanos conectados a un sistema de perfusión (n=12), sobre los que se tallaron varios surcos paralelos en la dentina oclusal que fueron posteriormente obturados con e...

  19. Trichogloea requienii (Montagne Kützing (Rhodophyta: Liagoraceae no litoral do Brasil Trichogloea requienii (Montagne Kützing (Rhodophyta: Liagoraceae in the Brazilian Littoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. N. MOURA

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho cita a ocorrência de Trichogloea requienii no litoral da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil. O gênero é caracterizado por apresentar calcificação moderada na região entre os filamentos assimiladores (córtex e medula, células mães dos espermatângios dispostas em verticilos sobre as células subterminais corticais, carpogônio localizado no final do filamento assimilador e desenvolvimento de filamentos estéreis curtos nas células inferiores do ramo carpogonial. São apresentadas descrição e ilustração detalhadas do táxon, além da comparação com entidades afins. Esta é a primeira citação do gênero para o Atlântico Sul.Trichogloea requienii was collected in Bahia (northeastern Brazil. The genus is recognized easily for presenting moderate calcification between assimilatory filaments (cortex and medulla, spermatangia mother cells in whorls on subterminal cortical cells, carpogonial branch at the end of the assimilatory filaments and sterile filaments at the lower cells of the carpogonial branch. Description and detailed illustrations of the taxon are presented as well as comparation with related species. This is the first citation of this genus to the South Atlantic.

  20. Tipos de tiempo para el turismo de sol y playa en el litoral alicantino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Ibarra, Emilio

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author proposes a series of weather types, with the purpose of evaluating the climatic-tourist potencial for the tourism of sun and beach in the coast of Alicante. The method, analysis of the frequency of the density of use of the practice the suntan and swin, the type of consulted source (webcam images, as well as the diversity of distinguished types, make of this work a novel contribution, in a branch of the knowledge relatively little cultivated although emergent: the Tourist Climatology.

    En el presente trabajo se proponen una serie de tipos de tiempo, con la finalidad de evaluar el potencial climático-turístico para el turismo de sol y playa en el litoral alicantino. El método, análisis de la frecuentación de la densidad de uso de la práctica del bronceado y baño, el medio a partir del cual se ha obtenido la información (imágenes webcam, así como la diversidad de tipos distinguidos, hacen de este trabajo una aportación novedosa, en una rama del conocimiento relativamente poco cultivada aunque emergente: la Climatología Turística.

  1. Património geológico no litoral de Peniche : geomonumentos a valorizar e divulgar

    OpenAIRE

    Romão, José Manuel

    2009-01-01

    A paisagem litoral que se observa, ao longo da sinuosa costa de Peniche, é de uma monumental beleza estética. Esta espectacularidade paisagística resultou da enorme variedade de elementos, ambientes e processos de natureza geológica-geodiversidade, os quais constituem documentos que testemunham a história da Terra. Ao caminhar pela costa de Peniche observam-se sítios, estruturas ou objectos geológicos, bem delimitados geograficamente que, pela sua favorável localização, conteú...

  2. Moluscos Poliplacóforos del litoral atlántico del sur de la Península Ibérica

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    Carmona Zalvide, M. P.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an updated check-list of the polyplacophoran species from Sagres (Portugal to Strait of Gibraltar is present. Twenty taxa are recorded in this area: Lepidopleurus cajetanus, Leptochiton cancellatus, Leptochiton algesirensis, Leptochiton scabridus, Callochiton septemvalvis, Callochiton euplaeae, Lepidochitona cinerea, Lepidochitona corrugata, Lepidochitona canariensis, Lepidochitona monterosatoi, Lepidochitona kaasi, Lepidochitona severianoi, Chaetopleura angulata, Ischnochiton rissoi, Chiton olivaceus, Chiton corallinus, Chiton phaesolinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis and Acanthochitona crinita. From these species, Lepidochitona canariensis, L simrothi, Callochiton septemvalvis and Lepidochitona monterosatoi amplify their geographical distribution to Southern Atlantic coast of southern Iberian Peninsula.

    Se aporta el catálogo de los Moluscos Poliplacóforos de las costas atlánticas del sur de la Península Ibérica, desde Sagres (Portugal hasta Gibraltar. Se cita un total de 20 taxones (Lepidopleurus cajetanus, Leptochiton cancellatus, Leptochiton algesirensis, Leptochiton scabridus, Callochiton septemvalvis, Callochiton euplaeae, Lepidochitona cinerea, Lepidochitona corrugata, Lepidochitona canariensis, Lepidochitona monterosatoi, Lepidochitona kaasi, Lepidochitona severianoi, Chaetopleura angulata, Ischnochiton rissoi, Chiton olivaceus, Chiton corallinus, Chiton phaesolinus, Acanthochitona fascicularis y Acanthochitona crinita todos ellos pertenecientes al dominio litoral. La captura de Lepidochitona canariensis y L. simrothi en aguas atlánticas ibéricas constituye la primera cita para el suratlántico ibérico. A su vez se amplía la distribución a esta zona de Callochiton septemvalvis y de Lepidochitona monterosatoi.

  3. Impacto da responsabilidade social sob a óptica empresarial do norte litoral de Portugal

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    Valentin Alejandro Martínez Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La responsabilidad social surge en la literatura del siglo XIX y desde entonces ha ganado una mayor expresión, atención e interés de los estudiosos, empresarios y público en general, debido a su impacto en particular. Por lo tanto, la responsabi- lidad social ha tenido en las últimas décadas una fuerte expansión que ha llevado a su aplicabilidad en la estrategia empresarial. Hoy, académicos y hombres de negocios van juntos tratando nuevas estrategias que incluyen nuevas variables en un estudio propiciado por la aparición de nuevas formas de actividad empresarial y por la creación de redes sociales. Ante esta nueva situación, el propósito de este artículo es comprobar si hay un impacto en la adopción de prácticas de respon- sabilidad social de las empresas de Maia y, en caso afirmativo, si afecta positiva o negativamente a la imagen corporativa de las empresas en el litoral norte de Portugal. Este artículo se estructura en dos secciones. La primera consiste en una revisión de la literatura sobre el tema, presentando el tema principal de los marcos conceptuales para el análisis. La segunda parte consiste en un estudio empírico que utiliza un análisis multivariado factorial que permite la activación de las primeras conclusiones sobre el impacto de la responsabilidad social en Portugal, sobre todo en las empresas objeto de estudio. Se encontró en el estudio que la práctica de la responsabilidad social crea impacto en las acciones de las empresas, pero no se produce de manera significativa en sus resultados económicos.

  4. Reformulation of Engineering Education at Undergraduate Level in the Faculdad de Ingenieria y Ciencias Hidricas Universidad Nacional del Litoral--Water Resources and Engineering Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, Julio; Isla, Miguel; Arrillaga, Hugo; Ceirano, Eduardo; Lozeco, Cristobal

    This paper explains the educational changes in the Water Resources Engineering program offered by the Universidad Nacional del Litoral in Santa Fe, Argentina, for the last 20 years at the undergraduate level. The need for modernizing the engineering teaching program occurred due to changes in the social system in which the concepts of development…

  5. Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta no litoral nordeste do Brasil Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta in the northeastern coast of Brazil

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    Aigara Miranda Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo relata a primeira ocorrência de Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta para o litoral nordeste do Brasil e o segundo registro para o litoral brasileiro. O material foi coletado ao longo do litoral da Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S e 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. A distribuição de B. composita foi ampliada no litoral do Brasil, uma vez que esta era conhecida apenas para a região sudeste, especificamente para Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. No Atlântico Americano, B. composita apresenta limite norte de distribuição nas Bermudas e limite sul, no Rio de Janeiro.This study reports the first occurrence of Boodlea composita (Harv. F.Brand (Chlorophyta to the northeastern coast of Brazil and the second record for the Brazilian coast. The material was collected along the coast of Bahia (08º20'07"-18º20'07''S and 30º20'37"-46º36'59"W. The distribution of B. composita was expanded along the coast of Brazil, since this was known only to the Southeast, specifically to Cabo Frio, Rio de Janeiro. In American Atlantic, B. composita presents northern limit of distribution in Bermuda and southern limit at Rio de Janeiro.

  6. Crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes macroalgales en el litoral rocoso de Córdoba, Caribe colombiano

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    Néstor Hernando Campos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la estructura de las poblaciones de crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes algales en el litoral rocoso del departamento de Córdoba. Materiales y métodos. Para la recolección de los especímenes se delimitó con un cuadrante de 625 cm2, un área con cinco repeticiones dispuestas al azar en cada estación. Para la separación de las macroalgas desde su disco de fijación en el sustrato, se empleó una espátula metálica. En un recipiente plástico se separaron los crustáceos decápodos del resto del material y se conservaron en alcohol al 70%. Resultados. Se identificaron representantes de 50 especies asociadas a los céspedes algales, agrupadas en 16 familias y 29 géneros. Especies como Acanthonyx petiverii, Epialtus bituberculatus, Eurypanopeus abbreviatus y Pachycheles serratus, presentaron un rango amplio de distribución, siendo características en las dos ecorregiones de estudio. Los cambios en cobertura de algas rojas como Gracilaria mammillaris, Hypnea musciformis y Acanthophora muscoides, determinaron la mayor asociación de crustáceos decápodos en la ecorregión Morrosquillo, mientras que los cambios en cobertura de G. damaecornis y Padina gymnospora, fueron las que determinaron la mayor asociación de crustáceos decápodos en el Darién cordobés. Conclusiones. Los resultados indicaron que las especies de crustáceos decápodos asociados a ensamblajes macroalgales, no se encontraron distribuidas de forma similar en las dos ecorregiones estudiadas, siendo P. armatus la especie con mayor porcentaje de abundancia en la ecorregión Morrosquillo, y E. bituberculatus en el sector comprendido entre los municipios de Moñitos y Los Córdobas.

  7. Introducci??n al problema de la erosi??n litoral en Urab?? (sector Arboletes - Turbo), Costa Caribe Colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Arango, Ivan D.; Vernette, Georges

    2004-01-01

    Introduction to littoral erosion problem in Urab?? (Arboletes-Turbo area) Colombian Caribbean coast. Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (Southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreats of about 50-100m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximun of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4....

  8. Diatomáceas de rios da bacia hidrográfica Litorânea, PR, Brasil: Coscinodiscophyceae e Fragilariophyceae Diatoms from Litorânea watershed rivers, Paraná State, Brazil: Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monaliza Landucci

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se o inventário florístico das diatomáceas pertencentes às classes Coscinodiscophyceae e Fragilariophyceae de rios da bacia hidrográfica Litorânea do Paraná. Amostras planctônicas e perifíticas foram coletadas em dezembro/1998, e em fevereiro e julho/2000 em nove rios: Iporanga, Nhundiaquara, do Nunes, Cachoeira, do Salto, Cambará, da Onça, Cabaraquara e do Engenho. Identificaram-se 20 táxons infragenéricos, sendo Aulacoseira distans (Ehr. Sim. var. distans citação pioneira para o Estado do Paraná. Foram de ocorrência exclusiva em amostras planctônicas Asterionella formosa Hass. var. formosa e Cyclotella stelligera (Cl. & Grun. V. Heurck var. stelligera. Por outro lado, Cyclotella pseudostelligera Hust. var. pseudostelligera e Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae (Kütz. Lang.-Bert. foram de ocorrência exclusiva em amostras perifíticas.The survey is a floristic inventory of Coscinodiscophyceae and Fragilariophyceae diatoms from lotic systems of Litorânea watershed, east Paraná, Brazil. Diatoms were collected from periphytic and planktonic microhabitats on December 1998, February and July 2000. Nine rivers were sampled: Iporanga, Nhundiaquara, Nunes, Cachoeira, Salto, Cambará, Onça, Cabaraquara and Engenho. Twenty taxa were identified. Aulacoseira distans (Ehr. Sim. var. distans was first recorded in the State. Asterionella formosa Hass. var. formosa and Cyclotella stelligera (Cl. & Grun. V. Heurck var. stelligera occurred only at planktonic samples and Cyclotella pseudostelligera Hust. var. pseudostelligera e Fragilaria capucina var. vaucheriae (Kütz. Lang.-Bert. were exclusively registered at periphytic ones.

  9. Colaboración desconocida de José Hernández en El Litoral de Evaristo Carriego

    OpenAIRE

    Ortale, María Celina

    2009-01-01

    La crítica ha establecido el comienzo de la carrera periodística de Hernández en su labor para La Reforma Pacífica de Buenos Aires (1860-61) de Nicolás A. Calvo. Luego se le atribuye participación en El Nacional Argentino de Paraná (1860) hasta que en esta misma ciudad, pero después de la unificación definitiva de la Nación, se conoce en 1863 su propio diario El Argentino. Sin embargo, revisando El Litoral de Paraná de 1862 y 1863 de Evaristo Carriego (padre) hemos encontrado a...

  10. La planificación territorial del litoral atlántico europeo: el paisaje como instrumento

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Este proyecto de investigación analiza la evolución de la planificación territorial en el litoral atlántico europeo, como laboratorio de tendencias contemporáneas. Una evolución todavía en proceso de cambio, desde la mera protección de los elementos y enclaves más valiosos, hasta la ordenación y gestión integral del territorio-paisaje. En este contexto, la integración de los procesos y valores ecológicos, sociales y culturales en la planificación espacial supone hoy en día un reto...

  11. Relações de tamanho e peso das grandes medusas (Cnidaria do litoral do Paraná, Sul do Brasil Size-weight relationship among macromedusae (Cnidaria of Paraná coast Southern Brazil

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    Miodeli Nogueira Jr

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Relações de tamanho e peso são dados básicos importantes para facilitar estimativas de estoques, de monitoramentos contínuos e de larga escala das espécies, além de permitir a obtenção de valores de biomassa a partir da distribuição de tamanho. Apesar destes dados serem básicos e de reconhecida importância ecológica e sócio-econômica, estudos biométricos das grandes medusas do litoral brasileiro ainda inexistem. Apresenta-se, neste estudo, as relações de tamanho e peso das seis espécies de macromedusas mais comuns no litoral paranaense: Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 e Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 - Cubozoa; Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861 - Hydrozoa; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829, Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880 e Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 - Scyphozoa. Foram utilizadas equações do tipo Y = aXb onde, Y = peso úmido; X = diâmetro da umbrela (com exceção de T. haplonema, para a qual utilizou-se a medida de altura umbrelar; a e b são os parâmetros estimados para cada população. A maioria das espécies estudadas apresentou alometria negativa, uma vez que b era menor que 3 na maioria dos casos, variando entre 2,415 e 3,028.Size-weight relationships are important for population stock estimates, continuous and large-scale population monitoring, as well as permitting the estimation of population biomass from size-class distribution. While these data are basic and useful for ecological and economical analyses, such estimates for Brazilian jellyfish do not exist. Here we present size-weight relationships for the six most common species of large medusae in the coast of Paraná, southern Brazil: Tamoya haplonema Müller, 1859 and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus (Müller, 1859 - Cubozoa; Olindias sambaquiensis Müller, 1861 - Hydrozoa; Chrysaora lactea Eschscholtz, 1829, Lychnorhiza lucerna Haeckel, 1880 and Phyllorhiza punctata von Lendenfeld, 1884 - Scyphozoa. A regression of the form Y = a

  12. Characterization and comparison of microphytoplankton biomass in the lower reaches of the Biobío River and the adjacent coastal area off Central Chile during autumn-winter conditions Caracterización y comparación de la biomasa microfitoplanctónica en el curso inferior del río Biobío y la zona costera adyacente frente a Chile Central durante condiciones de otoño-invierño

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    Bárbara Léniz

    2012-11-01

    cuantificación preliminar de los flujos de nutrientes fluviales, sílice disuelta, y el flujo de carboño fitoplanctónico al océaño adyacente. Se observó alta concentración de nitrato (no3- y ácido silícico (Si(OH4 (>18 y 50 μΜ, respectivamente en el curso inferior del río en todas las campanas de terreño. La concentración de Si(OH4 fue también alta en las aguas superficiales de la pluma del río. Las condiciones hidrográficas revelaron que las aguas de la pluma del río se apilaron hacia la costa y al sur, en el golfo de Arauco. En todas las muestras, la más alta biomasa microfitoplanctónica (>5000 μgC m-3 estuvo asociada a la porción baja del río y las aguas de la pluma que se estaban moviendo hacia el sur. Durante las condiciones de muestreo en otoño-invierño el significativo flujo de carboño fitoplanctónico y nutrientes hacia el océaño costero adyacente, podría desempenar un papel importante en la alta productividad biológica de esta área de surgencia costera. Estos resultados preliminares evidencian la importancia de realizar estudios de más largo plazo que consideren estas fuentes de carboño alóctoño en los balances globales de carboño y modelos de tramas tróficas en el océaño costero.

  13. Dispersión de semillas por murciélagos en zonas abiertas heterogeneas adyacentes a fragmentos de bosque de la Orinoquía colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez Castro, Andrés Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Ante el efecto negativo de la creación de zonas de pastoreo y cultivo sobre la biodiversidad, existe una necesidad para restaurar áreas degradadas, mediante la facilitación de procesos como la lluvia de semillas. Los murciélagos juegan un papel principal en este proceso, al consumir plantas involucradas en diferentes estadios de la sucesión. Sin embargo, existen pocos estudios publicados que evalúen el aporte de esta fauna en la dispersión de semillas en áreas abiertas, y su relación con los ...

  14. Shoreline changes in Concón and Algarrobo bays, central Chile, using an adjustment model Cambios en la línea litoral de las bahías de Algarrobo y Concón, Chile central, a través de un modelo de ajuste

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    Carolina Martinez

    2007-11-01

    . Mientras que la bahía de Concón exhibe un estado de equilibrio estable para los últimos 60 años, si se excluye la zona estuarial, la bahía de Algarrobo para los últimos 35 años, presenta estabilidad con tendencia a la acreción en su zona proximal y al retroceso en su zona distal. Se discuten los resultados en relación con los cambios asociados a la línea litoral en zonas costeras fuertemente urbanizadas y las aplicaciones derivadas del uso de modelos para orientar el manejo de las áreas costeras

  15. Evolución geomorfológica y cronología relativa de los niveles aterrazados del área adyacente a la desembocadura del río Chubut al Atlántico (Provincia del Chubut

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    Emilio F González Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un antiguo abanico aluvial y su posterior evolución. Las acumulaciones del antiguo abanico aluvial han sido interpretadas como la continuidad septentrional de los rodados patagónicos de la meseta Montemayor, una propuesta que es rebatida. La base metodológica del reconocimiento del antiguo abanico aluvial y su distinción genética y temporal, la constituyó el análisis geomórfico y la evaluación altimétrica. Su asignación temporal es un problema aún no resuelto. La metodología condujo a diferenciar tres sistemas geomórficos o niveles, relacionados con sucesivos episodios de agradación y erosión, los que ocupan posiciones cada vez más inferiores, coincidiendo con el complejo paleodrenaje del antiguo abanico aluvial. Sus desarrollos sucesivos son vinculados con protoríos Chubut 1, 2, 3 propuestos y el correspondiente a un paleovalle Simpson. Pese a las limitaciones apuntadas, se propone que el modelo evolutivo del antiguo abanico aluvial responde a una estructura de corte y relleno, que avalaría una composición poliformacional del antiguo abanico aluvial y además la migración progresiva del paleodrenaje hacia el sur. Un análisis geomorfológico y altimétrico diferenció un nivel superior integrado por restos de tres planicies (Pa, Pm y Pb, un nivel medio con dos terrazas (T1 y T2 y un complejo nivel inferior de cinco terrazas (T3, T4, T5 T6 y T7. Evidencias relícticas de los paleodrenajes propuestos son los paleovalles Estancia Paz y Don Morgan-Saraza del nivel superior. La edad del antiguo abanico aluvial basada en la evolución geomórfica del área de estudio, es tentativamente asignada a un incierto lapso del Pleistoceno superior entre el interglacial Sangamon y fines de la última glaciación.

  16. Contribución al conocimiento de la estratigrafía de las rocas sedimentarias de monte frío (jurásico inferior, valle superior del magdalena - colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez P., Miguel Angel; Rodríguez García, Gabriel; Viana R., Ricardo León

    2012-01-01

    Las Rocas Sedimentarias de Monte Frio representan el registro de un evento sedimentológico de origen marino con gran influencia volcánica subaérea del Jurasico inferior en eI Valle Superior del Magdalena. Estudios detallados recientes de esta unidad, aflorante en la región de Monte Frio al suroeste del Municipio de Natagaima (Tolima), han permitido precisar la conformación litológica, el espesor y las relaciones con las unidades adyacentes, características que son descritas en el presente art...

  17. Spider fauna associated with wheat crops and adjacent habitats in Buenos Aires, Argentina Araneofauna asociada a cultivos de trigo y hábitats adyacentes en Buenos Aires, Argentina

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    Andrea Armendano

    2011-12-01

    familias de ambas comunidades del margen y del cultivo indicaría que el proceso de colonización se iniciaría en las áreas adyacentes.

  18. Depredadors autòctons per al control biològic de Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) en conreus hortícoles

    OpenAIRE

    Riudavets, Jordi

    1995-01-01

    L'activitat hortícola al litoral mediterrani peninsular es desenvolupa seguint cicles de cultiu on alternen conreus a l'aire lliure i conreus protegits, en els quals es combinen una gran diversitat d'espècies vegetals. En aquesta zona es dóna un clima de transició entre el clima temperat i el tropical sec, amb estius calorosos i hiverns suaus. Amb aquestes condicions climatològiques i contràriament al que passa al centre i nord d'Europa, a la regió mediterrània molts organismes vius no aturen...

  19. Crustáceos decápodos associados a esponjas no litoral do Estado do Ceará, Brasil Sponge-dwelling crustaceans at Ceará state litoral, Brazil

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    Luis E. A. Bezerra

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é apresentada a fauna de crustáceos decápodos associados a esponjas coletadas ao largo da cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil. As esponjas foram obtidas através de mergulho autônomo, realizado no Parque Estadual Marinho " Pedra da Risca do Meio" . No laboratório, os poríferos foram identificados e os crustáceos retirados e etiquetados de acordo com a esponja em que foram encontrados. Nove espécies de esponjas foram coletadas e 14 espécies de crustáceos identificadas. Os Crustáceos da família Alpheidae foram os mais representativos, com seis espécies, seguidos pelos decápodos das famílias Mithracidae e Porcellanidae, com duas espécies e Palaemonidae, Pilumnidae, Pseudorhombilidae e Xanthidae, com uma espécie. A partir do presente registro, as espécies Nanoplax xanthiformis (A. Milne Edwards, 1880, Synalpheus hemphilli Coutière, 1909, S. minus (Say, 1818, S. sanctithomae Coutière, 1909 e Petrolisthes rosariensis Werding, 1978 têm sua distribuição aumentada no litoral brasileiro.The aim of this article was to report on the sponge-dwelling crustaceans collected through scuba diving at " Parque Estadual Marinho Pedra da Risca do Meio" Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Nine species of sponges were collected and fourteen crustaceans were identified. The Alpheidae family was the most abundant with six species, followed by the families Mithracidae and Porcellanidae with two species and Palaemonidae, Pilumnidae, Pseudorhombilidae and Xanthidae with one species. The species Nanoplax xanthiformis (A. Milne Edwards, 1880, Synalpheus hemphilli Coutière, 1909, S. minus (Say, 1818, S. sanctithomae Coutière, 1909 and Petrolisthes rosariensis Werding, 1978 have their distribution expanded in the brazilian coast.

  20. El valor de la tierra y la gestión territorial en el área litoral del Gran La Plata

    OpenAIRE

    Martinoli, María Érica

    2005-01-01

    Profundizar y ahondar en el estudio la problemática del valor comercial del suelo urbano y la gestión territorial en un territorio de singulares características el Área Litoral del Gran La Plata, tomando como objeto de estudio las localidades ribereñas de Berisso y Ensenada. Paralelamente se pretende enriquecer los conocimientos respecto a técnicas y metodologías de investigación y análisis del hábitat y del territorio. (Párrafo extraído del texto a modo de resumen)

  1. O Manual de Intervenções no Litoral da Região Autónoma dos Açores

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Veloso Gomes; Francisco B. Caldas; Paulo Santos; Rui de Figueiredo

    2013-01-01

    O Projeto LITOMAC (Cooperação e Sinergias no Estabelecimento e Planeamento Sustentável das Zonas Litorais da Região da Macaronésia), de que fazem parte os arquipélagos dos Açores, da Madeira e das Canárias, apresenta como objetivo principal quot;o estabelecimento de faixas litorais definidas em função de um conjunto de variáveis ambientais e territoriais, adaptadas à singularidade de cada uma das ilhas, constituindo uma ferramenta fundamental na gestão do litoral e está estruturado através de...

  2. Medgeobase-Marruecos.Base de Datos Geográfica de ocupación del suelo en el litoral de Marruecos mediante teledetección.

    OpenAIRE

    Arozarena Villar, Antonio; del Bosque González, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    El proyecto MEDGEOBASE/MARRUECOS tiene como objetivo la formación de una Base de Datos geográfica sobre la ocupación del suelo con las especificaciones del sistema Corine Land Cover de la CE para la gestión del Medio Ambiente a lo largo del litoral de Marruecos entre Agadir y la frontera argelina con una superficie aproximada de 90.000 km2. Dicho proyecto ha sido confiado por parte de la Comunidad Europea a EUROMED.GEIE, Grupo Europeo de Interés Económico constituido en París el 25 de Jun...

  3. Nota sobre leishmaniose tegumentar no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Cutaneous leishmaniasis at the South Coastal region of the S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1973-12-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a existência de área endêmica de leishmaniose tegumentar na região Sul do litoral do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Descrevem-se 17 casos a maioria dos quais foram diagnosticados parasitologicamente. As características observadas permitem supor a possibilidade de transmissão intradomiciliar.An endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the South Coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil, is reported. Seventeen cases were found and diagnostic was made mainly through parasitologic evidences. Probability of local intradomiciliary transmission is suspected.

  4. Influencia de la disponibilidad de nutrientes sobre los cambios espaciotemporales de la comunidad de fitoplancton en el litoral del Municipio de Guasave, Sinaloa.

    OpenAIRE

    Ulloa Pérez, Ana Elsi

    2015-01-01

    Con la finalidad de entender los mecanismos que regulan los cambios en las poblaciones del fitoplancton en el ecosistema costero del norte de Sinaloa, se realizaron 6 campañas de muestreo en 25 estaciones en el litoral del Municipio de Guasave, Sinaloa, durante el período noviembre de 1999 - agosto de 2000. Se tomaron muestras de agua superficiales para la determinación de la abundancia y composición del fitoplancton, así como para el análisis de nutrientes (amonio, nitritos, nitratos, fósfor...

  5. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, C.; Cortez, N; Martins, A.; Azevedo, António; M. Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP) e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG), considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos), quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar), com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com...

  6. Características de la Araucanización al oriente de los Andes

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    Rodolfo Casamiquela

    Full Text Available Mapuche- Su etimlogía es muy conocida (araucano mapú "tierra"y che "gente", "gente de lo tierra". Propongo que se lo utilice estrictamente con su sentido originario, es decir, para denominar al pueblo que pobló y puebla lo Araucanía propiamente dicha: el valle central entre los ríos Bío-Bío y Toltén, con desbordes hocia la cordillera de la Costa y el mismo litoral marítimo, y hacia la cordillera andina.

  7. Ecoturismo científico en la planicie costera del Extremo Litoral Sur Del Estado de São Paulo - Brasil Scientific Ecotourism in the São Paulo State, Southernmost Coastal Plain, Brazil

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    José Ricardo de Almeida

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La planicie costera de Cananéia-Iguape e Ilha Comprida, en el extremo sur del litoral del Estado de São Paulo, es una región privilegiada por sus recursos naturales que son suficientes para transformar el área en un interesante polo de turismo científico. Actualmente esta región recibe sólo personas que llegan en busca del turismo de sol y playa o de balneario principalmente durante el verano y los feriados prolongados y, durante el resto del año, algunos turistas practicantes del ecoturismo-científico, personas que buscan ocio y recreación, se preocupan por cuestiones ambientales y tienen conocimientos sobre geo-ciencias y bio-ciencias. El público potencial de este segmento se restringe principalmente a los amantes del ecoturismo pero las formas de desarrollar esas actividades son variables. Este público estaría constituido por "turistas estudiantes" que realizan frecuentes incursiones a los atractivos naturales, para hacer observaciones y estudios en los ecosistemas de los manglares, los sitios arqueológicos (sambaquis y campos de dunas eólicas la fauna y la flora. Esas visitas serían monitoreadas por un investigador que conozca el tema. En este trabajo se caracterizan las potencialidades científicas de la región, diferentes al ecoturismo y al geo-turismo convencional en cuanto al público y al modo de realizar la actividad.The Cananéia-Iguape and Ilha Comprida coastal plain, at the southernmost São Paulo state extremity, is a privilegiated place with respect to their natural resources that are enough to transform the area in an interesting pole of scientific tourism. Presently this region receives only people interested in sun, sand and sea tourism, mainly during the summer holidays and during the rest of the year the region area is visited by ecotourists interested in aspects related to geosciences and / or biosciences that could be developed in the region. People who might be interested in this kind of activity are

  8. Geomorfologia, tipologia, vulnerabilidade erosiva e ocupação urbana das praias do litoral do Espírito Santo, Brasil

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    Albino Paiva Machado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A diversidade de tipologia das praias do litoral Sudeste do Brasil ilustra o resultado da complexainteração entre a disponibilidade e propriedades fí-sicas dos sedimentos, a fisiologia da costa e da plataforma continental interna, o grau de exposição àsondas e correntes atuantes e à ocupação antropogê-nica. A tendência natural à erosão e/ou à construçãonos diferentes setores do litoral deve ser compreendida a fim de viabilizar intervenções acertadas e contribuir para o desenvolvimento da atividade turística do Estado, sua vocação natural.A coleta de informações geológicas da área de estudo e de dados topográficos, granulométricos e oceanográficos de 70 praias ao longo do Estado, nos últimos 5 anos, permitiu classificá-las quanto à tipologia morfodinâmica e à vulnerabilidade erosiva, etornou possível destacar a ocupação urbana costeiracomo o elemento acelerador do processo erosivo.

  9. Base de datos espacial geomorfológica de la franja litoral de los departamentos de Antioquia y Chocó.

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    Prüssmann-Uribe Johana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Johanna Prüssmann-Uribe1,2 & Iván Darío Correa-Arango1 1Área de Ciencias del Mar, Departamento de Geología, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad EAFIT, sede Medellín, A.A. 3300, 2Docente de cátedra, Universidad de Antioquia, Colombia jprussmann@eafit.edu.co, icorrea@eafit.edu.co Con el fin de generar información para el manejo integrado y el desarrollo sostenible de la franja litoral Caribe de los departamentos de Antioquia y Chocó, se creó una base de datos espacial llamada GEOURABÁ, a partir de la fotointerpretación y restitución de una ortofoto tomada en el año 2009; esta base de datos recopila la información geomorfológica a escala 1:10000, de los 600km del contorno litoral del sector en estudio, con una geomorfología sumamente variada que obedece a múltiples factores naturales y antrópicos, incluyendo: a la litología y tectónica, b los cambios en el nivel relativo del mar, c la extracción de materiales de playas y zonas aledañas y d el drenaje/colmatación de los pantanos de manglares.....

  10. Variação Morfológica do Cordão Litorâneo Associado a Foz do Rio Jucu

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    Miquelina Aparecida Deina

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O objeto de estudo desta pesquisa, o cordão litorâneo associado à foz do Rio Jucu, situa-se no município de Vila Velha - ES. O objetivo principal foi verificar a variação morfológica do cordão, no tempo e no espaço, e a contribuição do aporte de sedimentos fluviais para a sua formação. Sua realização contou com a análise de fotos aéreas históricas do local; análise das séries temporais históricas da vazão; coleta de sedimentos e sua análise. Os resultados indicaram forte tendência de redução na largura do cordão nas últimas décadas e que ambiente recebe grande influência das ondas e correntes costeiras, exercendo a ação fluvial papel secundário na constituição e variação morfológica do cordão litorâneo.

  11. Levantamento de registros dos acidentes com cnidários em algumas praias do litoral de Pernambuco (Brasil Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil

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    Ricardo F. Neves

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Os cnidários estão entre os organismos mais peçonhentos que se conhecem. Caracterizam-se por possuir células urticantes denominadas cnidócitos, e diversas espécies, como as chamadas caravelas e águas-vivas, podem ocasionar danos ao homem. Apesar da pouca atenção dada a este tipo de acidente no litoral brasileiro, os estudos existentes mostram que sua ocorrência é significativa. O presente estudo teve como principais objetivos levantar os acidentes causados por cnidários nos banhistas de algumas praias do litoral de Pernambuco e investigar o conhecimento referente a este tema por parte de profissionais de áreas relevantes. Assim, visitou-se arquivos de hospitais, postos praieiros e grupamento salva-vidas para o levantamento de registros, e foram entrevistados 17 profissionais. Foram levantados registros de 35 acidentes para um período de dois anos na Praia de Boa Viagem (Recife, além de registros informais de uma média de quatro a cinco casos por semana na Praia de Piedade e dois a três casos por semana na Praia de Pontas de Pedras. Em relação ao conhecimento dos profissionais entrevistados, a maioria das respostas está, de forma geral, de acordo com a literatura existente, apesar de ainda haver certo nível de informações inadequadas ou insuficientes em relação ao tema estudado.Cnidarians are among the most venomous organisms known to man. They are characterized by stinging cells called cnidocytes, and several species, such as the Portuguese-man-of-war and the jellyfish, can cause harm to human beings. Despite not attracting ( much attention on the Brazilian coast, the studies that have been carried out to date show that the occurrence of this kind of accident is significant. The aim of this study was to survey cnidarian related accidents with beach goers on some beaches of the state of Pernambuco, as well as to investigate the knowledge of relevant professions on this theme. ( Archives of hospitals and life guard posts

  12. Alterações climáticas, sociais e políticas em Portugal: processos de governança num litoral em risco

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    Luísa Schmidt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O litoral português é um dos mais ameaçados pela erosão costeira na Europa, um fenômeno que deverá ser agravado pelas alterações climáticas, devido à subida do nível médio do mar e à alteração do regime das ondas na costa atlântica. A par desta fragilidade física, a zona costeira tem sido palco de uma acelerada pressão urbana e turística, que em Portugal se acentuou a partir dos anos 60. Este fenômeno gera uma condição de fragilidade social, que se vem associar a uma fragilidade política resultante da incapacidade do Estado para enfrentar com consistência a gestão do litoral. A principal resposta aos problemas do litoral tem sido o investimento em estruturas pesadas fortemente apoiado por fundos comunitários. Apesar deste tipo de investimento estar cada vez mais comprometido, devido à recessão económica e à perspetiva de redução dos fundos europeus. Partindo de três estudos de caso, a Norte, Centro e Sul, neste artigo abordamos a atual condição social da perceção do risco em três zonas instáveis do litoral português, nas quais foram instalados núcleos urbanos com forte motivação turística: Vagueira, Costa da Caparica e Quarteira. Apesar de terem em comum dinâmicas de crescimento recentes, estas zonas apresentam processos diferenciados de ocupação e erosão. O artigo aborda os três locais a partir da sua condição administrativa e dos efeitos das políticas públicas de ordenamento do litoral. E propõe uma reflexão sobre a necessidade de novos modelos institucionais de governança e de gestão costeira sustentáveis.The Portuguese coast is one of the most threatened by coastal erosion in Europe, a phenomenon that will be intensified by climate change, due to sea level rise and changes in the wave system in the Atlantic coast. Along with this physical fragility, the coast has witnessed an accelerated urban and tourist pressure, which increased in Portugal since the 60's. This phenomenon creates

  13. Especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda presentes en el litoral del norte peruano

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    Katia Nakamura

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo muestra las especies bentónicas de Opisthobranchia registradas para el norte del Perú. El trabajo se basa en la recopilación de la literatura científica disponible para el área de interés. Se presentan las 17 especies reportadas para dicha zona, clasificadas dentro del Grupo Informal Opisthobranchia en 6 clados, 12 familias y 14 géneros. A pesar del alto potencial de diversidad que se le otorga a la costa norte peruana, el número de especies registradas es bajo, debido principalmente al escaso número de exploraciones e investigaciones realizadas.

  14. La balearización: Mallorca, el laboratorio de experimentación del turismo y su manifestación en el litoral

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    Horrach Estarellas, Biel

    2009-01-01

    En los últimos 50 años el litoral de Mallorca ha experimentado una importante transformación a raíz de la actividad turística, generándose un complejo sistema de asentamientos. Actualmente, frente a los continuos cambios de motivación del visitante, se está planteando qué hacer con las estructuras obsoletas y cómo deben ser los nuevos espacios turísticos. La investigación expone una metodología de decodificación transescalar de cómo se ha construido el territorio turístico de la isla, expl...

  15. Riscos climàtics i canvi climàtic en el litoral mediterrani espanyol: un escenari d’incerteses

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    Olcina Cantos, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    La conca del Mediterrani és un laboratori per a l’estudi dels riscos naturals i dels efectes de l’escalfament planetari. L’acumulació de població i activitats econòmiques en un territori on convergeixen múltiples perills naturals converteixen aquesta regió geográfica en una àrea d’elevat risc. A les terres ibèriques, el litoral mediterrani espanyol és un territorio de risc. En les dues darreres dècades la intensa ocupació del territori que s’ha produït en aquest espai geogràfic ha incrementat...

  16. Efectos del cambio climático sobre la disponibilidad de recursos hídricos en la región litoral-mesopotamia (Argentina)

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    Pedraza, Raúl; Morresi, Ma. del Valle; Pusineri, Graciela; D'Elía, Mónica

    2010-01-01

    La región Litoral-Mesopotamia argentina (LM) es la zona más rica del país en cuanto a sus recursos hídricos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los efectos del cambio climático sobre la disponibilidad de los recursos hídricos de la región, con un horizonte temporal hasta la década 2081-2090. Para evaluar tales efectos, se aplicó un modelo de balance hídrico mensual en 22 estaciones representativas de la región, para el año medio del período de referencia 1981/1990, representa...

  17. Nitrogen sediment fluxes in an upwelling system off central Chile (Concepción Bay and adjacent shelf during the 1997-1998 El Niño Flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos, en un sistema de surgencia de Chile central (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente durante El Niño 1997-1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAXEDES MUÑOZ

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Two stations representing coastal and shelf environments (bay of Concepción and adjacent shelf, respectively were sampled in order to assess benthic nitrogen fluxes. During the study period anomalously high oxygen bottom waters conditions were observed, coinciding with the 1997-1998 El Niño event. From both sites, intact sediment cores were collected for incubation experiments to directly estimate total ammonium fluxes. Pore-water chemistry was also assessed to estimate diffusive fluxes of nitrogen compounds (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-. The NH4+ flux from incubation experiments ranged from 0.55 to 2.18 mmol m-2 day-1 in the inner bay and from 1.84 to 2.14 mmol m-2 day-1 on the shelf. NO3- diffusive fluxes to the sediments were observed in the bay in March (-17 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1and on the shelf in November (-2.7 x 10-2 mmol m-2 day-1, associated with the lowest NH4+ diffusive fluxes and coincident with a stronger gradient of Eh in the first centimeters of the sediments. Besides, total NH4+ fluxes lower than in normal periods were observed, suggesting the influence of less reducing conditions, consequence in turn of the lower fluxes of particulated organic material and higher dissolved oxygen in the bottom waters. These conditions were probably imposed by the El Niño event. On the other hand, and relative to previous reports, an increase of irrigation coefficients (DI was estimated. Thus, the flux extension of other nitrogen compounds could have acquired relevance in relation to NH4+ fluxes during the study periodSe analizaron los flujos de compuestos nitrogenados desde los sedimentos en dos áreas representativas de condiciones costeras y de plataforma (Bahía Concepción y plataforma adyacente, respectivamente. Durante el período de muestreo las aguas de fondo presentaron un anómalamente alto contenido de oxígeno disuelto, coincidente con el evento El Niño 1997-1998. De ambos sitios, se incubaron testigos de sedimento intactos para

  18. Composição de ácidos graxos do leite materno em mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Y. Nishimura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a composição de ácidos graxos do leite humano maduro de mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira. MÉTODOS: Amostras de leite materno maduro foram obtidas de 47 mulheres lactantes com idade entre 18 e 35 anos, que tiveram partos a termo e em aleitamento exclusivo ou predominante. A coleta de leite se deu a partir da 5ª semana pós-parto, por meio de ordenha manual. A composição de ácidos graxos do leite foi determinada por cromatografia gasosa. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que a concentração de eicosapentaenoico (0,08% foi superior ao observado em estudos brasileiros prévios. Entretanto, o teor de docosahexaenoico (0,09% encontrado no leite humano foi um dos menores já verificados no mundo. O teor de ácidos graxos trans (2,05% foi similar ao relatado em estudos nacionais prévios à obrigatoriedade de declaração do teor deste em rótulos de alimentos, sugerindo que esta medida não surtiu efeito na redução de seu teor na dieta habitual das mulheres. CONCLUSÕES: Baixo teor de docosahexaenoico e elevada concentração de ácidos graxos trans foram verificados no leite materno maduro de mulheres residentes em área distante da costa litorânea brasileira.

  19. Shoreline Variation between Puerto Chicama and Puémape, La Libertad, Perú (1961-2006 Variación de la línea de litoral entre puerto Chicama y Puémape, La Libertad, Perú (1961-2006

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    Carlos Tavares Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A spatial -temporal analysis was made by using cartographic material and Geographic Information Systems techniques. Here we compared the setting of the littoral line of a sector minimally affected by human occupation (Puémape–Puerto Chicama with other sectors with moderate occupation (La Chira–Lurín to strongly modified (Salaverry–Las Delicias and the Miraflores Bay. During the period 1961-2006 in the sector Puémape – Puerto Chicama, we identified the predominance of the advance or stability of the coastal line. The sector La Chira – Lurín presented a setting similar, with the tendency to stability and, the sectors strongly intervened showed a setting openly erosive. To the contrary as expected, the rising of sea level due to global warming doesn’t seem to be the principal cause of beach erosion in Perú. This is mainly due to the strong human intervention in the coast because at undisturbed sectors the predominance is stability or advance of the littoral line.Mediante el empleo de material cartográfico y sistema de información geográfica (SIG, se realizó un análisis espacio-temporal, donde se comparó el comportamiento de la línea de litoral de un sector costero mínimamente afectado por la ocupación humana (Puémape–Puerto Chicama con otros sectores costeros con ocupación moderada (La Chira–Lurín a fuertemente modificada (Salaverry–Las Delicias y la bahía de Miraflores. Durante el período comprendido entre 1961 y 2006 para el sector Puémape–Puerto Chicama, se identificó el predominio del avance o estabilidad de la línea de costa. El sector La Chira–Lurín presentó un comportamiento similar, con tendencia a la estabilidad y los sectores fuertemente intervenidos presentaron un comportamiento netamente erosivo. Al contrario de lo esperado, la elevación del nivel del mar debido el calentamiento global no parece ser la causa principal de la erosión de playas en el Perú. Esta se debe principalmente a la

  20. Encefalite no litoral paulista: a emergência da epidemia e a reação da mídia impressa Encephalitis on the south coast of the State of São Paulo: the emergence of the epidemic and the response of the written media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlaine Faria De Moura Villela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No litoral sul do estado de São Paulo, ocorreu uma epidemia de encefalite pelo arbovírus Rocio de 1975 a 1978. As altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade causaram impacto social. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi apresentar um estudo sobre como a mídia impressa relatou os acontecimentos sociais relacionados ao surgimento da epidemia no primeiro semestre de 1975. Reportagens sobre a epidemia no litoral sul foram obtidas do banco de dados dos jornais A Tribuna, Folha de S.Paulo e Jornal da Tarde. Foram analisadas as notícias até o mês de julho de 1975, fase inicial e de maior impacto da epidemia. Com a identificação de casos de encefalite, de causa desconhecida, a Secretaria de Estado da Saúde desaconselhou a ida de turistas para o litoral, utilizando a mídia como veículo de divulgação. Diante das notícias, ocorreu a fuga dos turistas e, consequentemente, a crise do comércio. Observou-se a revolta dos comerciantes, que geraram embates contra a mídia, no que tange à forma de divulgação da epidemia. Alguns prefeitos alegaram inveracidade de notícias publicadas. A proibição feita pelas autoridades sanitárias foi relatada pela mídia de forma abrangente, englobando sujeitos envolvidos nesse discurso. Assim, foram reveladas ao público as tensões geradas entre os detentores do conhecimento científico e o poder econômico local. Os jornais realizaram cobertura abrangente, abordando vários temas, entretanto disseminaram incertezas e fizeram uso de imagens sensacionalistas, além de desarticular acontecimentos biológicos e sociais. Os temas chegaram aos leitores de forma fragmentada e com sentidos sociais comprometidos.On the south coast of the State of São Paulo, there was an encephalitis epidemic due to the arbovirus Rocio from 1975 to 1978. High rates of morbidity and mortality caused a social impact. There was a decrease in tourism and a commercial crisis, which caused turmoil among traders and reactions against the media

  1. Perfil bioquímico da água de coco de coqueiros de região não litorânea Biochemical profile of coconut water from coconut palms planted in an inland region

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Vigliar; Vera L. Sdepanian; Ulysses Fagundes-Neto

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil bioquímico da água de coco de coqueiros-anões plantados em região não litorânea, no período de maturação (sexto ao nono mês). MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se por sorteio oito de 15 coqueiros plantados em região não litorânea, e os cocos foram enviados ao laboratório para extração e análise da água de coco. Avaliou-se glicose, eletrólitos, proteínas totais, osmolaridade, e identificaram-se açúcares da água de coco, em um total de 45 cocos, do sexto ao nono mês de maturação...

  2. Introducción al problema de la erosión litoral en Urabá (Sector Arboletes-Turbo) Costa Caribe colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, I.D.; Vernette, G.

    2004-01-01

    Shoreline retreat has been the net dominant historical trend along the 145 km-length littoral between Arboletes and Turbo (Southern Caribbean of Colombia). For the last four decades, there were identified in this littoral shoreline retreats of about 50-100m in several places (Uveros, Damaquiel, Zapata, Turbo) and a maximun of 1.6 km in the Punta Rey-Arboletes area, where land losses were of 4.5 k m2, at exceptional rates of 40m/year. The synthesis of the available information suggest that the...

  3. Aspectos generales del régimen de los bienes del litoral marítimo. Competencias y limitaciones sobre el Derecho de propiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Barreto Cifuentes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de “propiedad”, tradicionalmente estudiado con la lógica del Derecho privado, ha sufrido cambios internos (la función social como núcleo esencial y externos (las limitaciones administrativas que hacen necesario estudiarlo con herramientas lógicas y metodológicas del Derecho público. Se debe considerar que un derecho absoluto e ilimitado no requiere mayor atención por parte de la disciplina del Derecho público. La armonización y articulación de los derechos del propietario con las competencias asignadas a las autoridades administrativas, exige una particular atención para proteger los derechos ciudadanos. En desarrollo de lo mencionado, se ha realizado un corto estudio sobre los bienes del litoral marítimo, en particular de las competencias asignadas a las autoridades administrativas sobre estas áreas, así como el límite de estas competencias. También se presentará el análisis de algunos casos reales y potenciales en los cuales se hace necesaria la aplicación de garantías procesales y sustanciales para el respeto de los derechos de los propietarios.

  4. Aspectos generales del régimen de los bienes del litoral marítimo. Competencias y limitaciones sobre el Derecho de propiedad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Barreto Cifuentes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El concepto de “propiedad”, tradicionalmente estudiado con la lógica del Derecho privado, ha sufrido cambios internos (la función social como núcleo esencial y externos (las limitaciones administrativas que hacen necesario estudiarlo con herramientas lógicas y metodológicas del Derecho público. Se debe considerar que un derecho absoluto e ilimitado no requiere mayor atención por parte de la disciplina del Derecho público. La armonización y articulación de los derechos del propietario con las competencias asignadas a las autoridades administrativas, exige una particular atención para proteger los derechos ciudadanos. En desarrollo de lo mencionado, se ha realizado un corto estudio sobre los bienes del litoral marítimo, en particular de las competencias asignadas a las autoridades administrativas sobre estas áreas, así como el límite de estas competencias. También se presentará el análisis de algunos casos reales y potenciales en los cuales se hace necesaria la aplicación de garantías procesales y sustanciales para el respeto de los derechos de los propietarios.

  5. Acuerdo metodológico Laboratorio para la intervención INTI - LATU en la región del Litoral Argentino-Uruguayo

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    Mariana Irisity

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el proceso de acuerdo entre los equipos técnicosdel Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI y del LaboratorioTecnológico del Uruguay (LATU para el desarrollo de una metodologíade intervención conjunta en la región del Litoral Argentino – Uruguayo(LAU.La unificación metodológica en las diferentes etapas de la intervencióndan una coherencia conceptual y práctica fundamental para unacercamiento a la realidad (necesidades, oportunidades de mejora,fortalezas y debilidades con criterios que permitan diagnosticar,intervenir y evaluar, definiendo objetivos e indicadores, estableciendolíneas de base y resultados medibles y comparables a lo largo de laintervención.La metodología finalmente acordada promueve la intervenciónparticipativa por medio de una propuesta de talleres sectoriales enlos que se mapea su cadena de valor y determinan las problemáticasprincipales, con herramientas que buscan la identificación yponderación de actores, discontinuidades o eslabones débiles,dependencias, competencias y sinergias. Las actividades diseñadaspriorizan el fortalecimiento de las capacidades locales, con énfasis enlos eslabones más débiles de la cadena de valor.

  6. El territorio, un bien que conviene ordenar: las salinas del litoral e interior de la Región de Murcia

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    Salvador Gil Guirado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En regiones como Murcia, ha existido un gran interés por acondicionar y ordenar ciertos espacios para la obtención de la sal. Esta ordenación del territorio, ha creado unos paisajes propios: las salinas, distinguiendo entre las litorales y las de interior. La metodología de trabajo, nos ha permitido localizar, describir y explicar casi una treintena de salinas en toda la Región de Murcia. Algunas continúan funcionando desde época romana como las del Principal en Jumilla, otras junto a la explotación salinera también son humedales protegidos legalmente (San Pedro del Pinatar en el litoral y Cabezo de la Rosa y Rambla Salada en el interior, pero la mayor parte están en proceso de abandono. Por lo que urge planificar para poner en valor este rico patrimonio de la Cultura del Agua y la Sal, generando así una gestión sostenible de los paisajes salineros.

  7. Encefalite no litoral paulista: a emergência da epidemia e a reação da mídia impressa Encephalitis on the south coast of the State of São Paulo: the emergence of the epidemic and the response of the written media

    OpenAIRE

    Edlaine Faria De Moura Villela; Delsio Natal

    2009-01-01

    No litoral sul do estado de São Paulo, ocorreu uma epidemia de encefalite pelo arbovírus Rocio de 1975 a 1978. As altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade causaram impacto social. Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi apresentar um estudo sobre como a mídia impressa relatou os acontecimentos sociais relacionados ao surgimento da epidemia no primeiro semestre de 1975. Reportagens sobre a epidemia no litoral sul foram obtidas do banco de dados dos jornais A Tribuna, Folha de S.Paulo e Jornal da Tarde. F...

  8. ALS Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toward a world without ALS! Walk to Defeat ALS® Walk to Defeat ALS® draws people of all ... We need your help. I Will Advocate National ALS Registry The National ALS Registry is a congressionally ...

  9. Variação anual da composição bromatológica de duas forrageiras cultivadas nas baixadas litorâneas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Lacerda Paulo Drude de; Malafaia Pedro; Vieira Ricardo Augusto Mendonça; Henrique Douglas Sampaio; Van Der Made Ivone Elizabeth; Faria Ana Raquel Gomes

    2004-01-01

    Análises de matéria seca (MS), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), lignina (LIG), frações de carboidratos e de compostos nitrogenados foram realizadas em capins provenientes de três propriedades rurais da região das baixadas litorâneas do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Amostras do capim hemártria (HEM) (Hemarthria altissima) e do capim elefante (Pennisetum purpureum), utilizado como capineira (CEC) e sob pastejo rotacionado (CEP) foram coletadas mensalmente, ao longo das estaçõe...

  10. Los parques naturales del litoral de la Comunidad Valenciana: ¿islas de protección, integración territorial o compensación simbólica?

    OpenAIRE

    Capdepón Frías, Margarita

    2013-01-01

    El medio natural es complejo, dinámico y variable, y no entiende de límites antrópicos, de ahí la exigencia de aproximarse desde una perspectiva holística. La idea primera de que los espacios naturales protegidos son elementos aislados ha dado paso a otros planteamientos que los definen como piezas interconectadas del territorio. Con estos principios, se revisa la política conservacionista de la Comunidad Valenciana, con especial atención a los parques naturales del litoral. Analizar su papel...

  11. Qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Bergman Zaffari; Jozi Fagundes de Mello; Marisa da Costa

    2007-01-01

    O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 quei...

  12. Evolución de las competencias científicas en las carreras de Bioquímica y Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina. Un estudio longitudinal

    OpenAIRE

    Falicoff, Claudia Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Este estudio está fundamentado en el marco de las pruebas PISA 2006 (OCDE, 2008), sobre competencia científica. En la presente tesis se indagó en qué medida una muestra de alumnos de las carreras de Bioquímica y Biotecnología de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Argentina) adquieren y/o desarrollan dicha competencia durante los tres primeros años del nivel universitario (ciclo básico). Se realizó el seguimiento de los resultados durante los tres años de investigación. Se analizaron los alc...

  13. La fauna íctica en el litoral de la Bahía de San Antonio (Golfo San Matías, Provincia de Río Negro)

    OpenAIRE

    Perier, M.R.

    1994-01-01

    La bahía de San Antonio es una zona costera protegida del litoral marítimo que presenta una variada composición faunística (invertebrados, peces, aves y mamíferos). Respecto de la fauna íctica, existe información preliminar que permitió detectar la presencia de especies que presentaban gónadas en estadío de maduración total y se observaron, estacionalmente, ejemplares juveniles de esas y otras especies que motivaron el planteo de las siguientes hipótesis: 1) La bahía San Antonio y la zona de ...

  14. Estudio de Impacto Ambiental del Proyecto de Regeneración, Ordenación y Conservación del cordón litoral del Marjal dels Moros (Puzol-Sagunto. Valencia).

    OpenAIRE

    MORENO ORTIZ, JUAN JOSE

    2016-01-01

    [ES] Se ha redactado el Estudio de Impacto Ambiental del proyecto de regeneración, ordenación y conservación del cordón litoral del Marjal dels Moros situado entre los municipios de Puzol y Sagunto. El proyecto consiste en: - Recuperar el valor faunístico y florístico del humedal. - Recuperar la zona del saladar, que actualmente se encuentra deteriorado y desnaturalizado. - Conservar las condiciones de Marjal, actualmente declarado ZEPA (zona de especial protección para las aves) ...

  15. Tipología e implantación hotelera en el proceso de transformación del litoral portugués en los años 50 y 60 del siglo XX

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha Matos, Madalena; Santos Pedrosa, Patrícia; Sequeira, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Esta investigación – que resulta del Proyecto de Investigación Arquitectura Hotelera en Portugal, desarrollado en la Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Lisboa en 2008 – se centra en el hotel moderno del litoral de las décadas del 50 y 60 del siglo XX, entendido como fundador de un conjunto de asentamientos urbanos de la costa portuguesa y como un importante agente de la difusión del Movimiento Moderno en Portugal. En su mayoría, estos hoteles tienen una relación privile...

  16. Levantamento de registros dos acidentes com cnidários em algumas praias do litoral de Pernambuco (Brasil) Survey of cnidarian accident records in some beaches of the coast of Pernambuco (Brazil)

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo F. Neves; Fernanda D. Amaral; Andrea Q Steiner

    2007-01-01

    Os cnidários estão entre os organismos mais peçonhentos que se conhecem. Caracterizam-se por possuir células urticantes denominadas cnidócitos, e diversas espécies, como as chamadas caravelas e águas-vivas, podem ocasionar danos ao homem. Apesar da pouca atenção dada a este tipo de acidente no litoral brasileiro, os estudos existentes mostram que sua ocorrência é significativa. O presente estudo teve como principais objetivos levantar os acidentes causados por cnidários nos banhistas de algum...

  17. Viabilidad de una estructura sumergida en el litoral catalán para la práctica del Surf

    OpenAIRE

    García Márquez, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    En este documento se estudian los parámetros que intervienen en el proceso de formación, propagación y rotura de ola. A partir de un repaso al estado del arte actual de arrecifes artificiales a nivel mundial y después de analizar el oleaje catalán, se establece una estructura modelo aplicable a la costa catalana.

  18. Comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo Behavior of immatures Aedes aegypti in the coast State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Moreno Glasser

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em região de alta incidência de dengue, no litoral do Estado de São Paulo, selecionaram-se 9 áreas, com objetivo de avaliar o comportamento de formas imaturas de Aedes aegypti. MÉTODOS: As 9 áreas foram agrupadas em 4 estratos, diferenciados pelo uso e ocupação do solo. Foram coletadas larvas e pupas numa amostra de cerca de 500 imóveis em cada área. RESULTADOS: Apesar do pneu e lona apresentarem as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti, o ralo, juntamente com outros recipientes fixos nas edificações foram altamente predominantes entre os recipientes positivos (32 a 76% dos recipientes positivos. As áreas coletivas de prédios e os imóveis não residenciais de grande porte apresentaram as maiores taxas de positividade para Aedes aegypti enquanto os apartamentos, as menores. Os níveis de infestação foram maiores na área residencial com predominância de prédios de apartamentos, onde 76% dos criadouros detectados foram recipientes fixos nas edificações. CONCLUSÕES: Esses conhecimentos são importantes subsídios para a estratégia de controle, pois reforçam a necessidade de atenção especial para determinados tipos de imóveis, bem como da adequação da norma técnica de ralo de água pluvial e da melhoria de manutenção das edificações. Além disso, são necessárias observações sistemáticas que permitam acompanhar a dinâmica de ocupação de diferentes imóveis e recipientes por Aedes aegypti e a incorporação desses conhecimentos nas ações de controle do vetor na região.INTRODUCTION: In a region of high dengue incidence, on the coast of the State of São Paulo, 9 areas were selected to evaluate the behavior of immature Aedes aegypti. METHODS: The 9 areas were grouped into 4 strata according to soil use and occupation. Larvae and pupas were collected in a sample of approximately 500 buildings in each area. RESULTS: Although tires and canvas presented the highest positive rates for

  19. Approach of physiotherapy in collective health in a fishing community - paraná state litoral area: a learning project whitin the Federal Universtiy of Paraná -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Célia da CRUZ

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A fisioterapia no campo da Saúde Coletiva revela crescentes possibilidades de atuação profissional. A população do Litoral do Paraná que vive em pequenas comunidades isoladas encontra-se à margem das políticas públicas de atenção à saúde. O objetivo deste trabalho é relatar a experiência da aproximação de uma realidade pouco conhecida, permeando uma abordagem inovadora da fisioterapia na Saúde Coletiva em uma comunidade, denominada “Tromomô”, do município de Guaraqueçaba, litoral paranaense. Nela residem trinta famílias, geograficamente isoladas que se deparam com a inexistência de políticas públicas que respeitem seu modo de vida e sua história. O acesso é somente pela baia e a atenção à saúde depende de outras localidades situadas a mais de 30 minutos de barco, em boas condições de maré. A metodologia utilizada abordou aspectos quali e quantitativos. Estabelecendo um vínculo com a comunidade, foram aplicadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas aos moradores, seguidas de formulário de investigação sócio-econômica e de saúde acompanhados de registro etnográfico. Observou-se a falta de atendimento de equipes de saúde, de coleta de resíduos, de tratamento da água e de um trapiche de acesso às embarcações. A etapa de campo ainda identificou ausência de saneamento básico e, algumas casas, sem energia elétrica. A partir da aplicação do Questionário Nórdico para mapear as condições osteomusculares, observou-se prevalência de algias, especialmente em região lombar. Cruzando-se os dados deste instrumento com a abordagem qualitativa, observou-se que grande parte desses sintomas emerge das atividades laborais relacionadas à pesca, coleta e atividades domésticas. Elaborouse então uma proposta de interação interdisciplinar em saúde que constou de oficinas e rodas de conversa abordando aspectos como promoção à saúde, cidadania, sustentabilidade e meio ambiente. Observamos a importância da

  20. Repensar la urbanización del litoral. El plan director urbanístico del sistema costero de cataluña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriol Nel-lo Colon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available La urbanización de las áreas costeras constituye, sin duda, uno de los rasgos más característicos de la transformación del territorio en los países del sur de Europa durante las últimas décadas.  La contención y ordenación de este proceso, que genera costes ambientales, urbanísticos y económicos, requiere de la adopción de nuevos instrumentos de planeamiento y gestión urbanística. El artículo analiza esta problemática a partir del ejemplo del Plan Director Urbanístico del Sistema Costero de Cataluña (PDUSC en vigor desde el año 2005. El trabajo se divide en 4 apartados: en el primero se describe el proceso de urbanización del litoral catalán, en el segundo se expone la necesidad de disponer de instrumentos de planeamiento supramunicipal para orientar y corregir este proceso, en el tercero se detallan los objetivos y el método del PDUSC y en el cuarto se analizan cuáles han sido sus resultados tras cuatro años de vigencia. Unas conclusiones de carácter metodológico sobre la utilidad de los instrumentos de planeamiento supramunicipal en la fase actual del proceso de urbanización cierran el artículo.

  1. Estudo de toposseqüência da Baixada Litorânea Fluminense: efeitos do material de origem e posição topográfica

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    M. B. Silva

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A influência dos materiais de origem, rochas do Pré-Cambriano e sedimentos coluviais e aluvionares delas derivados, e da posição topográfica na gênese de solos foi estudada em uma toposseqüência representativa das feições geomorfológicas da Baixada Litorânea Fluminense (RJ, no campus da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ. Foram analisados seis perfis de solo, localizados no terço superior (P1 e P2, médio (P3 e inferior da encosta (P4 e P5, e na baixada (P6. Os processos pedogenéticos e as características dos solos foram relacionados com as unidades geomorfológicas e litoestratigráficas descritas na região. Os perfis P1 e P2, formados 'in situ' a partir do regolito do gnaisse, têm elevada saturação por bases, textura média/argilosa e minerais primários facilmente intemperizáveis na fração areia (micas e feldspatos. O P3, relacionado com uma rampa de colúvio, difere dos anteriores pela elevada saturação por alumínio e ausência de minerais primários facilmente intemperizáveis. P4 e P5, também formados de colúvio, diferem do P3 pela textura superficial arenosa e presença de horizonte E sobrejacente a fragipã. O P6, originado de sedimentos colúvio-aluvionais, tem cores cinzentas, estrutura maciça, textura argilosa e baixa saturação por bases. Os perfis foram classificados como Argissolo (P1, P2 e P3, Planossolo (P4 e P5 e Gleissolo (P6.

  2. Composición espacial y temporal de la avifauna de humedales pequeños costeros y hábitat adyacentes en el noroeste de Baja California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la composición espacio-temporal de la avifauna en 13 humedales pequeños costeros del noroeste de Baja California entre febrero y diciembre de 2002. Se registraron 17,978 individuos pertenecientes a 187 especies, 121 géneros y 47 familias. Las familias con mayor número de especies fueron Anatidae (17, Scolopacidae (17 y Laridae (12. Los humedales con mayor riqueza específica fueron El Rosario (126, Santo Tomás (107 y La Misión (95, los cuales en conjunto incluyeron al 86% del total de especies observadas. Setenta y seis especies (41% fueron residentes permanentes, 73 (39% visitantes estacionales, y 38 (20% visitantes ocasionales. Con base en la presencia o ausencia de las especies se distinguen cuatro grupos de humedales: (a San Simón, (b La Salina, (c El Descanso-El Ciprés y (d un grupo de nueve sitios que está subdividido en dos ramas de cuatro y cinco localidades, respectivamente: (d.1 San Telmo-Santo Tomás-El Rosario-La Misión y (d.2 San Rafael-San Miguel- El Salado-Santo Domingo-Cantamar. La presencia o ausencia de un cuerpo de agua permanente, los tipos de hábitat y la presencia o ausencia de influencia antropogénica en cada localidad fueron los factores que contribuyeron al agrupamiento de estos humedales. La riqueza y abundancia de especies estuvieron correlacionadas con la diversidad de hábitats. Se documentaron evidencias de reproducción para 20 especies.

  3. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina

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    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  4. Desarrollo de cultivares de soja mejorados con alto potencial de rendimiento para la región litoral

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    Diana M. Fresoli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La soja (Glycine max (L. Merrill es, a nivel mundial, uno de los principales productos vegetales por su potencial de productividad, adaptabilidad y rentabilidad, por lo que es importante disponer de variantes genotípicas que permitan elevados y estables rendimientos en diferentes latitudes, fechas de siembra, tipo de suelo, etc. El objetivo general de este proyecto fue desarrollar nuevos recombinantes genéticos de soja adaptados a la zona, con elevados rendimientos, buena calidad de semilla, seguridad de cosecha, e indiferencia al fotoperíodo. El mejoramiento genético tradicional de la especie se inició con la introducción de genotipos desde sus centros de origen, seguidos por la hibridación y posterior selección, utilizando el método de descendencia de semilla única (SSD. Para la evaluación del comportamiento agronómico, fenológico y sanitario se implementaron ensayos comparativos de rendimientos durante cuatro campañas. Como resultado, se inscribieron en el Registro Nacional de la Propiedad de Cultivares y en el Registro de Fiscalización de Cultivares tres nuevas creaciones fitogenéticas de soja: Mercurio FCA, Iridio FCA y Platino FCA, que presentaron en los años de evaluación excelentes rendimientos, calidad de semilla, carácter juvenil y resistencia a campo al cancro del tallo de la soja producido por Diaporthe phaseolorum f sp. Meridionalis.

  5. Unidades tectónicas y estructura general de la Sierra de Gádor y zonas adyacentes (Cordillera Bética, provincia de Almería: implicaciones paleogeográficas

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    Delgado Salazar, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sierra de Gádor (Almeria province terrains belonging to the Internal Betic Zone crop out. According to stratigraphic, structural and petrologic features we have recognised five tectonic units. These units are called, from bottom to top, Gádor-Turón, Laujar, Murtas, Felix and Chirán unit. The lower fourth are ascribed to the Alpujárride Complex, whilst the last one is ascribed to the Maláguide Complex. We also discuss if the Felix unit may be included in the Intermediate Units. The Felix unit represents the Triassic palaeogeographic transition between the Alpujárride and the Maláguide, and it was located between both complexes during the alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Betic Cordillera.En la Sierra de Gádor (provincia del Almería afloran rocas pertenecientes a la Zona Interna de la Cordillera Bética. En este sector hemos reconocido un total de cinco unidades tectónicas, en función de sus características estratigráficas, estructurales y petrológicas. Estas unidades se denominan, de abajo a arriba, unidad de Gádor-Turón, unidad de Laujar, unidad de Murtas, unidad de Felix y unidad de Chirán. Las cuatro más bajas las asignamos al Complejo Alpujárride, mientras que la más alta la asignamos al Complejo Maláguide. Se discute además la posible inclusión de la unidad de Felix dentro de las denominadas Unidades Intermedias. La unidad de Felix representa el tránsito paleogeográfico durante el Triásico entre el dominio Alpujárride y el Maláguide, y estaría situada entre ambos complejos durante la evolución tectono-metamórfica alpina de la Cordillera Bética.

  6. Transformações no sistema tradicional de roça itinerante na Mata Atlântica do litoral sul brasileiro

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    Nicole Rodrigues Vicente

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2014v11n2p183Este artigo visa compreender as mudanças ocorridas no sistema tradicional de roça itinerante no litoral de Santa Catarina ao longo das últimas quatro décadas. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida junto a agricultores tradicionais moradores de duas microbacias hidrográficas do município de Biguaçu-SC. A unidade amostral foi a propriedade onde reside o informante-chave, selecionado via Bola-de-Neve. Foram conduzidas entrevistas semiestruturadas, observações participante e turnês-guiadas para coleta de dados. A análise de dados se deu por meio do software Atlas.ti, de estatística descritiva e análise multivariada de Componentes Principais. Os dados foram interpretados com base na linha histórica de ocorrência. A pesquisa diagnosticou que o manejo realizado pela população local se fundamenta na condução periódica de cultivos agrícolas e florestais, num sistema de rotação com períodos de pousio. As principais culturas agrícolas utilizadas eram a mandioca, a banana, o milho, o café e a cana-de-açúcar, mas atualmente apenas a mandioca tem forte expressão. Para todas as fases de desenvolvimento do manejo os agricultores apresentam conhecimentos específicos de leitura da paisagem e da dinâmica florestal. Mudanças nas políticas agrícolas e gestão das florestas nativas têm afetado diretamente o sistema de roça itinerante nas microbacias estudadas. A população local apresenta relação intrínseca com os recursos florestais nativos devendo ter seu modo de vida respeitado e seu sistema tradicional valorizado.

  7. Aporte a la geología del Alto de Mogna, al norte de la depresión del Tulum, provincia de San Juan

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    J.J. Zambrano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available El Alto de Mogna, elevación estructural situada en la parte central de la provincia de San Juan, entre las provincias geológicas de las Sierras Pampeanas y la Precordillera Oriental, tiene rumbo este-oeste, transversal a las estructuras de las mencionadas cadenas montañosas, y separa dos depresiones tectónicas regionales: el valle del Bermejo, al norte, y la depresión de Tulum, al sur. En esta elevación estructural afloran fallas y pliegues, cuyo rumbo es prácticamente este-oeste, salvo en la zona adyacente a la Precordillera, donde se orientan de ONO a ESE. Los terrenos aflorantes son sedimentitas continentales mio-pliocenas. Las más antiguas son areniscas, limolitas y arcilitas rojizas y amarillentas, con abundante yeso. En la parte superior, al norte del Alto, afloran conglomerados pliocenos que quizás lleguen al Pleistoceno en sus intervalos más altos. El ascenso tectónico ha sido mayor en la zona próxima a la Precordillera Oriental, y disminuye gradualmente hacia el este. Esta actividad tectónica se ha producido durante el Plioceno y prácticamente todo el Cuaternario.

  8. Encontro de imaturos de Anopheles cruzii em bromélias de área urbana, litoral de São Paulo Encuentro de inmaduros de Anopheles cruzii en bromelias de área urbana, litoral de Sao Paulo Anopheles cruzii larvae found in bromelias in an urban area on the Brazilian coast

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Primeiro relato da ocorrência de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito essencialmente silvestre, em bromélias de solo em área urbana do município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo. De março de 1998 a julho de 1999 foram capturadas 312 formas imaturas de An. cruzii, sendo 8,6% em bromélias do ambiente urbano, 40,1% em bromélias do periurbano e 51,3% na mata. O número médio de bromélias com An. cruzii foi de 4,0% dentre o total de pesquisadas, com valores próximos de positividade para ambiente periurbano e mata. A presença de An. cruzii no ambiente urbano provavelmente é resultante da sua ocorrência prévia na mata, aliada à elevada presença desse criadouro na área urbana, de fonte alimentar e abrigos disponíveis. Alerta-se para a possibilidade de transferência de infecções entre esses ambientes.Primer relato de la presencia de larvas de Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii, mosquito esencialmente silvestre, en bromelias de suelo en área urbana del municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de São Paulo (Sureste de Brasil. De marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999 fueron capturadas 312 formas inmaduras de An. cruzii, siendo 8,6% en bromelias del ambiente urbano, 40,1% en bromelias del periurbano, y 51,3% en la selva. El número prmedio de bromelias con An. cruzii fue de 4,0% del total de evaluadas, con valores próximos de positividad para ambiente periurbano y selva. La presencia de An. cruzii en el ambiente urbano probablemente es resultante de su ocurrencia previa en la selva, aliado a la elevada presencia de criaderos en el área urbana, de fuente de alimentación y abrigos disponibles. Se alerta la posibilidad de transferencia de infecciones entre esos ambiente.The occurrence of Anopheles (Kerteszia cruzii larvae is reported for the first time in bromelias on the ground located in an urban area within the municipality of Ilha Bela, on the northern coast of the State of São Paulo. From March 1998 to July

  9. Relação entre Ciclo de Vida do Produto Turístico e Estratégias de Cooperação na Faixa Litorânea Urbana do Município de Natal

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    Anette Santiago Pereira; Fernando Dias Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Resumo Com a concretização das ações estruturantes para o turismo em Natal, se expandem as ações baseadas na cooperação e a formalização de instâncias de governança. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o ciclo de vida do produto turístico ‘Litoral Urbano de Natal’ e as estratégias de cooperação em uma perspectiva histórica. A teoria está constituída de uma revisão sobre ciclo de vida, ecologia populacional, sistema de turismo, estratégias de cooperação e novas formas ...

  10. Territorio y gobernabilidad ambiental: análisis y reflexiones para el turismo de sol y playa en el litoral marítimo de la provincia de Buenos Aires

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    Ordoqui, Javier Martín

    2010-01-01

    El impacto del turismo de sol y playa en el litoral marítimo de la Provincia de Buenos Aires; Argentina, necesita una caracterización y análisis en relación con la construcción del territorio y las transformaciones en el paisaje y en el ambiente ocurridas en sus costas. El objetivo principal de este trabajo será establecer una aproximación teórica y epistemológica para el estudio de la evolución histórica, el estado de sus playas, el riesgo de erosión marina, el avance del medio construido en...

  11. Los derechos de los Estados sin litoral y en situación geográfica desventajosa en la Zona Económica Exclusiva: (Participación en la explotación de los recursos vivos)

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    Martínez Puñal, Antonio

    1988-01-01

    Capítulo I: La diversidad de situaciones en relación con la extensión de la jurisdicción nacional como elemento determinativo de la agrupación de intereses: análisis teórico-doctrinal. -- Capítulo II: La desventaja geográfica ante el proceso de revisión del Derecho del Mar en el marco del debate general de la Comisión de Fondos Marinos. -- Capítulo III: Los Estados sin litoral y en situación geográfica desventajosa en relación con la Zona Económica Exclusiva en el marco de las propuestas pres...

  12. Nota sobre caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil A case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of S. Paulo State, Brazil

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    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1980-03-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se em caso autóctone de tripanossomíase americana no litoral sul do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As evidências sugerem a hipótese de a transmissão ter ocorrido graças à contaminação durante o manuseio de carcaças de animais silvestres utilizados na alimentação.An indigenous case of American Trypanosomiasis in the southern coastal region of the State of S. Paulo is reported on. There are no synanthropic triatominae vectors in the area; therefore the transmission mechanism may have been the handling of wild mammal carcasses while they were being prepared for consumption.

  13. Estudio de la relación entre acuífero y humedales en el área Mimbrales La Vera del Manto Eólico Litoral de Doñana, Huelva

    OpenAIRE

    Higueras García, Horacio Luis

    2013-01-01

    [ESP] El presente estudio ha sido realizado en una zona del sistema acuífero de Doñana, en el SO de España, conocido como Manto Eólico Litoral de Doñana (MELD). Se trata de un área de unos 400 km2 de superficie formados por arenas eólicas de mediana permeabilidad en su parte más somera. El estudio ha sido llevado a cabo a dos escalas espaciales: 1) escala regional, que ha consistido en estudiar todo el MELD como base para el estudio de detalle, y en el cual los objetivos han sido el estudio d...

  14. Reprodução de Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Reproduction of the Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus in the Santa Catarina's coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O savacu Nycticorax nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 é uma espécie de hábitos crepusculares e noturnos, com ampla distribuição geográfica. Sua biologia reprodutiva tem sido intensivamente estudada nos países de ocorrência, entretanto, no Brasil, é comumente citada nos levantamentos de ornitólogos, mas não existem informações disponíveis sobre seu ciclo de vida. Esse trabalho objetiva contribuir para o conhecimento da biologia reprodutiva dessa espécie no litoral catarinense. As amostragens foram realizadas nos anos de 2000 a 2002 na Ilha dos Pássaros e de 2002 na Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. As maiores abundâncias de exemplares e ninhos com ovos ocorreram em outubro, sendo que o comprimento médio dos ovos variou entre 5,02 ± 0,23 a 5,07 ± 0,21 cm e o volume 31,71 ± 2,64 a 35,92 ± 3,47 cm³ e as maiores freqüências de filhotes em novembro, culminando o abandono da colônia em meados de janeiro. Foram identificados sete itens nos regurgitos dos filhotes, sendo que os peixes marinhos representaram 44,4% da massa total. O principal predador na colônia foi o urubu-comum, que atuou sobre os ovos no início da temporada e os filhotes no final.The black-crowned night heron N. nycticorax (Linnaeus, 1758 is a aquatic bird with twilight and night habits, with wide geographical distribution. His reproductive biology has been studied intensively at the occurrence countries, however, in Brazil, it is mentioned commonly in the ornithologists' risings, but available information don't exist on his life cycle. This work aims to contribute for the knowledge of the reproductive biology of that species in the Santa Catarina coast. The samplings were accomplished in the years from 2000 to 2002 in the Ilha dos Pássaros and of 2002 in the Ilha dos Lobos, Santa Catarina. The largest abundances of individuals and nests with eggs happened in October, and the medium length of the eggs varied between 5.02 ± 0.23 to 5.07 ± 0.21 cm and the volume 31

  15. BAIXA RENDA DO LITORAL CATARINENSE

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    Luciane Peter Grillo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo verificar los riesgos nutricionales de los escolares entre 5 y 12 años de edad de las familias de clase baja pertenecientes a la red de enseñanza pública de la ciudad de Camboriú - SC. Fueron evaluados 819 escolares (579 niños y 240 adolescentes. Los riesgos nutricionales fueron verificados mediante la clasificación antropométrica y se constató que el 78% estaban eutróficos, 13% desnutridos y 9% con sobrepeso. La ingestión alimenticia indicó un consumo excesivo de proteínas (48% e insuficiente en azúcares (96%, vegetales (80%, grasas (68%, cereales (68% y frutas (48%. Los datos socio-económicos demonstraron que la clase predominante fue la D (43%, seguida de la C (30%, E (22% y B (5%. Se encontró que un 46% de escolares presentavan anemia ferropriva. El estudio sugiere que por medio de la identificación y el análisis de los factores nutricionales será posible la construcción de estrategias de intervención más eficaces para la promoción de la salud, siendo la cuestión nutricional un elemento primordial.

  16. Evolución geomorfológica y cronología relativa de los niveles aterrazados del área adyacente a la desembocadura del río Chubut al Atlántico (Provincia del Chubut Geomorphological evolution and relative chronology of terrace levels adjacent to the Chubut River mouth to the Atlantic (Chubut Province.

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    Emilio F González Díaz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe un antiguo abanico aluvial y su posterior evolución. Las acumulaciones del antiguo abanico aluvial han sido interpretadas como la continuidad septentrional de los rodados patagónicos de la meseta Montemayor, una propuesta que es rebatida. La base metodológica del reconocimiento del antiguo abanico aluvial y su distinción genética y temporal, la constituyó el análisis geomórfico y la evaluación altimétrica. Su asignación temporal es un problema aún no resuelto. La metodología condujo a diferenciar tres sistemas geomórficos o niveles, relacionados con sucesivos episodios de agradación y erosión, los que ocupan posiciones cada vez más inferiores, coincidiendo con el complejo paleodrenaje del antiguo abanico aluvial. Sus desarrollos sucesivos son vinculados con protoríos Chubut 1, 2, 3 propuestos y el correspondiente a un paleovalle Simpson. Pese a las limitaciones apuntadas, se propone que el modelo evolutivo del antiguo abanico aluvial responde a una estructura de corte y relleno, que avalaría una composición poliformacional del antiguo abanico aluvial y además la migración progresiva del paleodrenaje hacia el sur. Un análisis geomorfológico y altimétrico diferenció un nivel superior integrado por restos de tres planicies (Pa, Pm y Pb, un nivel medio con dos terrazas (T1 y T2 y un complejo nivel inferior de cinco terrazas (T3, T4, T5 T6 y T7. Evidencias relícticas de los paleodrenajes propuestos son los paleovalles Estancia Paz y Don Morgan-Saraza del nivel superior. La edad del antiguo abanico aluvial basada en la evolución geomórfica del área de estudio, es tentativamente asignada a un incierto lapso del Pleistoceno superior entre el interglacial Sangamon y fines de la última glaciación.An ancient alluvial fan and its subsequent evolution are described. Ancient alluvial fan accumulations have been interpreted as the northern continuation of the rodados patagónicos of the Montemayor Plateau, a proposal that is contested. The methodological recognition of the ancient alluvial fan and its genetic and temporary distinction, were made from geomorphologic analysis and altimetric evaluation. Time assignment is a problem not yet solved. The methodology led to three different geomorphic systems or levels related to successive episodes of aggradation and erosion, with increasing lower positions, which coincide with a complex paleodrainage ancient alluvial fan. its successive developments are linked to proposed proto-rivers Chubut 1, 2, 3 and to a Simpson paleo-valley. Despite the mentioned limitations, we propose that the evolutionary model of ancient alluvial fan responds to a structure of cut and fill which is supported by the poly-formational composition of an ancient alluvial fan, and a gradual southward migration of the paleo-drainage. Based on geomorphologic analysis and altimetric distinction an upper level, composed of the remains of three plains (Pa, Pm and Pb, a middle level with two terraces (T1 and T2 and a complex lower level and five terraces (T3, T4, T5 T6 and T7 were recognized. Relict evidences of paleo-drainages are proposed based on the Estancia Paz and Don Morgan-Saraza paleo-valleys in the upper level. The age of the ancient alluvial fan based on the geomorphic evolution of the study area is tentatively assigned to an uncertain period between the late Pleistocene and late Sangamon interglacial at the end of the last glaciation.

  17. Culicídeos em bromélias: diversidade de fauna segundo influência antrópica, litoral de São Paulo Culícidos en bromelias: diversidad de fauna según influencia antrópica, litoral de Brasil Culicidae in bromeliads: diversity of species by anthropic environments, coastal area of Southeastern Brazil

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    Gisela R A M Marques

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a diversidade da fauna de culicídeos em bromélias de solo segundo ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata primitiva. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado no município de Ilhabela, litoral norte do estado de São Paulo, em tanques de bromélias de ambientes urbano, periurbano e mata. Realizaram-se coletas de imaturos quinzenalmente, de março de 1998 a julho de 1999. A presença e freqüência de espécies nos diferentes ambientes foram comparadas com base em estimativas da diversidade para medir a riqueza, dominância e análise de variância (ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Coletaram-se 31.134 formas imaturas de mosquitos nas bromélias, distribuídas em sete gêneros e 37 espécies. O ambiente urbano registrou maior abundância, 14.575 indivíduos, seguido do periurbano com 10.987, e a mata, com o menor número de exemplares, 5.572. Foram coletadas 30 espécies no habitat urbano, 32 no periurbano e 33 na mata. As espécies dominantes foram Culex (Microculex pleuristriatus nos ambientes urbano e periurbano, e Culex ocellatus na mata. De acordo com teste ANOVA a freqüência de mosquitos em bromélias não foi diferente entre os ambientes pesquisados (F=0,5564; p=0,5769. A diversidade de espécies na mata foi maior, e semelhante entre periurbano e urbano. CONCLUSÕES: A composição específica de culicídeos em bromélias de solo mostrou-se diversificada, sendo maior naquelas de ambiente de mata. As espécies dominantes foram Cx. (Mcx. pleuristriatus e Cx. ocellatus.OBJETIVO: Comparar la diversidad de la fauna de culícidos en bromelias de suelo según ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. MÉTODOS: El estudio fue realizado en el municipio de Ilhabela, litoral norte del estado de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, en tanques de bromelias de ambientes urbano, periurbano y selva virgen. Se realizaron colectas de inmaduros quincenalmente, de marzo de 1998 a julio de 1999. La presencia y frecuencia de especies en los diferentes ambientes fueron

  18. Relação entre Ciclo de Vida do Produto Turístico e Estratégias de Cooperação na Faixa Litorânea Urbana do Município de Natal

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    Anette Santiago Pereira

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Com a concretização das ações estruturantes para o turismo em Natal, se expandem as ações baseadas na cooperação e a formalização de instâncias de governança. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar a relação entre o ciclo de vida do produto turístico ‘Litoral Urbano de Natal’ e as estratégias de cooperação em uma perspectiva histórica. A teoria está constituída de uma revisão sobre ciclo de vida, ecologia populacional, sistema de turismo, estratégias de cooperação e novas formas de gestão. Os resultados apontaram que o gráfico do ciclo de vida do produto ‘Litoral Urbano de Natal’, encontra-se migrando de uma fase de crescimento para uma fase de maturidade. As estratégias de cooperação identificadas foram o consórcio, estratégia coletiva e aglomerados, que se relacionam ao ciclo de vida do Produto Turístico através do alcance da eficiência coletiva. Palavras-chave: turismo; ciclo de vida do produto; cooperação. Abstract With the completion of tourism structuring actions, it was spread actions based on cooperation and formalization of governance institutions. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the tourism product life cycle 'Coastal Range of Natal” and the cooperation strategies in a historical perspective. The theoretical support is a revision about Resort Life Cycle, Theory of Population Ecology, System of Tourism, Co-operation Strategies and Management New Forms. Results showed that the life cycle graph of product 'Coastal Range of Natal’ is moving from one stage of growth to a stage of maturity. The co-operation strategies identified were consortium, collective strategy and clusters, which are related to the life cycle of the tourism product ‘Coastal Range of Natal’ when the efficiency of collective actions is achieved. Keywords: tourism; product life cycle; co-operation.

  19. AL Amyloidosis

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    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  20. Avifauna associada a ambientes de influência marítima no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Avifauna associated to environments subjected to marine influence along Santa Catarina Coast, Brazil

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    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Apesar dos 561,4 km e de aproximadamente 300 praias e vários estuários ao longo da costa catarinense, informações sobre as aves associadas aos ambientes de influência marítima são escassos. Durante o período de abril/2002 a maio/2003 foram realizados censos trimestrais na avifauna com o objetivo de determinar a composição e abundância dos agrupamentos, diversidade, equitabilidade e similaridade ao longo do litoral de Santa Catarina. Foram realizados 28 censos, sendo efetuados quatro por sítio e registradas a ocorrência de 62 espécies em bandos mistos, onde as aves marinhas costeiras e algumas limícolas foram as mais freqüentes e abundantes.Informations about birds associated to environments subjected to marine influence are scarce in Santa Catarina State, despite its 561.4 km and approximately 300 beaches and several estuaries. Trimestral bird censuses were realized from April/2002 to May/2003 with the purpose of determining the composition and abundance of bird groupings, diversity, equitability and similarity along Santa Catarina coast. A total of 28 censuses were realized, four in each site. It was registered the occurrence of 62 species in mixed groups, where the coastal seabirds and some limnological birds were the most frequent and abundant ones.

  1. Deslizamientos al norte de la población deTricao Malal, noroeste del Neuquén

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    Emilio F. GonzálezDíaz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se describen deslizamientos hasta ahora no reconocidosy de dispar tipología, en una zona adyacente a la margen izquierda del valledel río Curri Leuvú, ubicada al norte de la población de Tricao Malal. Estánsituados entre el cerro Palao, la laguna homónima y el sector de los llamadosRiscos Negros. Los mayores, deslizamientos correspondientes a Malal Cura yArroyo Mogolillo, corresponden al tipo rotacional múltiple, retrógado yprogresivo y están localizados en un ambiente de las sedimentitas mesozoicas,cubiertas por coladas basálticas cenozoicas. Los deslizamientos del tipo flujo(debris flow y earth flow, son proclives a ocurrir en áreas cubiertas por lasrocas volcánicas de la Formación Charilehue (Mioceno medio. Se proyectan másal norte de los límites del presente estudio, alcanzando las latitudes delvalle de los arroyos Grande y del Medio y también al sureste del cerro Domuyo(valle del arroyo Colimamil. El impacto de estos fenómenos en la red fluviallocal alcanzó importancia, llegando en el pasado en ocasiones a obstruirlagenerando cuerpos de agua permanentes, como es el caso del arroyo La Turbia yla simultánea generación de la actual laguna homónima. Se plantea laalternativa de que la ocurrencia de los deslizamientos está relacionada conexcesivos o prolongados períodos de precipitaciones, en tiempos postglaciarios.Se señala la más limitada presencia de glaciares de rocas en el cerro Palao.

  2. Adaptabilidad y tolerancia de Cidguiros (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris: hidrochaeridae al confinamiento

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    Ramirez Perilla Jaime

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Fueron estudiados el tiempo de adaptación y las distancias interindividuales de 9 chigüiros subadultos y 19 juveniles mantenidos en cautividad, por separado, en encierros
    contiguos de 5 x 9 m. cada uno, dentro de una porqueriza. La dependencia y tolerancia a la presencia humana fué total a las 8 semanas en los juveniles y más pronto en los subadultos (2 semanas. La conducta agresiva es mayor en comederos adyacentes y semicirculares que en los separados linealmente unos de otros. El 49.77% de las veces los individuos juveniles realizan todas las actividades a menos de 0.5 m. mientras que sólo el 34.83 % de los subadultos lo hacen a la misma distancia. Es posible encontrar el 77.59% de las veces a cualquier individuo subadulto a una distancia mínima de entre 0.0 y 1.5 m. de otro, mientras que los juveniles lo están el 84% de las veces. Del estudio se deduce que los chigüiros se adaptan fácilmente al cautiverio y toleran altas densidades.Time of adaptation to human presence and interindividual distances of subadults and 19 juvenile capybaras (H. hydrochaeris, separately mantained in captivity in 5 x 9 m. pens, were studied. Dependence and tolerance to human presence was maximun within 8 weeks for the juveniles and within less than 2 weeks for the subadults. The agressive
    behaviour is more frequent in adyacent and semicircular feeders than in those lineally separated. The 49.77% of the times (N =424, juveniles individuals carried out their activities in less than 0.5 m., whereas only 34.83 % of the subadults did it at the same distance. It is possible to find any subadult individual 77.5% of the time at a minimun interindividual distance ranging between 0.0 and 1.5 m., whereas for the juveniles the possibility is 84% of the time. From the study is easily established that the capybaras
    are readily adaptable to captivity and tolerate rather high densities.

  3. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Apaza; Aída Figari

    2014-01-01

    Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados ...

  4. Amenazas naturales asociadas al ascenso del nivel del mar en Caribe Colombiano

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    Robertson Kim Gregory

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de recientes investigaciones sobre el impacto del ascenso del nivel del mar en la Costa Caribe colombiana, bases para el primer informe de Colombia a la Convención Internacional de Cambio Climático, adelantado en convenio con elIDE..-.1f. Con base en el estudio de las geoformas litorales, los procesos dinámicos asociadosy su evolución reciente, se evaluó la amenaza por inundación y erosión asociada al actual ascenso del nivel del mar, proyectado por IP(C (panel Intergubemamcntal de Expertos de Cambio Climático en un metro pata el año 2100. A partir de la interpretación de imágenes de satélite y fotografias aéreas, apoyada en información secundaria y verificación de campo, se identificaron 15 unidades geomorfológicas básicas de origen estructural, fluvial y marino. Con base las características geomorfológicas y criterios de resiliencia frente a la acción del oleaje y la inundación litoral, se generó un modelo morfodinámico que pronostica el impacto del ascenso del nivel marino para el litoral Caribe colombiano. De acuerdo con este análisis, se estima que las unidades geomorfológicas recientes desarrolladas durante los últimos 2.500 años podrían ser reactivadas por el actual ascenso del nivel del mar, afectando numerosos centros urbanos tales como Cartagena, Santa Marta, Puerto Colombia y Turbo y actividades económicas de-importancia como el comercio portuario y el turismo. Para los 1.819 Km. de línea de costa del Caribe Colombiano, se estima que el 33.7% presenta alta susceptibilidad a la erosión marina, representado por geoformas que presentan grari fragilidad ante los procesos erosivos. En la linea de costa restante, 31,2% presenta susceptibilidad mec!ia y 35.1% susceptibilidad baja y muy baja, en una linea de costa caracterizada por geoformas con fragilidad y mecanismos de resiliencia variables. Por inundación, se pronostica que 1192 Km2 de costa baja serán anegados, 2331 Km2 sufrir

  5. Aplicación de la teledetección en la estimación de las emisiones extraordinarias de CO2 por quemas de áreas insulares en el complejo litoral de Río Paraná (R. Argentina)

    OpenAIRE

    Sione, Walter; Aceñolaza, Pablo G.; Zamboni, Lisandra P.; Del Valle, Hector F.; Serafini, M. Cristina; Gallardo, Juan. F.

    2009-01-01

    [ESP]Los ambientes insulares del Complejo Litoral del Río Paraná (R. Argentina) están sujetos a incendios con recurrencia controlada por factores antropogénicos, climáticos y topográficos, con consecuencias a escala local, regional y global. Como resultado se producen variaciones en las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. Entre Marzo y Junio de 2008 se produjeron una serie de incendios extraordinarios que afectaron principalmente pastizales y juncales, ubicados en las ...

  6. Roça-de-toco: uso de recursos florestais e dinâmica da paisagem rural no litoral de Santa Catarina Slash-and-burn agriculture: use of forest resources and dynamics of rural landscape in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Siminski; Alfredo Celso Fantini

    2007-01-01

    Os fragmentos florestais nas pequenas propriedades agrícolas de Santa Catarina fazem parte de um ciclo de cultivo de espécies anuais, através da agricultura de pousio (roça-de-toco). Neste estudo, procurou-se analisar o sistema de cultivo praticado pelos agricultores do município de São Pedro de Alcântara, litoral de Santa Catarina, utilizando a abordagem qualitativa. Como resultados, observou-se que em 65% das propriedades houve redução da área de cultivo nos últimos 10 anos, o tempo de repo...

  7. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, C.; Cortez, N; Martins, A.; Azevedo, A.; M. Madeira

    2007-01-01

    Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP) e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG), considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos), quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar), com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com...

  8. Roça-de-toco: uso de recursos florestais e dinâmica da paisagem rural no litoral de Santa Catarina Slash-and-burn agriculture: use of forest resources and dynamics of rural landscape in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Siminski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Os fragmentos florestais nas pequenas propriedades agrícolas de Santa Catarina fazem parte de um ciclo de cultivo de espécies anuais, através da agricultura de pousio (roça-de-toco. Neste estudo, procurou-se analisar o sistema de cultivo praticado pelos agricultores do município de São Pedro de Alcântara, litoral de Santa Catarina, utilizando a abordagem qualitativa. Como resultados, observou-se que em 65% das propriedades houve redução da área de cultivo nos últimos 10 anos, o tempo de repouso foi reduzido e as roças passaram a ser menos itinerantes. As restrições ao uso dos recursos florestais têm promovido alterações na composição da paisagem das propriedades agrícolas da região de estudo, onde se constata uma diminuição das áreas destinadas à agricultura de pousio e um aumento crescente das áreas com formações florestais secundárias, além do aumento da proporção de formações mais avançadas no processo de sucessão natural. Entretanto, uma simulação do uso da terra revelou que é possível, do ponto de vista da disponibilidade de áreas ao longo do tempo, a continuidade do sistema de pousio, principalmente quando este destina-se à subsistência.The secondary forests in the small farms of Santa Catarina State are traditionally used as a component of the slash-and-burn agriculture. The purpose of this study was to analyze the agricultural system in the municipality of São Pedro de Alcântara, on the coast zone of the State, using the qualitative research approach. The results showed that there was a reduction of the cultivated area in 65% of the farms in the last 10 years, the fallow period was reduced, and the rotation time of each field plot was shortened. The restrictions imposed by regulations on forest resources use have contributed to a change in the composition of the landscape of the study area, where a shrinkage of the area used for traditional agriculture in favor of a larger area of with

  9. Avaliação de extratos de macroalgas bênticas do litoral catarinense utilizando o teste de letalidade para Artemia salina Evaluation of macroalgae from Santa Catarina’s coast with the brine shrimp assay

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    Cintia Lhullier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram coletadas amostras de algas marinhas de 19 espécies (sendo 4 pertencentes ao filo Chlorophyta, 5 ao filo Phaeophyta e 10 ao filo Rhodophyta em dois locais do litoral catarinense. Os extratos etanólicos foram submetidos ao teste de letalidade para larvas de Artemia salina com objetivo de realizar uma triagem das espécies. Dos 26 extratos testados, 25 apresentaram toxicidade significativa em pelo menos uma das 3 concentrações testadas. O grupo de algas vermelhas (Rhodophyta foi o que obteve maior porcentagem de extratos com resultados estatisticamente significativos pelo método do qui-quadrado e também menores valores de CL50, com destaque para Acanthophora spicifera, Hypnea musciformis e Pterocladiella capillacea. Observaram-se diferenças entre as espécies de um mesmo gênero (Codium decorticatum e Codium isthmocladium e também a influência de fatores ambientais (Hypnea musciformis na toxicidade dos extratos.Samples of 19 macroalgae species (4 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta and 10 Rhodophyta have been collected from two points of Santa Catarina's coast. The ethanolic extracts were avaluated with the brine shrimp assay in order to perform a screening for potential toxicity. A total of 25 extracts presented significant results in one or more of the tested concentrations. The phylum Rhodophyta presented more statistically significant results with the chi-square test, as well as lower values of LC50. The extracts of Acanthophora spicifera (from Canasvieiras and Ilha do Francês, Hypnea musciformis and Pterocladiella capillacea (both from Ilha do Francês presented LC50 below 50 mg/mL. Differences between the species of same genus (Codium decorticatum and Codium isthmocladium and the influence of environmental factors (Hypnea musciformis were observed.

  10. Structure of bee-flower system in the coastal sand dune of Abaeté, northeastern Brazil Estrutura do sistema abelha-flor nas dunas litorâneas de Abaeté, Nordeste do Brasil

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    Blandina F. Viana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available For twelve months (from January to December of 1996 we investigated bee-flower interactions in a sea coastal ecosystem in Bahia, Brazil. Samples were taken three times each month. 3983 individuals belonging to 49 bee species, grouped in 13 morph-functional categories, visited 66 plant species belonging to 39 botanic families. It was observed 310 interactions between bees and plants at species level. The use of floral resources by bees was not homogeneous; most of the plant species received a low number of visitors. No restricted plant-bee species relationship in resource use concerning the subset of analyzed interactions was detected. In Abaeté the generalist relationships predominated.As interações entre abelhas e flores foram investigadas três vezes por mês, durante doze meses (entre janeiro a dezembro de 1996 em um ambiente de dunas litorâneas com vegetação de restinga no Nordeste do Brasil. Foram amostrados 3983 indivíduos de abelhas pertencentes a 49 espécies, agrupadas em 13 categorias morfo-funcionais. Essas visitaram 66 espécies de plantas pertencentes a 39 famílias vegetais. Trezentos e dez (310 interações entre abelhas e plantas, em nível de espécie foram observadas. O uso de recursos florais por abelhas não foi homogêneo, a maioria das espécies de plantas recebeu um baixo número de visitantes. Não foi notada nenhuma relação especializada, em nível de espécie, entre plantas e abelhas no subconjunto de interações analisadas. Em Abaeté, houve predominância de relações de generalistas.

  11. Aspectos da bananicultura no litoral norte paulista estudados através de fotografias aéreas Some characteristics of banana plantations on the northern coast of São Paulo studied through aerial photographs

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    Arnaldo Guido de Souza Coelho

    1966-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados estudos efetuados nos municípios de São Sebastião, Caraguatatuba e Ubatuba, no litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, relativos à distribuição da cultura da bananeira. Os trabalhos foram executados com apoio em fotografias aéreas verticais, tiradas em 1962, na escala aproximada de 1:25.000. Estimaram-se os totais de 2.606 ha, ocupados por 2.377.500 pés de bananeira, localizados, quase totalmente, em solos das partes baixas da região. Cêrca de 60% da área plantada e 70% do total de pés estão localizados no município de Caraguatatuba. Correlações de clima, solo e outras de interêsse para a cultura foram efetuadas.There are reported studies carried out in the counties of São Sebastião, Caraguatatuba and Ubatuba, on the north coast of the State of São Paulo, relative to distribution of banana cultures. Work was done with the help of vertical aerial photographs taken in 1962 on the approximate scale of 1:25,000. A total of 2,606 ha was estimated holding 2,377,500 banana plants, located almost in their totality on soils of the lowlands of the region. About 60% of the planted area and 70% of the total of plants are located in the Caraguatatuba county. Correlations of climate, soil and others of interest for this crop have been worked out.

  12. GEODÉSIA DE PRECISÃO APLICADA À ANÁLISE DA EVOLUÇÃO MORFODINÃMICA DE CURTO PRAZO NA ILHA BARREIRA DO CORTA CACHORRO, LITORAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE, NORDESTE DO BRASIL

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    André Luis Silva dos Santos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a análise multitemporal da evolução da morfodinâmica sazonal da ilha barreira do Corta Cachorro localizada no litoral Setentrional do estado do Rio Grande do Norte (RN, Nordeste do Brasil, área de alta sensibilidade ambiental e sob a influência  de atividades socioeconômicas como o da indústria petrolífera, eólica, salineira e carcinicultura. A metodologia consistiu na comparação de linhas de costa (LC e Modelos Digitais de Elevação (MDE da ilha barreira, em escala trimestral, para obtenção de áreas e volumes de erosão/acreção e do fluxograma do balanço sedimentar. A análise dos mapas permitiu ainda identificar a orientação do transporte de sedimentos na LC e as implicações no balanço sedimentar. Os resultados mostraram que a ilha barreira apresentou balanço planimétrico positivo com 176.013m² de acreção, no entanto, o balanço volumétrico foi negativo em -554.367m³ de erosão. Isso demonstra que, apesar do ganho planimétrico, a ilha barreira tem sofrido redução no volume de sedimentos em escala sazonal de curta duração.

  13. CASOS DE MASTITE SUBCLÍNICA EM VACAS LACTANTES DA RAÇA GIROLANDA NO PERÍODO SECO E CHUVOSO DO ANO, NA REGIÃO LITORAL DO RIO GRANDE DO NORTE

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    Andrezza Miguel da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos diferentes períodos do ano, sobre a incidência de casosde mastite subclínica em vacas Girolanda, em uma fazenda na região Litoral do Rio Grande do Norte. Para isso, foi realizado o California Mastits Test, no leite das vacas multíparas e primíparas, durante a ordenha da manhã. Operíodo de estudo foi durante os meses de novembro de 2005 a novembro de 2006. Verificou-se que o período do ano afetou a ocorrência de casos de mastite subclínica nas vacas. Maior quantidade de casos da doença ocorreu no período chuvoso do ano, com valores de 59,8 % (tetos e de 81,6% (animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different periods the year, on the incidence of subclinical mastitis in cows Girolanda, on a farm in the region Coastal of Rio Grande do Norte. For this, we performed the California Mastits Test in the milk of cows multiparous and primiparous during the milking morning. The period of study was during the months of November 2005 to November 2006. It was found that the period of the year affected the occurrence of cases of mastitis subclinical in cows. Larger number of cases of disease occurred during the rainy season of the year, with values of 59,8% (teats and 81,6% (animals.

  14. Identificació de patrons de paisatge urbà en les destinacions turístiques madures del litoral mediterrani. El cas de la Costa Daurada Central

    OpenAIRE

    Rovira Soto, Maria Trinitat

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo de esta investigación es la definición de una metodología para el análisis de la estructura básica de los paisajes de segunda residencia. Los tres niveles jerárquicos que propone la metodología asociada a la Ecología del Paisaje son la inspiración para el análisis del paisaje turístico residencial que se propone. A nivel de parches, se mide la evolución del espacio dedicado a las segundas residencias. Al nivel de clase, se describe la estructura del paisaje turístic...

  15. All About ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe All About ALS Understanding a Devastating Disorder In the summer of ... of research dollars—for a fatal disease called ALS. ALS stands for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. It’s also ...

  16. Análises morfométricas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis (Annelida: Spionidae no litoral do Brasil

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    Marcelo B. Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Características morfológicas de quatro espécies de Scolelepis De Blainville, 1828 foram analisadas utilizando-se análise morfométrica com o ojetivo foi avaliar se essas espécies podem ser discriminadas através da utilização de dados morfométricos. Além disso, foram fornecidos novos caracteres que possam ser utilizados para uma reavaliação da taxonomia do gênero. A análise baseada nas variáveis canônicas revelou que S. chilensis, S. goodbodyi e S. squamata são mais similares entre si, quanto a forma, do que com S. acuta. Os caracteres mais significativos para a discriminação das quatro espécies foram o comprimento da brânquia, o comprimento da base do palpo até o vigésimo setígero, o comprimento e a largura do prostômio e a largura e o comprimento do setígero 5 e 20. Destes, destacam-se o formato das brânquias e do prostômio, pois vem sendo utilizados como caracteres diagnósticos em estudos taxonômicos do gênero.

  17. Manejo del litoral y cosmovisiones Indígenas en tiempos de globalización y privatización del ambiente.

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    Lorena Aja Eslava

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge como un análisis de las relaciones entre territorio e identidad a la luz de la problemática vivenciada en la zona geográfica costera del Parque Nacional Tayrona y de las prácticas de gestión y manejo del territorio que se legitiman a partir de la globalización. En primer lugar, se presenta una ubicación histórico conceptual alrededor de la planificación territorial en sus dimensiones física y natural para focalizar sobre la dimensión cultural que implica una planificación y una territorialidad marcada por la construcción simbólica de la cosmogonía de los indígenas y los mamos que habitan dicha zona. Lo anterior se enmarca dentro de la idea de que el uso y manejo de un espacio determinado tiene sentido cuando es comprendido dentro de un contexto cultural que le da significado al espacio como territorio.

  18. Ocorrência e abundância de Rynchops niger Linnaeus, no litoral de Santa Catarina, Brasil Occurrence and abundance of Rynchops niger Linnaeus in the coast of Santa Catarina, Brazil

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    Joaquim O. Branco

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O talha-mar Rynchops niger Linnaeus, 1758 habita os grandes rios, lagos e regiões costeiras durante as migrações, na América do Sul e do Norte. Esse trabalho tem por objetivo disponibilizar informações básicas sobre a ocorrência e abundância de talha-mar no litoral de Santa Catarina. Durante o período de abril/2002 a maio/2003 foram realizados censos sazonais (trimestrais e mensais em Itajaí, com auxílio de binóculos 10 x 50. O talha-mar é mais freqüente no aterro da Baía Sul (Florianópolis, no verão e outono, na primavera-verão em São José e Tijucas e no outono-inverno no estuário do Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. Neste estuário, a população apresentou flutuações acentuadas ao longo do ano, com as maiores abundâncias ocorrendo em agosto/2001, janeiro/2002 e março/2003.The black skimmer inhabits the great rivers, lakes and coastal areas during the migrations, in South and North America. This work aims to make available basic information about the occurrence and abundance of the black skimmer in the coast of Santa Catarina. From April/2002 to May/2003 seasonal censuses were accomplished, and monthly in Itajaí, with aid of binoculars 10 x 50. The black skimmer is more frequent in the embankment of the South Bay (Florianópolis, in the summer and autumn, in the spring-summer in São José and Tijucas and in the autumn-winter in the estuary of the Saco da Fazenda (Itajaí. In this estuary, the population presented accentuated flotation along the year, with the largest abundances happening in August/2001, January/2002 and March/2003.

  19. Health assessment of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia, northeastern Brazil Avaliação da saúde da ostra Crassostrea rhizophorae no Litoral Sul da Bahia, nordeste do Brasil

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    Rosana Pinho Brandão

    Full Text Available This study investigated the health of natural stocks of the oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae on the southern coast of Bahia in northeastern Brazil, during summer and winter 2010, at three localities (sampling points in the estuaries of the Maraú (Camamu Bay and Graciosa rivers. A total of 180 oysters (30/sampling point/season were examined macroscopically for the presence of pathogens and anatomical changes. The specimens were subsequently fixed in Davidson solution, processed for paraffin embedding, sectioned and stained with Harris' hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis revealed the presence of Rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus in the sporocyst phase, a nonspecific metacercaria, and a metacestode of genus Tylocephalum. The prevalence of infection was low except for parasitism by Nematopsis sp. which also caused histopathological changes. The presence of Bucephalus sp. caused parasitic castration. These two pathogens significantly affect the health of C. rhizophorae.Este estudo investigou a saúde de ostras da espécie Crassostrea rhizophorae de estoques naturais do Litoral Sul do Estado da Bahia, Nordeste do Brasil, durante o verão e o inverno de 2010, em três pontos amostrais distribuídos nos estuários dos rios Maraú (Baía de Camamu e Graciosa. Um total de 180 ostras (30/ponto amostral/período foram examinadas macroscopicamente para a presença de patógenos e alterações anatômicas e posteriormente fixadas em solução de Davidson, processadas para inclusão em parafina, seccionadas e coradas com hematoxilina de Harris e eosina. A análise histológica evidenciou a presença de organismos com características similares a Rickettsia (RLOs, Ancistrocoma, Trichodina, Sphenophrya, Nematopsis, Urastoma, Bucephalus em fase esporocística, metacercária inespecífica e metacestóide de Tylocephalum. As prevalências de infecção foram baixas, com exceção do

  20. Vibrio spp. isolados de mamíferos marinhos capturados na região litorânea do Sudeste ao Sul do Brasil Vibrio spp. isolated from marine mammals captured in coastal regions from southwestern to southern Brazil

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    Christiane S. Pereira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a incidência de Vibrio spp. a partir de lesões superficiais em mamíferos marinhos encalhados ou capturados em redes de pesca nas regiões litorâneas do Sudeste (Rio de Janeiro e Sul (RS do Brasil. Foram coletadas 198 amostras, pelas instituições de pesquisa DEENSP, GEMARS e Ceclimar, as quais foram enviadas ao Labent/IOC/FIOCruz, onde foram submetidas ao enriquecimento em Água Peptonada Alcalina (APA adicionada de 1% e 3% de NaCl e in-cubadas a 37ºC por 18-24 horas. Em seqüência foram semeadas em meio Agar Tiossulfato Citrato Bile Sacarose (TCBS e as colônias suspeitas submetidas à caracterização bioquímica. Foram isoladas 108 cepas bacterianas, destacando-se Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus e V. fluvialis como os principais patógenos isolados. Os resultados obtidos apontam para a necessidade de implementar atividades de vigilância e monitorização bacteriológica, particularmente de espécies selvagens, e reforçar os programas de proteção ambiental em casos de mamíferos marinhos ameaçados de extinção.In the present investigation was evaluated the incidence of Vibrio spp. from superficial lesions at marine mammals beached or captured by fishing net in the southwestern (RJ and southern (RS coastal regions of Brazil. One hundred and ninety eight swabs were collected by DEENSP, GEMARS and Ceclimar institutes and sent to Labent/IOC/FIOCruz where the samples were submitted to enrichment in Alkaline Peptone Water (APW added with 1% and 3% of sodium chloride (NaCl incubated at 37ºC for 18-24 hours. After the samples were streaked onto Thiossulfate Citrate Bile Sucrose Agar (TCBS, the suspected colonies were submitted to biochemical characterization. The results showed 108 strains, and Vibrio alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. fluvialis were the main pathogens isolated. These results appoint the importance of surveillance and microbiological monitoring accomplishment and

  1. Extrusión de cemento sellador endodóntico al espacio periapical

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    Landy Solanyi Diaz Canedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La realización de un tratamiento endodóntico tiene como finalidad lograr un buen sellado del conducto para evitar el transporte de contaminantes hacia y desde el conducto radicular, con materiales que presenten en sus características la bioco-mpatibilidad con los tejidos adyacentes. A pesar del uso de localizadores apicales, radiografías y demás elementos auxiliares para un buen diagnóstico y tratamiento por parte del endodoncista, ocasionalmente se presentan situaciones en donde no se respeta el objetivo de mantenimiento de la longitud de trabajo como es el caso de sobre instrumentaciones cuando se intenta retirar instrumentos separados dentro del conducto. Estas permiten la extrusión de materiales de obturación, principalmente cementos selladores causando complicaciones pos-tratamiento como reacciones inflamatorias, afección de las estructuras vecinas (dolor orbital, daño al dentario inferior, dolor de cabeza, etc., e incluso, algunos producen infecciones por aspergilosis en los senos maxilares. Cementos como el AH Plus parecen mostrar resultados favorables aun en casos donde se presenta extrusión de pequeñas cantidades al espacio periapical. Esto se debe a la adición en su composición de aminas epóxicas, que le permiten minimizar la liberación de toxinas y según algunos autores, los posibles efectos citotóxicos cesan una vez se endurece el material. (DUAZARY 2011, 88 - 92AbstractThe importance of endodontic treatment is to achieve a complete filling and sealing of the root canal to prevent the transport of contaminants to and from root canal, with materials compatible with the surrounding tissues. Occasionally a situation may arise in which the purpose of the maintenance of working length is compromised such as overenlargement. This situation allows the extrusion of filling materials, mainly sealer cements, causing post treatment complications such as inflammatory reactions, injury to adjacent structures (orbital

  2. Episode of Low Level Jets in the north and northeast coast of state of Para: a case study of 2002 april 21st to 22nd Episódio de jatos de baixos níveis no litoral norte e nordeste do estado do Pará: um estudo de caso de 21-22 de abril de 2002

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    Adriano Marlisom Leão Sousa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study the characteristics of the vertical structure of an episode of Low Level Jets (LLJ occurring in the coast of Para is described. Radiosonde data of Ajuruteua city in Bragança collected during the DESMATA Experiment (Impact of the Deforestation the Atlantic Coast of the Amazonian, taking place in 2002, from April 08th to 22th, are used. Among the detected cases during the rainy period, one specific case with 12 hours duration, average velocity of 15m/s and directed from NE to E in the point of maximum velocity was selected. The observational results have indicated that this LLJ located in the coast of Para was due to the combined action of two factors: (1 inertial oscillation and (2 superficial baroclinicity. These two combined factors sustained this LLJ with velocities between 10 and 13m/s during the day and between 14 and 16m/s during the night, at an average altitude of 800m above surface.Neste estudo descreve-se as características da estrutura vertical de um episódio de Jatos de Baixos Níveis (JBN ocorrido no litoral do Pará, utilizando-se para tal, dados das radiossondagens de Ajuruteua, Município de Bragança coletados durante o experimento DESMATA (Impacto do Desmatamento Junto ao Litoral Atlântico da Amazônia realizado no período de 08 a 22 de abril de 2002. Dentre os casos detectados no período chuvoso, selecionou-se um que se manteve por 12 horas com velocidade média de 15m/s e que estava direcionado de Nordeste para Leste, no ponto de máxima velocidade. Os resultados observacionais indicaram que, este JBN localizado no litoral Paraense foi resultado da ação combinada de dois fatores: (1 oscilação inercial e (2 baroclinia superficial. Estes dois fatores combinados sustentaram este JBN com intensidades entre 10 e 13m/s durante o dia e entre 14 e 16m/s durante a noite, localizado a uma altitude média de 800m acima da superfície.

  3. Perfil bioquímico da água de coco de coqueiros de região não litorânea Biochemical profile of coconut water from coconut palms planted in an inland region

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    Renata Vigliar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o perfil bioquímico da água de coco de coqueiros-anões plantados em região não litorânea, no período de maturação (sexto ao nono mês. MÉTODOS: Selecionaram-se por sorteio oito de 15 coqueiros plantados em região não litorânea, e os cocos foram enviados ao laboratório para extração e análise da água de coco. Avaliou-se glicose, eletrólitos, proteínas totais, osmolaridade, e identificaram-se açúcares da água de coco, em um total de 45 cocos, do sexto ao nono mês de maturação. RESULTADOS: A análise da água de coco do sexto ao nono mês não demonstrou diferença da mediana da concentração do sódio (3 mEq/L; 2 e 3, glicose (0,6 g/L; 0,3 e 17,3 e proteínas totais (9 g/L; 6 e 12; houve redução na concentração de potássio (64 mEq/L; 46 e 99, cálcio (6,5 mmol/L; 5 e 8,5, magnésio (8 mmol/L; 3,9 e 9,8, cloro (38,5 mEq/L; 30 e 48,7 e osmolaridade (419 mOsmol/L; 354 e 472. Com relação aos açúcares identificados por cromatografia em papel, observou-se aumento da concentração de frutose (68 mg/µL; 44 e 320 e de glicose (299 mg/µL; 262 e 332 e redução na concentração de sacarose (340 mg/µL; 264 e 390 do sexto ao nono mês. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil bioquímico da água de coco variou durante a maturação do fruto, observando-se redução da concentração de potássio, cálcio, magnésio, cloro e osmolaridade. Segundo a cromatografia em papel descendente, observou-se aumento da concentração de frutose e de glicose, bem como redução da concentração de sacarose.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the biochemical profile of coconut water from dwarf coconut palms planted in non-coastal regions, during the maturation period (sixth to ninth month. METHODS: Eight of 15 coconut palms planted in a non-coastal region were selected by lots and their coconuts sent to a laboratory for extraction and analysis of the coconut water. Coconut water from a total of 45 coconuts, from the sixth to ninth months' maturity

  4. Assessment of the wind behavior in the northern coast of Santa Catarina Estudo do comportamento do vento no litoral centro-norte de Santa Catarina

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    Eliane Cristina Truccolo

    2011-09-01

    comportamento dos ventos locais e sinóticos, de importância fundamental para a compreensão dos fatores que controlam a qualidade da água e hidrodinâmica em ambientes costeiros. O estudo foi conduzido através de análises estatísticas no domínio do tempo-freqüência durante Julho a Dezembro de 1996. Ambas as estações apresentaram similaridades no comportamento dos ventos norte-sul. No entanto, diferenças significativas foram observadas nos ventos de direção leste-oeste, como as brisas de terra e de mar. O comportamento do vento norte-sul na estação de Praia Grande é similar ao regime do vento na região sul-sudeste Brasileira, com predominância do quadrante norte, e sul durante a propagação de sistemas frontais. As brisas são uma componente menor da flutuação do vento. Em Navegantes, no entanto, essas componentes somaram a maior parte de toda energia cinética do vento. É sugerido que este fato se deve, em parte, à combinação com o sistema circulatório de ventos vale-montanha do Vale do Itajaí, indicando que o comportamento do vento nesta região pode ser alterado pela geomorfologia. Além disso, pode ocorrer influência da temperatura da superfície do mar menor nesta região, o que proporcionaria uma maior diferenciação térmica entre o continente e o oceano.

  5. RESPONSABILIDAD SOCIAL UNIVERSITARIA: EVALUACIÓN DEL PROGRAMA DE IGUALDAD DE OPORTUNIDADES (PIO DE LA UNIVERSIDAD SIMÓN BOLÍVAR %U2013 SEDE LITORAL

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    Elba Márquez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The universities play an important social role which is manifested not only in training of professionals contributing to the development of the country, but also in the proposed concrete solutions to chronic problems facing society, is so this the origin the university social responsibility with which institutions of higher education must contribute to the development of the country, starting with their immediate environment. Aware of its social role, Universidad Simón Bolívar has developed the Programa de Igualdad de Oportunidades (PIO with which the institution undertake to prepare for admission to the University to those students basic education and diversified who by their socioeconomic situation and the current reality, are not sufficiently prepared to face the entrance examinations to institutions of higher education and, subsequently, their college classes. The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the program's performance in the Vargas state, where is located one of the headquarters of the university, during the period between years 2001 and 2008. For this purpose the research behind the article is descriptive non experimental in a documentary level, because was possible to determine that during the reporting period the PIO has had a positive performance how social responsibility program.Las universidades cumplen un importante papel social el cual se manifiesta no sólo en la formación de profesionales que contribuyan con el desarrollo del país, sino en la propuesta de soluciones concretas a los problemas crónicos que enfrenta la sociedad; es ahí de donde surge la responsabilidad social universitaria, con la cual la instituciones de educación superior deben contribuir al desarrollo social del país, empezando por su entorno más cercano. Consciente de su papel social, la Universidad Simón Bolívar ha desarrollado el Programa de Igualdad de Oportunidades (PIO con el cual la Institución se compromete a preparar para el

  6. Caracterización mineralógica y cronológica de los depósitos arenosos neógenos y cuaternarios del litoral de Huelva. España. (Área: Río Timo-Río Guadalquivir

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    Marfil, R.

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The silt-sandy and sandy deposits dating from the Neogene and the Quaternary have been studied along a wide littoral area, between the mouths of the rivers Tinto and Guadalquivir (Province of Huelva, Spain. Mineralogical analysis (granulometric, X-ray diffraction, etc. and quartz grain microtextures, allow for the separation of four «sedimentary sets», which in turn can help to stablish a more detailed chronology. The lowest part on the studied series corresponds to the «Fm. Huelva sands» considered to be from the Lower Pliocene (Civis et al., 1987, in which calcium-sodic feldspars dominate over potassic feldspars, and smectite and iHite dominate over kaolinite in a infratidal sedimentation environment. Above, the Plio-Quaternary «Fm. Bonares sands» can be observed. These sands have been divided into two units: The «Lower Unit», in which the feldspar proportion of is similar to that of the lower deposits but in which there is a predominance of smectite over other clay minerals, in an infratidal to intertidal sedimentation environment; and the «Upper Unit» in which the mineralogical proportions change, with potassic feldspars and kaolinite predominating and smectite lacking, in an intertidal sedimentation environment. Upwards in this unit, some paraconglomerates appear in which the mineralogical characteristics of the matrix are similar to those of the «Upper Unit». The mineralogical, textural and environmental change between these two units is interpreted as a possible variation in climatic and geodynamic conditions of the basin during the Pliocene-Pleistocene transition.En el presente trabajo se estudian los depósitos detríticos de edad neógena y cuaternaria que se extienden a lo largo de una amplia franja litoral, entre las desembocaduras de los ríos Tinto y Guadalquivir. El resultado de los análisis mineralógicos (granulométricos, difracción de rayos X, etc. y la exoscopía de los granos de cuarzo

  7. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

    OpenAIRE

    Hernando, S.; Aracil, E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial...

  8. Aussprache als motorische Fertigkeit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonner, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Authentische Aussprache gilt im Fremdsprachenunterricht als schwer erreichbares Ziel, fremdsprachlicher Akzent wird als nahezu unvermeidbar gesehen. Weder die Hypothese einer kritischen Periode für den Erwerb einer authentischen Aussprache noch das Konzept der Fossilierung im Sprachlernprozess...

  9. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefit of 16 months before onset of severe respiratory failure. Other treatments are designed to relieve symptoms and ... of ALS. Most people with ALS die from respiratory failure, usually within 3 to 5 years from the ...

  10. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite varied in different people. One ...

  11. Parasitóides (Braconidae associados à Anastrepha (Tephritidae em frutos hospedeiros do litoral sul da Bahia Parasitoids (Braconidae associated with Anastrepha (Tephritidae in host fruits on the southern coast of Bahia, Brazil

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    Maria Aparecida Leão Bittencourt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dentre os organismos que atuam no controle biológico natural dos tefritídeos, os representantes da família Braconidae constituem-se no mecanismo de parasitismo natural mais atuante, e na região Neotropical, representantes de Opiinae são os principais agentes de controle de Anastrepha. Este trabalho teve por objetivo conhecer a percentagem de parasitismo e as espécies de braconídeos associados às fruteiras cultivadas em municípios da região Litoral Sul da Bahia. No período de agosto de 2005 a março de 2008, coletaram-se frutos hospedeiros de moscas-das-frutas de diversas espécies botânicas, e dos frutos foram obtidas as seguintes espécies de Anastrepha: A. fraterculus, A. obliqua, A. bahiensis, A serpentina, A. sororcula e A. zenildae. Do total de 838 exemplares de braconídeos, 21,36% foram da espécie Utetes anastrephae (Viereck, provenientes de cajá, carambola, goiaba, manga e pitanga; 4,42% da espécie Asobara anastrephae (Muesebeck obtidos dos frutos de cajá, carambola e goiaba, e apenas um exemplar da espécie Opius bellus Gahan (0,12% que emergiu da amostra de goiaba. A espécie Doryctobracon areolatus (Szépligeti (74,10% foi predominante e emergiu dos pupários provenientes de todos os frutos hospedeiros coletados, provavelmente pela maior eficiência desta espécie em localizar as larvas dos tefritídeos. A percentagem média de parasitismo de Anastrepha spp. foi de 4,45%.Among the organisms acting in the natural biological control of tephritids, members of the family Braconidae are the most active form of natural parasite, and in Neotropical regions, members of Opiinae are the main control agents of Anastrepha. The objective of this work was to discover the percentage of parasitism and the species of braconid associated with fruit trees growing in cities on the southern coast of Bahia. During the period of August, 2005 to March, 2008, hosts fruits of fruit flies from several plant species were collected and from the

  12. Qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas do litoral norte do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Bacteriological quality of homemade cheeses commercialised in roads of the northern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Cristina Bergman Zaffari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O consumo de queijo artesanal, vendido em estabelecimentos de beira de estrada, é comum no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Geralmente estes produtos não são fabricados em acordo com as boas normas de fabricação e podem constituir perigo à saúde do consumidor. Objetivou-se, com o presente trabalho, verificar a qualidade bacteriológica de queijos artesanais comercializados em estradas litorâneas por meio da contagem de coliformes e pesquisa de Listeria spp. e Brucella spp. Foram analisados 80 queijos, sendo 62 do tipo Colonial, dez do tipo Provolone, seis do tipo Ricota e dois do tipo Caccio Cavallo. No momento da coleta, 71% das amostras não estavam sob refrigeração. Todas as amostras apresentaram contagens de coliformes totais e, destas, 62 foram testadas para a presença de coliformes fecais. Um total de 84% das amostras apresentou contagens de coliformes fecais acima de 2,73- 3,7 log.UFC g- 1 (de 500 a 5000UFC mL-1, previsto como limite máximo a ser encontrado em queijos. Dos 29 estabelecimentos, 27 tinham produtos fora destes limites. Das 80 amostras, 16% continham Listeria spp., sendo 3,7% identificadas como Listeria monocytogenes. As estações do ano influenciaram no isolamento de Listeria spp., sendo a primavera considerada a estação do ano com maior número de isolados. Brucella spp. não foram isoladas nas 80 amostras de queijos analisadas. A alta freqüência de coliformes fecais e a presença de L. monocytogenes revelam que o consumo destes queijos constitui perigo de infecção à população em geral e especialmente àquelas pessoas imunocomprometidas.The consumption of homemade cheese, which is sold in little shops along the road, is very common in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Generally, these products are not manufactured according to the good hygiene guidelines; and may be a risk to the consumers’ health. The aim of this research was the assessment of the bacteriological quality of homemade cheese sold in

  13. Anatomia e ultra-estrutura foliar de Cyperus maritimus Poir. (Cyperaceae: estratégias adaptativas ao ambiente de dunas litorâneas Leaf anatomy and ultrastructure of Cyperus maritimus Poir. (Cyperaceae: adaptive strategies for coastal dune environment

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    Shirley Martins

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados aspectos anatômicos e ultra-estruturais foliares de Cyperus maritimus Poir. visando identificar caracteres adaptativos ao ambiente de dunas litorâneas. Para isto, indivíduos ocorrentes nas dunas da Praia de Pipa, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, tiveram as folhas submetidas a diferentes análises: microscopia de luz, eletrônica de varredura e de transmissão. Em vista frontal, a epiderme possui tricomas unicelulares, corpos de sílica, cutícula estriada e depósitos de cera. Em secção transversal, a epiderme é unisseriada com parede periclinal externa espessa. Os estômatos são paracíticos, podendo o ostíolo estar obstruído por cera. Abaixo da face adaxial observa-se o parênquima aqüífero. Os feixes vasculares ocorrem em múltiplas fileiras, sendo as periféricas compostas por feixes de diâmetro menor que os feixes da fileira central. Foram observados caracteres relacionados à síndrome Kranz do tipo clorociperóide. Aspectos ultra-estruturais, como cloroplastos presentes na bainha do feixe, esses sem grana evidentes, entre outras características, reforçam a possível ocorrência da via C4 nesta espécie. É a primeira citação para o gênero Cyperus de cloroplasto nas celulas do tecido vascular. Neste trabalho foi possível observar vários caracteres importantes para plantas submetidas a estresse hídrico e salino, como: cera, células epidérmicas com parede periclinal externa espessada, parênquima aqüífero e síndrome Kranz.Anatomical and ultrastructural aspects of Cyperus maritimus Poir. were analyzed with the aim of identifying adaptive features for the dune environment. Collections were made at Pipa beach, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Leaves were submitted to different analyses: light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In frontal view, the epidermis has unicellular trichomes, silica bodies, a striate cuticle and wax deposits. In transverse section, the epidermis is uniseriate

  14. Bactérias diazotróficas associadas a coqueiros na região de baixada litorânea em Sergipe Diazotroph bacteria associated to coconut palms in a coastal lowland region in Sergipe State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferreira Fernandes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho, isolar, identificar e quantificar bactérias diazotróficas existentes nas raízes e folhas de coqueiro (híbrido PB121 cultivados na baixada litorânea de Sergipe. As populações de bactérias diazotróficas nesses órgãos foram quantificadas pela técnica do número mais provável (NMP em meios semi-sólidos JNFb e NFb, e identificadas por meio de avaliações microscópicas, culturais e de testes bioquímicos dos sistemas API 20 - E e API 20 - NE. O conteúdo de N em meios semi-sólidos NFb e JNFb foi determinado colorimetricamente, após oito dias de incubação das bactérias, a 32ºC, para estimar a capacidade de fixação biológica dos isolados. Enterobactérias pertencentes ao gênero Enterobacter e bactérias com características semelhantes às do gênero Pseudomonas (pseudomonadas foram predominantes entre os isolados obtidos. As enterobactérias e pseudomonadas isoladas de folhas foram predominantemente endofíticas. Quanto às diazotróficas isoladas de raízes, observou-se predominância de enterobactérias na sua superfície, ao passo que as pseudomonadas ocorreram em proporções semelhantes na superfície e no interior desse órgão. Após oito dias de incubação, os conteúdos de N nos meios com inoculação das bactérias pseudomonadas foram maiores do que nos meios com inoculação das enterobactérias.The aim of this work was to isolate, identify and quantify diazotrophic bacteria existing in roots and leaves of coconut palms (hybrid PB121 grown in a coastal lowland of Sergipe, in Brazil. Diazotrophic populations in these organs were quantified by the most probable number (MNP technique on NFb and JNFb semi-solid media and identified by the evaluation of microscopic, cultural and biochemical characteristics of the isolates. Biochemical characteristics were evaluated using the API 20 - E and API 20 - NE galleries. Nitrogen content in NFb and JNFb semi-solid media inoculated with each of the

  15. Composición, abundancia y distribución de las especies de quetognatos del litoral norte del Caribe de México Composition, abundance and chaetognath species distribution in the north littoral of the Mexican Caribbean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José N. Álvarez-Cadena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron la composición y las variaciones de la abundancia de las especies de quetognatos en el litoral norte de Quintana Roo, durante un ciclo anual (enero a diciembre del 2004. Los muestreos se realizaron durante el día, cerca de la superficie, con una red cónica de 0.4 m de diámetro y malla de 330 µm, por 5 min., en 12 estaciones ubicadas desde Puerto Morelos hasta Cancún. Se hicieron mediciones in situ de temperatura y salinidad que mostraron variaciones atípicas relativas a los antecedentes del régimen climático reportado (secas, lluvias y nortes. En cambio, se registraron mejores correlaciones con las zonas de muestreo (lagunar, arrecifal y oceánica. Se capturaron 16,966 m³ quetognatos con un promedio anual de 575 org. /100 m³. Las mayores abundancias fueron en enero (secas y las menores en agosto (lluvias. Se identificaron 11 especies con Ferosagitta hispida como la más abundante (499.6 org./100 m³ = 77% y como especie única en la zona lagunar. Flaccisagitta enflata fue segunda en densidad (80.2 org./100 m³ = 14.6%, la cual fue principalmente abundante en la zona oceánica. Krohnitta pacifica (17.8 org./100 m³ = 3% y Serratosagitta serratodentata (13.2 org./100 m³ = 2.5%, estuvieron mejor representadas en el área arrecifal. Las especies menos abundantes en orden decreciente fueron: Sagitta tenuis, Pterosagitta draco, F. hexaptera, S. friderici, S. helenae, Mesosagitta minima y S. bipunctata que en su conjunto contribuyeron con 12.8 org./100 m³ = 2.3%.Species composition and variations in abundance of chaetognaths from the north of Quintana Roo were carried out from January to December 2004. Sampling was made near surface with a conical net (0.40 m, diameter; 330 µm mesh at 12 stations from Puerto Morelos to Cancun. Temperature and salinity were measured in situ. Weather conditions were atypical with previous reports (dry, rains, nortes. Instead, a better correlation was observed with the environmental conditions

  16. Alternativas de propagação na produção de óleo essencial de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense Propagation alternatives for the production of Mentha canadensis L. essential oil at the Santa Catarina State northern coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C.S. Santos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Mentha é cultivado mundialmente para a produção de óleo essencial, com ênfase no constituinte mentol, amplamente utilizado nas indústrias farmacêutica, cosmética, alimentícia e de higiene pessoal. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da utilização de diferentes estruturas de propagação e épocas de colheita de Mentha canadensis L. no Litoral Norte Catarinense. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso em esquema fatorial 4x2, comparando quatro estruturas de propagação (estolões com 10, 15 e 20 cm de comprimento e estacas com 5 cm de comprimento e duas épocas de colheita (95 dias após o plantio e 60 dias após a rebrota. Em cada colheita foi avaliado o crescimento vegetativo e produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol. Na primeira colheita, houve maior acúmulo de massa seca de folhas, caules e total; produtividade de óleo essencial e de mentol quando o plantio foi realizado com mudas obtidas por estaquia. Na segunda colheita, no entanto, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos para todas as variáveis analisadas. A primeira colheita resultou em médias superiores em relação à segunda colheita à exceção do plantio por estolão com 10 cm em todas as variáveis e estolão com 20 cm para a massa seca de caules. Os constituintes majoritários do óleo essencial foram mentol, mentona e neomentol. Os teores de mentol foram significativamente superiores na segunda colheita e de mentona na primeira colheita, sendo que o neomentol não apresentou diferença significativa em ambas as colheitas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que a colheita antecipada da rebrota proporciona maior concentração de mentol no óleo essencial. O uso de estolões como estrutura de propagação pode ser considerada uma alternativa viável para menta, pois além de apresentar níveis similares de produção de óleo essencial e de mentol a partir da segunda colheita ao de áreas implantadas com mudas

  17. Evolución tectónica, paleogeográfica y metalogénica durante el Cenozoico en los Andes de Chile norte y central e implicaciones para las regiones adyacentes de Bolivia y Argentina Tectonic, paleogeographic, and metallogenic evolution during the Cenozoic in the Andes of Central and Northern Chile and implication for the adjacent regions of Bolivia and Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynaldo Charrier

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La orogenia incaica dio origen a un importante relieve en el Eoceno Medio, el que se concentró en el ámbito del arco magmático precedente, la Cordillera Incaica. Este relieve positivo de orientación NNE se extendió desde el sur de Perú hasta la región central de Chile y separó dos dominios paleogeográficos que tuvieron evoluciones diferentes durante el resto del Cenozoico. El dominio occidental se caracterizó por el predominio de procesos de erosión y sedimentación. En el dominio oriental también existieron importantes episodios de erosión que originaron depósitos que se encuentran en la vertiente oriental de la cadena en la actualidad y presentan una cronología comparable con la de los depósitos del dominio occidental. Sin embargo, la evolución se caracterizó por presentar, a partir del Eoceno Tardío, diferencias al norte y sur de los ~27ºS. Al norte de esa latitud, en el ámbito del Altiplano-Puna, el arco magmático se mantuvo aproximadamente en la misma posición, coincidente con la del arco actual, y estuvo bordeado por una cuenca de antepaís de retroarco; mientras que, al sur de ~27ºS, se desarrollaron sucesivos arcos magmáticos con una marcada migración hacia el este. El arco magmático del Eoceno Tardío al Oligoceno Tardío - Mioceno Temprano se caracterizó por el desarrollo de una amplia cuenca extensional de intra-arco, la cuenca de Abanico. En esta cuenca se acumularon hasta 3.000 m de rocas volcánicas, volcaniclásticas y, subordinadamente, sedimentarias. A partir del límite oligoceno-mioceno, tuvo lugar un nuevo evento compresivo a lo largo de todo el orógeno que rejuveneció el núcleo de la Cordillera Incaica e invirtió la cuenca de Abanico permitiendo la generación de abundantes depósitos sintectónicos a ambos lados de los nuevos relieves. El inicio de este evento coincide con la orogenia pehuenche, los pulsos compresivos se mantuvieron hasta el Plioceno Temprano. En el Mioceno Temprano a Medio

  18. Volver al desarrollo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ornelas Delgado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo, categoría empleada para expresar el crecimiento económico, surge durante la "guerra fría" y si bien fue propuesta por teóricos metropolitanos, se asumió en Latinoamérica como parte de los instrumentos disponibles para lograr el crecimiento y alternativa al socialismo. El desarrollo mantuvo su vigencia entre 1945 y 1975, cuando al advenimiento del neoliberalismo fue paulatinamente retirado de la agenda de las preocupaciones nacionales e internacionales. Al iniciarse el siglo xxi, el fracaso del mercado autorregulado trajo de nueva cuenta al debate los problemas del desarrollo, lo que obliga a revisarlo críticamente, tanto como al concepto mismo para mostrar su carácter colonial, si se quiere construir caminos ajenos al neoliberal y superar los problemas que han hecho de Latinoamérica una de las regiones más desiguales del mundo.

  19. Jalta als Heterotopie

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Jalta ist ein Ort, der sich im europäischen Kulturgedächtnis sowohl historisch als auch literarisch als "radikal anderer Ort" - als " Heterotopie" - festgesetzt hat. An der Konferenz von Jalta wurde 1945 eine neue Weltordnung geschaffen in der Hoffnung auf eine bessere Welt. Auch in den Werken von Anton ?echov, vor allem in denjenigen, die in Jalta entstanden sind, wird von einer anderen und besseren Welt geträumt.

  20. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.

  1. Pornographie als Metapher

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-01-01

    In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article...

  2. Sobre Al-Qarmuniyya

    OpenAIRE

    Fierro Bello, María Isabel

    1990-01-01

    [ES] En dos tradiciones escatológicas relativas a al-Andalus y recogidas por 'Abd al-Malik h Haha en su Ta'rg se hace referencia a Carmona. La mención de esta ciudad en dichas tradiciones debe ser puesta en relación con dos episodios de la historia de al-Andalus que tuvieron lugar antes de la muerte de Ibn Habib: la batalla de Carmona en época de 'Abd al-Rahman y la concentración de tropas omeyas en el mismo lugar durante el ataque normando en los años 229-30/844-5.

  3. Al-Anon/Alateen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find an Al-Anon meeting Español | Français 2018 Int'l Convention Home About Group Meetings What If I'm not ready ... a meeting? What can I expect at an Al-Anon meeting? What was my first meeting like? ...

  4. Al - BASED CAST COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Yadav

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The economy is very important feature nowadays in themarket. The researches are playing an important role inengineering field to increase the life of machine parts /components and decrease the cost. The compositematerials have the potential to replace widely used steeland aluminium due to their good characteristics withbetter performance. The Al-based composites have foundextensive applications in automobile industries andaerospace industries due to their increased stiffness,strength, thermal conductivity and wear resistanceproperties. A number of particulate phases have beenemployed in the Al-alloy matrix. The cast aluminiumceramicparticulate composites are finding applications inpistons, connecting rods, cylinder liner, engine cylinderblock, electrical contacts etc.The present investigation isbased on study of the effect of particulate phase on theSEM study, micro-hardness, elastic modulus, tensilestrength and the wear behaviour of Al-5 % SiC-7 % Fe,Al-10 % SiC-6 % Fe and Al-15 % SiC-5 % Fe composites.

  5. Identificação de enfermidades agudas causadas por animais e plantas em ambientes rurais e litorâneos: auxílio à prática dermatológica Identification of acute diseases caused by animals and plants in wild environments: contribution to dermatologic practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Haddad Junior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Nos últimos anos, existe um aumento progressivo do contato de moradores urbanos com ambientes selvagens devido a atividades de lazer. Com isso, algumas dermatites pouco conhecidas podem ser observadas nas clínicas privadas e ambulatórios dermatológicos, especialmente nos inícios de semana e finais de férias. OBJETIVOS: Obter e fornecer informações para dermatologistas sobre o problema. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: O autor observou, em adultos e crianças, dermatites agudas associadas a plantas ou animais em Ubatuba, cidade litorânea de São Paulo, por dois meses (junho/julho de 2006 e na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, também por dois meses (junho/julho de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 25 pacientes na área rural e 43 na área litorânea nas condições estabelecidas. Em áreas rurais, foram mais observadas fitofotodermatites e picadas de insetos, enquanto em áreas litorâneas traumas por ouriços-do-mar e fitofotodermatites predominaram; entretanto, em ambas as áreas ocorreram outros acidentes de difícil identificação na prática diária. CONCLUSÕES: Devemos estar atentos ao fato de o paciente procurar o dermatologista somente após as fases agudas dos acidentes. Informações sobre as enfermidades mais comuns e suas características podem ser muito úteis para a prática nos consultórios. O autor sugere uma tabela algorítmica para auxílio diagnóstico.BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing contact between human beings that live in urban regions and the wild environment due to a series of activities. As a result, some poorly known dermatitis may present in private and dermatological clinics, especially early in the week and at the end of vacation periods. OBJECTIVES: To obtain and provide information for dermatologists on the problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The author observed adult and pediatric patients with acute dermatitis associated with plants or animals in Ubatuba, coastal city of Sao Paulo

  6. Avaliação agroindustrial e parâmetros genético de progênies de cana-de-açúcar em fase inicial na zona canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco Agroindustrial evaluation and genetic parameters of sugarcane progenies at the initial phase in a sugarcane plantation zone of north coast of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Ferreira de Moraes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho agronômico, industrial e a magnitude dos parâmetros genético de progênies de cana-de-açúcar na zona canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos durante o ano agrícola 2006/2007 no Litoral Norte de Pernambuco, no município de Igarassu, dentro de área da Usina São José. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições, utilizando-se como tratamentos 24 genótipos (20 provenientes dos cruzamentos e quatro variedades padrões. A parcela constou de três sulcos de 6 m, espaçados de 1,30 m, com 10 plântulas por sulco, (espaçados de 0,6 m dentro do sulco, totalizando 30 plântulas por parcela, perfazendo uma área total de 23,4 m². O corte foi realizado no décimo mês após o transplantio, onde foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis: tonelada de cana por hectare (TCH, tonelada de pol por hectare (TPH, Fibra (FB, pol % corrigida (PCC, pureza (PZA, Brix (BX e açúcar total recuperável (ATR. As progênies dos cruzamentos: RB855035 X RB 72454; RB 865230 X RB855035; Tuc71-7 X RB72454 e RB72454 X Tuc71-7, destacaram-se para as variáveis TPH, FB, PZA e BX. Há variabilidade genética entre as progênies dos cruzamentos para todas as variáveis avaliadas. As estimativas de h²m foram expressivas para as variáveis TPH, TCH, PCC, FB, BX e ATR, indicando a possibilidade de êxito na seleção dessas variáveis dentro da região canavieira do Litoral Norte de Pernambuco.The objective of our research was to evaluate the agronomical, industrial performance and the magnitude of the genetic parameters of initial phase sugarcane progenies in the north coast of Pernambuco. Experimental works were developed during the agricultural year of 2006/2007 in the sugarcane plantation zone in the north coast of Pernambuco, in the district of Igarassu, in the area of the São José industrial plant. The experimental delineation was randomized

  7. [Environmental factors in ALS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntas-Morales, Raul; Pageot, Nicolas; Corcia, Philippe; Camu, William

    2014-05-01

    ALS is likely to be a disorder of multifactorial origin. Among all the factors that may increase the risk of ALS, environmental ones are being studied for many years, but in the recent years, several advances have pointed to a new interest in their potential involvement in the disease process, especially for the cyanotoxin BMAA. Food containing BMAA has been found on Guam, a well-known focus of ALS/parkinsonism/dementia and high levels of BMAA have been identified into the brain of these patients. The BMAA cyanotoxin is potentially ubiquitous and have also been found into the food of patients who died from ALS both in Europe and USA. BMAA can be wrongly integrated into the protein structure during mRNA traduction, competing with serine. This may induce abnormal protein folding and a subsequent cell death. Heavy metals, such as lead or mercury may be directly toxic for neuronal cells. Several works have suggested an increased risk of ALS in individuals chronically exposed to these metals. Exposure to pesticides has been suggested to be linked to an increased risk of developing ALS. The mechanism of their toxicity is likely to be mediated by paraoxonases. These proteins are in charge of detoxifying the organism from toxins, and particularly organophosphates. To date, there are insufficient scientific data to suggest that exposure to electromagnetic fields may increase the risk of having ALS. We are particularly missing longitudinal cohorts to demonstrate that risk. PMID:24703731

  8. Sociale media als leermiddel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubens, Wilfred

    2012-01-01

    Rubens, W. (2012, 5 juni). Sociale media als leermiddel. Presentatie over het gebruik van sociale media binnen het onderwijs, verzorgd tijdens een ouderraadbijeenkomst van de Katholieke Scholengemeenschap Etten-Leur, Etten-Leur, Nederland.

  9. MDA ALS Caregiver's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R.D., C.N.S.D., L.D.N. Nutritionist MDA/ALS Center at Vanderbilt University Medical Center ... neurologists, physiatrists, therapists (physical, occupa- tional, speech, respiratory), nutritionists, social work- ers, pulmonologists, gastroenterologists and medical equipment ...

  10. Regionale Herkunft als Bonus

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvil, Dr. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Der Bio-Sektor durchlebt bewegte Zeiten. Die biologische Landwirtschaft hat sich aus der Nische herausbewegt und dafür an „Besonderheiten“ eingebüßt. Diese müssen als Zusatznutzen wiedergefunden werden.

  11. Factores asociados al bajo peso al nacer

    OpenAIRE

    Georgina J Peraza Roque; Silvia de la C Pérez Delgado; Zoe de los A Figueroa Barreto

    2001-01-01

    El bajo peso al nacer (BPN) ha constituido un enigma en la ciencia a través de los tiempos. Múltiples son las investigaciones realizadas acerca de las causas que lo producen y las consecuencias que provoca. Su importancia no solo radica en lo que significa en la morbilidad y la mortalidad infantil, sino que estos niños tienen habitualmente múltiples problemas posteriores. El Programa para la Reducción del BPN señala que los niños nacidos con un peso inferior a los 2 500 g presentan riesgo de ...

  12. Partizipation als Ausnahmezustand

    OpenAIRE

    Korf, Benedikt

    2009-01-01

    In «Die Erfindung des Politischen» (1993) beschreibt Ulrich Beck Subpolitik als den Ort, an dem die Grenze zwischen Politik und Nichtpolitik verschwindet. Aus der zunehmenden Wirkkraft von Subpolitik erwächst die grundlegende Frage, mit welcher Legitimation diese Art von Subpolitik in die Sphäre der institutionalisierten Politik eindringt. Beck’s Subpolitik soll im Anschluss an theoretische Arbeiten von Chantal Mouffe und Giorgio Agamben als post-politische Aspiration bezeichnet werden, die e...

  13. Der Preis als Kaufbarriere?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Die Preispolitik hat eine herausragende Stellung im Marketing. Der Preis eines Produktes ist für Verbraucher ein direkter Kostenfaktor und für Unternehmen die Stellgröße im Mar-ketingmix, die den Umsatz am stärksten beeinflusst (vgl. Nieschlag et al. 2002). Wenn die Akzeptanz und der regelmäßige...... Verzehr gesunder Lebensmittel erhöht werden soll, ist es sowohl für die Verbraucherpolitik als auch für Lebensmittelproduzenten wichtig, den Ein-fluss des Preises auf die Kaufentscheidung zu verstehen. Aus Verbrauchersicht ist der Preis neben dem Geschmack die wichtigste Produkteigen-schaft beim Kauf von...... Lebensmitteln (vgl. Brunsø/Grunert 1998) und stellt eine Kaufbarrie-re für Lebensmittel mit gesundheitsfördernden Eigenschaften dar. Studien in den USA (vgl. Cassady et al. 2007), Frankreich (vgl. Drewnowski et al. 2004; Andrieu et al. 2005) und Deutschland (vgl. Karg et al. 2008) kommen übereinstimmend zu dem...

  14. Modification of residual stress in Al-[AlBO]w/Al compound plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜传海; 吴建生; 王德尊

    2001-01-01

    The application of compound parts of Al-[AlBO]w/Al not only reduces the cost of the parts but also improves its properties. However, there is a large thermal residual stress between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, and it is harmful for practical application. From the theoretical analyses and experimental results, it was found that by the compressive pre-plastic deformation perpendicular to the interface between Al and [AlBO]w/Al, the interlayer residual stress of compound parts can be reduced, while the mechanical properties of compound parts can be improved.

  15. La universidad como centro de diagnóstico y diseño social: La experiencia del Instituto de Derecho del Trabajo de la Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Haidar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se reanaliza la relación entre universidad y sociedad desde un punto de vista histórico. Para ello, se recupera la experiencia del Instituto de Derecho del Trabajo (Facultad de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, entre 1938 y 1955. El análisis se enfoca sobre dos aspectos principales, las estrategias que dicho Instituto adoptó para afrontar las demandas provenientes de la comunidad jurídica, el sistema político y la sociedad en su conjunto, así como su rol en el diseño de racionalidades y tecnologías de gobierno social. A partir de estas aproximaciones se reflexiona respecto de la práctica de una "imaginación político-institucional" por parte del derecho, y la contribuciónque un pensamiento jurídico enraizado en la universidad, efectuara a la construcción del Estado Social en la Argentina.

  16. Altern als Widerstand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maierhofer

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Gullettes kulturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung Aged by Culture ist wie bereits ihre zwei vorangehenden Werke, die sich mit Altern beschäftigen – Safe at Last in the Middle Years: The Invention of the Midlife Progress Novel (1988 und Declining to Decline. Cultural Combat and the Politics of the Middle (1997 –, von großem persönlichen Engagement und durch ein politisches Anliegen motiviert. Sowohl die Dringlichkeit als auch der Widerstand, den Gullette, die sich als „age critic“ definiert, als moralische und politische Notwendigkeit postuliert, werden in der Zweiteilung der Abhandlung angesprochen: „Cultural Urgencies“ und „Theorizing Age Resistantly“. Während Gullette den Begriff „aged by culture“ bereits in Declining to Decline einführt, stellt sie ihn nun in den Mittelpunkt ihrer Untersuchung. Das Buch ist einerseits einer gesellschaftspolitischen Analyse der USA gewidmet, andererseits wird eine Theorie des Widerstands gegenüber Altersdiskriminierung entwickelt.

  17. Pornographie als Metapher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Schubarth

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Artikel werden unterschiedliche metaphorische Verwendungen des Pornografiebegriffs und deren Implikationen untersucht. Während die Existenz von Pornografie der feministischen Anti-Porno-Bewegung als Erklärung für die anhaltende Diskriminierung von Frauen in westlichen Gesellschaften dient, nutzen rechtskonservative Kräfte den Pornografievorwurf als Rechtfertigung für die Zensur von als deviant empfundenen Identitäten und sexuellen Praktiken.This article examines different metaphorical uses of the term pornography and the resulting implications. While the existence of pornography for the feminist anti-porno movement serves as factor in the continuing discrimination of women in western societies, conservative powers on the right use the allegation of pornography as a justification for censorship of those identities and sexual practices deemed deviant.

  18. Wikipedia als Referenzorgan

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    Wikipedia wird inzwischen von vielen Nutzern regelmäßig als Nachschlagewerk genutzt. Aufgrund des offenen Charakters der Online-Enzyklopädie, bei der sich jeder direkt beteiligen kann, ist jedoch zusätzliche Medienkompetenz notwendig, um die Qualität einzelner Wikipedia-Artikel einschätzen zu können. Im Vortrag sollen Methoden zur Beurteilung von Wikipedia-Artikeln dargestellt und die Frage beleuchtet werden, unter welchen Umständen Wikipedia als Referenzorgan geeignet ist.

  19. Artrodesis lumbares, rigidez del sistema y su repercusión en los discos adyacentes

    OpenAIRE

    Murcia Asensio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    El dolor lumbar o lumbalgia es una patología muy frecuente en nuestro medio, siendo la segunda causa de dolor , sólo superada por el resfriado común.Los costes directos e indirectos de su tratamiento se estiman a nivel mundial en más de 100.000 millones de dolores/año, lo que requiere estudios de coste-beneficio de dichos tratamientos para la asignaciónde unos recursos cada vez mas limitados. Una vez fracasado el tratamiento conservador, el patrón oro de su vertiente quirúrgica es la artro...

  20. Representações sobre dengue, seu vetor e ações de controle por moradores do município de São Sebastião, litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Maria Cavalcanti Lefèvre; Andressa Francisca Ribeiro; Gisela Rita Alvarenga Monteiro Marques; Lígia Leandro Nunes Serpa; Fernando Lefèvre

    2007-01-01

    Buscou-se, neste trabalho, identificar conhecimentos da população sobre a dengue e biologia do vetor, a fim de propiciar, através desse conhecimento, o diálogo entre a lógica técnica e a leiga, para conseguir avanços concretos na participação e no controle social da dengue e do vetor. Foi realizada pesquisa em área infestada pelo Aedes aegypti, com transmissão de dengue, no Município de São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram feitas cem entrevistas, com cinco questõ...

  1. BERKELEY: ALS ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everybody at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Center for Beam Physics is pleased with the rapid progress in commissioning LBL's Advanced Light Source (ALS) electron storage ring, the foundation for this third-generation synchrotron radiation facility. Designed for a maximum current of 400 mA, the ALS storage ring reached 407 mA just 24 days after storing the first beam on 16 March. ALS construction as a US Department of Energy (DOE) national user facility to provide high-brightness vacuum ultra-violet and soft x-ray radiation began in October 1987. One technical requirement marking project completion was to accumulate a 50-mA current in the storage ring. The ALS passed this milestone on 24 March, a week ahead of the official deadline. Once injected, the electron beam decays quasi-exponentially primarily because of interactions with residual gas molecules in the storage-ring vacuum chamber. Eventually, when the pressure in the vacuum chamber with beam decreases toward the expected operating level of 1 nano Torr, it will only be necessary to refill the storage ring at intervals of four to eight hours. At present the vacuum is improving rapidly as surfaces are irradiated (scrubbed) by the synchrotron radiation itself. At 100 mA, beam lifetime was about one hour (9 April)

  2. Al Shanker Remembers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Educator, 2000

    2000-01-01

    In a 1996 interview shortly before his death, Al Shanker, longtime president of the American Federation of Teachers, discussed such topics as: his own educational experiences; how he learned about political fighting in the Boy Scouts; the appeal of socialism; multinational corporations and the nation state; teaching tough students; and John Dewey…

  3. ALS insertion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), the first US third generation synchrotron radiation source, is currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The low-emittance, 1.5 GeV electron storage ring and the insertion devices are specifically designed to produce high brightness beams in the UV to soft X-Ray range. The planned initial complement of insertion devices includes four 4.6 m long undulators, with period lengths of 3.9 cm, 5.0 cm (2) and 8.0 cm, and a 2.9 m long wiggler of 16 cm period length. Undulator design is well advanced and fabrication has begun on the 5.0 cm and 8.0 cm period length undulators. This paper discusses ALS insertion device requirements; general design philosophy; and design of the magnetic structure, support structure/drive systems, control system and vacuum system. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  4. De GPS al mapa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Dörries

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Las coordenadas Lambert obtenidas a partir de mediciones con equipos GPS de mano, llamados a veces navegadores, en ciertos casos confunden al usuario, por diferir claramente de su posición real al ser graficadas en un mapa del Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN: Esto puede resolverse con suficiente exactitud mediante una transformación de Molodensky, seguida de la correspondiente proyección cartográfica. Sin embargo, los tres parámetros necesarios para la transformación, supuestamente válidos para Costa Rica, se encuentran en muchas variantes y producen obviamente resultados diferentes. En este trabajo se analizan los fundamentos del problema y sus posibles soluciones, culminando con un estudio comparativo de ocho casos, que permite seleccionar los valores más adecuados para los parámetros.

  5. Acarbose als Carbophor

    OpenAIRE

    Merettig, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Das Pseudotetrasaccharid Acarbose ist seit 1990 als kompetitiver Inhibitor intestinaler α-Glucosidasen (GlucobayTM/PrecoseTM) in der medizinischen Anwendung bei der Therapie von Diabetes mellitus Typ-2. Charakteristisch für die Struktur der Acarbose ist die Acarviosyleinheit, bei der Valinamin und Desoxyglucose N-glycosidisch verknüpft sind; des Weiteren ist an die Acarviosyleinheit ein Maltosylrest gebunden. Der Inhibitoreffekt beruht auf der irreversiblen Bindung zwischen ...

  6. Augmented Reality als Bildungsenhancement?

    OpenAIRE

    Damberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Die Realität, die sich mithilfe von Datenbrillen und Smartphone Applikationen in die virtuelle Welt hinein ausdehnt, erfährt eine Form des Enhancements. Ein solches Enhancement kann unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen als Bildungsenhancement verstanden werden. Der Text befasst sich mit Formen der erweiterten Realität, ferner mit dem, um was es wesentlich bei der Bildung geht und zuletzt mit den Bedingungen, die erforderlich sind, um diesem Wesentlichen mit Hilfe von augmented reality besser zum ...

  7. Carta al editor

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Pachajoa

    2012-01-01

    Recently, Valencia et al., published a very interesting article called «Lipid profile in a group of patients with Turner’s syndrome at Clínica Universitaria Bolivariana in the city of Medellín between 2000 and 2009". An article which evaluated lipid levels in patients withTurner syndrome in a Colombian clinic, the study associated results of lipid profile with karyotype and other risk factors for coronary heart disease.

  8. Decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus em regiões do interior e do litoral de Portugal Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus in the littoral and inland areas of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ribeiro

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, pela metodologia dos litter-bags, a decomposição de agulhas de Pinus pinaster (PP e de folhas de Eucalyptus globulus (EG, considerando a taxa de decomposição e a dinâmica de libertação dos nutrientes mais relevantes para a sustentabilidade dos sistemas florestais. Os estudos decorreram no litoral da Região Centro (Furadouro, Óbidos, quer com folhas de EG quer com agulhas de PP, no interior da Região Norte (Vila Pouca de Aguiar, com agulhas de PP, e numa situação intermédia com folhas de EG (Pegões e Rio Maior. Para igual período, a taxa de decomposição das agulhas de PP, estimada pelo modelo exponencial simples, foi inferior à determinada para as folhas de EG, sendo a diferença mais acentuada na fase inicial da decomposição (6 meses, em que a perda de peso das agulhas de PP foi cerca de metade da observada para as folhas de EG. Durante a fase inicial decomposição, tanto das folhas de EG como das agulhas de PP, ocorreu uma assinalável libertação de P, K e de Mg. A libertação do N dependeu da taxa de decomposição, observando- -se imobilização para as agulhas de PP com mais baixa taxa de decomposição, e libertação rápida para as folhas de EG com mais elevada taxa de decomposição. No caso do Ca o factor diferenciador foi a espécie, sendo a respectiva libertação baixa para as agulhas de PP, mas acentuada para as folhas de EG. As folhas verdes de resíduos de abate de EG decompuseram-se e libertaram os nutrientes mais rapidamente do que as folhas senescentes da mesma espécie.Decomposition of needle litter of Pinus pinaster (PP and leaf litter of Eucalyptus globulus (EG was assessed using the litterbag methodology. Decomposition rate of these residues and release dynamics of nutrients with more relevance to the sustainability of forest systems were measured. The study was carried out in the litoral of Central Portugal (Furadouro,Óbidos, using both PP and EG, in inland of North Portugal (Vila Pouca

  9. Condição reprodutiva da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae, na pesca realizada no litoral norte de Santa Catarina, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.1230 Reproductive status of Menticirrhus americanus (Teleostei, Sciaenidae in fisheries performed on the Southern coast of Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.1230

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elneison da Rosa Muniz

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available No litoral brasileiro, a legislação costuma regular as práticas pesqueiras segundo o ciclo de vida das espécies-alvo, mas o fato deste não ser coincidente entre as espécies dominantes nas capturas dificulta o manejo em pescarias multiespecíficas. No litoral de Santa Catarina, o defeso aplica-se apenas à pesca de arrasto, e para tal considera o período reprodutivo do camarão sete-barbas, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri. O presente trabalho investiga a incidência da atividade pesqueira sobre indivíduos em reprodução da betara preta, Menticirrhus americanus, espécie comercialmente apreciada e frequente nas pescarias. As amostragens ocorreram em 2006 e 2007, em desembarques do município de Itapoá, norte do Estado (26°00’S; 48°36’W. Calcularam-se os valores de proporção sexual, frequência de estádios de maturação, índice gonadossomático e tamanho de primeira maturação, e relacionou-se a captura de indivíduos em reprodução com a época do ano e a arte de pesca utilizada. Concluiu-se que a atividade pesqueira incide sobre uma parcela populacional que compreende indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva durante, ao menos, duas estações do ano. Há diferenças entre as artes de pesca: a de arrasto não atinge indivíduos em reprodução; a de caceio atua majoritariamente sobre jovens e em maturação; e a de fundeio, principalmente sobre indivíduos em atividade reprodutiva, sobretudo na primavera e no verão.Fisheries rules usually take into account the life cycle of target species. But as these species differ, multi-specific fisheries prove difficult to be managed. In the southern coast of Brazil (26°00’S, 48°36’W, an annual closed fishing season is exclusive to trawling only, which target species such as the shrimp Xyphopenaeus kroyeri . In this region, the consequences of trawling and gillnets on the life cycles of fish remain unknown. The present work has surveyed the incidence of small-scale fisheries on the reproductive

  10. O Complexo Vegetacional da Zona Litorânea no Ceará: Pecém, São Gonçalo do Amarante The vegetation complex of the coastal zone of Ceará: Pecém, São Gonçalo do Amarante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Sérgio Farias Castro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O Litoral Setentrional do Nordeste (LSN por sua localização geográfica apresenta clima mais quente e seco do que na costa leste do Brasil. Por sua proximidade com a caatinga e o cerrado, o LSN permite a co-existência de espécies destes Domínios conjuntamente com espécies de restinga, em diferentes formações, constituindo um Complexo Vegetacional. Apesar da grande importância ecológica e botânica deste ecótono, existem poucos estudos sobre a flora regional. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aprofundar o conhecimento sobre a composição florística e fitossociológica da região. Para isso, fizemos um levantamento florístico na área (entre 2007-2011, bem como consultas a registros de herbário na região e um levantamento fitossociológico em um trecho da floresta estacional semidecídua costeira (mata de tabuleiro. Foram inventariadas 382 espécies vegetais, pertencentes a 96 famílias. Na parcela fitossociológica (0,32 ha foram registrados 2.970 indivíduos de 52 espécies, sendo as mais abundantes as arbóreas Manilkara triflora, Chamaecrista ensiformis e Guapira nitida e as arbustivas Cordiera sessilis e Maytenus erythroxyla (altura média 3,8 m, diâmetro médio 6,2 cm, área basal 39,28 m²/ha. A flora local inclui elementos florísticos de caatinga, cerrado e restinga, sugerindo que a comunidade vegetal na região costeira do Ceará possui natureza ecotonal.Due to its geographical location, the northeastern Coast of Brazil (Litoral Setentrional do Nordeste - LSN is a hotter and drier climate than the eastern coast. In addition, because of its proximity to caatinga and cerrado, the LSN contains species from these vegetation biomes and from the restinga on the coast, which comprise different plant formations and creates a vegetation complex. Despite the great importance of this ecotone, there are few studies about its flora. The objective of this work was to contribute to what is known about the floristic and phytosociological

  11. Ocorrência e atividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantios de eucalipto (eucalyptus sp. no litoral norte da Bahia, Brasil Occurrence and activity arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in eucalypt (eucalyptus sp. plantations in the northern coast of Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sousa Lima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nas últimas décadas, tecnologias alternativas vêm sendo estudadas visando tornar o cultivo do eucalipto (Eucalyptus sp. mais econômico e sustentável. Entre estas, as associações micorrízicas merecem destaque devido aos inúmeros benefícios que proporcionam às plantas hospedeiras. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a ocorrência e atividade de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares em plantios de eucalipto utilizados comercialmente pela Copener Florestal Ltda. no litoral norte da Bahia. Foi observada grande variabilidade na densidade de esporos (36,2 a 203,2 esporos em 50 g de solo, colonização micorrízica (10,6 a 57,8% e nos teores de glomalina facilmente extraível e total (0,34 a 1,92 mg g de solo-1 e 0,48 a 3,88 mg g de solo-1 nos plantios de eucalipto. Os resultados neste estudo permitiram concluir que, embora os clones apresentem suscetibilidade à micorrização em condições de campo, variações nas características do solo afetam aspectos ecológicos dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares nos plantios de eucalipto da Copener Florestal Ltda. no litoral norte da Bahia.In recent decades, alternative technologies have been studied in order to make the cultivation of eucalyptus more economical and sustainable. Among these, the mycorrhizal associations deserve mention because of the many benefits they provide to host plants. Mycorrhizal fungi (AMF form mutualistic association with plant roots, promoting greater uptake of nutrients to the host, which in turn yields products of photosynthesis to the fungus. With the establishment of the association, the plants become more resistant to adverse conditions such as nutrient-poor soil, low pH, high temperature, water stress, decreased microbial activity, among other biotic and abiotic stresses. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence and activity of mycorrhizal fungi in eucalypt plantations used commercially by Copener Florestal Ltda. northern coast of Bahia. A high variability in

  12. Assembléia de peixes em áreas litorâneas da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil Fish assemblages in littoral areas of the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanilde Benedito Cecilio

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A assembléia de peixes em áreas litorâneas de rios (Baía e Paraná e lagoas (Figueira, Genipapo e Pousada da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná foi avaliada quanto à composição, estrutura em comprimento, abundância e padrões de dominância e diversidade de espécies. As amostragens foram realizadas em março de 1999, com o uso de redes de arrastes simples (rios e triplos (lagoas de 5mm de malha, resultando na captura de 10.517 indivíduos pertencentes a 51 espécies. Houve diferenças significativas entre as médias de comprimento-padrão das assembléias nos diferentes ambientes. Na lagoa Pousada registrou-se a maior densidade em número de peixes, bem como o maior valor de diversidade α, enquanto na lagoa Figueira verificou-se a maior biomassa por unidade de área. As espécies mais abundantes nesses ambientes foram Cheirodon notomelas (Eigenmann, 1915 (Baía e Figueira, Bryconamericus stramineus Eigenmann, 1908 (Paraná, Steindachnerina insculpta (Fernándes-Yépez, 1948 (Genipapo e Moenkhausia intermédia Eigenmann, 1908 (Pousada. As zonas litorâneas das lagoas apresentaram baixas similaridades entre si, o que pode estar relacionado com o padrão de conectividade dos ambientes e a forte interrupção do pulso de inundação na planície no ciclo hidrológico de 1998/1999. Esta interrupção foi provocada pelo fechamento da UHE de Porto Primavera, tornou as lagoas mais diferenciadas neste ciclo e aumentou a heterogeneidade entre elasFish assemblages in littoral areas of rivers (Baía and Paraná and lagoons (Figueira, Genipapo and Pousada on the upper Paraná river floodplain were evaluated in their composition, length structure, abundance and species dominance and diversity patterns. Samplings were carried out in March 1999, with single (for the rivers and triple (for the lagoons 5mm-mesh seine nets. Results amounted to the catch of 10,517 individuals belonging to 51 species. There were significant differences between

  13. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot...

  14. Derivados vinculados al seguro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz Cobo, Sonia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo la presentación de los derivados financieros como instrumentos de cobertura de los riesgos del seguro, así como de los principales proyectos que se desarrollan a través de los mismos, como por ejemplo los derivados sobre el clima. Hay que tener presente las pérdidas multimillonarias ocasionadas en casos como el de la banca Baring’s, o el de Orange County, por citar algunas, que si bien ciertos autores afirman que están en relación directa con el uso de estos productos, no podemos olvidar que los instrumentos derivados se desarrollaron con el objetivo principal de proteger al usuario de la posible volatilidad del activo subyacente. Ya en la industria aseguradora los derivados vinculados a tal actividad son instrumentos donde el pago se condiciona a la ocurrencia de su suceso de siniestro, o serie de sucesos múltiples que disparen las pérdidas. Tras el repaso efectuado y la descripción que este tipo de instrumentos puede tener en la gestión del riesgo por parte de la industria aseguradora, concluiremos con la exposición de las relaciones con el reaseguro tradicional así como una breve referencia al futuro de este tipo de instrumentos

  15. Gliricidia sepium al establecimiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Valle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Se asoció Cenchrus ciliaris (Cc y Gliricidia sepium (Gs para evaluar la producción de biomasa y la composición química de los forrajes en la fase de establecimiento, en el estado de Morelos, México, en condiciones de trópico seco. Se empleó un análisis de varianza con diseño en bloques al azar, en donde T1 fue pasto solo, T2 Cc más Gs con 5,000 plantas ha-1 y el T3 Cs más Gs con 14,285 plantas ha-1. Se midió la producción de forraje individual y asociado con materia seca (t MS/Ha, la altura (A en cm, la proteína cruda (PC%, las fracciones de fibra (FDN% y FDA% y la digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS%. El T3 tuvo una mejor producción de biomasa (P0.05. La asociación de 14,285 plantas ha-1 de G. sepium con pasto Cenchrus ciliaris mejoró la producción de biomasa y la disponibilidad total de nutrientes por superficie cultivada al establecimiento

  16. Epitaxial growth of Al/Al2O3 multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to obtain Al-Al2O3 quantum effect devices, it is necessary to deposit epitaxially Al on Al2O3 and Al2O3 on Al. We have already obtained an epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111). In this paper, we have deposit Al/Al2O3/Al structures on Si(111), and investigated the crystallinity by using RBS. (author)

  17. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere als Mineralisationstemplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparova, Pavla

    2002-07-01

    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Synthese und den Eigenschaften von doppelthydrophilen Blockcopolymeren und ihrer Anwendung in einem biomimetischen Mineralisationsprozeß von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat. Doppelthydrophile Blockcopolymere bestehen aus einem hydrophilen Block, der nicht mit Mineralien wechselwirkt und einem zweiten Polyelektrolyt-Block, der stark mit Mineraloberflächen wechselwirkt. Diese Blockcopolymere wurden durch ringöffnende Polymerisation von N-carboxyanhydriden (NCA's) und a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 als Initiator hergestellt. Die hergestellten Blockcopolymere wurden als effektive Wachstumsmodifikatoren für die Kristallisation von Calciumcarbonat und Bariumsulfat Mineralien eingesetzt. Die so erhaltenen Mineralpartikel (Kugeln, Hantel, eiförmige Partikel) wurden durch Lichtmikroskopie in Lösung, SEM und TEM charakterisiert. Röntgenweitwinkelstreuung (WAXS) wurde verwendet, um die Modifikation von Calciumcarbonat zu ermitteln und die Größe der Calciumcarbonat- und Bariumsulfat-Nanopartikel zu ermitteln. This work describes the synthesis and characterization of double hydrophilic block copolymers and their use in a biomimetic mineralization process of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate. Double hydrophilic block copolymers consist of a hydrophilic block that does not interact with minerals and another hydrophilic polyelectrolyte block that strongly interacts with mineral surfaces. These polymers were synthesised via ring opening polymerisation of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA), and the first hydrophilic block a-methoxy-ω-amino[poly(ethylene glycol)] PEG-NH2 was used as an initiator. The prepared block copolymers were used as effective crystal growth modifiers to control the crystallization of Calcium Carbonate and Barium Sulfate minerals. The resulting mineral particles (spheres, dumbbells, egg-like particles) were characterised by light microscopy in solution, by SEM, and by TEM. X-Ray scattering

  18. Fretting wear performances of multilayered PVD TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl on AISI 4140 steel

    OpenAIRE

    Tlili, Brahim; NASRI, Mustapha; F. Ayari; Nouveau, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, most surface treatments are realized through vapor deposition techniques as thin hard coatings to guarantee; high surface hardness, low friction coefficient and improve wear resistance. Several experimental investigations have let to the development of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) coatings in preference to the traditional TiN coating. In the current paper research conducted on fretting wear of a (TiAlCN/TiAlN/TiAl) and a (TiAlZrN/TiAlN/TiAl) multilayer coatings de...

  19. Lugares adecuados para la utilización de nuevos materiales y formas con geotextiles en la gestión integral de la zona litoral como protección ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Antón Camacho, Ana Isabel

    2016-01-01

    La erosión costera es un fenómeno que ha cobrado importancia durante los últimos años, debido a sus repercusiones tanto en el turismo, como en el incremento de riesgo para las infraestructuras y para la población allí ubicada. Se define como el retroceso progresivo de la línea de costa cuyas causas pueden ser de origen natural o antropogénicas. La costa merece la máxima protección, y su gestión debe asegurar su integridad física y su libre acceso, al igual que un uso público po...

  20. Comparação entre os hábitos alimentares de crianças e jovens da Zona Litoral (Póvoa de Varzim) e de Zona Serrana (Guarda)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Zilda Manuela de Macedo

    2012-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Estudos da Criança (área de especialização em Promoção da Saúde e do Meio Ambiente) A alimentação, para além de ser uma necessidade básica para a manutenção da vida, pode, também, ser um factor de risco para a saúde. Não basta ter acesso a bens alimentares, é necessário saber comer – saber escolher os alimentos de forma e em quantidades adequadas às necessidades diárias, ao longo das diferentes fases da vida. Se é certo que a família deverá ser a prin...

  1. Aspectos físico-químicos e biológicos relacionados à ocorrência de Biomphalaria glabrata em focos litorâneos da esquistossomose em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Petronildo Bezerra da

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the physico-chemical and biological parameters of freshwater aquatic environments in coastal areas of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, where snail vector foci and cases of schistosomiasis have been recorded. The tests were carried out using standard methods and sediments were analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The micro-algae were analyzed using conventional microscopy. The most abundant chemical elements in the sediments were Fe, Ca, Si and Al and there were high concentrations of electrolytes in comparison with data published in the literature. The mean values for salinity (7.7 g/L and sulfate (489 mg/L were much higher than normal for freshwater environments. The micro-algae identified are those that inhabit environments with higher levels of salinity. The snail Biomphalaria glabrata seems, therefore, to be more tolerant to salty environments and this constitutes a risk of spread of schistosomiasis.

  2. Aspectos físico-químicos e biológicos relacionados à ocorrência de Biomphalaria glabrata em focos litorâneos da esquistossomose em Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronildo Bezerra da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the physico-chemical and biological parameters of freshwater aquatic environments in coastal areas of the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, where snail vector foci and cases of schistosomiasis have been recorded. The tests were carried out using standard methods and sediments were analyzed using the X-ray fluorescence technique. The micro-algae were analyzed using conventional microscopy. The most abundant chemical elements in the sediments were Fe, Ca, Si and Al and there were high concentrations of electrolytes in comparison with data published in the literature. The mean values for salinity (7.7 g/L and sulfate (489 mg/L were much higher than normal for freshwater environments. The micro-algae identified are those that inhabit environments with higher levels of salinity. The snail Biomphalaria glabrata seems, therefore, to be more tolerant to salty environments and this constitutes a risk of spread of schistosomiasis.

  3. Malamih al-Ashwat al-'Arabiyyah wa Makharijaha

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    Amrah Muhammad Kasim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This writing discusses on al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah that is known with “phonetic” term. It talks and interprets makharij al-huruf or place for producing sounds and also processing production of sounds by parts of mouth in Arabic language. The problems of sounds and its systems in Arabic language have been conducted by the scholars of al-ashwat al-‘arabiyyah attractively, neatly, and detail and gotten ahead the phonetic western scholars. Part of their analysis results formulate the study about al-ashwat al-sakinah (al-Shamit is known with vocal and consonant sounds in research questions shawait – shawamit. Ibnu Jinni has formulated “harakat”(wowel in Arabic language and dimension of letter  mad and liyn on alif  letter - waw - ya’ (ا و ي, from these letters create  harakat fathah, dammah, and kasrah. Moreover, in this writing also exist the description of hija’i letters and its makhraj that are correct from parts of mouth and the unity of coordinative sounds that produce sounds in morphemes arrangement, in one word that produces meaning. The result of phonological study has divided al-ashwat to be kinds of sound like the pronounced sounds, produced sounds from mouth, and heard sound.

  4. Editorial: Cartas al Editor

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    Guillermo Llanos

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available En todas las revistas biomédicas del mundo existe una sección habitual denominada como el título de este editorial y que en Colombia Médica la llamamos correspondencia. Este espacio tiene como objetivo fundamental que los lectores escriban a los autores (investigadores comentando los artículos que se han publicado en números anteriores de la revista. Las cartas son, entonces, breves comentarios de desacuerdo o acuerdo (conceptual, metodológico, interpretativo sobre falencias ubicadas por un lector alerta al tema debatido en cualquiera de las secciones como en los artículos originales, editoriales, revisiones, presentación de casos, etc. publicados previamente en la revista. Las cartas deben permitir el intercambio de opiniones y formas de pensar y analizar los problemas planteados entre los autores y los lectores. En ocasiones una serie de cartas motivadas por un artículo original puede ser tan o más interesante como el artículo que generó la correspondencia. Las cartas son también un formato adecuado para comunicar un hecho novedoso de una observación clínica juiciosa no descrita antes. Un ejemplo de ello es la carta de un gineco-obstetra australiano cuando informó a Lancet los primeros efectos adversos informados de la talidomida. Colombia Médica, a pesar de mantener vigente esta sección, no ha sido muy afortunada en establecer una buena cultura del envío de cartas al editor. Pero últimamente han llegado juiciosas observaciones a las cuales se les ha dado prioridad en su publicación. Toda carta que comenta los hallazgos de un artículo es enviada a los autores para su respuesta, porque ello genera el debate académico buscado, y luego se publican, tanto la carta como su respuesta. El Estilo Vancouver recomienda que la carta y su respuesta deban ser breve, no pasar de dos o tres párrafos y contener sólo cuatro o cinco referencias. En lo posible (a menos que sea indispensable no presentar ni cuadros ni gráficos. El t

  5. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya), Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Alexandria was taken by astronauts on board the International Space Station in December 2000 using an Electronic Still Camera. A wider-angle view (STS088-739-90) taken from the Space Shuttle in December 1998 is available for context. Alexandria (Al Iskandariya) occupies a T-shaped peninsula and strip of land separating the Mediterranean from Lake Mariout. Originally the town was built upon a mole (stone breakwater) called Heptastadium, which joined the island of Pharos (see referenced website, below) to the mainland. Since then sedimentary deposits have widened the mole. Since 1905, when the 370,000 Alexandrians lived in an area of about 4 sq km between the two harbors, the city (population 4 million; see referenced website, below) has grown beyond its medieval walls and now occupies an area of about 300 sq km. The Mahmudiya Canal, connecting Alexandria with the Nile, runs to the south of the city and, by a series of locks, enters the harbor of the principal port of Egypt (note ships). The reddish and ochre polygons west of Lake Mariout are salt-evaporation, chemical-storage, and water-treatment ponds within the coastal lagoon. Reference Youssef Halim and Fatma Abou Shouk, 2000, Human impacts on Alexandria's marine environment: UNESCO, Coastal Regions and Small Islands Unit (CSI), Coastal Management Sourcebooks 2 (accessed December 20, 2000) Additional photographs taken by astronauts can be viewed at NASA-JSC's Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Image ISS001-ESC-5025 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  6. Undulators at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Advanced Light Source (ALS), three 4.6 m long undulators have been completed, tested and installed. A fourth is under construction. The completed undulators include two 5.0 cm period length, 89 period devices (U5.0s) which achieve a 0.85 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap and a 8.0 cm period length, 55 period device (U8.0) that reaches a 1.2 T effective field at a 14 mm minimum gap. The undulator under construction is a 10.0 cm period length, 43 period device (U10.0) that is designed to achieve 0.98 T at a 23 mm gap. Undulator magnetic gap variation (rms) is within 25 microns over the periodic structure length. Reproducibility of the adjustable magnetic gap has been measured to be within +/- 5 microns. Gap adjusting range is from 14 mm to 210 mm, which can be scanned in one minute. The 5.1 m long vacuum chambers are flat in the vertical direction to within 0.74 mm and straight in the horizontal direction to within 0.08 mm over the 4.6 m magnetic structure sections. Vacuum chamber base pressures after UHV beam conditioning are. in the mid 10-11 Torr range and storage ring operating pressures with full current are in the low 10-10 Torr range. Measurements show that the uncorrelated magnetic field errors are 0.23%, and 0.20% for the two U5.Os and the U8.0 respectively and that the field integrals are small over the 1 cm by 6 cm beam aperture. Device description, fabrication, and measurements are presented

  7. Spatial pattern, water use and risk levels associated with the transmission of schistosomiasis on the north coast of Pernambuco, Brazil Padrão espacial, uso da água e níveis de risco associados à transmissão da esquistossomose no litoral norte de Pernambuco, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Paredes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe epidemiological aspects of schistosomiasis in Carne de Vaca, Goiana, on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil and analyze the spatial distribution of households' sanitary conditions and patterns of water contact. A parasitological survey was conducted between 2006 and 2007. An indicator was set to establish risk levels for schistosomiasis based on variables of water contact pattern, household characteristics and proximity to the foci of vector snails. The prevalence was 18.71 in men and 15.96 in women. The age groups most affected were 20-29 years among men and 10-19 among women. The most common parasite load was 1-99 eggs per gram of feces. The prevalence was 17.3 cases per 100 inhabitants and its spatial distribution was not homogeneous. The Bayesian analysis proved unsatisfactory. It is concluded that schistosomiasis is endemic in Carne de Vaca and the risk indicator, based on geoprocessing, proved to be satisfactory, highlighting areas where the problem is more acute.O estudo objetivou descrever aspectos epidemiológicos da esquistossomose em Carne de Vaca, litoral de Pernambuco, Brasil, e analisar a distribuição espacial das condições de esgotamento sanitário e padrão de contato com a água. Foi realizado um inquérito parasitológico entre 2006 e 2007, e criado indicador de risco para a esquistossomose com base em variáveis do padrão de água de contato, características do agregado familiar e da proximidade com focos de moluscos vetores. A prevalência em homens foi de 18,71, e 15,96 em mulheres. A faixa etária mais acometida em homens e mulheres foi de 20-29 e 10-19, respectivamente. A carga parasitária mais freqüente foi de 1-99 ovos por grama de fezes. A prevalência foi de 17,3 casos por 100 habitantes e sua distribuição espacial não foi homogênea. A estatística Bayesiana não se mostrou satisfatória. Conclui-se que a esquistossomose é endêmica em Carne de Vaca e que o indicador de risco

  8. Reprodução do bagre amarelo, Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Siluriformes, Ariidae, da Baía de Pinheiros, região estuarina do litoral do Paraná, Brasil Reproduction of the Madamango sea catfish, Cathorops spixii (Agassiz (Siluriformes, Ariidae, of the Pinheiros Bay, estuarine coastal area of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís F. Fávaro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a biologia reprodutiva do bagre amarelo Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 na Baía de Pinheiros, litoral do Paraná, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados mensalmente no período de junho de 2003 a maio de 2004, com rede de arrasto de fundo. De cada exemplar foram tomados os dados de comprimento total, peso total, sexo e peso da gônada. As seis fases de desenvolvimento ovocitário (ovogênese e os cinco estádios de desenvolvimento ovariano (escala de maturidade foram determinadas por análises microscópicas dos ovários. Através dos valores individuais e media mensais do Índice gônado-somático (IGS tratado para sexos separados, da freqüência relativa dos estádios de desenvolvimento ovariano e das análises histológicas durante o período de estudo foi possível determinar que o período reprodutivo de C. spixii dá-se entre os meses de setembro e novembro. Fêmeas apresentando ovários desovados ou em recuperação foram registradas nos meses de novembro a abril, com altos percentuais no período de dezembro a março. A desova foi caracterizada como sendo do tipo total.The present study investigated the reproductive biology of Cathorops spixii (Agassiz, 1829 in Pinheiros Bay, littoral of Paraná State, Brazil. Fishes were captured monthly from June 2003 to May 2004 by using bottom trawls. For each individual, total body length, total weight, sex, and gonadal weight were recorded. The oogenesis (six ovarian follicle phases of development and gonadal development stages (five stages were also defined based on the histological examination of the ovaries. It was defined that the reproductive period of C. spixii extends from September to November, based on the analyses of individual gonadosomatic index (GSI values distribution in relation to the sampling periods, on the monthly variation of the GSI mean values (Curve of Maturation, both for males and females, and on the monthly variation of the relative frequencies of

  9. Adubação mineral, adubação orgânica e calagem na cultura da bananeira no litoral de Santos - Estado de São Paulo Banana fertilizing experiments at the coast of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ferreira da Cunha

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de ensaios de adubação da bananeira com fertilizantes químicos e orgânicos (sob a forma de tortas oleaginosas e com calagem, obtidos em solo argiloso, comumente usado na cultura dessa planta na região do litoral do Estado de São Paulo. Os ensaios foram efetuados no sítio Trindade, Município de Santos. Os ensaios com adubos químicos foram feitos em três séries, com quatro níveis dos elementos N, P e K. Os resultados mostraram que quando os adubos foram aplicados isoladamente, os seus efeitos foram pràticamente nulos. Quando usados juntamente com doses duplas dos outros dois adubos, houve, em todos os casos, aumento linear de produção. Há indicação de que maiores aumentos de produção poderão ser obtidos se forem usadas dosagens mais elevadas do que as aplicadas nos ensaios. O ensaio com tortas de algodão e de mamona revelou sensível aumento de produção com a aplicação dêsses adubos. Os resultados obtidos com os dois tipos de torta parecem demonstrar que não existem diferenças expressivas entre êles. O exame das produções obtidas com a calagem do solo, utilizando-se carbonato de cálcio, revelou que não houve nenhum aumento de produção resultante da aplicação desse tratamento.This paper reports about the results of banana fertilizing experiments conducted in the coastal region of the State of São Paulo on a farm near Santos. These experiments on clay soil - as is common for cultures with this plant - were carried out by using chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer (oil seed meals and lime. It was observed that with the application of each element of the mineral N, P and K, isolatedly, its effect was none. However, applied m combination with double dosing of the other two fertilizers, the yields increased invariably and regularly in an ascending way. The experiment with oil seed meals revealed a sensible increase in production, though no appreciable difference was observed

  10. ESTIMACIÓN DE CAUDALES DE AVENIDA Y DELIMITACIÓN DE ÁREAS INUNDABLES MEDIANTE MÉTODOS HIDROMETEOROLÓGICOS E HIDRÁULICOS Y TÉCNICAS S.I.G., ESTUDIO APLICADO AL LITORAL SUR DE LA REGIÓN DE MURCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael García Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se centra en el empleo combinado de datos de precipitación, modelos hidrológicos e hidráulicos, y técnicas S.I.G. (Sistema de Información Geográfica para la estimación de caudales de avenidas y la delimitación de áreas inundables en el Sur de la Región de Murcia. Con el fin de obtener datos espacialmente distribuidos en las áreas potenciales de inundación, se han integrado en un S.I.G. diferentes modelos de conversión lluvia-escorrentía superficial (Hidrograma Unitario Adimensional SCS, Hidrograma Unitario Gamma de Témez y el Método Racional Modificado y métodos de geometría hidráulica. Para la conversión de datos de lluvia (tormentas de diseño por periodos de retorno a escorrentía se ha empleado el programa HEC-HMS 3.0.0 en combinación con la extensión HEC-GeoHMS 1.1 de ArcView 3.x. La modelización hidrológica se realiza con ayuda de ArcGIS 9.x y GRASS (v.5.4, mientras que la hidráulica ha requerido el uso de HEC-RAS y HEC-GeoRAS.

  11. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Ethics. So, it is nothing out of the ordinary to fi nd his ethical inclinations as a dominant feature in every aspect of his epistemological thoughts. In addition, sufi epistemology in the perspective of philosophers focuses on enforcing the inner positive potents of the Self more so than to eliminate “the satanic influences” to the heart, because – in al-Tirmidzi’s argument is that the former would greatly improve the immunity of the self, and encourage it to tread consistently on the right path as well.Keywords :  Dhawq, eros, heart, exoteric, esoteric, al-Haqq, al-`Adl, al-Shidq Abstrak : Artikel ini membahas istilah-istilah epistemologi dan beberapa postulat dari seorang sufi terkenal abad ke-9, Abu `Abdu’lLahMuh ammad b.`Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, dalam upaya menggambarkan perjalanan suluk seorang sufi menuju Realitas Mutlak. Dalam gaya pemikirannya tentang sufi, kita menemukan bahwa figur ini cenderung  menekankan hubungan-hubungan yang kuat antara wal āyah (kewalian sufi dan ma‘rifa (pengetahuan sufi di satu sisi, dan antara keduanya dengan filsafat moral sufi.  Jadi, tidak aneh jika kita menemukan kecenderungan - kecenderungan etis yang dominan dalam setiap aspek  pemikiran epistemologinya. Dan epistemologi sufi dalam perspektif para filsuf lebih menekankan potensi inner Diri yang positif daripada menghapuskan “cara-cara syaitan” dalam hati, karena - menurut pendapat al-Tirmidzi – ia akan meningkatkan

  12. El miedo al rey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François FORONDA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La peur du roi. Sources et premières réflexions à propos d’une émotion aristocratique dans la Castille du XIVe siècleFace à un roi qui à présent pousse les effets de son ire jusqu’au meurtre pour faire le vide autour de lui et imposer sa différence souveraine, ses parents et les riches hommes, soit les principaux visés par cette politique de l’arbitraire qui enfreint les règles du jeu autant qu’elle contribue à les redéfinir, disent la peur (metus qu’ils ressentent, qu’ils utilisent aussi afin de donner à leur stratégie de pouvoir un fondement légitime. Et l’expression de cette émotion politique, qui tend à se muer en un stéréotype d’un discours aristocratique d’opposition, surtout présente dans les chroniques, mises ici en relation ici avec d’autres sources, notamment des correspondances, marque profondément l’histoire des relations souvent conflictuelles au sein de cette compagnie en définitive très étroite pendant un siècle, de la fin du XIIIe siècle à la fin du XIVe siècle. Cet article se propose d’ébaucher une première réflexion sur le sujet et d’en présenter les principales sources.El miedo al rey. Fuentes y primeras reflexiones acerca de una emoción aristocrática en la Castilla del siglo XIVFrente a un rey que ahora lleva hasta la muerte los efectos de su ira para hacer el vacío entorno a su persona e imponer su soberana, sus parientes y ricos hombres, o sea los principales afectados por esta política de la arbitrariedad que rompe las reglas del juego a la vez que contribuye a redefinirlas, dicen el miedo (metus que sienten, que utilizan también para darle a su estrategia de poder un fundamento legítimo. Y la expresión de esta emoción política, que tiende a convertirse en un estereotipo de un discurso aristocrático de oposición, sobre todo presente en la crónicas, aquí puestas en relación con otras fuentes, en particular cartas, marca profundamente la historia de

  13. Biologia e anatomia funcional de Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae do litoral de São Paulo, Brasil Biology and functional anatomy of Donax gemmula Morrison (Bivalvia, Donacidae from the littoral of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Dias Passos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 ocorre em praias arenosas da costa sudeste-sul do Brasil até o Uruguai. Espécimes foram coletados na Praia de Barequeçaba, São Sebastião, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O comportamento do animal foi registrado "in situ" e em aquários e a morfologia funcional a partir de espécimes dissecados sob estereomicroscópio; detalhes da anatomia foram obtidos a partir de cortes histológicos. A concha pequena, lisa, subglobosa, e o pé grande, muscular, provido de um par de músculos elevadores bem desenvolvidos, permitem escavação rápida, vital em praias sujeitas à intensa ação de ondas onde a espécie vive. Aparato bissal vestigial ocorre desde a fase juvenil à adulta e este donacídeo de vida livre, infaunal, não migra acompanhando o ritmo das marés. As margens do manto possuem prega mediana duplicada; além de tentáculos captados, as pregas medianas possuem tentáculos sensoriais filiformes, longos, estes últimos restritos à região posterior do animal. A espécie tem hábito alimentar suspensívoro seletivo, o qual é revelado pela presença de ctenídios grandes, completos e homorhábdicos, palpos labiais pequenos e muito seletivos, intestino curto, fracamente sinuoso, separado do saco do estilete cristalino, e tentáculos ramificados formando um crivo em torno da abertura inalante.Donax gemmula Morrison, 1971 is a small bivalve occurring on sandy beaches throughout the Southeastern Brazilian coast to Uruguai. Live specimens were collected from Barequeçaba Beach, São Sebastião, State of São Paulo, Brazil. The animal's behaviour was recorded in situ as well as in aquaria, and its functional morphology registered from specimens dissected under stereomicroscope; details of the anatomy were obtained from histological sections. The minute, smooth subglobose shell, and the large, muscular foot provided with a pair of well-developed elevator muscles allow fast burrowing, vital in the disturbed beach

  14. El pensamiento frente al arte

    OpenAIRE

    Bergmann, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Es un hecho histórico de gran importancia el que el hombre haya creado arte antes de haberse dedicado a la filosofía. Al mencionar esto no pienso en las pinturas pre-históricas que se encuentran en las cuevas de España y en el Sur de Francia, sino ante todo, en el arte egipcio y mesopotámico.  En Egipto y Mesopotamia --y Mesopotamia parece ser la región más importante -no nació sino que se creó al hombre humano, al hombre como ser arquitectónico.

  15. Consoer et al PFOS dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This ScienceHub entry was developed for the published paper: Consoer et al., 2016, Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainow trout (Oncorhynchus...

  16. DESAFÍOS AL ORDEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelina De los Rios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fradkin, Raúl y Gelman, Jorge (Compiladores, Desafíos al Orden. Política y sociedades rurales durante la Revolución de Independencia, Prohistoria ediciones, Rosario, 2008, 157 pp.

  17. Seltzer_et_al_2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset supports the modeling study of Seltzer et al. (2016) published in Atmospheric Environment. In this study, techniques typically used for future air...

  18. Note intorno al Teatro Vagante

    OpenAIRE

    Scabia, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    In questo testo-intervista Scabia traccia, alternando racconto e riflessione, un percorso che abbracciatutta l'attività del suo Teatro Vagante: dalle azioni nelle scuole degli inizi degli anni '70 - agli alboridell'Animazione Teatrale, che anche da qui prese le mosse - al lavoro all'Università di Bologna,organica continuazione di quei primi esperimenti. Dalla poesia alle azioni teatrali in strada;dall'architettura della pagina al respiro della parola detta in presenza ; dalle aule ...

  19. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als Beit...

  20. Response to Brosch et al.

    OpenAIRE

    Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Lerin, Carles; Kaminska, Dorota; Venesmaa, Sari; Itkonen, Paula; Boes, Tanner; Floss, Thomas; Schroeder, Joshua; Dearie, Farrell; Crunkhorn, Sarah; Burak, Furkan; Jimenez-Chillaron, Josep C.; Kuulasmaa, Tiina; Miettinen, Pekka; Park, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    We would like to respond to Brosch et al. regarding our manuscript “Expression of the Splicing Factor Gene SFRS10 Is Reduced in Human Obesity and Contributes to Enhanced Lipogenesis” (Pihlajamäki et al., 2011b). Brosch performed RT-PCR in liver samples from 13 lean and 34 obese individuals, finding no differences in SFRS10 or LPIN1 expression. We wish to address points raised by Brosch, including experimental strategy and analysis of human SFRS10 expression.

  1. Perfil descritivo de esclerose múltipla com início até os 16 anos nos pacientes de um centro de referência do estado de São Paulo Perfil descriptivo de esclerosis múltiple con inicio hasta los 16 años de edad en los pacientes del centro de referencia del litoral de la provincia de São Paulo Descriptive profile of multiple sclerosis starting until the age of 16 in the reference center of the state of São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Yára Dadalti Fragoso; Joseph Bruno B. Brooks; Tiago Martins dos S. Leal

    2012-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Descrever o perfil de pacientes com esclerose múltipla iniciada até os 16 anos de idade no litoral do estado de São Paulo, Brasil. DESCRIÇÃO DOS CASOS: Análise retrospectiva das características dos pacientes que tiveram o episódio inicial de esclerose múltipla até os 16 anos. Nesta situação encontravam-se nove meninas e quatro meninos (7,1% da população total de esclerose múltipla da região). A idade média por ocasião do diagnóstico foi de 13,9 anos (variação entre 8 e 16), sendo a ...

  2. D’al-Ẓāhir Baybars à ʿAlī al-Zaybaq

    OpenAIRE

    Dorlian, Georges

    2014-01-01

    « Toi par le courage, moi par la filouterie » aimait répéter Baṭṭāl à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma, comme pour délimiter les espaces d’action revenant à chacun. Et d’ajouter, pour mieux dépeindre son rôle : « Mon métier n’est pas celui de la guerre, des armes et des exploits, mais celui de la ruse et de la fourberie dans un château fort ou une forteresse. » Baṭṭāl était un ʿayyār adjoint à la princesse Ḏāt al-Himma et à ʿAbd al-Wahhāb pour servir leur cause sublime et leur idéal chevaleresque. E...

  3. Strain sensing with sub-micron sized Al-AlOx-Al tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Lievonen, J. T.; Ahlskog, M.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a local strain sensing method for nanostructures based on metallic Al tunnel junctions with AlOx barriers. The junctions were fabricated on top of a thin silicon nitride membrane, which was actuated with an AFM tip attached to a stiff cantilever. A large relative change in the tunneling resistance in response to the applied strain (gauge factor) was observed, up to a value 37. This facilitates local static strain variation measurements down to ~10^{-7}.

  4. Epistemologi Sufi : Perspektif Al-Hakim Al-Tirmidzi

    OpenAIRE

    Ainul Abidin Shah

    2012-01-01

    Abstract : This article deals with some epistemological terms and theoretical postulates in the thought of a well known sufi  from the 9th century AD., Abu `Abdu’lLah Muhammad b. `Ali al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi, in order to describe the path (sulūk) of a sufi towards the Ultimate Reality. In his own style thought about the sufis, placing an emphasis upon the strong relations between the walāyah (sufi  sainthood) and the ma`rifa (sufi knowledge) in the one side, and between the two a philosophy of Sufi Et...

  5. Al clamor de les vuvuzeles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Olivera Betrán

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available El Mundial de Futbol de Sud-àfrica ha situat l’Àfrica al mapa mundial i ha mostrat al món el triomf de l’estil de futbol d’Espanya basat en la col·lectivitat, l’esperit d’equip, la humilitat, la cohesió interna i el joc bonic. L’organització africana, seriosa i eficaç, ha sabut mobilitzar i il·lusionar la població del país que ha participat en el mundial des de l’orgull de ser africà, amb l’esperit alegre, festiu i també reivindicatiu de la gent de l’Àfrica. Aquest esdeveniment suposa el llançament de la marca “Sud-àfrica” al món amb un avís clar d’optar a l’organització d’uns primers Jocs Olímpics a Àfrica (potser els de 2020. S’obre una finestra d’esperança al segle xxi per al continent perdut de la mà de l’esport espectacle tan universal, massiu, emocional i mercantil que també es juga a la canxa de la política i de l’economia.

  6. A united refinement technology for commercial pure Al by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because flake-like TiAl3 particles in Al-Ti-C master alloys prepared in a melt reaction method dissolve slowly when they are added into Al melt at 720 deg. C, Ti atoms cannot be released rapidly to play the assistant role of grain refinement, leading to a poor refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys. A united refinement technology by Al-10Ti and Al-Ti-C master alloys was put forward in this paper. The rational combination of fine blocky TiAl3 particles in Al-10Ti and TiC particles in Al-Ti-C can improve the nucleation rate of α-Al. It not only improves the grain refinement efficiency of Al-Ti-C master alloys, but also reduces the consumption

  7. Entre a dominação racional-legal e o carisma: o Projeto Tamar e sua intervenção em comunidades pesqueiras do litoral brasileiro Between rational-legal domination and carisma: the Tamar Project and its intervention in fishing communities at the Brazilian coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Maria Filgueira de Almeida Suassuna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho discute a implantação e implementação de políticas públicas para o setor ambiental no Brasil, no período compreendido entre 1970 e 2000. Nesse contexto, realiza um estudo de caso do Projeto Tartarugas Marinhas (Projeto Tamar, apresentando uma análise comparativa das formas de intervenção em duas comunidades pesqueiras do litoral brasileiro: Praia do Forte (BA e Regência (ES. Por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa, foram reconstruídos discursos e postos em diálogo para a compreensão. Constatou-se que o Projeto Tamar apresenta formas discursivas que se apóiam no modelo de sustentabilidade causal, isto é, o econômico viabiliza o ambiental. Neste âmbito, verificou-se que a lei e o discurso racional-legal são utilizados como estratégia de dominação em Praia do Forte, enquanto o carisma é parte do tipo ideal de dominação em Regência. Viu-se que essa diferenciação não ocorreu por acaso, mas é fruto de processos de resistência e conflitos que emergiram nas duas comunidades de pescadores e que está relacionada com suas especificidades socioculturais, especificamente quanto à forma como apresentam suas representações sociais e simbólicas sobre a pesca e a caça da tartaruga marinha.The present work discusses the implantation and implementation of political policies for the environmental sector in Brazil during the period between 1970 and 2000. In that context, it performs a study of case of the Sea Turtle Project (Tamar Project, presenting a comparative analysis of the forms of intervention in two fishing communities at the Brazilian cost: Praia do Forte (in the State of Bahia and Regência (in the State of Espírito Santo. Discourses were reconstructed and put into discussion in order to be comprehended, through a qualitative approach. It was verified that the Tamar Project presents discursive forms which lean on the causal sustainability model, which is the economic side makes the environmental side viable

  8. Análise multivariada da vegetação como ferramenta para avaliar a reabilitação de dunas litorâneas mineradas em Mataraca, Paraíba, Brasil Multivariate analysis of the vegetation as a tool to assess the reclamation of coastal sand dunes after mining in Mataraca, Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Orlandini Cunha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A mineração das dunas litorâneas em Mataraca, Paraíba, Brasil, para obtenção de minérios titaníferos, demanda a retirada da vegetação original e resulta na posterior formação de grandes massas de areias quartzosas estéreis. Estas dunas ficam sujeitas à forte ação dos ventos, podendo se deslocar e ocasionar impactos ambientais de alta magnitude. A mineradora Millennium Inorganic Chemicals do Brasil S.A. desenvolve, desde 1987, um Programa de Reabilitação Ambiental, com o objetivo de fixar essas dunas e reabilitar o ecossistema. Neste estudo objetivou-se identificar o nível de influência dos fatores irrigação, tempo de recuperação, cobertura com bagaço de cana e adição de solo de mata (proveniente do decapeamento pré-exploratório na revegetação dessas áreas. A vegetação foi levantada pelo método de pontos em 1.094 amostras, sistematicamente distribuídas em 13 estratos, que foram definidos pelas diferentes combinações dos fatores citados. Foram amostrados 3.153 indivíduos, pertencentes a 24 famílias e 84 espécies, que a partir de seus valores de cobertura foram submetidas, com os quatro fatores, a uma análise de correspondência canônica. Observou-se a idade como o fator que mais influiu nas relações de abundância, seguido do uso de solo de mata, enquanto a irrigação e a adição de bagaço de cana quase não influenciaram o desenvolvimento da vegetação.The mining of coastal sand dunes in Mataraca, Paraíba, Brazil, to extract titanium-derived minerals requires the removal of the original vegetation and produces huge tailing dunes formed essentially of sterile quartzic sand. These dunes are blown by strong winds throughout the year and may be moved away from the coastline causing serious environmental impacts. Since 1987, the mining company Millennium Inorganic Chemicals from Brazil carries out an Environmental Rehabilitation Program aimed to fix these dunes and reclaim the ecosystem. The objective

  9. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos do pargo, Pagrus pagrus (L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Sparidae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (L., 1758 (Osteichthyes, Sparidae, from the coastal zone, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Luque

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 90 espécimes de Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes, Sparidae, provenientes do litoral do estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (21-23º S, 41-45ºW, no período de outubro de 1998 a março de 2000, sendo necropsiados para estudo da comunidade de metazoários parasitos. Todos os peixes examinados estavam parasitados. Vinte e duas espécies de parasitos foram coletadas. Os nematóides corresponderam a 59% do total de espécimes de parasitos coletados. Contracaecum sp. foi a espécie dominante, com os maiores índices de prevalência e abundância parasitária. A abundância e a prevalência do isópode cimothoídeo apresentou correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro, enquanto a prevalência de Parahemiurus merus (Linton e Polymorphus sp. apresentaram correlação negativa. O sexo do hospedeiro não influenciou na prevalência e abundância das espécies de parasitos. A diversidade média das infracomunidades de P. pagrus foi H=0,306±0,119 e não apresentou correlação com o sexo e o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Três pares de espécies apresentaram covariação positiva significativa e dois pares de espécies apresentaram associação positiva significativa entre suas abundâncias e prevalências, respectivamente. Associações e covariações negativas não foram observadas. No presente trabalho foi observada similaridade qualitativa das infracomunidades de ectoparasitos de P. pagrus, a nível de gênero, com outros peixes esparídeos.Ninety specimens of red porgy, Pagrus pagrus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Sparidae collected from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (21-23º S, 41-45ºW, from October 1998 to March 2000, were necropsied for parasite studying. All fish were parasitized by metazoan. Twenty-two species of parasites were collected. The nematodes were 59% of the total parasitic specimens number. Contracaecum sp. larvae were the dominant species with highest prevalence

  10. Modeling of the ALS linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS injector linac is used for the Beam Test Facility (BTF) and the Damping Experiments when it is available in between the ALS filings. These experiments usually require higher quality beams and a better characterization than is normally required for ALS operations. This paper focuses on the beam emittance, energy tilt, and especially the longitudinal variation of the beam parameters. For instance, the authors want to avoid longitudinal variations at the low beta section of the BTF. On the other hand, a large energy tilt is required for post-acceleration compression of the bunch using an alpha magnet. The PARMELA code was modified to calculate and display longitudinal variations of the emittance ellipse. Using the Microsoft Development Studio under Windows NT environment the code can handle a much larger number of particles than was previously possible

  11. Conjuntivitis alérgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Tello Hernández

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available La conjuntivitis alérgica es una de las causas más comunesde consulta externa en oftalmología y tiene una muy altarelación con las reacciones alérgicas sistémicas. Lafisiopatología de las reacciones de hipersensibilidad noshace entender los cuadros clínicos característicos de estapatología y sus diferentes grados de severidad. Eldiagnostico diferencial es amplio, sin embargo hay clavesdiagnosticas que nos orientan rápidamente al diagnosticocorrecto. El tratamiento se enfoca en las medidasfarmacológicas y no farmacológicas, utilizándolas enconjunto para disminuir la recurrencia del cuadro y prevenirsecuelas visuales.

  12. ALS:A SAIRASTAVAN TOIMINTATERAPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraali skleroosi on harvinainen, etenevä sairaus. Sairaus surkastuttaa edetessään potilaan tahdonalaisen lihaksiston. Sairauden oireet näkyvät yleensä ensin raajoissa, mutta myös nielun lihaksista alkava bulbaarinen taudinmuoto on mahdollinen. ALS voi myös aiheuttaa frontotemporaalista dementiaa. Sairaus etenee yksilöllisesti, mutta sen kesto on yleensä noin 3-5 vuotta. Keski-Suomen keskussairaalassa ALS:n sairastuneen kuntoutukseen osallistuu moniammatillinen työryhmä, j...

  13. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al13Fe4 particles in Al-Fe-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and FexP phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al13Fe4 clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al13Fe4 nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated

  14. Dynamic Modeling of ALS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of dynamic modeling and simulation of Advanced Life Support (ALS) systems is to help design them. Static steady state systems analysis provides basic information and is necessary to guide dynamic modeling, but static analysis is not sufficient to design and compare systems. ALS systems must respond to external input variations and internal off-nominal behavior. Buffer sizing, resupply scheduling, failure response, and control system design are aspects of dynamic system design. We develop two dynamic mass flow models and use them in simulations to evaluate systems issues, optimize designs, and make system design trades. One model is of nitrogen leakage in the space station, the other is of a waste processor failure in a regenerative life support system. Most systems analyses are concerned with optimizing the cost/benefit of a system at its nominal steady-state operating point. ALS analysis must go beyond the static steady state to include dynamic system design. All life support systems exhibit behavior that varies over time. ALS systems must respond to equipment operating cycles, repair schedules, and occasional off-nominal behavior or malfunctions. Biological components, such as bioreactors, composters, and food plant growth chambers, usually have operating cycles or other complex time behavior. Buffer sizes, material stocks, and resupply rates determine dynamic system behavior and directly affect system mass and cost. Dynamic simulation is needed to avoid the extremes of costly over-design of buffers and material reserves or system failure due to insufficient buffers and lack of stored material.

  15. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 tunnel emission electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al2O3/Al/Al2O3 electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence

  16. As comunidades de Porífera do litoral Norte

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tânia Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Os indivíduos do filo Porifera possuem um papel essencial nas comunidades bentónicas, não só por serem animais filtradores e detritívoros, como pelo facto de estabelecerem relações simbióticas com vários organismos, nomeadamente algas, e servirem de abrigo e alimento a muitos animais. A estrutura das comunidades Porifera é influenciada por vários factores ambientais, entre os quais os padrões de sedimentação, a velocidade da corrente, e o tamanho e inclinação do substrato. D...

  17. La plataforma continental del Litoral Español

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado López, Andrés

    1995-01-01

    Se realiza un ensayo de síntesis geológica sobre las plataforma españolas,en base a algunos ejemplos del mediterráneo y Golfo de Cádiz. La mayoría del margen continental español ha sido estructurado durante el Terciario, en gran parte como consecuencia de los movimientos relativos entre Europa/ África, existiendo otro hito importante en la evolución a partir del Mioceno, como consecuencia de la apertura del Estrecho de Gibraltar. La estratigrafía sísmica de estas plataformas, particularmente ...

  18. Moluscos del litoral rocoso de la localidad de Yaguanabo,

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales Caballero, Y.; Fernández Garcés, R.

    2010-01-01

    En febrero de 2008 se identificó la malacofauna existente en las zonas meso y supralitoral de la localidad Yaguanabo, ubicada en la costa sur de la Provincia de Cienfuegos. El material se identificó in situ, por el método de ausencia/presencia. Como unidad de muestreo se utilizó un marco de 25 cm², el cual se fue desplazando a lo largo de un transepto perpendicular a la línea de costa, ubicado desde la zona mesolitoral hasta la zona supralitoral. En el marco del proyecto: “Soci...

  19. Derecho humano al agua y al saneamiento: derechos estrechamente vinculados al derecho a la vida

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Aller, Maria Celia; Luis Romero, Elena de; Guzmán Acha, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Los derechos humanos al agua y al saneamiento están íntimamente relacionados con otros derechos esenciales para la vida, como la alimentación o la salud. Su reconocimiento como derechos humanos en 2010 marca un hito importante en el respeto, protección y realización de estos derechos, que se encuentran seriamente vulnerados para una mayoría de población más vulnerable y empobrecida, sobre todo en el ámbito rural. Mucho camino queda aún para conseguir no sólo la disponibilidad de agua y saneam...

  20. Personalidad y tolerancia al dolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JESÚS M.ª CARRILLO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se examina la relación de algunas variables de personalidad -EPQ-A (Eysenck y Eysenck, 1975, NEO-PI (McCrae y Costa, 1988 y STA -personalidad esquizotípica- y STB -personalidad límite-, de Claridge y Broks (1984, con la tolerancia al dolor experimental inducido mediante agua fría (cold pressor test, según el procedimiento de Staats, Heckmat y Staats (1998 en una muestra filtrada mediante un cuestionario sobre dolor crónico, dolores de cabeza, de espalda, artritis, síndrome de Raynaud, y personas bajo medicación. La tolerancia al dolor experimental se evaluó mediante el Umbral del dolor (tiempo en segundos desde la introducción de la mano en el agua hasta el primer informe de dolor, Mantenimiento del dolor (duración en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde la aparición del umbral hasta su retirada y Tolerancia al dolor (duración total en segundos de la inmersión de la mano desde su introducción hasta su retirada. Un análisis correlacional, factorial y de regresión por pasos mostraron un efecto cruzado entre medidas de ansiedad (tolerancia negativa al dolor y psicoticismo, siendo psicoticismo junto con control emocional predictores de tolerancia positiva al dolor. En cuanto a psicoticismo, parece que son sus elementos de naturaleza paranoide y de "dureza" los que afectan a una percepción atenuada del dolor.

  1. 75 FR 62858 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Proposed Final Judgment and... of America, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No. CV-10-4496. On October...

  2. 76 FR 38700 - United States, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 13, 2010 (75 FR 62858); and (3) published summaries of the... Antitrust Division United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al.; Public Comments and Response... Final Judgment in United States, et al. v. American Express Company, et al., Civil Action No....

  3. Al/Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charged-particle detectors are required to be operated sometimes in ambient light for applications like alpha counting and range finding. Detectors like Al/p-Si surface barrier with aluminium on the front side are found quite suitable. Gold/n-Si surface barrier detectors are not usable because of their excessive background photo current. These detectors, we fabricate for use in nuclear experiments, were given an aluminium coating on their gold side for use in room light. The Au/n-Si/Al surface barrier diodes were characterized for their electrical properties and performance as alpha detectors. Detectors showing good energy resolution (∼ 50 KeV) were selected and provided with another thin reflecting coat of aluminium on their front sides

  4. Electrowinning Al from Al2S3 in Molten Salt

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Y; Van der Plas, D.W.; Bohte, J.; Lans, S.C.; Van Sandwijk, A.; Reuter, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate an alternative process for the production of primary aluminum via a sulfide intermediate, the electrochemical behavior of Al2S3 in molten salt has been studied on a laboratory scale. The effects of electrolyte composition, temperature, and cell design on the cell performance have been investigated. Temperature and cryolite addition have positive effects on the current density. Increasing the anode-to-cathode surface area (closer to unity) and shortening the interelectr...

  5. Thermal conductance of a pressed Al-Al contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, M.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal conductance of a screw-fastened joint between two blocks of Al-alloys has been measured. An AlMg4.5Mn-block, the end of which is cooled by liquid helium, constitutes the upper part of the sample and the contact is formed at the face surface of a cylindrical extension of that block onto which a cylinder, made of AlMgSi1, is pressed by means of a copper-nickel screw. Pressing of the contact was carried out at room temperature by applying a defined torque, M, to the fastening screw. Three samples of the same shape but with differently treated surfaces of contact (machined flat, electro-chemically polished, with gold plated contacts) were studied. The results showed that the machined flat surfaces yield the best contact and that the contact conductance (measured in the range 4.2 K to 1.8 K) of all samples increased with increasing torque. In addition to thermal measurements, a study of the electrical conductance would be very interesting to determine the different contributions of phonon and electron heat conduction by means of the Wiedemann-Franz law. The work is useful for the GIRL (German Infra-Red Laboratory) space experiment.

  6. El Mar Menor. Relaciones, diferencias y afinidades entre la laguna costera y el mar Mediterráneo adyacente

    OpenAIRE

    Mas-Hernández, J. (Julio)

    1996-01-01

    La localización del Mar Menor, en el sureste de la península Ibérica, condiciona la totalidad de sus características ambientales —su génesis reciente se inició hace 18.000 años— y en su configuración actual han intervenido tanto el glacioeustatismo como la actividad tectónica, hasta completar el aislamiento de la antigua bahía mediterránea en la laguna que conocemos hoy. Sus rasgos geomorfológicos más notables son: barrera de cierre (con canales de intercomunicación), afloramientos rocosos...

  7. Alimentación de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) en el Golfo San Jorge y aguas adyacentes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, F.

    2009-01-01

    The information obtained in summer research cruises carried out in 1995, 1999 and 2002 allowed to determine the trophic spectrum of common hake (Merluccius hubbsi) and to estimate anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) and hake consumption in the nursery area of the San Jorge Gulf and shelf adjacent waters (Argentine Sea, SW Atlantic). The area surveyed extended from 44ºS to 47ºS and between the 50-100 m isobaths. In the stomach content the most frequent items were crustaceans followed by fish. In all ...

  8. VARAMIENTOS DE TONINAS, TURSIOPS TRUNCATUS, EN LAGUNA DE TÉRMINOS Y ZONAS ADYACENTES, 2002-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Rivas Hernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En el área de Laguna de Términos se han registrado un total de 115 varamientos de toninas muertas de 2002 a 2013. El mayor número de varamientos ocurrió en 2006 (n= 19, mientras que el menor número se registró en 2007 y 2011 (n= 3; la mayor frecuencia fue en mayo (n= 23 registros y en diciembre se registraron solamente dos animales varados. El mayor número de varamientos ocurrió en la temporada de secas (n=53, 46 %, seguido de la temporada de lluvias (n=42, 37% y la de nortes (n=20, 17 %. Del total de 115 ejemplares de Tursiops truncatus varados, 72 fueron machos (62.6 %, 19 fueron hembras (16.52 % y a 24 organismos no se les pudo determinar el sexo (20.88 %; ocho organismos fueron crías varadas (7 %, de las cuales tres fueron crías recién nacidas. Se registraron con mayor frecuencia organismos de tamaño de entre 191-200 cm y 231-240 (n=11, para cada intervalo. En este estudio se registraron toninas correspondientes a las formas costera y oceánica.

  9. Evoluci??n metam??rfica del complejo gne??sico de Torroz y series adyacentes (alpuj??rrides centrales)

    OpenAIRE

    Garc??a-Casco, Antonio

    1993-01-01

    El tema de esta tesis doctoral es la evoluci??n metam??rfica sufrida por las metapelitas grafitosas y leucogneises peraluminicos anatecticos de la unidad de torrox. las rocas de esta unidad presenta asociaciones de fases incompatibles, esto es, no presentan condiciones de equilibrio. los datos aportados, petrogr??ficos (relaciones blastesisdeformacion, texturas reaccionales), quimismo mineral (heterogeneidades composicionales en las soluciones solidas, reacciones, termobarometr??a, relaciones...

  10. Type idéal

    OpenAIRE

    Paugam, Serge

    2014-01-01

    L’usage de types idéaux constitue pour Max Weber une démarche sociologique fondamentale. Le type idéal est pour lui un moyen de comprendre le sens que les individus donnent à leurs expériences vécues, ce qui conduit à mettre ces dernières en relation avec l’organisation de la société à un moment historique de son évolution. Définir un type idéal ne signifie pas repérer sa forme majoritaire d’un point de vue statistique, mais discerner à partir des formes historiques des sociétés contemporaine...

  11. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH hadiths (sayings using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocalized sayings, after their terms (keywords have been transformed to the corresponding canonical form (i.e., roots, to one of eight Books (classes, according to Al-Bukhari classification. A term would have a higher weight if it were a good descriptor for a particular book, i.e., it appears frequently in the book but is infrequent in the entire corpus.

  12. The effect of Si in Al-alloy on electromigration performance in Al filled vias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Makiko; Hashimoto, Keiichi; Onoda, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Electromigration performance of vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloys on Ti glue layers was investigated in comparison with W-stud vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, voids were formed at only a few locations in the test structure, while voids were formed at every via in W-stud via chains. It is supposed that Al moves through the Al-Si-Cu via during electromigration in spite of the existence of a glue layer at the via bottom. This phenomenon was observed only in the vias filled with Al-Si-Cu alloy. Al movement was prohibited in Al-Cu filled vias. In Al-Si-Cu filled vias, an Al-Ti-Si alloy was formed at the via bottom while Al3Ti was formed at Al-Cu filled vias. Al is speculated to move through this Al-Ti-Si alloy during electromigration.

  13. Lernhabitus als Grundlage lebenslanger Lernprozesse

    OpenAIRE

    Herzberg, Heidrun

    2005-01-01

    'In diesem Artikel wird die These vertreten, dass das Habitus-Konzept von Bourdieu, wenn es bei der Analyse von lebenslangen (biographischen) Lern- und Bildungsprozessen angewandt wird, einer biographietheoretischen Reformulierung bedarf. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird das eigene Konzept des biographischen Lernhabitus vorgestellt. Als Ergebnis einer Zwei-Generationen-Studie im Rostocker Werftarbeitermilieu können zwei deutlich voneinander zu entscheidende Lernhabitusmuster präsentiert werden. In...

  14. Utilitarismus als Methode der Ethik

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Malte Cornelius

    2011-01-01

    In diesem Buch schlage ich eine radikal neuartige Sicht auf den Utilitarismus vor. Meine Hauptthese ist, dass der Utilitarismus selbst keine vollständige normative Theorie ist, aus der sich per se Handlungsbewertungen ableiten ließen, sondern normativ untersättigt und neutral ist. Sein normativer Gehalt ist vollständig abhängig von angenommenen Nutzenfunktionen. Jede konsistente Menge von moralischen Regeln (Moralsystem) kann, wie ich im Anhang beweise, als ein Spezialfall des Utilitarismus i...

  15. Vormundschaftsrecht als Grundlage politischer Herrschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Duncker

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available In ihrer beachtlichen und sehr gewissenhaft dokumentierten Arbeit über vormundschaftliche Regentschaften im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert beschreibt Pauline Puppel unter ausführlichem Bezug auf zeitgenössische Literatur und Archivalien sowohl die allgemeine Rechtslage im damaligen Reich als auch die Anwendungsfälle in Hessen, wo zwischen 1500 und 1700 insgesamt viermal eine Landgräfin als Vormünderin des Fürsten zur Regentin ihres Landes wurde. Dies steht exemplarisch für eine bereits in der Frühen Neuzeit mögliche und nicht einmal ganz seltene Form politischer Frauenherrschaft, die bisher oft nicht hinreichend gewürdigt wurde. Puppels Untersuchung ist in zwei Hauptteile gegliedert. Der erste Teil (Das juristische Regelwerk“, S. 34-143 behandelt die zeitgenössischen Rahmenbedingungen der durch Frauen ausgeübten Vormundschaft und Regentschaft. Der zweite Abschnitt („Die Landgräfinnen von Hessen als Regentinnen“, S. 144-307 befasst sich mit der Ausfüllung dieser Regeln durch konkrete Fallbeispiele in Gestalt von Leben und Regentschaft der regierenden Landgräfinnen von Hessen.

  16. Microstructure of interaction interface between Al-Si, Zn-Al alloys and Al2O3p/6061Al composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许志武; 闫久春; 吕世雄; 杨士勤

    2004-01-01

    Interaction behaviors between Al-Si, Zn-AI alloys and Al2O3p/6061AI composite at different heating temperatures were investigated. It is found that Al2O3p/6061Al composite can be wetted well by AlSi-1, AlSi-4 and Zn-Al alloys and an interaction layer forms between the alloy and composite during interaction. Little Al-Si alloys remain on the surface when they fully wet the composite and Si element in Al-Si alloy diffuses into composite entirely and assembles in the composite near the interface of Al-Si alloy/composite to form a Si-rich zone. The microstructure in interaction layer with Si penetration is still dense. Much more residual Zn-Al alloy exists on the surface of composite when it wets the composite, and porosities appear at the interface of Zn-Al alloy/composite. The penetration of elements Zn, Cu of Zn-Al alloy into composite leads to the generation of shrinkage cavities in the interaction layer and makes the microstructure of Al2 O3p/6061A1 composite loose.

  17. The Structure and Main Issues of “al-Tasdid” of Husam al-Din al-Syghnaqi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyar B. Shalkarov

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of the theological maturidia in the Central Asia was developed by the majority of outstanding scientists in the Turkic area and was known from generation to generation with manuscripts. One of these famous scientists was Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi. In Central Asia, in the branch of the Islamic kalam theology there were the works “Tabsira al-Adilla”, “Bahr al-Kalam”, “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed”, which considered the issues of maturidia theological study. In the XIV century the great scientist from Syghanaq Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi made a detailed research of the work “al-Tamheed li qawa‘id al-Tawheed” of Abu al-Mu‘in al-Nasafi and wrote the work “al-Tasdeed fi sharh al-Tamheed” by giving a full explanation of all questions relating to the issue. This article considers the content and the kept versions in the World libraries and the importance of this work for today. There is a different information about the original version of the manuscript. The first, the manuscript is by Amca Zade Huseyn 309 number, written by Husam al-din al-Syghnaqi personally and kept in the turkic library. This information is written in the work “Syghanaq Sanlagi/ The star of the Syghanaq” of Shamshaddin Kerim, the second manuscript is kept in the Egypt Arabic Republic, in the library “Dar al-Kutub Misrya”. It is written in this manuscript, that the manuscript was published in 1125 according hizhra calendar. Therefore the article gives an explanation of the main maturidia kalam principles, which cover five chapters of the work. 

  18. Armaflex in Burj al Arab; Armaflex im Burj al Arab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, B.

    2003-07-01

    This article describes the Burj al Arab in Dubai, the unique seven-star high-rise hotel. The construction of the hotel, that is built on 250 piles driven into the sand of an artificial island in the Persian Gulf, is described. In particular, various special materials used in the building are described, as are the luxurious fittings and furnishings of the hotel. The cooling and air-conditioning installations that are necessary as a result of the desert climate of Dubai are described and the use of 'Armaflex' elastomer insulating material for the insulation of refrigeration machines and cold-water piping is discussed.

  19. De los derechos humanos al derecho al aborto

    OpenAIRE

    Zúñiga Fajuri, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Ninguna otra persona, en ninguna situación, es obligada a realizar el acto supererogatorio que se exige a la mujer embarazada. Aun cuando una adecuada aplicación de la teoría general de los derechos humanos permite reconocer el derecho al aborto durante los dos primeros trimestres del embarazo sobre la base de que los derechos sólo pueden restringirse por mor de los propios derechos. En esa línea, se intenta responder a quienes sostienen que el problema del aborto no puede resolverse pues no ...

  20. Friction Stir Welding of Al 5052 with Al 6061 Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kumbhar, N. T.; Bhanumurthy, K.

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW), a solid-state joining technique, is being extensively used in similar as well as dissimilar joining of Al, Mg, Cu, Ti, and their alloys. In the present study, friction stir welding of two aluminium alloys—AA6061 and AA5052—was carried out at various combinations of tool rotation speeds and tool traverse speeds. The transverse cross-section of the weld was used for optical as well as electron microscopy observations. The microstructural studies were used to get an ...

  1. Memahami Tasawuf Ibnuu Arabi dan Ibnuu al Farid: Konsep al Hubb Illahi, Wahdat al Wujud, Wahdah al Syuhud dan Wahdat al Adyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Robith Fuadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaum sufi menapaki jalan yang berbeda untuk menuju hakikat, mereka tidak menggunakan akal dan rasio untuk sampai pada hakikat. Akan tetapi, akal bukan satu-satunya jalan untuk menuju hakikat. Karena kita sering melihat sesuatu yang di luar jangkauan akal dalam hidup ini. Jalan yang ditempuh kaum sufi untuk menuju hakikat seperti kasyf, dzauq, 'iyan, musyahadah dan sebagainya dinilai sebagai sesuatu yang samar, tidak mempunyai batasan dan kaidah pasti, bahkan sering kali bercampur dengan igauan, mimpi, khayalan dan angan-angan. Tapi yang perlu kita ingat adalah bahwa media-media tersebut telah mampu menuntun manusia untuk memecahkan sesuatu yang tidak bisa dipecahkan oleh akal dan hukum-hukum fisika. Tulisan ini akan mengkaji gagasan-gagasan dua tokoh tasawuf besar yaitu Ibnu Arabi dan Ibnu al-Farid yang hidup  pada abad keenam dan ketujuh Hijriah. Tulisan ini secara spesifik akan mengkaji tiga gagasan penting ke dua tokoh tersebut. Yaitu al hubb al Ilahi, wahdat al Wujud dan wahdat al adyan.

  2. The Eminent Turkish Logician al-Abhari and "al-Risalah fî al-Kavâid al-Mantıqiyyah"

    OpenAIRE

    el-EBHERÎ, Esîrüddîn Mufaddal b. Ömer es-Semerkandî

    2014-01-01

    Athar al-Din al-Abhari is an important figure whose works had been textbooks in the Ottoman schools for centuries al-Abhari who wrote so many books in such areas as philosophy, mathematics, astronomy and logic is especially known for his books Hidayat al-Hikmat and İsaghuji He took logic into account in all of his works of philosophy. He also wrote some books and treatises specially concerning logical problems. Here, we are going to present the Turkish translation of his al-Risâlah fi al-Kava...

  3. United modification of Al-24Si alloy by Al-P and Al-Ti-C master alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩延峰; 刘相法; 王海梅; 王振卿; 边秀房; 张均艳

    2003-01-01

    The modification effect of a new type of Al-P master alloy on Al-24Si alloys was investigated. It is foundthat excellent modification effect can be obtained by the addition of this new type of A1-P master alloy into Al-24Simelt and the average primary Si grain size is decreased below 47 μm from original 225 μm. It is also found that theTiC particles in the melt coming from Al8Ti2C can improve the modification effect of the Al-P master alloy. Whenthe content of TiC particles in the Al-24Si melt is 0.03 %, the improvement reaches the maximum and keeps steadywith increasing content of TiC particles. Modification effect occurs at 50 min after the addition of the Al-P master al-loy and TiC particles, and keeps stable with prolonging holding time.

  4. The Al-Al3Ni Eutectic Reaction: Crystallography and Mechanism of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yangyang; Makhlouf, Makhlouf M.

    2015-09-01

    The characteristics of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic structure are examined with emphasis on its morphology and crystallography. Based on these examinations, the mechanism of formation of this technologically important eutectic is postulated. It is found that a thin shell of α-Al forms coherently around each Al3Ni fiber. The excellent thermal stability of the Al-Al3Ni eutectic may be attributed to the presence of this coherent layer.

  5. Reply to Pachai et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William J; Bex, Peter J

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral vision is fundamentally limited by the spacing between objects. When asked to report a target's identity, observers make erroneous reports that sometimes match the identity of a nearby distractor and sometimes match a combination of target and distractor features. The classification of these errors has previously been used to support competing 'substitution' [1] or 'averaging' [2] models of the phenomenon known as 'visual crowding'. We recently proposed a single model in which both classes of error occur because observers make their reports by sampling from a biologically-plausible population of weighted responses within a region of space around the target [3]. It is critical to note that there is no probabilistic substitution or averaging process in our model; instead, we argue that neither substitution nor averaging occur, but that these are misclassifications of the distribution of reports that emerge when a population response distribution is sampled. This is a fundamentally different way of thinking about crowding, and on this basis we claim to have provided a mechanism unifying categorically distinct perceptual errors. Our goal was not to model all crowding phenomena, such as the release from crowding when target and flanks differ in color or depth [4]. Pachai et al.[5] have suggested that our model is not unifying because it inaccurately predicts perceptual performance for a particular stimulus. Although we agree that our model does not predict their data, this specific demonstration overlooks the critical aspect of the model: perceptual reports are drawn from a weighted population code. We show that Pachai et al.'s [5] own data actually provide evidence for the population code we have described [3], and we suggest a biologically-plausible analysis of their stimuli that provides a computational basis for their 'grouping' account of crowding. PMID:27166690

  6. Al-Hadith Text Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al- Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al- Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF/IDF was used for term weighting, in which document weights for the selected terms are computed, to classify non-vocali...

  7. The ALS Gun Electronics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Gun Electronics system has been designed to accommodate gun with a custom made socket and high speed electronics circuit which is capable of producing single and multiple electron bunches with time jitters measured at better than 50 PS. The system generates the gated RF signal at ground level before sending it up to the 120 KV-biased gun deck via a fiber optic cable. The current pulse width as a function of grid bias, using an Eimac 8847A planar triode simulating an electron gun, was measured to show the relationship between the two parameters

  8. The ALS project: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Collier, Jack; Giesbrecht, Jared; Broten, Greg; MacKay, David; Erickson, David; Verret, Sean; Digney, Bruce

    2006-05-01

    In support of Canadian Forces transformation, Defence R&D Canada (DRDC) has established an ongoing program to develop machine intelligence for semi-autonomous vehicles and systems. Focussing on mine clearance and remote scouting for over a decade, DRDC Suffield has developed numerous UGVs controlled remotely over point-to-point radio links. Though this strategy removes personnel from potential danger, DRDC recognized that human factors and communications bandwidth limit teleoperation and that only networked, autonomous unmanned systems can conserve these valuable resources. This paper describes the outcome of the first autonomy project, Autonomous Land Systems (ALS), designed to demonstrate basic autonomous multivehicle land capabilities.

  9. Grainreifnementlimit of commercialpureAl inoculatedbyAl-Ti-C(B)masteralloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    En-zhao Wang; Xiang-fa Liu

    2015-01-01

    The grain reifnement limits of commercial pure Al inoculated by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys were studied, and the inlfuence of melting temperature on the grain reifning performance of these three master al oys was investigated using a high scope video microscope (HSVM), a ifeld-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), an electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X–ray diffraction (XRD) method. Results show that there is a grain reifnement limit of commercial pure Al reifned by these three master al oys; with the same addition level of 1.5% under the present experimental conditions, the grain reifnement limits (smal est average grain size) of commercial pure Al reifned by Al-5Ti-1B, Al-5Ti-0.25C and Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B master al oys are 50 µm, 80 µm and 80 µm, respectively. In addition, with an increase in the melting temperature of the pure Al, the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-1B and Al-5Ti-0.25C master al oys decreases, but the grain reifning performance of Al-5Ti-0.3C-0.2B changes little.

  10. Analisis Salasilah Tarekat Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i

    OpenAIRE

    ROHAIMI RASTAM; MOHD SYUKRI YEOH ABDULLAH; YUSRI MOHAMAD RAMLI

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the spiritual chain (silsilah tariqah) of Shaykh Shams al-Din al-Sumatra’i (alt. al-Sumatrani), Qadi al-Malik al-‘Adil (Prime Minister and Mufti) of Aceh during the reign of Sultan Iskandar Muda in 1607 to 1627. The study is primarily based on his manuscript of Mir’at al-Muhaqqiqin as well as Shaykh Abdul Haqq Muhaddith Dahlawi’s Zad al-Muttaqin. By mapping the lineage of all data available, this study features al-Sumatra’is spiritual chain that consist of Qadiriyyah, Sh...

  11. Formaline of alternatieven als ontsmettingsmiddel voor broedeieren

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerhof, R.; Dijk, D. van

    1997-01-01

    Formaline wordt algemeen gezien als een goed middel om broedeieren te ontsmetten. Toch geeft ontsmetting met middelen als ozon en waterstofperoxyde vaak een iets beter broedresultaat. Een eventuele verklaring hiervoor is momenteel nog niet te geven.

  12. Benefits for Military Veterans with ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters Certified Centers and Clinics Support Groups About ALS About Us Our Research In Your Community Advocate ... Veterans Resources for Military Veterans, Families & Survivors The ALS Association is working everyday to support people with ...

  13. Las facies Keuper al SW de la provincia de Soria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando, S.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the sedimentological analysis of the materials that correspond to the Keuper facies in the area situated between the Iberian Ranges and the Central System. Acording to the obtained data, two main aspects are emphasized: - During the Upper Triassic, a c1ear retreat of the roast line towards the East took place, since this area constituted the litoral zone during the sedimentation of the Rot and Muschelkalk. - Facies change lateraly from West to East as proximal alluvial Can sediments pass into facies interpreted as distal alluvial fans and continental sabkha environment.Se analizan, desde el punto de vista sedimentológico, unos materiales correspondientes a las facies Keuper entre la Cordillera Ibérica y el Sistema Central. Dos aspectos resaltan tras este análisis: - Desplazamiento de la línea de costa (que durante la sedimentación del Rot y del Muschelkalk estaba situada en esta zona hacia el Este. - Marcado cambio lateral de facies desde el Oeste hacia el Este, pasando de unas facies proximales-medias de abanico aluvial a unas facies distales y ambiente de sabkha continental.

  14. AlON-SiAlON复合材料的制备及特性%Preparation and properties of AlON-SiAlON composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    山下敬; 山口明良

    2003-01-01

    为提高AlON陶瓷材料的抗氧化性能,制备了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.在1750℃、0.5 MPa的N2气氛中,保温2 h烧成不同Al2O3/AlN/Si3N4配比的原料得到不同AlON/SiAl7O2N7比的复相材料.因为在烧结SiAl7O2N7的过程中,蒸发-凝聚的同时伴随着SiO气体的挥发,因此很难得到致密的AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料.研究了AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料在1300℃、空气中的抗氧化性能,同时作为比较,研究了相同条件下单相的AlON材料的抗氧化性能.结果表明,AlON-SiAl7O2N7复相材料显示了较之单相的AlON陶瓷材料更好的抗氧化性能,这是因为氧化过程中所形成的含玻璃相的表面氧化层抑制了氧的向内扩散所致.

  15. Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kok-Van Meer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Do paid work activities displace volunteering? A potential explanation from role overload theoryRecent changes in Dutch society might lead to a shortage of volunteers. On the one hand, the demand for volunteers is increasing: in the social welfare domain because of governmental austerity policies and in other domains such as sports because of the higher supervision intensity of activities. On the other hand, the supply of volunteers is likely to decrease as more and more women and older workers are active in the labor market, which reduces the time that is available for volunteering. Role overload theory would suggest that the increasing labor participation rate of certain categories of workers goes along with a decline of participation in voluntary work. The secondary data analysis shows that various role loads (work, care for children living at home are associated with differences in participation in voluntary work. However, while a higher number of contractual work hours and hours spent on work-related training are negatively associated with volunteer work, care for children living at home is positively associated with volunteering. These results provide only limited support for role overload theory.Betaalde arbeid als verdringer van vrijwilligerswerk? Overbelasting als mogelijke verklaringDe afgelopen jaren hebben zich enkele maatschappelijke veranderingen voorgedaan, die wellicht tot schaarste op de Nederlandse vrijwilligersmarkt zouden kunnen leiden. Enerzijds neemt de vraag naar vrijwilligers toe doordat subsidieregelingen versoberen (bijvoorbeeld in zorg en welzijn en de begeleidingsintensiteit in bepaalde organisaties stijgt (bijvoorbeeld in sport. Anderzijds neemt het aanbod van vrijwilligers af doordat vrouwen en ouderen meer en langer op de arbeidsmarkt actief zijn, waardoor minder tijd beschikbaar is voor vrijwilligerswerk. In dit artikel wordt aan de hand van de role overload theorie nagegaan of het al dan niet deelnemen aan

  16. Thermoluminescence properties of AlN ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkler, L.; Christensen, P.; Agersnap Larsen, N.; Berzina, B.

    The paper describes thermoluminescence (TL) properties of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics irradiated with ionising radiation. A high TL sensitivity of AlN:Y2O3 ceramics to radiation encouraged a study of the AlN ceramics for application as a dosimetric material. The paper presents experimental data on: glow...

  17. Electroplating Zn-Al Alloy Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The method of controlling separating anode and separating power source was used to perform orthogonal optimization for the parameters in electroplating Zn-Al alloy.The electroplating Zn-Al alloy technology was decided, in which the content of Al is about 12%-15%.

  18. The fabrication of 26Al targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Targets with up to 1.4x101626Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the 26Al nuclei via the reaction 26Mg(p, n)26Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described. (orig.)

  19. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  20. Topiramat als Phasenprophylaktikum - ein Fallbericht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letmaier M

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Topiramat ist ein neues Antiepileptikum mit einem breiten Wirkspektrum. Aktuelle klinische Studien geben Hinweise darauf, daß Topiramat stimmungsstabilisierende Eigenschaften besitzt und somit effizient in der Behandlung der bipolaren affektiven Störung sein könnte. Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Studienberichte, behandelten wir eine 41jährige, erstmals vor 10 Jahren erkrankte Patientin mit der Diagnose einer therapierefraktären, bipolaren affektiven Störung (Rapid-Cycling mit Topiramat. Im Rahmen ihrer Erkrankung wurde die Patientin insgesamt 12mal stationär aufgenommen und meist aufgrund von akuten manischen Episoden behandelt. Dabei kamen seit 1991 folgende Phasenprophylaktika zur Anwendung: Carbamazepin, Valproat und Lamotrigin ? zuletzt nur mit mäßigem Erfolg. Daraufhin wurde zu Beginn einer neuerlichen manischen Episode ambulant eine Therapie mit Topiramat begonnen. Acht Wochen nach Therapiestart kam die Patientin in stationäre Behandlung. Der Aufenthalt dauerte weniger als drei Wochen; Topiramat wurde von der Patientin gut vertragen. Infolge eines belastenden Lebensereignisses kam es unter kontinuierlicher Therapie mit Topiramat zu einer Destabilisierung des psychischen Zustandsbildes (manische Symptome. Durch eine ambulante Erhöhung der Topiramatdosis bei gleichzeitiger Gabe von Risperidon und Clonazepam konnte jedoch eine neuerliche manische Episode erstmals ambulant behandelt werden. Die Patientin erhält derzeit 200 mg Topiramat pro Tag und ist seit mehr als 20 Monaten nahezu beschwerdefrei.

  1. Systems Engineering Techniques for ALS Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, Luis F.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Jones, Harry; Levri, Julie A.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) Metric is the predominant tool for predicting the cost of ALS systems. Metric goals for the ALS Program are daunting, requiring a threefold increase in the ALS Metric by 2010. Confounding the problem, the rate new ALS technologies reach the maturity required for consideration in the ALS Metric and the rate at which new configurations are developed is slow, limiting the search space and potentially giving the perspective of a ALS technology, the ALS Metric may remain elusive. This paper is a sequel to a paper published in the proceedings of the 2003 ICES conference entitled, "Managing to the metric: an approach to optimizing life support costs." The conclusions of that paper state that the largest contributors to the ALS Metric should be targeted by ALS researchers and management for maximum metric reductions. Certainly, these areas potentially offer large potential benefits to future ALS missions; however, the ALS Metric is not the only decision-making tool available to the community. To facilitate decision-making within the ALS community a combination of metrics should be utilized, such as the Equivalent System Mass (ESM)-based ALS metric, but also those available through techniques such as life cycle costing and faithful consideration of the sensitivity of the assumed models and data. Often a lack of data is cited as the reason why these techniques are not considered for utilization. An existing database development effort within the ALS community, known as OPIS, may provide the opportunity to collect the necessary information to enable the proposed systems analyses. A review of these additional analysis techniques is provided, focusing on the data necessary to enable these. The discussion is concluded by proposing how the data may be utilized by analysts in the future.

  2. Polythermal cutting of Al-Si-YAl2 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given the out come of the research of the Al-Si-YAl2 system with studies of polythermal cutting. It was found out that the most cutting of Al-YSi2Al2, Al-YSiAl2, Al-Y5SiAl14, YSiAl2-YSi2Al2, Y5SiAl14-YSiAl2 and Y5SiAl14-YAl2, Si-YSiAl2 has the nature of quasibinary eutectics

  3. Progresses in analyzing 26Al with SMCAMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai Mini-Cyclotron based Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (SMCAMS) was especially designed for analyzing 14C. In order to accelerate and analyze 26Al the accelerated orbit and beam optics in injection system were calculated and harmonic number and acceleration turns was optimized. Preliminary experiment was carried out. In which a beam current of 1.15 x 10-9A for 27Al- and 0.038 CPS background for 26Al were measured. The limited sensitivity of 26Al/27Al is 5.25 x 10-12. (authors)

  4. Estrutura populacional e indicadores reprodutivos de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo e Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes: Scombridae no litoral ocidental maranhense - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1272 Population structure and reproductive index of Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo & Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes: Scombridae in western coast of Maranhão - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i4.1272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éder André Gubiani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a influência das condições gonadal e nutricional no comportamento reprodutivo de Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo e Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes, Scombridae do litoral ocidental do Maranhão, entre junho de 2001 e julho de 2002. Houve predomínio significativo de fêmeas, considerando-se o período total de amostragem. A relação peso-comprimento não diferiu significativamente entre os sexos quanto ao coeficiente de alometria. Os resultados encontrados por meio da análise da curva de maturação, baseada na variação mensal dos valores médios das relações gonadossomática e hepatossomática e do fator de condição, sugerem que o período reprodutivo da espécie ocorre entre março e junho. Observou-se que a maturação gonadal e a reprodução levaram a depleções no peso total e do fígado dos espécimes estudados. A análise da variação dos valores médios do índice de repleção revelou que os peixes exibem melhor condição alimentar antes e após o período reprodutivoThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal and nutritional index on the reproductive behavior of Scomberomorus brasiliensis Collette, Russo and Zavala-Camin, 1978 (Perciformes, Scombridae of the western coast of Maranhão, from June 2001 to July 2002. There was a significant dominance of females when considering the total experimental period. The length/weight relationship did not show a significant difference between the sexes in reference to the alometry coefficient. Analyses of the maturation curve, based on the monthly mean values variation of the gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic relation, and the condition factor, suggest that the reproductive period occurs from March to June. It was observed that the losses of body and liver weight occurred during the gonodal maturation and reproductive processes. The variation analysis of the repletion index mean values showed that the fishes

  5. AlON粉体的合成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al2O3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体。研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化。结果表明,当原料Al2O3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750℃,2h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上。

  6. Trato verbal paterno al adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Juan Carlos

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available

    En alguna ocasión se ha escuchado una palabra, que causa un sentimiento y a la vez un recuerdo, que lleva a evocar la adolescencia o la infancia, se recuerda quien la pronunciaba y en que ocasión la decía. Este es el poder que tiene una palabra y más aún si es dicha por el padre, puesto que este es la figura significativa que se lleva en la memoria. De aquí nace el interés de realizar un estudio, en donde se describe y analice la percepción y el sentimiento del adolescente, quien en esta etapa es vulnerable al cambio, ya que está buscando su propia identidad; que con el trato verbal paterno la encontrara sin ninguna dificultad o por el contrario nunca la encontrará.

     

  7. Orientation of Al3Ti platelets in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material manufactured by centrifugal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs) were manufactured by the centrifugal method with a commercial ingot of Al-5 mass% Ti master alloy. The alloy was melted at a liquid/solid coexisting temperature, at which Al3Ti remains as a solid, and then it was cast into a thick-walled ring. It was found that the Al-Al3Ti functionally graded material can be successfully fabricated by the centrifugal method. It was also found that the volume fraction of the Al3Ti can be increased by repetition of the centrifugal method. Since the shape of Al3Ti particles in a commercial alloy ingot is that of a platelet, the Al3Ti particles are arranged with their platelet planes nearly perpendicular to the radial direction. The orientation effects become stronger when the G number becomes larger. Although the final centrifugal casting was conducted under a very large centrifugal force for the specimen cast three times, the orientation effects were weaker than those in the specimen cast one time. From these observations, it is concluded that the origin of orientation of Al3Ti platelets can be attributed to the angular velocity gradient of the melt along the radial direction produced by the difference in the viscosity. (orig.)

  8. TEM characterization of Al-C-Cu-Al2O3 composites produced by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novel Al-based composites (Al-C-Cu-Al2O3) obtained by mechanical milling (MM), were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Analyses of composites were carried out in both, the as-milled and the as-sintered conditions. C nanoparticles were found in the as-milled condition and Al2O3 nanofibers were found in as-sintered products, as determined by EELS. C and Cu react with Al to crystallize in Al3C4 and Al2Cu structures, respectively

  9. MARTENSITIC TRANSFORMATION AND THERMAL STABILITY IN Cu-Al-Co AND Cu-Al-Zr ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Q. Ma; C.B. Jiang; H.B. Xu

    2003-01-01

    Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys were explored with Co or Zr additions in Cu-Al alloys for high temperature shape memory alloys. Samples were quenched after homogenized at 850℃ for 48h. It was found that both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr show AlCu3 martensitic phase at room temperature and exhibit martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 200℃, showing the potentials for developing as high temperature shape memory alloys. Thermal cycles were performed by DSC instrument on both Cu-Al-Co and Cu-Al-Zr alloys. The results show that Cu-Al-Co loses its martensitic transformation after five thermal cycles, and Cu-Al-Zr exhibits no martensitic transformation in the second thermal cycle.

  10. Influences of Al particles on the microstructure and property of electrodeposited Ni-Al composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Fei; Jiang, Chuanhai

    2014-02-01

    Ni-Al composite coatings with different contents of Al microparticles were prepared from a conventional Watt bath. The influences of Al particle loadings in the bath on the surface morphology, composition, texture, grain size, microstrain, residual stress and anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al composite coating were investigated. The friction coefficients of the coatings at 200 °C were also evaluated by a pin-on-disctribometer. The results showed that the surface morphology of the coatings changed from pyramid + colonied structure to colonied structure with increasing Al particle loadings. The (2 0 0) preferred orientation for pure Ni coating evolved to random orientation with increasing Al particle loadings. The grain size obtained the minimum value of 72.28 nm at Al particle loading of 100 g/L and the microstrain of the coating increased with increasing the Al particle loadings. The incorporation of Al particles decreased the residual stress of the electro-deposited coating and all the coatings deposited at different Al particle loadings possessed low residual stress. As the Al particle loading increased, the anti-corrosion of the Ni-Al coatings increased owing to the combined effect of increasing Al content in the coatings and the texture evolution from (2 0 0) plane to (1 1 1) plane. The wear result suggested that the increasing Al particle content did not improve the wear performance of the Ni-Al composite coatings.

  11. Efficiency droop in high-Al-content AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamulaitis, G.; Mickevicius, J.; Kazlauskas, K.; Zukauskas, A. [Institute of Applied Research and Department of Semiconductor Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9-III, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Shur, M.S. [Department of ECE and CIE, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States); Yang, J.; Gaska, R. [Sensor Electronic Technology Inc., 1195 Atlas Road, Columbia, SC 29209 (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Excitation power density dependence of photoluminescence (PL) efficiency is studied in the temperature range from 8 to 300 K for AlGaN multiple quantum well structures containing quantum wells of different width. PL efficiency droop is observed and dependence of the droop effect on the well width and lattice temperature is discussed. Photoluminescence band shape reveals strong carrier heating. It is shown that the heating effect has a substantial influence on the photoluminescence efficiency droop, especially at low lattice temperatures. Fitting of the temperature dependence of the PL band width with that obtained by the Monte Carlo simulation of carrier (exciton) hopping via localized states shows that (i) the potential fluctuations can be fairly accurately described using a double-scaled potential profile model, (ii) the localization becomes stronger in narrower quantum wells. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Al-Si/Al2O3 in situ composite prepared by displacement reaction of CuO/Al system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jing

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Al2O3 particle-reinforced ZL109 composite was prepared by in situ reaction between CuO and Al. The microstructure was observed by means of OM, SEM and TEM. The Al2O3 particles in sub-micron sizes distribute uniformly in the matrix, and the Cu displaced from the in situ reaction forms net-like alloy phases with other alloy elements. The hardness and the tensile strength of the composites at room temperature have a slight increase as compared to that of the matrix. However, the tensile strength at 350 ℃ has reached 90.23 MPa, or 16.92 MPa higher than that of the matrix. The mechanism of the reaction in the CuO/Al system was studied by using of differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermodynamic calculation. The reaction between CuO and Al involves two steps. First, CuO reacts with Al to form Cu2O and Al2O3 at the melting temperature of the matrix alloy, and second, Cu2O reacts with Al to form Cu and Al2O3 at a higher temperature. At ZL109 casting temperature of 750–780 ℃, the second step can also take place because of the effect of exothermic reaction of the first step.

  13. Fabrication of TiAl3 coating on TiAl-based alloy by Al electrodeposition from dimethylsulfone bath and subsequent annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Masao; Tajikara, Seiya; Hirato, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    TiAl3 coating was formed on TiAl alloy by Al electrodeposition from a dimethylsulfone (DMSO2) bath and subsequent annealing. Before the Al electrodeposition, anodic dissolution of TiAl substrate in the DMSO2 bath was conducted to remove the surface oxide layer of the TiAl substrate. By performing the Al electrodeposition immediately after the anodic dissolution, uniform Al films adherent to the TiAl substrate could be obtained. Annealing at 650–1000 °C yielded a single TiAl3 layer or two laye...

  14. Orientation relationship of eutectoid FeAl and FeAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherf, A.; Kauffmann, A.; Kauffmann-Weiss, S.; Scherer, T.; Li, X.; Stein, F.; Heilmaier, M.

    2016-01-01

    Fe–Al alloys in the aluminium range of 55–65 at.% exhibit a lamellar microstructure of B2-ordered FeAl and triclinic FeAl2, which is caused by a eutectoid decomposition of the high-temperature Fe5Al8 phase, the so-called ∊ phase. The orientation relationship of FeAl and FeAl2 has previously been studied by Bastin et al. [J. Cryst. Growth (1978 ▸), 43, 745] and Hirata et al. [Philos. Mag. Lett. (2008 ▸), 88, 491]. Since both results are based on different crystallographic data regarding FeAl2, the data are re-evaluated with respect to a recent re-determination of the FeAl2 phase provided by Chumak et al. [Acta Cryst. (2010 ▸), C66, i87]. It is found that both orientation relationships match subsequent to a rotation operation of 180° about a 〈112〉 crystallographic axis of FeAl or by applying the inversion symmetry of the FeAl2 crystal structure as suggested by the Chumak data set. Experimental evidence for the validity of the previously determined orientation relationships was found in as-cast fully lamellar material (random texture) as well as directionally solidified material (∼〈110〉FeAl || solidification direction) by means of orientation imaging microscopy and global texture measurements. In addition, a preferential interface between FeAl and FeAl2 was identified by means of trace analyses using cross sectioning with a focused ion beam. On the basis of these habit planes the orientation relationship between the two phases can be described by (01)FeAl || (114) and [111]FeAl || [10]. There is no evidence for twinning within FeAl lamellae or alternating orientations of FeAl lamellae. Based on the determined orientation and interface data, an atomistic model of the structure relationship of Fe5Al8, FeAl and FeAl2 in the vicinity of the eutectoid decomposition is derived. This model is analysed with respect to the strain which has to be accommodated at the interface of FeAl and FeAl2. PMID:27047304

  15. Electron channelling enhanced microanalysis on Ni-Al-Mn and Al-Mn-Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom location by channelling enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI) was performed for Ni-Al-Mn compounds and Al-Mn-Si quasicrystals. For Ni75Al25-xMnx (x=5,9) with the L12-type structure, an occupation fraction of Mn atoms at the Ni site was quantitatively determined using planar channelling conditions. The occupation fraction increases with the Mn concentration or by quenching the compound from high temperature. In quasicrystals of Al74Mn20Si6 and Al68Mn20Ru8Si4, axial channelling conditions were used to locate Si and Ru, respectively. It was shown that Si atoms occupy the Al site in Al74Mn20Si6 whereas Ru atoms occupy the site different from that of Al in Al68Mn20Ru8Si4. (author)

  16. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti2AlC-reinforced TiAl composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ti2AlC/TiAl composites were successfully in-situ synthesized by reaction hot pressing using Ti, Al, TiC and CNTs as starting materials. The results indicate that the as-sintered composites mainly consist of Ti2AlC and TiAl phases. The mechanical properties of the 23 wt.% Ti2AlC/TiAl composite exhibit the highest values, with a flexural strength and fracture toughness of 652.5 ± 76.8 MPa and 6.6 ± 0.5 MPa m1/2, respectively. The complex structure coupled with dispersed Ti2AlC micro-particulates is responsible for the enhancement in the strength. Toughening of the composite is mainly attributed to crack deflection, crack bridging, crack branching and pull-out of the Ti2AlC particles, as well as transgranular cracking.

  17. High pressure studies of UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 actinide compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ternary inter-metallic compounds, UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5, crystallize in a tetragonal ThMn12 type structure. In the as-cast samples a residual phase of FeAl (∼2%wt) was identified in the grain boundaries. The amount of the residual cubic phase of FeAl was determined by Rietveld analysis and reduced by the annealing process. UFe5Al7 and UFe7Al5 maintain the tetragonal symmetry as a function of pressure, while FeAl keeps the cubic structure as was determined by the Rietveld analysis. The volume-pressure curve calculated from the X-ray analysis gives V/V0=0.87 for UFe5Al7 at 26.0 GPa and 0.89 at 24.6 GPa for UFe7Al5. (author)

  18. Chemical mixing at "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süle, P.; Kaptás, D.; Bujdosó, L.; Horváth, Z. E.; Nakanishi, A.; Balogh, J.

    2015-10-01

    The chemical mixing at the "Al on Fe" and "Fe on Al" interfaces was studied by molecular dynamics simulations of the layer growth and by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The concentration distribution along the layer growth direction was calculated for different crystallographic orientations, and atomically sharp "Al on Fe" interfaces were found when Al grows over (001) and (110) oriented Fe layers. The Al/Fe(111) interface is also narrow as compared to the intermixing found at the "Fe on Al" interfaces for any orientation. Conversion electron Mössbauer measurements of trilayers—Al/57Fe/Al and Al/57Fe/Ag grown simultaneously over Si(111) substrate by vacuum evaporation—support the results of the molecular dynamics calculations.

  19. Fabrication of /sup 26/Al targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmann, L.; Baumeister, H.; Rolfs, C.

    1984-06-01

    Targets with up to 1.4x10/sup 16/ /sup 26/Al atoms have been fabricated. The artificial production of the /sup 26/Al nuclei via the reaction /sup 26/Mg(p, n)/sup 26/Al was carried out at the cyclotrons in Juelich and Muenchen. The experimental procedures in the fabrication of these targets as well as some test measurements are described.

  20. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking similarities to ALS. The cellular effects of the wobbler mutation, cellular transport defects, neurofilament aggregation, neuronal hyperexcitability and neuroinflammation closely resemble human ALS. Now,...

  1. A New Phase in ALS Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D

    2016-09-01

    In this issue of Structure, Conicella et al. (2016) present evidence that the low complexity C-terminal region of TDP-43 undergoes liquid-liquid phase separation. ALS-associated mutations alter this phase separation process, providing a possible mechanism for the pathology caused by these TDP-43 mutations. The work is strongly supportive of toxic loss of RNA processing function in ALS. PMID:27602988

  2. PRESENCIA DE Myxobolus sp. (Sporozoa: Cnidospora) EN BOCACHICO Prochilodus magdalenae DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE LORICA, CÓRDOBA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Adriana; Pitalúa, Nerger

    2002-01-01

    En capturas realizadas por los pescadores de la zona se registra por primera vez para el bocachico, la presencia del protozoo parasit Myxobolus sp. afectando los peces en áreas adyacentes al caño aguas prietas de la Ciénaga Grande de Lorica.

  3. Growth of CdTe: Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CdTe: AI films were grown by the close space vapor transport technique combined with free evaporation (CSVT-FE). The Aluminum (Al) evaporation was made by two kinds of sources: one made of graphite and the other of tantalum. The films were deposited on glass substrates. The Al source temperature was varied maintaining the CdTe source temperature fixed as well as the substrate temperature. The films were characterized by x-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDAX), x-ray diffraction and optical transmission. The results showed for the films grown with the graphite source for Al evaporation, the Al did not incorporate in the CdTe matrix, at least to the level of EDAX sensitivity; they maintained the same crystal structure and band gap. For the samples grown with the tantalum source, we were able to incorporate the Al. The x-ray diffraction patterns show that the films have a crystal structure that depends on Al concentration. They were cubic up to 2.16 at. % Al concentration; for 19.65 at. % we found a mixed phase; for Al concentration higher than 21 at. % the films were amorphous. For samples with cubic structure it was found that the lattice parameter decreases and the band gap increases with Al concentration. (Author)

  4. Genetics of Familial and Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-21

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis With Frontotemporal Dementia; Lou Gehrig's Disease; Motor Neuron Disease; Primary Lateral Sclerosis

  5. 关于w-al-CL空间%On w-al-CL Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽琼; 张云南

    2011-01-01

    给出w-al-CL空间的定义,比较几种CL性的关系,讨论w-al-CL空间的c0和与l1和的稳定性,并讨论C(K,X)空间的w-al-CL性.%Gives the definition of w-al-CL spaces, compare the relationship of some properties of CL, discusses the stability of c0 -sums and l1 -sums of w-al-CL spaces, and discusses the property of w-al-CL of C(K,X) spaces.

  6. Interfacial strength of Al/Al and Al/Zr/Du-10wt%Mo subject to different loading modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compact tension (CT) experiments were conducted with fixtures that allowed mode-I (tensile opening mode), mode-Il (shearing mode), and mixed-mode loading to measure the interfacial strength between HIP-clad Al and Al, and Al and Zr/DU-10wt%Mo. Specimens were made with the same HIP process used for making thin composite foils, but instead used 25 mm thick Al-6061 cladding that allowed specimens to be gripped without adhesives. Three configurations of specimens were tested: (1) Al/Al specimens with a pre-crack along the seam; (2) specimens containing both a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer and an Al/Al seam along part of the interface; and (3) specimens containing only a Zr/DU-10wt%Mo layer at the interface, but with a pre notch along part of the interface. Digital image correlation (DIC) was used to measure full-field deformations during the test. The results show that mode-I loaded interfaces exhibit the weakest strength and the widest scatter. The strength increases when more shearing component is introduced

  7. Untersuchung der Nitridierung V/Al-intermetallischer Phasen

    OpenAIRE

    Lewalter, Hartmut Berthold

    2004-01-01

    Schichten V/Al-Intermetallischer Phasen und Schichten aus V(Al) (Schichtdicken 150- 300 nm) wurden durch Interdiffusion von V/Al- und V5Al8/V-Mehrfachschichten bei 400-800°C im Vakuum bei 3 x 10-8 mbar hergestellt. Des Weiteren wurden V5Al8-Schichten durch Sputtern einer V5Al8-Legierung erzeugt. Die Gesamtstöchiometrie der Schichten lag zwischen Al0,86V0,14 und Al0,19V0,81. Als Substrat dienten einkristalline (012) Saphirwafer. Die V/Al-Intermetallischen Phasen und V(Al) wurden im RTP-System ...

  8. Response to Signorovitch et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, Jean-François; Debortoli, Nicolas; Hallet, Bernard; Van Doninck, Karine

    2016-08-22

    Signorovitch et al.[1] comment that an Oenothera-like meiosis [2] could produce a pattern similar to what we observed in our study of natural isolates of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga, which we attributed to horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) [3]. Indeed, our HGT hypothesis appears at first sight difficult to conciliate with their observation of a congruent pattern of allele sharing at four large loci possibly located on different chromosomes [4]. However, one might imagine conditions under which massive horizontal gene transfer between bdelloid individuals could produce such a pattern, notably if the individuals involved had previously lost most of their heterozygosity because of their exposure to frequent desiccation (which produces DNA double-strand breaks [5]). In the published A. vaga genome the loss of heterozygosity due to large-scale gene conversion events or break-induced replication covers only about 10% of the genome [6], but this percentage may be much higher in environmental isolates that often experience dessication. Besides, if an Oenothera-like mode of meiosis occurs in bdelloids frequently enough to be detected in a single sampling of 29 individuals (as in [4]), one would expect males and meiosis to be observed at least occasionally, and instances of congruent allele sharing across loci should turn up frequently in genetic surveys. This was not the case in [3]: among the 82 A. vaga individuals sequenced for four nuclear markers, no trio of individuals presented congruent patterns of shared sequences at different loci. For these reasons, and in the absence of any direct evidence for an Oenothera-like meiosis in bdelloids, we still consider inter-bdelloid HGTs a more parsimonious explanation for our results. PMID:27554651

  9. Atomic structure and oxygen deficiency of the ultrathin aluminium oxide barrier in Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lunjie; Tran, Dung Trung; Tai, Cheuk-Wai; Svensson, Gunnar; Olsson, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junctions are the building blocks of a wide range of superconducting quantum devices that are key elements for quantum computers, extremely sensitive magnetometers and radiation detectors. The properties of the junctions and the superconducting quantum devices are determined by the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. The nanoscale dimension and disordered nature of the barrier oxide have been challenges for the direct experimental investigation of the atomic structure of the tunnel barrier. Here we show that the miniaturized dimension of the barrier and the interfacial interaction between crystalline Al and amorphous AlOx give rise to oxygen deficiency at the metal/oxide interfaces. In the interior of the barrier, the oxide resembles the atomic structure of bulk aluminium oxide. Atomic defects such as oxygen vacancies at the interfaces can be the origin of the two-level systems and contribute to decoherence and noise in superconducting quantum circuits. PMID:27403611

  10. Band edge modulation and interband optical transition in AlN:MgAl-ON nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlN nanotubes (NTs) have many novel characteristics and great potential applications in electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. However, little is known about the influence of MgAl-ON co-doping effects on their optical properties. Here, we focus on investigating the electronic structures, clarify the interband optical transition mechanism and give a clear atomic picture for the important electron/hole localization centre in AlN:MgAl-ON NTs using the GGA-1/2 method. We find that the MgAl doping efficiency can be improved effectively due to ON doping in AlN NTs. The MgAl and ON form MgAl-ON defect complex easily along the AlN NT axis (C-axis). The MgAl-ON defect complex can result in a remarkable charge transfer around it and modify the valence band maximum and conduction band minimum significantly. Meanwhile, the MgAl-ON defect complex also forms the important exciton localization centre and effectively enhances the interband radiative recombination rate. Moreover, the light emission/absorption sensitively depends on its polarization. The parallel polarized light (E∥C) is much stronger than the perpendicular one (E⊥C). The MgAl-ON co-doping thus paves a new way for improving the performance of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices based on AlN NTs. (papers)

  11. The theory of the moon in the al-Zij al-Kamil fi-l-taalim of Ibn al-Ha'im

    OpenAIRE

    Puig i Tàrrech, Roser

    2000-01-01

    Al the beginning of Ihe thirteenth cenrury (60tH I 1204-1205) Abli Muhammad Abd al-Haqq al-Ghafiqi al-lshbiIi known as Ibn al-Ha'im composed his work entitled al-Zi] al-Kamil fi-l-Taalim in honour of the Caliph Abu Abd Allah Muhammad al-Nasir (who reigned from 1199- 1213). All we know of lbn al-Ha'im's live is that he came from Seville and that he appears to have worked in North Africa.

  12. Effect of Al coating conditions on laser weldability of Al coated steel sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung-Han LEE; Jong-Do KIM; Jin-Seok OH; Seo-Jeong PARK

    2009-01-01

    Al coated steel sheets with excellent heat resistance, thermal reflection, and corrosion resistance are widely used in various applications. The laser weldability of the Al coated steel sheet for full penetration welding was reported. The phenomenon caused by intermixed aluminum and behavior of aluminum in the weld were investigated. Al coated steel sheets that have various thickness and coating mass were prepared for laser welding. The effects of parameters such as welding conditions and Al coating conditions were investigated. Al content mixed in the weld after laser welding was evaluated, and then a correlation between the mixed Al and mechanical properties was investigated. The results show that the Al-rich zones which have Fe-Al intermetallic compounds are found in the weld. The intermetallic compounds cause the decreased strength of the weld.

  13. Studies on SiC(p) reinforced Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation on processing of Al-5.69wt% Ni eutectic with SiC particulate composites is reported. The intermetallic composites are prepared by elemental powder metallurgy route and sintered at two different temperatures, i.e., 600 degree C and 620 degree C. Results show that the metal matrix was Al-Al sub 3 Ni eutectic. The phase analysis by XRD identified the presence of Al sub 3 Ni and Al as dominant phases together with silicon and Al sub 4 C sub 3 phase as minor phases. The Al sub 4 C sub 3 and Si phases are formed during sintering due to SiC-Al interface reaction. SEM micrographs also reveal the formation of microvoid surrounding the SiC particle

  14. Diana Al-Hadid: Identity and Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungerberg, Tom; Smith, Anna; Borsh, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Diana Al-Hadid's sculptures reflect the many locations, cultures, histories, and mythologies that have shaped her as an artist. In large-scale works which have the appearance of architectural ruins, Al-Hadid employs imagery drawn from many diverse interests including science and technology, history, and literature. She also incorporates images and…

  15. Kus on al-Zarqawi? / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2005-01-01

    Suurbritannia nädalalehe Sunday Times andmetel on Iraagi tagaotsituim mässaja, terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda liitlane Abu-Musab al-Zarqawi pärast USA raketirünnakus haavatasaamist riigist põgenenud

  16. Als je vrienden hebt dan win je

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2010-01-01

    Als je wint, heb je vrienden’ is een Nederlandse klassieker van Herman Brood en Henny Vrienten. Hiermee werd de gevoelige snaar bloot gelegd dat pas als je hebt gewonnen je vrienden hebt. Rijen dik, echte vrienden. In de politiek werkt het andersom; je moet vrienden (stemmen) hebben, ve

  17. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar)

    OpenAIRE

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which want...

  18. High temperature creep behaviour of Al-rich Ti-Al alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sturm, D; Heilmaier, M; Saage, H [Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Institute for Materials and Joining Technology, PO Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Aguilar, J; Schmitz, G J; Drevermann, A [ACCESS e.V., Intzestrasse 5, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Palm, M; Stein, F; Engberding, N [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Kelm, K; Irsen, S, E-mail: daniel.sturm@ovgu.d [Stiftung caesar, Electron Microscopy, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Compared to Ti-rich {gamma}-TiAl-based alloys Al-rich Ti-Al alloys offer an additional reduction of in density and a better oxidation resistance which are both due to the increased Al content. Polycrystalline material was manufactured by centrifugal casting. Microstructural characterization was carried out employing light-optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy and XRD analyses. The high temperature creep of two binary alloys, namely Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} and Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} was comparatively assessed with compression tests at constant true stress in a temperature range between 1173 and 1323 K in air. The alloys were tested in the cast condition (containing various amounts of the metastable phases Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} and h-Al{sub 2}Ti) and after annealing at 1223 K for 200 h which produced (thermodynamically stable) lamellar {gamma}-TiAl + r-Al{sub 2}Ti microstructures. In general, already the as-cast alloys exhibit a reasonable creep resistance at 1173 K. Compared with Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40}, both, the as-cast and the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} alloy exhibit better creep resistance up to 1323 K which can be rationalized by the reduced lamella spacing. The assessment of creep tests conducted at identical stress levels and varying temperatures yielded apparent activation energies for creep of Q = 430 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 60}Ti{sub 40} alloy and of Q = 383 kJ/mol for the annealed Al{sub 62}Ti{sub 38} material. The latter coincides well with that of Al diffusion in {gamma}-TiAl, whereas the former can be rationalized by the instability of the microstructure containing metastable phases.

  19. Corrosion Studies of 2195 Al-Li Alloy and 2219 Al Alloy with Differing Surface Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danford, M. D.; Mendrek, M. J.

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion studies of 2195 Al-Li and 2219 Al alloys have been conducted using the scanning reference electrode technique (SRET) and the polarization resistance (PR) technique. The SRET was used to study corrosion mechanisms, while corrosion rate measurements were studied with the PR technique. Plates of Al203 blasted, soda blasted and conversion coated 2219 Al were coated with Deft primer and the corrosion rates studied with the EIS technique. Results from all of these studies are presented.

  20. Assessment of the al corner of the ternary Al-Fe-Si system

    OpenAIRE

    Eleno, Luiz; Vezelý, Josef; Sundman, Bo; Cieslar, Miroslav; Lacaze, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present work provides a review of the information available on the Al-rich corner of the Al-Fe-Si system as well as a CALPHAD type assessment making use of the COST 507 database as a starting point. The description of the intermetallic compounds has been modified to account for substitution of Al and Si in the ternary Al-Fe-Si system and to take new experimental information into account.

  1. The annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al metal and Al-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present experiment, we have investigated how defects and elements as additive play a role as trap site by observing the annealing behaviour of hydrogen implanted into Al and Al-Si alloy. It was found that hydrogen is trapped as molecules in grain boundaries of Si in Al. (author)

  2. Shadow evaporation of epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al tunnel junctions on sapphire utilizing an inorganic bilayer mask

    OpenAIRE

    Welander, Paul B.; Bolkhovsky, Vladimir; Weir, Terence J.; Gouker, Mark A.; Oliver, William D.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a new inorganic shadow mask that has been employed for the evaporation of all-epitaxial Al/Al2O3/Al superconducting tunnel junctions. Organic resists that are commonly used for shadow masks and other lift-off processes are not compatible with ultra-high vacuum deposition systems, and they can break down at even moderately elevated temperatures. The inorganic mask described herein does not suffer these same shortcomings. It was fabricated from a Ge/Nb bilayer, comprising ...

  3. Japanese version of the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire (ALS-FTD-Q-J).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Beeldman, Emma; Raaphorst, Joost; Izumi, Yuishin; Yoshino, Hiide; Masuda, Michihito; Atsuta, Naoki; Ito, Satoru; Adachi, Tadashi; Adachi, Yoshiki; Yokota, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Hanashima, Ritsuko; Ogino, Mieko; Ichikawa, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Kimura, Hideki; Shimizu, Toshio; Aiba, Ikuko; Yabe, Hayato; Kanba, Makoto; Kusumi, Kimiyoshi; Aoki, Tetsuya; Hiroe, Yu; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Nishiyama, Kazutoshi; Nomoto, Masahiro; Sobue, Gen; Nakashima, Kenji

    2016-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) share common clinical, genetic and neuropathological features. Some ALS patients have behavioral/personality changes, which could result in significant obstacles in the care provided by family members and caregivers. An easy screening tool would contribute greatly to the evaluation of these symptoms. We translated the ALS-FTD-Questionnaire, developed in the Netherlands, into Japanese (ALS-FTD-Q-J) and examined the clinimetric properties (internal consistency, construct and clinical validity). Patients with ALS and/or behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) were evaluated alongside healthy controls in this multicenter study. All ALS patients, regardless of bvFTD status, were further evaluated by the frontal behavioral inventory (FBI) and for frontal/executive function, cognition, anxiety/depression, and motor functions. Data from 146 subjects were analyzed: ALS (92), ALS-bvFTD (6), bvFTD (16), and healthy controls (32). The internal consistency of the ALS-FTD-Q-J was good (Cronbach α=0.92). The ALS-FTD-Q-J showed construct validity as it exhibited a high correlation with the FBI (r=0.79). However, correlations were moderate with anxiety/depression and low with cognitive scales, in contrast to the original report, i.e. a moderate correlation with cognition and a low correlation with anxiety/depression. The ALS-FTD-Q-J discriminated ALS patients from (ALS-)bvFTD patients and controls. Thus, the ALS-FTD-Q-J is useful for evaluating Japanese ALS/FTD patients. PMID:27423564

  4. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    OpenAIRE

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-...

  5. The influence of Al content on the Zener relaxation of Fe-Al alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al content on the Zener relaxation peak of annealed Fe-Al alloys has been investigated using a computer-controlled automatic inverted torsion pendulum through the method of free decay and forced vibration. It has been shown that alloys with medium Al contents show strong relaxation while lower or higher Al contents lead to relatively weak Zener relaxation peaks. The Zener relaxation in Fe-Al alloys originates from the next-nearest-neighbour atom pairs and their interaction rather than the nearest-neighbour atom pairs. The latter may not produce Zener relaxation because of the ordered structure, which suppresses Zener relaxation

  6. Magnetism in bcc Fe-Al alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M.E. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.; Yousif, A.A. [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Al-Khod (Oman). Dept. of Phys.

    1994-11-01

    The magnetic moment {mu}, hyperfine field B{sub hf} and isomer shift IS at the Fe site in bcc Fe-Al alloys were calculated from first principle. Contrary to the belief that Al atoms reside in the iron lattice as magnetic holes, it was found that the local magnetic moment of Fe is decreased when Al is at a nearest neighbour site (NN), while it increases if Al is at a next-nearest neighbour site (NNN). Consequently, the average {mu} per Fe atom was found to be, initially, independent of Al content. Assuming a linear dependence of {mu}{sub Fe} on the number of Al atoms at NN and NNN sites, we calculated the average {mu}, which was found to agree with experimental results of cold worked alloys for disordered Fe-Al alloy. On the other hand, antiferromagnetic coupling appears in the CsCl ordered structures. The average B{sub hf} was also calculated and compared to experimental data and the trends in the IS are considered. (orig.)

  7. Comparative study on interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructures with Al2O3, AlN, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jie-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Chen, Wei-Wei; Hou, Bin; Xie, Yong; Hao, Yue

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the interface and bulk charges in AlGaN/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) heterostructures with AlN, Al2O3, and Al2O3/AlN laminated dielectrics were studied. In situ plasma pretreatment resulted negligible interface trap states and voltage hysteresis. The fixed charge density at Al2O3/AlN (or Al2O3/barrier) interface was estimated to be 1.66 × 1013 cm-2 by using flat-band voltage shift, and the oxide bulk charge concentration was 2.86 × 1017 cm-3. The interface charge density at other interfaces were at the order of 1011 cm-2. Simulation results using the above charge density/concentration indicated that Al2O3/AlN interface fixed charges dominated the dielectric-related voltage shift in AlGaN/GaN MIS heterostructures, which caused a large voltage shift of -3 V with 10 nm Al2O3 thickness, while the flat-band voltage variety resulting from other types of charges was within 0.1 V.

  8. Ecologia da comunidade de metazoários parasitos da Maria-Luiza, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae do litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009 Community ecology of the metazoan parasites of Banded Croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Osteichthyes: Sciaenidae, from the coastal zone of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil- DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata da Silva Ribeiro

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram examinados 93 espécimes de Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, provenientes da Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W litoral do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. No período de setembro de 2001 até março de 2002, sendo necropsiados para estudo da sua comunidade de metazoários parasitos. Quinze espécies de parasitos foram coletadas. Paralonchurus brasiliensis é um novo registro de hospedeiro para 13 espécies de parasitos. Contracaecum sp. foi a espécie dominante, com os maiores índices de prevalência e abundância parasitária. Os componentes da comunidade parasitária de P. brasiliensis apresentaram o típico padrão de distribuição superdispersa. A abundância e a prevalência de Procamallanus (Spirocamallus pereirai apresentaram correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. A abundância de Contracaecum sp. apresentou correlação positiva com o comprimento total do hospedeiro. Um par de endoparasitos adultos (Aponurus laguncula - Procamallanus (S. pereirai apresentou covariação negativa e um par de estágios larvais de endoparasitos apresentou covariação positiva entres as abundâncias. Paralonchurus brasiliensis apresentou uma comunidade de metazoários parasitos composta de espécies generalistas, pouco ordenadas e com poucas evidências de associações interespecíficas. Este padrão está em concordância com os estudos realizados com comunidades parasitárias de siaenídeos da região neotropicalNinety-three specimens of banded croaker, Paralonchurus brasiliensis (Steindachner, 1875, collected from Pedra de Guaratiba (23º01’S, 43º38’W, coastal zone, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between September 2001 and March 2002, were necropsied to study their infracommunities of metazoan parasites. Fifteen species of metazoan parasites were collected. Paralonchurus brasiliensis is a new host record for 13 parasite species. The majority of fishes were parasitized by one or more metazoan

  9. Representações sobre dengue, seu vetor e ações de controle por moradores do município de São Sebastião, litoral Norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Social representations concerning dengue, dengue vectors, and control activities among residents of São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cavalcanti Lefèvre

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Buscou-se, neste trabalho, identificar conhecimentos da população sobre a dengue e biologia do vetor, a fim de propiciar, através desse conhecimento, o diálogo entre a lógica técnica e a leiga, para conseguir avanços concretos na participação e no controle social da dengue e do vetor. Foi realizada pesquisa em área infestada pelo Aedes aegypti, com transmissão de dengue, no Município de São Sebastião, litoral norte do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Foram feitas cem entrevistas, com cinco questões abertas, abordando aspectos de interesse para o tema do controle da dengue e do vetor. Utilizou-se, para análise, a técnica do Discurso do Sujeito Coletivo (DSC. Os discursos revelam que a população não está conseguindo discriminar adequadamente o tipo ou modalidade de coleção de água mais apropriada para a criação do mosquito e que desconhece a fase de ovo no desenvolvimento do vetor. Observou-se consciência inadequada da relação de vários elementos da biologia do vetor, bem como da necessária integração entre poder público e a população. Sugere-se que as atividades educativas adotem resultados desta pesquisa como insumo, visando ao incremento da eficiência e eficácia social das ações participativas de combate ao dengue e controle do vetor.This study sought to identify people's knowledge on dengue and its vector biology, aimed at promoting a communications channel between technical and lay reasoning in order to foster community involvement in dengue and dengue vector control activities. A survey was conducted in an Aedes aegypti-infested area with dengue transmission in São Sebastião on the northern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil. One hundred interviews were held, with five open questions on topics related to dengue and vector control. Collective Subject Discourse methodology was used in the analysis. People were not able to properly identify the kinds of accumulated water sources that serve as breeding

  10. Tracing Al Shabaab’s Decision to Cooperate with Al Qaeda in Somalia (2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlini Ilma Ghaisany Sjah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available 'Al Shabaab, a Somali insurgent with predominantly nationalistic causes (alongside transnational [global Jihad] and Islamic goals made the choice to fight on behalf of Al Qaeda in 2008. The decision to do so contrasted with Al Shabaab’s previous behaviour of actively denying cooperation and distancing itself from Al Qaeda. This study aims to uncover factors that contributed to Al Shabaab’s decision through the use of process-tracing. The results show that Al Shabaab’s declaration of cooperation with Al Qaeda in August 2008 was brought about by a series of events that traced back to four factors: public reactions to the implementation of a Salafi ideology, the shift to a radical leadership, Al Shabaab’s inability to maintain stability in areas under its control and its increasing attacks by Al Shabaab on the Somali public. Al Shabaab pursued cooperation with Al Qaeda after realizing that their nationalistic preference was no longer achievable in the near future.' ' '

  11. Optical characterization of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides for integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigler, Martin; Buh, Jože; Hoffmann, Marc P.; Kirste, Ronny; Bobea, Milena; Mita, Seiji; Gerhold, Michael D.; Collazo, Ramon; Sitar, Zlatko; Zgonik, Marko

    2015-04-01

    Dispersion of the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices of Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides is measured by multiple angle-of-incidence and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The polarity-controlled AlN layers are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on (0001)-sapphire substrates. Taking into consideration the different surface morphologies of the Al- and N-polar AlN waveguides, we propose two optical models to describe the measured ellipsometry data. The results indicate that there is no difference between the refractive indices of the AlN grown in opposite directions, which confirms the potential of the AlN lateral polar structures for use in nonlinear optical applications based on quasi phase matching.

  12. Oxidation of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doychak, J.; Nesbitt, J. A.; Noebe, R. D.; Bowman, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    The 1200 C and 1300 C isothermal and cyclic oxidation behavior of Al2O3 continuous fiber-reinforced/NiAl composites were studied. Oxidation resulted in formation of Al2O3 external scales in a similar manner as scales formed on monolithic NiAl. The isothermal oxidation of an Al2O3/NiAl composite resulted in oxidation of the matrix along the fiber/matrix interface near the fiber ends. This oxide acted as a wedge between the fiber and the matrix, and, under cyclic oxidation conditions, led to further oxidation along the fiber lengths and eventual cracking of the composite. The oxidation behavior of composites in which the Al2O3 fibers were sputter coated with nickel prior to processing was much more severe. This was attributed to open channels around the fibers which formed during processing, most likely as a result of the diffusion of the nickel coating into the matrix.

  13. A Rechargeable Al/S Battery with an Ionic-Liquid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tao; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xiwen; Hu, Junkai; Han, Fudong; Fan, Xiulin; Suo, Liumin; Pearse, Alex J; Lee, Sang Bok; Rubloff, Gary W; Gaskell, Karen J; Noked, Malachi; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-08-16

    Aluminum metal is a promising anode material for next generation rechargeable batteries owing to its abundance, potentially dendrite-free deposition, and high capacity. The rechargeable aluminum/sulfur (Al/S) battery is of great interest owing to its high energy density (1340 Wh kg(-1) ) and low cost. However, Al/S chemistry suffers poor reversibility owing to the difficulty of oxidizing AlSx . Herein, we demonstrate the first reversible Al/S battery in ionic-liquid electrolyte with an activated carbon cloth/sulfur composite cathode. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and microscopic results suggest that sulfur undergoes a solid-state conversion reaction in the electrolyte. Kinetics analysis identifies that the slow solid-state sulfur conversion reaction causes large voltage hysteresis and limits the energy efficiency of the system. PMID:27417442

  14. Magnetic properties and crystal structure of HoNiAl and UNiAl hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of hydrogenation on the magnetic properties and crystal structure of 4f and 5f intermetallics was studied on HoNiAlH2.0, UNiAlH2.3 and UNiAlD2.1. The incorporation of hydrogen into HoNiAl leads to a decrease of the magnetic ordering temperature from 13 to 6 K, while it increases from 19 K to values in the range 90-100 K in the UNiAl-H system. The crystal lattices of all compounds are anisotropically expanded. Moreover, the crystal symmetry is lowered to orthorhombic in HoNiAlH2.0, but remains hexagonal for UNiAlH(D)x. Three different deuterium positions were found for both compounds. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  15. AlON粉体的合成%Synthesis of AlON Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小军; 茹红强; 张宁; 孙有政

    2009-01-01

    以α-Al_2O_3和AlN为原料,利用高温固相反应在氮气气氛下常压合成了AlON粉体.研究了成分配比、合成温度、保温时间对合成AlON粉体含量的影响,并通过热分析测试了合成过程热流和质量的变化.结果表明,当原料Al_2O_3和AlN的质量比为81:18、合成工艺为1750 ℃, 2 h时,得到AlON相的含量达到95%以上.

  16. Adherencia al tratamiento en la esquizofrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Manrique, Olatz

    2015-01-01

    [Es]La adherencia al tratamiento es un problema real en los pacientes esquizofrénicos, que dificulta su inserción en la sociedad y puede ocasionarles graves repercusiones médicas. Por ello, el objetivo de esta revisión es valorar la eficacia de las intervenciones psicoeducacionales con la ayuda del personal sanitario y/o familiares, en la adherencia al tratamiento de los pacientes esquizofrénicos. Se realizó una revisión sistemática para dar respuesta al objetivo planteado, analizando las res...

  17. Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi (ALS) ja potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Korkeaniemi, Lotta; Kaakinen, Leena

    2009-01-01

    Saimme opinnäytetyömme toimeksiantona Hyvinkään sairaalan sisätautien vuodeosastolta. Tavoitteena oli luoda ALS potilaille potilasopas trakeostomiasta ja sen kanssa elämisestä. Oppaan tarkoituksena on auttaa ALS potilaita päättämään, kuinka pitkälle he haluavat viedä heidän hengitystukihoitonsa. Samalla hoitajat saavat tuki materiaalia, jonka avulla he voivat käydä läpi hengitystukihoitoja ja erityisesti trakeostomiaan liittyviä asioita. ALS eli amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi on tahdona...

  18. Suspected variables among Al Sufi stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffleit, D.

    In the tenth century Al Sufi compiled a catalogue of some 1100 stars. J.E. Gore, around 1900, wrote extensively on the magnitudes of these stars. On intercomparing them with a few other catalogues, Gore surmised that some 38 stars appeared to show secular variations. Here all the Al Sufi magnitudes have been compared with numerous additional sources, but smooth secular variations are not substantiated although some stars seem to have undergone comparatively sudden changes after about 1600. About 70 Al Sufi stars are now named or suscpected variable stars, but nearly all with amplitudes under 0.3 V.

  19. TAFSIR SEMANTIK TERHADAP SURAT AL-KAFIRUN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Muslimin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The problems about the reading of al-Qur’an is always interesting to be discussed, in which the use of Arabic includes sound or ‘nash’ is acrucial factor to understand the implicit meaning of the Arabic-written texts. Al-Qur’an discusses problem based on the society’s culture. Al-Kafirun discusses not only about the normative theology but more about sociological contexts in which it tends to show transparency, fight against fanaticism and regionalism. And all of the will bring to the first process of the making of the text meaning to the situational context that creates them.

  20. Linija za transport Al-polizdelkov

    OpenAIRE

    Capl, Žiga

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi je predstavljena linija za transport Al-polizdelkov, ki je sestavljena iz dveh verižnih transporterjev in dveh manipulatorjev. Omenjeni transporterji morajo transportirati Al-polizdelke od sprejemnega mesta do poti v stiskalnico. V okviru diplomskega dela smo opravili analizo obstoječega ogrodja z naklonom, linije za transport Al-polizdelkov in podali možne rešitve za novo učinkovitejšo izvedbo. Na podlagi tehnično-tehnoloških zahtev smo izbrali najprimernejšo rešitev i...

  1. Evaluation of gamma diversity of reef corals (Scleractinia in the Mexican Pacific Evaluación de la diversidad gama de corales arrecifales (Scleractinia en el Pacífico de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Reyes-Bonilla

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess gamma diversity of hermatypic corals, maximum likelihood methods (Chao, Jacknife and resampling (bootstrap were used over a database with 3 423 records of corals from 15 regions of the Mexican Pacific. Analysis were conducted for the species richness (34 species and for the 5 families reported. Results suggest that species richness might be underestimated up to 25% as well as for the families Pocilloporidae, Poritidae, and Agariciidae. On the other hand, richness observed for Siderastreidae and Fungiidae is not significantly different from expected. According to rare species distribution and historical records in the Mexican Pacific, it is expected that new records will come either from the Revillagigedo, southern region of the Baja California Peninsula or adjacent mainland (Sonora and Oaxaca coast. This kind of analysis is fundamental in order to optimize sampling efforts and to establish marine protected areas that protect known and potential species richness.Con el fin de evaluar el conocimiento de la diversidad regional de corales zooxantelados, se aplicaron métodos de máxima verosimilitud (chao, jacknife y remuestreo (bootstrap sobre una base de datos de 3 423 registros, ordenada en 15 áreas geográficas del Pacífico mexicano. Los análisis se hicieron para la riqueza específica total (34 especies y las 5 familias de corales conocidas y se contrastaron con los valores esperados, considerando todas las especies reportadas para el Pacífico oriental. La riqueza conocida de especies de corales zooxantelados posiblemente esté subestimada hasta en un 25%, al igual que en el caso de las familias Pocilloporidae, Poritidae y Agariciidae, mientras que para Siderastreidae y Fungiidae no hay diferencias entre los valores esperados y los observados. Considerando el área de distribución de las especies raras en el litoral oeste de México y el historial de registros, se sugiere que las próximas especies a encontrarse

  2. Characterization of AlInN/AlN/GaN Heterostructures with Different AlN Buffer Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çörekçi, S.; Dugan, S.; Öztürk, M. K.; Çetin, S. Ş.; Çakmak, M.; Özçelik, S.; Özbay, E.

    2016-07-01

    Two AlInN/AlN/GaN heterostructures with 280-nm- and 400-nm-thick AlN buffer grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL) and Hall-effect measurements. The symmetric (0002) plane with respect to the asymmetric (10bar{1}2) plane in the 280-nm-thick AlN buffer has a higher crystal quality, as opposed to the 400-nm-thick buffer. The thinner buffer improves the crystallinity of both (0002) and (10bar{1}2) planes in the GaN layers, it also provides a sizeable reduction in dislocation density of GaN. Furthermore, the lower buffer thickness leads to a good quality surface with an rms roughness of 0.30 nm and a dark spot density of 4.0 × 108 cm-2. The optical and transport properties of the AlInN/AlN/GaN structure with the relatively thin buffer are compatible with the enhancement in its structural quality, as verified by XRD and AFM results.

  3. Evolution of ConAl clusters and chemisorption of hydrogen on ConAl clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth behavior of ConAl (n = 1–15) and the chemisorptions of hydrogen on the ground state geometries have been studied using the density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The growth pattern for ConAl is Al-substituted Con+1 clusters, and it keeps the similar frameworks of the most stable Con+1 clusters except for n = 2, 3, and 6. The Al atom substitutes the surface atom of the Con+1 clusters for n ≤ 13. Starting from n = 14, the Al atom completely falls into the center of the Co-frame. The dissociation energy, the second-order energy differences, and the HOMO–LUMO gaps indicate that the magic numbers of the calculated ConAl clusters are 7, 9, and 13, corresponding to the high symmetrical structures. To my knowledge, this is the first time that a systematic study of chemisorption of hydrogen on cobalt aluminum clusters. The twofold bridge site is identified to be the most favorable chemisorptions site for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–6, 8, 10), and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 1–7), while threefold hollow site is preferred for one hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 7, 9, 11–15) and two hydrogen adsorption on ConAl (n = 8–10, 12–15) clusters. The ground state structure of two hydrogen adsorption on Co11Al is exceptional. In general, the binding energy of both H and 2H of ConAl (n = 1–12) is found to increase with the cluster size. And the result shows that large binding energies of the hydrogen atoms and large fragmentation energies for Co11AlH and Co12AlH make these species behaving like magic clusters.

  4. Wali Allah menurut al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi dan Ibnu Taimiyyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilik Mursito

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about wali presented in the early time on the hand of al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, which reaps number of responses from Muslim scholar because of his misleading. One of them is Ibn Taimiyyah. Al-Hakim and Ibn Taymiyyah have their own view about wali with several distinctions. In the definition of wali, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi used more general language than Ibn Taimiyyah, as well as characteristics, how to be wali, the classification, concept of karamah, and the concept of khatm al-awliya’. According to writer, al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi’s view about wali able to deepen our understanding about Sufism, meanwhile Ibn Taimiyyah’s view will led us to comprehend Sufism from modernist point of view. This paper conclude that: both of figures seen that wali of Allah are the servants submissive and obedient in running His command; according to al-Hakim al Tirmidzi, degree of wali can be reached purely from Allah’s bounty and the effort of servants themselves, while Ibn Taimiyyah seen that the degree could be reached in the way of faith and piety of the servant; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi seen that karamah is the most urgent for wali, while Ibn Taimiyyah did not; al-Hakim al-Tirmidzi utilized the quality of deeds to measure the best people and purity of heart to measure the best wali, while Ibn Taymiyyah utilized the quality of deeds as the assessment standard to measure best people and wali.

  5. In Situ Fabrication of AlN Coating by Reactive Plasma Spraying of Al/AlN Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shahien

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive plasma spraying is a promising technology for the in situ formation of aluminum nitride (AlN coatings. Recently, it became possible to fabricate cubic-AlN-(c-AlN based coatings through reactive plasma spraying of Al powder in an ambient atmosphere. However, it was difficult to fabricate a coating with high AlN content and suitable thickness due to the coalescence of the Al particles. In this study, the influence of using AlN additive (h-AlN to increase the AlN content of the coating and improve the reaction process was investigated. The simple mixing of Al and AlN powders was not suitable for fabricating AlN coatings through reactive plasma spraying. However, it was possible to prepare a homogenously mixed, agglomerated and dispersed Al/AlN mixture (which enabled in-flight interaction between the powder and the surrounding plasma by wet-mixing in a planetary mill. Increasing the AlN content in the mixture prevented coalescence and increased the nitride content gradually. Using 30 to 40 wt% AlN was sufficient to fabricate a thick (more than 200 µm AlN coating with high hardness (approximately 1000 Hv. The AlN additive prevented the coalescence of Al metal and enhanced post-deposition nitriding through N2 plasma irradiation by allowing the nitriding species in the plasma to impinge on a larger Al surface area. Using AlN as a feedstock additive was found to be a suitable method for fabricating AlN coatings by reactive plasma spraying. Moreover, the fabricated coatings consist of hexagonal (h-AlN, c-AlN (rock-salt and zinc-blend phases and certain oxides: aluminum oxynitride (Al5O6N, cubic sphalerite Al23O27N5 (ALON and Al2O3. The zinc-blend c-AlN and ALON phases were attributed to the transformation of the h-AlN feedstock during the reactive plasma spraying. Thus, the zinc-blend c-Al

  6. PEMBARUAN MASLA╩AH DALAM MAQĀ╤ID AL- SHARĪ‘AH: TELAAH HUMANISTIS TENTANG AL-KULLIYYĀT AL-KHAMSAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenuddin Mansyur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   In order to answer a variety of issues faced by human being in the current era, such as human rights abuses, social disintegration, and terrorism, the renewal of Islamic law in the level of theoretical and practical aspects is very urgent. This paper aims to examine one of the Islamic legal reform efforts, namely to build a more technical understanding of the concept of ma╣la╪ah contained in the maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, called the al-kulliyat al-khamsah. Therefore, the concept of ma╣la╪ah in ╪if╬ al-dīn is technically defined as al-╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (freedom of religion and schools; in ╪if╬ al-nafs as al-karamat al-insān (human being breeding; in ╪if╬ al-nasl as ╪if╬ al-usrah (wholeness and harmony of the family; in ╪if╬ al-māl as al-ta╨ammun al-insān (social solidarity , and in ╪if╬ al-‘aql as al-╪uqūq as al-tarbiyāt (increasing human resources quality.Abstrak: Demi menjawab aneka persoalan zaman yang dihadapi manusia era sekarang, seperti penyelewengan terhadap HAM, disintegrasi sosial, dan terorisme, maka pembaharuan hukum Islam dalam tataran teoretis dan praktis urgen dilakukan. Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji salah satu upaya pembaruan hukum Islam, yaitu membangun pemahaman yang lebih teknis terhadap konsep ma╣la╪ah yang terkandung dalam maqā╣īd sharī‘ah, yang disebut dengan al-kulliyāt al-khamsah. Oleh karena itu, konsep ma╣la╪ah dalam ╪if╬u al-dīn secara teknis dimaknai sebagai ╪urriyah al-i‘tiqād (kebebasan untuk beragama dan beraliran; dalam ╪if╬u al-nafs sebagai al-karāmāt al-insān (pemuliaan kemanusiaan; dalam ╪if╬u al-nasl sebagai ╪if╬u al-usrah (keutuhan dan keharmonisan keluarga; dalam ╪if╬u al-māl sebagai al-ta╨ammun al-insān (solidaritas sosial; dan dalam ╪if╬u al-‘aql sebagai al-╪uqūq al-tarbiyāt (peningkatan sumber daya manusia.

  7. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  8. Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158737.html Pesticides Linked to Raised Risk of ALS One toxin ... MONDAY, May 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exposure to pesticides and other chemicals may increase the risk for ...

  9. Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159627.html Stem Cells Deemed Safe for ALS Patients But further research needed to see if injections into spine would provide any benefit, researchers say To use the sharing features on ...

  10. ALS: Recent Developments from Genetics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, Martine; Dion, Patrick A; Rouleau, Guy A

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal disorder that is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons. Most cases appear to be sporadic, but 5-10 % of cases have a family history of the disease. High-throughput DNA sequencing and related genomic capture tools are methodological advances which have rapidly contributed to an acceleration in the discovery of genetic risk factors for both familial and sporadic ALS. It is interesting to note that as the number of ALS genes grows, many of the proteins they encode are in shared intracellular processes. This review will summarize some of the recent advances and gene discovery made in ALS. PMID:27113253

  11. Het Nederlandse bos als vorm van bodemgebruik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Boven, van B.

    1983-01-01

    Behandeling van de oppervlakte en verdeling van het bos en de veranderingen die hierin zijn opgetreden, met de bedrijfsgrootte-struktuur als belangrijke invalshoek daarbij; de rol van de overheid: doeleinden, instrumenten en effekten van het beleid

  12. In situ (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composite with novel reinforcement distributions fabricated by reaction hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •(Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al MMC with a novel network distribution was tailored. •Al3Zr and Al2O3np were in situ synthesized at 740 °C using the 2024Al–ZrO2 system. •The effect of sintering parameters on Al3Zr morphology was investigated. •Influence of Al3Zr morphology on tensile properties of the composite was studied. -- Abstract: In situ hybrid (Al3Zr + Al2O3np)/2024Al metal matrix composites with unique controlled reinforcement distributions were fabricated using low energy ball milling and reactive hot pressing. The reaction system between 2024Al and ZrO2 was studied using differential thermal analysis (DTA). In situ formed aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and zirconium tri-aluminide (Al3Zr) with varying morphology and sizes were produced under different fabricating conditions. Al3Zr with varying morphologies such as particle, plate and flakes were observed. With a total 10 vol.% of reinforcements, the composite containing a three-dimensional network of closely spaced in situ synthesized Al3Zr and Al2O3 particles had a YS of 175 MPa and a UTS of 261 MPa, effectively strengthening the 2024Al matrix. The effect of different sintering conditions on the microstructure and tensile properties of the composite was systematically investigated

  13. Hans Freudenthal als docent en collega

    OpenAIRE

    Verhulst, Ferdinand; Verhoef, Nellie

    2010-01-01

    Hans Freudenthal heeft een belangrijke invloed gehad op de ontwikkeling van het basiswiskundeonderwijs. Niet minder belangrijk was zijn activiteit als docent en onderzoeker gedurende tientallen jaren op het Mathematisch Instituut van de Universiteit Utrecht. Hoe waren toen zijn ideeën over onderwijs, hoe was hij als collega en hoe waren zijn colleges? Nellie Verhoef en Ferdinand Verhulst interviewden voormalige collega’s en studenten van Freudenthal.

  14. Effects of Al substitution on goethite formation

    OpenAIRE

    Premoli, Alessandra Maria; Melis, Pietro; Gessa, Carlo Emanuele; Deiana, Salvatore Andrea

    1984-01-01

    Goethites containing up to 32.7 mole % Al were synthesized and characterized through diffractometry, spectrometry, DSC and chemical techniques. Results indicate that crystal growth was favoured or hindered depending on the percentage of aluminum incorporated into the structure. Goethites to which 5-10 mole % Al were initially added crystallized best, as shown by the highest crystallite dimensions calculated from X-ray and Mössbauer analyses, and by the lowest surface areas values. Over suc...

  15. Anerkennung als Voraussetzung gesellschaftlicher und unternehmerischer Teilhabe

    OpenAIRE

    Eurich, Johannes; Brink, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Angesichts des neuen Phänomens der sozialen Exklusion wird soziale Gerechtigkeit nicht mehr nur über die Verteilung von Gütern hergestellt, vielmehr spielt auch die Ebene der Partizipation eine Rolle. Anerkennung ist eine Grundvoraussetzung für Partizipation. Die Verfasser diskutieren Fragen der Unternehmensethik auf der Dimension der Anerkennung. Sie votieren für ein normatives Stakeholder-Management als freiwillige Verpflichtung, das auch strategischen Anforderungen gerecht werden kann. Als...

  16. Information als Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz. Eine Begriffsanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Ingold, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Der Informationsbegriff als zentraler Gegenstand von Informationskompetenz wird in der bibliothekarischen Diskussion in der Regel nicht explizit thematisiert, sondern lässt sich aus Fachliteratur und Bibliothekspraxis nur implizit erschließen. Eine theoretische Beschäftigung mit dem Informationsbegriff ist jedoch unabdingbar, soll das Konzept "Informationskompetenz" auch außerhalb des bibliothekarischen Kontextes verständlich und nutzbar gemacht werden. Im vorliegenden Text, der sich als B...

  17. Plasma nitriding of Al 99.5

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H. -Y; Stock, H.-R.; Mayr, P.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminium nitride (AlN) is a very interesting ceramic because of its combination of properties such as high thermal stability, high hardness and an unusual combination of high thermal and low electrical conductivity. But it is very difficulty to obtain an AlN layer on the aluminium substrates by thermochemical nitriding process. Since a thin film of aluminium oxide existing on the surface of every aluminium substrate prevents the nitrogen atoms from diffusing into the aluminium lattice. Howev...

  18. Communication Support for People with ALS

    OpenAIRE

    David Beukelman; Susan Fager; Amy Nordness

    2011-01-01

    Almost all people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) experience a motor speech disorder, such as dysarthria, as the disease progresses. At some point, 80 to 9 5 % of people with ALS are unable to meet their daily communication needs using natural speech. Unfortunately, once intelligibility begins to decrease, speech performance often deteriorates so rapidly that there is little time to implement an appropriate augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention; therefore, app...

  19. Performance of the ALS injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors started commissioning the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring on January 11, 1993. The stored beam reached 60 mA on March 24, 1993 and 407 mA on April 9, 1993. The fast pace of storage ring commissioning can be attributed partially to the robust injection system. In this paper they describe the operating characteristics of the ALS injection system

  20. Del latín al rumano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montes Giraldo José Joaquín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Marius Sala, Del latín al rumano. Versión española de Valeria Neagu, París, Unión Latina - Bucarest, Univers enciclopedic, 2002. El texto se dirige al lector corriente, no especialista, y por eso el aparato técnico-bibliográfico no se presenta en el curso de la exposición.

  1. Next-generation sequencing of 28 ALS-related genes in a Japanese ALS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryoichi; Sone, Jun; Atsuta, Naoki; Tohnai, Genki; Watanabe, Hazuki; Yokoi, Daichi; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Katsuno, Masahisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Li, Yuanzhe; Izumi, Yuishin; Morita, Mitsuya; Taniguchi, Akira; Kano, Osamu; Oda, Masaya; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Abe, Koji; Aiba, Ikuko; Okamoto, Koichi; Mizoguchi, Kouichi; Hasegawa, Kazuko; Aoki, Masashi; Hattori, Nobutaka; Tsuji, Shoji; Nakashima, Kenji; Kaji, Ryuji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the frequency and contribution of variants of the 28 known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-related genes in Japanese ALS patients. We designed a multiplex, polymerase chain reaction-based primer panel to amplify the coding regions of the 28 ALS-related genes and sequenced DNA samples from 257 Japanese ALS patients using an Ion Torrent PGM sequencer. We also performed exome sequencing and identified variants of the 28 genes in an additional 251 ALS patients using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. We identified the known ALS pathogenic variants and predicted the functional properties of novel nonsynonymous variants in silico. These variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Known pathogenic variants were identified in 19 (48.7%) of the 39 familial ALS patients and 14 (3.0%) of the 469 sporadic ALS patients. Thirty-two sporadic ALS patients (6.8%) harbored 1 or 2 novel nonsynonymous variants of ALS-related genes that might be deleterious. This study reports the first extensive genetic screening of Japanese ALS patients. These findings are useful for developing genetic screening and counseling strategies for such patients. PMID:26742954

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation of solid Al from the melt by Al 3 Ti : Molecular dynamics simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Junsheng

    2010-10-27

    It has been known experimentally for some time that Al3 Ti is a powerful nucleant for the solidification of aluminum from the melt; however, a full microscopic understanding is still lacking. To develop this understanding, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of the nucleation and early stages of growth using published embedded atom method potentials for Al-Ti, but modified by us to stabilize the D 022 structure. We discover that Al3 Ti can indeed be very effective in promoting the growth of solid Al but the manner in which growth takes place depends sensitively on the surface on which the Al nucleates. In particular, complete growth of solid Al from the liquid on the (001) and (110) surfaces of Al3 Ti occurs at a lower temperature than on the (112) surface. This anisotropy agrees with observations in previous experiments. We explain this observation in terms of interfacial energies. On the preferential (111) surface of Al the solid-liquid interfacial energy is highest while the solid-vacuum energy is lowest. Our simulations also show that the extent of ordering taking place in liquid Al close to the Al 3 Ti substrate above the melting point correlates well with the effectiveness of the substrate as a nucleant below the melting temperature: this could provide a computationally efficient scheme to identify good nucleants. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  3. Al4C3 Hydration Thermochemical Analysis for Burned Carbon-containing Refractories with Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ding'ao; YU Zhiming; FAN Liuwu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, X-ray diffractogram analysis and SEM observation of Al4 C3 formed at high temperature from carbon-containing refractories with Al have been carried out.Aluminum added to carbon-containing refractories reacts with C(s)to form Al4 C3(s) gradually during heating from 600 ℃ to 1200℃.It is considered that the interlocked structure of Al4 C3 plate crystals promotes the outstanding increase of hot modulus of rupture of carbon-containing refractories with Al. The HMOR of carbon-containing refractories added with Al additive from 0 to 5wt% increases by 2.8 times being from 6.5MPa to 18.2MPa.After a thermochemical calculation for hydration reaction processes of Al4 C3 and H2O(g), the equilibrium partial pressure chart of H2O(g)in H2O-Al4C3-Al(OH)3 system vs various temperatures has been attained . The H2O (g) partial pressure in the air needed for the Al4 C3 hydration reaction is no more than 10~18 atm at the temperature below 120℃.It is considered that the burned carbon-containing refractories with Al is extremely easy to hydrate and the cracking of burned carbon-containing refractories is generated because that the hydration expansion is 2.11 times during transforming from Al4 C3 to Al(OH)3.The fundamental measure against hydration of the refractories is to insulate the refractories from H2O(g)by various means such as pitch impregnation or other sealing materials.

  4. DISTINGSI DAN DIASPORA TASAWUF ABÛ AL-HASAN AL-SHÂDHILÎ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saifulah Saifulah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses Shâdhilîyah, one of the most recognized sufi orders, which possesses quite distinct aspects in the conception of its mystical teachings. This sufi order was founded by Abû al-H}asan al-Shâdhilî, a sufi who has moderate and open view of the worldly life. Al-Shâdhilî explained about how a sufi should behave towards and deal with worldly matters. Although al-Shâdhilî asserted that a person who practice tasawwuf should not pay more adoration on the worldly matters (hubb al-dunyâ, the person does not have to abhor and leave such lively aspects as wealth and position behind. The most important thing to a sufi, according to al-Shadhili, is how he obeys the requirements of shar‘ by avoiding away from immoral deeds and at the same time recognizing God in his heart (ma‘rifat Allâh. Al-Shâdhilî initiated tasawuf ‘amalî which is affiliated to the Ahl al-Sunnah wa al-Jamâ‘ah school, an Islamic mystical thought that adheres to the principles of sharî‘ah based on the foundation of al-Qur’ân dan H}adîth. The concept of al-Shâdhilî’s tasawuf has been subsequently revealed into the great sufi order spectrum, namely al-Shâdhilîyah, where during its historical development this sufi order has led to the emergence of many branches with different names.Keywords: Shâdhilîyah, open view, hubb al-dunyâ, ma‘rifat Allâh.

  5. Clinical trials for neuroprotection in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, G; Carlesi, C; Pasquali, L; Piazza, S; Pietracupa, S; Fornai, F; Ruggieri, S; Murri, L

    2010-07-01

    Owing to uncertainty on the pathogenic mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) riluzole remains the only available therapy, with only marginal effects on disease survival. Here we review some of the recent advances in the search for disease-modifying drugs for ALS based on their putative neuroprotective effetcs. A number of more or less established agents have recently been investigated also in ALS for their potential role in neuroprotection and relying on antiglutamatergic, antioxidant or antiapoptotic strategies. Among them Talampanel, beta-lactam antibiotics, Coenzyme Q10, and minocycline have been investigated. Progress has also been made in exploiting growth factors for the treatment of ALS, partly due to advances in developing effective delivery systems to the central nervous system. A number of new therapies have also been identified, including a novel class of compounds, such as heat-shock protein co-inducers, which upregulate cell stress responses, and agents promoting autophagy and mitochondriogenesis, such as lithium and rapamycin. More recently, alterations of mRNA processing were described as a pathogenic mechanism in genetically defined forms of ALS, as those related to TDP-43 and FUS-TLS gene mutations. This knowledge is expected to improve our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanism in ALS and developing more effective therapies. PMID:20406180

  6. Disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON, Al10O3N8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disordered crystal structure of 20H-AlON (Al10O3N8) was determined by combined use of X-ray powder diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The title compound is hexagonal with space group P63/mmc (Z=2) and the unit-cell dimensions are a=0.307082(5) nm, c=5.29447(8) nm and V=0.432376(12) nm3. The structural model showed the positional disordering of three of the six Al sites in the unit cell. The reliability indices calculated from the Rietveld method were Rwp=6.97%, S (=Rwp/Re)=1.68, Rp=5.45%, RB=5.13% and RF=4.56%. We interpreted the disordered structure of 20H-AlON as a statistical average of six different types of ordered structural configurations, which are composed of an octahedral [Al(O, N)6] layer and tetrahedral [Al(O, N)4] layers. We demonstrated the high correlations between the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions and the octahedral layer concentrations for AlON and SiAlON polytypoids. - Graphical abstract: Variations of a and c/(nO+nT) with nO/(nO+nT). The a and c are the hexagonal unit-cell dimensions of AlON, SiAlON and AlN. The nO and nT are, respectively, the numbers of octahedral and tetrahedral layers in the unit cells. The unit-cell dimensions in literature are plotted in black plus for AlON and black cross for SiAlON. The unit-cell dimensions of AlN are a=0.3110 nm and c=0.4980 nm. - Highlights: • Crystal structure of Al10O3N8 is determined by laboratory X-ray powder diffraction. • The atom arrangements are represented by the split-atom model. • Six types of ordered atom arrangements are derived from the disordered structure. • Hexagonal unit-cell dimensions changed systematically for AlON and SiAlON compounds

  7. Prinsip Pendidikan Karakter dalam Islam: Studi Komparasi Pemikiran Al-Ghazali dan Burhanuddin Al-Zarnuji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Setiawan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The impelemtantion of character education that is done by the Indonesian government recently has been provoked by al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji long ago. It was proven by some written thoughts of al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They were very famous scientists in their era and widely welknown as educational experts who produced some phenomenal thoughts many people use today. Al-Ghazali and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji lived in the era of Bani Abbasiyah monarchy, but Both of them lived in different era. Al-Ghazali was born first, then Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji. They had different mazhab, al-Ghazali went to the traditional principle of mazhab Syafi’I and Burhanuddin al-Zarnuji went to the modern principle of mazhab Hanafi. The differences, of course, would create a different thought. Still, they might have a similar principle of Islamic character education. The thoughts of character education of al-Ghazali have been poured in the “Ayyuha Walad” focusing to the students’ character building characterized by religiously obedient, skillfull of general and religious knowledge, socially helpful, affectionate, generous, good citizen, and coloring the society. Some applicable thoughts of character education of Ayyuha al-Walad of al-Gazhali to the contemporary education are: the balance of the happiness purposes of the recent life and the life after death, qana’ah and tawakal, affectionate, caring other, patience, honesty, philanthrophy, social works, generousity, democratic, peace makers, and patriotic. Those characters are also directed in the islamic character education nowdays. So that, the thoughts of al-Ghazali positively and responsively are absorbed by the Indonesian government to build the national character widely implementing in the national curriculum based on the local wisdom and the Islamic values. In the end, the students are able to live happily based on the Islamic rules by implementing the good behavior. Similar to the al

  8. Morphology of phase separation in AlN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid solutions in the AIN-Al2OC and SiC-AlN systems were fabricated by hot-pressing powder mixtures in graphite dies. X-ray diffraction showed the samples to be single phases of 2H structure. The samples were annealed between 1600 degrees and 1900 degrees C for up to 1000 h. In the SiC-AlN system, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction failed to reveal microstructural or phase changes. However, electron microscopy showed that samples had decomposed. Streaking of diffraction spots occurred along directions orthogonal to [012] planes (∼43 degrees off the c axis), which is approximately the direction along which the elastic energy function is a minimum. The orientation-dependent Young's modulus was also a minimum along this direction. In AlN-Al2OC, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction indicated the occurrence of decomposition. The precipitates were disk-shaped with [001] orthogonal to the disks. The occurrence of decomposition along the [001] direction suggests that it is the elastically soft direction

  9. Nanocrack-induced leakage current in AlInN/AlN/GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we report on the study of nano-crack formation in Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures, on its association with composition fluctuation and on its local electrical properties. It is shown here that indium segregation at nano-cracks and threading dislocations originating from the non-pseudomorphic AlN interlayer could be the cause of the high reverse-bias gate leakage current of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on Al1−xInxN/AlN/GaN heterostructures and significantly affects the contact rectifying behavior. Segregation of indium around crack tips in Al1−xInxN acting as conductive paths was assessed with conductive atomic force microscopy.

  10. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiwen; Lu, Yanwu, E-mail: ywlu@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Ji, Dong [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States)

    2015-08-17

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 10{sup 3} cm{sup 2}/Vs to 10{sup 6} cm{sup 2}/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions.

  11. Scattering induced by Al segregation in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Al segregation near dislocations on the mobility of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN heterostructure-based high-electron-mobility transistors was investigated. Exponentially varied composition fluctuation was effective in describing Al segregation near dislocations when calculating scattering behavior. Mobility, which was limited by Al segregation surrounding dislocation lines, was calculated to be in the order of 103 cm2/Vs to 106 cm2/Vs. Results indicated that the mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunction was enhanced upon the reduction of dislocation density at low temperature. This study contributes to generating higher electron mobility in AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions

  12. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN//AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established. The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically, and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out. The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated, and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained. (authors)

  13. 60Co gamma radiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMT devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Ping; LUO Yin-Hong; WANG Wei; ZHANG Ke-Ying; GUO Hong-Xia; GUO Xiao-Qiang; WANG Yuan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    The testing techniques and experimental methods of the 60Co gamma irradiation effect on AlGaN/AlN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are established.The degradation of the electrical properties of the device under the actual radiation environment are analyzed theoretically,and studies of the total dose effects of gamma radiation on AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at three different radiation bias conditions are carried out.The degradation patterns of the main parameters of the AlGaN/AlN/GaN HEMTs at different doses are then investigated,and the device parameters that were sensitive to the gamma radiation induced damage and the total dose level induced device damage are obtained.

  14. Al-based precipitate evolution during high temperature annealing of Al implanted in Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-based precipitate evolution for 80 keV Al ions implanted in Si has been investigated. Precipitates are formed during high temperature annealings of 1 x 1015/cm2 implanted samples. They are located at two depths where Al concentration peaks are detected. Al atoms are gettered into the extended defects present in the crystal and/or precipitate when their concentration is higher than the solid solubility value at the annealing temperature. Increasing annealing time, precipitates dissolve out and only a small fraction of atoms diffuses into the sample, meanwhile the greater part evaporates from the sample. At 1 x 1013/cm2 dose Al concentration is below the solid solubility limit. The secondary defects are not detected and the dopant profile does not display anomalous peaks. Moreover, all the implanted Al is electrically active and remains in the sample during the first instant of annealing. At higher annealing times it diffuses out of the sample reducing the residual dose

  15. Microscopic Properties of Long-Period Ordering in Al-Rich TiAl Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, S.; Nakano, T.; Kuwano, N.; Itakura, M.; Matsumura, S.; Umakoshi, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The ordering mechanism of long-period superstructures (LPSs) in Al-rich TiAl alloys has been investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The LPSs are classified in terms of arrangements of base clusters with different shapes and compositions formed in Ti-rich (002) layers of L10-TiAl matrix: square Ti4Al, fat rhombus Ti3Al, and lean rhombus Ti2Al type clusters. The HRTEM observations revealed that antiphase boundaries of long-range-ordered LPS domains and short-range-ordered microdomains are constructed by various space-filling arrangements of the base clusters. Such a microscopic property characterized by the base clusters and their arrangements is markedly analogous to that of the {left< {{text{1,1/2,0}}} rightrangle } * special-point ordering alloys such as Ni-Mo.

  16. Observation of Electronic Shells and Characteristic Products from Mass Abundance Spectra of Al Cluster and Al-C Cluster Anions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bing-Chen; ZHAI Hua-Jin; ZHOU Ru-Fang; NI Guo-Quan; XU Zhi-Zhan

    2000-01-01

    Using a laser vaporization/pulsed molecular beam cluster source, Al cluster anions and Al-C mixed cluster anions are produced and recorded by a time of flight mass spectrometer. Mass abundance spectra of the Al cluster anions in the size range from Al2 to Al42 show that Al-13, Al23, Al35, and slightly, Al37 are local maxima, as predicted by the electronic jellium model. Mixed clusters Aln C- and Aln C2 are also shown, among which the most abundant species are Al3 C2 , Al6 C2 , Al7 C- and Al7 C2 in the small size range. The formation mechanism of these products is discussed.

  17. Grain refinement of hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared with ELTA by Al-4B master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-xing; MENG Xiang-yong; LIU Zhi-yong; LIU Zhong-xia; WENG Yong-gang; SONG Tian-fu; YANG Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic low-titanium aluminum (ELTA) was produced by adding TiO2 powder to an industrial aluminum electrolyzer.The grain refining effect of Al-4B master alloy in the hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy prepared by using ELTA was investigated, and compared with those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys in the similar alloy prepared by using pure Al. The results indicate that when Al-4B is added to the melt of the alloy prepared by using ELTA in terms of the Ti/B mass ratio of 5:1, the grain refining effect is better than those of Al-5Ti, Al-5Ti-1B and Al-4B master alloys. Thus, using Al-4B to refine the grain of Al-Si alloys prepared by using ELTA will possibly become a feasible way of obtaining Al-Si alloy with homogeneous and fine microstructure.

  18. In-Situ Synthesis of AlN Powders and Composite AlN Powders with Yttrium Addition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑新和; 王群; 林志浪; 李春国; 周美玲

    2002-01-01

    Using Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys as raw materials and nitrogen as gas reactants, AlN powders and composite AlN powders by in-situ synthesis method were prepared. AlN lumps prepared by the nitriding of Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Y alloys have porous microstructure, which is favorable for pulverization. They have high purity, containing 1.23%(mass fraction) oxygen impurity, and consisted of AlN single phase. The average particle size of AlN powders is 6.78 μm. Composite AlN powders consist of AlN phases and rare earth oxide Y2O3 phase. The distribution of particle size of AlN powders shows two peaks. In view of packing factor, AlN powders with such size distribution can easily be sintered to high density.

  19. Generation and evolution of nanoscale AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} particles in Al-Fe-P system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao, Huan; Gao, Tong; Zhu, Xiangzhen; Wu, Yuying; Qian, Zhao; Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Diffusion and gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. • Nanoscale AlP clusters are in-situ generated and evolve during the whole process. • This novel Al-Fe-P alloy has an excellent low-temperature refining performance on hypereutectic Al-Si alloy. - Abstract: In this paper, the gradual solid reactions between Al and Fe{sub x}P phases in Al-Fe-P alloy were investigated. The results show that the whole reaction process undergoes four main stages: the diffusion of Al atom, the generation of (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compound, the precipitation of nano AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} clusters and their growth to submicron particles. The microstructure of Fe-P particles evolves from the “egg-type”, the “sponge-type” to the “sesame-cake” structure. AlP and Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4} nano phases have in-situ generated and evolved during the whole process. The gradual reaction mechanism has been discussed. Furthermore, a novel Al-Fe-P alloy which contains (Al, Fe, P) intermediate compounds and nano AlP particles has been synthesized and its low-temperature refining performance on A390 alloy has also been investigated.

  20. TEM characterization of oxidized AlGaAs/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides

    OpenAIRE

    Guillotel, E; Langlois, C.; Ghiglieno, F.; Leo, G.; Ricolleau, C.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The internal interfaces of multilayer Al x Ga 1-x As/AlAs nonlinear optical waveguides are investigated by high-angle annular-dark-field and energy-filtered scanning transmission electron microscopy, before and after partial wet oxidation of AlAs layers. Via a simple phenomenological model, the corresponding roughness parameters allow predicting the scattering-induced waveguide optical losses, which are in reasonable agreement with the experimental value of 0.5 cm -1. We also find...

  1. Modified Mechanism of Eutectic Silicon in Al2O3/Al-Si Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Al2O3/Al-Si alloy composite was manufactured by squeeze casting. The morphology of the eutectic silicon in the composite was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), and the modified mechanism of eutectic silicon in the composite was approached. The alumina fiber in the composite can trigger twin during the growth of Al-Si eutectic and lead to the modification of eutectic silicon near the fiber.

  2. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  3. Effect of the interface in laminated composites of Al-1100 and Al-2024

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laminated composites consisting of alternating layers of Al-1100 and Al-2024 were produced by hot rolling, with 45% Al-2024 volume fraction. These composites were subjected to cyclic thermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (various numbers of cycles) and to isothermal treatment (at peak temperature and for times equivalent to those of the thermal cycles. Microhardness, tensile and fatigue crack arrester modes) were studied in the initial state and after treatments. (E.G.)

  4. Another Security Improvement over the Lin et al.'s E-voting Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaar, Maryam Rajabzadeh; Mohajeri, Javad; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud

    In 2003, Lin et al. have proposed an electronic voting scheme which can be utilized in large-scale elections, and claimed it detects double voting. But in this paper, by presenting an attack, we show that voters can successfully vote more than once without being detected. Hence, we propose a new modified scheme based on the Lin et al.'s scheme with the same efficiency to solve this weakness and analyze its security.

  5. Melt Processing and Characterization of Al-SiC Nanocomposite, Al, and Mg Foam Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M. Nabawy; Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil; Al-Ahmari, Abdulrahman M.; Sherif, El-Sayed M.

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, metallic foams of Al, Mg and an Al-SiC nanocomposite (MMNC) have been fabricated using a new manufacturing technique by employing melt infiltration assisted with an electromagnetic force. The aim of this investigation was to study and to develop a reliable manufacturing technique consisting of different types of metallic foams. In this technique, an electromagnetic force was used to assist the infiltration of Al-SiC slurry and of pure liquid metal into a leachable pattern...

  6. Fabrication, phase transformation studies, and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al2OC ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principal focus was on phase transformation, microstructure development, and elevated temperature creep, with some effort on room- temperature mechanical properties of selected materials. Fabrication was largely hot pressing, although many of the compositions can be densified by pressureless sintering; hot pressing was to ensure full attainment of density with fine microstructure. Most of the work was on SiC-AlN and AlN-Al2OC pseudobinaries

  7. Synthesis of core–shell AlOOH hollow nanospheres by reacting Al nanoparticles with water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozhkomoev, A. S.; Glazkova, E. A.; Bakina, O. V.; Lerner, M. I.; Gotman, I.; Gutmanas, E. Y.; Kazantsev, S. O.; Psakhie, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    A novel route for the synthesis of boehmite nanospheres with a hollow core and the shell composed of highly crumpled AlOOH nanosheets by oxidizing Al nanopowder in pure water under mild processing conditions is described. The stepwise events of Al transformation into boehmite are followed by monitoring the pH in the reaction medium. A mechanism of formation of hollow AlOOH nanospheres with a well-defined shape and crystallinity is proposed which includes the hydration of the Al oxide passivation layer, local corrosion of metallic Al accompanied by hydrogen evolution, the rupture of the protective layer, the dissolution of Al from the particle interior and the deposition of AlOOH nanosheets on the outer surface. In contrast to previously reported methods of boehmite nanoparticle synthesis, the proposed method is simple, and environmentally friendly and allows the generation of hydrogen gas as a by-product. Due to their high surface area and high, slit-shaped nanoporosity, the synthesized AlOOH nanostructures hold promise for the development of more effective catalysts, adsorbents, vaccines and drug carriers.

  8. Strain Rates and Grain Growth in Al 5754 and Al 6061 Friction Stir Spot Welds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlich, A.; Yamamoto, M.; North, T. H.

    2007-06-01

    The stir zone temperature and microstructures are compared in friction stir spot welds produced in Al 5754 and Al 6061 alloys. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to determine the relationship between tool rotation speed during welding and final stir zone grain size. Comparison of the grain sizes in rapidly quenched welds with those in air-cooled joints confirmed that grain growth occurred only in Al 6061 spot welds. There was no evidence of abnormal grain growth in the stir zones of Al 6061 welds; the final grain size could be represented using an Arrhenius equation. The strain rates during welding were determined by incorporating the stir zone temperature and average subgrain sizes in quenched spot welds in the Zener-Hollomon relation. When the tool rotation speed increased from 750 to 3000 RPM, the strain rate values ranged from 180 to 497 s-1 in Al 5754 spot welds and from 55 to 395 s-1 in Al 6061 spot welds. It is suggested that a no-slip boundary condition may be appropriate during numerical modeling of Al 5754 and 6061 friction stir spot welding. This is not the case during Al 7075, Al 2024, and Mg-alloy AZ91 spot welding because spontaneous melting facilitates slippage at the tool contact interface.

  9. Study on Mg/Al Weld Seam Based on Zn–Mg–Al Ternary Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Liu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the idea of alloying welding seams, a series of Zn–xAl filler metals was calculated and designed for joining Mg/Al dissimilar metals by gas tungsten arc (GTA welding. An infrared thermography system was used to measure the temperature of the welding pool during the welding process to investigate the solidification process. It was found that the mechanical properties of the welded joints were improved with the increasing of the Al content in the Zn–xAl filler metals, and when Zn–30Al was used as the filler metal, the ultimate tensile strength could reach a maximum of 120 MPa. The reason for the average tensile strength of the joint increasing was that the weak zone of the joint using Zn–30Al filler metal was generated primarily by α-Al instead of MgZn2. When Zn–40Al was used as the filler metal, a new transition zone, about 20 μm-wide, appeared in the edge of the fusion zone near the Mg base metal. Due to the transition zones consisting of MgZn2- and Al-based solid solution, the mechanical property of the joints was deteriorated.

  10. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshi, L. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Zenou, V. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Ezersky, V. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Munitz, A. [Nuclear Research Center-Negev, P.O. Box 9001, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Talianker, M. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)]. E-mail: mital@bgumail.bgu.ac.il

    2005-10-27

    A new ternary aluminide U{sub 2}FeAl{sub 20} with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m.

  11. Tetragonal phase in Al-rich region of U-Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new ternary aluminide U2FeAl20 with the approximate composition Al-4.2at% Fe-8.5at% U was observed in the Al-rich corner of the U-Al-Fe system. Transmission electron microscopy and electron microdiffraction technique were used for characterization of the structure of this phase. It has a tetragonal unit cell with the parameters a=12.4A and c=10.3A and can be described by the space group I4-bar 2m

  12. AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW Heterostructure for High-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrani, Ouarda; Aubert, Thierry; Elmazria, Omar; Bartasyte, Ausrine; Nicolay, Pascal; Talbi, Abdelkrim; Boulet, Pascal; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Mangin, Denis

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have evidenced that Pt/AlN/Sapphire surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are promising for high-temperature high-frequency applications. However, they cannot be used above 700°C in air atmosphere as the Pt interdigital transducers (IDTs) agglomerate and the AlN layer oxidizes in such conditions. In this paper, we explore the possibility to use an AlN protective overlayer to concurrently hinder these phenomena. To do so, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire heterostructures undergo successive annealing steps from 800°C to 1000°C in air atmosphere. The impact of each step on the morphology, microstructure, and phase composition of AlN and Pt films is evaluated using optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Finally, acoustical performance at room temperature of both protected and unprotected SAW devices are compared, as well as the effects of annealing on these performance. These investigations show that the use of an overlayer is one possible solution to strongly hinder the Pt IDTs agglomeration up to 1000°C. Moreover, AlN/IDT/AlN/Sapphire SAW heterostructures show promising performances in terms of stability up to 800°C. At higher temperatures, the oxidation of AlN is more intense and makes it inappropriate to be used as a protective layer. PMID:27076407

  13. Sintering Behavior of CNT Reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ball milling and spark plasma sintering were successfully used to produce carbon nanotube reinforced Al6061 and Al2124 nanocomposites which have potential applications in the fields of aerospace, automotive, electronics, and high precision instrumentation. Al2124 and Al6061 nanocomposite powders containing 0.5 to 2 wt.% CNTs prepared through sonication and wet ball milling were spark plasma sintered at 400, 450, and 500°C for 20 minutes under a pressure of 35 MPa. CNTs were better dispersed, ...

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al2O3/TiAl composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Tao-tao; WANG Fen; ZHU Jian-feng

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3/TiAl composites were fabricated by PAXD (pressure-assisted exothermic dispersion) method. The effects of Nb2O5 content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The results show that the ultimate phases of the composite consist of TiAl, Ti3Al, Al2O3 and a small amount of NbAl3. SEM reveals that a submicron γ+(α2/γ) dual phases structure can be presented after sintered at 1 200 ℃. Furthermore, with the increase of Nb2O5 content, the ratio of TiAl to Ti3Al phase decreases correspondingly, the grains of the composites are remarkably refined, and the produced Al2O3 particles are uniformly dispersed. When 6% Nb2O5 is added, the composite has the best comprehensive properties. It exhibits a Vickers hardness of 4.77 GPa and a bending strength of 642 MPa. Grain-refinement and dispersion-strengthening are the main strengthening mechanisms.

  15. Production of AlN-Si-Al Ceramic-Metal Composites via Pressurless Infiltration Method

    OpenAIRE

    KALEMTAŞ, Ayşe; ARSLAN, Gürsoy; KARA, Ferhat

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the production of light (∼2,9 g/cm3) and dense (> 99 %) AlN based ceramic metal composites was conducted by the pressureless melt infiltration method. These composites contain a high ceramic volume fraction (> 50 vol %) which is the result of the reaction between Si3N4 and Al in the Si3N4-Al system. The production of the ceramic-metal composites was achieved via infiltrating 2024 Al alloys at different temperatures and holding times into the porous pellets which were prepared us...

  16. Coating of a layer of Au on Al13 : The findings of icosahedral Al@Al12Au20- and Al12Au202- fullerenes using ab initio pseudopotential calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay

    2009-02-01

    We report results of ab initio pseudopotential calculations on the nanocoating of gold on an icosahedral Al13 cluster and the findings of icosahedrally symmetric endohedral Al@Al12Au20- and empty cage Al12Au202- compound fullerenes formed of metal atoms. Twelve Al atoms cap the pentagonal faces of a dodecahedral Au20 cage in which each Au atom has three Al atoms and three Au atoms as nearest neighbors. Mixing of Al13 and Au20 magic clusters leads to a large heat of formation of 0.55 eV/atom and high stability of the Al@Al12Au20 compound fullerene. The binding energies of Al12Au20 and Al@Al12Au20 are 3.017 and 3.007 eV/atom, respectively, which are much larger than 2.457 eV/atom for Au32 fullerene, leading to the possibility of their high abundance.

  17. Medición y análisis de la sostenibilidad: Indicadores sintéticos a través de métodos multicriterio y su relación con el turismo en el litoral de Andalucía

    OpenAIRE

    Thiel Ellul, Daniela Fernanda

    2014-01-01

    La sostenibilidad se presenta cada vez más como uno de los principales retos a alcanzar por los territorios. En el campo del turismo, la preocupación por este tema no ha sido una cuestión ajena. El turismo ha dejado de concebirse como una mera actividad económica; dado que es una actividad que se apoya y afecta al territorio -destino turístico- donde se implanta, cuenta también con importantes interrelaciones en sus dimensiones social y ambiental. Como consecuencia, sus efectos sobre el terri...

  18. Deletion of ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 increases adhesion of Candida albicans to human vascular endothelial and buccal epithelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Oh, Soon-Hwan; Hoyer, Lois L.

    2007-01-01

    C. albicans yeast forms deleted for ALS5, ALS6 or ALS7 are more adherent than a relevant control strain to human vascular endothelial cell monolayers and buccal epithelial cells. In the buccal and vaginal reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) disease models, however, mutant and control strains caused a similar degree of tissue destruction. Deletion of ALS5 or ALS6 significantly slowed growth of the mutant strain; this phenotype was not affected by addition of excess uridine to the culture medi...

  19. Melting Transition of Small Aluminium Clusters Al11-20

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei; ZHANG Feng-Shou; ZHU Zhi-Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Heat capacities of small aluminium clusters Al11-20 are investigated using MD simulation with empirical manybody Gupta potential. The heat capacities of some clusters Al11, Al12, Al13 and Al19 show well-defined peaks while the heat capacities of Al15-18 indicate a gradual melting transition. The spectra of isomers obtained by quenches along the MD trajectory give good interpretation for those results.

  20. Kerja Perspektif Al-Qur'an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Munir

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The moslem ethics of life is based on movement as ex­pressed in certain terms like al-sharī’ah, al-tarīqah, al-sirāt, al-sabīl and al-manhaj, that make sense of way and teachings to achieve good life. Islam obliges and gives appreciation of the achievements of Mus­lims. The Qur’an uses several terms to refer to such work; ‘charity, kasb, juhd, ibtighâ’, sa ’yu and su ’âl. From this concept, the Qur’an considers work as nob­le, while begging is despicable. Work means thankful to God for the potential He bestows. The Qur’an promotes work not only because it is the way to achieve the wealth, but also because it possesses the its sacred value for the benefit of fulfilling livelihood. Therefore the work should also be done based on ethical values .

  1. 26Al in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several different lines of physical reasoning have converged on the importance of the radioactive nucleus 26Al. The sciences of meteoritics, nucleosynthesis, gamma-ray astronomy, galactic chemical evolution, solar system formation, and interstellar chemistry all place this nucleus in a central position with possible profound implications. Perhaps more importantly the study of this radioactivity can unite these diverse fields in a complicated framework which will benefit all of them. This review traces the evolution of ideas concerning 26Al in the context of these disciplines. 26Al was first discussed for the possibility that its decay energy could melt meteorite parent bodies, and its daughter, 26Mg, was later found in meteorites with enhanced abundance. It was also among the first radioactivities expected to be synthesized in interestingly large quantities in nulceosynthetic events. The first definitive detection of gamma-rays from an interstellar radioactivity is that of 1.809 MeV gamma-rays from 26Al. This discovery has many implications, some of which are outlined here. The whole problem of isotopic anomalies in meteorites is greatly influenced by the specific issues surrounding excess 26Mg, whether it represents in situ decay of 26Al or memory of conditions of the ISM. The relationships among these ideas and their implications are examined. (orig.)

  2. Cd ion implantation in AlN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Cd ion implanted in AlN thin films. ► XRD shows damage produced during implantation. ► Annealing recovers damage in low fluence sample. ► RBS/C measurements show that Cd occupies substitutional sites. ► Cd can be a good candidate for p-type doping. - Abstract: AlN thin films were implanted with cadmium, to fluences of 1 × 1013 and 8 × 1014 at/cm2. The implanted samples were annealed at 950 °C under flowing nitrogen. Although implantation damage in AlN is known to be extremely stable the crystal could be fully recovered at low fluences. At high fluences the implantation damage was only partially removed. Implantation defects cause an expansion of the c-lattice parameter. For the high fluence sample the lattice site location of the ions was studied by Rutherford Backscattering/Channelling Spectrometry. Cd ions are found to be incorporated in substitutional Al sites in the crystal and no significant diffusion is seen upon thermal annealing. The observed high solubility limit and site stability are prerequisite for using Cd as p-type dopant in AlN.

  3. Survey and alignment at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes survey and alignment at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's Advanced Light Source (ALS) accelerators from 1993 to 1995. The ALS is a 1.0 - 1.9 GeV electron accelerator producing extremely bright synchrotron light in the UV and soft-X-ray wavelengths. At the ALS, electrons are accelerated in a LINAC to 50 MeV, injected into a booster ring for further acceleration and finally injected into the storage ring. This is shown schematically in Figure 1. The storage ring, some 200 m in circumference, has been run with electron currents above 400 mA with lifetimes as high as 24 hours. The ALS is a third generation light source and requires for efficient storage ring operation, magnets aligned to within 150 mm of their ideal position. To accomplish this a network of monuments was established and their positions measured with respect to one another. The data was reduced using GEONET'' and STAR*NET'' software. Using the monuments as reference points, magnet positions were measured and alignment confirmed using the Kem Electronic Coordinate Determination System (ECDS''). A number of other papers dealing with survey and alignment (S ampersand A) at the ALS have been written that may further elucidate some details of the methods and systems described in this paper

  4. Direct laser cooling Al+ ions optical clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, J; Luo, J; Lu, Z H

    2016-01-01

    Al$^+$ ions optical clock is a very promising optical frequency standard candidate due to its extremely small blackbody radiation shift. It has been successfully demonstrated with indirect cooled, quantum-logic-based spectroscopy technique. Its accuracy is limited by second-order Doppler shift, and its stability is limited by the number of ions that can be probed in quantum logic processing. We propose a direct laser cooling scheme of Al$^+$ ions optical clocks where both the stability and accuracy of the clocks are greatly improved. In the proposed scheme, two Al$^+$ ions traps are utilized. The first trap is used to trap a large number of Al$^+$ ions to improve the stability of the clock laser, while the second trap is used to trap a single Al$^+$ ions to provide the ultimate accuracy. Both traps are cooled with a continuous wave 167 nm laser. The expected clock laser stability can reach $9.0\\times10^{-17}/\\sqrt{\\tau}$. For the second trap, in addition to 167 nm laser Doppler cooling, a second stage pulsed ...

  5. Epistemologi Penafsiran Ilmiah al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujiat Zubaidi Saleh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in interpretating al-Qur’an is to explain the will of God and the operationalization of the will in the field of faith, laws, or ethics. At the phase of Islamic civilization, when the linguistic and philosophy science codified, raises the various method (manhaj, and interpretation streams (ittijahat, exegesis school (madzhab of al-Qur’an. In addition, also found in various shades of interpretation such as: fiqhi, kalami, balaghi, and isyari/ sufi, even philosophical. It was also discovered methods of tafsir ‘ilmi oriented to the utilization of the discovering science in order to prove the truth of scientific fact. The last pattern was ignited pro and contra among scholars and mufassir. As we know that alQur’an was not descended in the condition of cultural vacuum but it is a form of dialectics and the response to the condition and social situation, politic, and religion. This is relevant to the characteristics of al-Qur’an which can be applied throughout the periods. As we understood that interpretation is one of reflections of thought and civilization products. It always developed and influenced by the dynamics of human civilization, so in its development, science and al-Qur’an can be brought together in dialogue, although with some prerequisites specified interpretation.

  6. MOSQUE ARCHITECTURE AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IN URBAN (Case Study: Al Markas Al Islamic Mosque Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imriyanti Imriyanti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mosque Architecture is a part of Islamic architecture. Mosque should be fused with elements of nature because its function as a place to pray to God who created the universe. Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque is used as a center of Islamic aspirations of the people and the government to accommodate all the activities of moslems in Makassar. Through this function, the provision of Al Markas Al Islamic mosque began from the desire of Islamic societies in Makassar, which wants the Islamic center to be equipped with facilities and infrastructure as well as architectural, monumental buildings and structures that can be last for hundreds of years (continuous, blend with the environment, and also can be used by the public. Having regard to the function of a mosque especially at the Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar mosque, then the problem that arise is how the Al Markas Al Islamic mosque can be survived/sustainable  in order  to function  as a place  of worship  and  as a center  of Islam.  This research  is a descriptive qualitative research that is trying to generate data in the form of systematic and accurate picture of the object of study. The sustaiprophetlity  of Al Markas AL Islamic mosque can be known through the concept of Islam  in accordance with the view of Islam as well as the sustaiprophetlity of the buildings that seen in the spatial pattern of the mosque, appearance, natural lighting, natural ventilation, and user behavior of the mosque. Keywords: mosque architecture, sustaiprophetlity, view of Islam     Abstrak Arsitektur masjid merupakan bagian dari arsitektur Islam. Bangunan masjid sebaiknya dapat menyatu dengan unsur alam karena masjid difungsikan sebagai wadah dalam bersujud/sembahyang  kepada Allah SWT yang menciptakan alam semesta ini. Masjid Al Markas Al Islamic Makassar merupakan kompleks kegiatan Islam yang digunakan sebagai pusat aspirasi masyarakat  dan pemerintahan  yang dapat menampung

  7. Instability of TiC and TiAl3 compounds in Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys by addition of Al-Ti-C master alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy in refining Al-10Mg and A1-5Cu alloys was studied by using electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) analysis.The results indicate that there are obvious fading phenomena in both Al-10Mg and Al-5Cu alloys with the addition of Al-5Ti-0.4C refiner which contains TiC and TiAl3 compounds.Mg element has no influence on the stability of TiC and TiAl3, while TiC particles in Al-10Mg alloy react with Al to form Al4C3 particles, resulting in the refinement fading.However, TiC particles are relatively stable in Al-5Cu alloy, while TiAl3 phase reacts with Al2Cu to produce a new phase Ti(Al, Cu)2, which is responsible for the refinement fading in Al-5Cu alloy.These indicate that the refinement fading will not occur only when both the TiC particles and TiAl3 compound of Al-Ti-C refiner are stable in Al alloys.

  8. Study of corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate using scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The corrosion inhibition of coupled Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al by cerium cinnamate was studied. • SVET and SIET were used to study the distribution of current densities and pH. • The corrosion inhibition mechanisms were analyzed. - Abstract: The galvanic corrosion of the coupled Al2Cu and Al as well as Al3Fe and Al in 0.005 M NaCl in and without the presence of cerium cinnamate was studied. Scanning vibrating electrode technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique were used to measure the distribution of current densities and pH. The results indicate that cerium cinnamate played inhibiting effect on the coupling corrosion of Al2Cu–Al and Al3Fe–Al. For Al2Cu–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the production of cerium oxide/hydroxide on Al2Cu surface. However, for Al3Fe–Al, the inhibition was mainly influenced by the adsorbed cerium cinnamate on the Al3Fe surface

  9. MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution interaction: mathematical framework and phase separation of -Al2O3 at high temperature

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumen Pal; A K Bandyopadhyay; S Mukherjee; B N Samaddar; P G Pal

    2011-07-01

    Although existence of MgAl2O4–-Al2O3 solid solution has been reported in the past, the detailed interactions have not been explored completely. For the first time, we report here a mathematical framework for the detailed solid solution interactions of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4 (spinel). To investigate the solid solubility of -Al2O3 in MgAl2O4, Mg–Al spinel (MgO–Al2O3; = 1, 1.5, 3, 4.5 and an arbitrary high value 30) precursors have been heat treated at 1000°C. Presence of only non-stoichiometric MgAl2O4 phase up to = 4.5 at 1000°C indicates that alumina (as -Al2O3) present beyond stoichiometry gets completely accommodated in MgAl2O4 in the form of solid solution. → alumina phase transformation and its subsequent separation from MgAl2O4 has been observed in the Mg–Al spinel powders ( > 1) when the 1000°C heat treated materials are calcined at 1200°C. In the mathematical framework, unit cell of MgAl2O4 (Mg8Al16O32) has been considered for the solid solution interactions (substitution of Mg2+ ions by Al3+ ions) with -Al2O3. It is suggested that combination of unit cells of MgAl2O4 takes part in the interactions when > 5 (MgO–Al2O3).

  10. Al- Khwarizmi and axiomatic foundation of algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper intends to investigate the axiomatic foundations of algebra, as they were presented in the book of algebra of al-Khwarizmi (9 th century), and as they were developed in many subsequent Arabic works. The paper gives also a description of algebra evolution towards a discipline independent ofgeometry and arithmetic: the two disciplines whosemarriage had led to its birth.By an in depth reading of some details in the text of al Khwarizmi , we concluded that this mathematician intended to lay down the axiomatic foundations of that new discipline. His resort to arithmetical and geometrical means was a way of making his theory more accessible. He used them to justify the axioms: those that were not explicitly introduced per se, and those that were remained implicit. The paper also relies on some unedited writingsof al-Khwarizmi's successors, which could shedlight on the ways they used to consolidate the foundations of algebra and improve its methods. (author)

  11. Moessbauer studies on Al-Co ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy studies have been performed on the spinel CoAlxFe2-xO4 (.2≤x≤1.7) in the temperature range 77-750 K using either a liquid nitrogen bath cryostat or a furnace. The samples are magnetic at 77 K giving spectra that have magnetic sextets coexisting with a central line which increases in population with the Al-content indicating relaxation effects. The data shows that Al possesses no preference to either tetrahedral or octahedral sites of the ferrite over the whole range of concentration. The Moessbauer hyperfine interaction parameters and magnetic transition temperatures were determined. As expected the hyperfine field and Curie temperature decrease when the Al-content increases. (orig.)

  12. Magnetic Properties of NdAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, P.

    1974-01-01

    The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...... the crystal-field parameters derived from the magnetic exciton spectrum measured by Houmann et al. by means of inelastic neutron scattering. The combined lambda -Schottky anomaly in the heat capacity is explained. No additional parameters are introduced.......The magnetic properties of NdAl2 are calculated using a Hamiltonian including crystal-field and isotropic exchange interaction terms. A two-dimensional mean-field theory is evaluated to calculate single-crystal magnetization curves. It is shown that the magnetic properties can be understood using...

  13. Autologous Stem Cell Transplant for AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AL amyloidosis is caused by clonal plasma cells that produce immunoglobulin light chains which misfold and get deposited as amyloid fibrils. Therapy directed against the plasma cell clone leads to clinical benefit. Melphalan and corticosteroids have been the mainstay of treatment for a number of years and the recent availability of other effective agents (IMiDs and proteasome inhibitors has increased treatment options. Autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT has been used in the treatment of AL amyloidosis for many years. It is associated with high rates of hematologic response and improvement in organ function. However, transplant carries considerable risks. Careful patient selection is important to minimize transplant related morbidity and mortality and ensure optimal patient outcomes. As newer more affective therapies become available the role and timing of ASCT in the overall treatment strategy of AL amyloidosis will need to be continually reassessed.

  14. Thermal Properties of Al-50%Si Alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akio Nishimoto; Katsuya Akamatsu; Kazuyoshi Nakao; Kazuo Ichii

    2004-01-01

    In order to prepare a hypereutectic Al-Si alloy with low coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE), Al-50was produced by powder metallurgy (P/M) and ingot metallurgy (I/M). P/M specimen was prepared by mechanical alloying(MA) and pulsed electric-current sintering (PECS). The microstructures of specimens were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Vickers microhardness and CTE measurements were performed. The grains in the P/M specimen were refined with increasing MA time. Primary Si and eutectic Si in the I/M specimen were remarkably refined by adding minute amounts of Sr. The CTE of P/M and I/M specimens were estimated as 7.8×10-6 and 10.7×10-6, respectively. These values were as same as a CTE of Al2O3 ceramics.

  15. Kritik Terhadap Pemikiran Tasawuf Al-Raniri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syaifan Nur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : Al-Raniri is often positioned by some scholars as “superior” figure, which is contrasted to Hamzah Fansuri and Syamsuddin Sumaterani, and that is why they predicate him as one of pioneer of Islamic reformer in Malay- Indonesian archipelago. Anti-wujūdiyyah Sufism campaign by al-Raniri quite successful to some extent to amputate the rate of development of philosophical Sufism was brought by Fansuri and Sumaterani in the one hand, and strike off the nature of moral Sufism in the other, redeemed by bloodshed. This article discussed the “superiority” of al-Raniri’s thought of Sufism, viewed from a broader spectrum, either in relation to problems of faith or theology and politics surrounding the circumstance of his time.Keywords : Philosophical tasawuf, neo-sufism, panteism, tajalli, God’s attributeAbstrak : Al-Raniri oleh banyak kalangan seringkali diposisikan sebagai tokoh “superior” yang diperlawankan dengan Hamzah Fansuri dan Syamsuddin Sumaterani, dan itu sebabnya para ahli memberinya predikat sebagai seorang pelopor pembaru (mujaddid Islam di Nusantara. Anti tasawuf wujūdiyyah yang dikampanyekan oleh al-Raniri cukup berhasil mengamputasi laju perkembangan tasawuf falsafi yang dibawa oleh Fansuri dan Sumaterani di satu sisi, dan melancarkan laju corak tasawuf akhlaki di sisi lain, yang ditebus dengan cara pertumpahan darah. Tulisan ini mendiskusikan “superioritas” pemikiran tasawuf al-Raniri tersebut, dilihat dari spektrum yang lebih luas, baik menyangkut persoalan keyakinan atau teologi maupun politik yang mengitari situasi zamannya.Kata kunci : Tasawuf falsafi , neo-sufisme, panteisme, tajalli, sifat Tuhan

  16. Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti/Ti3Al Functionally Graded Materials under a Centrifugal Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimi Watanabe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs under the centrifugal force has recently attracted some attention. The controlled compositional gradient of the fabricated FGMs, the low cost of the process, and the good mold filling, are the main advantages of the centrifugal method (CM. Using the conventional CM techniques such as the centrifugal solid-particle method and centrifugal in-situ method, FGMs rings with gradually distributed properties could be achieved. As a more practical choice, the centrifugal mixed-powder method (CMPM was recently proposed to obtain FGMs containing nano-particles selectively dispersed in the outer surface of the fabricated parts. However, if a control of the particles morphology, compound formulas or sizes, is desired, another CM technique is favored. As a development of CMPM, our novel reaction centrifugal mixed-powder method (RCMPM has been presented. Using RCMPM, Al‑Al3Ti/Ti3Al FGMs with good surface properties and temperature controlled compositional gradient could be achieved. In this short review, this novel method will be discussed in detail and the effect of RCMPM processing temperature on the reinforcement particles morphology, size and distribution through the fabricated samples, will be reviewed.

  17. Total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A R Jivani; H J Trivedi; P J Gajjar; A R Jani

    2005-01-01

    Recently proposed model potential which combines both linear and quadratic types of interactions is employed for the investigation of some properties like the total energy, equation of state and bulk modulus of AlP, AlAs and AlSb semiconductor compounds using higher-order perturbation theory. The model potential parameter is determined using zero pressure condition. The ratio of the covalent bonding term E cov to the second-order term 2 is 6.77% to 11.85% which shows that contribution from higher order terms are important for zinc-blende-type crystals. The calculated numerical results of the total energy, energy band gap at Jones-zone face and bulk modulus of these compounds are in good agreement with the experimental data and found much better than other such theoretical findings. We have also studied pressure–volume relations of these compounds. The present study is carried out using six different screening functions along with latest screening function proposed by Sarkar et al. It is found from the present study that effect of exchange and correlation is clearly distinguishable.

  18. Diffusion AlSi-MeCrAlY coatings obtained on intermetallic γ-TiAl phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Góral

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of new protective coatings for TiAl intermetallics was conducted. The MeCrAlYAlSi slurry was used with different amount of aluminium-silicon powder in the binder.Design/methodology/approach: The slurry consisting of aluminium and silicon powder with the addition of MeCrAlY powder were used during the procedure. The inorganic solution made from chromic and phosphoric acid was applied as a binder. The preliminary research of microstructure of obtained coatings was conducted.Findings: The obtained coating consisting of 3 or 4 zones (depending on chemical composition of the slurry was obtained during the annealing process (950°C/4h.Research limitations/implications: The research results revealed the possibility of obtaining coatings with complex phase and chemical composition.Practical implications: Many problems connected with sedimentation of heavier MeCrAlY powder were observed.Originality/value: The copletele new technologies was described in article

  19. Melting, Processing, and Properties of Disordered Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C Based Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satya Prasad, V. V.; Khaple, Shivkumar; Baligidad, R. G.

    2014-09-01

    This article presents a part of the research work conducted in our laboratory to develop lightweight steels based on Fe-Al alloys containing 7 wt.% and 9 wt.% aluminum for construction of advanced lightweight ground transportation systems, such as automotive vehicles and heavy-haul truck, and for civil engineering construction, such as bridges, tunnels, and buildings. The melting and casting of sound, porosity-free ingots of Fe-Al-based alloys was accomplished by a newly developed cost-effective technique. The technique consists of using a special flux cover and proprietary charging schedule during air induction melting. These alloys were also produced using a vacuum induction melting (VIM) process for comparison purposes. The effect of aluminum (7 wt.% and 9 wt.%) on melting, processing, and properties of disordered solid solution Fe-Al alloys has been studied in detail. Fe-7 wt.% Al alloy could be produced using air induction melting with a flux cover with the properties comparable to the alloy produced through the VIM route. This material could be further processed through hot and cold working to produce sheets and thin foils. The cold-rolled and annealed sheet exhibited excellent room-temperature ductility. The role of carbon in Fe-7 wt.% Al alloys has also been examined. The results indicate that Fe-Al and Fe-Al-C alloys containing about 7 wt.% Al are potential lightweight steels.

  20. Adhesion of metal carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L. M.; Wang, S. Q.; Ye, H. Q.

    2003-12-01

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results.

  1. Adhesion of metal-carbide/nitride interfaces: Al/TiC and Al/TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We employ density functional theory to investigate and compare Al/TiC and Al/TiN interfaces by electronic structures, relaxed atomic geometries and adhesions. The results show that the preferred bonding site is the interfacial Al atoms above the ceramic's metalloid atoms for both systems. The calculated adhesion energies are quantitatively in agreement with other calculated and experimental results of Al on the carbide and nitride. A detailed comparison of the adhesion energies and relaxed structures shows weaker bonding and less relaxation in the Al/nitride case, which is correlated with the lower surface energy of the ceramic. We have thoroughly characterized the electronic structure and determined that the polar covalent Al3sp-C(N)2s bonds constitute the primary interfacial bonding interaction. The larger overlapping bonding states at the Al/TiC interface reveal the reason why it exhibits relatively larger adhesion energy. Cleavage may take place preferentially at the interface, especially for the Al/TiN, which is in agreement with experimental results

  2. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...

  3. Introducción al derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Collado Luis, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    Manual de la asignatura introducción al derecho. Nivel educativo: Grado El origen de este texto –materiales docentes- que lleva por título “Introducción al Derecho” ha sido escrito respondiendo a una estricta necesidad docente y por tanto necesariamente pedagógica. En efecto, era totalmente necesario que los alumnos, del Grado de Administración y Dirección de Empresas y otras titulaciones no jurídicas, contasen con un texto para facilitar el estudio de las principales categorías conceptual...

  4. Quadrupole scattering in PrAl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablik, M. J.; Pureur, P.; Creuzet, G.; Fert, A.; Levy, P. M.

    1983-10-01

    We derive the spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity of the ferromagnetic compound PrAl2 from magnetoresistance measurements on a single crystal of PrAl2. We ascribe this spontaneous anisotropy of the resistivity to scattering of the conduction electrons by the thermal quadrupole disorder and we account for our experimental results by using the theoretical model previously developed by us. We find that quadrupole scattering gives a very important contribution to the total magnetic disorder (spin and quadrupole) resistivity but that only a small part of this quadrupole contribution is anisotropic.

  5. Amyotrofisen lateraaliskleroosin (ALS) fysioterapia : Systemaattinen kirjallisuuskatsaus

    OpenAIRE

    Finne, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrofinen lateraaliskleroosi eli ALS on harvinainen motoneuronisairaus, jonka ominaispiirteenä on selkäytimen, aivorungon ja aivokuoren motoneuroneiden etenevä degeneraatio ja tuhoutuminen. Tähän parantumattomaan sairauteen sairastuu Suomessa vuosittain noin 120–150 henkilöä. Keskimääräinen sairastumisikä on noin 60 vuotta ja elinikä diagnoosin saamisen jälkeen on noin 3 - 5 vuotta. Fysioterapia on tärkeä osa ALS-potilaan hoitoa ja kuntoutusta. Fysioterapian vaikutut-tavuutta on tästä ...

  6. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    OpenAIRE

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-01-01

    Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transver...

  7. Recent research highlights from the ALS OML

    OpenAIRE

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2013-01-01

    The main mission of the Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) is to ensure state-of-the-art performance of beamline optics. New beamlines and instruments laid out in the ALS strategic plan as well as the plan for New Generation Light Source (NGLS) facility all involve increasingly complex optical systems that need ultra-high precision optics to achieve the specifications and goals of their state-of-the art research programs. In order to manufacture, measure, tu...

  8. The wobbler mouse, an ALS animal model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, Jakob Maximilian; Bigini, Paolo; Schmitt-John, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This review article is focused on the research progress made utilizing the wobbler mouse as animal model for human motor neuron diseases, especially the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The wobbler mouse develops progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons and shows striking...... disease mechanism and testing various therapeutic approaches and discuss the relevance of these advances for human ALS. The identification of the causative mutation linking the wobbler mutation to a vesicle transport factor and the research focussed on the cellular basis and the therapeutic treatment of...

  9. The ALS Storage Ring RF System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALS Storage Ring RF System is characterized by the use of the following features: (1) High power loading of two single cell cavities. (2) The use of a tubular ceramic input window employing aperture coupling. (3) The use of waveguide filters and matchers designed for HOM absorption. (4) A comprehensive HOM monitoring system. (5) The use of waveguide water-wedge loads for the magic tee and circulator loads. The results of cavity measurements and high power tests are reported together with the performance of the system during the commissioning and operation phases of the ALS project. Plans for future window development are discussed

  10. Al-Yawahir Al-Saniyya Fi Sarh-Al-Yarrumiyya, de Al-Ta c Alibi (s.VII-XIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bellachehab, Ahmed

    1994-01-01

    Edición critica, realizada sobre varios manuscritos, de una interesante fuente gramatical magrebi, del siglo VIII de la hégira XIV de nuestra era. Estudio sobre el autor, at-ta alibi, típico gramático tardío del norte de África, y estudio sobre su producción escrita, en general y en concreto sobre este al-yawahir al-saniyya que es un interesante comentario de la celebre yarrumiyya, comentario hasta hoy inédito que representa un hito en la tradición de estudios gramaticales del occidente islám...

  11. Metamagnetism in Ce(Ga,Al)2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K G Suresh; S Radha; A K Nigam

    2002-05-01

    Effect of Al substitution on the magnetic properties of Ce(Ga1-Al)2 ( = 0, 0.1 and 0.5) system has been studied. The magnetic state of CeGa2 is found to be FM with a C of 8 K, whereas the compounds with =0.1 and 0.5 are AFM and possess N of about 9 K. These two compounds undergo metamagnetic transition and the critical fields are about 1.2 T and 0.5 T, respectively at 2 K. These variations are explained on the basis of helical spin structure in these compounds.

  12. Periodistas: el acceso al mercado laboral

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza la situación profesional de los Licenciados en Periodismo en España. Para ello esta investigación sigue la lógica del proceso de acceso al mercado laboral, es decir, se estudia, en primer lugar, la oferta de egresados y las demandas del sector; a continuación, se analiza la forma en la que un titulado en la Licenciatura de Periodismo accede al mercado laboral y el tiempo que tarda en hacerlo; y por último, se examinan los medios de comunicación en lo...

  13. Surface phonon polariton characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S S; Lee, S C; Bakhori, S K Mohd; Hassan, Z; Abu Hassan, H; Yakovlev, V A; Novikova, N N; Vinogradov, E A

    2010-05-10

    Surface phonon polariton (SPP) characteristics of In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/AlN/Al(2)O(3) heterostructure are investigated by means of p-polarized infrared (IR) attenuated total reflection spectroscopy. Two absorption dips corresponding to In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N SPP modes are observed. In addition, two prominent dips and one relatively weak and broad dip corresponding to the Al(2)O(3) SPP mode, In(0.04)Al(0.06)Ga(0.90)N/Al(2)O(3) interface mode, and Al(2)O(3) bulk polariton mode, respectively, are clearly seen. No surface mode feature originating from the AlN layer is observed because it is too thin. Overall, the observations are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. PMID:20588890

  14. Microstructural defects modeling in the Al-Mo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we have utilized computer simulation techniques to study microstructural defects, such as point defects and interfaces, in the Al-Mo alloy. Such alloy is taken as a model to study the Al(fcc)/U-Mo(bcc) interface. The EAM interatomic potential used has been fitted to the formation energy and lattice constant of the AlMo3 intermetallic. Formation of vacancies for both components Al and Mo and anti-sites, AlMo and MoAl, as well as vacancy migration was studied in this structure. We found that the lowest energy defect complex that preserves stoichiometry is the antisite pair AlMo+MoAl, in correspondence with other intermetallics of the same structure. Our results also suggest that the structure of the Al(fcc)/Mo(bcc) interface is unstable, while that of the Al(fcc)/Al5Mo interface is stable, as observed experimentally. (author)

  15. Liquidus temperatures of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 melts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures for the primary crystallization of Na3AlF6-AlF3-CaF2-KF-LiF-Al2O3 system adopted in aluminum electrolysis process were determined by thermal analysis. An empirical equation was derived to describe the liquidus temperatures for the primary crystallization of this multicomponent electrolyte system: t/℃=1011 + 0.7w(AlF3 - 0.232w(AlF32 - 7.65w(Al2O3 + 0.523w(Al2O32 - 8.96w(LiF + 0.043w(LiF2 - 3.32w(KF - 0.12w(KF2 - 3.28w(CaF2 +0.037w(CaF22 + 0.091w(AlF3w(LiF + 0.074w(AlF3w(KF + 0.084w(AlF3w(CaF2 - 0.27w(Al2O3w(LiF, where w(AlF3 denotes the mass fraction of excess aluminum fluoride with respect to cryolite. While w(Al2O3 ranges from 2% to 4%, w(LiF, w(KF and w(CaF2 from 0 to 7%, and the molar ratio of NaF/AlF3 from 2.2 to 3.

  16. An impedance study of complex Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisova, J; Katkevics, J; Viksna, A [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Latvia, Kr. Valdemara Str. 48, Riga, LV-1013 (Latvia); Erts, D, E-mail: arturs.viksna@lu.lv [Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, Kronvalda blvd. 4, Riga, LV-1586 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to investigate different Cu deposition regimes on Al surface obtained by internal electrolysis and to characterize properties of fabricated electrodes. EIS experimental data confirmed that Cu deposition by internal electrolysis is realized and the complex electrode system is obtained. The main difficulty in preparation of Al/Cu electrodes is to prevent aluminium oxidation before and during electrochemical deposition of Cu particles. In this work NaCl, CH{sub 3}COONa, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, mono- and diammonium citrate electrolytes were examined to determine their suitability for impedance measurements. Al/Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrode composition was approved by equivalent circuit analysis, optical and scanning electron microscope methods. The most optimal Cu deposition mode using internal electrolysis was determined. The obtained results are promising for future electrochemical fabrication of nanostructures directly on Al surfaces by internal electrolysis.

  17. FABRICATION OF Al/Al2O3 FGM ROTATING DISC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sanuddin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method of fabricating a disc made of Al/Al2O3 functionally graded materials (FGM, using a powder metallurgy manufacturing process. The aim is to develop a processing method for a rotating disc made of FGM, by stacking the slurry, layer by layer in a radial direction. A three-layer functionally graded material of Al/Al2O3 is fabricated with compositions of 10, 20, 30 vol.% Al2O3. The ceramic composition increases from the discs inner (centre to the outer. The combination of these materials can offer the ability to withstand high temperature conditions whilst maintaining strength in extreme environments.

  18. In situ microscopy of rapidly heated nano-Al and nano-Al/WO3 thermites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kyle T.; Chiou, Wen-An; Fiore, Richard; Zachariah, Michael R.

    2010-09-01

    The initiation and reaction mechanism of nano-Al and nano-Al thermites in rapid heating environments is investigated in this work. A semiconductor-based grid/stage was used, capable of in situ heating of a sample from room temperature to 1473 K, and at a rate of 106 K/s, inside an electron microscope. Nano-Al was rapidly heated in a transmission electron microscope, and before and after images indicate that the aluminum migrates through the shell, consistent with a diffusion-based mechanism. A nano-Al/WO3 composite was then heated in a scanning electron microscope. The results indicate that a reactive sintering mechanism is occurring for the nano-Al/WO3 thermite, as the products are found to be in surface contact and significantly deformed after the heating pulse.

  19. Serious Flaws in Korf et al.'s Analysis on Time Complexity of A*

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hang

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the effect of a heuristic on the time complexity of the well-known A* search algorithm has been a subject of a large research body in AI. Among those researches is Korf et al.'s analysis (Korf & Reid, 1998; Korf et al., 2001; Korf, 2000a; Korf, 2000b), which concluded that the effect of a heuristic is to reduce the effective depth rather than effective branching factor. Since this conclusion conflicts with both previous analysis and recent analysis by other authors, we try to investigate the causes of such contradictions and finally find out that Korf et al.'s analysis has many serious flaws from which their main conclusion was drawn.

  20. Tensile deformation behavior of a sub-micrometer Al2O3/6061Al composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 0.3 μm Al2O3/6061Al composite with 33% volume fraction of Al2O3 was fabricated by the patented squeeze-casting technology. The tensile properties were studied, and the dynamic tensile deformation behavior was investigated by an in situ TEM tensile technique. The as-cast composite exhibits excellent tensile properties with a fracture strength of 504 MPa, and the strength increases to 579 MPa after a T6 treatment. The high strength is mainly attributed to the dispersion strengthening effect of the finer sub-micrometer Al2O3 particles. Dynamic transmission electron microscopy indicates that micro-cracks initiate and propagate mainly in the matrix. The Al2O3 particles can hinder the growth and deflect the cracks, but the resistance of the particles to crack propagation is small. The propagation stage is accordingly short, leading to the fracture of the composite

  1. Different magnetic behaviour of the Kondo compounds Al3Ce and Al11Ce3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron diffraction experiments on the Al3Ce and Al11Ce3 compounds have been performed on the multidetector of the I.L.L. high flux reactor. No magnetic structure has been detected on the Al3Ce compound down to 20 mK. This confirms the non magnetic ground state of Al3Ce. For Al11Ce3, two magnetic structures have been observed: a ferromagnetic one at 4.2 K and an antiferromagnetic one at 2 K. The antiferromagnetic structure, which corresponds to a propagation vector (0,0,1/3), implies a strong reduction of the magnetic moment of determined sites; this reflects the Kondo character of the compounds

  2. InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells: line widths, transition energies and segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Langbein, Wolfgang

    We investigate the optical properties of InAlCaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells pseudomorphically grown on GaAs using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The transition energies, measured with photoluminescence (PL), are modelled solving the Schrodinger equation, and taking into account segregation in the group...... III sublattice. From a fit to the transition energies, an empirical band gap relation for InAlGaAs is found, in the composition range relevant for growth on GaAs. The PL lines at low temperature (T = 10 K) are broadened due to random alloy fluctuations and an interface roughness of 1.1 monolayers....... Finally, the use of InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells for making strained T-shaped quantum wires is demonstrated. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Effect of stress on the Al composition evolution in AlGaN grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chenguang; Qin, Zhixin; Xu, Fujun; Zhang, Lisheng; Wang, Jiaming; Hou, Mengjun; Zhang, Shan; Wang, Xinqiang; Ge, Weikun; Shen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Two series of AlGaN samples with different stresses were designed to investigate the effect of stress on the Al composition. X-ray diffraction reciprocal space mapping (XRD RSM) demonstrated that the AlGaN epilayers with different stresses have large Al composition differences despite the same growth conditions. The largest Al composition difference reached up to 21.3%, which was also confirmed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). This result is attributed to a large stress discrepancy in the AlGaN epilayers. Finally, the dependences of the solid-phase Al composition on the gas-phase Al composition under different stresses were systematically analyzed.

  4. The constitution of alloys in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The constitution of alloys and the liquidus surface in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system were determined by the examination of controlled heated and cooled specimens, as well as heat-treated specimens by means of optical and scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction. The Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system comprises five regions of primary crystallisation (αAl, βSi, Al3Sm, Al2Si2Sm and AlSiSm) with following characteristic invariant reaction sequences: ternary eutectic reaction L → αAl + βSi + Al2Si2Sm, and two liquidus transition reactions, i. e., L + Al3Sm → αAl + AlSiSm, and L + AlSiSm → αAl + Al2Si2Sm. Along with the position of ternary eutectic and both interstitial points in the Al-rich corner of the Al-Si-Sm ternary system, the temperatures for each reaction were determined. (orig.)

  5. Microscopic phase field study of the antisite defect of Ni3 Al in binary Ni-Al alloys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The temporal evolution feature of a microscopic phase field model is utilized to study the antisite defects of L1 2-Ni 3 Al;this is quite different from other physicist’ interests.There are mainly two points in brief.Firstly,antisite defects Ni Al and Al Ni ,which are caused by the deviation from the stoichiometric Ni 3 Al,coexist in the Ni 3 Al phase.The surplus Ni atom in the Ni-rich side is prone to substitute Al thus producing the antisite defect Ni Al that maintains the stability of the L1 2 structure.In other case,the surplus Al atom in the Al-rich side is accommodated by a Ni sublattice consequently giving rise to antisite defect Al Ni .The calculated equilibrium occupancy probability of Ni Al is much higher than that of Al Ni .This point is generally in line with other theoretical and experimental works.Additionally,both Ni Al and Al Ni have a strong negative correlation to time step during the disorder-order transformation.Since the initial value of Ni Al and Al Ni on each site of the matrix is right at the concentration that we set,we can observe the decrease process of Ni Al and Al Ni from the initial disordered high anti-structure state to their respective equilibrium state,i.e.to the result of the ordering process further coarsening.

  6. The modulation structure induced changes in mechanical properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers which had different separate layer thickness of TiAlN or Al2O3 were synthesized by sputtering Ti3Al and Al2O3 targets with N2 and Ar gases. The influence of modulation periods and modulation ratios on structure and properties of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, surface profiler, and nanoindenter. Compared to TiAlN layer with only (2 0 0) preferred orientation, TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers were crystallized with orientations in the TiAlN (1 1 1), TiAlN (2 2 2) and AlN (1 0 0). Besides, weak Al2O3 (0 2 2) orientation is observed, when modulation period is 8.9 nm. The maximum hardness about 36.6 GPa was obtained at modulation period of 10.4 nm and modulation ratio of 10:1. The hardness and the toughness of TiAlN/Al2O3 multilayers increase as individual TiAlN layer thickness increases

  7. Wear characteristics of Al-AlN composites produced in-situ by nitrogenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S.; Jena, S. K.; Patnaik, S. C.; Swain, P. K.; Majhi, J.

    2015-02-01

    In the present scenario most of the parts used in automobile and aerospace industries are made of composites. Aluminium metal has a very high strength to weight ratio. Al-AlN metal matrix composites have excellent mechanical properties like good wear resistance, high hardness and high strength to weight ratio which are obtained from low density of aluminium and high hardness and wear resistance of AlN. Therefore, use of Al-AlN MMC leads to advantages in automobile industries as it reduces fuel consumption and gives better structural strength. The composites can be produced ex-situ by introducing AlN as reinforcement into the metal matrix and in- situ by nitrogenation process. In the present process Al-AlN composites were fabricated by treating molten aluminium with a mixture of CaO and NH4Cl and held at temperature range at 750-930°C and then cast into a metal mould. Addition of CaO to NH4Cl is found to have a more pronounced effect as a nitrogenation agent in comparison with NH4Cl in the molten aluminium in the temperature range of 700- 1000°C. Castings of aluminium and Al-AlN composites were prepared by mixing different ratios of aluminium and NH4Cl, at different casting temperatures and holding time. Wear resistance and hardness of the samples were determined, and microstructure studies were carried out. The composite formed using higher amount of NH4Cl had higher hardness and wear resistance.

  8. AlON的合成工艺%Synthesis technology of AlON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王习东; 李文超

    2001-01-01

    分析了合成AlON的各种方法。 用模式识别结 合神经网络对碳热还原氮化合成AlON工艺 进行了优化, 利用模式逆映射得到了理想的合成工艺参数。 对AlON体系进行了热力学初步 分析, 计算了温度为2  073  K时合成AlON的热力学参数状态图。 根据热力学参数状态图所确定的条件, 热压合成了AlON陶瓷。 对所合成的AlON试样进行了 X 射线衍射标定及部分物理性能的测定。 其密度为3.63  g/cm3, 约为其理论 密度的97.8%。%The synthesis technolog y of AlON ceramics was investigated. The program o f pattern recognition was used to optimize the parameters of AlON synthesi s process, and the proper parameters were obtained by inverse projection. The th ermodynamic properties of AlON were preliminary analyzed and estimate d, phase stability diagrams at 2  073  K were calculated. A lON ceramics was synthesized by hot-press sintering under the conditions given by phase stability diagram. The density of AlON is 3.63  g/cm3, about 97.8% of its th eoretic d ensity.

  9. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-xiao; Wang, Gui-xian; Liu, Jing-shun; Zhang, Lun-yong; Wang, Wei; Li, Ze; Wang, Qi-xiang; Sun, Jian-fei

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50 μm. The morphology of the Ni-Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni-Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 particles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni-Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermetallic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 precipitates and a Ni-Al-O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  10. Study of the 27Al(n,2,)26Al reaction via accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation function for the 27Al(n,2n)26Al reaction is expected to show a strongly non-linear behavior in the neutron-energy region around 14 MeV, the neutron energy in D-T plasmas; thus the production rate of 26Al (t1/2=7.2*105 a) in D-T fusion environments can in principle be used to measure the temperature of such plasmas. Existing measurements, however, are strongly discordant. Therefore, a new accurate measurement of the 27Al(n,2n)26Al cross sections in the near threshold region (En=13.5-14.8 MeV) was performed with the goal to achieve relative cross sections with the highest accuracy possible. In addition, the measurements were also designed to provide good absolute cross-section values, as absolute cross sections are important for radioactive waste predictions. Samples of Al metal were irradiated with neutrons in the energy range near threshold (Eth=13.55 MeV) at the Radiuminstitutes of both Vienna and St. Petersburg, and in Tokai-mura, Japan. In Tuebingen irradiations with neutrons of higher energies (17 and 19 MeV) were performed. The amount of 26Al produced during the irradiations was measured via accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA). This work represents the first 26Al measurements for this new facility. With this system, a background as low as 3*10-15 for 26Al/27Al isotope ratios was obtained, corresponding to a (n,2n) cross section of 0.04 mb. Utilizing AMS, cross sections with much higher precision and considerably closer to the threshold than in previous investigations could be measured. The prerequisite for its application as a temperature monitor, namely a very well known shape of the excitation function was met. A quantitative prediction of the sensitivity of this method for monitoring the temperature in a D-T fusion plasma was therefore possible. For thermal plasmas temperature changes in the order of 5 to 15 % should be detectable. An even higher sensitivity was found for non

  11. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2011-03-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  12. Al/Cl2 molten salt battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Molten salt battery has been developed with theoretical energy density of 5.2 j/kg (650 W-h/lb). Battery, which operates at 150 C, can be used in primary mode or as rechargeable battery. Battery has aluminum anode and chlorine cathode. Electrolyte is mixture of AlCl3, NaCl, and some alkali metal halide such as KCl.

  13. 75 FR 1420 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00025

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00025 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  14. 76 FR 29810 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00037

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00037 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  15. 75 FR 26813 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00029

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00029 AGENCY: Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  16. 78 FR 4967 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00046

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00046 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of ALABAMA dated...

  17. 76 FR 62481 - Incapital LLC, et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Incapital LLC, et al.; Notice of Application September 30, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application for an order under section 12(d)(1)(J) of...

  18. 78 FR 22361 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00049

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00049 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  19. 78 FR 26100 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00050

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00050 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Alabama dated...

  20. 75 FR 3895 - Yale University, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... notice at 74 FR 67851, December 21, 2009. Docket Number: 09-065. Applicant: U.S. Department of Homeland..., Quanta 200 FEG. Manufacturer: FEI Company, Czech Republic. Intended Use: See notice at 74 FR 67851... International Trade Administration Yale University, et al.; Notice of Consolidated Decision on Applications...

  1. 77 FR 7227 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00040

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00040 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  2. 75 FR 474 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00026

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00026 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  3. 76 FR 27141 - Alabama Disaster # AL-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of Alabama...

  4. 77 FR 60003 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00044

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  5. 75 FR 26814 - Alabama Disaster #AL-00031

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Alabama Disaster AL-00031 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for...

  6. Casting of particulate Al-base composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moustafa, S.F. [CMRDI, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-03-01

    A molten Al-4 wt.% Cu as well as a Al-13 wt.% Si alloy have been mixed mechanically with particulate of SiC, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, or graphite. After the completion of mixing, each mixture was poured into a permanent mould to solidify. To overcome the problem of non-wettability that exists between the investigated particulate and the molten aluminum alloys the particulate was chemically treated by impregnation in a solution containing Na{sup +} ions. The loading of SiC or Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate in the produced composites can be as high as 40 wt.%, and for graphite particles it can be 20 wt.%. The mixing time required to introduce and distribute the investigated particles into the molten matrix was as low as five minutes to recluce chemical reactions at the interfaces between them. Processing details and parameters controlling this technique are described. Metallographic examinations as well as tensile tests were carried out to characterize the microstructure, the distribution of the particles and the strength of these composites. The results display that the composites made by this technique have good microstructure and tensile properties. (orig.)

  7. Synthesis of Ti-Al porous perform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Article describes production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials. Usefulness of the high temperature self-propagating synthesis (SHS, with appropriate modification, to produce perform for production of composite was evaluated.Design/methodology/approach: Mixture of aluminum and titanium powder was cold isostatically pressed (CIPed and produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtained structure usually have open porosity what enables for pressure infiltration with molten metal. The investigations of the structure of preforms on the scanning electron microscope (SEM were made.Findings: The produced performs in most cases reveal open porosity, uniform morphology and are suitable for infiltration process. After reaction Al-Ti compounds form partly globular structure with microhardness much higher than substratesResearch limitations/implications: In the actual stages of this work proposed method can be used for manufacturing of porous performs, which mainly contain Al3Ti. During reaction, mixture compacts with the molar ratio of Al/Ti=1 were transformed into inhomogeneous structure.Practical implications: Obtained perform can be widely used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method. Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance to oxidization at high temperature.Originality/value: Article is valuable for persons engaged in production of casting composite materials reinforced with porous perform. Proposed method allows to incorporate hard structures from Al-Ti compounds into aluminum casting.

  8. Cathodic electrochemiluminescence at double barrier Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel emission electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakansson, Markus [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Jiang, Qinghong [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Suomi, Johanna [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland); Loikas, Kari [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Nauma, Mauri [Workshop, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Ala-Kleme, Timo [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Kankare, Jouko [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Juhala, Pentti [Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Turku, FIN-20014 (Finland); Eskola, Jarkko U. [Labmaster Oy, P.O. Box 71, FIN-20521 Turku (Finland); Kulmala, Sakari [Laboratory of Analytical and Inorganic Chemistry, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 6100, FIN-02015 HUT (Finland)

    2006-01-25

    Double insulating barrier tunnel emission electrodes were fabricated by adding a new pure aluminum layer upon oxidized aluminum electrodes by vacuum evaporation and thermally oxidizing the new aluminum layer in air at room temperature. Resulting Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} electrodes allow the use of various aluminum alloys in the electrode body necessary for hardness or shaping ability of the electrode while obtaining the luminescence properties of pure aluminum oxide. During electrical excitation of luminescent labels by cathodic hot electron injection into aqueous electrolyte solution, the background noise is mainly based on high-field-induced solid-state electroluminescence and F-center luminescence of the outer aluminum oxide film. The more defect states and/or impurity centers the outer oxide film contains, the higher is the background emission intensity. The present electrode fabrication method provides a considerable improvement in signal-to-noise ratio for time-resolved electrochemiluminescence (TR-ECL) measurements when the original native oxide film of the electrode body contains luminescence centers displaying long-lived luminescence. The excellent performance of the present electrodes is demonstrated by extremely low-level detection of Tb(III) chelates, luminol, Pt(II) coproporphyrin and Tb(III) labels in an immunometric immunoassay by time-resolved electrochemiluminescence.

  9. CALCULUL CINETOSTATIC AL MECANISMELOR PLANETARE CILINDRICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Păun ANTONESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available În lucrare se prezintă o metodă analitică pentru calculul cinetostatic al mecanismului planetarmonomobil cu două roţi dinţate centrale. Se consideră mai întâi cazul general al schemelor cinematice cu douăroţi dinţate solidare tip satelit, în două variante practice (multiplicator şi reductor de turaţie. Este menţionatcazul particular al mecanismelor planetare cu o singură roată satelit cu angrenare dublă (exterioară şiinterioară. Pe baza modelului de analiză cinetostatică a mecanismului planetar monomobil cu două roţi dinţatecentrale, în finalul lucrării se abordează o problemă practică de calcul cinetostatic al unui mecanism planetarcilindric simplu folosit la capul de frezat pentru prelucrarea roţilor dinţate cilindrice cu dinţi curbi înhipocicloidă.

  10. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  11. Del desarrollo rural al desarrollo territorial

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano Estrada, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    5 páginas.-- Trabajo presentado al Seminario Ruraland celebrado en Antequera (Málaga) el 26 de mayo de 2010.-- Presentado como ponencia a la Jornada de debate "El desarrollo rural en la U.E. despues de 2013" celebrado en Aracena (Huelva) el 10 de junio de 2010 (adjuntado Pdf).

  12. Electron impact exctation of Al X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Kanti; Keenan, Francis

    2013-05-01

    Emission lines of Al ions, including Al X, are important for the modeling and diagnostics of lasing, fusion and astrophysical plasmas, for which atomic data are required for a variety of parameters, such as energy levels, radiative rates (A- values), and excitation rates or equivalently the effective collision strengths (Υ), which are obtained from the electron impact collision strengths (Ω). Experimentally, energy levels are available for Al X on the NIST website, but there is paucity for accurate collisional atomic data. Therefore, here we report a complete set of results (namely energy levels, radiative rates, and effective collision strengths) for all transitions among the lowest 98 levels of Al X. These levels belong to the (1s2) 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2, 2s3 l, 2p3 l, 2s4 l, and 2p4 l configurations. Finally, we also report the A- values for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2), because these are also required for plasma modeling. For our calculations of wavefunctions, we have adopted the fully relativistic GRASP code, and for the calculations of Ω, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) of PH Norrington and IP Grant. Additionally, parallel ca

  13. The Science of al-Biruni

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Al-Biruni (973-1048) was one of the greatest scientists of all times. He was an astronomer, mathematician and philosopher, and studied physics and natural sciences. In this paper, we will discuss some of his experimental methods and some instruments he used.

  14. Thermoluminescence of LaAlO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the thermoluminescent properties of doped lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO3) with dysprosium ion (Dy) were studied. The thermoluminescence characteristics in the samples were obtained using an ultraviolet radiation of 220 nm. The LaAlO3:Dy samples were prepared by the modified Pechini method (Spray Dryer). The structural and morphological characterization was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (Sem) techniques respectively. The size particle composing the agglomerate was determined by Sem, agglomerated particles composed size of 2μm were observed. The thermoluminescence response of LaAlO3:Dy was compared with that obtained with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence brightness curves of LaAlO3:Dy showed a peak centered at 185 grades C. Sensitivity of doped sample was greater, about 100 times compared with the undoped sample. Thermoluminescence response in function of the wavelength showed a maximum at 220 nm. Also the fading in thermoluminescence response was studied. (Author)

  15. Management of respiratory symptoms in ALS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hardiman, Orla

    2012-02-01

    Respiratory insufficiency is a frequent feature of ALS and is present in almost all cases at some stage of the illness. It is the commonest cause of death in ALS. FVC is used as important endpoint in many clinical trials, and in decision-making events for patients with ALS, although there are limitations to its predictive utility. There are multiple causes of respiratory muscle failure, all of which act to produce a progressive decline in pulmonary function. Diaphragmatic fatigue and weakness, coupled with respiratory muscle weakness, lead to reduced lung compliance and atelectasis. Increased secretions increase the risk of aspiration pneumonia, which further compromises respiratory function. Bulbar dysfunction can lead to nutritional deficiency, which in turn increases the fatigue of respiratory muscles. Early recognition of respiratory decline and symptomatic intervention, including non-invasive ventilation can significantly enhance both quality of life and life expectancy in ALS. Patients with respiratory failure should be advised to consider an advance directive to avoid emergency mechanical ventilation.

  16. Al-Ghazali on Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza

    2007-01-01

    Al-Ghazali (1058-1111 CE) is probably the most influential scholar, philosopher, theologian, legal expert, religious reformer and mystic in the history of Islam. Although he wrote extensively about education, and particularly about moral education, this writing is scattered through a number of different works and has received less scholarly…

  17. Aluminum matrix texture in Al-Al3Ti functionally graded materials analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sequeira, Paulo D.; Sato, Hisashi; Inamura, Tomonari; Hosoda, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Al matrix functionally graded materials (FGMs) with oriented Al3Ti platelets were fabricated by a centrifugal solid-particle method. The applied centrifugal forces were 30, 60, and 120G (units of gravity). The orientation and volume fraction gradients of the Al3Ti platelets within the samples were measured. Since a good lattice correspondence was reported for the close-packed directions and the close-packed planes between Al and Al3Ti, the Al matrix in the Al-Al3Ti FGMs fabricated by the centrifugal solid-particle method should have some texture. Al matrix texture was, therefore, analyzed by electron back-scattering diffraction (EBSD). Analysis of the resulting pole figures indicates a preferred orientation along the (200) plane for the Al matrix crystals. Furthermore, increasing the applied centrifugal force enhances the orientation effect. A correlation appears to exist between platelet orientation and the preferred texture of the Al matrix.

  18. Investigation Of Water Assisted Phase Transformation Process From AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Suochang; Zhao, Zhenchao; Hu, Mary Y.; Han, Xiuwen; Hu, Jian Z.; Bao, Xinhe

    2016-03-15

    Water assisted phase transformation process from crystalized AlPO4-5 to AlPO4-tridymite was studied by the combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and in situ multinuclear MAS NMR. It is found that water first activates the residue amorphous aluminophosphate in crystalized AlPO4-5 sample through hydrolysis and condensation reactions. Then the activated aluminophosphate species reassemble into AlPO4-tridymite crystalline. Meanwhile, AlPO4-5 transforms into orthorhombic phase during heating process. With further crystallization of AlPO4-tridymite, the amorphous phase is gradually consumed, and mass transportation between AlPO4-5 and AlPO4-tridymite is established through gradually amorphization of AlPO4-5. Finally, most of the AlPO4-5 transforms into the thermodynamically stable dense phase AlPO4-tridymite.

  19. Wallada Bint al Mustakfi entre dos culturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shreen Mahmoud Al Refai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La princesa cordobesa Wallada Bint al Mustakfi bil-lah, hija del califa al Mustakfi Muhammad Ibn Abdel Rahman Ibn Obaidil-lah Ibn Al Nasir lidin Al-lah era una poetisa estimable, a quien los grandes poetas no podían superar. Era una mujer única, guapa y decente. Mantenía una relación sentimental con el  poeta y visir Ibn Zaydún. Dicha pasión, narrada por los poemas escritos por ambos amantes, se terminó por la separación debida a los celos, también de ambos;  al poeta le gustó la voz de una esclava de la princesa. Eso dio rabia a la última. Movido también por los celos, Ibn Zaydún dedicó una epístola satírica al visir Ibn Abdús, que estaba enamorado de Wallada. Tal hecho también irritó a la princesa. A pesar de tener amantes y admiradores, Wallada murió sin casarse al  día 2 de safar de 480 (o 484 de la Híjira pasando los ochenta años Me han llamado la atención el carácter tan culto, independiente y liberal de aquella mujer, su relación amorosa con Ibn Zaydún que no acabó felizmente y los muchos años que vivió sin casasre. Parece que la vida de la princesa hispano-musulmana llamó también la atención de muchos escritores árabes y españoles. Prueba de ello son varias obras literarias escritas en árabe y en español sobre Wallada e Ibn Zaydún. Por consiguiente, me resulta muy interesante realizar un estudio comparativo sobre este tema averiguando si, o no, la diferencia de culturas influiría en las opiniones  de los autores sobre la vida sentimental de aquella poetisa cordobesa.

  20. A high degree of enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers upon post annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report here an order of magnitude enhancement of strength of sputter deposited Al/Al2O3 multilayers after annealing. The increase in strength is shown to be mostly associated with the precipitation of extremely fine γ-Al2O3, 5–10 nm in diameter, in Al layers. This provides a new method of achieving high strength in Al/Al2O3 multilayers that cannot be explained by the Koehler effect or modified Hall–Petch, which will lead to the growth and development of new generation of Al/Al2O3 multilayers. We also examine the fracture behavior of the post annealed Al/Al2O3 multilayered composites with TEM and density functional theory (DFT) simulations. DFT showed that the multilayers are not likely to delaminate at the Al/Al2O3 interface, consistent with the experimental observations. The simulations are also used to determine elastic constants for the γ-Al2O3 phase and to calculate a driving force for O transport from the γ-Al2O3 to the Al layers. The formation of these precipitates is consistent with DFT calculations, which predict an energetic driving force for the dissolution of O atoms from the γ-Al2O3 layers into the Al layers

  1. ELECTROLYSIS OF SWINE MANURE EFFLUENTS USING THREE DIFFERENT ELECTRODES Fe-Fe, Al-Al AND Fe-Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Swine effluent with high organic strength need to be treated to make it suitable for applying to crop/pasture fields, or discharging to any waterways. Electrocoagulation is a relatively simpler and cheaper technique over biological and chemical treatment methods currently used to treat high-strength industrial and municipal wastewater. The performance of an electrocoagulation system mainly depends on the pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC of the medium, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD loading rates and catalytic activity of the electrodes used. In this research, a study was conducted to compare the pollutant removal efficiencies of three electrodes (Fe-Fe, Al-Al and Fe-Al with three electric current levels (500, 1000 and 2000 mA while treating swine manure effluents. The electrochemical cell consisted of two parallel rectangular plates (90×25×1.5 mm of Iron (Fe-Fe, Aluminum (Al-Al and Iron-Aluminum (Fe-Al, later on described as hybrid electrodes; immersed in a beaker with 550 mL swine effluents and powered by a Direct Current (DC supply. All studies were conducted in batches at room temperature. In general, removal efficiencies were increased with increasing current densities and electrolysis times for electrodes evaluated. Aluminum electrodes outperformed iron and hybrid (iron-aluminum electrodes in removing Total Phosphorus (TP at all current density levels tested. Overall, use of hybrid electrodes resulted in better COD removal. For the same treatment times (1200 s at higher current density (21 mA cm-2, hybrid electrodes removed about 100% COD, which are about 1.9 and 1.3 times higher than those of aluminum and iron electrodes, respectively. Iron electrodes showed the highest removal efficiency (85% for Total Organic Carbon (TOC at 21 mA cm-2 current density and 1200 s treatment time. Overall, lower Specific Electrical Energy Consumptions (SEECs per kg of Pollutants (TP, COD and TOC were estimated for the aluminum

  2. Medien als Lernform und die Trimediale Redaktion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Hilzensauer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Der vorliegende Artikel beschreibt ein Konzept für eine handlungsorientierte Medienpädagogik im Bildungsbereich. Im Mittelpunkt steht dabei die SO!-Campusredaktion, die als Methode für expansives Lernen die Möglichkeit bietet, unabhängig von Thema oder Medium die Verantwortung für den Lernprozess in die Hände der Lernenden zu legen. Der Dokumentation von Reflexion über den Lernprozess wird dabei eine besondere Bedeutung zugesprochen. Gleichzeitig werden unterschiedliche mediale Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten (Audio/Radio, Video/Fernsehen und Zeitung – sowohl als Print- als auch als Onlinemedium vorgestellt, die durch das Konzept BYOD – bring your own device – auch einfach und niederschwellig im Bildungskontext umsetzbar sind. Dadurch ergeben sich innovative Möglichkeiten, einen Lernprozess sichtbar zu machen und gleichzeitig eine Grundlage für eine alternative Leistungsbeurteilung anzubieten. Die SO!-Campusredaktion wird derzeit an der Pädagogischen Hochschule Salzburg in Kooperation mit dem Communitysender FS1 und der Radiofabrik entwickelt und erprobt. Community Medien nehmen als MedienpartnerInnen eine bedeutende Stellung ein: Durch ihren offenen Zugang zu Know How und Equipment sowie durch die Möglichkeit, Medienproduktionen über die verfügbaren Distibutionskanäle (Radiofrequenz oder Sendeplatz einer breiten Bevölkerung zugänglich zu machen, gewinnt die Medienpädagogik einen wichtigen Mehrwert in ihrer schulischen und außerschulischen Arbeit. (Dieser Artikel knüpft an den Artikel "BYOD, Smartphonefilme und webbasierte Videoschnittprogramme" der Medienimpulse, Ausgabe 2/2014, an.

  3. Microstructure of Ni-Al powder and Ni-Al composite coatings prepared by twin-wire arc spraying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xiao Wang; Gui-xian Wang; Jing-shun Liu; Lun-yong Zhang; Wei Wang; Ze Li; Qi-xiang Wang; Jian-fei Sun

    2016-01-01

    Ni–Al powder and Ni–Al composite coatings were fabricated by twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS). The microstructures of Ni-5wt%Al powder and Ni-20wt%Al powder were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spec-troscopy (EDS). The results showed that the obtained particle size ranged from 5 to 50μm. The morphology of the Ni–Al powder showed that molten particles were composed of Ni solid solution, NiAl, Ni3Al, Al2O3, and NiO. The Ni–Al phase and a small amount of Al2O3 parti-cles changed the composition of the coating. The microstructures of the twin-wire-arc-sprayed Ni–Al composite coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the main phase of the Ni-5wt%Al coating consisted of Ni solid solution and NiAl in addition to a small amount of Al2O3. The main phase of the Ni-20wt%Al coating mainly consisted of Ni solid solution, NiAl, and Ni3Al in addition to a small amount of Al and Al2O3, and NiAl and Ni3Al intermet-allic compounds effectively further improved the final wear property of the coatings. TEM analysis indicated that fine spherical NiAl3 pre-cipitates and a Ni–Al–O amorphous phase formed in the matrix of the Ni solid solution in the original state.

  4. Structure of oxides prepared by decomposition of layered double Mg–Al and Ni–Al hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abstracts: Thermal decomposition of Mg–Al and Ni–Al layered double hydroxides LDH at temperatures lower than 800 °C leads to the formation of oxides with different structures. Mg–Al oxide has a very defective structure and consists of octahedral layers as in periclase MgO and mixed octahedral–tetrahedral layers as in spinel MgAl2O4. Mixed Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure, consisting of a core with Al-doped NiO-like structure and some surface layers with spinel NiAl2O4 structure epitaxial connected with the core. Suggested models were verified by simulation of X-ray diffraction patterns using DIFFaX code, as well as HRTEM, IR-, UV-spectroscopies, and XPS. - Graphical abstract: In the Mg–Al layered double hydroxide Al3+ ions migrate into interlayers during decomposition. The Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of octahedral and octahedral–tetrahedral spinel layers with vacancies. The Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers as a result of migration of Al3+ ions on the surface. The models explain the presence and absence of “memory effect” for the Mg–Al and Ni–Al oxides, respectively. - Highlights: • We study products of Mg(Ni)–Al LDH decomposition by calcination at 500(400)–800 °C. • In Mg–Al/Ni–Al LDH Al ions migrate into interlayers/on the surface during decomposition. • Mg–Al oxide represents sequence of periclase- and spinel-like layers with vacancies. • Ni–Al oxide has a sandwich-like structure with NiO-like core and surface spinel layers. • The models explain the presence/absence of “memory effect” for Mg–Al/Ni–Al oxides

  5. High noise suppression using magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)/(AlN) multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijima, Hanae; Ohnuma, Shigehiro; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Shimada, Yutaka; Endo, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    Magnetically isotropic (CoFe-AlN)n/(AlN)n+1 multilayer films, in which the number of CoFe-AlN magnetic layers n ranged from 1 to 27, were prepared by radio frequency sputtering to achieve noise suppression at gigahertz frequencies. The soft CoFe-AlN magnetic layers consisted of nanometer-sized CoFe ferromagnetic grains embedded in an insulating AlN amorphous matrix, while the insulating AlN layers comprised AlN columnar crystals. All films showed a similar frequency dependence of permeability and ferromagnetic resonance of 1.7 GHz. Noise suppression was evaluated using a microstrip line as a noise source by determining the in-line conductive loss and the near-field intensity picked up by magnetic field detective probes. High noise suppression effects were observed in every direction in the film plane. Maximum noise suppression values amounted to 60% for the in-line conductive loss and -20 dB for the magnetic near-field intensity at around 1.7 GHz in the 27-layer film. These high-frequency noise suppression levels may be attributed to eddy current losses and ferromagnetic resonance.

  6. Fabrication and Mechanical Properties of Al_2O_3/TiAl Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Taotao

    2009-01-01

    Al_2O_3/TiAl composites were successfully fabricated by hot-press-assisted exother-mic dispersion method with elemental powder mixtures of Ti,Al TiO_2 and Nb_2O_5,and the micro-structure and mechanical properties were investigated.The results indicate the fine Al_2O_3 particles tend to disperse on the grain boundaries.The grain size of TiAl matrix decreases and the hardness increases with increasing Nb_2O_5 content.The bending strength and fracture toughness reach to a maximum when Nb_2O_5 content is 6 wt%,under 642 Mpa and 6.69 Mpa·m ~(1/2) ,respectively.Based on the fractography and the observation of crack propagation path,it is concluded that the strengthening and toughening of such composites at room temperature can be attributed to the refinement of the TiAl matrix,the de-flection behavior in the crack propagation and the dispersion of Al_2O_3 particles.

  7. Neutronic comparison of the nuclear fuels U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The search for materials that allow the fabrication of nuclear fuels with higher uranium densities comes from the mid 50s. Today, a high density and low enriched nuclear fuel based on γ-UMo alloys is the most promising fuel to replace the U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used worldwide in research and material test reactors. Alloys of uranium-molybdenum are prepared with 6 to 10% Mo addition and can be manufactured as dispersion or monolithic fuels. The aim of this paper is to compare the infinite multiplication factor (K∞), obtained through neutronic calculation with the code Scale 6, for aluminum coated plates reflected in all directions containing U3Si2/Al and U-Mo/Al dispersion fuels. The U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel used in the calculation has an uranium density of 4 gU/cm3 and the U-Mo-Al dispersion fuels have densities ranging from 4 to 7.52 gU/cm3 and 7 and 10% Mo addition. The results show that the K∞ calculated for U-Mo/Al fuels is lower than that for U3Si2/Al fuel and increases between the uranium densities of 4 and 5 gU/cm3 and decreases for higher uranium densities. (author)

  8. Electrical defects in AlGaN and InAlN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, D.; Leach, Jacob H.; Kovalskii, Vladimir A.; Fan, Qian; Xie, Jingqiao; Morkoç, Hadis

    2009-02-01

    Compound semiconductors based on GaN have multiple functional applications. Useful compositions include GaN, and ternary and quaternary compositions of (AlGaIn)N. Defects arising from lattice mismatch, point defects, or impurities may act as electrical trapping centers and degrade device efficiency. Current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, thermal admittance spectroscopy (TAS), and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements are applied to characterize the defects in Al0.40Ga0.80N and In0.18Al0.82N in this report. Broad peaks with a shoulder at high temperature dominate the DLTS spectra in each of the materials. An acceptor trap associated with a dislocation appears at 340 K in AlGaN. The defect has an energy of 0.2 eV and capture cross section of 10-21 cm2. A second trap at 0.35 eV, 10-14 cm2 appears in the TAS measurements in addition to the trap at 0.2 eV. Defects in InAlN are dominated by a peak near 150 K. Two traps appear in the TAS measurements. Both traps in the InAlN are acceptors, based on a lack of field dependent emission rates using double pulse DLTS (DDLTS). The two energy levels in InAlN appear to be coupled, with only one state occupied at a time.

  9. Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Neutron Irradiated Cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of neutron irradiation on the internal microstructure, mechanical properties and fracture morphology of cold-worked Al-1050 and Al-6063 alloys was studied, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and tensile measurements. Specimens consisting of 50 mm long and 6 mm wide gauge sections, were punched out from Al-1050 and Al-6063 23% cold-worked tubes. They were exposed to prolonged neutron irradiation of up to 4.5x1025 and 8x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 (E -3 s-1. In general, the uniform and total elongation, the yield stress, and the ultimate tensile strength increase as functions of fluence. However, for Al-1050 a decrease in the ultimate tensile strength and yield stress was observed up to a fluence of 1x1025 thermal neutrons/m2 which then increase with thermal neutrons fluence. Metallographic examination and fractography for Al-6063 revealed a decrease in the local area reduction of the final fracture necking. This reduction is accompanied by a morphology transition from ductile transgranular shear rupture to a combination of transgranular shear with intergranular dimpled rupture. The intergranular rupture area increases with fluence. In contrast, for Al-1050, fracture morphology remains ductile transgranular shear rupture and the final local area reduction remains almost constant No voids could be observed in either alloy up to the maximum fluence. The dislocation density of cold-worked Al was found to decrease with the thermal neutron fluence. Prolonged annealing of unirradiated cold-worked Al-6063 at 52 degree led to similar results. Thus, it appears that, under our irradiation conditions, whereby the temperature encompassing the samples increases the exposure to this thermal field is the major factor influencing the mechanical properties and microstructure of aluminum alloys

  10. Oxidation Behaviour of Sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating at 900°C in air was investigated. A dense Al2O3 layer was formed on the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating after 200 h oxidation.However, owing to the segregation of Ni3Al during oxidation Focess at high temperature, the spinel NiAl2O4 was also formed in the Al2O3 layer. It was found that the formation of NiAl2O4had no detrimental effect on the oxidation resistance of the sputtered Ni-3Cr-20Al coating due to the excellent adhesion shown by the Al2O3 and NiAl2O4 complex oxide scale.

  11. Al-rich region of Al−Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •The constitution of Al−Pt above 65 at.% Al is specified. •The previously reported Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases are confirmed. •A new stable orthorhombic phase was revealed at ∼75–76 at.% Al and 801–915 °C. -- Abstract: The constitution of the Al-rich part of the Al−Pt alloy system is revised. Apart from the previously reported equilibrium Al4Pt, Al21Pt8 and Al2Pt phases, a complex intermetallic was revealed at 75-76 at.% Al between 801 and 915 °C. Its structure determined by electron diffraction is orthorhombic (Bmmb, a = 1.983, b = 1.636 and c = 1.422 nm)

  12. Questioning of Authentication and Epistemology in Tafsir al-Jilani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Masduqi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the author critically analyzes a biography of Shaikh ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani containing sacred myths. The analyst of sacred myth about ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani is based on the approach of applied anthropology to distinguish between the myths that have  positive and negative values for Muslim society. This research then analyzes the authenticity of Tafsir al-Jilani and the epistemology of his inter- pretation. ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani is the founder of Qadiriyah. Qadiriyah doctrines has been widely accepted by traditional Muslim groups in Muslim world, so that the study of Tafsir al-Jilani is very meaningful for the followers of Qadiriyah in particu- lar and the lovers of Quranic studies in general to increase their knowledge about the teachings of ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani.

  13. A model of Fe3+-Kaolinite, Al3+-Goethite, Al3+-Hematite equilibria in laterites

    OpenAIRE

    Trolard, F.; Tardy, Yves

    1989-01-01

    Cet article propose un modèle thermodynamique, basé sur un équilibre idéal solide-solution, pour le système Fe2O3-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O prenant en compte les activités de l'eau et de la silice. Le modèle permet de calculer la quantité des phases présentes, les pourcentages de substitution en Al et Fe pour la geothite, l'hématite, la Kaolinite ainsi que la stabilité des phases sous différentes conditions.

  14. Hardness Measurement of (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl Symmetrically Function Gradient Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (TiB2-TiAl)/TiAl symmetrically function gradient materials (FGM) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). Owing to the difference of the thermal expansion coefficients between TiB2 and TiAl, a compressive surface stress was introduced to the FGM by the thermal expansion mismatch. The hardness values of the uniform materials and the FGM were tested, respectively. For the FGM with a compressive surface stress, hardness is obviously superior to that of the uniform material.When the FGM was subjected to heat treatment,the hardness decreased due to a partial relaxation of the compressive surface stress.

  15. Punishment on Stage: Application of Islamic Criminal Law by Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen, usually referred to as al-Shabaab (“the youth”), is mostly known as a Somali terrorist group. But since the end of 2008 it has functioned as a state power in large parts of Southern and Central Somalia. In this study I sketch out the structure and function of the legal system of the group. Over the last three years they have developed an administrative structure and a legal system which is unprecedented in the Somali conflict, which has lasted for more than 2...

  16. AlSb precipitate evolution during Sb implantation in Al: experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precipitate evolution during ion implantation has been studied in the model system Sb-implanted Al. Transmission electron microscopy was used to determine the size distribution of AlSb crystallites as a function of fluence, flux, and sample temperature. There was a dramatic increase in average size, accompanied by a decrease in number density, for increasing fluence, for decreasing flux, and for increasing temperature. A new theoretical model for the evolution of the precipitate size distribution has been developed which incorporates both thermal processes and implantation effects. Numerical solutions for the AlSb system using physically realistic parameters agree qualitatively with the experimentally observed evolutions

  17. Atomic layer epitaxy of AlAs and AlGaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguro, T.; Iwai, S.; Aoyagi, Y.; Ozaki, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Okano, Y.; Hirata, A.

    1990-01-01

    Atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) of AlAs and AlGaAs with metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) under Ar-ion laser irradiation has been successfully realized in a triethylaluminum (TEA)/AsH 3 system for the first time. Comparison with the growth characteristics of MOVPE with alternative feeding modes of TMA/AsH 3 and TEA/AsH 3 is discussed. Application to laser-ALE of AlGaAs using a triethylgallium (TEG)/TEA/AsH 3 system is also discussed.

  18. 5083 type Al-Mg and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloys for ship building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Ertuğ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine transport is increasing its use of aluminium by capitalizing on its two leading qualities: lightness and corrosion resistance. The most popular aluminium alloys for use in corrosive environmentssuch as seawater are the 5xxx and 6xxx series alloys, which demonstrate adequate strength and excellent corrosion resistance. The traditional and the most often used Al-alloys in shipbuilding are 5083 type Al-Mg alloy for plates, and 6082 type Al-Mg-Si alloy for extrusions. These alloys were found to be reliable in marine service as well as during manufacturing.

  19. A 25-year replication of Katz et al.'s (1988) metaphor norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Spencer J; Raney, Gary E

    2016-03-01

    Research in metaphor processing has made extensive use of the normed metaphor database created by Katz, Paivio, Marschark, & Clark (Metaphor and Symbolic Activity, 3, 191-214, 1988). Because of the plasticity of figurative language, we conducted a renorming of selected metaphors from the database on a new student population. Correlations between Katz et al.'s and the present data showed that the pattern of responses has remained highly consistent across time and populations. The consistency of the normative ratings allows us to be confident in future research that will use the Katz et al. collection. PMID:25772671

  20. The Formation of γ—AlON Spinel in the Reaction of Al2O3—AlN—MgO System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIYawei; YUANRunzhang; 等

    1997-01-01

    The stabilization of γ-aluminium oxyni-tride spinel(γ-AlON) has been investigated by addition of MgO,MgAl2O4,etc.,in reaction process.The results indicated that there are wider solid solution areas near ,Al2O3-rich side in AlN-Al2O3-MgO ternary systems,The content of stabilized AlON phase in samples is related to heating temperatures,additives,etc.The lattice parameters of their AlON phases could be well describedby the equation: a0=0.7900+0.0375[MgO]+0.015[AlN](nm)