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Sample records for advisor model risk-reduction

  1. Mathematical modelling of risk reduction in reinsurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, R. B.; Kryanev, A. V.; Sliva, D. E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model of efficient portfolio formation in the reinsurance markets. The presented approach provides the optimal ratio between the expected value of return and the risk of yield values below a certain level. The uncertainty in the return values is conditioned by use of expert evaluations and preliminary calculations, which result in expected return values and the corresponding risk levels. The proposed method allows for implementation of computationally simple schemes and algorithms for numerical calculation of the numerical structure of the efficient portfolios of reinsurance contracts of a given insurance company.

  2. Modelling Drivers' Behaviour as a Crash Risk Reduction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Sadat Hoseini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The evermore widespread use of microscopic traffic simulationin the analysis of road systems has refocused attention onsub models, including car-following and lane-changing models.In this research a microscopic model is developed whichcombines car-following and lane-changing models and describesdriver behaviour as a crash risk reduction process ofdrivers. This model has been simulated by a cellular automatasimulator and compared with the real data. It has been shownthat there is no reason to consider the model invalid for drivers'behaviour in the basic segments of freeways in Iran, duringnot-congested conditions. Considering that uncertainty of positionof vehicles is caused by their acceleration or deceleration, aprobability function is calibrated for calculating the presenceprobability of vehicles in their feasible cells. Multiplying thepresence probability and impact of crash, crash risk of cells iscalculated. As an application of the model, it has been shownthat when difference between vehicles brake deceleration increases,the total crash risk increases.

  3. Time-to-Compromise Model for Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

    2005-09-01

    We propose a new model for estimating the time to compromise a system component that is visible to an attacker. The model provides an estimate of the expected value of the time-to-compromise as a function of known and visible vulnerabilities, and attacker skill level. The time-to-compromise random process model is a composite of three subprocesses associated with attacker actions aimed at the exploitation of vulnerabilities. In a case study, the model was used to aid in a risk reduction estimate between a baseline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system and the baseline system enhanced through a specific set of control system security remedial actions. For our case study, the total number of system vulnerabilities was reduced by 86% but the dominant attack path was through a component where the number of vulnerabilities was reduced by only 42% and the time-to-compromise of that component was increased by only 13% to 30% depending on attacker skill level.

  4. Solar Advisor Model User Guide for Version 2.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Blair, N.; Mehos, M.; Christensen, C.; Janzou, S.; Cameron, C.

    2008-08-01

    The Solar Advisor Model (SAM) provides a consistent framework for analyzing and comparing power system costs and performance across the range of solar technologies and markets, from photovoltaic systems for residential and commercial markets to concentrating solar power and large photovoltaic systems for utility markets. This manual describes Version 2.0 of the software, which can model photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies for electric applications for several markets. The current version of the Solar Advisor Model does not model solar heating and lighting technologies.

  5. Comparison of Photovoltaic Models in the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N. J.; Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.

    2013-08-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is free software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for predicting the performance of renewable energy systems and analyzing the financial feasibility of residential, commercial, and utility-scale grid-connected projects. SAM offers several options for predicting the performance of photovoltaic (PV) systems. The model requires that the analyst choose from three PV system models, and depending on that choice, possibly choose from three module and two inverter component models. To obtain meaningful results from SAM, the analyst must be aware of the differences between the model options and their applicability to different modeling scenarios. This paper presents an overview the different PV model options and presents a comparison of results for a 200-kW system using different model options.

  6. System Advisor Model: Flat Plate Photovoltaic Performance Modeling Validation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Kaffine, L.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software tool that performs detailed analysis of both system performance and system financing for a variety of renewable energy technologies. This report provides detailed validation of the SAM flat plate photovoltaic performance model by comparing SAM-modeled PV system generation data to actual measured production data for nine PV systems ranging from 75 kW to greater than 25 MW in size. The results show strong agreement between SAM predictions and field data, with annualized prediction error below 3% for all fixed tilt cases and below 8% for all one axis tracked cases. The analysis concludes that snow cover and system outages are the primary sources of disagreement, and other deviations resulting from seasonal biases in the irradiation models and one axis tracking issues are discussed in detail.

  7. Hydrological modelling in a drinking water catchment area as a means of evaluating pathogen risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergion, Viktor; Sokolova, Ekaterina; Åström, Johan; Lindhe, Andreas; Sörén, Kaisa; Rosén, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Waterborne outbreaks of gastrointestinal diseases are of great concern to drinking water producers and can give rise to substantial costs to the society. The World Health Organisation promotes an approach where the emphasis is on mitigating risks close to the contamination source. In order to handle microbial risks efficiently, there is a need for systematic risk management. In this paper we present a framework for microbial risk management of drinking water systems. The framework incorporates cost-benefit analysis as a decision support method. The hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, which was set up for the Stäket catchment area in Sweden, was used to simulate the effects of four different mitigation measures on microbial concentrations. The modelling results showed that the two mitigation measures that resulted in a significant (p treatment (by one Log10 unit) at the wastewater treatment plants. The mitigation measure with a vegetative filter strip linked to grazing areas resulted in a significant reduction of Cryptosporidium spp., but not of E. coli concentrations. The mitigation measure with enhancing the removal efficiency of all on-site wastewater treatment systems (total removal of 2 Log10 units) did not achieve any significant reduction of E. coli or Cryptosporidium spp. concentrations. The SWAT model was useful when characterising the effect of different mitigation measures on microbial concentrations. Hydrological modelling implemented within an appropriate risk management framework is a key decision support element as it identifies the most efficient alternative for microbial risk reduction.

  8. Global flood risk modelling and its applications for disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongman, Brenden; Winsemius, Hessel; Bierkens, Marc; Bouwman, Arno; van Beek, Rens; Ligtvoet, Willem; Ward, Philip

    2014-05-01

    Flooding of river systems is the most costly natural hazard affecting societies around the world, with an average of 55 billion in direct losses and 4,500 fatalities each year between 1990 and 2012. The accurate and consistent assessment of flood risk on a global scale is essential for international development organizations and the reinsurance industry, and for enhancing our understanding of climate change impacts. This need is especially felt in developing countries, where local data and models are largely unavailable, and where flood risk is increasing rapidly under strong population growth and economic development. Here we present ongoing applications of high-resolution flood risk modelling at a global scale. The work is based on GLOFRIS, a modelling chain that produces flood risk maps at a 1km spatial resolution for the entire globe, under a range of climate and socioeconomic scenarios and various past and future time periods. This modelling chain combines a hydrological inundation model with socioeconomic datasets to assess past, current and future population exposure; economic damages; and agricultural risk. These tools are currently applied scientifically to gain insights in geographical patterns in current risk, and to assess the effects of possible future scenarios under climate change and climate variability. In this presentation we show recent applications from global scale to national scales. The global scale applications include global risk profiling for the reinsurance industry; and novel estimation of global flood mortality risk. In addition it will be demonstrated how the global flood modelling approach was successfully applied to assess disaster risk reduction priorities on a national scale in Africa. Finally, we indicate how these global modelling tools can be used to quantify the costs and benefits of adaptation, and explore pathways for development under a changing environment.

  9. System Advisor Model, SAM 2011.12.2: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, P.; Dobos, A.

    2012-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2011.12.2, released on December 2, 2011. SAM is software that models the cost and performance of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financing structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). Advanced analysis options facilitate parametric, sensitivity, and statistical analyses, and allow for interfacing SAM with Microsoft Excel or with other computer programs. SAM is available as a free download at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  10. System Advisor Model, SAM 2014.1.14: General Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.; Freeman, J.; Neises, T.; Wagner, M.; Ferguson, T.; Gilman, P.; Janzou, S.

    2014-02-01

    This document describes the capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM), Version 2013.9.20, released on September 9, 2013. SAM is a computer model that calculates performance and financial metrics of renewable energy systems. Project developers, policy makers, equipment manufacturers, and researchers use graphs and tables of SAM results in the process of evaluating financial, technology, and incentive options for renewable energy projects. SAM simulates the performance of photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, solar water heating, wind, geothermal, biomass, and conventional power systems. The financial model can represent financial structures for projects that either buy and sell electricity at retail rates (residential and commercial) or sell electricity at a price determined in a power purchase agreement (utility). SAM's advanced simulation options facilitate parametric and sensitivity analyses, and statistical analysis capabilities are available for Monte Carlo simulation and weather variability (P50/P90) studies. SAM can also read input variables from Microsoft Excel worksheets. For software developers, the SAM software development kit (SDK) makes it possible to use SAM simulation modules in their applications written in C/C++, C#, Java, Python, and MATLAB. NREL provides both SAM and the SDK as free downloads at http://sam.nrel.gov. Technical support and more information about the software are available on the website.

  11. Business Model Configuration in Financial Advisor Sector. The case of polish SME.

    OpenAIRE

    Adome, Teja

    2016-01-01

    This study examined a proper business model for financial advisor sector in polish SME. It analyzed the research question “How to build a proper business model for SME, operating in Polish Financial Advisor Sector?” and identified the importance of 10 business model elements for successful business management. The theoretical business model configuration was explored by qualitative research method with supplementary of a shorter descriptive survey from ends users. Both methods showed the ...

  12. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... now! Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: Risks Archives Treatment risk reduction garments surgery obesity infection blood pressure trauma morbid obesity body weight ...

  13. A NOVEL OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR SIMULTANEOUS COST-RISK REDUCTION IN MULTI-SUPPLIERS JUST-IN-TIME SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraj El Dabee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive global markets, Just-in-Time (JIT is one of the main lean manufacturing approaches. It is used in organizations to improve performance and reduce costs and as a strategic core capability to ensure their market position. However, using JIT tightly couples various functions of the Supply Chain and increases the risk of propagating disruptions through the entire system. This study presents an ordering strategy for the supply of raw materials to the production system to meet customer satisfaction. A general model for cost-risk reduction is developed embracing multiple external and local backup suppliers. The outcomes from this model will be used to obtimise the simultaneous cost/risk reduction within JIT systems. The effectiveness of the developed model will be validated using a simplified example.

  14. Substance Use and Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention: A Novel Model for Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H. Olson-Madden

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI and substance use disorders (SUDs frequently co-occur. Individuals with histories of alcohol or other drug use are at greater risk for sustaining TBI, and individuals with TBI frequently misuse substances before and after injury. Further, a growing body of literature supports the relationship between comorbid histories of mild TBI (mTBI and SUDs and negative outcomes. Alcohol and other drug use are strongly associated with risk taking. Disinhibition, impaired executive function, and/or impulsivity as a result of mTBI also contribute to an individual’s proclivity towards risk-taking. Risk-taking behavior may therefore, be a direct result of SUD and/or history of mTBI, and risky behaviors may predispose individuals for subsequent injury or continued use of substances. Based on these findings, evaluation of risk-taking behavior associated with the co-occurrence of SUD and mTBI should be a standard clinical practice. Interventions aimed at reducing risky behavior among members of this population may assist in decreasing negative outcomes. A novel intervention (Substance Use and Traumatic Brain Injury Risk Reduction and Prevention (STRRP for reducing and preventing risky behaviors among individuals with co-occurring mTBI and SUD is presented. Areas for further research are discussed.

  15. The HEC RAS model of regulated stream for purposes of flood risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijko, Rastislav; Zeleňáková, Martina

    2016-06-01

    The work highlights the modeling of water flow in open channels using 1D mathematical model HEC-RAS in the area of interest Lopuchov village in eastern Slovakia. We created a digital model from a geodetic survey, which was used to show the area of inundation in ArcGIS software. We point out the modeling methodology with emphasis to collection of the data and their relevance for determination of boundary conditions in 3D model of the study area in GIS platform. The BIM objects can be exported to the defined model of the area. The obtained results were used for simulation of flooding. The results give to us clearly and distinctly defined areas of inundation, which we used in the processing of Cost benefit analysis. We used the developed model for stating the potential damages in flood vulnerable areas.

  16. The HEC RAS model of regulated stream for purposes of flood risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fijko Rastislav

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The work highlights the modeling of water flow in open channels using 1D mathematical model HEC-RAS in the area of interest Lopuchov village in eastern Slovakia. We created a digital model from a geodetic survey, which was used to show the area of inundation in ArcGIS software. We point out the modeling methodology with emphasis to collection of the data and their relevance for determination of boundary conditions in 3D model of the study area in GIS platform. The BIM objects can be exported to the defined model of the area. The obtained results were used for simulation of flooding. The results give to us clearly and distinctly defined areas of inundation, which we used in the processing of Cost benefit analysis. We used the developed model for stating the potential damages in flood vulnerable areas.

  17. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LSAP Perspective (9) 2017 NLN International Conference Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: ... and water, pat dry, then apply a topical antibacterial. d. Wear non-constricting protective gear over the ...

  18. Reference Manual for the System Advisor Model's Wind Power Performance Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.; Jorgenson, J.; Gilman, P.; Ferguson, T.

    2014-08-01

    This manual describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM) wind power performance model. The model calculates the hourly electrical output of a single wind turbine or of a wind farm. The wind power performance model requires information about the wind resource, wind turbine specifications, wind farm layout (if applicable), and costs. In SAM, the performance model can be coupled to one of the financial models to calculate economic metrics for residential, commercial, or utility-scale wind projects. This manual describes the algorithms used by the wind power performance model, which is available in the SAM user interface and as part of the SAM Simulation Core (SSC) library, and is intended to supplement the user documentation that comes with the software.

  19. Dealing with unquantifiable uncertainties in landslide modelling for urban risk reduction in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Liz; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Landslides have many negative economic and societal impacts, including the potential for significant loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment can be used to guide decisions about the management of landslide risk, but its usefulness can be challenged by high levels of uncertainty in predicting landslide occurrence. Prediction uncertainty may be associated with the choice of model that is used to assess slope stability, the quality of the available input data, or a lack of knowledge of how future climatic and socio-economic changes may affect future landslide risk. While some of these uncertainties can be characterised by relatively well-defined probability distributions, for other uncertainties, such as those linked to climate change, no probability distribution is available to characterise them. This latter type of uncertainty, often referred to as deep uncertainty, means that robust policies need to be developed that are expected to perform acceptably well over a wide range of future conditions. In our study the impact of deep uncertainty on slope stability predictions is assessed in a quantitative and structured manner using Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Combined Hydrology and Stability Model (CHASM). In particular, we use several GSA methods including the Method of Morris, Regional Sensitivity Analysis and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), as well as advanced visualization tools, to assess the combination of conditions that may lead to slope failure. Our example application is a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates during the hurricane season, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. Rapid unplanned urbanisation and changing climate may further exacerbate landslide risk in the future. Our example shows how we can gain useful information in the presence of deep uncertainty by combining physically based models with GSA in

  20. Dealing with deep uncertainties in landslide modelling for disaster risk reduction under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Susana; Holcombe, Elizabeth Ann; Pianosi, Francesca; Wagener, Thorsten

    2017-02-01

    Landslides have large negative economic and societal impacts, including loss of life and damage to infrastructure. Slope stability assessment is a vital tool for landslide risk management, but high levels of uncertainty often challenge its usefulness. Uncertainties are associated with the numerical model used to assess slope stability and its parameters, with the data characterizing the geometric, geotechnic and hydrologic properties of the slope, and with hazard triggers (e.g. rainfall). Uncertainties associated with many of these factors are also likely to be exacerbated further by future climatic and socio-economic changes, such as increased urbanization and resultant land use change. In this study, we illustrate how numerical models can be used to explore the uncertain factors that influence potential future landslide hazard using a bottom-up strategy. Specifically, we link the Combined Hydrology And Stability Model (CHASM) with sensitivity analysis and Classification And Regression Trees (CART) to identify critical thresholds in slope properties and climatic (rainfall) drivers that lead to slope failure. We apply our approach to a slope in the Caribbean, an area that is naturally susceptible to landslides due to a combination of high rainfall rates, steep slopes, and highly weathered residual soils. For this particular slope, we find that uncertainties regarding some slope properties (namely thickness and effective cohesion of topsoil) are as important as the uncertainties related to future rainfall conditions. Furthermore, we show that 89 % of the expected behaviour of the studied slope can be characterized based on only two variables - the ratio of topsoil thickness to cohesion and the ratio of rainfall intensity to duration.

  1. NREL's System Advisor Model Simplifies Complex Energy Analysis (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    NREL has developed a tool -- the System Advisor Model (SAM) -- that can help decision makers analyze cost, performance, and financing of any size grid-connected solar, wind, or geothermal power project. Manufacturers, engineering and consulting firms, research and development firms, utilities, developers, venture capital firms, and international organizations use SAM for end-to-end analysis that helps determine whether and how to make investments in renewable energy projects.

  2. Parabolic Trough Reference Plant for Cost Modeling with the Solar Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C.

    2010-07-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for parabolic trough solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), assisted by WorleyParsons Group Inc., for use with NREL's Solar Advisor Model (SAM). This report includes an overview and explanation of the model, two summary contract reports from WorleyParsons, and an Excel spreadsheet for use with SAM. The cost study uses a reference plant with a 100-MWe capacity and six hours of thermal energy storage. Wet-cooling and dry-cooling configurations are considered. The spreadsheet includes capital and operating cost by component to allow users to estimate the impact of changes in component costs.

  3. Tsunami evacuation modelling as a tool for risk reduction: application to the coastal area of El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Riancho, P.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Abad, S.; González, M.; Larreynaga, J.; Gavidia, F.; Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Medina, R.

    2013-12-01

    Advances in the understanding and prediction of tsunami impacts allow the development of risk reduction strategies for tsunami-prone areas. This paper presents an integral framework for the formulation of tsunami evacuation plans based on tsunami vulnerability assessment and evacuation modelling. This framework considers (i) the hazard aspects (tsunami flooding characteristics and arrival time), (ii) the characteristics of the exposed area (people, shelters and road network), (iii) the current tsunami warning procedures and timing, (iv) the time needed to evacuate the population, and (v) the identification of measures to improve the evacuation process. The proposed methodological framework aims to bridge between risk assessment and risk management in terms of tsunami evacuation, as it allows for an estimation of the degree of evacuation success of specific management options, as well as for the classification and prioritization of the gathered information, in order to formulate an optimal evacuation plan. The framework has been applied to the El Salvador case study, demonstrating its applicability to site-specific response times and population characteristics.

  4. Incorporation of NREL Solar Advisor Model Photovoltaic Capabilities with GridLAB-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Hammerstrom, Janelle L.; Singh, Ruchi

    2012-10-19

    This report provides a summary of the work updating the photovoltaic model inside GridLAB-D. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Advisor Model (SAM) was utilized as a basis for algorithms and validation of the new implementation. Subsequent testing revealed that the two implementations are nearly identical in both solar impacts and power output levels. This synergized model aides the system-level impact studies of GridLAB-D, but also allows more specific details of a particular site to be explored via the SAM software.

  5. Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.

  6. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  7. Molten Salt Power Tower Cost Model for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, C. S.; Heath, G. A.

    2013-02-01

    This report describes a component-based cost model developed for molten-salt power tower solar power plants. The cost model was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), using data from several prior studies, including a contracted analysis from WorleyParsons Group, which is included herein as an Appendix. The WorleyParsons' analysis also estimated material composition and mass for the plant to facilitate a life cycle analysis of the molten salt power tower technology. Details of the life cycle assessment have been published elsewhere. The cost model provides a reference plant that interfaces with NREL's System Advisor Model or SAM. The reference plant assumes a nominal 100-MWe (net) power tower running with a nitrate salt heat transfer fluid (HTF). Thermal energy storage is provided by direct storage of the HTF in a two-tank system. The design assumes dry-cooling. The model includes a spreadsheet that interfaces with SAM via the Excel Exchange option in SAM. The spreadsheet allows users to estimate the costs of different-size plants and to take into account changes in commodity prices. This report and the accompanying Excel spreadsheet can be downloaded at https://sam.nrel.gov/cost.

  8. Validation of PV-RPM Code in the System Advisor Model.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lavrova, Olga [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Freeman, Janine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes efforts made by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to validate the SNL developed PV Reliability Performance Model (PV - RPM) algorithm as implemented in the NREL System Advisor Model (SAM). The PV - RPM model is a library of functions that estimates component failure and repair in a photovoltaic system over a desired simulation period. The failure and repair distributions in this paper are probabilistic representations of component failure and repair based on data collected by SNL for a PV power plant operating in Arizona. The validation effort focuses on whether the failure and repair dist ributions used in the SAM implementation result in estimated failures that match the expected failures developed in the proof - of - concept implementation. Results indicate that the SAM implementation of PV - RPM provides the same results as the proof - of - concep t implementation, indicating the algorithms were reproduced successfully.

  9. P50/P90 Analysis for Solar Energy Systems Using the System Advisor Model: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobos, A. P.; Gilman, P.; Kasberg, M.

    2012-06-01

    To secure competitive financing for a solar energy generation project, the economic risk associated with interannual solar resource variability must be quantified. One way to quantify this risk is to calculate exceedance probabilities representing the amount of energy expected to be produced by a plant. Many years of solar radiation and metereological data are required to determine these values, often called P50 or P90 values for the level of certainty they represent. This paper describes the two methods implemented in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's System Advisor Model (SAM) to calculate P50 and P90 exceedance probabilities for solar energy projects. The methodology and supporting data sets are applicable to photovoltaic, solar water heating, and concentrating solar power (CSP) systems.

  10. Salud Para Su Corazon (health for your heart) community health worker model: community and clinical approaches for addressing cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanics/Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcazar, H; Alvarado, M; Ortiz, G

    2011-01-01

    This article describes 6 Salud Para Su Corazon (SPSC) family of programs that have addressed cardiovascular disease risk reduction in Hispanic communities facilitated by community health workers (CHWs) or Promotores de Salud (PS). A synopsis of the programs illustrates the designs and methodological approaches that combine community-based participatory research for 2 types of settings: community and clinical. Examples are provided as to how CHWs can serve as agents of change in these settings. A description is presented of a sustainability framework for the SPSC family of programs. Finally, implications are summarized for utilizing the SPSC CHW/PS model to inform ambulatory care management and policy.

  11. Modeling Photovoltaic Module-Level Power Electronics in the System Advisor Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    Module-level power electronics, such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules, are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software. This paper extends the work completed at NREL that provided recommendations to model the performance of distributed power electronics in NREL’s popular PVWatts calculator [1], to provide similar guidelines for modeling these technologies in NREL's more complex System Advisor Model (SAM). Module-level power electronics - such as DC power optimizers, microinverters, and those found in AC modules-- are increasing in popularity in smaller-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems as their prices continue to decline. Therefore, it is important to provide PV modelers with guidelines about how to model these distributed power electronics appropriately in PV modeling software.

  12. Moral Hazard: How The National Flood Insurance Program Is Limiting Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM IS LIMITING RISK REDUCTION by Kevin T. Starbuck December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Glen Woodbury...2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MORAL HAZARD: HOW THE NATIONAL FLOOD INSURANCE PROGRAM IS LIMITING...providing disaster assistance, the federal involvement limits risk reduction and contributes to the rise of a moral hazard. Flooding and flood

  13. Parabolic Trough Collector Cost Update for the System Advisor Model (SAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Turchi, Craig S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report updates the baseline cost for parabolic trough solar fields in the United States within NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). SAM, available at no cost at https://sam.nrel.gov/, is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making for people involved in the renewable energy industry. SAM is the primary tool used by NREL and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for estimating the performance and cost of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies and projects. The study performed a bottom-up build and cost estimate for two state-of-the-art parabolic trough designs -- the SkyTrough and the Ultimate Trough. The SkyTrough analysis estimated the potential installed cost for a solar field of 1500 SCAs as $170/m2 +/- $6/m2. The investigation found that SkyTrough installed costs were sensitive to factors such as raw aluminum alloy cost and production volume. For example, in the case of the SkyTrough, the installed cost would rise to nearly $210/m2 if the aluminum alloy cost was $1.70/lb instead of $1.03/lb. Accordingly, one must be aware of fluctuations in the relevant commodities markets to track system cost over time. The estimated installed cost for the Ultimate Trough was only slightly higher at $178/m2, which includes an assembly facility of $11.6 million amortized over the required production volume. Considering the size and overall cost of a 700 SCA Ultimate Trough solar field, two parallel production lines in a fully covered assembly facility, each with the specific torque box, module and mirror jigs, would be justified for a full CSP plant.

  14. The recovery boiler advisor. Combination of practical experience and advanced thermodynamic modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, R. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland); Eriksson, G. [LTH/RWTH (Germany); Sundstroem, K. [Tampella Power Oy, Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The Aabo Advisor is a computer based program intended to provide information about the high temperature ash and fluegas chemistry in pulping spent black liquor recovery boilers of kraft pulp mills. The program can be used for predictions of a variety of furnace and flue gas phenomena, such as fireside fouling of the heat exchanger surfaces caused by the flue gas particulate matter, emissions of SO{sub 2}(g), HCl(g) and NO{sub x}(g) with the flue gas etc. The program determines the composition of the fluegas as well as the amount and composition of the two typical fly ash fractions found in recovery boiler fluegases, the condensed fly ash particles and the carry over particles. These data are used for calculating the melting behavior of the fly ash present at different locations in the boiler and this characteristic behavior is used for the fireside fouling predictions. The program may also be used for studying how different mill processes affecting the black liquor composition affects on the fireside chemistry of the recovery boiler. As input data for the calculations only a few boiler operation parameters and the composition of the black liquor is required. The calculations are based on a one-dimensional, multi-stage chemistry model where both thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and stoichiometric material balances are used. The model calculates at first the chemistry in the lower furnace and smelt after which it moves to the upper furnace and the radiative parts of the fluegas channel. As the last block the program calculates the chemistry in the convective part, the electrostatic precipitator cath and stack. The results from each block are presented in tables, key numbers and melt curves representing the fluegas or fly ash fraction present at each location

  15. Accelerated cleanup risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.B.; Aines, R.M.; Blake, R.G.; Copeland, A.B.; Newmark, R.L.; Tompson, A.F.B.

    1998-02-01

    period in which the well was `capped`. Our results show the formation of an inclined gas phase during injection and a fast collapse of the steam zone within an hour of terminating steam injection. The majority of destruction occurs during the collapse phase, when contaminant laden water is drawn back towards the well. Little to no noncondensible gasses are created in this process, removing any possibility of sparging processes interfering with contaminant destruction. Our models suggest that the thermal region should be as hot and as large as possible. To have HPO accepted, we need to demonstrate the in situ destruction of contaminants. This requires the ability to inexpensively sample at depth and under high temperatures. We proved the ability to implies monitoring points at depths exceeding 150 feet in highly heterogeneous soils by use of cone penetrometry. In addition, an extractive system has been developed for sampling fluids and measuring their chemistry under the range of extreme conditions expected. We conducted a collaborative field test of HPO at a Superfund site in southern California where the contaminant is mainly creosote and pentachlorophenol. Field results confirm the destruction of contaminants by HPO, validate our field design from simulations, demonstrate that accurate field measurements of the critical fluid parameters can be obtained using existing monitoring wells (and minimal capital cost) and yield reliable cost estimates for future commercial application. We also tested the in situ microbial filter technology as a means to intercept and destroy the accelerated flow of contaminants caused by the injection of steam. A series of laboratory and field tests revealed that the selected bacterial species effectively degrades trichloroethene in LLNL Groundwater and under LLNL site conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that the bacteria effectively attach to the LLNL subsurface media. An in-well treatability study indicated that the bacteria

  16. Health risk reduction behaviors model for scavengers exposed to solid waste in municipal dump sites in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirarattanasunthon, Phiman; Siriwong, Wattasit; Robson, Mark; Borjan, Marija

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of comprehensive health risk protection behaviors, knowledge, attitudes, and practices among scavengers in open dump sites. A control group of 44 scavengers and an intervention group of 44 scavengers participated in this study. Interventions included the use of personal protective equipment, health protection training, and other measures. The analysis showed significant differences before and after the intervention program and also between the control and intervention groups. These observations suggest that further action should be taken to reduce adverse exposure during waste collection. To reduce health hazards to workers, dump site scavenging should be incorporated into the formal sector program. Solid waste and the management of municipal solid waste has become a human and environmental health issue and future research should look at constructing a sustainable model to help protect the health of scavengers and drive authorities to adopt safer management techniques.

  17. Definition of a unique model for the improvement of the monitoring network and seismic risk reduction of the school buildings in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, M.; Console, R.; Colangelo, A.; Cioè, A.; Trivigno, L.

    2015-12-01

    In the latest decade the safety of the Italian schools against seismic risk is a crucial subject for the Italian legislation as well as to the UN Convention on the DRR and the more specific priorities adopted even within the OECD. Recently, the Italian Parliament approved a law (L98/2013) which launched the Commissioning Safety of School Buildings Plan and the Definition of a Unique Model, to be developed by the CGIAM, in order to improve monitoring network and seismic risk reduction (SRR). The objectives of such a law deals with increasing in the knowledge of public actions aimed to improve the effectiveness of the SRR policy on school buildings. The actions of the CGIAM will consist in the identification of a significant number of school buildings in Italy, mainly in terms of type of construction and material, on which calibrate specific synthetic parameters and test models. Furthermore, the activities are addressed to quantitatively evaluation of intervention efficacy, to set up simple systems of instrumental monitoring, even able to test the possibility of periodical checks of the state of general preservation. The main issues carried on by the CGIAM mainly concern the completion and enrichment of the existing data base of school buildings, even through the collaboration of the Ministries and other relevant Italian research institutions, the evaluation of seismic hazard and site condition analysis as well as the definition of other seismic risk factors. Nevertheless a cost-benefit analysis as well as application and dissemination of such tools are proposed too. At the same time, the CGIAM contributes to the definition of experimental installation and use of a Simplified Accelerometric Monitoring Network for school buildings comprehensive of testing phase on a limited number of structures. The work proposes a synthetic overview of the employed methodologies as well as the first results arising from the research and implementation activities.

  18. Modeling for the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario-generation, propagation, inundation, and currents in ports and harbors: Chapter D in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Open-File report presents a compilation of tsunami modeling studies for the Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario. These modeling studies are based on an earthquake source specified by the SAFRR tsunami source working group (Kirby and others, 2013). The modeling studies in this report are organized into three groups. The first group relates to tsunami generation. The effects that source discretization and horizontal displacement have on tsunami initial conditions are examined in section 1 (Whitmore and others). In section 2 (Ryan and others), dynamic earthquake rupture models are explored in modeling tsunami generation. These models calculate slip distribution and vertical displacement of the seafloor as a result of realistic fault friction, physical properties of rocks surrounding the fault, and dynamic stresses resolved on the fault. The second group of papers relates to tsunami propagation and inundation modeling. Section 3 (Thio) presents a modeling study for the entire California coast that includes runup and inundation modeling where there is significant exposure and estimates of maximum velocity and momentum flux at the shoreline. In section 4 (Borrero and others), modeling of tsunami propagation and high-resolution inundation of critical locations in southern California is performed using the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s (NOAA) Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST) model and NOAA’s Community Model Interface for Tsunamis (ComMIT) modeling tool. Adjustments to the inundation line owing to fine-scale structures such as levees are described in section 5 (Wilson). The third group of papers relates to modeling of hydrodynamics in ports and harbors. Section 6 (Nicolsky and Suleimani) presents results of the model used at the Alaska Earthquake Information Center for the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, as well as synthetic time series of the modeled tsunami for other selected

  19. Waiting for Disasters: A Risk Reduction Assessment of Technological Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovins, Jane; Winningham, Sam

    2010-05-01

    This session provides a risk reduction/mitigation assessment of natural hazards causation of technological disasters and possible solution. People use technology in an attempt to not only control their environment but nature itself in order to make them feel safe and productive. Most strategies for managing hazards followed a traditional planning model i.e. study the problem, identify and implement a solution, and move on to the next problem. This approach is often viewed as static model and risk reduction is more of an upward, positive, linear trend. However, technological disasters do not allow risk reduction action to neatly fit this upward, positive, linear trend with actual or potential threats to the environment and society. There are different types of technological disasters, including industrial accidents; pipeline ruptures; accidents at power, water and heat supply systems and other lines of communication; sudden collapse of buildings and mines; air crashes; shipwrecks; automobile and railway accidents to name a few. Natural factors can play an essential role in triggering or magnifying technological disasters. They can result from the direct destruction of given technical objects by a hazardous natural process such as the destruction of an atomic power plant or chemical plant due to an earthquake. Other examples would include the destruction of communications or infrastructure systems by heavy snowfalls, strong winds, avalanches. Events in the past ten years clearly demonstrate that natural disasters and the technological disasters that accompany them are not problems that can be solved in isolation and risk reduction can play an important part. Risk reduction was designed to head off the continuing rising financial and structural tolls from disasters. All Hazard Risk Reduction planning was supposed to include not only natural, but technological, and human-made disasters as well. The subsequent disaster risk reduction (DRR) indicators were to provide the

  20. Peer review presentation on systems performance modeling and solar advisor support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Christopher P.

    2010-05-01

    Accurate Performance Models are Critical to Project Development and Technology Evaluation - Accuracy and Uncertainty of Commonly-Used Models Unknown and Models Disagree. A Model Evaluation Process Has Been Developed with Industry, and High-Quality Weather and System Performance Data Sets Have Been Collected: (1) Evaluation is Underway using Residual Analysis of Hourly and Sub-Hourly Data for Clear and Diffuse Climates to Evaluate and Improve Models; and (2) Initial Results Have Been or Will Soon Be Presented at Key Conferences. Evaluation of Widely-Used Module, Inverter, and Irradiance Models, Including Those in SAM, PVWatts, and PVSyst, Will Be Completed This Year. Stochastic Modeling Has Been Performed to Support Reliability Task and Will Add Value to Parametric Analysis. An Industry Workshop will be Held This Fall To Review Results, Set Priorities. Support and Analysis has been Provided for TPP's, SETP, and PV Community. Goals for Future Work Include: (1) Improving Understanding of and Validating System Derate Factors; and (2) Developing a Dynamic Electrical Model of Arrays with Shaded or Mismatched Modules to Support Transient Analysis of Large Fields.

  1. Online Instructors as Thinking Advisors: A Model for Online Learner Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the characteristics and challenges of online instruction and presents a model for improving learner adaptation in an online classroom. Instruction in an online classroom presents many challenges, including learner individualization. Individual differences in learning styles and preferences are often not considered in the…

  2. Advisor-advisee relationship identification based on maximum entropy model*%基于最大熵模型的导师-学生关系推测*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇军; 刘尊; 于会

    2013-01-01

      导师-学生关系是科研合作网络中重要的关系类型之一,准确识别此类关系对促进科研交流与合作、评审回避等有重要意义.以论文合作网络为基础,依据学生发表论文时通常与导师共同署名的现象,抽象出能够反映导师-学生合作关系的特征,提出了基于最大熵模型的导师-学生关系识别算法.利用DBLP中1990-2011年的论文数据进行实例验证,结果显示:1)关系类型识别结果的准确率超过95%;2)导师-学生关系终止时间的平均误差为1.39年.该方法在识别关系时避免了特征之间相互独立的约束,准确率优于其他同类识别算法,且建模方法对识别社交网络中的其他关系类型也具有借鉴意义.%Research collaboration network has become an essential part in our academic activities. We can keep or develop collaboration relationships with other researchers or share research results with them within the research collaboration network. It is well generally accepted that different relationships have essentially different influences on the collaboration of researchers. Such a scenario also hap-pens in our daily life. The advisor-advisee relationship plays an important role in the research collaboration network, so identification of advisor-advisee relationship can benefit the collaboration of researchers. In this paper, we aim to conduct a systematic investiga-tion of the problem of indentifying the social relationship types from publication networks, and try to propose an easily computed and effective solution to this problem. Based on the common knowledge that graduate student always co-authors his papers with his advisor and not vice versa, our study starts with an analysis on publication network, and retrieves these features that can represent the advisor-advisee relationship. According to these features, an advisor-advisee relationship identification algorithm based on maximum entropy model with

  3. Training Public Health Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Pamela A; Brusuelas, Kristin M; Baden, Daniel J; Duncan, Heather L

    2015-01-01

    Federal public health advisors provide guidance and assistance to health departments to improve public health program work. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) prepares them with specialized training in administering public health programs. This article describes the evolving training and is based on internal CDC documents and interviews. The first federal public health advisors worked in health departments to assist with controlling syphilis after World War II. Over time, more CDC prevention programs hired them. To meet emerging needs, 3 major changes occurred: the Public Health Prevention Service, a fellowship program, in 1999; the Public Health Associate Program in 2007; and integration of those programs. Key components of the updated training are competency-based training, field experience, supervision, recruitment and retention, and stakeholder support. The enduring strength of the training has been the experience in a public health agency developing practical skills for program implementation and management.

  4. Using a Systematic Conceptual Model for a Process Evaluation of a Middle School Obesity Risk-Reduction Nutrition Curriculum Intervention: Choice, Control & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heewon; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Objective To use and review a conceptual model of process evaluation and to examine the implementation of a nutrition education curriculum, Choice, Control & Change, designed to promote dietary and physical activity behaviors that reduce obesity risk. Design A process evaluation study based on a systematic conceptual model. Setting Five middle schools in New York City. Participants 562 students in 20 classes and their science teachers (n=8). Main Outcome Measures Based on the model, teacher professional development, teacher implementation, and student reception were evaluated. Also measured were teacher characteristics, teachers’ curriculum evaluation, and satisfaction with teaching the curriculum. Analysis Descriptive statistics and Spearman’s Rho Correlation for quantitative analysis and content analysis for qualitative data were used. Results Mean score of the teacher professional development evaluation was 4.75 on a 5-point scale. Average teacher implementation rate was 73%, and student reception rate was 69%. Ongoing teacher support was highly valued by teachers. Teachers’ satisfaction with teaching the curriculum was highly correlated with students’ satisfaction (p <.05). Teachers’ perception of amount of student work was negatively correlated with implementation and with student satisfaction (p<.05). Conclusions and implications Use of a systematic conceptual model and comprehensive process measures improves understanding of the implementation process and helps educators to better implement interventions as designed. PMID:23321021

  5. Risk Reduction of an Invasive Insect by Targeting Surveillance Efforts with the Assistance of a Phenology Model and International Maritime Shipping Routes and Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David R

    2016-05-01

    Reducing the risk of introduction to North America of the invasive Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica Vnukovskij and L. d. japonica [Motschulsky]) on international maritime vessels involves two tactics: (1) vessels that wish to arrive in Canada or the United States and have visited any Asian port that is subject to regulation during designated times must obtain a predeparture inspection certificate from an approved entity; and (2) vessels with a certificate may be subjected to an additional inspection upon arrival. A decision support tool is described here with which the allocation of inspection resources at North American ports can be partitioned among multiple vessels according to estimates of the potential onboard Asian gypsy moth population and estimates of the onboard larval emergence pattern. The decision support tool assumes that port inspection is uniformly imperfect at the Asian ports and that each visit to a regulated port has potential for the vessel to be contaminated with gypsy moth egg masses. The decision support tool uses a multigenerational phenology model to estimate the potential onboard population of egg masses by calculating the temporal intersection between the dates of port visits to regulated ports and the simulated oviposition pattern in each port. The phenological development of the onboard population is simulated each day of the vessel log until the vessel arrives at the port being protected from introduction. Multiple independent simulations are used to create a probability distribution of the size and timing of larval emergence.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of risk-reduction measures to reach water safety targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhe, Andreas; Rosén, Lars; Norberg, Tommy; Bergstedt, Olof; Pettersson, Thomas J R

    2011-01-01

    Identifying the most suitable risk-reduction measures in drinking water systems requires a thorough analysis of possible alternatives. In addition to the effects on the risk level, also the economic aspects of the risk-reduction alternatives are commonly considered important. Drinking water supplies are complex systems and to avoid sub-optimisation of risk-reduction measures, the entire system from source to tap needs to be considered. There is a lack of methods for quantification of water supply risk reduction in an economic context for entire drinking water systems. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach for risk assessment in combination with economic analysis to evaluate risk-reduction measures based on a source-to-tap approach. The approach combines a probabilistic and dynamic fault tree method with cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA). The developed approach comprises the following main parts: (1) quantification of risk reduction of alternatives using a probabilistic fault tree model of the entire system; (2) combination of the modelling results with CEA; and (3) evaluation of the alternatives with respect to the risk reduction, the probability of not reaching water safety targets and the cost-effectiveness. The fault tree method and CEA enable comparison of risk-reduction measures in the same quantitative unit and consider costs and uncertainties. The approach provides a structured and thorough analysis of risk-reduction measures that facilitates transparency and long-term planning of drinking water systems in order to avoid sub-optimisation of available resources for risk reduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Do stigma, blame and stereotyping contribute to unsafe sexual behaviour? A test of claims about the spread of HIV/AIDS arising from social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Gerard Anthony; Baah-Odoom, Dinah

    2010-08-01

    In the context of social representation theory and the AIDS risk reduction model, it has been claimed that stigmatizing, blaming and stereotyping attitudes make people feel less at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS, and that this, in turn, results in them taking fewer precautions in their sexual behaviour. Previous research has failed to provide convincing evidence to support these claims. The present study provided a test of the claims that addressed some of the methodological issues identified in the earlier research. A sample of 460 young people from Ghana, ranging in age from 15 to 28 years (mean=18), completed a questionnaire that measured the relevant constructs. The results supported the claims in relation to stigmatizing and intended sexual risk behaviour, but not stigmatizing and actual sexual risk behaviour. Although the latter two were correlated, this was not mediated by reduced perceptions of vulnerability. Claims in relation to blaming and stereotyping were not supported. Contrary to expectation, specific blaming and stereotyping attitudes that constructed HIV/AIDS as a sexual disease were associated with safer intended sexual behaviour, and this relationship was mediated by feeling at greater risk.

  8. Honorary Advisors and Advisors to Tenth National Council of CPAFFC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Honorary Advisors Buhe, former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress, and President of the China-Poland Friendship Association Tomur Dawamat, former Vice Chairman of the Standing

  9. The Advisor Quality Survey: Good College Advisors Are Available, Knowledgeable, and Autonomy Supportive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Kennon M.; Garton, Bryan; Orr, Rachael; Smith, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Most US institutions of higher education do not assess advisor quality. We report a scale development effort informed by the developmental prescriptions of self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). The 15-item Missouri Advisor Quality Survey assesses advisor knowledge, advisor availability, and advisor autonomy supportiveness.…

  10. Using a relative health indicator (RHI) metric to estimate health risk reductions in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, Katherine A; Seidel, Chad; Ghosh, Amlan; Roberson, J Alan

    2017-03-01

    When a new drinking water regulation is being developed, the USEPA conducts a health risk reduction and cost analysis to, in part, estimate quantifiable and non-quantifiable cost and benefits of the various regulatory alternatives. Numerous methodologies are available for cumulative risk assessment ranging from primarily qualitative to primarily quantitative. This research developed a summary metric of relative cumulative health impacts resulting from drinking water, the relative health indicator (RHI). An intermediate level of quantification and modeling was chosen, one which retains the concept of an aggregated metric of public health impact and hence allows for comparisons to be made across "cups of water," but avoids the need for development and use of complex models that are beyond the existing state of the science. Using the USEPA Six-Year Review data and available national occurrence surveys of drinking water contaminants, the metric is used to test risk reduction as it pertains to the implementation of the arsenic and uranium maximum contaminant levels and quantify "meaningful" risk reduction. Uranium represented the threshold risk reduction against which national non-compliance risk reduction was compared for arsenic, nitrate, and radium. Arsenic non-compliance is most significant and efforts focused on bringing those non-compliant utilities into compliance with the 10 μg/L maximum contaminant level would meet the threshold for meaningful risk reduction.

  11. Integrating social capacity into risk reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderbauer, S.; Pedoth, L.; Zebisch, M.

    2012-04-01

    The reduction of risk to impacts from external stresses and shocks is an important task in communities worldwide at all government levels and independent of the development status. The importance of building social capacity as part of risk reduction strategies is increasingly recognized. However, there is space for improvement to incorporate related activities into a holistic risk governance approach. Starting point for such enhancements is to promote and improve assessments of what is called 'sensitivity' or 'adaptive capacity' in the climate change community and what is named 'vulnerability' or 'resilience' in the hazard risk community. Challenging issues that need to be tackled in this context are the integration of concepts and method as well as the fusion of data. Against this background we introduce a method to assess regional adaptive capacity to climate change focusing on mountain areas accounting for sector specific problems. By considering three levels of specificity as base for the selection of most appropriate indicators the study results have the potential to support decision making regarding most appropriate adaptation actions. Advantages and shortcomings of certain aspects of adaptive capacity assessment in general and of the proposed method in particular are presented.

  12. Resilience and disaster risk reduction: an etymological journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D. E.

    2013-11-01

    This paper examines the development over historical time of the meaning and uses of the term resilience. The objective is to deepen our understanding of how the term came to be adopted in disaster risk reduction and resolve some of the conflicts and controversies that have arisen when it has been used. The paper traces the development of resilience through the sciences, humanities, and legal and political spheres. It considers how mechanics passed the word to ecology and psychology, and how from there it was adopted by social research and sustainability science. As other authors have noted, as a concept, resilience involves some potentially serious conflicts or contradictions, for example between stability and dynamism, or between dynamic equilibrium (homeostasis) and evolution. Moreover, although the resilience concept works quite well within the confines of general systems theory, in situations in which a systems formulation inhibits rather than fosters explanation, a different interpretation of the term is warranted. This may be the case for disaster risk reduction, which involves transformation rather than preservation of the "state of the system". The article concludes that the modern conception of resilience derives benefit from a rich history of meanings and applications, but that it is dangerous - or at least potentially disappointing - to read to much into the term as a model and a paradigm.

  13. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  14. Relationship among Food-Safety Knowledge, Beliefs, and Risk-Reduction Behavior in University Students in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Sayaka; Akamatsu, Rie; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Marui, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify whether university students who have both food-safety knowledge and beliefs perform risk-reduction behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional research using a questionnaire that included food-safety knowledge, perceptions, risk-reduction behavior, stages for the selection of safer food based on the Transtheoretical Model, and…

  15. Microenterprise development interventions for sexual risk reduction: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Rosa R; Lee, Ramon; Thirumurthy, Harsha; Muessig, Kathryn E; Tucker, Joseph D

    2013-11-01

    Comprehensive interventions that address both individual and structural determinants associated with HIV/STI risk are gaining increasing attention over the past decade. Microenterprise development offers an appealing model for HIV prevention by addressing poverty and gender equality. This study systematically reviewed the effects of microenterprise development interventions on HIV/STI incidence and sexual risk behaviors. Microenterprise development was defined as developing small business capacity among individuals to alleviate poverty. Seven eligible research studies representing five interventions were identified and included in this review. All of the studies targeted women, and three focused on sex workers. None measured biomarker outcomes. All three sex worker studies showed significant reduction in sexual risk behaviors when compared to the control group. Non-sex worker studies showed limited changes in sexual risk behavior. This review indicates the potential utility of microenterprise development in HIV risk reduction programs. More research is needed to determine how microenterprise development can be effectively incorporated in comprehensive HIV control strategies.

  16. 76 FR 823 - Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ..., Reforming Corporate Governance, State Government News (June/July 2003), available at http://www.csg.org... Municipal Advisors 1. Proposed Rule 15Ba1-1: Definition of ``Municipal Advisor'' and Related Terms a. Statutory Definition of ``Municipal Advisor'' b. Interpretation of the Term ``Municipal...

  17. The entomologist as a science partner and curriculum advisor: The Earth School model for grades 6--8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bethany Johnston

    The Earth School model for creation of partnerships between university scientists and public schools began with a traditional research project involving the study of macroinvertebrate recolonization of agriculturally based restored wetlands. From fieldwork designed to address hypotheses of community composition over time, protocols and equipment evolved for application in middle-school classrooms. In addition to classroom teachers guiding their students in replicating active scientific research, the inclusion of a science partner was key to the success of this model. To ensure that the classroom teachers were themselves comfortable as researchers, monthly staff development workshops were conducted as a component of the Earth School model. The use of entomology as a unifying theme for educational scientific investigation lets the student explore virtually every other system in the biosphere. Because of the unparalleled survivability and adaptability of insects, we can find examples from all biomes, all time references and all disciplines. Over the course of long-term continuous exploration, learners become familiar with relationships and patterns evident in natural situations. These same patterns of birth, growth and decay are much more vividly demonstrated in the field than in textbooks. Similarly, concrete examples of feeding relationships between organisms are plentiful in nearly any outdoor situation. The following model incorporates current research from multiple scientific disciplines but focuses on the many and varied research activities offered by the entomological community. Teachers and students in a primarily urban setting made extensive use of the materials developed through the course of this model's development. Their feedback as the materials were integrated into an established curriculum allowed for the fine-tuning of activity development. A conversion template has evolved that gives teachers, curriculum directors, parents and other educators a

  18. TEACHER-ADVISORS: Where There's a Skill There's A Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamminen, Armas; And Others

    This report discusses a program to present the Teacher Advisement Training Model. This model for training teacher-advisors is based on the assumption that tentative commitment to making school a more rewarding experience for all is the first step in starting an effective program. The approach is to help teachers learn specific skills and methods…

  19. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: Quantification of Lymphedema Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Quantification of Lymphedema Risk Reduction PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of...Biopsy: Quantification of Lymphedema Risk Reduction 5b. GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-00-1-0649 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Andrea L. Cheville...Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It

  20. Taking stock of decentralized disaster risk reduction in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Anthony; Gersonius, Berry; Makarigakis, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    The Sendai Framework, which outlines the global course on disaster risk reduction until 2030, places strong importance on the role of local government in disaster risk reduction. An aim of decentralization is to increase the influence and authority of local government in decision making. Yet, there is limited empirical evidence of the extent, character and effects of decentralization in current disaster risk reduction implementation, and of the barriers that are most critical to this. This paper evaluates decentralization in relation to disaster risk reduction in Indonesia, chosen for its recent actions to decentralize governance of DRR coupled with a high level of disaster risk. An analytical framework was developed to evaluate the various dimensions of decentralized disaster risk reduction, which necessitated the use of a desk study, semi-structured interviews and a gap analysis. Key barriers to implementation in Indonesia included: capacity gaps at lower institutional levels, low compliance with legislation, disconnected policies, issues in communication and coordination and inadequate resourcing. However, any of these barriers are not unique to disaster risk reduction, and similar barriers have been observed for decentralization in other developing countries in other public sectors.

  1. Hierarchical decision making for flood risk reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2013-01-01

    . In current practice, structures are often optimized individually without considering benefits of having a hierarchy of protection structures. It is here argued, that the joint consideration of hierarchically integrated protection structures is beneficial. A hierarchical decision model is utilized to analyze...... and compare the benefit of large upstream protection structures and local downstream protection structures in regard to epistemic uncertainty parameters. Results suggest that epistemic uncertainty influences the outcome of the decision model and that, depending on the magnitude of epistemic uncertainty...

  2. Risk and potential risk reduction in diabetes type 2 patients in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häussler, Bertram; Berger, Ursula; Mast, Oliver; Thefeld, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    Avoiding serious complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and amputations in diabetes patients is the main interest of long-term treatment. Given the considerable prevalence of diabetes type 2 in industrialized countries this is a major public health concern as well as a burden to health care systems. The present study estimated the current risk of major complications occurring in the German diabetes type 2 population and explored the potential for further risk reduction. Risk reduction can be achieved when physiological and behavioral parameters (HbAlc, blood pressure, cholesterol level, body mass index, smoking) are set to target values recommended in guidelines. To estimate individual risk and potential risk reduction the multifactor disease model Mellibase was employed. Data were obtained from the German Health Survey of 1998, which includes a sample of 7,124 individuals representative of the German population. The survey shows a prevalence rate of 6.3% for diabetes type 2 in persons older than 35 years. The analyses reveal that the overall potential for risk reduction is moderate (e.g., the average reduction potential of the 10-year risk of stroke is 5.7%). A majority of parameter ranges found in the patient population are either already close to the recommended values (HbA1c), are not alarmingly higher than in the general population (blood pressure) or have little impact on risk reduction. In addition nonmodifiable risk factors such as duration of the illness and advanced age constrain possible improvements. However, there is a wide variation in the actual risk between individuals (e.g., the 10-year risk of stroke varies between 2.2% and 79.8%), and thus a wide variation in potential risk reduction (the risk reduction potential for stroke varies between 0% and 53.4%). Intensified treatment should therefore (a) focus on relevant subgroups of patients taking their risk reduction potential into account and (b) aim at improvement in the overall

  3. Risk reduction by combining nature values with flood protection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Loon-Steensma Jantsje M.

    2016-01-01

    foreland into the dike design does not automatically mean that nature values and flood protection are well integrated. Flood protection imposes rather different requirements on the extent and features of marshes than nature conservation and development. Wave damping is most effective with a high and stable marsh, while nature thrives with dynamic processes and differences in elevation. Therefore, only a design that allows natural marsh dynamics and includes different marsh zones could combine nature values with flood protection. In practice, this means a dike design with an uncertain foreland, that offers space for natural processes. The uncertainty in foreland development reduces the possible flood risk reduction. In our paper we describe the critical points of interest concerning risk reduction in this system.

  4. Full Range Advising: Transforming the Advisor-Advisee Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Story, Joana S.; Fritz, Susan M.; Schinstock, Jack L.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from the leadership literature, a new model for advising is proposed. Full range advising encompasses laissez-faire, management by exception, contingent rewards, and transformational behaviors. The relationships between full range advising and advisees' extra effort, satisfaction with the advisor, and advising effectiveness were examined.…

  5. Toward Risk Reduction for Mobile Service Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuiguang; Huang, Longtao; Li, Ying; Zhou, Honggeng; Wu, Zhaohui; Cao, Xiongfei; Kataev, Mikhail Yu; Li, Ling

    2016-08-01

    The advances in mobile technologies enable us to consume or even provide services through powerful mobile devices anytime and anywhere. Services running on mobile devices within limited range can be composed to coordinate together through wireless communication technologies and perform complex tasks. However, the mobility of users and devices in mobile environment imposes high risk on the execution of the tasks. This paper targets reducing this risk by constructing a dependable service composition after considering the mobility of both service requesters and providers. It first proposes a risk model and clarifies the risk of mobile service composition; and then proposes a service composition approach by modifying the simulated annealing algorithm. Our objective is to form a service composition by selecting mobile services under the mobility model and to ensure the service composition have the best quality of service and the lowest risk. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach can yield near-optimal solutions and has a nearly linear complexity with respect to a problem size.

  6. Risk Reduction Technologies in General Practice and Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devin Rexvid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available General practitioners (GPs and social workers (SWs are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT. It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed in that GPs were sceptical whilst SWs took a more pragmatic view. Furthermore the results suggest that SWs might experience professional benefits by adopting an adherent approach to the increased dissemination of risk reduction technologies (RRT. GPs, however, did not seem to experience such benefits. Keywords: Profession, risk, social worker, general practitioner, risk reduction technologies, evidence-based practice/medicine 

  7. Social Media Use and Sexual Risk Reduction Behavior Among Minority Youth: Seeking Safe Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Todhunter-Reid, Abigail; Brawner, Bridgette; Stewart, Jennifer

    Sexual health is an important area of study-particularly for minority youth and youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. The purpose of the research was to examine the sources of sexual health information associated with youth adopting sexual risk reduction behaviors. Data collection took place in a small city in the Northeastern United States using cross-sectional behavioral surveys and modified venue-based sampling. Participants included 249 African American and Latino youth aged 13-24. Participants reported their sources of information about contraception and human immunodeficiency virus/sexually transmitted disease, such as TV/movies, parents, social media; their intentions to have sex; and condom and contraception use during their last sexual activity. Social media use, past pregnancy experience, past sexual history, age, and gender were also measured. Standard tests of bivariate association (chi-square and F tests) were used to examine initial associations between sexual risk reduction behavior and exposure to sexual risk reduction information on social media. Logistic regression models were used to test multivariate relationships between information sources and sexual risk reduction behavior. Youth who were exposed to sexual health messages on social media were 2.69 times (p media as information sources were not significantly associated with contractive use or condom use at last intercourse. Youth sexual behavior is increasingly informed by social media messages. Health practitioners should utilize social media as an important health promotion tool.

  8. 76 FR 41278 - Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Security Risk Reduction; Public Listening Sessions AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS..., transfer, and storage of Certain Dangerous Cargo (CDC) in bulk within the U.S. Marine Transportation System....Bergan@uscg.mil . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In September 2009, the Coast Guard held a...

  9. Climate change, uncertainty and investment in flood risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, van der T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Economic analysis of flood risk management strategies has become more complex due to climate change. This thesis investigates the impact of climate change on investment in flood risk reduction, and applies optimisation methods to support identification of optimal flood risk management strategies. Ch

  10. Local governance in disaster risk reduction in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buh-Wung Gaston

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2005 World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction held in Hyogo, Japan, 168 countries including Cameroon adopted the Hyogo Framework for Action, committing to take action to reduce human and socio-economic disaster losses. Geotechnology, Environmental Assessment and Disaster Risk Reduction was commissioned by the Global Network of Civil Society Organisations for Disaster Risk Reduction as the coordinating organisation in Cameroon to evaluate progress in implementation of the framework from the civil society perspective, particularly the role of local governance in disaster risk reduction (DRR. Seven regions of the country were identified for evaluation, where people have suffered losses from disasters during the last three decades. Three approaches were used: administration of questionnaires; consultations with local communities; and four case studies. It was found that there was significant scope for improvement on individual local governance indicators, and that effective progress depends on:1. level of achievement in the decentralisation process currently under way.2. adoption of a participatory approach to DRR.3. clear distribution of roles in the DRR process.4. adequate allocation of necessary financial and human resources.5. enhancement of capacity of local communities to prepare for and respond to all types of disasters.Creation of an independent body to carry out fundamental research, forecast new and emerging hazards and manage all disasters in the country will contribute greatly to moving things forward.

  11. Special Diabetes Program for Indians: Retention in Cardiovascular Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Zhang, Lijing; Beals, Janette; Acton, Kelly J.; Roubideaux, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the associations between participant and site characteristics and retention in a multisite cardiovascular disease risk reduction project. Design and Methods: Data were derived from the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Healthy Heart Demonstration Project, an intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among American…

  12. Risk reduction technologies in general practice and social work

    OpenAIRE

    Rexvid, Devin; Blom, Björn; Evertsson, Lars; Forssén, Annika

    2012-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) and social workers (SWs) are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT). It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed...

  13. Risk Reduction Technologies in General Practice and Social Work

    OpenAIRE

    Devin Rexvid; Björn Blom; Lars Evertsson; Annika Forssén

    2012-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) and social workers (SWs) are professions whose professional autonomy and discretion have changed in the so-called risk and audit society. The aim of this article is to compare GPs’ and SWs’ responses to Evidence-Based and Organizational Risk Reduction Technologies (ERRT and ORRT). It is based on a content analysis of 54 peer-reviewed empirical articles. The results show that both professions held ambivalent positions towards ERRT. The response towards ORRT differed...

  14. Quantitative Cyber Risk Reduction Estimation Methodology for a Small Scada Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles A. McQueen; Wayne F. Boyer; Mark A. Flynn; George A. Beitel

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new methodology for obtaining a quick quantitative measurement of the risk reduction achieved when a control system is modified with the intent to improve cyber security defense against external attackers. The proposed methodology employs a directed graph called a compromise graph, where the nodes represent stages of a potential attack and the edges represent the expected time-to-compromise for differing attacker skill levels. Time-to-compromise is modeled as a function of known vulnerabilities and attacker skill level. The methodology was used to calculate risk reduction estimates for a specific SCADA system and for a specific set of control system security remedial actions. Despite an 86% reduction in the total number of vulnerabilities, the estimated time-to-compromise was increased only by about 3 to 30% depending on target and attacker skill level.

  15. Indigenous knowledge for disaster risk reduction: An African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi G. Iloka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge is valuable knowledge that has helped local communities all over the world survive for generations. This knowledge originates from the interaction between members of the community and the environment in which they live. Although much has been written about indigenous knowledge, its documentation in the area of disaster risk reduction and climate change in Africa has been very limited. The wealth of this knowledge has not been well-recognised in the disaster risk reduction field, as policy-makers still rely on mitigation strategies based on scientific knowledge. Colonialism and lack of proper documentation of indigenous knowledge are some of the contributing factors to this. Ignoring the importance of understanding adaptive strategies of the local people has led to failed projects. Understanding how local people in Africa have managed to survive and adapt for generations, before the arrival of Western education, may be the key to developing sustainable policies to mitigate future challenges. Literature used in this article, obtained from the books, papers and publications of various experts in the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, indigenous knowledge and adaptation, highlight the need for more interest to be shown in indigenous knowledge, especially in the developing country context. This would lead to better strategies which originate from the community level but would aim for overall sustainable development in Africa.

  16. Issues of fish consumption for cardiovascular disease risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Jahns, Lisa; Picklo, Matthew J

    2013-03-28

    Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  17. Issues of Fish Consumption for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Picklo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing fish consumption is recommended for intake of omega-3 (n-3 fatty acids and to confer benefits for the risk reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Most Americans are not achieving intake levels that comply with current recommendations. It is the goal of this review to provide an overview of the issues affecting this shortfall of intake. Herein we describe the relationship between fish intake and CVD risk reduction as well as the other nutritional contributions of fish to the diet. Currently recommended intake levels are described and estimates of fish consumption at a food disappearance and individual level are reported. Risk and benefit factors influencing the choice to consume fish are outlined. The multiple factors influencing fish availability from global capture and aquaculture are described as are other pertinent issues of fish nutrition, production, sustainability, and consumption patterns. This review highlights some of the work that needs to be carried out to meet the demand for fish and to positively affect intake levels to meet fish intake recommendations for CVD risk reduction.

  18. Education, consultation, guidance, students, advisor, teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyedmajidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Student counseling and supervision play an important role to overcome learning problems and to achieve educational goals. The present study is intended to investigate viewpoints of students regarding educational guidance and advice studying at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional survey, viewpoints of 480 students were collected by a questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been approved before. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 software. Chi- square and ANOVA tests were administered. Results: 61.2% of all participants were female and 38.8% were males with mean age of 21.3±4.0. 37.2% of these students lacked sufficient knowledge and information on how to request from their advisors for help and guidance. Half of students (50.3% reported attendance of advisors and holding routine consultation is inappropriate. Advisors made more educational files for females compare to males (P=0.001. No difference observed regarding educational disciplines of the advisors regarding students were dissatisfied with help and guidance received from paramedics and dentistry students in most fields (87.3% and 81.5% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that either student has no sufficient information about tasks of advisors and/or advisors may not do their tasks properly. It is recommended the students to be acquainted with advisors’ tasks upon their entrance into the university. Training classes for new academics would be helpful.

  19. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  20. Quantitative Risk reduction estimation Tool For Control Systems, Suggested Approach and Research Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles McQueen; Wayne Boyer; Mark Flynn; Sam Alessi

    2006-03-01

    For the past year we have applied a variety of risk assessment technologies to evaluate the risk to critical infrastructure from cyber attacks on control systems. More recently, we identified the need for a stand alone control system risk reduction estimation tool to provide owners and operators of control systems with a more useable, reliable, and credible method for managing the risks from cyber attack. Risk is defined as the probability of a successful attack times the value of the resulting loss, typically measured in lives and dollars. Qualitative and ad hoc techniques for measuring risk do not provide sufficient support for cost benefit analyses associated with cyber security mitigation actions. To address the need for better quantitative risk reduction models we surveyed previous quantitative risk assessment research; evaluated currently available tools; developed new quantitative techniques [17] [18]; implemented a prototype analysis tool to demonstrate how such a tool might be used; used the prototype to test a variety of underlying risk calculational engines (e.g. attack tree, attack graph); and identified technical and research needs. We concluded that significant gaps still exist and difficult research problems remain for quantitatively assessing the risk to control system components and networks, but that a useable quantitative risk reduction estimation tool is not beyond reach.

  1. Towards improved public awareness for climate related disaster risk reduction in South Africa: A Participatory Development Communication perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigere Chagutah

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa has frequently been struck by damaging climate hazards which increasingly continue to threaten sustainable development efforts. Ominously, climate models predict that the incidence of major ‘wet’ events, such as floods and cyclones will increase in frequency against the background of a changing climate. Unfortunately, local mechanisms for communicating and raising public awareness of the consequent risks and appropriate risk reduction options remain weak. At the core of policy responses to the threat posed by climate related hazards, the South African government has adopted a disaster risk reduction approach to disaster management. This article details how, among many other measures to limit the adverse impacts of natural hazards, South Africa’s National Disaster Management Framework calls for the implementation of effective public awareness activities to increase the knowledge among communities of the risks they face and what risk-minimising actions they can take. Emphasis is laid on the importance of information provision and knowledge building among at-risk communities. Citing established theories and strategies, the author proposes a participatory development communication approach through Development Support Communication strategies for the provision of disaster risk reduction public awareness activities by government and other disaster risk reduction role-players in South Africa. By way of a review of completed studies and literature, the article provides guidance on the planning and execution of successful public communication campaigns and also discusses the constraints of communication campaigns as an intervention for comprehensive disaster risk reduction.

  2. Advisees' Expectations for Support as Moderator between Advisor Behavior and Advisee Perceptions of Advisor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullick, Julia M.; Smith-Jentsch, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested relationships between students' expectations of psychosocial and career support through a peer advising program, the frequency of advisor behaviors consistent with these types of support (coded from transcripts), and advisee perceptions after receiving such support. Participants were 179 advisor-advisee dyads at a large southeastern…

  3. Risk Reduction and Training using Simulation Based Tools - 12180

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Irin P. [Newport News Shipbuilding, Newport News, Virginia 23607 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Process Modeling and Simulation (M and S) has been used for many years in manufacturing and similar domains, as part of an industrial engineer's tool box. Traditionally, however, this technique has been employed in small, isolated projects where models were created from scratch, often making it time and cost prohibitive. Newport News Shipbuilding (NNS) has recognized the value of this predictive technique and what it offers in terms of risk reduction, cost avoidance and on-schedule performance of highly complex work. To facilitate implementation, NNS has been maturing a process and the software to rapidly deploy and reuse M and S based decision support tools in a variety of environments. Some examples of successful applications by NNS of this technique in the nuclear domain are a reactor refueling simulation based tool, a fuel handling facility simulation based tool and a tool for dynamic radiation exposure tracking. The next generation of M and S applications include expanding simulation based tools into immersive and interactive training. The applications discussed here take a tool box approach to creating simulation based decision support tools for maximum utility and return on investment. This approach involves creating a collection of simulation tools that can be used individually or integrated together for a larger application. The refueling simulation integrates with the fuel handling facility simulation to understand every aspect and dependency of the fuel handling evolutions. This approach translates nicely to other complex domains where real system experimentation is not feasible, such as nuclear fuel lifecycle and waste management. Similar concepts can also be applied to different types of simulation techniques. For example, a process simulation of liquid waste operations may be useful to streamline and plan operations, while a chemical model of the liquid waste composition is an important tool for making decisions with respect to waste disposition

  4. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population.

  5. Evaluating the risk-reduction benefits of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, M.C. [Brower & Company, Andover, MA (United States); Bell, K. [Convergence Research, Seattle, WA (United States); Bernow, S.; Duckworth, M. [Tellus Inst., Boston, MA (United States); Spinney P. [Charles River Associates, Boston, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents preliminary results of a study to evaluate the risk-reduction benefits of wind power for a case study utility system using decision analysis techniques. The costs and risks of two alternative decisions-whether to build a 400 MW gas-fired combined cycle plant or a 1600 MW wind plant in 2003-were compared through computer simulations as fuel prices, environmental regulatory costs, wind and conventional power plant availability, and load growth were allowed to vary. Three different market scenarios were examined: traditional regulation, a short-term power pool, and fixed-price contracts of varying duration. The study concludes that, from the perspective of ratepayers, wind energy provides a net levelized risk-reduction benefit of $3.4 to $7.8/MWh under traditional regulation, and less in the other scenarios. From the perspective of the utility plant owners, wind provides a significant risk benefit in the unregulated market scenarios but none in a regulated market. The methodology and findings should help inform utility resource planning and industry restructuring efforts. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Bangkok to Sendai and Beyond: Implications for Disaster Risk Reduction in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Ranit; Shiwaku, Koichi; Das Gupta, Rajarshi; Nakano, Genta; Shaw, Rajib

    2015-01-01

    The recently concluded World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR) in Sendai, Japan and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 (SFDRR) have set renewed priorities for disaster risk reduction (DRR) for the next 15 years. Due to Asia’s high exposure to natural hazards, the implications of the new SFDRR have major significance for the future development of the region. The 6th Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (AMCDRR), held in Bangkok in 2014, wa...

  7. Incentivising flood risk adaptation through risk based insurance premiums : Trade-offs between affordability and risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, Paul F.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Feyen, L.; Aerts, Jeroen C.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    The financial incentives offered by the risk-based pricing of insurance can stimulate policyholder adaptation to flood risk while potentially conflicting with affordability. We examine the trade-off between risk reduction and affordability in a model of public-private flood insurance in France and G

  8. Farmers Prone to Drought Risk: Why Some Farmers Undertake Farm-Level Risk-Reduction Measures While Others Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Tagel; van der Veen, Anne

    2015-03-01

    This research investigates farmers' cognitive perceptions of risk and the behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. It has been observed that people who are susceptible to natural hazards often fail to act, or do very little, to protect their assets or lives. To answer the question of why some people show adaptive behavior while others do not, a socio-psychological model of precautionary adaptation based on protection motivation theory and trans-theoretical stage model has been applied for the first time to areas of drought risk in the developing countries cultural context. The applicability of the integrated model is explored by means of a representative sample survey of smallholder farmers in northern Ethiopia. The result of the study showed that there is a statistically significant association between farmer's behavioral intention to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures and the main important protection motivation model variables. High perceived vulnerability, severity of consequences, self-efficacy, and response efficacy lead to higher levels of behavioral intentions to undertake farm-level risk-reduction measures. For farmers in the action stage, self-efficacy and response efficacy were the main motivators of behavioral intention. For farmers in the contemplative stage, self-efficacy and cost appear to be the main motivators for them to act upon risk reduction, while perceived severity of consequences and cost of response actions were found to be important for farmers in the pre-contemplative stage.

  9. Reconnaissance Level Studies on a Storm Surge Barrier for Flood Risk Reduction in the Houston-Galveston Bay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, S.N.; Mooyaart, L.F.; Van Ledden, M.; Stoeten, K.J.; De Vries, P.A.L.; Lendering, K.T.; Van der Toorn, A.; Willems, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Houston - Galveston area is at significant risk from hurricane induced storm surges. This paper summarizes ongoing studies on flood risk reduction for the region. Firstly, based on a simplified probabilistic hurricane surge model , the return periods of surges within the bay have been estimated.

  10. Risk-reduction surgery in pediatric surgical oncology: A perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, John A; Fernandez-Pineda, Israel; Malkan, Alpin D

    2016-04-01

    A small percentage of pediatric solid cancers arise as a result of clearly identified inherited predisposition syndromes and nongenetic lesions. Evidence supports preemptive surgery for children with genetic [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2), familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome (FAP), hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and nongenetic [thyroglossal duct cysts (TGDC), congenital pulmonary airway malformations (CPAM), alimentary tract duplication cysts (ATDC), and congenital choledochal cysts (CCC)] developmental anomalies. Our aim was to explore the utility of risk reduction surgery to treat and prevent cancer in children. A systematic review of the available peer-reviewed literature on PubMed was performed using a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) search strategy, where possible. Search items included "risk reduction surgery", "hereditary cancer predisposition syndrome", "multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2", "familial adenomatous polyposis", "hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer", "hereditary diffuse gastric cancer", "thyroglossal duct cysts", congenital pulmonary airway malformations", "alimentary tract duplication cysts", "malignant transformation", and "guidelines". We identified 67 articles that met the inclusion criteria describing the indications for prophylactic surgery in surgical oncology. For the genetic predisposition syndromes, 7 studies were related to professional endorsed guidelines, 7 were related to surgery for MEN2, 11 were related to colectomy for FAP, 6 were related to colectomy for HNPCC, and 12 related to gastrectomy for HDGC. Articles for the nongenetic lesions included 5 for techniques related to TGDC resection, 9 for surgery for CPAMs, and 10 for resection of ATDCs. Guidelines and strategies varied significantly especially related to the extent and timing of surgical intervention; the exception was for the timing of

  11. Creating Rural Allied Health Leadership Structures Using District Advisors: An Action Research Project Using Program Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David; Kurtz, Megan; Davidson, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    District advisors in five allied health disciplines were introduced in a local health district in rural Australia in 2013. These strategic leadership roles provide support to clinicians and managers. As there is little research exploring allied health leadership models from a strategic and operational perspective, the coordinated commencement of these roles provided opportunity to study the creation of this leadership structure. Four advisors participated in this action research study which used focus groups and program logic processes to explore the inputs, outputs, barriers, outcomes to date, and preferred future outcomes of the leadership model. A purpose-built questionnaire was sent to 134 allied health clinicians or managers with questionnaire responses used by advisors to visualise the leadership model. Advisors prioritised policy development, representing the profession outside the organisation, and supporting department managers, whilst clinicians prioritised communication and connection-building within the organisation. Outcomes of the leadership model included connection, coordination, and advocacy for clinicians. Future preferred outcomes included increased strategic and workforce planning. Barriers included limited time, a widespread workforce and limited resourcing. Instituting a leadership model improved communication, cohesion, and coordination within the organisation. Future increases in workforce planning and coordination are limited by advisor capacity and competing workloads.

  12. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  13. National Aerospace Plane Integrated Fuselage/Cryotank Risk Reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, K. E.

    1993-06-01

    The principal objectives and results of the National Aerospace Plane (NASP) Integrated Risk Reduction program are briefly reviewed. The program demonstrated the feasibility of manufacturing lightweight advanced composite materials for single-stage-to-orbit hypersonic flight vehicle applications. A series of combined load simulation tests (thermal, mechanical, and cryogenic) demonstrated proof of concept performance for an all unlined composite cryogenic fuel tank with flat end bulkheads and a high-temperature thin-shell advanced composite fuselage. Temperatures of the fuselage were as high as 1300 F, with 100 percent bending and shear loads applied to the tank while filled with 850 gallons of cryogenic fluid hydrogen (-425 F). Leak rates measured on and around the cryotank shell and bulkheads were well below acceptable levels.

  14. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Houston Miller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the evidence supporting treatments within the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS, the role cardioprotection plays within the management of hypertension, considerations around medication adherence, and the role of the nurse or nurse practitioner in guiding patients to achieve higher hypertension control rates. A large body of data now exists to support the use of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs which act on RAS, in the management of hypertension and their effect on cardiovascular risk reduction. Current evidence suggests that inhibition of the RAS is an important target for cardioprotection. RAS inhibition controls blood pressure and also reduces target-organ damage. This is especially important in populations at high-risk for damage including patients with diabetes and those with chronic kidney disease. Both ARBs and ACEIs target the RAS offering important reductions in both BP and target organ damage.

  15. Social resilience: the forgotten dimension of disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Sapirstein

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The current thinking in the Disaster Risk Reduction field emphasizes assessment and reduction of vulnerability and especially social vulnerability as an important factor in mitigating the effects of disasters. In the process of emphasizing vulnerability, the role and complexity of social resilience was somewhat lost and at times minimized. For example, Terry Cannon and his colleagues include resilience as a factor of social vulnerability in a report to United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID (Cannon, Twigg and Rowell, 2002. The United Nations University, Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS delineates “Social Vulnerability” and “Individual Vulnerability” as working areas, but does not mention Social or Individual Resilience (Bogardi, 2006.

  16. Integrated Assessment of Risk Reduction for Coastal Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBean, G.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal cities are among the world's most vulnerable communities and as their populations grow and the sea level rise, their vulnerability is increasing. Recent examples include the Japanese earthquake, the Indian Ocean tsunami, the typhoons in Bangladesh, Myanmar and Taiwan and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper will discuss the exposure, vulnerability and hazards affecting large coastal cities and the role of a changing climate in their modification. A key question is what lessons have been learned and where future research should lay its emphasis. Through START and the new Canadian-funded project for Bangkok, Manila, Lagos and Vancouver, Coastal Cities at Risk research is advancing and an integrated assessment approach is being proposed to analyse options for risk reduction and will be described in this paper.

  17. 31 CFR 10.33 - Best practices for tax advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Best practices for tax advisors. 10... Service § 10.33 Best practices for tax advisors. (a) Best practices. Tax advisors should provide clients with the highest quality representation concerning Federal tax issues by adhering to best practices...

  18. How I Chose My Thesis Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2011-01-01

    Professor K. Papadopoulos, or Dennis, who we have all come to him as, has had a profound influence over my career as a scientist as well as my private life. Here I provide a brief account of the events that led me to Dennis as my PhD thesis advisor at University of Maryland and what that has meant to me.

  19. Risk reduction treatment of psychopathy and applications to mentally disordered offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stephen C P; Olver, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic nihilism on treating psychopathy is widespread and is largely based on many outdated and poorly designed studies. Important recent advances have been made in assessing psychopathy and recidivism risks, as well as in offender rehabilitation to reduce reoffending, all of which are now well supported by a considerable literature based on credible empirical research. A 2-component model to guide risk reduction treatment of psychopathy has been proposed based on the integration of key points from the 3 bodies of literature. Treatment programs in line with the model have been in operation, and the results of early outcome evaluations are encouraging. Important advances also have been made in understanding the possible etiology of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia and history of criminality and violence, some with significant features of psychopathy. This article presents a review of recent research on risk reduction treatment of psychopathy with the additional aim to extend the research to the treatment of mentally disordered offenders with schizophrenia, violence, and psychopathy.

  20. Binomial Distribution Sample Confidence Intervals Estimation 7. Absolute Risk Reduction and ARR-like Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ACHIMAŞ CADARIU

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessments of a controlled clinical trial suppose to interpret some key parameters as the controlled event rate, experimental event date, relative risk, absolute risk reduction, relative risk reduction, number needed to treat when the effect of the treatment are dichotomous variables. Defined as the difference in the event rate between treatment and control groups, the absolute risk reduction is the parameter that allowed computing the number needed to treat. The absolute risk reduction is compute when the experimental treatment reduces the risk for an undesirable outcome/event. In medical literature when the absolute risk reduction is report with its confidence intervals, the method used is the asymptotic one, even if it is well know that may be inadequate. The aim of this paper is to introduce and assess nine methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction – like function.Computer implementations of the methods use the PHP language. Methods comparison uses the experimental errors, the standard deviations, and the deviation relative to the imposed significance level for specified sample sizes. Six methods of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction and absolute risk reduction-like functions were assessed using random binomial variables and random sample sizes.The experiments shows that the ADAC, and ADAC1 methods obtains the best overall performance of computing confidence intervals for absolute risk reduction.

  1. Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Kariptas, Cagatay; Biyikoglu, Hikmet; Ozarpa, Cevat

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake Risk Reduction to Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Network Istanbul Natural Gas Distribution Corporation (IGDAS) is one of the end users of the Istanbul Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) signal. IGDAS, the primary natural gas provider in Istanbul, operates an extensive system 9,867km of gas lines with 750 district regulators and 474,000 service boxes. The natural gas comes to Istanbul city borders with 70bar in 30inch diameter steel pipeline. The gas pressure is reduced to 20bar in RMS stations and distributed to district regulators inside the city. 110 of 750 district regulators are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers in order to cut gas flow during an earthquake event in the case of ground motion parameters exceeds the certain threshold levels. Also, state of-the-art protection systems automatically cut natural gas flow when breaks in the gas pipelines are detected. IGDAS uses a sophisticated SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) system to monitor the state-of-health of its pipeline network. This system provides real-time information about quantities related to pipeline monitoring, including input-output pressure, drawing information, positions of station and RTU (remote terminal unit) gates, slum shut mechanism status at 750 district regulator sites. IGDAS Real-time Earthquake Risk Reduction algorithm follows 4 stages as below: 1) Real-time ground motion data transmitted from 110 IGDAS and 110 KOERI (Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute) acceleration stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI data center. 2) During an earthquake event EEW information is sent from IGDAS Scada Center to the IGDAS stations. 3) Automatic Shut-Off is applied at IGDAS district regulators, and calculated parameters are sent from stations to the IGDAS Scada Center and KOERI. 4) Integrated building and gas pipeline damage maps are prepared immediately after the earthquake event. The today's technology allows to rapidly estimate the

  2. Position in formal structure, personal characteristics and choices of advisors in a law firm : A logistic regression model for dyadic network data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazega, E; vanDuijn, M

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical model for the analysis of binary sociometric choice data, the p(2) model, which provides a flexible way for using explanatory variables to model network structure. It is applied to examine the influence of the formal structure of an organization on interactions amon

  3. Capability for Integrated Systems Risk-Reduction Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, J.; Lumpkins, S.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is working to increase the likelihoods of human health and performance success during long-duration missions, and subsequent crew long-term health. To achieve these goals, there is a need to develop an integrated understanding of how the complex human physiological-socio-technical mission system behaves in spaceflight. This understanding will allow HRP to provide cross-disciplinary spaceflight countermeasures while minimizing resources such as mass, power, and volume. This understanding will also allow development of tools to assess the state of and enhance the resilience of individual crewmembers, teams, and the integrated mission system. We will discuss a set of risk-reduction questions that has been identified to guide the systems approach necessary to meet these needs. In addition, a framework of factors influencing human health and performance in space, called the Contributing Factor Map (CFM), is being applied as the backbone for incorporating information addressing these questions from sources throughout HRP. Using the common language of the CFM, information from sources such as the Human System Risk Board summaries, Integrated Research Plan, and HRP-funded publications has been combined and visualized in ways that allow insight into cross-disciplinary interconnections in a systematic, standardized fashion. We will show examples of these visualizations. We will also discuss applications of the resulting analysis capability that can inform science portfolio decisions, such as areas in which cross-disciplinary solicitations or countermeasure development will potentially be fruitful.

  4. Global recycling services for short and long term risk reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, M.; Grygiel, J.M.; Drevon, C.; Lelievre, F.; Lesage, M.; Vincent, O. [AREVA, 33 rue Lafayette, F-75009 Paris (France)

    2013-07-01

    New schemes are being developed by AREVA in order to provide global solutions for safe and non-proliferating management of used fuels, thereby significantly contributing to overall risks reduction and sustainable nuclear development. Utilities are thereby provided with a service through which they will be able to send their used fuels and only get returned vitrified and compacted waste, the only waste remaining after reprocessing. This waste is stable, standard and has demonstrated capability for very long term interim storage. They are provided as well with associated facilities and all necessary services for storage in a demonstrated safely manner. Recycled fuels, in particular MOX, would be used either in existing LWRs or in a very limited number of full MOX reactors (like the EPR reactor), located in selected countries, that will recycle MOX so as to downgrade the isotopic quality of the Pu inventories in a significant manner. Reprocessed uranium also can be recycled. These schemes, on top of offering demonstrated operational advantages and a responsible approach, result into optimized economics for all shareholders of the scheme, as part of reactor financing (under Opex or Capex form) will be secured thanks to the value of the recycled flows. It also increases fuel cost predictability as recycled fuel is not subject to market fluctuations as much and allows, in a limited span of time, for clear risk mitigation. (authors)

  5. The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie; Jones, Lucile

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey (CGS), the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  6. Disaster Risk Reduction through school learners’ awareness and preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani S. Rambau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2006, the ISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2007 initiated a campaign called Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School to encourage the integration of disaster risk education into school curricula in countries vulnerable to disasters. A study was initiated to determine how education, in particular curriculum development and teaching, contributes to South African learners’ hazard awareness and disaster preparedness. Mixed method research (consisting of questionnaires, interviews and document reviews was done to collect data. 150 educators from Gauteng, the Western Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, North West and the Eastern Cape completed questionnaires. Five curriculum coordinators, three disaster specialists and two disaster lecturers were interviewed to record their perspectives. The first finding of the study was that the majority of educators, disaster specialists and curriculum coordinators identified floods, fire, droughts, epidemics, road accidents and storms as the most prevalent disasters in the country. The second finding from the literature and empirical data collection revealed that South African communities, particularly people residing in informal settlements and other poor areas, are more vulnerable to disasters than their counterparts in more affluent areas. The third finding of the study was that teaching learners about hazards and disasters is vital and must be expanded.

  7. Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaek, Ekkachai

    The lack of effort by mainstream architects in integrating energy-efficient strategies in architectural designing is due to the complexity in a building's energy conscious concepts and theories, the difficulties to visualize and quantify energy consumption, and the late implementing of energy consumption analysis in the conventional design process. This task would be accomplishing by a building system's engineer where results might be determined only after the basic architectural design has been completed. An effective simple tool and method should then be available to assist architects in building's energy-efficient designing at the beginning of the design. The building's energy consumption is directly and mainly influenced by the relationship of the sun, site, and its building configuration. The solar radiations will first impact on the building's envelope, which will have a direct effect on the amount of energy a building will consume. If an architect can define or map the intensity of solar energy on the site's buildable volume, and use this information to determine the levels of solar insolation, a more energy efficient building form can be proposed. This research hypothesis has shared the fundamental techniques of the Solar Envelope projection by Professor Ralph Knowles [Knowles, 1981] of the University of Southern California. However a different approach is taken by including the influence of regional restrictions and the surrounding buildings' shadows when projecting of solar volumes and solar envelope. The research methodology will discuss the development of a computer-based approach to develop a three-dimensional architectural form based on an insolation map related to the design site. The prototype computer program is referred as the Solar Effective Envelope Design Advisor (SEEDA). The solar insolation volume of the site is determined by integrating three types of computer-generated models include the Buildable Volume model based on design constraints

  8. Inferring Advisor-Student Relationships from Publication Networks Based on Approximate MaxConfidence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A publication network contains abundant knowledge about advisor-student relationships. However, these relationship labels are not explicitly shown and need to be identified based on the hidden knowledge. The exploration of such relationships can benefit many interesting applications such as expert finding and research community analysis and has already drawn many scholars’ attention. In this paper, based on the common knowledge that a student usually coauthors his papers with his advisor, we propose an approximate MaxConfidence measure and present an advisor-student relationship identification algorithm based on the proposed measure. Based on the comparison of two authors’ publication list, we first employ the proposed measure to determine the time interval that a potential advising relationship lasts and then infer the likelihood of this potential advising relationship. Our algorithm suggests an advisor for each student based on the inference results. The experiment results show that our algorithm can infer advisor-student relationships efficiently and achieve a better accuracy than the time-constrained probabilistic factor graph (TPFG model without any supervised information. Also, we apply some reasonable restrictions on the dataset to reduce the search space significantly.

  9. Modelo Pedagogico de Educacion Primaria para Adultos: Manual para el Asesor de Estudiantes Libres. Primera Parte (A Pedagogical Model for Adult Primary Education: Manual for the Student Advisor. Part One).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto Nacional para la Educacion de los Adultos, Mexico City (Mexico).

    This guide, part of a Mexican series of instructional materials, is intended for advisors of students participating in an adult education program offered through public and private organizations in communities in Mexico. The first part of the program comprises Spanish and math; the second, education for family life, education for community life,…

  10. Marine Advisor Advantage: Institutionalizing Security Force Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-16

    serve as a plank -holder in the formation of the Marine Corps Training and Advisory Group (MCTAG) which later merged with the Security Cooperation...Focus: The Future of Your Company Depends on It (New York: Harper Business, 1996), 269 54 Max Boot, The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the...Gazette, November, 2011, 44-47. Boot, Max . “Iraq’s Advisor Gap.” Los Angeles Times, October 18, 2006. Boot, Max . The Savage Wars of Peace

  11. On the Ground: Advisor Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    unprecedented opportunity to financial, logistical and acquisition professionals. The MoD Advisory ( MoDA ) program allows selected DoD professionals...to serve within the security min- istries as advisors. Managed by the Defense Security Cooperation Agency, the MoDA program provides formal classroom...well worth it. The stated pillars of MoDA training are humility, compassion and respect. Working with senior leaders of the Afghan MoD gave me

  12. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-09-30

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. As a result, today's pool of experts is much reduced. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the May 2001 through September 2001 was directed toward development of rules for the fuzzy system.

  13. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Balch; Ron Broadhead

    2005-03-01

    Incomplete or sparse data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduce a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results when working with sparse data. State-of-the-art expert exploration tools, relying on a database, and computer maps generated by neural networks and user inputs, have been developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk has been reduced with the use of these properly verified and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tools.'' Through the course of this project, FEE Tools and supporting software were developed for two producing formations in southeast New Mexico. Tools of this type can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In today's oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lack the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, volatile oil prices, and scarcity of domestic exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tools benefit a diverse group in the U.S., allowing a more efficient use of scarce funds, and potentially reducing dependence on foreign oil and providing lower product prices for consumers.

  14. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-04-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The pool of experts is much reduced today. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fourth of five annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the April 2002 through March 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  15. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2003-10-15

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This ninth of ten semi-annual reports contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through September 2003 period was directed toward Silurian-Devonian geology, development of rules for the fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  16. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Balch

    2004-04-08

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds, and possibly decreasing dependence on foreign oil and lower product prices for consumers. This fifth annual (and tenth of 12 semi-annual reports) contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next year, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. The emphasis during the March 2003 through March 2004 period was directed toward completion of the Brushy Canyon FEE Tool and to Silurian-Devonian geology, and development of rules for the Devonian fuzzy system, and on-line software.

  17. Kennedy space center cardiovascular disease risk reduction program evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine S Calderon

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristine S Calderon1, Charles Smallwood1, David A Tipton21Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health Services, Comprehensive Health Services, Inc., Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USA; 2Aerospace Medicine and Occupational Health Branch, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Kennedy Space Center, FL, USAAbstract: This program evaluation examined the Kennedy Space Center (KSC Cardiovascular Disease (CVD Risk Reduction Program which aims to identify CVD risk factors and reduce these risk factors through health education phone counseling. High risk participants (those having two or more elevated lipid values are identified from monthly voluntary CVD screenings and counseled. Phone counseling consists of reviewing lab values with the participant, discussing dietary fat intake frequency using an intake questionnaire, and promoting the increase in exercise frequency. The participants are followed-up at two-months and five-months for relevant metrics including blood pressure, weight, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, dietary fat intake, and exercise frequency. Data for three years of the KSC CVD Program included 366 participants, average age of 49 years, 75% male, and 25% female. For those with complete two and five month follow-up data, significant baseline to two-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03; diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.002; total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary fat intake (all three at p < 0.0001 as well as a significant increase in exercise frequency (p = 0.04. Significant baseline to five-month follow-up comparisons included decreases in triglycerides (p = 0.05; and total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and dietary intake (all three at p < 0.0001. These program evaluation results indicate that providing brief phone health education counseling and information

  18. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2000-12-31

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries, including medical diagnostics, have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized data base and computer maps generated by neural networks, is proposed for development through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This tool will be beneficial in many regions of the US, enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting and decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the US as reserves are depleted. The proposed expert exploration tool will benefit a diverse group in the US, leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This third of ten semi-annual reports contains an account of the progress, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress.

  19. Risk reduction and the privatization option: First principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Jones, D.W.; Russell, M. [Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cummings, R.C.; Valdez, G. [Georgia State Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Duemmer, C.L. [Hull, Duemmer and Garland (United States)

    1997-06-25

    The Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) faces a challenging mission. To increase efficiency, EM is undertaking a number of highly innovative initiatives--two of which are of particular importance to the present study. One is the 2006 Plan, a planning and budgeting process that seeks to convert the clean-up program from a temporally and fiscally open-ended endeavor to a strictly bounded one, with firm commitments over a decade-long horizon. The second is a major overhauling of the management and contracting practices that define the relationship between the Department and the private sector, aimed at cost reduction by increasing firms` responsibilities and profit opportunities and reducing DOE`s direct participation in management practices and decisions. The goal of this paper is to provide an independent perspective on how EM should create new management practices to deal with private sector partners that are motivated by financial incentives. It seeks to ground this perspective in real world concerns--the background of the clean-up effort, the very difficult technical challenges it faces, the very real threats to environment, health and safety that have now been juxtaposed with financial drivers, and the constraints imposed by government`s unique business practices and public responsibilities. The approach is to raise issues through application of first principles. The paper is targeted at the EM policy officer who must implement the joint visions of the 2006 plan and privatization within the context of the tradeoff between terminal risk reduction and interim risk management.

  20. Cardiovascular risk reduction following diagnosis of diabetes by screening: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Morten; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Roglic, Gojka; Sharp, Stephen J; Kinmonth, Ann-Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncertainties persist concerning the effects of early intensive management of type 2 diabetes and which patients benefit most from such an approach. Aim To describe change in modelled cardiovascular risk in the 14 months following diagnosis, and to examine which baseline patient characteristics and treatment components are associated with risk reduction. Design and setting A cohort of individuals from a pragmatic, single-blind, cluster-randomised controlled trial of 236 females and 361 males with screen-detected type 2 diabetes and without prior cardiovascular disease (CVD), from 49 GP surgeries in eastern England, examined at baseline (2002–2006) and after 14-months’ follow-up. Method Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between baseline patient characteristics, treatment components, and change in modelled 10-year cardiovascular risk (UK Prospective Diabetes Study [UKPDS] [version 3] risk engine). Results There was a downward shift in the distribution of modelled CVD risk over 14 months mean 31% (standard deviation [SD] = 14%) to 26% [SD = 13%]). Older individuals, males, and those with a larger waist circumference at baseline exhibited smaller risk reductions. Individuals prescribed higher numbers of drugs over the follow-up period, and those who decreased their energy intake or reduced their weight, demonstrated larger reductions in modelled risk. Conclusion It is possible to achieve significant reductions in modelled CVD risk over 14 months following diagnosis of diabetes by screening. Risk reduction appeared to be driven mainly by prescription of higher numbers of drugs, decreased energy intake, and weight reduction. There was room for further risk reduction, as many patients were not prescribed recommended treatments. PMID:22687231

  1. Demographic Trends and Advocacy Experiences of Gay-Straight Alliance Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Dever, Bridget V.; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.; Morillas, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Using an ecological model, the individual-, school-, and sociocultural-level characteristics that affect gay-straight alliance (GSA) advisors were examined in the current study. The formation of GSAs has been one way that schools have sought to improve the school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Limited information…

  2. Demographic Trends and Advocacy Experiences of Gay-Straight Alliance Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybill, Emily C.; Varjas, Kris; Meyers, Joel; Dever, Bridget V.; Greenberg, Daphne; Roach, Andrew T.; Morillas, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    Using an ecological model, the individual-, school-, and sociocultural-level characteristics that affect gay-straight alliance (GSA) advisors were examined in the current study. The formation of GSAs has been one way that schools have sought to improve the school climate for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth. Limited information…

  3. 77 FR 59061 - Extension of Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Strategies, dated October 5, 2010; Steve Apfelbacher, President, National Association of Independent Public Finance Advisors, dated October 8, 2010; Carolyn Walsh, Vice President and Senior Counsel, Center...

  4. A Synergy Framework for the integration of Earth Observation technologies into Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Francesco; Petiteville, Ivan; Pisano, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; St Pierre, Luc

    2015-04-01

    Earth observations and space-based applications have seen a considerable advance in the last decade, and such advances should find their way in applications related to DRR, climate change and sustainable development, including in the indicators to monitor advances in these areas. The post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction, as adopted by the 3rd WCDRR is a action-oriented framework for disaster risk reduction that builds on modalities of cooperation linking local, national, regional and global efforts. Earth observations from ground and space platforms and related applications will play a key role in facilitating the implementation of the HFA2 and represent a unique platform to observe and assess how risks have changed in recent years, as well as to track the reduction in the level of exposure of communities. The proposed white paper focuses mainly on Earth Observation from space but it also addresses the use of other sources of data ( airborne, marine, in-situ, socio-economic and model outputs) in combination to remote sensing data. Earth observations (EO) and Space-based technologies can play a crucial role in contributing to the generation of relevant information to support informed decision-making regarding risk and vulnerability reduction and to address the underlying factors of disaster risk. For example, long series of Earth observation data collected over more than 30 years already contribute to track changes in the environment and in particular, environmental degradation around the world. Earth observation data is key to the work of the scientific community. Whether due to inadequate land-use policies, lack of awareness or understanding regarding such degradation, or inadequate use of natural resources including water and the oceans; Earth observation technologies are now routinely employed by many Ministries of Environment and Natural Resources worldwide to monitor the extent of degradation and a basis to design and enact new environmental

  5. Advances in earthquake and tsunami sciences and disaster risk reduction since the 2004 Indian ocean tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Kenji

    2014-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was the worst tsunami disaster in the world's history with more than 200,000 casualties. This disaster was attributed to giant size (magnitude M ~ 9, source length >1000 km) of the earthquake, lacks of expectation of such an earthquake, tsunami warning system, knowledge and preparedness for tsunamis in the Indian Ocean countries. In the last ten years, seismology and tsunami sciences as well as tsunami disaster risk reduction have significantly developed. Progress in seismology includes implementation of earthquake early warning, real-time estimation of earthquake source parameters and tsunami potential, paleoseismological studies on past earthquakes and tsunamis, studies of probable maximum size, recurrence variability, and long-term forecast of large earthquakes in subduction zones. Progress in tsunami science includes accurate modeling of tsunami source such as contribution of horizontal components or "tsunami earthquakes", development of new types of offshore and deep ocean tsunami observation systems such as GPS buoys or bottom pressure gauges, deployments of DART gauges in the Pacific and other oceans, improvements in tsunami propagation modeling, and real-time inversion or data assimilation for the tsunami warning. These developments have been utilized for tsunami disaster reduction in the forms of tsunami early warning systems, tsunami hazard maps, and probabilistic tsunami hazard assessments. Some of the above scientific developments helped to reveal the source characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, which caused devastating tsunami damage in Japan and Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. Toward tsunami disaster risk reduction, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary approaches are needed for scientists with other stakeholders.

  6. Insurance, Public Assistance, and Household Flood Risk Reduction: A Comparative Study of Austria, England, and Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, Susanne; Linnerooth-Bayer, Joanne; Surminski, Swenja; Nenciu-Posner, Cristina; Lorant, Anna; Ionescu, Radu; Patt, Anthony

    2017-08-17

    In light of increasing losses from floods, many researchers and policymakers are looking for ways to encourage flood risk reduction among communities, business, and households. In this study, we investigate risk-reduction behavior at the household level in three European Union Member States with fundamentally different insurance and compensation schemes. We try to understand if and how insurance and public assistance influence private risk-reduction behavior. Data were collected using a telephone survey (n = 1,849) of household decisionmakers in flood-prone areas. We show that insurance overall is positively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. Warranties, premium discounts, and information provision with respect to risk reduction may be an explanation for this positive relationship in the case of structural measures. Public incentives for risk-reduction measures by means of financial and in-kind support, and particularly through the provision of information, are also associated with enhancing risk reduction. In this study, public compensation is not negatively associated with private risk-reduction behavior. This does not disprove such a relationship, but the negative effect may be mitigated by factors related to respondents' capacity to implement measures or social norms that were not included in the analysis. The data suggest that large-scale flood protection infrastructure creates a sense of security that is associated with a lower level of preparedness. Across the board there is ample room to improve both public and private policies to provide effective incentives for household-level risk reduction. © 2017 The Authors Risk Analysis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. The role of farm advisors in multifunctional landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterager, Jens Peter; Lindegaard, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of farm advisors on farmers decisions regarding Multifunctional landscape commons, a concept covering environmental and landscape values that benefit the public but which depend on farmers management practices. The influence of advisors is analysed by combining...

  8. Academic Advisors of Military and Student Veterans: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    With the introduction of the Post-9/11 GI Bill, there is an influx of active-duty military and student veterans enrolling in postsecondary and graduate-level education. The role of an academic advisor increases significantly with this influx of enrollment. The purpose of this study was to determine how a graduate-level academic advisor perceives…

  9. 78 FR 27444 - Forum Investment Advisors, LLC, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Forum Investment Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application May 6, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... the Investment Company Act of 1940 (``Act'') for an exemption from sections 2(a)(32), 5(a)(1), 22(d... exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and 12(d)(1)(B) of the Act. Applicants: Forum Investment Advisors,...

  10. RISK REDUCTION WITH A FUZZY EXPERT EXPLORATION TOOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William W. Weiss

    2001-05-17

    Incomplete or sparse information on types of data such as geologic or formation characteristics introduces a high level of risk for oil exploration and development projects. ''Expert'' systems developed and used in several disciplines and industries have demonstrated beneficial results. A state-of-the-art exploration ''expert'' tool, relying on a computerized database and computer maps generated by neural networks, is being developed through the use of ''fuzzy'' logic, a relatively new mathematical treatment of imprecise or non-explicit parameters and values. Oil prospecting risk can be reduced with the use of a properly developed and validated ''Fuzzy Expert Exploration (FEE) Tool.'' This FEE Tool can be beneficial in many regions of the U.S. by enabling risk reduction in oil and gas prospecting as well as decreased prospecting and development costs. In the 1998-1999 oil industry environment, many smaller exploration companies lacked the resources of a pool of expert exploration personnel. Downsizing, low oil prices, and scarcity of exploration funds have also affected larger companies, and will, with time, affect the end users of oil industry products in the U.S. as reserves are depleted. The FEE Tool will benefit a diverse group in the U.S., leading to a more efficient use of scarce funds and lower product prices for consumers. This second annual report contains a summary of progress to date, problems encountered, plans for the next quarter, and an assessment of the prospects for future progress. During the second year of the project, data acquisition of the Brushy Canyon Formation was completed with the compiling and analyzing of well logs, geophysical data, and production information needed to characterize production potential in the Delaware Basin. A majority of this data now resides in several online databases on our servers and is in proper form to be accessed by external

  11. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and "through-the-ground" parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains.

  12. A study on optimization of hybrid drive train using Advanced Vehicle Simulator (ADVISOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Same, Adam; Stipe, Alex; Grossman, David; Park, Jae Wan [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study investigates the advantages and disadvantages of three hybrid drive train configurations: series, parallel, and ''through-the-ground'' parallel. Power flow simulations are conducted with the MATLAB/Simulink-based software ADVISOR. These simulations are then applied in an application for the UC Davis SAE Formula Hybrid vehicle. ADVISOR performs simulation calculations for vehicle position using a combined backward/forward method. These simulations are used to study how efficiency and agility are affected by the motor, fuel converter, and hybrid configuration. Three different vehicle models are developed to optimize the drive train of a vehicle for three stages of the SAE Formula Hybrid competition: autocross, endurance, and acceleration. Input cycles are created based on rough estimates of track geometry. The output from these ADVISOR simulations is a series of plots of velocity profile and energy storage State of Charge that provide a good estimate of how the Formula Hybrid vehicle will perform on the given course. The most noticeable discrepancy between the input cycle and the actual velocity profile of the vehicle occurs during deceleration. A weighted ranking system is developed to organize the simulation results and to determine the best drive train configuration for the Formula Hybrid vehicle. Results show that the through-the-ground parallel configuration with front-mounted motors achieves an optimal balance of efficiency, simplicity, and cost. ADVISOR is proven to be a useful tool for vehicle power train design for the SAE Formula Hybrid competition. This vehicle model based on ADVISOR simulation is applicable to various studies concerning performance and efficiency of hybrid drive trains. (author)

  13. Crop advisors as climate information brokers: Building the capacity of US farmers to adapt to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Lemos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of crop advisors as brokers of climate information to support US corn farmers to adapt to climatic change. It uses quantitative data collected from a broad survey of crop advisors in the US Corn Belt to examine the factors that shape advisors’ use of (and willingness to provide climate information to their clients. Building upon a general model of climate information usability we argue that advisors’ willingness to provide climate advice to farmers is influenced by three main factors: their information seeking habits and behavior, their experience with innovation in the past, and how climate information interplays with other kinds of information that they provide—especially agronomic advice. We find that advisors’ willingness to provide climate related information depends both on factors at the individual and organizational level and on the type of advice they provide. First, at the individual and organizational levels, advisors who work in supportive organizations and who collaborate with other advisors are more likely to provide climate information. Second, advisors are more likely to provide climate information if it does not interfere with their main profit making business (e.g. provision of agronomic advice. Third, there is a significant positive relationship between trust in a greater number or sources of information and use of climate information. Fourth, the way advisors perceive short- and long-term risk also influences their willingness to provide climate information; the more concerned they are about long-term climate-related risks to farming, the more likely they are to provide (or want to provide advice based on climate information. Differently from other empirical work in the literature, our analytical model suggests that neither negative experiences with climate information in the past nor the high level of uncertainty characteristic of climate information appear to influence advisors

  14. 78 FR 28892 - Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Hazardous Fire Risk Reduction, East Bay Hills, CA AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice of availability of draft environmental impact.... Fish and Wildlife Service, the California Emergency Management Agency, the University of California...

  15. Brief communication: Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction - success or warning sign for Paris?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysiak, Jaroslav; Surminski, Swenja; Thieken, Annegret; Mechler, Reinhard; Aerts, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    In March 2015, a new international blueprint for disaster risk reduction (DRR) was adopted in Sendai, Japan, at the end of the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction (WCDRR, 14-18 March 2015). We review and discuss the agreed commitments and targets, as well as the negotiation leading the Sendai Framework for DRR (SFDRR) and discuss briefly its implication for the later UN-led negotiations on sustainable development goals and climate change.

  16. ACTINIC MASK INSPECTION AT THE ALS: RISK REDUCTION ACTIVITIES FOR 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, A; Levesque, R; Ayers, J; Liu, Y; Gullikson, E; Barale, P

    2004-01-05

    This document reports on risk reduction activities performed at the VNL during CY2003 as a part of the Lith-343 actinic inspection project funded by International SEMATECH. The risk reduction activities described in this document comprise deliverable items 3.1.3, 3.1.4, 3.1.5 and 3.1.6 of Amendment 6 to the VNL EUV mask blank technology transfer contract.

  17. Guidelines for contingency planning NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) ADP security risk reduction decision studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, F. G.

    1984-01-01

    Guidance is presented to NASA Computer Security Officials for determining the acceptability or unacceptability of ADP security risks based on the technical, operational and economic feasibility of potential safeguards. The risk management process is reviewed as a specialized application of the systems approach to problem solving and information systems analysis and design. Reporting the results of the risk reduction analysis to management is considered. Report formats for the risk reduction study are provided.

  18. 41 CFR 102-80.55 - Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Are Federal agencies responsible for managing the execution of risk reduction projects? 102-80.55 Section 102-80.55 Public... execution of risk reduction projects? Yes, Federal agencies must manage the execution of risk reduction...

  19. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia; Binning, Philip John;

    2012-01-01

    determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result...

  20. Sustainable Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria: Lessons for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    productive activities, degree of organization, warning systems, political and .... environmental assets worldwide, mindful of the importance of international .... regard to note that current global climate models indicate that the sea level will rise .... Builds on research findings derived from systematic data in addition to personal ...

  1. Advising Indigenous Forces: American Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    attended the MATA, MASA, Military Assistance Program Advisor ( MAPA ), CA Officer, Civic Action, District and CA Advisor, or PSYOPs Unit Officer Course...MAOP Military Assistance Officer Program MAPA Military Assistance Program Advisor MASA Military Assistance Security Advisor MAT Mobile Advisory

  2. Synergies across the natural resources management fields in Southern Africa: Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Bocchino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For various reasons, Southern Africa may be considered the playground as well as the thinking tank for many theories and practices in the natural resources management field. History has contributed to reshape conservation practices through colonial times, and recent wars have led to the relocation of people from their homelands and the appropriation by people of previously protected areas due to socio-economic pressures. Contemporary practices stemming from sustainable development have not yielded the expected results in resolving critical socio-economic stresses that impact on environmental health. Furthermore, human health has deteriorated in remote rural areas due to the failures of governance systems and the perpetration of non-participatory models for natural resources management, especially conservation. This paper seeks to explore how two relatively new approaches, Disaster Risk Reduction and One Health, can together tap into the theoretical and practical gaps left by previous paradigms in order to instill a sustainable development approach that can benefit both people and natural resources in remote and poor rural areas.

  3. Correlates of HIV Risk Reduction Self-Efficacy among Youth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Louw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Even though a decline in HIV prevalence has been reported among South African youth 15–24 from 10.3% in 2005 to 8.6% in 2008, the prevalence remains disproportionately high for females overall in comparison to males. This study examines factors associated by HIV risk reduction self-efficacy of South African youth as part of an evaluation of the impact of loveLife, a youth focused HIV prevention programme. A cross-sectional population-based household survey was conducted with persons of ages 18 to 24 years in four selected provinces in South Africa. Among female respondents (, factors associated with high self-efficacy in the adjusted model were having a low HIV risk perception, HIV/AIDS stigma, ever using drugs, and having life goals. Male respondents ( with high self-efficacy were more likely to have been tested for HIV, have concurrent sexual partners, have had a transactional sex partner in lifetime, a low HIV risk perception, difficulty in having condoms, agreed with coercive sex, high relationship control, and had loveLife face-to-face programme participation. The factors identified with high self-efficacy and HIV-sexual risk behaviour may be considered to strengthen youth HIV prevention programmes in South Africa.

  4. An obesity/cardiometabolic risk reduction disease management program: a population-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Victor G

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a critical health concern that has captured the attention of public and private healthcare payers who are interested in controlling costs and mitigating the long-term economic consequences of the obesity epidemic. Population-based approaches to obesity management have been proposed that take advantage of a chronic care model (CCM), including patient self-care, the use of community-based resources, and the realization of care continuity through ongoing communications with patients, information technology, and public policy changes. Payer-sponsored disease management programs represent an important conduit to delivering population-based care founded on similar CCM concepts. Disease management is founded on population-based disease identification, evidence-based care protocols, and collaborative practices between clinicians. While substantial clinician training, technology infrastructure commitments, and financial support at the payer level will be needed for the success of disease management programs in obesity and cardiometabolic risk reduction, these barriers can be overcome with the proper commitment. Disease management programs represent an important tool to combat the growing societal risks of overweight and obesity.

  5. Low-cost risk reduction strategy for small workplaces: how can we spread good practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogi, K

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in health risk reduction approaches are examined based on inter-country networking experiences. A noteworthy progress is the wider application of low-cost improvements to risk reduction particularly in small enterprises and agriculture in both industrially developing and developed countries. This is helped by the readiness of managers and workers to implement these improvements despite many constraints. Typical improvements include mobile racks, simple workstation changes, screening hazards, better welfare facilities and teamwork arrangements. In view of the complex circumstances of work-related health risks, it is important to know whether a low-cost strategy can advance risk reduction practices effectively and what support measures are necessary. It is confirmed that the strategy can overcome related constraints through its advantages. Main advantages lie in (a) the facilitation of improved practices in multiple technical areas, (b) the strengthening of realistic stepwise risk reduction, and (c) the enhanced multiplier effects through training of local trainers. Action-oriented risk assessment tools, such as action checklists and low-cost improvement guides, can encourage risk-reducing measures adjusted to each local situation. It is suggested to spread the low-cost risk reduction strategy for improving small workplaces in diversified settings with the support of these locally tailored tools.

  6. Parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the interest of the international community in the concepts of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation has been growing immensely. Even though an increasing number of scholars seem to view these concepts as two sides of the same coin (at least when not considering the potentially positive effects of climate change, in practice the two concepts have developed in parallel rather than in an integrated manner when it comes to policy, rhetoric and funding opportunities amongst international organisations and donors. This study investigates the extent of the creation of parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in the Southern African Development Community (SADC region. The chosen methodology for the study is a comparative case study and the data are collected through focus groups and content analysis of documentary sources, as well as interviews with key informants. The results indicate that parallel structures for disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation have been established in all but one of the studied countries. The qualitative interviews performed in some of the countries indicate that stakeholders in disaster risk reduction view this duplication of structures as unfortunate, inefficient and a fertile setup for conflict over resources for the implementation of similar activities. Additional research is called for in order to study the concrete effects of having these parallel structures as a foundation for advocacy for more efficient future disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation.

  7. Knowledge Sharing Among Tourists via Social Media: A Comparison Between Facebook and TripAdvisor

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki Ono, Shintaro; Andreu, Luisa; Campo, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines tourists’ knowledge sharing behavior in social media. Based on social capital theory, we aim to examine the effects of three dimensions of social capital—structural (social interaction ties), cognitive (shared vision), and relational (trust)—for two different types of social media: Facebook and TripAdvisor. We propose a structural model that connects an antecedent (homophily) and a consequence (knowledge sharing through posting) of these main dimensions of social capital. ...

  8. 汽车仿真软件ADVISOR%Automobile Simulation Software ADVISOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 刚宪约; 王树凤; 柴山

    2007-01-01

    ADVISOR软件能够快速分析传统汽车、纯电动汽车和混合动力汽车的动力性、燃油经济性以及排放性等各种性能.本文系统地介绍了ADVISOR2002软件的功能特点、仿真策略和操作方法,并对该软件的应用以及汽车性能仿真软件的进一步研制作了展望.

  9. Ischemic stroke risk reduction following cardiac surgery by carotid compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isingoma, Paul

    Every year over 500,000 cardiovascular procedures requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are performed in the United States. CPB is a technique that temporarily takes over the function of the heart and lungs during surgery, maintaining the circulation of blood and the oxygen content of the body. During CPB, an aortic cross-clamp is used to clamp the aorta and separate the systemic circulation from the outflow of the heart. Unfortunately, these procedures have been found to cause most cerebral emboli, which produce clinical, subclinical and silent neurologic injuries. Many clinical neurologic injuries occur in the postoperative period, with over 20% of the clinical strokes occurring during this period. In this study, we focus on visualizing the flow distribution in the aortic arch, the effect of carotid compression and the influence of compression time and MAP during CPB on reducing cerebral emboli. Experiments are performed with an aortic arch model in a mock cardiovascular system. Fluorescent particles are used to simulate emboli that are released into circulation immediately after carotid compression. The LVAD is used as the pump to produce flow in the system by gradually adjusting the speed to maintain desired clinical conditions. Aortic and proximal branches MAP of 65.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (normal MAP) or 95.0 +/- 5.0 mmHg (high MAP), aortic flow of 4.0 +/- 0.5 L/min, and all branches flow (left and right carotids, and subclavian arteries) of 10% of the aortic flow. Flow distribution of particles is visualized using LaVision's DaVis imaging software and analyzed using imagej's particle analysis tool to track, count, and record particle properties from the aortic arch. Carotid compression for 10-20 seconds reduces the number of particles entering the carotid arteries by over 73% at normal MAP, and by over 85% at high MAP. A higher MAP resulted in fewer particles entering the branching vessels both at baseline and during occlusion conditions. A compression duration of

  10. Intimate partner violence and the CDC's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Kayleigh M; Logue, Christine E; Fantasia, Heidi C; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a prevalent health burden in the United States and is a risk factor for HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission. Despite the association between IPV and HIV risk, IPV is often omitted from HIV prevention research and interventions. This review analyzes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions and their incorporation of IPV assessment, education and evaluation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's best-evidence HIV risk reduction interventions (n = 44) were reviewed for inclusion of IPV content. Of the 44 best evidence interventions, 5 addressed IPV. These 5 interventions were further examined for method, measurement and uniformity. Justification for IPV integration in HIV risk reduction programs is explored and supported by evidence-based research and practice. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Study on integrating disaster risk reduction in Indonesian municipal spatial planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, T. A.

    2017-06-01

    Indonesia has experienced many major natural disasters. As result, the Spatial Planning Law number 26/2007 and the Disaster Management Law number 24/2007 were enacted. Spatial Planning Law number 26/2007 requires local governments to revise their municipal spatial plans. This paper aims to investigate the obstacles to revising the municipal spatial plans in response to disaster risk reduction and analyze the application of disaster risk reduction by municipalities in relation to the municipal spatial plan. For these purposes, questionnaires were distributed to 106 municipalities (52 responses were obtained) and document analysis was conducted on eight revised municipal spatial plans. The questionnaires, interviews, and document analysis revealed two obstacles to revising the municipal spatial plan (stakeholders with differing interests and a lack of spatial data) and that the eight plans had varying levels of application in disaster risk reduction as a result of the differences in support from government and non-government agencies.

  12. Quantitative assessment of risk reduction from hand washing with antibacterial soaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, L L; Rose, J B; Haas, C N; Gerba, C P; Rusin, P A

    2002-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have estimated that there are 3,713,000 cases of infectious disease associated with day care facilities each year. The objective of this study was to examine the risk reduction achieved from using different soap formulations after diaper changing using a microbial quantitative risk assessment approach. To achieve this, a probability of infection model and an exposure assessment based on micro-organism transfer were used to evaluate the efficacy of different soap formulations in reducing the probability of disease following hand contact with an enteric pathogen. Based on this model, it was determined that the probability of infection ranged from 24/100 to 91/100 for those changing diapers of babies with symptomatic shigellosis who used a control product (soap without an antibacterial ingredient), 22/100 to 91/100 for those who used an antibacterial soap (chlorohexadine 4%), and 15/100 to 90/100 for those who used a triclosan (1.5%) antibacterial soap. Those with asymptomatic shigellosis who used a non-antibacterial control soap had a risk between 49/100,000 and 53/100, those who used the 4% chlorohexadine-containing soap had a risk between 43/100,000 and 51/100, and for those who used a 1.5% triclosan soap had a risk between 21/100,000 and 43/100. The adequate washing of hands after diapering reduces risk and can be further reduced by a factor of 20% by the use of an antibacterial soap. Quantitative risk assessment is a valuable tool in the evaluation of household sanitizing agents and low risk outcomes.

  13. Multi scale Disaster Risk Reduction Systems Space and Community based Experiences over HKH Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, D. R.; Shrestha, M.; Shrestha, N.; Debnath, B.; Jishi, G.; Bajracharya, R.; Dhonju, H. K.; Pradhan, S.

    2014-11-01

    An increasing trend in the recurrence of natural disasters and associated impacts due to Floods, Glacier Lake out bursts, landslides and forest fire is reported over Hindu Kush Himalyan (HKH) region. Climate change and anthropogenic coupled factors are identified as primary factors for such increased vulnerability. The large degree of poverty, lack of infrastructure, poor accessibility and uncertainties involved in understanding high altitude land surface and climate dynamics poses serious challenges in reducing disaster vulnerability and mitigating disaster impacts. In this context effective development of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) protocols and mechanisms have been realized as an urgent need. The paper presents the adoption and experiences of multi scale DRR systems across different Himalayan member countries ranging from community based indigenous early warning to space based emergency response and decision support systems. The Establishment of a Regional Flood Information System (HKH-HYCOS) over Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) and Indus river basins promoted the timely exchange of flood data and information for the reduction of flood vulnerability within and among the participating countries. Satellite based forest fire alert systems evoked significant response among diverse stakeholders to optimize fire incidence and control. Satellite rainfall estimation products, satellite altimetry based flood early warning systems, flood inundation modelling and products, model derived hydrology flow products from different global data-sharing networks constitutes diverse information to support multi scale DRR systems. Community-based Flood Early Warning System (FEWS) enabled by wireless technology established over the Singara and Jiadhal rivers in Assam also stands as one of the promising examples of minimizing flood risk. Disaster database and information system and decision support tools in Nepal serves as potential tool to support diverse stakeholders.

  14. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women for risk reduction focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2015-02-01

    Although growing research focuses on breast cancer screenings, little is known about breast cancer prevention with risk reduction awareness for ethnic differences among college-age women. This study examined breast cancer prevention knowledge, beliefs, and information sources between non-Hispanic and Hispanic college women. Using a cross-sectional study, women at a university in the Southwest completed a 51-item survey about breast cancer risk factors, beliefs, and media and interpersonal information sources. The study was guided by McGuire's Input Output Persuasion Model. Of the 546 participants, non-Hispanic college women (n = 277) and Hispanic college women (n = 269) reported similar basic knowledge levels of modifiable breast cancer risk factors for alcohol consumption (52 %), obesity (72 %), childbearing after age 35 (63 %), and menopausal hormone therapy (68 %) using bivariate analyses. Most common information sources were Internet (75 %), magazines (69 %), provider (76 %) and friends (61 %). Least common sources were radio (44 %), newspapers (34 %), and mothers (36 %). Non-Hispanic college women with breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from providers, friends, and mothers. Hispanic college women with a breast cancer family history were more likely to receive information from their mothers. Breast cancer prevention education for college women is needed to include risk reduction for modifiable health behavior changes as a new focus. Health professionals may target college women with more information sources including the Internet or apps.

  15. The impact of parent involvement in an effective adolescent risk reduction intervention on sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Stanton, Bonita; Deveaux, Lynette; Li, Xiaoming; Koci, Veronica; Lunn, Sonja

    2014-12-01

    Parent involvement in prevention efforts targeting adolescents increases the impact of such programs. However, the majority of risk-reduction intervention programs that are implemented through schools do not include parents, in part because most existing parental interventions require significant time commitment by parents. We designed a brief parent-adolescent sexual risk communication intervention to be delivered with an effective HIV prevention intervention as part of a randomized, controlled trial among 2,564 grade 10 students and their parents in the Bahamas. Mixed effects modeling analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of the brief parent-adolescent communication intervention using four waves of longitudinal data. Results indicate that a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention is effective in improving parent-adolescent communication on sex-related issues and perceived parental monitoring as well as the youth's condom use skills and self-efficacy. There is a marginal effect on consistent condom use. In addition, there is an apparent dose effect of the brief parent intervention on perceived parent-adolescent sexual risk communication and adolescent outcomes. These findings suggest that adolescent risk reduction interventions should include a brief parent-adolescent communication intervention that should be reinforced by periodic boosters in order to enhance the impact of adolescent HIV prevention programs.

  16. Education for disaster risk reduction : linking theory with practice in Ghana´s basic schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apronti, Priscilla; Saito, Osamu; Otsuki, K.; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR) concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the ne

  17. Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer 5b...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It is a chronic, insidiously progressive, and potentially

  18. Education for disaster risk reduction : linking theory with practice in Ghana´s basic schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apronti, Priscilla; Saito, Osamu; Otsuki, K.; Kranjac-Berisavljevic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR) concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the

  19. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic...

  20. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic...

  1. Nation-building policies in Timor-Leste: disaster risk reduction, including climate change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Jessica; Kelman, Ilan; do Rosario, Francisco; de Deus de Jesus Lima, Abilio; da Silva, Augusto; Beloff, Anna-Maija; McClean, Alex

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have explored the relationships between nation-building, disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. Focusing on small island developing states, this paper examines nation-building in Timor-Leste, a small island developing state that recently achieved independence. Nation-building in Timor-Leste is explored in the context of disaster risk reduction, which necessarily includes climate change adaptation. The study presents a synopsis of Timor-Leste's history and its nation-building efforts as well as an overview of the state of knowledge of disaster risk reduction including climate change adaptation. It also offers an analysis of significant gaps and challenges in terms of vertical and horizontal governance, large donor presence, data availability and the integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation for nation-building in Timor-Leste. Relevant and applicable lessons are provided from other small island developing states to assist Timor-Leste in identifying its own trajectory out of underdevelopment while it builds on existing strengths.

  2. Ready for the Storm: Education for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa, Fumiyo; Selby, David

    2012-01-01

    Incidences of disaster and climate change impacts are rising globally. Disaster risk reduction and climate change education are two educational responses to present and anticipated increases in the severity and frequency of hazards. They share significant complementarities and potential synergies, the latter as yet largely unexploited. Three…

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  4. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    generally have an aversion to risk reduction strategies. Some variation was found, however, in the rejection of the strategies. Thus, more acceptable strategies are characterised by a low degree of technological interference, and by being close to the consumer’s experience in everyday life and/or familiar...

  5. Community-Managed Disaster Risk Reduction : Investing in Resilience. A report prepared for Cordaid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Cordaid has been supporting community-managed disaster risk reduction (CMDRR) and drought cycle management (DCM) in the Horn of Africa for eight years. Many evaluations have pointed to successful outcomes but quantitative data are scarce. The aim of this study was to verify the extent to which Corda

  6. Evaluation of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life) in Young Swedish Military Conscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Kallmen, Hakan; Leifman, Hakan; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Andreasson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of the PRIME for Life risk reduction program in reducing alcohol consumption and improving knowledge and attitudes towards alcohol use in male Swedish military conscripts, aged 18 to 22 years. Design/methodology/approach: A quasi-experimental design was used in which 1,371…

  7. The Differential Effects of Social Media Sites for Promoting Cancer Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauckner, Carolyn; Whitten, Pamela

    2016-09-01

    Social media are potentially valuable tools for disseminating cancer education messages, but the differential effects of various sites on persuasive outcomes are unknown. In an effort to inform future health promotion, this research tested the effects of Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, and blogs for delivering a cancer risk reduction message. Using an experimental design, participants were randomly placed in several conditions that delivered the same message but with different forms of social media. Effects on comprehension and attitudes were examined, as they are important variables in the behavior change process. YouTube led to higher comprehension and stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction than Twitter, but there were no differences between other sites. Additionally, YouTube led to stronger attitudes toward cancer risk reduction as compared to Facebook, but not any other sites. These results demonstrate that, even if the message is kept constant, the form of social media used to deliver content can have an effect on persuasive outcomes. More research is needed to determine the mechanisms behind the differences found, however. Altogether, this line of research is valuable for any individuals seeking to use social media for health promotion purposes and could have direct implications for the development of cancer risk reduction campaigns.

  8. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction for African-American Men through Health Empowerment and Anger Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Torrance; Braithwaite, Harold; Johnson, Larry; Harris, Catrell; Katkowsky, Steven; Troutman, Adewale

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine impact of CVD risk reduction intervention for African-American men in the Atlanta Empowerment Zone (AEZ) designed to target anger management. Design: Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test was employed as a non-parametric alternative to the t-test for independent samples. This test was employed because the data used in this analysis…

  9. Pediatricians' Role and Practices regarding Provision of Guidance about Sexual Risk Reduction to Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim S.; Wyckoff, Sarah C.; Lin, Carol Y.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Sukalac, Thomas; Fowler, Mary Glenn

    2008-01-01

    A randomly selected nationally representative sample of 508 practicing pediatricians was surveyed in order to identify factors associated with physician delivery of primary prevention to parents about sexual risk reduction (SRR). A full 86% (n=435) reported that provision of SRR guidance is equally or more important than other guidance provided to…

  10. Some Methodological Problems, Solutions and Findings from Evaluating Risk Reduction Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harris K.; Di Nitto, Diana

    1982-01-01

    Reports three methodological problems found in evaluating five risk reduction projects in Florida. Found that activities aimed at producing positive self-awareness and exposure to rewarding nondrug activities taught with a mixture of didactic and discussion methods and exercises are best. (Author/JAC)

  11. Promoting the University Social Responsibility in the Capacity Development Program for Landslide Risk Reduction in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Verrier, M.; Fathani, T. F.; Andayani, B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most challenges efforts for landslides disaster risk reduction in Indonesia is to provide an effective program for capacity development of the community living in the vulnerable area. Limited access for appropriate information and knowledge about the geology and landslide phenomena as well as the social-security constrains are the major challenges in capacity development program in the landslide prone area. Accordingly, an action for conducting community-based research and education program with respect to landslide mitigation and disaster risk reduction at the village level was established by implementing the University Social Responsibility Program. Such program has been conducted regularly in every academic semester as a part of the formal academic program at Universitas Gadjah Mada , Indonesia. Twenty students with multi-discipline backgrounds and supported by their lectures/advisers have to be deployed at the village for two months to carry out such mission. This action is also conducted under the coordination with the local/ national Government together with the local community, and may also with the private sectors. A series of research actions such as landslide investigation and hazard-risk mapping, social mapping and development of landslide early warning system were carried out in parallel with public education and evacuation drill for community empowerment and landslide risk reduction. A Community Task Force for Disaster Risk Reduction was also established during the community empowerment program, in order to guarantee the affectivity and sustainability of the disaster risk reduction program at the village level. It is crucial that this program is not only beneficial for empowering the village community to tackle the landslide problems, but also important to support the education for sustainable development program at the disaster prone area. Indeed, this capacity development program may also be considered as one best practice for transforming

  12. [Smoking fewer cigarettes per day may determine a significant risk reduction in developing smoking attributable diseases? Is there a risk reduction for e-cigarette users?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieri, Luca; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Among Italian smokers--about 10 millions in 2013--about 600,000 began using electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) in last years. About 10% of e-cig users quitted smoking tobacco, whereas the 90% was dual users. Among them, about three out of four decreased the number of cigarettes smoked per day (cig/day), but did not quit. How many fewer cigarettes a smoker has to smoke to obtain significant health benefits? Is there a threshold? In order to observe a significant 27% reduction in the risk of developing lung cancer, a smoker must reduce the number of cig/day by at least 50%, while for the other smoking-related diseases (acute myocardial infarction - AMI, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases), halving the number of cig/day did not drive to a significant risk reduction. Even smoking 5 cig/day increases the risk of AMI, whereas it significantly lowers the risk of lung cancer. Obviously, quitting smoking is the best choice to highly reduce risks for all smoking-related diseases. Therefore, in order to achieve significant risk reductions, e-cig users should quit smoking as first choice, or, if they feel it is impossible to them, reduce the consumption of traditional cigarettes to less than 5 cig/day.

  13. Interdisciplinary approach for disaster risk reduction in Valtellina Valley, northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carolina; Blahut, Jan; Luna, Byron Quan; Poretti, Ilaria; Camera, Corrado; de Amicis, Mattia; Sterlacchini, Simone

    2010-05-01

    Inside the framework of the European research network Mountain Risks, an interdisciplinary research group has been working in the Consortium of Mountain Municipalities of Valtellina di Tirano (northern Italy). This area has been continuously affected by several mountain hazards such as landslides, debris flows and floods that directly affect the population, and in some cases caused several deaths and million euros of losses. An aim of the interdisciplinary work in this study area, is to integrate different scientific products of the research group, in the areas of risk assessment, management and governance, in order to generate, among others, risk reduction tools addressed to general public and stakeholders. Two types of phenomena have been particularly investigated: debris flows and floods. The scientific products range from modeling to mapping of hazard and risk, emergency planning based on real time decision support systems, surveying for the evaluation of risk perception and preparedness, among others. Outputs from medium scale hazard and risk modeling could be used for decision makers and spatial planners as well as civil protection authorities to have a general overview of the area and indentify hot spots for further detailed analysis. Subsequently, local scale analysis is necessary to define possible events and risk scenarios for emergency planning. As for the modeling of past events and new scenarios of debris flows, physical outputs were used as inputs into physical vulnerability assessment and quantitative risk analysis within dynamic runout models. On a pilot zone, the physical damage was quantified for each affected structure within the context of physical vulnerability and different empirical vulnerability curves were obtained. Prospective economic direct losses were estimated. For floods hazard assessment, different approaches and models are being tested, in order to produce flood maps for various return periods, and related to registered rainfalls

  14. The role of service learning in teaching and research for disaster-risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckale, J.; Saiyed, Z.; Alvisyahrin, T.; Hilley, G. E.; Muhari, A.; Zoback, M. L. C.; Truebe, S.

    2016-12-01

    An important motivation for natural-hazards research is to reduce threats posed by natural disasters to at-risk communities. Yet, we rarely teach students how research may be used to construct implementable solutions that reduce disaster risk. The goal of this contribution is to evaluate the potential of service learning to impart students with both the scientific background and the skills necessary to navigate real-world constraints of disaster risk reduction. We present results from a service-learning class taught at Stanford in the Winter quarter of 2016 in collaboration with the Indonesian Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. The main deliverable of the class was a final project in which students developed a specific idea of how to contribute to tsunami-risk reduction in Indonesia. A common critique of the service-learning approach posits that it may implicitly embed social and political perspectives within risk-reduction strategies that may be inappropriate within a particular culture. We attempted to avoid this problem using three strategies: First, we paired students from Stanford with students at Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, to facilitate a close dialogue. Second, the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries provided a list of current risk-reduction strategies without requiring students to contribute to one specific project to minimally precondition project suggestions. Third, our community partners provided ongoing feedback on the scope and feasibility of the proposed projects and students were assessed based on their ability to integrate the feedback. Preliminary results from our class suggest significant promise for a service-learning approach to teaching disaster-risk reduction. There was substantial student interest in service learning, particularly among undergraduates. Pre-and post-assessment surveys showed that over 75% of students adjusted previous notions about disaster-risk reduction during the

  15. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  16. The effectiveness of coral reefs for coastal hazard risk reduction and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, Filippo; Beck, Michael W.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Shepard, Christine C.; Airoldi, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The world’s coastal zones are experiencing rapid development and an increase in storms and flooding. These hazards put coastal communities at heightened risk, which may increase with habitat loss. Here we analyse globally the role and cost effectiveness of coral reefs in risk reduction. Meta-analyses reveal that coral reefs provide substantial protection against natural hazards by reducing wave energy by an average of 97%. Reef crests alone dissipate most of this energy (86%). There are 100 million or more people who may receive risk reduction benefits from reefs or bear hazard mitigation and adaptation costs if reefs are degraded. We show that coral reefs can provide comparable wave attenuation benefits to artificial defences such as breakwaters, and reef defences can be enhanced cost effectively. Reefs face growing threats yet there is opportunity to guide adaptation and hazard mitigation investments towards reef restoration to strengthen this first line of coastal defence.

  17. Pure meat – public perceptions of risk reduction strategies in meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzen, Sara Marie; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    of risk reduction strategy in meat production, with the aim of distinguishing between forms of risk reduction in terms of their acceptability. The paper reports the result of a focus-group study. Six focus groups with Danish citizens (N: 5–9) were conducted during May 2006. The design of the groups took...... to the participants’ picture of meat production. It is also important that the strategy does not alter the quality of the end-product (meat) in an unfavourable way. The implications of the results and the inherent dilemma for meat safety policy formation are discussed.......Experience has shown that both the assessment and implementation of new technologies in food production are challenged by negative assessments of the technologies by the public. This article seeks to deepen our understanding of the concerns that may underlie negative attitudes to various kinds...

  18. Attitudes and practices of hemophilia care providers involved in HIV risk-reduction counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, K L; Hannan, J A; Green, T A; Wiley, S D

    1994-10-01

    Hemophilia physicians, nurses, and social workers attending a national conference were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing their attitudes and practices regarding HIV risk-reduction counseling. All of the 150 respondents reported recommending the use of condoms to their clients, but only two-thirds felt comfortable demonstrating a condom, while fewer could explain condom choices or how to make safe sex more pleasurable. Less than half questioned their clients about history of STDs, sexual practices, or level of sexual satisfaction. Those who devoted 50 percent or more time to HIV risk-reduction efforts reported being more complete in their assessment and more comfortable in their counseling role. Providers claimed it would help if they had more time (84%) and better skills (64%, especially nurses) for this practice. Because HIV prevention services in hemophilia are delivered by a team, further studies are required to determine the aggregate impact of their intervention on the client.

  19. International Frameworks for Disaster Risk Reduction: Useful Guidance for Sustainable Mountain Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Zimmermann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a number of global frameworks have been developed for disaster risk reduction (DRR. The Hyogo Framework for Action 2005–2015 and its successor document, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, adopted in Japan in March 2015, provide general guidance for reducing risks from natural hazards. This is particularly important for mountainous areas, but DRR for mountain areas and sustainable mountain development received little attention in the recent policy debate. The question remains whether the Hyogo and Sendai frameworks can provide guidance for sustainable mountain development. This article evaluates the 2 frameworks in light of the special challenges of DRR in mountain areas and argues that, while the frameworks offer valuable guidance, they need to be further adapted for local contexts—particularly for mountain areas, which require special attention because of changing risk patterns like the effects of climate change and high land-use pressure.

  20. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part I: Introduction, Terminology, Research and Operational Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-06-29

    Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.

  1. Grasping the hydra: the need for a holistic and systematic approach to disaster risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Becker

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This article stresses the significance of recognising interdependencies between factors determining disaster risk in any attempts to integrate disaster risk reduction in international development cooperation. It bases its arguments on the case studies of four past projects in Sri Lanka and Tajikistan, which are scrutinised using a theoretical framework based on systems approaches. It appears that the results of ignoring interdependencies may (1cause sub-optimisation problems where the desired outcome is not reached as the factor focused on and/or the desired outcome are dependent on other factors, and (2 make it difficult or impossible to monitor and evaluate the actual effects of international development cooperation projects in disaster risk reduction.

  2. Challenges to disaster risk reduction: A study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Imizamo Yethu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Roth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction there. The result points towards five interrelated key challenges, which must be concurrently addressed through large-scale development efforts. Without such investments, it is unlikely that disaster risks can be reduced to tolerable levels.

  3. Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation—A Sustainable Development Systems Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom R. Burns

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development in relation to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. We conceptualize sustainability from a social systemic perspective, that is, from a perspective that encompasses the multiple functionalities of a social system and their interrelationships in particular environmental contexts. The systems perspective is applied in our consideration and analysis of disaster risk reduction (DRR, climate change adaptation (CCA, and sustainable development (SD. Section “Sustainability and Sustainable Development” introduces briefly sustainability and sustainable development, followed by a brief presentation of the theory of complex social systems (Section “Social System Model”. The theory conceptualizes interdependent subsystems, their multiple functionalities, and the agential and systemic responses to internal and external stressors on a social system. Section “Case Studies of Response to Stressors” considers disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA, emerging in response to one or more systemic stressors. It illustrates these with disaster risk reduction in the cases of food and chemical security regulation in the EU. CCA is illustrated by initiatives and developments on the island of Gotland, Sweden and in the Gothenburg Metropolitan area, which go beyond a limited CCA perspective, taking into account long-term sustainability issues. Section “Sustainable Development as a Societal Development System” discusses the limitations of DRR and CCA, not only their technical limitations but economic, socio-cultural, and political limitations, as informed from a sustainability perspective. It is argued that DRRs are only partial subsystems and must be considered and assessed in the context of a more encompassing systemic perspective. Part of the discussion is focused on the distinction between sustainable and non-sustainable DRRs and

  4. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: the need to empower local government

    OpenAIRE

    Bang, Henry N.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risk...

  5. Synergising Public Health Concepts with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Conceptual Glossary

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Phibbs; Christine Kenney; Christina Severinsen; Jon Mitchell; Roger Hughes

    2016-01-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address underlying risk factors. Both public health and the emergency management sector face similar challenges related to developing and implementing st...

  6. Ethical Responsibility of Governance for Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction with Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash Gupta, Surya

    2015-04-01

    The development in the public as well as the private sectors is controlled and regulated, directly or indirectly by the governments at federal, provincial and local levels. If this development goes haphazard and unplanned, without due considerations to environmental constraints and potential hazards; it is likely to cause disasters or may get affected by disasters. Therefore, it becomes an ethical responsibility of the people involved in governance sector to integrate disaster risk reduction with development in their administrative territories through enforcement of appropriate policies, guidelines and regulatory mechanisms. Such mechanisms should address the social, scientific, economic, environmental, and legal requirements that play significant role in planning, implementation of developmental activities as well as disaster management. The paper focuses on defining the ethical responsibilities for the governance sector for integrating disaster risk reduction with development. It highlights the ethical issues with examples from two case studies, one from the Uttarakhand state and the other Odhisa state in India. The case studies illustrates how does it make a difference in disaster risk reduction if the governments own or do not own ethical responsibilities. The paper considers two major disaster events, flash floods in Uttarakhand state and Cyclone Phailin in Odhisa state, that happened during the year 2013. The study points out that it makes a great difference in terms of consequences and response to disasters when ethical responsibilities are owned by the governance sector. The papers attempts to define these ethical responsibilities for integrating disaster risk reduction with development so that the governments can be held accountable for their acts or non-actions.

  7. Reflections from the interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, S.

    2012-04-01

    Scientific understanding of earthquakes and their attendant hazards is vital for the development of effective earthquake risk reduction strategies. Within the global disaster reduction policy framework (the Hyogo Framework for Action, overseen by the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction), the anticipated role of science and scientists is clear, with respect to risk assessment, loss estimation, space-based observation, early warning and forecasting. The importance of information sharing and cooperation, cross-disciplinary networks and developing technical and institutional capacity for effective disaster management is also highlighted. In practice, the degree to which seismological information is successfully delivered to and applied by individuals, groups or organisations working to manage or reduce the risk from earthquakes is variable. The challenge for scientists is to provide fit-for-purpose information that can be integrated simply into decision-making and risk reduction activities at all levels of governance and at different geographic scales, often by a non-technical audience (i.e. people without any seismological/earthquake engineering training). The interface between seismological research and earthquake risk reduction (defined here in terms of both the relationship between the science and its application, and the scientist and other risk stakeholders) is complex. This complexity is a function of a range issues that arise relating to communication, multidisciplinary working, politics, organisational practices, inter-organisational collaboration, working practices, sectoral cultures, individual and organisational values, worldviews and expectations. These factors can present significant obstacles to scientific information being incorporated into the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to present some personal reflections on the nature of the interface between the worlds of seismological research and risk reduction, and the

  8. Governance of disaster risk reduction in Cameroon: The need to empower local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry N. Bang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of natural hazards and/or disasters in Cameroon continues to hit local communities hardest, but local government lacks the ability to manage disaster risks adequately. This is partly due to the fact that the necessity to mainstream disaster risk reduction into local governance and development practices is not yet an underlying principle of Cameroon’s disaster management framework. Using empirical and secondary data, this paper analyses the governance of disaster risks in Cameroon with particular focus on the challenges local government faces in implementing disaster risk reduction strategies. The hypothesis is that the governance of disaster risks is too centralised at the national level, with huge implications for the effective governance of disaster risks at the local level. Although Cameroon has reinvigorated efforts to address growing disaster risks in a proactive way, it is argued that the practical actions are more reactive than proactive in nature. The overall aim is to explore the challenges and opportunities that local government has in the governance of disaster risks. Based on the findings from this research, policy recommendations are suggested on ways to mainstream disaster risk reduction strategies into local governance, and advance understanding and practice in the local governance of disaster risks in the country.

  9. Disaster risk reduction education in Indonesia: challenges and recommendations for scaling up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri, Avianto; Bird, Deanne K.; Ronan, Kevin; Haynes, Katharine; Towers, Briony

    2017-04-01

    This article investigates the implementation of disaster risk reduction education for children in Indonesia. In the last decade, education programmes related to this subject have been promoted as capable of reducing disaster losses and increasing resilience, based on several studies that have identified positive outcomes. Therefore, it is critical to evaluate and address any potential challenges that might impede their success. The article uses a case study in Jakarta, a rapidly growing megacity that is highly prone to disasters and natural hazards, especially floods and fires, to explore the scaling up and sustainability of disaster risk reduction in Indonesian schools. Based on previous studies, a new approach was developed for evaluating the implementation of education programmes related to these subjects. This study captured the perspectives of children, school personnel, and non-governmental organisations on the challenges of scaling up the implementation of disaster risk reduction education in schools. The study revealed seven key issues and suggests several policy recommendations to move forward. These key issues may also be apparent in many other developing and developed countries, and the suggested recommendations may well be applicable beyond Indonesia.

  10. Survey of risk reduction and pollution prevention practices in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, R T; Gute, D M; Missaghian, R

    1998-07-01

    In 1996 a survey of pollution prevention, environmental control, and occupational health and safety practices was conducted in the Rhode Island automotive refinishing industry sector. In conjunction with project partners, the Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management developed a multidimensional survey instrument to identify risk reduction opportunities. Investigators sought to characterize the range of environmental and industrial hygiene control employed by Rhode Island facilities for the purposes of focusing state technical and compliance assistance efforts. Data were collected on a diverse range of subject areas including work force demographics; source reduction; potential health hazards; worker protection and safety; solid and hazardous waste management; and air pollution control. Nearly one-half of the shops employ three or fewer people, and in many cases, spray painters double as body repair technicians thereby increasing their potential exposure to workplace contaminants. While nearly all of the shops reported that they use spray painting booths, only 38% own booths the more effective downdraft design. Based on the self-reported data, recently promulgated state air pollution control regulations (requiring the use of compliant coatings, enclosed or modified spray gun cleaners, and high-volume, low-pressure, spray guns) appear to be effective at motivating companies toward source reduction. A range of risk reduction opportunities were identified as input material changes, technology changes, and improved operating practices. Better methods of risk communication; a professional licensing requirement; and targeted training, compliance, and technical assistance would help to achieve greater levels of risk reduction in this mature, high-hazard industry.

  11. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction for tenth graders. A multiple-factor school-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, J D; Telch, M J; Robinson, T N; Maccoby, N; Taylor, C B; Farquhar, J W

    All tenth graders in four senior high schools (N = 1447) from two school districts participated in a cardiovascular disease risk-reduction trial. Within each district, one school was assigned at random to receive a special 20-session risk-reduction intervention and one school served as a control. At a two-month follow-up, risk factor knowledge scores were significantly greater for students in the treatment group. Compared with controls, a higher proportion of those in the treatment group who were not exercising regularly at baseline reported regular exercise at follow-up. Almost twice as many baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group reported quitting at follow-up, while only 5.6% of baseline experimental smokers in the treatment group graduated to regular smoking compared with 10.3% in the control group. Students in the treatment group were more likely to report that they would choose "heart-healthy" snack items. Beneficial treatment effects were observed for resting heart rate, body mass index, triceps skin fold thickness, and subscapular skin fold thickness. The results suggest that it is feasible to provide cardiovascular disease risk-reduction training to a large segment of the population through school-based primary prevention approaches.

  12. A framework for assessing risk reduction due to DNAPL mass removal from low permeability soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, R.A. [R. Allan Freeze Engineering, Inc., White Rock, British Columbia (Canada); McWhorter, D.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Many emerging remediation technologies are designed to remove contaminant mass from source zones at DNAPL sites in response to regulatory requirements. There is often concern in the regulated community as to whether mass removal actually reduces risk, or whether the small risk reductions achieved warrant the large costs incurred. This paper sets out a framework for quantifying the degree to which risk is reduced as mass is removed from shallow, saturated, low-permeability, dual-porosity, DNAPL source zones. Risk is defined in terms of meeting an alternate concentration level (ACL) at a compliance well in an aquifer underlying the source zone. The ACL is back-calculated from a carcinogenic health-risk characterization at a downstream water-supply well. Source-zone mass-removal efficiencies are heavily dependent on the distribution of mass between media (fractures, matrix) and phases (dissolved, sorbed, free product). Due to the uncertainties in currently-available technology performance data, the scope of the paper is limited to developing a framework for generic technologies rather than making risk-reduction calculations for specific technologies. Despite the qualitative nature of the exercise, results imply that very high mass-removal efficiencies are required to achieve significant long-term risk reduction with technology, applications of finite duration. 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Participatory three dimensional mapping for the preparation of landslide disaster risk reduction program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusratmoko, Eko; Wibowo, Adi; Cholid, Sofyan; Pin, Tjiong Giok

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of applications of participatory three dimensional mapping (P3DM) method for fqcilitating the people of Cibanteng' village to compile a landslide disaster risk reduction program. Physical factors, as high rainfall, topography, geology and land use, and coupled with the condition of demographic and social-economic factors, make up the Cibanteng region highly susceptible to landslides. During the years 2013-2014 has happened 2 times landslides which caused economic losses, as a result of damage to homes and farmland. Participatory mapping is one part of the activities of community-based disaster risk reduction (CBDRR)), because of the involvement of local communities is a prerequisite for sustainable disaster risk reduction. In this activity, participatory mapping method are done in two ways, namely participatory two-dimensional mapping (P2DM) with a focus on mapping of disaster areas and participatory three-dimensional mapping (P3DM) with a focus on the entire territory of the village. Based on the results P3DM, the ability of the communities in understanding the village environment spatially well-tested and honed, so as to facilitate the preparation of the CBDRR programs. Furthermore, the P3DM method can be applied to another disaster areas, due to it becomes a medium of effective dialogue between all levels of involved communities.

  14. 78 FR 57135 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    ... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. ACTION: Notice of... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities. The notice also describes...

  15. SADDLE HORSE AND OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS' PERCEPTIONS OF 4-H CLUB WORK IN OHIO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    GROVES, ROBERT H.

    PERCEPTIONS AND UNDERSTANDINGS OF 4-H OBJECTIVES AND PROGRAMS OF 4-H SADDLE HORSE ADVISORS WERE COMPARED WITH THOSE OF OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS IN NORTHEASTERN AND SOUTHWESTERN DISTRICTS OF OHIO. DATA WERE COLLECTED BY QUESTIONNAIRES FROM 90 SADDLE HORSE AND 133 OTHER LIVESTOCK ADVISORS. STATE 4-H STAFF AND SUPERVISORS PROVIDED CORRECT ANSWERS.…

  16. 76 FR 70780 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Notice of Meeting: Open Regional Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Working Group on Advanced... open regional meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST),...

  17. 77 FR 51790 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... partially closed meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and...: The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of...

  18. 77 FR 26273 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... partially closed meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and... INFORMATION: The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of...

  19. 78 FR 59013 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of... call of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and describes the... Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists...

  20. 76 FR 70779 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Notice of Meeting: Open Regional Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Working Group on Advanced... open regional meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST),...

  1. 77 FR 10736 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Department of Energy, DOE. ACTION... partially closed meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an...

  2. 78 FR 2259 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... teleconference call of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and describes the... of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading...

  3. 75 FR 47317 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Notice of Meeting: Partially Closed Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. ACTION: Public notice... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and describes the functions of...

  4. 77 FR 38277 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy, DoE. ACTION... meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and describes the... INFORMATION: The President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of...

  5. 76 FR 70781 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Notice of Meeting: Open Regional Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology, Working Group on Advanced... open regional meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST),...

  6. 75 FR 22635 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology; Meeting Notice of Meeting: Partially Closed Meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology. ACTION: Public... the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and describes the functions...

  7. 17 CFR 4.14 - Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... a commodity trading advisor. 4.14 Section 4.14 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions § 4.14 Exemption from registration as a commodity trading advisor. This section...

  8. Risk Management in College Fraternities: Guidance from Two Faculty Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stuart; Mosca, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Students who become members of fraternities and sororities avail themselves of significant opportunities that enrich their college life. Faculty advisors play an important role in assisting fraternities and sororities in shaping students' leadership, scholastic, and personal development. Given the risks such as alcohol use and hazing that continue…

  9. 48 CFR 1403.101-70 - Technical evaluators and advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Safeguards 1403.101-70 Technical... resolved with the servicing Ethics Counselor. (c) During the evaluation process, each evaluator and advisor... the appearance of conflicting with his or her duty to evaluate proposals impartially and objectively...

  10. Het gebruik van de verzamelde data: de smartphone Eating Advisor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, N.J.J.P.; Tireau, A.

    2010-01-01

    De verzamelde data in het Restaurant van de Toekomst is niet alleen te gebruiken voor consumenten-onderzoek. Ook de bezoekers van het restaurant kunnen profiteren van de gegevens voor hun persoonlijke gezondheidsmonitoring. In dit artikel een beschrijving van de smartphone Eating Advisor.

  11. 75 FR 54465 - Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...: Investments or an investment-related business, or any fraud, false statements, or omissions, ] wrongful taking..., DC 20549 on official business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. All comments received will... municipal entities, and permits municipal advisors to continue their business after October 1, 2010....

  12. The effects of a mass media HIV-risk reduction strategy on HIV-related stigma and knowledge among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; DiClemente, Ralph J; Carey, Michael P; Stanton, Bonita; Romer, Daniel; Fletcher, Faith; Farber, Naomi; Brown, Larry K; Vanable, Peter A; Salazar, Laura F; Juzang, Ivan; Fortune, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    HIV-related stigma undermines HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Multipronged risk-reduction strategies may reduce stigma among African American adolescents. To test the effectiveness of a risk-reduction strategy in addressing stigma, 1613 African American adolescents from four mid-sized cities participated in a randomized control trial. Participants received a sexual-risk reduction [Focus on Youth (FOY)] or general health curriculum [Promoting Health Among Teens (PHAT)]. Two cities received a culturally-tailored media intervention. Participants completed baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month surveys to measure HIV-related stigma and knowledge. Analysis of covariance tested for stigma and knowledge differences by media city status and curriculum/media city status (PHAT media vs. PHAT non-media, FOY media vs. FOY non-media; FOY media vs. PHAT media; FOY non-media vs. PHAT non-media) at each measurement. Hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) determined stigma and knowledge differences over time. Media participants demonstrated greater HIV-related knowledge (pmedia participants had lower 3-month (pmedia FOY participants. FOY media and non-media participants had greater knowledge than PHAT for all intervals after baseline. FOY media had lower stigma than PHAT media after baseline for all intervals after baseline. HLM indicated greater knowledge slopes for the media group (pmedia participants had greater knowledge slopes (pmedia FOY participants and media PHAT participants (pmedia demonstrated some effectiveness in reducing stigma. Future use of media in HIV-prevention should include and evaluate effects on stigma.

  13. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  14. A comparative study of European insurance schemes for extreme weather risks and incentives for risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen; Hudson, Paul; de Ruig, Lars; Kuik, Onno; Botzen, Wouter

    2017-04-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the insurance schemes that cover extreme weather events in twelve different EU countries and the risk reduction incentives offered by these schemes. Economic impacts of extreme weather events in many regions in Europe and elsewhere are on the rise due to climate change and increasing exposure as driven by urban development. In an attempt to manage impacts from extreme weather events, natural disaster insurance schemes can provide incentives for taking measures that limit weather-related risks. Insurance companies can influence public risk management policies and risk-reducing behaviour of policyholders by "rewarding behaviour that reduces risks and potential damages" (Botzen and Van den Bergh, 2008, p. 417). Examples of insurance market systems that directly or indirectly aim to incentivize risk reduction with varying degrees of success are: the U.S. National Flood Insurance Programme; the French Catastrophes Naturelles system; and the U.K. Flood Re program which requires certain levels of protection standards for properties to be insurable. In our analysis, we distinguish between four different disaster types (i.e. coastal and fluvial floods, droughts and storms) and three different sectors (i.e. residential, commercial and agriculture). The selected case studies also provide a wide coverage of different insurance market structures, including public, private and public-private insurance provision, and different methods of coping with extreme loss events, such as re-insurance, governmental aid and catastrophe bonds. The analysis of existing mechanisms for risk reduction incentives provides recommendations about incentivizing adaptive behaviour, in order to assist policy makers and other stakeholders in designing more effective insurance schemes for extreme weather risks.

  15. SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario--Executive Summary and Introduction: Chapter A in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie L.; Jones, Lucile M.; Miller, Kevin H.; Porter, Keith A.; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick I.; Bahng, Bohyun; Barberopoulou, Aggeliki; Borrero, Jose C.; Brosnan, Deborah M.; Bwarie, John T.; Geist, Eric L.; Johnson, Laurie A.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Knight, William R.; Long, Kate; Lynett, Patrick; Mortensen, Carl E.; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Perry, Suzanne C.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Real, Charles R.; Ryan, Kenneth; Suleimani, Elena; Thio, Hong Kie; Titov, Vasily V.; Whitmore, Paul M.; Wood, Nathan J.

    2013-01-01

    The Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami scenario depicts a hypothetical but plausible tsunami created by an earthquake offshore from the Alaska Peninsula and its impacts on the California coast. The tsunami scenario is a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the California Geological Survey, the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services (Cal OES), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), other Federal, State, County, and local agencies, private companies, and academic and other institutions. This document presents evidence for past tsunamis, the scientific basis for the source, likely inundation areas, current velocities in key ports and harbors, physical damage and repair costs, economic consequences, environmental and ecological impacts, social vulnerability, emergency management and evacuation challenges, and policy implications for California associated with this hypothetical tsunami. We also discuss ongoing mitigation efforts by the State of California and new communication products. The intended users are those who need to make mitigation decisions before future tsunamis, and those who will need to make rapid decisions during tsunami events. The results of the tsunami scenario will help managers understand the context and consequences of their decisions and how they may improve preparedness and response. An evaluation component will assess the effectiveness of the scenario process for target stakeholders in a separate report to improve similar efforts in the future.

  16. Consistency and construction in stated WTP for health risk reductions: A novel scope-sensitivity test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ian J. [Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment (CSERGE), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Brouwer, Roy [Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM), Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1087, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-08-15

    A contingent valuation study is conducted to estimate willingness to pay (WTP) for reducing skin cancer risks. A split sample design contrasts dichotomous choice (DC) with open-ended (OE) methods for eliciting WTP. A novel scope test varies the remit of risk reductions from just the individual respondent to their entire household allowing us to examine both the statistical significance and scale of scope sensitivity. While OE responses fail such tests, DC responses pass both forms of testing. We conclude that conformity of the size of scope effects with prior expectations should form a focus for future validity testing. (author)

  17. Concurrent administration of sexual assault prevention and risk reduction programming: outcomes for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidycz, Christine A; Orchowski, Lindsay M; Probst, Danielle R; Edwards, Katie M; Murphy, Megan; Tansill, Erin

    2015-06-01

    The present study describes the 4- and 7-month postintervention outcomes of a sexual assault risk reduction program for women, which was part of an evaluation that included a prevention program for men. Relative to the control group, participants evidenced more relational sexual assertiveness and self-protective behavior, and were more likely to indicate that they utilized active verbal and physical self-defense strategies. Whether or not women experienced subsequent victimization did not differ between groups. Relative to control group women who were victimized, program participants who were victimized between the 4- and 7-month follow-up blamed the perpetrator more and evidenced less self-blame.

  18. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andy; Greene, William D.

    2017-01-01

    Goals of NASA's Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to: (1) Reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS. (2) Enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. SLS Block 1 vehicle is being designed to carry 70 mT to LEO: (1) Uses two five-segment solid rocket boosters (SRBs) similar to the boosters that helped power the space shuttle to orbit. Evolved 130 mT payload class rocket requires an advanced booster with more thrust than any existing U.S. liquid-or solid-fueled boosters

  19. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  20. The Green Building Advisor: Design team on a disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, N. [Environmental Building News, Brattleboro, VT (United States)

    1998-12-01

    A tool intended to educate building designers and contractors, called the {sup G}reen Building Advisor` is described. The Green Building Advisor is an educational and professional software tool for architects and designers to help them create environmentally friendly and healthy buildings. The program solicits information about the user`s project, searches a database of environmental knowledge and case studies, and presents the user with a prioritized list of relevant design strategies. The program functions by responding to the user`s information with context-sensitive, customized information organized under topic areas ( envelope, lighting, windows, HVAC, equipment, etc) based on the area of their environmental impact (indoor environment, energy, water, resources and materials and other ecosystem impacts). Detailed information on each strategy is provided. The program also includes a series of case studies from across North America, selected to represent a broad range in terms of building size, type, and climate region. 4 figs.

  1. Synergising Public Health Concepts with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Conceptual Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phibbs, Suzanne; Kenney, Christine; Severinsen, Christina; Mitchell, Jon; Hughes, Roger

    2016-12-14

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015) is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address underlying risk factors. Both public health and the emergency management sector face similar challenges related to developing and implementing strategies that involve structural change, facilitating community resilience and addressing individual risk factors. Familiarity with public health principles enables an understanding of the holistic approach to risk reduction that is outlined within the Sendai Framework. We present seven concepts that resonate with contemporary public health practice, namely: the social determinants of health; inequality and inequity; the inverse care law; community-based and community development approaches; hard to reach communities and services; the prevention paradox; and the inverse prevention law. These ideas from public health provide a useful conceptual base for the "new" agenda in disaster risk management that underpins the 2015 Sendai Framework. The relevance of these ideas to disaster risk management and research is illustrated through drawing on the Sendai Framework, disaster literature and exemplars from the 2010-2011 earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand.

  2. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR and climate change adaptation (CCA projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  3. Walking versus running for hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes mellitus risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul T; Thompson, Paul D

    2013-05-01

    To test whether equivalent energy expenditure by moderate-intensity (eg, walking) and vigorous-intensity exercise (eg, running) provides equivalent health benefits. We used the National Runners' (n=33 060) and Walkers' (n=15 945) Health Study cohorts to examine the effect of differences in exercise mode and thereby exercise intensity on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Baseline expenditure (metabolic equivant hours per day [METh/d]) was compared with self-reported, physician-diagnosed incident hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and CHD during 6.2 years follow-up. Running significantly decreased the risks for incident hypertension by 4.2% (Pdiabetes mellitus by 12.1% (Phypertension; and (3) 43.5%, 44.1%, 47.7%, and 68.2% from running, and 34.1%, 44.2% and 23.6% from walking for diabetes mellitus (walking >5.4 METh/d excluded for too few cases). The risk reductions were not significantly different for running than walking for diabetes mellitus (P=0.94), hypertension (P=0.06), or CHD (P=0.26), and only marginally greater for walking than running for hypercholesterolemia (P=0.04). Equivalent energy expenditures by moderate (walking) and vigorous (running) exercise produced similar risk reductions for hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and possibly CHD.

  4. Synergising Public Health Concepts with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction: A Conceptual Glossary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Phibbs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015 is a global strategy for addressing disaster risk and resilience that has been ratified by member countries of the United Nations. Its guiding principles emphasise building resilience through inter-sectoral collaboration, as well as partnerships that facilitate community empowerment and address underlying risk factors. Both public health and the emergency management sector face similar challenges related to developing and implementing strategies that involve structural change, facilitating community resilience and addressing individual risk factors. Familiarity with public health principles enables an understanding of the holistic approach to risk reduction that is outlined within the Sendai Framework. We present seven concepts that resonate with contemporary public health practice, namely: the social determinants of health; inequality and inequity; the inverse care law; community-based and community development approaches; hard to reach communities and services; the prevention paradox; and the inverse prevention law. These ideas from public health provide a useful conceptual base for the ”new” agenda in disaster risk management that underpins the 2015 Sendai Framework. The relevance of these ideas to disaster risk management and research is illustrated through drawing on the Sendai Framework, disaster literature and exemplars from the 2010–2011 earthquakes in Canterbury, New Zealand.

  5. HIV/AIDS Risk Reduction Intervention for Women who have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, Michele A

    2010-06-01

    A growing body of literature highlights the association between women who have experienced intimate partner abuse (IPA) and their heightened risk for HIV/AIDS (human immune deficiency syndrome/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome) infection. Finding HIV risk reduction strategies that are contextually relevant for this population is an important public policy priority. This qualitative study researched women who have experienced intimate partner abuse in order to develop a HIV/AIDS risk reduction intervention unique to their circumstances. This pilot study explored the critical components of such an intervention among a racially/ethnically stratified (African-American, Mexican-American and Anglo) sample of women (n=43) who have experienced IPA. Focus groups were conducted and transcribed, and a content analysis was used to identify major themes. In all five focus groups, participants viewed the research as interesting, good, beneficial, and/or important based on their perceptions of risk for infection. Respondents felt that they knew of ways to protect themselves from infection in non-abusive relationships; however, acknowledged the difficulties of doing so given the context of their abusive relationships. Examining the racial/ethnic differences across focus groups showed that the language used by women is quite variable. The ways in which survivors define rape, sexual abuse, and their own experiences are all unique; however, their actual experiences have many similarities. Discussed at length are the topics participants shared as critical in informing the design of an intervention and the relevance of the findings to social work clinical practice is explained.

  6. The Good, The Bad and The Ugly: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) Versus Disaster Risk Creation (DRC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James

    2012-06-21

    In understanding and trying to reduce the risk from disasters, connections are often articulated amongst poverty, vulnerability, risk, and disasters. These are welcome steps, but the approach taken in top-down international documents is rarely to articulate explicitly that vulnerability accrues from a wide variety of dynamic and long-term processes. Neglecting these processes-and failing to explore their links with poverty, risk, and disasters-tends to encourage disaster risk creation. This paper identifies seven examples of on-the-ground realities of long-term vulnerability within two clusters: Endangerment: 1 Environmental degradation. 2 Discrimination. 3 Displacement. Impoverishment: 4 Self-seeking public expenditure. 5 Denial of access to resources. 6 Corruption. 7 Siphoning of public money. Examples are presented as vignettes, many contemporary and many rooted in historical contexts, to demonstrate the extent to which "vulnerability drivers" emanate from greed, the misuse of political and commercial power, mismanagement and incompetence amongst other behaviours. Moving forward to the tackling of disaster risk creation, instead of simply seeking disaster risk reduction, requires detailed investigation into these contemporary and historical realities of the causes of vulnerability. That would support the integration of disaster risk reduction within the many wider contexts that foment and perpetuate vulnerability.

  7. Integrating community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation: examples from the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gero, A.; Méheux, K.; Dominey-Howes, D.

    2011-01-01

    It is acknowledged by academics and development practitioners alike that many common strategies addressing community based disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation duplicate each other. Thus, there is a strong push to integrate the two fields to enhance aid effectiveness and reduce confusion for communities. Examples of community based disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation (CCA) projects are presented to highlight some of the ways these issues are tackled in the Pacific. Various approaches are employed but all aim to reduce the vulnerability and enhance the resilience of local communities to the impacts of climate change and disasters. By focusing on three case studies, elements of best practice are drawn out to illustrate how DRR and CCA can be integrated for enhanced aid effectiveness, and also look at ways in which these two often overlapping fields can be better coordinated in ongoing and future projects. Projects that address vulnerability holistically, and target the overall needs and capacity of the community are found to be effective in enhancing the resilience of communities. By strategically developing a multi-stakeholder and multi-sector approach, community projects are likely to encapsulate a range of experience and skills that will benefit the community. Furthermore, by incorporating local knowledge, communities are far more likely to be engaged and actively participate in the project. From selected case studies, commonly occurring best practice methods to integrate DRR and CCA are identified and discussed and recommendations on how to overcome the common challenges also presented.

  8. Effects of exercise training and Mediterranean diet on vascular risk reduction in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Klonizakis, Markos

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the potential risk-reduction benefits of Mediterranean Diet (MD) and regular exercise training on microvascular activity and cardiorespiratory capacity in postmenopausal women. Fifteen sedentary postmenopausal participants (age = 54.6 ± 3.6) were randomised into either exercise training or exercise combined with following MD for eight-weeks, and were assessed for their cardiorespiratory capacity, and upper- and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) test using Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF), coupled with measuring endothelium-dependent Acetylcholine Chloride (Ach) and -dependent Sodium Nitropurruside (SNP) vasodilators. Exercise training improved cardiorespiratory capacity as indicated by ventilatory threshold (11.5 ± 2.1 vs. 14.0 ± 3.0 ml·kg-1·min-1, p exercise with MD showed a stronger improvement in Ach (p = 0.02, d = 0.36) of the lower limb, than in exercise alone group. The results suggest that regular moderate exercise improves microcirculatory vascular function and increases exercise tolerance, both are responsible for reducing cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. However, combining MD with exercise suggests additional microvascular vasodialiatory improvement, suggesting an effective strategy for further cardiovascular risk-reduction in this high-risk group.

  9. HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing on behavior change of MSM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiping Huan

    Full Text Available HIV and AIDS incidence in China is high among men who have sex with men (MSM and ours was one of few studies in China to evaluate the role of HIV risk reduction counseling and testing. Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used to recruit 430 MSM. Participants were followed up at 6, 12 and 18 months to evaluate behavioral changes after counseling to reduce risk behaviors. At baseline, HIV prevalence was 4.7%, whereas HIV incidence was 5.2 per 100 person-years. The incidence was 3.8 during six to 12 months, and 1.1 during 12 to 18 months. During the study period, the reported unprotected anal intercourse (UAI significantly decreased from 60.9% to 42.9%. The proportion of participants who had one or no partner significantly increased from 40.9% to 48.0%. The study also found that some risk behaviors decreased between baseline and 12 months, followed by a slight increase between 12 and 18 months. Reductions in UAI can be achieved through counseling and testing, but may wane over time. Future programs should consider HIV risk-reduction counseling and testing for interventions in MSM in China.

  10. Dutch Perspective on Coastal Louisiana Flood Risk Reduction and Landscape Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkman, J.

    2008-12-01

    Strategies were analyzed for long-term flood risk reduction in coastal Louisiana and for strengthening the natural ecosystem functions of the Mississippi Delta, aimed at stabilizing the landscape. This was done as an independent, external contribution to the ongoing planning in the Louisiana Coastal Protection and Restoration Project (LACPR). A cost-benefit analysis was carried out and led to the conclusion that it is economically justified to provide flood protection to the city of New Orleans against water levels with a probability of 1/1,000 per year, which is considerably higher than the existing protection level. Regarding landscape stabilization, a series of options were identified to not only stabilize the remaining wetlands in the Mississippi Delta, but also to create new wetlands. The role of wetlands in hurricane surge level reduction and wave attenuation provides a link between the issues of flood risk reduction and the degradation of the delta ecosystem. Several alternative strategies were designed to illustrate the available options. These strategies include an open system, a semi-open system and a closed system, with gates that can be closed during hurricanes. Based on the characteristics and impacts of these strategies the project team formulated a Preferred Strategy, with total costs estimated at $20 billion

  11. We4DRR: A brand new European network for women in Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathoma-Koehle, Maria; Keiler, Margreth; Promper, Catrin; Patek, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Natural hazards often intensify societal inequalities having disproportionate impact on some population groups including women. On the other hand, women working in the field of natural hazards, either on site as emergency workers or in research, policy and administration as scientists, experts and managers have to deal with a number of challenges. However, gender issues are often neglected and women networks related to natural hazards in Europe but also worldwide are scarce. We present here "We4DRR: Women exchange for Disaster Risk Reduction", a new women's network focusing on gender issues in the field of disaster risk reduction but also on women working in the field. The network was initiated and organised by the Austrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management (BMLFUW) and the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU) and was launched in Austria in March 2016. Its aims include collecting data on gender issues and DRR, empowerment of women, mentoring of young female professionals, and increasing the visibility of gender-specific aspects in DRR.

  12. Remote Imaging of Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Entry Heating Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, David M.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    A Measure of Performance (MOP) identified with an Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) Multi- Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program Flight Test Objective (FTO) (OFT1.091) specified an observation during reentry though external ground-based or airborne assets with thermal detection capabilities. The objective of this FTO was to be met with onboard Developmental Flight Instrumentation (DFI), but the MOP for external observation was intended to provide complementary quantitative data and serve as a risk reduction in the event of anomalous DFI behavior (or failure). Mr. Gavin Mendeck, the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Phase Engineer for the MPCV Program (Vehicle Integration Office/Systems & Mission Integration) requested a risk-reduction assessment from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) to determine whether quantitative imagery could be obtained from remote aerial assets to support the external observation MOP. If so, then a viable path forward was to be determined, risks identified, and an observation pursued. If not, then the MOP for external observation was to be eliminated.

  13. Assessing social vulnerability to drought in South Africa: Policy implication for drought risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiso Muyambo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to assess and identify social vulnerability of communal farmers to drought in the O.R. Tambo district in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa using a survey data and social vulnerability index (SoVI. Eleven social vulnerability indicators were identified using Bogardi, Birkman and Cardona conceptual framework. The result found that an SoVI estimated for O.R. Tambo district was very high with a Likert scale of 5 for cultural values and practices, security or safety, social networks, social dependence, preparedness strategies and psychological stress attributed for the high value of social vulnerability to drought. Indigenous knowledge and education had an SoVI value of 2, which was of low vulnerability, contributing positively to resilience to drought. The study also found that government involvement in drought risk reduction is limited; as a result, the study recommends that a national, provincial and district municipalities policy on drought risk reduction and mitigation should be developed.

  14. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have created new methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in the area of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and use of web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization are investigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineering framework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise is a must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The human requests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome the fuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor (FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department‘s web portal. The system is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  15. A Novel Web-based Human Advisor Fuzzy Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Rafe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The applications of the Internet-based technologies and the concepts of fuzzy expert systems (FES have creatednew methods for sharing and distributing knowledge. However, there has been a general lack of investigation in thearea of web-based fuzzy expert systems. In this paper, the issues associated with the design, development, and useof web-based applications from a standpoint of the benefits and challenges of development and utilization areinvestigated. The original theory and concepts in conventional FES are reviewed and a knowledge engineeringframework for developing such systems is revised. For a human advisor to have a satisfying performance, expertise isa must. In addition, some of advisory rules are subject to change because of domain knowledge update. The humanrequests may have linguistic or crisp forms and a conventional expert system (ES is not able to overcome thefuzziness in the problem nature. In this research, a Web-based fuzzy expert system for Common Human Advisor(FES-CHA is developed and implemented to be used as a student advisor at the department's web portal. Thesystem is implemented by using Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2010, MVC and Microsoft SQL Server 2012.

  16. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  17. An integrative review of community health advisors in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Caralise W; Grant, Joan S; Appel, Susan J

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this paper was to report findings from an integrative literature review conducted to identify the theoretical basis of interventions for studies using community health advisors; populations and settings served by community health advisors; characteristics, training, and roles and activities of community health advisors; and the effectiveness of interventions by community health advisors for improving self-management of patients living with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Community health advisors' theoretical interventions were based on providing culturally appropriate care and resolution of health disparities within minority populations. Typically community health advisors were patients themselves living with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Major roles of community health advisors included: supporter, educator, case manager, advocate, and program facilitator. Activities of community health advisors were: coordinating educational programs, conducting educational courses for patients, serving as a link between patients and healthcare professionals, providing counseling, and leading peer support meetings. The effectiveness of interventions by community health advisors was mixed. Examples of outcome criteria were improvements in: knowledge, hemoglobin A1C, low density lipoprotein levels, blood pressure, and physical activity. Community health advisors provide culturally appropriate interventions to promote and restore health and prevent diseases while serving as links between community and healthcare providers.

  18. Mixed-Initiative COA Critic Advisors (MICCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    a domain independent manner, and communicate via a blackboard framework. Domain dependent information is utilized to support some of their reasoning...Evaluation, Planning, Case Based Reasoning, Blackboard Systems, Hierarchical Task Networks, Quantitative Temporal Reasoning, Preference Model 16. SECURITY...execution. The MICCA agents operate in a domain independent framework, communicate through a blackboard , and utilize domain dependent information to

  19. Short and long term efficiencies of debris risk reduction measures: Application to a European LEO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T.; Kervarc, R.; Bertrand, S.; Carle, P.; Donath, T.; Destefanis, R.; Grassi, L.; Tiboldo, F.; Schäfer, F.; Kempf, S.; Gelhaus, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent numerical studies indicate that the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris (Liou and Johnson, 2008). Measures to be enforced play thus a major role to preserve an acceptable space mission risk and ensure sustainable space activities. The identification of such measures and the quantification of their efficiency over time for LEO missions is of prime concern in the decision-making process, as it has been investigated for the last few decades by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC). This paper addresses the final results of a generic methodology and the characteristics of a tool developed to assess the efficiency of the risk reduction measures identified for the Sentinel-1 (S1) mission. This work is performed as part of the 34-month P2-ROTECT project (Prediction, Protection & Reduction of OrbiTal Exposure to Collision Threats), funded by the European Union within the Seventh Framework Programme. Three ways of risk reduction have been investigated, both in short and long-term, namely: better satellite protection, better conjunction prediction, and cleaner environment. According to our assumptions, the S1 mission vulnerability evaluations in the long term (from 2093 to 2100) show that full compliance to the mitigation measures leads to a situation twice safer than that induced by an active debris removal of 5 objects per year in a MASTER2009 Business-As-Usual context. Because these measures have visible risk reduction effects in the long term, complementary measures with short response time are also studied. In the short term (from 2013 to 2020), a better prediction of the conjunctions is more efficient than protecting the satellite S1 itself. By

  20. Coordination of International Risk-Reduction Investigations by the Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John B.; Bogomolov, Valery V.

    2015-01-01

    Effective use of the unique capabilities of the International Space Station (ISS) for risk reduction on future deep space missions involves preliminary work in analog environments to identify and evaluate the most promising techniques, interventions and treatments. This entails a consolidated multinational approach to biomedical research both on ISS and in ground analogs. The Multilateral Human Research Panel for Exploration (MHRPE) was chartered by the five ISS partners to recommend the best combination of partner investigations on ISS for risk reduction in the relatively short time available for ISS utilization. MHRPE will also make recommendations to funding agencies for appropriate preparatory analog work. In 2011, NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) and the Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) of the Russian Academy of Science, acting for MHRPE, developed a joint US-Russian biomedical program for the 2015 one-year ISS mission (1YM) of American and Russian crewmembers. This was to evaluate the possibilities for multilateral research on ISS. An overlapping list of 16 HRP, 9 IBMP, 3 Japanese, 3 European and 1 Canadian investigations were selected to address risk-reduction goals in 7 categories: Functional Performance, Behavioral Health, Visual Impairment, Metabolism, Physical Capacity, Microbial and Human Factors. MHRPE intends to build on this bilateral foundation to recommend more fully-integrated multilateral investigations on future ISS missions commencing after the 1YM. MHRPE has also endorsed an on-going program of coordinated research on 6-month, one-year and 6-week missions ISS expeditions that is now under consideration by ISS managers. Preparatory work for these missions will require coordinated and collaborative campaigns especially in the psychological and psychosocial areas using analog isolation facilities in Houston, Köln and Moscow, and possibly elsewhere. The multilateral Human Analogs research working group (HANA) is the focal point of those

  1. Sexual risk reduction among HIV-positive drug-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Thomas L; Semple, Shirley J

    2003-12-01

    According to the US Centers for Disease Control, the majority of new HIV infections are the direct result of unprotected sexual relations between serodiscordant individuals. Thus, the development of behavioral interventions to increase the safer sex practices of HIV-positive individuals has the potential to reduce the number of new infections. Currently, less than 1% of the total US population is infected with HIV. Targeting behavioral interventions to this smaller group of HIV-positive individuals has the potential for making cost-effective reductions in the number of new infections. Despite reports that some HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in high-risk behaviors, interventions designed to prevent secondary transmission of HIV are rare. In this era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), interventions for HIV-positive individuals are more critical than ever to address the unique challenges and issues they face regarding disclosure and partner notification, use of HAART and sexual risk behavior, and HIV-related stigma. Although a growing number of reports document the efficacy of sexual risk reduction interventions for HIV-positive individuals, to date none of these studies have focused on drug-using populations. This article focuses on sexual risk reduction interventions for HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), the largest group of HIV-positive individuals in the United States. It reviews factors associated with high-risk behaviors and discusses some findings from research with HIV-positive methamphetamine users, including (1) data from a small qualitative study and its implications for the development of new interventions, and (2) baseline data from an ongoing large-scale study of the efficacy of a theory-based sexual risk reduction intervention for HIV-positive methamphetamine-using MSM. The article concludes with a discussion of future research issues, including, for example: Can sexual risks be reduced in the context of active

  2. Rapid Exposure Assessment of Nationwide River Flood for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Y.; Park, J.; Arifuzzaman, B.; Iwami, Y.; Amirul, Md.; Kondoh, A.

    2016-06-01

    considerably increased. For flood disaster risk reduction, it is important to identify and characterize flood area, locations (particularly lowland along rivers), and durations. For this purpose, flood mapping and monitoring are an imperative process and the fundamental part of risk management as well as emergency response. Our ultimate goal is to detect flood inundation areas over a nationwide scale despite limitations of optical and multispectral images, and to estimate flood risk in terms of affected people. We propose a methodological possibility to be used as a standard approach for nationwide rapid flood exposure assessment with the use of the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), a big contributor to progress in near-real-time flood mapping. The preliminary results in Bangladesh show that a propensity of flood risk change strongly depends on the temporal and spatial dynamics of exposure such as distributed population.

  3. Cuidate: implementation of a culturally based sexual risk reduction program for Hispanic adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feutz, Kristi; Andresen, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Birth rates for adolescents have been declining in the United States since 1991 for all races. However, the rate for Hispanic teens still remains significantly higher than those for White teens. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that community-based organizations implement evidence-based programs to address the risky sexual behaviors of adolescents. Cuidate is an evidence-based sexual risk reduction program designed specifically for Hispanic adolescents ages 13-18 years. The program uses Hispanic cultural beliefs to influence the use of abstinence and condoms as culturally accepted practices. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Cuidate at a federally funded community health center to reduce the sexual risk behaviors of the adolescent Hispanic population it serves.

  4. Questioning Psychosocial Resilience After Flooding and the Consequences for Disaster Risk Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crabtree, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    may suffer from mental disorders following a PTE, but disagrees that the majority of people are resilient. Furthermore it argues that we should not see PTEs as one event, but as involving a number of stressors and having a variety of consequences. Drawing on fieldwork carried out in Rajni village......, Bihar following the 2008 Kosi River flooding, it documents, 18 months post flood, that flood onset gave rise to symptoms related to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (primarily re-experiencing). The villagers’ primary concern was livelihood loss which, together with their lack of hope for the future, led...... to symptoms of depression. It argues that mental health issues should be fully integrated into Disaster Risk Reduction plans and policies, which are likely to be included in the Post-2015 Millennium Development Goals. In addition to supporting mental health interventions, the paper suggests that deep socio...

  5. Fighting Testing ACAT/FRRP: Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Flight testing Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology/Fighter Risk Reduction Project (ACAT/FRRP). The goal of this project is to develop common modular architecture for all aircraft, and to enable the transition of technology from research to production as soon as possible to begin to reduce the rate of mishaps. The automated Ground Collision Avoidance System (GCAS) system is designed to prevent collision with the ground, by avionics that project the future trajectory over digital terrain, and request an evasion maneuver at the last instance. The flight controls are capable of automatically performing a recovery. The collision avoidance is described in the presentation. Also included in the presentation is a description of the flight test.

  6. Sustainable development through a gendered lens: climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nancy D

    2016-03-01

    The UN General Assembly has just adopted the post 2015 Sustainable Development Agenda articulated in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Achieving the SDGs will be furthered by the closer integration of the climate change adaptation (CCA) and disaster risk reduction (DRR) agendas. Gender provides us a valuable portal for considering this integration. Acknowledging that gender relaters to both women and men and that men and women experience climate variability and disasters differently, in this paper the role of women in both CCA and DRR is explored, shifting the focus from women as vulnerable victims to women as critical agents for change with respect to climate change mitigation and adaptation and reduction of disaster risks. Appropriately targeted interventions can also empower women and contribute to more just and inclusive sustainable development.

  7. Program for Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas: Translation of Science into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Margaret; Pierson, Thomas; Wilkinson, Stuart; Westby, Elizabeth; Driedger, Carolyn; Ewert, John

    2016-04-01

    In 2013, the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Agency for International Development/Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (USAID/OFDA) inaugurated Volcanic Risk Reduction in the Americas, a program that brings together binational delegations of scientists, civil authorities, and emergency response managers to discuss the challenges of integrating volcano science into crisis response and risk reduction practices. During reciprocal visits, delegations tour areas impacted by volcanic unrest and/or eruption, meet with affected communities, and exchange insights and best practices. The 2013 exchange focused on hazards at Mount Rainier (Washington, USA) and Nevado del Ruiz (Caldas/Tolima, Colombia). Both of these volcanoes are highly susceptible to large volcanic mudflows (lahars). The Colombia-USA exchange allowed participants to share insights on lahar warning systems, self-evacuation planning, and effective education programs for at-risk communities. [See Driedger and Ewert (2015) Abstract 76171 presented at 2015 Fall AGU, San Francisco, Calif., Dec 14-18]. The second exchange, in 2015, took place between the USA and Chile, focusing on the Long Valley volcanic region (California, USA) and Chaitén volcano (Lagos, Chile) - both are centers of rhyolite volcanism. The high viscosity of rhyolite magma can cause explosive eruptions with widespread destruction. The rare but catastrophic "super eruptions" of the world have largely been the result of rhyolite volcanism. Chaitén produced the world's first explosive rhyolite eruption in the age of modern volcano monitoring in 2008-2009. Rhyolite eruptions of similar scale and style have occurred frequently in the Long Valley volcanic region, most recently about 600 years ago. The explosivity and relative rarity of rhyolite eruptions create unique challenges to risk reduction efforts. The recent Chaitén eruption was unexpected - little was known of Chaitén's eruptive history, and because of this, monitoring

  8. Risk reduction among HIV-seroconcordant and -discordant couples: the Zambia NOW2 intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Kashy, Deborah; Chitalu, Ndashi; Kankasa, Chipepo; Mumbi, Mirriam; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen

    2014-08-01

    Heterosexual HIV transmission remains the leading cause of HIV incidence in adult men and women in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed whether an HIV risk-reduction intervention would be more likely to increase sexual barrier acceptability and decrease risk behavior when delivered to couples in gender concordant groups or in an individual format. This study also examined the mutual impact of couple members as a source of influence on acceptability, and assessed whether product acceptability, intimate partner violence (IPV), and/or partner communication predicted sexual barrier use. HIV seroconcordant and serodiscordant couples (n=216) were recruited in Lusaka, Zambia, and randomized to a four session gender-concordant intervention. Participants were assessed at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Willingness to use barriers (p=0.012), acceptability (pcouples in sub-Saharan Africa. Future prevention studies should consider both product acceptability and partner influence to achieve optimal sexual risk behavior outcomes.

  9. Complex adaptive HIV/AIDS risk reduction: Plausible implications from findings in Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Chris J; Aphane, Marota A

    2016-05-16

    This article emphasises that when working with complex adaptive systems it is possible to stimulate new social practices and/or cognitive perspectives that contribute to risk reduction, associated with reducing aggregate community viral loads. The process of achieving this is highly participatory and is methodologically possible because evidence of 'attractors' that influence the social practices can be identified using qualitative research techniques. Using findings from Limpopo Province, South Africa, we argue that working with 'wellness attractors' and increasing their presence within the HIV/AIDS landscape could influence aggregate community viral loads. While the analysis that is presented is unconventional, it is plausible that this perspective may hold potential to develop a biosocial response - which the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) has called for - that reinforces the biomedical opportunities that are now available to achieve the ambition of ending AIDS by 2030.

  10. Constructing a holistic approach to disaster risk reduction: the significance of focusing on vulnerability reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliyaguru, Roshani; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Baldry, David

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the increase in natural disaster losses, policy-makers, practitioners, and members of the research community around the world are seeking effective and efficient means of overcoming or minimising them. Although various theoretical constructs are beneficial to understanding the disaster phenomenon and the means of minimising losses, the disaster risk management process becomes less effective if theory and practice are set apart from one another. Consequently, this paper seeks to establish a relationship between two theoretical constructs, 'disaster risk reduction (DRR)' and 'vulnerability reduction', and to develop a holistic approach to DRR with particular reference to improving its applicability in practical settings. It is based on a literature review and on an overall understanding gained through two case studies of post-disaster infrastructure reconstruction projects in Sri Lanka and three expert interviews in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  11. ACEIs for cardiovascular risk reduction--have we taken our eye off the ball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindone, Andrew; Erlich, Jonathan; Perkovic, Vlado; Suranyi, Michael; Newman, Henry; Lee, Choon; Barin, Edward; Roger, Simon D

    2013-09-01

    Hypertensive patients have an increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. There is debate whether angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) offer similar reductions in CV risk. This article discusses some of the recent evidence for the prevention of CV events and mortality with ACEIs and ARBs, and the rationale for using an ACEI as the preferred agent for comprehensive CV risk reduction in specific patient populations. ACEIs and ARBs are structurally and functionally very different agents; they are not interchangeable. Prescriptions for ARBs are increasing in Australia. However, clinical trial evidence suggests possible advantages of ACEIs over ARBs, particularly in terms of survival benefit. Many patients with hypertension have other CV risk factors that may affect medication choice. The aim of treatment should not be just to lower blood pressure, but to reduce absolute CV risk.

  12. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  13. Automated Advisors for Remote Science Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frainier, Richard; Groleau, Nicolas; Hazelton, Lyman; Colombano, Silvano

    1994-01-01

    This paper details flight results from the PI-in-a-Box project. The project is an attempt to understand the issues involved in building automated real-time advisory systems to improve the conduct of science in remote laboratory settings. This is an important problem as examples of these situations can be found throughout aerospace. A knowledge-based approach is used to facilitate real-time reactions to experiment data as it is collected by a competent, but not expert, operator. The system was flown on the Space Shuttle in October, 1993. The PI-in-a-Box system was able to outperform humans in a variety of science-related tasks. These tasks include data integrity assurance, data analysis, and scientific model validation.

  14. Mediation of an efficacious HIV risk reduction intervention for South African men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Jemmott, John B; Jemmott, Loretta S; Bellamy, Scarlett; Icard, Larry D; Ngwane, Zolani

    2015-10-01

    "Men, Together Making a Difference!" is an HIV/STD risk-reduction intervention that significantly increased self-reported consistent condom use during vaginal intercourse compared with a health-promotion attention-control intervention among men (N = 1181) in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The present analyses were designed to identify mediators of the intervention's efficacy. The potential mediators were Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) constructs that the intervention targeted, including several aspects of condom-use self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and knowledge. Mediation was assessed using a product-of-coefficients approach where an α path (the intervention's effect on the potential mediator) and a β path (the potential mediator's effect on the outcome of interest, adjusting for intervention) were estimated independently in a generalized estimating equations framework. Condom-use negotiation self-efficacy, technical-skill self-efficacy, and impulse-control self-efficacy were significant mediators. Although not mediators, descriptive norm and expected friends' approval of condom use predicted subsequent self-reported condom use, whereas the expected approval of sexual partner did not. The present results suggest that HIV/STD risk-reduction interventions that draw upon SCT and that address self-efficacy to negotiate condom use, to apply condoms correctly, and to exercise sufficient control when sexually aroused to use condoms may contribute to efforts to reduce sexual risk behavior among South African men. Future research must examine whether approaches that build normative support for condom use among men's friends are also efficacious.

  15. Impact of student reflective e-portfolio on medical student advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashook, Philip G; Gelula, Mark H; Joshi, Medha; Sandlow, Leslie J

    2008-01-01

    Little is published about the role of faculty advisors and use of students' e-portfolios. This article reports advisors' observations and understanding about 1st-year students based on information from students' journaling as part of an e-portfolio. Data were collected on Blackboard survey module for 8 volunteer advisors at two medical school campuses. Responses were hand coded, verified by two authors, tallied, with example comments recorded. The four male and four female advisors are all mid-career, mixed between clinical and nonclinical faculty. The students' responses in the portfolio gave advisors greater insight into students' thinking, maturity, and reflective ability, and they helped advisors identify early warnings about problems. The e-portfolio enhanced meaningful interactions and more focused discussions with students. Advisors reported no improvements in efficiency of communications and had technical difficulties with Blackboard (version 6.0). Advisors reported students' reflective responses to focused questions in an e-portfolio contribute valuable understanding about students' thinking and attitudes. Advisors are enthusiastic about the value of the e-portfolio for this purpose. We anticipate benefits will generalize when fully implemented.

  16. Relationships among Trust in Messages, Risk Perception, and Risk Reduction Preferences Based upon Avian Influenza in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Shan Hsu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in communications technology enable consumers to receive information through diverse channels. In the case of avian influenza, information repeated by the mass media socially amplifies the consumer awareness of risks. Facing indeterminate risks, consumers may feel anxious and increase their risk perception. When consumers trust the information published by the media, their uncertainty toward avian influenza may decrease. Consumers might take some actions to reduce risk. Therefore, this study focuses on relationships among trust in messages, risk perception and risk reduction preferences. This study administered 525 random samples and consumer survey questionnaires in different city of Taiwan in 2007. Through statistical analysis, the results demonstrate: (1 the higher the trust consumers have in messages about avian influenza, the lower their risk perceptions are; (2 the higher the consumers’ risk perceptions are and, therefore, the higher their desired level of risk reductive, the more likely they are to accept risk reduction strategies; (3 consumer attributes such as age, education level, and marital status correlate with significant differences in risk perception and risk reduction preferences acceptance. Gender has significant differences only in risk reduction preferences and not in risk perception.

  17. Risk management study for the Hanford Site facilities: Risk reduction cost comparison for the retired Hanford Site facilities. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, G.A.; Egge, R.G.; Senger, E.; Shultz, M.W.; Taylor, W.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document provides a cost-comparison evaluation for implementing certain risk-reduction measures and their effect on the overall risk of the 100 and 200 Area retired, surplus facilities. The evaluation is based on conditions that existed at the time the risk evaluation team performed facility investigations, and does not acknowledge risk-reduction measures that occurred soon after risk identification. This evaluation is one part of an overall risk management study for these facilities. The retired facilities investigated for this evaluation are located in the 100 and 200 Areas of the 1450-km{sup 2} Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is a semiarid tract of land in southeastern Washington State. The nearest population center is Richland, Washington, (population 32,000) 30 km southeast of the 200 Area. This cost-comparison evaluation (1) determines relative costs for reducing risk to acceptable levels; (2) compares the cost of reducing risk using different risk-reduction options; and (3) compares the cost of reducing risks at different facilities. The result is an identification of the cost effective risk-reduction measures. Supporting information required to develop costs of the various risk-reduction options also is included.

  18. Microfinance institutions and a coastal community's disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process: a case study of Hatiya, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvin, Gulsan Ara; Shaw, Rajib

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have examined the role of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in poverty alleviation, but the part that they play in disaster risk reduction remains unaddressed. Through an empirical study of Hatiya Island, one of the most vulnerable coastal communities of Bangladesh, this research evaluates perceptions of MFI support for the disaster risk reduction, response, and recovery process. The findings reveal no change in relation to risk reduction and income and occupation aspects for more than one-half of the clients of MFIs. In addition, only 26 per cent of them have witnessed less damage as a result of being members of MFIs. One can argue, though, that the longer the membership time period the better the disaster preparedness, response, and recovery process. The outcomes of this study could help to guide the current efforts of MFIs to enhance the ability of coastal communities to prepare for and to recover from disasters efficiently and effectively.

  19. The Healthy Teen Girls project: comparison of health education and STD risk reduction intervention for incarcerated adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Angela A; Robertson, Angela R; St Lawrence, Janet; Morse, David T; Baird-Thomas, Connie; Liew, Hui; Gresham, Kathleen

    2011-06-01

    Adolescent girls incarcerated in a state reformatory (N = 246) were recruited and assigned to an 18-session health education program or a time-equivalent HIV prevention program. Cohorts were assigned to conditions using a randomized block design separated by a washout period to reduce contamination. Post intervention, girls in the HIV risk reduction program demonstrated the acquisition of risk-reduction behavioral skills and improved condom application skill. At a follow-up assessment approximately 9 months after release from the correctional facility, girls in both conditions reported fewer unprotected sexual intercourse occasions and less sex while under the influence of alcohol or other drugs.

  20. From LEO, to the Moon and then Mars: Developing a Global Strategy for Exploration Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Hufenbach, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Most nations currently involved in human spaceflight, or with such ambitions, believe that space exploration will capture the imagination of our youth resulting in future engineers and scientists, advance technologies which will improve life on earth, increase the knowledge of our solar system, and strengthen bonds and relationships across the globe. The Global Exploration Strategy, published in 2007 by 14 space agencies, eloquently makes this case and presents a vision for space exploration. It argues that in order for space exploration to be sustainable, nations must work together to address the challenges and share the burden of costs. This paper will examine Mars mission scenarios developed by NASA, ESA and other agencies and show resulting conclusions regarding key challenges, needed technologies and associated mission risks. It will discuss the importance of using the International Space Station as a platform for exploration risk reduction and how the global exploration community will develop lunar exploration elements and architectures that enable the long term goal of human missions to Mars. The International Space Station (ISS) is a critical first step both from a technology and capability demonstration point of view, but also from a partnership point of view. There is much work that can be done in low earth orbit for exploration risk reduction. As the current "outpost at the edge of the frontier", the ISS is a place where we can demonstrate certain technologies and capabilities that will substantially reduce the risk of deploying an outpost on the lunar surface and Mars mission scenarios. The ISS partnership is strong and has fulfilled mission needs. Likewise, the partnerships we build on the moon will provide a strong foundation for establishing partnerships for the human Mars missions. On the moon, we build a permanently manned outpost and deploy technologies and capabilities to allow humans to stay for long periods of time. The moon is interesting from

  1. 78 FR 77175 - Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC and Mutual Fund Series Trust; Notice of Application December 16... agreements without shareholder approval. APPLICANTS: Catalyst Capital Advisors LLC (``CCA'' or the ``Adviser'') and Mutual Fund Series Trust (formerly Catalyst Funds) (the ``Trust''). DATES: Filing Dates:...

  2. 78 FR 14297 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of... Black Colleges and Universities scheduled for March 6, 2013, and announced in the Federal Register on... Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland...

  3. A Training Program for College Residence Hall Advisors: Rincon Hall, California State University, Northridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, Ruth

    This program was devised in an attempt to train more effective resident advisors for the 1972-73 school year at a dormitory at California State University. The special characteristics of the dormitory--racially mixed and discordant--seemed to indicate a need for a special kind of resident advisor training program, one that attempted to better…

  4. 75 FR 56055 - Advisory Committee and Species Working Group Technical Advisor Appointments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY91 Advisory Committee and Species Working Group... soliciting nominations for technical advisors to the Advisory Committee's species working groups. DATES... technical advisors to a species working group should be sent to Ms. Rachel O'Malley, Office of...

  5. Industrial-Organizational and Human Factors Graduate Program Admission: Information for Undergraduate Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfelt, Elizabeth L.; Stone, Nancy J.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychology departments do not have industrial-organizational (IO) or human factors (HF) faculty members. As such, potential IO and HF graduate students may miss career opportunities because faculty advisors are unfamiliar with the disciplines and their graduate programs. To assist advisors, this article highlights the content of IO and HF…

  6. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  7. GSA Advisors' Self-Efficacy Related to LGBT Youth of Color and Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2016-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) serve lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual youth from diverse backgrounds. Although some attention has been given to youth members in general, little attention has been given to adult advisors. Among 47 GSA advisors from 33 high schools (39 cisgender female, 8 cisgender male), the authors…

  8. The Development of an International Student Advisor: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparaco, Kathleen Keenan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the professional experience of international student advisors. The statement of problem for this research was that the professional role of international student advisors has not been clearly defined or understood within U.S. higher education. The research questions asked (1) what encompassed the lived experience of…

  9. Explaining Doctoral Students' Relational Maintenance with Their Advisor: A Psychosocial Development Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Zachary W.; Goodboy, Alan K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explored how psychosocial development affects doctoral students' relationship and communication with their advisor. Chickering and Reisser's vectors of psychosocial development were examined in the doctoral context to understand how students preserve communicatively satisfying relationships with their advisor through the use of…

  10. Mentoring Support and Relational Uncertainty in the Advisor-Advisee Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H.; Myers, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the extent to which career mentoring and psychosocial mentoring received from their advisors relates to advisee perceptions of advisor-advisee relational uncertainty. Doctoral students (N = 378) completed the "Academic Mentoring Behaviors Scale" (Schrodt, Cawyer, & Sanders, 2003), the "Mentoring and Communication…

  11. Mentoring Support and Relational Uncertainty in the Advisor-Advisee Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansson, Daniel H.; Myers, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the extent to which career mentoring and psychosocial mentoring received from their advisors relates to advisee perceptions of advisor-advisee relational uncertainty. Doctoral students (N = 378) completed the "Academic Mentoring Behaviors Scale" (Schrodt, Cawyer, & Sanders, 2003), the "Mentoring and Communication…

  12. 77 FR 25210 - Advisors Series Trust and Orinda Asset Management, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... 15(a) of the Act and rule 18f-2 under the Act, as well as from certain disclosure requirements... disclosure requirements. APPLICANTS: Advisors Series Trust (the ``Trust'') and Orinda Asset Management, LLC... continuous investment program for each Fund. The Advisor will provide the Funds with overall management...

  13. Student Organization Advisor Motives to Volunteer at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Robert A.; Kroth, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many higher education institutions require student organization advisors to be employees. Such requirements can be interpreted as barriers to students and can limit the number and types of groups found on college campuses. Using quantitative analysis, this study investigates the motivation of student organization advisors at six public…

  14. 76 FR 30323 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    ... sets forth the schedule and agenda of the meeting of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically.... Agenda The Board will receive updates from the Chairman of the President's Board of Advisors on HBCUs and... support of HBCUs in Fiscal Years 2010 and 2011, the budget outlook for federal support in Fiscal Year...

  15. The Advisor and Instructor as a Dynamic Duo: Academic Motivation and Basic Psychological Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Tracie D.; Young-Jones, Adena D.; Yadon, Carly A.; Carr, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Students learn in and out of a formal classroom, and instructors and academic advisors play key roles in academic motivation and learning. Therefore, through the lens of self-determination theory, we examined the ways perceived support from instructors and advisors relates to satisfaction of college students' basic psychological needs.…

  16. 75 FR 80045 - Federal Advisory Committee Act; Board of Advisors Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Federal Advisory Committee Act; Board of Advisors Charter Renewal AGENCY: Election Assistance Commission. ACTION: Notice of Charter Renewal. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Advisory Committee Act... (EAC) has renewed the charter for the Board of Advisors for a two-year period through December 14,...

  17. Working with Youth on LGBT Issues: Why Gay-Straight Alliance Advisors Become Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Maria; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explores motivation for citizen participation in a local context by exploring the experiences of Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) club advisors from public high schools. Fourteen advisors from one midwestern state were randomly recruited for participation. Inductive and deductive qualitative analyses elucidated…

  18. A Cross-Cultural Relationship between the Advisor and the Advisee: Dissertation Writing Supervision in Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yu Ren

    A study examined the supervisory relationship between a non-native English-speaking doctoral student and a native English-speaking advisor, particularly in science, focusing on factors leading to effective or ineffective supervision, advisee response to advisor guidance and assistance, and the roles played by the two participants. Subjects were…

  19. 76 FR 72224 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science... summary agenda for a conference call of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology... report on undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. DATES:...

  20. 77 FR 18798 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of... agenda for an open conference call of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology... President to augment the science and technology advice available to him from inside the White House and...

  1. 76 FR 75919 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science... Council of Advisors on ] Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology advice...

  2. 78 FR 35617 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of... Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology advice...

  3. 77 FR 74837 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology...

  4. 78 FR 68040 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION... partially-closed meeting of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST), and... President to augment the science and technology advice available to him from inside the White House,...

  5. 78 FR 12302 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology...

  6. 77 FR 29621 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving...: 2012-12158] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black...

  7. Working with Youth on LGBT Issues: Why Gay-Straight Alliance Advisors Become Involved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Maria; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explores motivation for citizen participation in a local context by exploring the experiences of Gay-Straight Alliance (GSA) club advisors from public high schools. Fourteen advisors from one midwestern state were randomly recruited for participation. Inductive and deductive qualitative analyses elucidated…

  8. GSA Advisors' Self-Efficacy Related to LGBT Youth of Color and Transgender Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2016-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) serve lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) and heterosexual youth from diverse backgrounds. Although some attention has been given to youth members in general, little attention has been given to adult advisors. Among 47 GSA advisors from 33 high schools (39 cisgender female, 8 cisgender male), the authors…

  9. Advisor Influence Strategies: 10 Cross-Cultural Scenarios for Self-Assessment and Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    told them to quiet down. The advisor then told them it doesn’t matter who gives the instructions and instructions do not have to come from a General...action because the advisor is likely to be more effective if he engages in ego -stroking behavior with a person of such high rank. In Option C

  10. Comparison of the students’ satisfaction about the performance of academic advisors before and after the advisor project in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MASOUMEH DELARAM

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inappropriate advice interferes with the students’ achievement of educational and professional goals and they may fail to use proper resources for their educational needs. The present study was carried out to compare the students’ satisfaction about the performance of academic advisors before and after the advisor project in Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This longitudinal study was carried out using census report on 244 students in different courses at Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences in two stages at the first semester of 2010-2011 and first semester of 2011-2012. To collect the data, we used a self-designed questionnaire including individual and educational information and 10 multiple-choice questions with Likert scale to assess the students’ satisfaction about the advisors’ performance. Data were analyzed in SPSS 14 using paired t-test, qui-square test. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results: Of the ten items of satisfaction, there was only a significant difference in “accessibility to an advisor before and after the advisor project in students of nursing and midwifery school” (p=0.010, and the difference was not significant in other items in these students. No significant difference was found in ten items of satisfaction in students at other schools before and after the advisor project (p=0.010. Conclusion: It seems that the implementation of advisor project could not provide a satisfactory position for students. Adequate supervision of university officials on proper implementation of the advisor project, supporting faculty advisors and strengthening their position can help to improve the process.

  11. The use of geographical information systems for disaster risk reduction strategies: a case study of Volcan de Colima, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeg, O.

    Contemporary disaster risk management requires the analysis of vulnerability and hazard exposure, which is imperative at Volcan de Colima (VdC), Mexico, due to the predicted, large-magnitude eruption forecast to occur before 2025. The methods used to gauge social vulnerability included the development and application of proxies to census records, the undertaking of a building vulnerability survey and the spatial mapping of civil and emergency infrastructure. Hazard exposure was assessed using primary modelling of laharic events and the digitalisation of secondary data sources detailing the modelled extent of pyroclastic flows and tephra deposition associated with a large-magnitude (VEI 5) eruption at VdC. The undertaking and analysis of a risk perception survey of the population enabled an understanding of the cognitive behaviour of residents towards the volcanic risk. In comparison to the published hazard map, the GIS analysis highlighted an underestimation of lahar hazard on the western flank of VdC and the regional tephra hazard. Vulnerability analysis identified three communities where social deprivation is relatively high, and those with significant elderly and transient populations near the volcano. Furthermore, recognition of the possibility of an eruption in the near future was found to be low across the study region. These results also contributed to the analysis of emergency management procedures and the preparedness of the regional authorities. This multidisciplinary research programme demonstrates the success of applying a GIS platform to varied integrative spatial and temporal analysis. Furthermore, ascertaining the impact of future activity at VdC upon its surrounding populations permits the evaluation of emergency preparedness and disaster risk reduction strategies.

  12. Development of a personalized decision aid for breast cancer risk reduction and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozanne, Elissa M; Howe, Rebecca; Omer, Zehra; Esserman, Laura J

    2014-01-14

    Breast cancer risk reduction has the potential to decrease the incidence of the disease, yet remains underused. We report on the development a web-based tool that provides automated risk assessment and personalized decision support designed for collaborative use between patients and clinicians. Under Institutional Review Board approval, we evaluated the decision tool through a patient focus group, usability testing, and provider interviews (including breast specialists, primary care physicians, genetic counselors). This included demonstrations and data collection at two scientific conferences (2009 International Shared Decision Making Conference, 2009 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium). Overall, the evaluations were favorable. The patient focus group evaluations and usability testing (N = 34) provided qualitative feedback about format and design; 88% of these participants found the tool useful and 94% found it easy to use. 91% of the providers (N = 23) indicated that they would use the tool in their clinical setting. BreastHealthDecisions.org represents a new approach to breast cancer prevention care and a framework for high quality preventive healthcare. The ability to integrate risk assessment and decision support in real time will allow for informed, value-driven, and patient-centered breast cancer prevention decisions. The tool is being further evaluated in the clinical setting.

  13. Left atrial appendage closure devices for cardiovascular risk reduction in atrial fibrillation patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Gonzalez I

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez,* Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan,* Javier Rodriguez-Collado, Javier Martin-Moreiras, Alejandro Diego-Nieto, Antonio Arribas-Jimenez, Pedro Luís SanchezDepartment of Cardiology, University Hospital of Cardiology and IBSAL, Salamanca, Spain *Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez and Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan have contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors Abstract: Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia in clinical practice. AF is associated with a 4–5-fold increased risk of stroke and systemic embolism. Oral anticoagulant is the first-line therapy for this purpose, but it has various limitations and is often contraindicated or underutilized. Autopsy and surgical data have suggested that 90% of atrial thrombi in nonvalvular AF patients originate from the left atrial appendage, leading to the development of percutaneous closure for thromboembolic prevention. This paper examines the current evidence on left atrial appendage closure devices for cardiovascular risk reduction in AF patients. Keywords: atrial fibrillation, left atrial appendage, stroke, oral anticoagulant, percutaneous closure, thromboembolic prevention

  14. Alcoholism Risk Reduction in France: A Modernised Approach Related to Alcohol Misuse Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Brousse

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During many years in France, risk reduction strategies for substance abuse concerned prevention strategies in the general population or interventions near users of illicit substances. In this spirit, the reduction of consumption only concerned opiate addicts. With regard to alcohol, the prevention messages relative to controlled consumption were difficult to transmit because of the importance of this product in the culture of the country. In addition, methods of treatment of alcoholism rested on the dogma of abstinence. Several factors have recently led to an evolution in the treatment of alcohol use disorders integrating the reduction of consumption in strategies. Strategies for reducing consumption should aim for consumption below recommended thresholds (two drinks per day for women, three for the men or, at least, in that direction. It must also be supported by pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, which offer possibilities. Failure to manage reduction will allow the goals to be revisited and to reconsider abstinence. Finally this evolution or revolution is a new paradigm carried in particular by a pragmatic approach of the disease and new treatments. The aims of this article are to give elements of comprehension relating to the evolution of the practices in France in prevention and treatment of alcohol use disorders and in particular with regard to the reduction of consumption.

  15. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Schumacher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18–70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis. Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived “need” to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family “ringleader” to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  16. The Role of Family in a Dietary Risk Reduction Intervention for Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Tracy L; Burrows, Tracy L; Thompson, Deborah I; Callister, Robin; Spratt, Neil J; Collins, Clare E

    2016-09-30

    Diet is an essential strategy for the prevention of primary and secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) events. The objectives were to examine: how families at increased risk of CVD perceived personal risk, their motivations to make dietary changes, their understanding of diet, and the influence of other family members. Individuals (>18 years) who completed an Australian family-based CVD risk reduction program were invited to a semi-structured telephone interview. Responses were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a systematic deductive approach with coding derived from key concepts developed as part of the interview structure. Seventeen participants from eight families were interviewed (aged 18-70 years, 47% male, five with CVD diagnosis). Key themes indicated both intrinsic and extrinsic motivations to improve heart health, variations in risk perception, recognition of the role diet plays in heart health, and the extent of family influences on eating patterns. Discrepancies between perceived and actual CVD risk perception impacted on perceived "need" to modify current dietary patterns towards heart health recommendations. Therefore, strategies not reliant on risk perception are needed to engage those with low risk perception. This could involve identifying and accessing the family "ringleader" to influence involvement and capitalising on personal accountability to other family members.

  17. Risk-reduction strategies to expand radon care planning with vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Laura S

    2014-01-01

    Radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer in the United States and the leading cause of lung cancer among nonsmokers. Residential radon is the cause of approximately 21,000 U.S. lung cancer deaths each year. Dangerous levels of radon are just as likely to be found in low-rise apartments and townhomes as single-family homes in the same area. The preferred radon mitigation strategy can be expensive and requires structural modifications to the home. The public health nurse (PHN) needs a collection of low-cost alternatives when working with low-income families or families who rent their homes. A review of the literature was performed to identify evidence-based methods to reduce radon risk with vulnerable populations. Fourteen recommendations for radon risk reduction were categorized into four strategies. Nine additional activities for raising awareness and increasing testing were also included. The results pair the PHN with practical interventions and the underlying rationale to develop radon careplans with vulnerable families across housing types. The PHN has both the competence and the access to help families reduce their exposure to this potent carcinogen. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. JV Task 104 - Risk Reduction Using Innovative Vacuum-Enhanced Plume Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaroslav Solc; Barry Botnen

    2009-03-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater at the Vining Oil site in Carrington, North Dakota. The primary technological synergies included (1) contaminant recovery using simultaneous operation of multiphase recovery and high-vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE) and (2) vacuum-controlled air and ozone sparging on the periphery of an induced hydraulic and pneumatic depression. Final risk reduction steps included design and retrofit for the municipal well. The successful remediation effort resulted in the reduction of long-term health risks associated with rate-limited contaminant release within the capture zone for the municipal well and allowed for its reintegration into the water supply system. Contaminant recovery for the remediation period of September 2006 to June 2008 totaled over 12,653 lb (5,740 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent to 2022 gallons (7653 l) of product. Integration of the air-sparging subsystem operated simultaneously with multiphase extraction and SVE systems resulted in accelerated volatile organic contaminant transport from the saturated zone and increased contaminants of concern recovery. Delivery of over 7.7 million ft{sup 3} of oxygen (219.8 thousand m{sup 3}) into the contaminated aquifer would translate into in situ biodegradation of 2007 kg (4424 lb) of benzene and provide for long term stimulation of the natural attenuation process.

  19. Application of satellite derived information for disaster risk reduction: vulnerability assessment for southwest coast of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, Lubna; Blaschke, Thomas; Zeil, Peter

    2010-10-01

    The SW-coast of Pakistan is vulnerable to natural disasters, such as cyclones and tsunamis. Lack of spatially referenced information is a major hinder for proper disaster risk management programs in Pakistan, but satellite remote sensing being reliable, fast and spatially referenced information can be used as an important component in various natural disaster risk reduction activities. This study aimed to investigate vulnerability of coastal communities to cyclone and tsunamis based on satellite derived information. It is observed that SPOT-5 is relevant source on threatened features with respect to certain vulnerabilities like road, settlements, infrastructure and used in preparation of hazard zonation and vulnerability maps. Landsat ETM found very useful in demarcation of flood inundated areas. The GIS integrated evaluation of LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM helps identify low lying areas most susceptible to flooding and inundation by cyclone surges and tsunamis. The GIS integrated evaluation of SPOT, LANDSAT and ASTER GDEM data helps identify areas and infrastructure most vulnerable to cyclone surges and tsunami. Additionally, analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures (schools, hospitals) within hazard zones provides indicators for the degree of spatial exposure to disaster. Satellite derived information in conjunction with detailed surveys of hazard prone areas can provide comprehensive vulnerability and risk analysis.

  20. Regulatory Risk Reduction for Advanced Reactor Technologies – FY2016 Status and Work Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Wayne Leland [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Millions of public and private sector dollars have been invested over recent decades to realize greater efficiency, reliability, and the inherent and passive safety offered by advanced nuclear reactor technologies. However, a major challenge in experiencing those benefits resides in the existing U.S. regulatory framework. This framework governs all commercial nuclear plant construction, operations, and safety issues and is highly large light water reactor (LWR) technology centric. The framework must be modernized to effectively deal with non-LWR advanced designs if those designs are to become part of the U.S energy supply. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Regulatory Risk Reduction (RRR) initiative, managed by the Regulatory Affairs Department at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is establishing a capability that can systematically retire extraneous licensing risks associated with regulatory framework incompatibilities. This capability proposes to rely heavily on the perspectives of the affected regulated community (i.e., commercial advanced reactor designers/vendors and prospective owner/operators) yet remain tuned to assuring public safety and acceptability by regulators responsible for license issuance. The extent to which broad industry perspectives are being incorporated into the proposed framework makes this initiative unique and of potential benefit to all future domestic non-LWR applicants

  1. Experience of Climate Change Adaptation; Emic Perception of Community Based Disaster Risk Reduction Programs in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathana peou van den Heuvel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 40 years (I/ NGOs together with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB have been working to build the capacity of population at risk to cope with natural disasters. From a response rationale to preparedness one, (I/NGOs together with the GoB struggled to integrate adaptation frame into Disaster Risk Reduction program. Those initial steps were mainly lead by a top down approach. Bangladesh usually pointed as the most vulnerable country in the world, has a long history of different frame of actions and practices toward building both community and individual resilience. Structural poverty and low good governance mechanisms are just some of the factors that jeopardize the gains of development project in general in Bangladesh. Donors and (I/NGO play major roles by shaping not only the national discourse but as well by leading the practices and the methodology that needs to be used at the field. Within couple of years, community based approach has been largely adopted by different institutions as being the right way to deliver intervention that aims at reducing the vulnerability and the enhancing the resilience. It is in this context that this paper offers an insight on how DRR and adaptation is translated at the field level. Through an emic perspective this research aims at confronting the realities of the practices of DRR/ Adaptation by (I/NGOs to the discourse that they communicate.

  2. [Accidental intravenous injection of potassium chloride: analysis of contributing factors and barriers to risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, A; Vantard, N; Charpiat, B; Pral, N; Leboucher, G; Philip-Girard, F; Viale, J-P

    2009-05-01

    Errors linked to injectable potassium chloride (KCl) have been the cause of deaths which have occurred for many years. Following an accidental direct intravenous injection of KCl of no clinical consequence for the patient, we have analyzed the contributive factors, established an action plan to prevent this risk and finally assessed its impact. Among the causes leading to medication errors, we have identified those linked to the handling of the drugs by nurses, the team, the work conditions, the organization, the institutional context and finally to the drug itself. The risk reduction procedure involved a withdrawal of injectable KCI ampoules from wards, possible in 52% of the care units, a reorganization of storage for the others. The subsequent monitoring of floorstocks revealed that these measures were insufficient and that the risks prevailed due to the presence of KCI ampoules in drawers assigned to other ionic solutions. A study carried out among the medical and nursing personnel revealed that 61.2% of the doctors thought that the risk existed in their ward and 68% of the nurses considered themselves to be exposed to the risk of a medication error. The drug supply chain of our institution, as in numerous others, is not safe. Hospitals are not yet organized adequately to prevent the occurrence of such an error. The comparison with foreign organizations of drug dispensation allows us to think that the improvement and professionalization of the drug supply chain will both be assets in the prevention of such medication errors.

  3. Considering Vulnerability in Disaster Risk Reduction Plans: From Policy to Practice in Ladakh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Le Masson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ladakh, India, a mountainous region prone to natural hazards, particularly floods, it is critical to adapt disaster risk reduction (DRR measures to the local environment. The floods that struck Ladakh in 2010 created momentum for local authorities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs to engage in DRR initiatives in order to better prepare people to cope with and recover from emergencies. This paper analyzes the way DRR approaches in Ladakh, from the central government to the district level, take both vulnerability and capacity into account. National and state policies are integrated and reflect the vulnerability concept quite well. However, as the case of Ladakh shows, establishing policies does not guarantee that appropriate practices will follow. Although NGOs' relief efforts in 2010 were praised for building on local communities' context and capacities, most practitioners still view DRR through a hazard-focused lens. Likewise, the policy framework for DRR does not yet address the socioeconomic construction of disasters and is not translated into adequate interventions that build on lessons learned during the 2010 emergency. Development obstacles, such as corruption, may also compromise efforts to translate DRR policies into appropriate and sustainable practices. However, local development projects that enhance the resilience of local mountain communities exist and could be valued as effective DRR. Emphasis should be placed on the practical integration of DRR in sustainable development efforts in order to better tackle disasters.

  4. Navigating complexity through knowledge coproduction: Mainstreaming ecosystem services into disaster risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Belinda; Nel, Jeanne L; O'Farrell, Patrick J; Sitas, Nadia; Nel, Deon C

    2015-06-16

    Achieving the policy and practice shifts needed to secure ecosystem services is hampered by the inherent complexities of ecosystem services and their management. Methods for the participatory production and exchange of knowledge offer an avenue to navigate this complexity together with the beneficiaries and managers of ecosystem services. We develop and apply a knowledge coproduction approach based on social-ecological systems research and assess its utility in generating shared knowledge and action for ecosystem services. The approach was piloted in South Africa across four case studies aimed at reducing the risk of disasters associated with floods, wildfires, storm waves, and droughts. Different configurations of stakeholders (knowledge brokers, assessment teams, implementers, and bridging agents) were involved in collaboratively designing each study, generating and exchanging knowledge, and planning for implementation. The approach proved useful in the development of shared knowledge on the sizable contribution of ecosystem services to disaster risk reduction. This knowledge was used by stakeholders to design and implement several actions to enhance ecosystem services, including new investments in ecosystem restoration, institutional changes in the private and public sector, and innovative partnerships of science, practice, and policy. By bringing together multiple disciplines, sectors, and stakeholders to jointly produce the knowledge needed to understand and manage a complex system, knowledge coproduction approaches offer an effective avenue for the improved integration of ecosystem services into decision making.

  5. Education for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR: Linking Theory with Practice in Ghana’s Basic Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla T. Apronti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Current understanding of disaster risk reduction (DRR concurs that, when provided the right education, children have the potential to reduce their own vulnerability and the vulnerability of others in their community. What, then, comprises the right education for DRR? Research has established the need for disaster education to address the causes and effects, prevention and response, and management and recovery from disaster events. The educational process must include diverse and practical techniques that reinforce disaster knowledge and builds a culture of safety and resilience amongst students. Drawing on syllabus content analysis and field research in two rural communities in semi-arid Northern Ghana, this study explored the presence and nature of DRR within the syllabi of the basic school system. By comparing the result of the content analysis with results from interviews and questionnaires completed by teachers and students, significant gaps were identified between the disaster pedagogy outlined in the syllabi (theory and that which occurs in the classroom (practice. It was realized that while the theory outlines active and innovative techniques for teaching, learning, and evaluating DRR lessons, various challenges hinder the practical application of these techniques in the classroom. The study concludes that a lack of teacher training and professional development, and inadequate teaching and learning materials, generally account for these results. A new and consolidated effort is required from all stakeholders to train teachers and to provide the appropriate learning materials to improve on the current DRR education.

  6. Rethinking International Counterterrorism Assistance to the Greater Horn of Africa: Toward a Regional Risk Reduction Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Schwartz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Horn of Africa has long been a recipient of foreign security assistance, with significant funds increasingly devoted to supporting subregional civilian-oriented counterterrorism efforts over the past decade. Despite efforts to better coordinate delivery, counterterrorism programming in the subregion generally remains fragmented, short-term, and siloed in implementation. This article argues that it is time to rethink the international community’s approach to counterterrorism assistance to the Horn of Africa and calls for a cohesive regional approach that not only bridges the gap between security and development, but also the gap between counterterrorism and human security. It emphasizes that the international community must not only better coordinate existing streams of counterterrorism assistance to the region, but also rethink how this assistance is designed and the ways it can be delivered to complement broader subregional development and security agendas. After a brief introduction to international counterterrorism assistance to the Horn of Africa, the article examines linkages across three thematic streams of programming being delivered to the subregion: anti-money laundering and countering the financing of terrorism; criminal justice capacity building assistance to counter terrorism; and, countering violent extremism. This discussion will highlight the need for a regional risk reduction strategy for the Horn of Africa that not only builds on the interplay of different streams of counterterrorism assistance, but on synergies across broader subregional development and security agendas as well.

  7. A CONCEPTUAL DISASTER RISK REDUCTION FRAMEWORK FOR HEALTH AND SAFETY HAZARDS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

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    Amir S. GOHARDANI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The health and safety hazard status of construction workers is constantly challenged by the projects in the built environment. In this article, various aspects of health and safety hazards for construction workers have been reviewed and investigated through a disaster risk reduction prism. This approach has further led to the perception of glancing at the construction sector as an ongoing disaster zone and equally provides a new management perspective. From this perspective, the occurrence of a disaster within the construction sector corresponds to the temporary or permanent ill-health or death of a construction worker. Geographical location is one of the factors that play an important role in addressing the health and safety hazards for construction workers. In addition to the location, geographical considerations equally encapsulate regional, cultural, governmental and work ethical effects. These effects may potentially contribute to disparities in the construction sector. With an increasing level of understanding for health and safety hazards in the construction domain, more efficient prevention measures can be taken in order to enable a disaster management cycle, capable of responding to the rigorous demands of the construction sector.

  8. Breaking Patterns of Environmentally Influenced Disease for Health Risk Reduction: Immune Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietert, Rodney R.; DeWitt, Jamie C.; Germolec, Dori R.; Zelikoff, Judith T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diseases rarely, if ever, occur in isolation. Instead, most represent part of a more complex web or “pattern” of conditions that are connected via underlying biological mechanisms and processes, emerge across a lifetime, and have been identified with the aid of large medical databases. Objective We have described how an understanding of patterns of disease may be used to develop new strategies for reducing the prevalence and risk of major immune-based illnesses and diseases influenced by environmental stimuli. Findings Examples of recently defined patterns of diseases that begin in childhood include not only metabolic syndrome, with its characteristics of inflammatory dysregulation, but also allergic, autoimmune, recurrent infection, and other inflammatory patterns of disease. The recent identification of major immune-based disease patterns beginning in childhood suggests that the immune system may play an even more important role in determining health status and health care needs across a lifetime than was previously understood. Conclusions Focusing on patterns of disease, as opposed to individual conditions, offers two important venues for environmental health risk reduction. First, prevention of developmental immunotoxicity and pediatric immune dysfunction can be used to act against multiple diseases. Second, pattern-based treatment of entryway diseases can be tailored with the aim of disrupting the entire disease pattern and reducing the risk of later-life illnesses connected to underlying immune dysfunction. Disease-pattern–based evaluation, prevention, and treatment will require a change from the current approach for both immune safety testing and pediatric disease management. PMID:20483701

  9. United States-Chile binational exchange for volcanic risk reduction, 2015—Activities and benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Mangan, Margaret T.; Lara Pulgar, Luis E.; Ramos Amigo, Álvaro

    2017-07-25

    In 2015, representatives from the United States and Chile exchanged visits to discuss and share their expertise and experiences dealing with volcano hazards. Communities in both countries are at risk from various volcano hazards. Risks to lives and property posed by these hazards are a function not only of the type and size of future eruptions but also of distances from volcanoes, structural integrity of volcanic edifices, landscape changes imposed by recent past eruptions, exposure of people and resources to harm, and any mitigative measures taken (or not taken) to reduce risk. Thus, effective risk-reduction efforts require the knowledge and consideration of many factors, and firsthand experience with past volcano crises provides a tremendous advantage for this work. However, most scientists monitoring volcanoes and most officials delegated with the responsibility for emergency response and management in volcanic areas have little or no firsthand experience with eruptions or volcano hazards. The reality is that eruptions are infrequent in most regions, and individual volcanoes may have dormant periods lasting hundreds to thousands of years. Knowledge may be lacking about how to best plan for and manage future volcanic crises, and much can be learned from the sharing of insights and experiences among counterpart specialists who have had direct, recent, or different experiences in dealing with restless volcanoes and threatened populations. The sharing of information and best practices can help all volcano scientists and officials to better prepare for future eruptions or noneruptive volcano hazards, such as large volcanic mudflows (lahars), which could affect their communities.

  10. The potential of crowdsourcing and mobile technology to support flood disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Linda; McCallum, Ian; Liu, Wei; Mechler, Reinhard; Keating, Adriana; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Mochizuki, Junko; Fritz, Steffen; Dugar, Sumit; Arestegui, Michael; Szoenyi, Michael; Laso-Bayas, Juan-Carlos; Burek, Peter; French, Adam; Moorthy, Inian

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has seen a rise in citizen science and crowdsourcing for carrying out a variety of tasks across a number of different fields, most notably the collection of data such as the identification of species (e.g. eBird and iNaturalist) and the classification of images (e.g. Galaxy Zoo and Geo-Wiki). Combining human computing with the proliferation of mobile technology has resulted in vast amounts of geo-located data that have considerable value across multiple domains including flood disaster risk reduction. Crowdsourcing technologies, in the form of online mapping, are now being utilized to great effect in post-disaster mapping and relief efforts, e.g. the activities of Humanitarian OpenStreetMap, complementing official channels of relief (e.g. Haiti, Nepal and New York). Disaster event monitoring efforts have been further complemented with the use of social media (e.g. twitter for earthquakes, flood monitoring, and fire detection). Much of the activity in this area has focused on ex-post emergency management while there is considerable potential for utilizing crowdsourcing and mobile technology for vulnerability assessment, early warning and to bolster resilience to flood events. This paper examines the use of crowdsourcing and mobile technology for measuring and monitoring flood hazards, exposure to floods, and vulnerability, drawing upon examples from the literature and ongoing projects on flooding and food security at IIASA.

  11. The Community – Based Flood Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR in Beringin Watershed in Semarang City

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    Tiara Sartika Worowirasmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in Semarang city is certainly increasing land demand for settlement. Limited land and weak regulation enforcement of land control trigger the land use change including the watershed area. Semarang City Spatial Plan 2011-2031 has determined Beringin as a buffer area with limited physical development allocation but the citizens utilized the watershed area for settlement. Settlement developments in the area reduce the watershed ability to catch water and river capacity due to increased sedimentation. These two reasons are the main cause of the flash flood disaster (regularly in rainy season in seven villages of Beringin watershed. The condition is exacerbated by the tidal flood occurred in two village lies in coastal. In 2012, Semarang City government developed Flood Forecasting and Warning System as one of Climate Change Adaptation Measures known as Flood Early Warning System (FEWS. One of important output of FEWS is community-based disaster risk reduction. Community participation process in the FEWS has made it possible for the community to identify disaster risk characteristics, to propose solution for reducing flood risk which is suitable to the local wisdom, to increase the community capacity and to organize one of themselves in a disaster preparedness group which run quite independently.

  12. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

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    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  13. Can Resilience Thinking Inform Resilience Investments? Learning from Resilience Principles for Disaster Risk Reduction

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    Margot Hill Clarvis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the human and financial costs of natural disasters rise and state finances continue to deplete, increasing attention is being placed on the role of the private sector to support disaster and climate resilience. However, not only is there a recognised lack of private finance to fill this gap, but international institutional and financing bodies tend to prioritise specific reactive response over preparedness and general resilience building. This paper utilises the central tenets of resilience thinking that have emerged from scholarship on social-ecological system resilience as a lens through which to assess investing in disaster risk reduction (DRR for resilience. It draws on an established framework of resilience principles and examples of resilience investments to explore how resilience principles can actually inform decisions around DRR and resilience investing. It proposes some key lessons for diversifying sources of finance in order to, in turn, enhance “financial resilience”. In doing so, it suggests a series of questions to align investments with resilience building, and to better balance the achievement of the resilience principles with financial requirements such as financial diversification and replicability. It argues for a critical look to be taken at how resilience principles, which focus on longer-term systems perspectives, could complement the focus in DRR on critical and immediate stresses.

  14. Vulnerability assessments, identity and spatial scale challenges in disaster-risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. Carr

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches to vulnerability assessment for disaster-risk reduction (DRR commonly apply generalised, a priori determinants of vulnerability to particular hazards in particular places. Although they may allow for policy-level legibility at high levels of spatial scale, these approaches suffer from attribution problems that become more acute as the level of analysis is localised and the population under investigation experiences greater vulnerability. In this article, we locate the source of this problem in a spatial scale mismatch between the essentialist framings of identity behind these generalised determinants of vulnerability and the intersectional, situational character of identity in the places where DRR interventions are designed and implemented. Using the Livelihoods as Intimate Government (LIG approach to identify and understand different vulnerabilities to flooding in a community in southern Zambia, we empirically demonstrate how essentialist framings of identity produce this mismatch. Further, we illustrate a means of operationalising intersectional, situational framings of identity to achieve greater and more productive understandings of hazard vulnerability than available through the application of general determinants of vulnerability to specific places and cases.

  15. PROTECT: Proximity-based Trust-advisor using Encounters for Mobile Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Udayan; Helmy, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Many interactions between network users rely on trust, which is becoming particularly important given the security breaches in the Internet today. These problems are further exacerbated by the dynamics in wireless mobile networks. In this paper we address the issue of trust advisory and establishment in mobile networks, with application to ad hoc networks, including DTNs. We utilize encounters in mobile societies in novel ways, noticing that mobility provides opportunities to build proximity, location and similarity based trust. Four new trust advisor filters are introduced - including encounter frequency, duration, behavior vectors and behavior matrices - and evaluated over an extensive set of real-world traces collected from a major university. Two sets of statistical analyses are performed; the first examines the underlying encounter relationships in mobile societies, and the second evaluates DTN routing in mobile peer-to-peer networks using trust and selfishness models. We find that for the analyzed trace...

  16. Behavioral Risk Reduction in a Declining HIV Epidemic: Injection Drug Users in New York City, 1990-1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; Perlis, Theresa; Friedman, Samuel R.; Chapman, Timothy; Kwok, John; Rockwell, Russell; Paone, Denise; Milliken, Judith; Monterroso, Edgar

    2000-01-01

    Assessed trends in HIV risk behaviors among New York City injection drug users from 1990-97. Interviews at a drug detoxification program and a research storefront in a high drug-use area showed continuing risk reduction among users that indicated a declining phase in the large HIV epidemic in New York City. HIV prevention programs appeared to be…

  17. A Case Analysis of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province: Basis for A Comprehensive Intervention Program

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    Victoria D. Jurilla

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available - This study determined the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines in the areas of Dissemination, Implementation, and Resource Utilization and Operation as evaluated by the 390 citizens of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts in the Province of Iloilo, Philippines. This descriptive method of research employed researcher-made instruments and random interviews. Descriptive statistics used were the mean and standard deviation while inferential statistics employed Ttest for independent samples and one-way analysis for variance set at .05 level of significances. Findings revealed that Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness of Iloilo Province, Philippines is “more effective” in terms of dissemination, implementation, and resource utilization and operation according to the assessment of the 390 respondents of the ten (10 selected municipalities from the five (5 Congressional Districts when they were grouped as to personal variables. Finally, the findings revealed that three (3 out of ten (10 municipalities were very effective and among the five (5 districts, first district was very effective as to dissemination and resource utilization and operation of their respective Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness Program but as a whole, Iloilo Province was more effective in its Disaster Risk Reduction Preparedness.

  18. A Competence-Based Science Learning Framework Illustrated through the Study of Natural Hazards and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyao, Sheila G.; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia; Pagunsan, Marmon M.

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a competence-based learning framework for science teaching, applied to the study of "big ideas", in this case to the study of natural hazards and disaster risk reduction (NH&DRR). The framework focuses on new visions of competence, placing emphasis on nurturing connectedness and behavioral actions toward…

  19. 76 FR 26682 - Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Chapter II Study on Protection of Certain Railroad Risk Reduction Data From Discovery or Use in Litigation AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), Department of..., list, or data compiled or collected for the purpose of evaluating, planning, or implementing a...

  20. Identification and analysis of uncertainty in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation in South and Southeast Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keur, van der Peter; Bers, van Caroline; Henriksen, Hans Jørgen; Nibanupudi, Hari Krishna; Yadav, Shobha; Wijaya, Rina; Subiyono, Andreas; Mukerjee, Nandan; Hausmann, Hans Jakob; Hare, Matt; Scheltinga, van Catharien Terwisscha; Pearn, Gregory; Jaspers, Fons

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the mainstreaming of uncertainty in Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) using as a case South and Southeast Asia, a region highly vulnerable to a wide range of natural disasters. Improvements in the implementation of DRR and CCA at the community

  1. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  2. Advisor Influence Strategies: 10 Cross-Cultural Scenarios for Discussion and Self-Assessment (Instructor’s Manual)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    quiet down. The advisor then told them it doesn’t matter who gives the instructions and instructions do not have to come from a General in order for...the advisor is likely to be more effective if he engages in ego -stroking behavior with a person of such high rank. In Option C, the advisor is

  3. Sleep-time blood pressure as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2012-03-01

    Independent studies have found that elevated sleep-time blood pressure (BP) is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than the awake or 24-h BP means in patients without as well as with diabetes. However, the impact of the alteration over time of ambulatory BP on cardiovascular risk has never been investigated. We evaluated in a subgroup cohort of MAPEC (Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares, i.e., ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for prediction of cardiovascular events) with diabetes whether reduced cardiovascular risk is more related to the progressive decrease of awake vs. asleep BP. We studied 607 patients with type 2 diabetes during a median 5.4 years follow-up. Those with hypertension at baseline (74%) were randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 of them at bedtime. BP was measured for 48 h at baseline, and again annually in all patients, or more frequently (quarterly) after adjustments in treatment. Using baseline data, when asleep BP was adjusted by awake mean, only the former was a significant predictor of outcome in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for sex, age, anemia, and chronic kidney disease. Analyses of changes in BP during follow-up revealed a 20% cardiovascular risk reduction for each 5 mm Hg decrease in asleep systolic BP mean (P < 0.001), independently of changes in clinic or any other ambulatory BP parameter. Sleep-time BP is the most significant independent prognostic marker of cardiovascular events in diabetes. Most important, decreasing sleep-time BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring proper patient evaluation by ambulatory monitoring, was the most significant independent predictor of event-free survival in diabetes. © 2012 American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd.

  4. A Mobile Clinical Decision Support Tool for Pediatric Cardiovascular Risk-Reduction Clinical Practice Guidelines: Development and Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Background Widespread application of research findings to improve patient outcomes remains inadequate, and failure to routinely translate research findings into daily clinical practice is a major barrier for the implementation of any evidence-based guideline. Strategies to increase guideline uptake in primary care pediatric practices and to facilitate adherence to recommendations are required. Objective Our objective was to operationalize the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute’s Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents into a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) system for healthcare providers, and to describe the process development and outcomes. Methods To overcome the difficulty of translating clinical practice guidelines into a computable form that can be used by a CDS system, we used a multilayer framework to convert the evidence synthesis into executable knowledge. We used an iterative process of design, testing, and revision through each step in the translation of the guidelines for use in a CDS tool to support the development of 4 validated modules: an integrated risk assessment; a blood pressure calculator; a body mass index calculator; and a lipid management instrument. Results The iterative revision process identified several opportunities to improve the CDS tool. Operationalizing the integrated guideline identified numerous areas in which the guideline was vague or incorrect and required more explicit operationalization. Iterative revisions led to workable solutions to problems and understanding of the limitations of the tool. Conclusions The process and experiences described provide a model for other mobile CDS systems that translate written clinical practice guidelines into actionable, real-time clinical recommendations. PMID:28270384

  5. Coronary risk reduction through intensive community-based lifestyle intervention: the Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, H A

    1998-11-26

    Vigorous cholesterol lowering with diet, drugs, or a combination has been shown to slow, arrest, or even reverse atherosclerosis. Residential lifestyle intervention programs have successfully lowered serum cholesterol levels and other coronary risk factors, but they have the disadvantages of high cost and difficulty with long-term adherence. Community-based risk-reduction programs have the potential to effect change at low cost and improve long-term adherence. To assess the effectiveness of, and to develop a model for, such programs, the community-based Coronary Health Improvement Project (CHIP) was developed in Kalamazoo, Michigan. In the intensive (30-day, 40-hour), hospital-based educational program, participants are encouraged to exercise 30 minutes a day and to embrace a largely unrefined plant-food-centered diet that is high in complex carbohydrates and fiber; very low in fat, animal protein, sugar, and salt; and virtually free of cholesterol. A total of 304 enrollees in the first program were at elevated risk of coronary artery and related diseases: 70% were > or =10% above their ideal weight, 14% had diabetes, 47% had hypertension, and 32% had a history of coronary artery disease. Of the enrollees, 288 "graduated" from the program (123 men, 165 women; mean age was 55+/-11 years). Various markers of disease risk, including serum blood lipids and fasting blood glucose concentrations, were measured before and after the program. At 4 weeks, overall improvements in the participants' laboratory test results, blood pressures, weights, and body mass indexes were highly significant (p 200 mg/dL in men, 200-299 mg/dL in women).

  6. Impact of an opioid risk reduction initiative on motor vehicle crash risk among chronic opioid therapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ryan N; Walker, Rod L; Shortreed, Susan M; Dublin, Sascha; Saunders, Kathleen; Ludman, Evette J; Von Korff, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Although prescription opioids have been associated with higher motor vehicle crash (MVC) risk, it is unknown whether health system initiatives to better manage chronic opioid therapy (COT) can reduce MVC risk at the population level. We conducted an interrupted time series population-level cohort study at Group Health (GH), between January 2006 and September 2014, comparing MVC risk among COT patients who were GH members receiving care in either group practice or contracted care settings. Group practice COT risk reduction initiatives were implemented in two phases: (1) altered prescribing expectations and (2) multifaceted initiatives. These initiatives did not exist in the contracted care network. We compared the adjusted quarterly rate of MVC between group practice and contracted care patients over time using a modified Poisson regression model for a binary outcome. A total of 32 691 COT patients (27.4% from contracted care) met eligibility criteria and experienced a total of 1956 MVCs during study follow-up (mean, 8.1 quarters per person), of which 810 were serious injury crashes. Crash rates were not significantly different between the patient groups within any of the time periods. Analyses stratified by concurrent prescription of a sedative hypnotic or benzodiazepine found no significant difference between the group practice and contracted care patients. There was a modest elevation of MVC risk for high-dose patients relative to former COT patients who stopped receiving opioids. The risk of MVC was not mitigated in a large cohort of COT patients exposed to a health plan policy initiative that substantially lowered mean opioid dose. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Risk reduction in a changing insurance climate: examples from the US and UK

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    Horn, Diane; McShane, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Coastal cities face a range of increasingly severe challenges as sea level rises, and adaptation to future flood risk will require more than structural defences. Many cities will not be able to rely solely on engineering structures for protection and will need to develop a suite of policy responses to increase their resilience to impacts of rising sea level. Insurance can be used as a risk-sharing mechanism to encourage adaptation to sea level rise, using pricing or restrictions on availability of cover to discourage new development in flood risk areas or to encourage the uptake of flood resilience measures. We draw on flood insurance policy lessons learned from the United States and the United Kingdom to propose risk-sharing among private insurers/reinsurers, government, and policyholders to alleviate major issues of the current programs, while still maintaining a holistic approach to managing flood risk. The UK and the US are almost polar opposites in the way flood insurance is implemented. Flood insurance in the US is fully public and in the UK fully private; however, in both countries the participants feel that the established system is unsustainable. In the US, flood coverage is excluded from property policies provided by private insurers, and is only available through the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP), with the federal government acting as insurer of last resort. Flood risk reduction has been part of the NFIP remit since the introduction of the program in 1968. Following massive payments for flood claims related primarily to Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, the NFIP is approximately 26 billion in debt, prompting calls to bring private insurance back into the flood insurance business. Two major Congressional modifications to the NFIP in 2012 and 2014 have pushed the contradictory goals of fully risk-based, yet affordable premiums. The private market has not been significantly involved in a risk-bearing role, but that is changing as private insurers

  8. Scientific writing: strategies and tools for students and advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vikash; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Scientific writing is a demanding task and many students need more time than expected to finish their research articles. To speed up the process, we highlight some tools, strategies as well as writing guides. We recommend starting early in the research process with writing and to prepare research articles, not after but in parallel to the lab or field work. We suggest considering scientific writing as a team enterprise, which needs proper organization and regular feedback. In addition, it is helpful to select potential target journals early and to consider not only scope and reputation, but also decision times and rejection rates. Before submission, instructions to authors and writing guides should be considered, and drafts should be extensively revised. Later in the process editor's and reviewer's comments should be followed. Our tips and tools help students and advisors to structure the writing and publishing process, thereby stimulating them to develop their own strategies to success.

  9. Extreme Events and Disaster Risk Reduction - a Future Earth KAN initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dorothea; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The topic of Extreme Events in the context of global environmental change is both a scientifically challenging and exciting topic, and of very high societal relevance. The Future Earth Cluster initiative E3S organized in 2016 a cross-community/co-design workshop on Extreme Events and Environments from Climate to Society (http://www.e3s-future-earth.eu/index.php/ConferencesEvents/ConferencesAmpEvents). Based on the results, co-design research strategies and established network of the workshop, and previous activities, E3S is thriving to establish the basis for a longer-term research effort under the umbrella of Future Earth. These led to an initiative for a Future Earth Knowledge Action Network on Extreme Events and Disaster Risk Reduction. Example initial key question in this context include: What are meaningful indices to describe and quantify impact-relevant (e.g. climate) extremes? Which system properties yield resistance and resilience to extreme conditions? What are the key interactions between global urbanization processes, extreme events, and social and infrastructure vulnerability and resilience? The long-term goal of this KAN is to contribute to enhancing the resistance, resilience, and adaptive capacity of socio-ecological systems across spatial, temporal and institutional scales, in particular in the light of hazards affected by ongoing environmental change (e.g. climate change, global urbanization and land use/land cover change). This can be achieved by enhanced understanding, prediction, improved and open data and knowledge bases for detection and early warning decision making, and by new insights on natural and societal conditions and governance for resilience and adaptive capacity.

  10. Clinical utility of rosuvastatin and other statins for cardiovascular risk reduction among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney B Long

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sydney B Long, Michael J Blaha, Roger S Blumenthal, Erin D MichosJohns Hopkins Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Age is one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Treatment with statins can significantly reduce CVD events and mortality in both primary and secondary prevention. Yet despite the high CVD risk among the elderly, there is underutilization of statins in this population (ie, the treatment-risk paradox. Few studies have investigated the use of statins in the elderly, particularly for primary prevention and, as a result, guidelines for treating the elderly are limited. This is likely due to: uncertainties of risk assessment in older individuals where the predictive value of individual risk factors is decreased; the need to balance the benefits of primary prevention with the risks of polypharmacy, health care costs, and adverse medication effects in a population with decreased life expectancy; the complexity of treating patients with many other comorbidities; and increasingly difficult social and economic concerns. As life expectancy increases and the total elderly population grows, these issues become increasingly important. JUPITER (Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin is the largest primary prevention statin trial to date and enrolled a substantial number of elderly adults. Among the 5695 JUPITER participants ≥70 years of age, the absolute CVD risk reduction associated with rosuvastatin was actually greater than for younger participants. The implications of this JUPITER subanalysis and the broader role of statins among older adults is the subject of this review.Keywords: JUPITER, rosuvastatin, elderly, risk

  11. NHS health checks through general practice: randomised trial of population cardiovascular risk reduction

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    Cochrane Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The global burden of the major vascular diseases is projected to rise and to remain the dominant non-communicable disease cluster well into the twenty first century. The Department of Health in England has developed the NHS Health Check service as a policy initiative to reduce population vascular disease risk. The aims of this study were to monitor population changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors over the first year of the new service and to assess the value of tailored lifestyle support, including motivational interview with ongoing support and referral to other services. Methods Randomised trial comparing NHS Health Check service only with NHS Health Check service plus additional lifestyle support in Stoke on Trent, England. Thirty eight general practices and 601 (365 usual care, 236 additional lifestyle support patients were recruited and randomised independently between September 2009 and February 2010. Changes in population CVD risk between baseline and one year follow-up were compared, using intention-to-treat analysis. The primary outcome was the Framingham 10 year CVD risk score. Secondary outcomes included individual modifiable risk measures and prevalence of individual risk categories. Additional lifestyle support included referral to a lifestyle coach and free sessions as needed for: weight management, physical activity, cook and eat and positive thinking. Results Average population CVD risk decreased from 32.9% to 29.4% (p Conclusions The NHS Health Check service in Stoke on Trent resulted in significant reduction in estimated population CVD risk. There was no evidence of further benefit of the additional lifestyle support services in terms of absolute CVD risk reduction.

  12. The relationship between need and capacity for multidisciplinary cardiovascular risk-reduction programs in Ontario.

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    Candido, Elisa; Richards, Janice A; Oh, Paul; Suskin, Neville; Arthur, Heather M; Fair, Terry; Alter, David A

    2011-01-01

    Available evidence has demonstrated survival benefits associated with multidisciplinary cardiovascular risk-reduction (CR) (ie, cardiac rehabilitation) programs. The degree to which program capacity meets eligible service demands in Ontario is unknown. We sought to estimate the supply-need care-gap associated with CR programs across regions (Local Health Integration Networks [LHINs]) in Ontario. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based study during 2006. Administrative data provided estimates of the population eligible for multidisciplinary CR services due to (1) recent cardiovascular hospitalizations and (2) incident diabetes. An Ontario-wide survey of CR programs provided service supply estimates. The coverage rate and the absolute supply-need mismatch were use to quantify the care-gap by LHIN. Based on cardiac hospitalizations alone, 53,270 patients in Ontario in 2006 (508.7 per 100,000) were eligible for CR services; 128,869 patients (1245 per 100,000) would have been eligible if newly diagnosed (incident cases) diabetic patients were included. Capacity for CR services was 18,087 patients, corresponding to 34% coverage of the eligible population (absolute unmet needs of 35,189 individuals) if capacity was entirely dedicated to recent hospitalizations and 14% coverage (absolute unmet needs of 110,782) if services were extended to include incident diabetes patients. Marked variation in disease burden, service capacity, and supply-need mismatch was observed across regions, in which supply was not correlated with need. Despite proved benefits of multidisciplinary CR programs, unmet population needs remain high in Ontario and are unequally distributed across regions. The magnitude of unmet needs and the lack of correlation between supply and disease burden necessitate broader provincial strategies to plan, allocate, and subsidize CR programs. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of the new Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction on Paris flood prevention program

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    Thepot Regis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The greater Paris region faces a significant risk of flooding due to potential spill-over from the Seine and the Marne. Because the last major flood occurred in 1910, the event has faded in the collective memory. Consequently, the population and the public authorities have difficulty imagining that such a catastrophe might repeat itself. In parallel, widespread urban expansion into flood zones has considerably aggravated the foreseeable damage if an event of a comparable intensity were to hit the region.In response to this situation, the EPTB Seine Grands Lacs – a public territorial basin establishment– decided to take action to reduce this risk.It began by commissioning a study from the OECD on flood risk prevention in the Seine Basin. This study was presented in January 2014 and highlighted the considerable risk of flooding in or near Paris, which could, affect a total of nearly 5 million people, cause up to €30 billion in direct damage and affect up to 400.000 jobs. It also put forward 14 recommendations that are being implemented by the public authorities, at either the national, basin or local level.The EPTB launched in partnership with the government a second initiative for which it steers and coordinates a coherent, balanced, relevant and gradual programme of 78 flood prevention actions. As a new post-2015 framework for disaster risk reduction was adopted in Sendai in March 2015 taking in account lessons learned during the 2005-2015 period, gaps identified and future challenges, this paper addresses the question of the impact of this new international framework on the implementation of the flood prevention of Paris region. One of the main points developed is the necessity to increase public awareness, to enhance disaster preparedness for effective response and to “build back better” in recovery rehabilitation and reconstruction.

  14. Breast Cancer-Related Arm Lymphedema: Incidence Rates, Diagnostic Techniques, Optimal Management and Risk Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chirag [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Vicini, Frank A., E-mail: fvicini@beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    As more women survive breast cancer, long-term toxicities affecting their quality of life, such as lymphedema (LE) of the arm, gain importance. Although numerous studies have attempted to determine incidence rates, identify optimal diagnostic tests, enumerate efficacious treatment strategies and outline risk reduction guidelines for breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), few groups have consistently agreed on any of these issues. As a result, standardized recommendations are still lacking. This review will summarize the latest data addressing all of these concerns in order to provide patients and health care providers with optimal, contemporary recommendations. Published incidence rates for BCRL vary substantially with a range of 2-65% based on surgical technique, axillary sampling method, radiation therapy fields treated, and the use of chemotherapy. Newer clinical assessment tools can potentially identify BCRL in patients with subclinical disease with prospective data suggesting that early diagnosis and management with noninvasive therapy can lead to excellent outcomes. Multiple therapies exist with treatments defined by the severity of BCRL present. Currently, the standard of care for BCRL in patients with significant LE is complex decongestive physiotherapy (CDP). Contemporary data also suggest that a multidisciplinary approach to the management of BCRL should begin prior to definitive treatment for breast cancer employing patient-specific surgical, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy paradigms that limit risks. Further, prospective clinical assessments before and after treatment should be employed to diagnose subclinical disease. In those patients who require aggressive locoregional management, prophylactic therapies and the use of CDP can help reduce the long-term sequelae of BCRL.

  15. Geology for Global Development: Mobilising and equipping young geologists to engage in disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Geology for Global Development (GfGD) is a not-for-profit organisation working to mobilise and equip geologists to engage in all aspects of sustainable development, including disaster risk reduction (DRR). Geologists have a crucial role to play in DRR, and the recently agreed Sendai Framework for DRR 2015-2030. This framework aims to significantly reduce loss of lives and livelihoods due to disasters. The geology community have an understanding of the Earth, its physical structure, and the processes by which it is constantly being shaped which are of particular relevance to Priorities for Action 1 and 4 noted within the Sendai Framework. Effective engagement by geologists, however, requires many skills beyond the standard geology curriculum. Cultural understanding, cross-disciplinary communication, diplomacy, community mobilization and participation, knowledge exchange, and an understanding of social science research tools are commonly necessary for effective research and engagement in the science-policy-practice interface. Topical and disciplinary knowledge, such as understanding social vulnerability, international policy frameworks and development theory are also rarely included in the education and professional training of a young geologist. Through the work of GfGD, we are training young geologists with these skills and the supporting knowledge required to make an effective contribution to reducing disaster risk, support civil society, empower communities and help to strengthen resilience. University chapters have been established in 14 major UK and Irish universities, coordinating extra-curricular seminars, workshops and discussion activities. Our work is currently focused on supporting young geologists, but we are increasingly a respected voice at international geoscience forums that gather a wide range of students and professionals. Wider (national and international) activities include conferences, placements and facilitating youth engagement in education

  16. Meeting the Needs of USGS's Science Application for Risk Reduction Group through Evaluation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, L.; Campbell, N. M.; Vickery, J.; Madera, A.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) group aims to support innovative collaborations in hazard science by uniting a broad range of stakeholders to produce and disseminate knowledge in ways that are useful for decision-making in hazard mitigation, planning, and preparedness. Since 2013, an evaluation team at the Natural Hazards Center (NHC) has worked closely with the SAFRR group to assess these collaborations and communication efforts. In contributing to the nexus between academia and practice, or "pracademia," we use evaluation research to provide the USGS with useful feedback for crafting relevant information for practitioners and decision-makers. This presentation will highlight how the NHC team has varied our methodological and information design approaches according to the needs of each project, which in turn assist the SAFRR group in meeting the needs of practitioners and decision-makers. As the foci of our evaluation activities with SAFRR have evolved, so have our efforts to ensure that our work appropriately matches the information needs of each scenario project. We draw upon multiple projects, including evaluation work on the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario, "The First Sue Nami" tsunami awareness messaging, and their most recent project concerning a hypothetical M7 earthquake on the Hayward fault in the Bay Area (HayWired scenario). We have utilized various qualitative and quantitative methodologies—including telephone interviews, focus groups, online surveys, nonparticipant observation, and in-person survey distribution. The findings generated from these series of evaluations highlight the ways in which evaluation research can be used by researchers and academics to more appropriately address the needs of practitioners. Moreover, they contribute to knowledge enhancement surrounding disaster preparedness and risk communication, and, more generally, the limited body of knowledge about evaluation-focused disaster

  17. Laypersons' understanding of relative risk reductions: Randomised cross-sectional study

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    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients in decisions on preventive healthcare interventions, little is known about how well patients understand and utilise information provided on the relative benefits from these interventions. The aim of this study was to explore whether lay people can discriminate between preventive interventions when effectiveness is presented in terms of relative risk reduction (RRR, and whether such discrimination is influenced by presentation of baseline risk. Methods The study was a randomised cross-sectional interview survey of a representative sample (n = 1,519 of lay people with mean age 59 (range 40–98 years in Denmark. In addition to demographic information, respondents were asked to consider a hypothetical drug treatment to prevent heart attack. Its effectiveness was randomly presented as RRR of 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 60 percent, and half of the respondents were presented with quantitative information on the baseline risk of heart attack. The respondents had also been asked whether they were diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia or had experienced a heart attack. Results In total, 873 (58% of the respondents consented to the hypothetical treatment. While 49% accepted the treatment when RRR = 10%, the acceptance rate was 58–60% for RRR>10. There was no significant difference in acceptance rates across respondents irrespective of whether they had been presented with quantitative information on baseline risk or not. Conclusion In this study, lay people's decisions about therapy were only slightly influenced by the magnitude of the effect when it was presented in terms of RRR. The results may indicate that lay people have difficulties in discriminating between levels of effectiveness when they are presented in terms of RRR.

  18. Climate Change Adaptation and Climate Related Disaster Risk Reduction Strategies in Zimbabwe and Malawi

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    Mubaya, C. P.; Ngepah, N.; Seyama, W.

    2015-12-01

    Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) and Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) have similar aims and mutual benefits, and there is a very strong rationale for adopting a more integrated approach to these issues rather than analysing each of them as distinct from the other. One of the gaps that have been noted in this context is the lack of evidence in systematic integration of CCA and DRR in Southern Africa. In this regard, this study builds on understanding CCA and DRR policies from the perspectives of vulnerable groups- women and smallholder farmers, and conducts institutional and policy analysis of CCA and DRR in southern Africa, with specific focus on Malawi and Zimbabwe. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies were employed to collect data for this study in the two countries. The analysis is centred on the conceptualization of DRR in the context of recovery time and CCA on livelihood changes. Findings of the study show that drought is no longer viewed as a hazard as it is a perennial and chronic occurrence in selected climate hotspots, with heightened intensity in certain identified years. Households are able to quickly recover from slow onset hazards such as droughts and dry spells more than they are able to recover from sudden onset floods, implying more capacity towards CCA than DRR. Government programmes and policies are also focused more on CCA than on DRR efforts that appear not to be a priority. Findings point towards female vulnerability from perceptions and practice where males tend to dominate where they are set to benefit from external assistance. We need to strengthen government capacity in implementation of DRR programmes, which is currently limited and development initiatives must deliberately target building the resilience of women.

  19. Assessment of Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation policy integration in Zambia

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    Pilli-Sihvola, K.; Väätäinen-Chimpuku, S.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Disaster Risk Management (DRM) and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) policies, their implementation measures and the contribution of these to development has been gaining attention recently. Due to the shared objectives of CCA and particularly Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), a component of DRM, their integration provides many benefits. At the implementation level, DRR and CCA are usually integrated. Policy integration, however, is often lacking. This study presents a novel analysis of the policy integration of DRR and CCA by 1) suggesting a definition for their integration at a general and further at horizontal and vertical levels, 2) using an analysis framework for policy integration cycle, which separates the policy formulation and implementation processes, and 3) applying these to a case study in Zambia. Moreover, the study identifies the key gaps in the integration process, obtains an understanding of identified key factors for creating an enabling environment for the integration, and provides recommendations for further progress. The study is based on a document analysis of the relevant DRM, climate change (CC), agriculture, forestry, water management and meteorology policy documents and Acts, and 21 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders. Horizontal integration has occurred both ways, as the revised DRM policy draft has incorporated CCA, and the new CC policy draft has incorporated DRR. This is not necessarily an optimal strategy and unless carefully implemented, it may create pressure on institutional structures and duplication of efforts in the implementation. Much less vertical integration takes place, and where it does, no guidance on how potential goal conflicts with sectorial and development objectives ought to be handled. The objectives of the instruments show convergence. At the programme stage, the measures are fully integrated as they can be classified as robust CCA measures, providing benefits in the current and future

  20. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongchang

    In systems engineering, design and operation of systems are two main problems which always attract researcher's attentions. The accomplishment of activities in these problems often requires proper decisions to be made so that the desired goal can be achieved, thus, decision making needs to be carefully fulfilled in the design and operation of systems. Design is a decision making process which permeates through out the design process, and is at the core of all design activities. In modern aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design phases so as to increase the odds of choosing a design that will ultimately be successful at the completion of the design process, therefore, decisions made during these early design stages play a critical role in determining the success of a design. Since aerospace systems are complex systems with interacting disciplines and technologies, the Decision Makers (DMs) dealing with such design problems are involved in balancing the multiple, potentially conflicting attributes/criteria, transforming a large amount of customer supplied guidelines into a solidly defined set of requirement definitions. Thus, one could state with confidence that modern aerospace system design is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) process. A variety of existing decision making methods are available to deal with this type of decision problems. The selection of the most appropriate decision making method is of particular importance since inappropriate decision methods are likely causes of misleading engineering design decisions. With no sufficient knowledge about each of the methods, it is usually difficult for the DMs to find an appropriate analytical model capable of solving their problems. In addition, with the complexity of the decision problem and the demand for more capable methods increasing, new decision making methods are emerging with time. These various methods exacerbate the difficulty of the selection

  1. [Glimpsing undergraduate research from the view of the advisors of Nursing scholarships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Leite, Joséte Luzia; Nascimento, Keyla Cristiane do; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo

    2011-01-01

    This research aimed at understanding the meaning of undergraduate research for supervisors of Nursing scholarship students in a university in the South of Brazil. The methodological reference used was the Grounded Theory, by the means of interviews with seven undergraduate research scholarship advisors forming two sample groups. The phenomenon "glimpsing undergraduate research activities of research groups coordinated by nursing advisors, the basis of competency formation in research of the scholarships" emerged form the interrelation of six categories. To be a advisor and researcher of human resources in research form undergraduation requires pedagogical, instrumental, and managerial competencies associated to research policies of nursing and health.

  2. Servqual Method: Analisis Kualitas Pelayanan Beauty Advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami Widyastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa kualitas pelayanan beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar guna meningkatkan kualitas pelayanan pada konsumen. Pengambilan data menggunakan skala kualitas pelayanan yang disusun berdasarkan metode Servqual dari (Parasuraman, dkk., 1988 pada 72 orang konsumen Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar. Sampel diambil dengan menggunakan teknik insidental random sampling. Analisis data menggunakan pengukuran gap 5 dari metode Servqual. Hasil penelitian menemukan ada kesenjangan pelayanan (service gap antara persepsi dan harapan konsumen sebesar -81.09 dimana nilai minus disini berarti, kinerja kerja beauty advisor Sari Ayu Martha Tilaar berada pada kategori rendah. Kesimpulannya, beauty advisor sebagai garda lini depan dalam pemasaran belum bekerja secara optimal.

  3. Valuing the risk reduction of coastal ecosystems in data poor environments: an application in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reguero, B. G.; Toimil, A.; Escudero, M.; Menendez, P.; Losada, I. J.; Beck, M. W.; Secaira, F.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal risks are increasing from both economic growth and climate change. Understanding such risks is critical to assessing adaptation needs and finding cost effective solutions for coastal sustainability. Interest is growing in the role that nature-based measures can play in adapting to climate change. Here we apply and advance a framework to value the risk reduction potential of coastal ecosystems, with an application in a large scale domain, the coast of Quintana Roo, México, relevant for coastal policy and management, but with limited data. We build from simple to use open-source tools. We first assess the hazards using stochastic simulation of historical tropical storms and inferring two scenarios of future climate change for the next 20 years, which include the effect of sea level rise and changes in frequency and intensity of storms. For each storm, we obtain wave and surge fields using parametrical models, corrected with pre-computed static wind surge numerical simulations. We then assess losses on capital stock and hotels and calculate total people flooded, after accounting for the effect of coastal ecosystems in reducing coastal hazards. We inferred the location of major barrier reefs and dune systems using available satellite imagery, and sections of bathymetry and elevation data. We also digitalized the surface of beaches and location of coastal structures from satellite imagery. In a poor data environment, where there is not bathymetry data for the whole of the region, we inferred representative coastal profiles of coral reef and dune sections and validated at available sections with measured data. Because we account for the effect of reefs, dunes and mangroves in coastal profiles every 200 m of shoreline, we are able to estimate the value of such ecosystems by comparing with benchmark simulations when we take them out of the propagation and flood model. Although limited in accuracy in comparison to more complex modeling, this approach is able to

  4. Nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Weiqian; van Wijk, Nick; Cansev, Mehmet; Sijben, John W C; Kamphuis, Patrick J G H

    2013-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and devastating neurodegenerative disease with increasing socioeconomic burden for society. In the past 30 y, notwithstanding advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and consequent development of therapeutic approaches to novel pathogenic targets, no cure has so far emerged. This contribution focuses on recent nutritional approaches in the risk reduction and management of AD with emphasis on factors providing a rationale for nutritional approaches in AD, including compromised nutritional status, altered nutrient uptake and metabolism, and nutrient requirements for synapse formation. Collectively these factors are believed to result in specific nutritional requirement in AD. The chapter also emphasizes investigated nutritional interventions in patients with AD, including studies with single nutrients and with the specific nutrient combination Fortasyn Connect and discusses the current shift of paradigm to intervene in earlier stages of AD, which offers opportunities for investigating nutritional strategies to reduce the risk for disease progression. Fortasyn Connect was designed to enhance synapse formation and function in AD by addressing the putative specific nutritional requirements and contains docosahexaenoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, uridine-5'-mono-phosphate, choline, phospholipids, antioxidants, and B vitamins. Two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with the medical food Souvenaid, containing Fortasyn Connect, showed that this intervention improved memory performance in mild, drug-naïve patients with AD. Electroencephalography outcome in one of these clinical studies suggests that Souvenaid has an effect on brain functional connectivity, which is a derivative of changed synaptic activity. Thus, these studies suggest that nutritional requirements in AD can be successfully addressed and result in improvements in behavioral and neuro-physiological alterations that are characteristic to AD

  5. Gemitis : an integrated and participative risk reduction strategy for the sustainable development of cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, P.

    2003-04-01

    The GEMITIS method has been implemented since 1995 into a global and integrated Risk Reduction Strategy for improving the seismic risk-assessment effectiveness in urban areas, including the generation of crisis scenarios and mid- to long term- seismic impact assessment. GEMITIS required us to provide more precise definitions of notions in common use by natural-hazard specialists, such as elements at risk and vulnerability. Until then, only the physical and human elements had been considered, and analysis of their vulnerability referred to their fragility in the face of aggression by nature. We have completed this approach by also characterizing the social and cultural vulnerability of a city and its inhabitants, and, with a wider scope, the functional vulnerability of the "urban system". This functional vulnerability depends upon the relations between the system elements (weak links in chains, functional relays, and defense systems) and upon the city's relations with the outside world (interdependence). Though well developed in methods for evaluating industrial risk (fault-tree analysis, event-tree analysis, multiple defense barriers, etc.), this aspect had until now been ignored by the "hard-science" specialists working on natural hazards. Based on the implementation of an Urban System Exposure methodology, we were able to identify specific human, institutional, or functional vulnerability factors for each urban system, which until had been very little discussed by risk-analysis and civil-protection specialists. In addition, we have defined the new concept of "main stakes" of the urban system, ranked by order of social value (or collective utility). Obviously, vital or strategic issues must be better resistant or protected against natural hazards than issues of secondary importance. The ranking of exposed elements of a city in terms of "main stakes" provides a very useful guide for adapting vulnerability studies and for orienting preventive actions. For this

  6. Science and Technology Networks : A Helping Hand to Boost Implementation of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trogrlić, RobertŠakić; Cumiskey, Lydia; Triyanti, Annisa; Duncan, Melanie J.; Eltinay, Nuha; Hogeboom, Rick J.; Jasuja, Mansi; Meechaiya, Chinaporn; Pickering, Christina J.; Murray, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030 underlines the importance of Science and Technology (S&T) and S&T networks for effective disaster risk reduction (DRR). The knowledge of existing S&T networks and their exact role in DRR, however, is limited. This opinion piece initiates a d

  7. CRITERIA FOR CONSULTANT AND ADVISOR IN THE BRAZILIAN POSTGRADUATE SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroianu, Andy

    2015-01-01

    To review the rules, resolutions and existing documents relating to consultant and advisor to better target the actions of those who exercise these roles. The following documents were consulted: Statute of CAPES, through Decree No. 7692 of March 2, 2012; Ordinance No. 47 of 17/10/1995; Opinion 977 1965 Newton Sucupira; Area Document of Medicine III; Interministerial Ordinance 251 of 2012, based on Decree No. 7642 of 2011 of the Ministry of Science and Technology; CAPES Regiment. The Brazilian Postgraduate system is divided in two different fields, according to its aspects: the "lato sensu" postgraduate, defined as all professional studies performed after the high school graduation; and the "stricto sensu" postgraduate that includes the master degree and the doctorate, both of them different from what is known as MSc or MS and PhD. The Brazilian doctorate is recognized as academic because its purposes include to improve the scientific and the teaching levels of university docents. The master degree has two different objectives one is to be academic and similar to the doctorate; the other is to upgrade professionals to a higher level than specialist or MBA and is denominated professional master degree. The master degrees and the doctorate are designated as courses and may be put together in a structure known as stricto sensu postgraduate program. The complexity of these courses and programs in all the areas of the superior human knowledge requires a large number of professional directly involved with this system and other professionals that attend them, called consultants and advisors. The consultants are counselors, and the advisors are assistants, both of them legally established with the incumbency to aid the postgraduate staff in all their duties. Nothing prevents a person from being a consultant on the situation and advisor on another, even in the same institution. Have knowledge about what being a consultant and advisor is required to exercise the function

  8. Evaluation of severe accident risks and the potential for risk reduction: Surry Power Station, Unit 1: Draft report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, A.S.; Boyd, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Murfin, W.B.; Williams, D.C.

    1987-02-01

    The Severe Accident Risk Reduction Program (SARRP) has completed a rebaselining of the risks to the public from a particular pressurized water reactor with a subatmospheric containment (Surry, Unit 1). Emphasis was placed on determining the magnitude and character of the uncertainties, rather than focusing on a point estimate. The risk-reduction potential of a set of proposed safety option backfits was also studied, and their costs and benefits were also evaluated. It was found that the risks from internal events are generally lower than previously evaluated in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS). However, certain unresolved issues (such as direct containment heating) caused the top of the uncertainty band to appear at a level that is comparable with the RSS point estimate. None of the postulated safety options appears to be cost effective for the Surry power plant. This work supports the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's assessment of severe accidents in NUREG-1150.

  9. Prevalence of malaria and use of malaria risk reduction measures among resettled pregnant women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    ¼ 3.20, 95% CI 1.26–8.16; p ¼ 0.015). Conclusions: The results suggest that educational attainment need not be very advanced to affect practices of malaria prevention and treatment. Primary school attendance was a stronger predictor for use of malaria risk reduction measures than any of the other...... selected background characteristics. Educational attainment, information and communication about malaria prevention and control play a pivotal role in increasing and improving use of malaria risk reduction measures.......Background: The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods: During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk...

  10. A Roundtable on a National Framework for Natural Hazard Risk Reduction and Management: Developing a Research AgendaSummary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Carl D.; Bernknopf, Richard L.; Wachter, Susan M.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This report summarizes discussion at the Roundtable on a National Framework for Risk Reduction and Management held on November 15, 2006, at the Cosmos Club in Washington, D.C. The Roundtable was cosponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Association of American Geographers (AAG), and The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Comments made by speakers not affiliated with the USGS do not necessarily reflect the positions of the USGS.

  11. HIV-Alcohol Risk Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for a Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria A; Esser, Marissa B; Sparks, Alicia; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2016-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears 69 % of the global burden of HIV, and strong evidence indicates an association between alcohol consumption, HIV risk behavior, and HIV incidence. However, characteristics of efficacious HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions are not well known. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the characteristics and synthesize the findings of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions implemented in the region and reported in peer-reviewed journals. Of 644 citations screened, 19 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A discussion of methodological challenges, research gaps, and recommendations for future interventions is included. Relatively few interventions were found, and evidence is mixed about the efficacy of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions. There is a need to further integrate HIV-alcohol risk reduction components into HIV prevention programming and to document results from such integration. Additionally, research on larger scale, multi-level interventions is needed to identify effective HIV-alcohol risk reduction strategies.

  12. OPERATIONAL REMOTE SENSING SERVICES IN NORTH EASTERN REGION OF INDIA FOR NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT, EARLY WARNING FOR DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION AND SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. N. Raju

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available North Eastern Region (NER of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the

  13. A pilot trial of integrated behavioral activation and sexual risk reduction counseling for HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men abusing crystal methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Pantalone, David W; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2012-11-01

    Crystal methamphetamine use is a major driver behind high-risk sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Prior work suggests a cycle of continued crystal methamphetamine use and high-risk sex due to loss of the ability to enjoy other activities, which appears to be a side effect of this drug. Behavioral activation (BA) is a treatment for depression that involves learning to reengage in life's activities. We evaluated a novel intervention for crystal methamphetamine abuse and high-risk sex in MSM, incorporating 10 sessions of BA with integrated HIV risk reduction counseling (RR). Forty-four subjects were screened, of whom 21 met initial entry criteria. A total of 19 participants enrolled; 16 completed an open-phase study of the intervention. Behavioral assessments were conducted at baseline, 3 months postbaseline, and 6 months postbaseline. Linear mixed effects regression models were fit to assess change over time. Mean unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) episodes decreased significantly from baseline to acute postintervention (β=-4.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]=-7.48, -2.24; p=0.0015) and from baseline to 6 months postbaseline (β=-5.07; 95% CI=-7.85, -2.29; p=0.0017; test of fixed effects χ(2)=16.59; df=2,13; p=0.0002). On average, there was a significant decrease over time in the number of crystal methamphetamine episodes in the past 3 months (χ(2)=22.43; df=2,15; pcrystal methamphetamine use in the past 30 days (χ(2)=9.21; df=2,15; p=0.010). Statistically significant reductions in depressive symptoms and poly-substance use were also maintained. Adding behavioral activation to risk reduction counseling for MSM with problematic crystal methamphetamine use may augment the potency of a risk reduction intervention for this population. Due to the small sample size and time intensive intervention, future testing in a randomized design is necessary to determine efficacy, with subsequent effectiveness testing.

  14. Similar risk reduction of death of extended-release metoprolol once daily and immediate-release metoprolol twice daily during 5 years after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlitz, J; Dellborg, M; Karlson, B W; Lindqvist, J; Sandèn, W; Svensson, H; Sjölin, M; Wedel, H

    1999-04-01

    The pooled results from five placebo-controlled postinfarction studies with metoprolol have shown a significant reduction in total mortality. All five studies used immediate-release metoprolol twice daily. An extended-release formulation of metoprolol for once-daily use has since been developed. The aim of the present study was to compare the two different forms of metoprolol with regard to the risk reduction of death for 5 years postinfarction and to analyze whether treatment with the beta-blocker metoprolol is associated with a reduced mortality after the introduction of modern therapies such as thrombolysis, aspirin, and ACE inhibitors. All patients discharged after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from Sahlgrenska University Hospital (SU) during 1986-1987 (n = 740, Period I) and during 1990-1991 (n = 1446, Period II) from both SU and Ostra Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden, were included in the study. During Period I, 56% were prescribed immediate-release metoprolol compared with 61% prescribed extended-release metoprolol during Period II. Immediate-release metoprolol was not available for outpatient use during Period II. In a multivariate analysis, all variables significantly associated with either increased or decreased postinfarction mortality during Periods I and II (univariate analysis of patient characteristics, medical history, complications during the AMI medication at discharge) studied were with Cox's proportional hazards model. Treatment with immediate-release metoprolol was significantly associated with reduced mortality over 5 years during Period I (relative risk reduction for total mortality, -34%, P = 0.003; 95% CI for RR, 0.51-0.87), and treatment with extended-release metoprolol was significantly associated with reduced mortality during Period II (-34%, P metoprolol given once daily was associated with a similar risk reduction of death over 5 years as immediate-release metoprolol given twice daily. The data, furthermore, indicate that the beta

  15. Operational Remote Sensing Services in North Eastern Region of India for Natural Resources Management, Early Warning for Disaster Risk Reduction and Dissemination of Information and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, P. L. N.; Sarma, K. K.; Barman, D.; Handique, B. K.; Chutia, D.; Kundu, S. S.; Das, R. Kr.; Chakraborty, K.; Das, R.; Goswami, J.; Das, P.; Devi, H. S.; Nongkynrih, J. M.; Bhusan, K.; Singh, M. S.; Singh, P. S.; Saikhom, V.; Goswami, C.; Pebam, R.; Borgohain, A.; Gogoi, R. B.; Singh, N. R.; Bharali, A.; Sarma, D.; Lyngdoh, R. B.; Mandal, P. P.; Chabukdhara, M.

    2016-06-01

    North Eastern Region (NER) of India comprising of eight states considered to be most unique and one of the most challenging regions to govern due to its unique physiographic condition, rich biodiversity, disaster prone and diverse socio-economic characteristics. Operational Remote Sensing services increased manifolds in the region with the establishment of North Eastern Space Applications Centre (NESAC) in the year 2000. Since inception, NESAC has been providing remote sensing services in generating inventory, planning and developmental activities, and management of natural resources, disasters and dissemination of information and services through geo-web services for NER. The operational remote sensing services provided by NESAC can be broadly divided into three categories viz. natural resource planning and developmental services, disaster risk reduction and early warning services and information dissemination through geo-portal services. As a apart of natural resources planning and developmental services NESAC supports the state forest departments in preparing the forest working plans by providing geospatial inputs covering entire NER, identifying the suitable culturable wastelands for cultivation of silkworm food plants, mapping of natural resources such as land use/land cover, wastelands, land degradation etc. on temporal basis. In the area of disaster risk reduction, NESAC has initiated operational services for early warning and post disaster assessment inputs for flood early warning system (FLEWS) using satellite remote sensing, numerical weather prediction, hydrological modeling etc.; forest fire alert system with actionable attribute information; Japanese Encephalitis Early Warning System (JEWS) based on mosquito vector abundance, pig population and historical disease intensity and agriculture drought monitoring for the region. The large volumes of geo-spatial databases generated as part of operational services are made available to the administrators and

  16. Data poverty: A global evaluation for 2009 to 2013 - implications for sustainable development and disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M.; Gibson, Andrew D.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents a time series (2009-2013) analysis for a new version of the ;Digital Divide; concept that developed in the 1990s. Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. The Data Poverty Index (DPI) provides an open-source means of annually evaluating global access to data and information. The DPI can be used to monitor aspects of data and information availability at global and national levels, with potential application at local (district) levels. Access to data and information is a major factor in disaster risk reduction, increased resilience to disaster and improved adaptation to climate change. In that context, the DPI could be a useful tool for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction (2015-2030). The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. Unlike many other indices, the DPI is underpinned by datasets that are consistently provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be downloaded without restriction or cost.

  17. Tsunami mitigation and preparedness activities in California: Chapter L in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rick; Miller, Kevin H.

    2013-01-01

    Scenario planning and final results associated with the U.S. Geological Survey Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) tsunami project are providing great benefits to the ongoing tsunami risk-reduction efforts of the California Tsunami Preparedness and Hazard Mitigation Program. This program, led by the California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services and the California Geological Survey, works with coastal communities to improve tsunami preparedness and mitigation at the local level through various efforts, such as improving tsunami hazard analysis, establishing consistent evacuation communications and planning, and leveraging national risk-reduction efforts associated with the National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The recent 2010 Chilean and 2011 Tohoku tsunamis did not cause notable inundation of dry land in California, but dozens of harbors sustained damages totaling nearly $100 million (Wilson and others, 2012a). Estimates associated with the SAFRR distant tsunami scenario suggest socioeconomic and environmental losses could be even larger. Information gathered from these events and the SAFRR scenario is guiding the development and implementation of new strategies for emergency response, maritime planning, and land-use planning, including a reassessment of the tsunami threat along the California coast;

  18. The CBT Advisor: An Expert System Program for Making Decisions about CBT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, Greg

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structure, credibility, and use of the Computer Based Training (CBT) Advisor, an expert system designed to help managers make judgements about course selection, system selection, cost/benefits, development effort, and probable success of CBT projects. (MBR)

  19. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  20. Undergraduate Students' Perceptions of the Communication Behaviors of Their Advisors and Perceptions of Relational Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Narissra Punyanunt-Carter; Stacy Carter

    2015-01-01

      This study examined the specific interpersonal communication styles and behaviors of advisors and the expectations they have on their advisee's level of satisfaction, as well as what characteristics...

  1. 76 FR 7550 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  2. 75 FR 53279 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  3. 78 FR 11865 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... education communities in a national dialogue regarding new HBCU programs and initiatives; (iii) improving... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  4. 78 FR 31910 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION... Education, President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (Board)....

  5. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  6. What Are Faculty Advisors To Do When Their Own Career Path Does Not Satisfy Their Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    As graduate students seek advice on broad career options, many faculty advisors do not know what to do. It is easy for them to do nothing. They may do nothing because they assume that their own students are interested only in an academic research career like theirs. The mistake here can be that the advisors' verbal and non-verbal communication deters students from mentioning their interests in the first place or pursuing those interests, if mentioned. Or advisors may do nothing by assuming that it is not their responsibility to advise students about career options other than being an academic researcher. The advisors' lack of knowledge about other careers may lead them to avoid the issue. The mistake here is obvious. So what are advisors to do? They can encourage students to think of their graduate study as part of their career preparation, not just a task to obtain a research degree. Creating a risk-free environment for career discussion will enable faculty advisors to learn each student's career priorities and validate exploration of broad career options. Advisors should not feel inadequate by being unable to advise about everything. No one expects them to. They can encourage their students to meet together, on their own if necessary, to discuss common career concerns, even to invite speakers, including alums, to talk about different careers and the preparation required. They can encourage their students to seek additional mentors, people more knowledgeable about careers of interest to the students. They can encourage students to take courses for career preparation, particularly courses outside of science, even though these courses "take them away from their research." And advisors should not hold students at fault if they change their minds about career paths. More information often changes minds. These are a few of the many things that advisors can do. It is essential that faculty advisors not resent students' decisions to follow a career path different from

  7. The Foreign Area Officer Program. Volume I. The Role of the Military Advisor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-05-01

    attended the MAPA or MAO C&SC, and are not MAOP members. Some of these positions are advisory posi- tions. For purposes of this report, we did not...determine whether there is a comparable problem at the MAAG end--i.e. , requisitioning MAPA or MAO C&SC graduates and not getting them—or to what...U. S. Army training in advisor functions and roles is incorporated in the Military Assistance Programmer/Advisor ( MAPA ) and Military Assistance

  8. Bridging Income Generation with Group Integrated Care for cardiovascular risk reduction: Rationale and design of the BIGPIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedanthan, Rajesh; Kamano, Jemima H; Lee, Hana; Andama, Benjamin; Bloomfield, Gerald S; DeLong, Allison K; Edelman, David; Finkelstein, Eric A; Hogan, Joseph W; Horowitz, Carol R; Manyara, Simon; Menya, Diana; Naanyu, Violet; Pastakia, Sonak D; Valente, Thomas W; Wanyonyi, Cleophas C; Fuster, Valentin

    2017-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide, with >80% of CVD deaths occurring in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes are risk factors for CVD, and CVD is the major cause of morbidity and mortality among individuals with DM. There is a critical period now during which reducing CVD risk among individuals with diabetes and pre-diabetes may have a major impact. Cost-effective, culturally appropriate, and context-specific approaches are required. Two promising strategies to improve health outcomes are group medical visits and microfinance. This study tests whether group medical visits integrated into microfinance groups are effective and cost-effective in reducing CVD risk among individuals with diabetes or at increased risk for diabetes in western Kenya. An initial phase of qualitative inquiry will assess contextual factors, facilitators, and barriers that may impact integration of group medical visits and microfinance for CVD risk reduction. Subsequently, we will conduct a four-arm cluster randomized trial comparing: (1) usual clinical care, (2) usual clinical care plus microfinance groups only, (3) group medical visits only, and (4) group medical visits integrated into microfinance groups. The primary outcome measure will be 1-year change in systolic blood pressure, and a key secondary outcome measure is 1-year change in overall CVD risk as measured by the QRISK2 score. We will conduct mediation analysis to evaluate the influence of changes in social network characteristics on intervention outcomes, as well as moderation analysis to evaluate the influence of baseline social network characteristics on effectiveness of the interventions. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted in terms of cost per unit change in systolic blood pressure, percent change in CVD risk score, and per disability-adjusted life year saved. This study will provide evidence regarding effectiveness and cost

  9. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    specific Hg controls) ranged from 5.7 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest to 2 x 10{sup -5} in the Southeast. Reducing emissions from coal plants by 90% reduced the estimated range in risk to 5 x 10{sup -6} in the Midwest and 1.5 x 10{sup -5} in Southeast, respectively. The population risk for the subsistence fisher using the Southeast regional fish Hg levels was 3.8 x 10{sup -3}, a factor of 200 greater than the general population risk. For the subsistence fishers and the Savannah River Hg levels, the population risk was 4.3 x 10{sup -5}, a factor of 2 greater than for the general population. The estimated risk reductions from a 90% reduction in coal plant Hg emissions ranged from 25%-68%, which is greater than the assumed reduction in Hg levels in fish, (15.5%). To place this risk in perspective, there are approximately 4 x 10{sup 6} births/year in the U.S (National Vital Statistics Report, 2000). Assuming that the Southeast risk level (the highest of the regions) is appropriate for the entire U.S., an estimate of 80 newborn children per year have a 5% chance of realizing any of the 16 adverse effects used to generate the DRF. If Hg emissions from power plants are reduced 90%, the number of children at risk is reduced to 60.

  10. Forecast-based Integrated Flood Detection System for Emergency Response and Disaster Risk Reduction (Flood-FINDER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcorace, Mauro; Silvestro, Francesco; Rudari, Roberto; Boni, Giorgio; Dell'Oro, Luca; Bjorgo, Einar

    2016-04-01

    Most flood prone areas in the globe are mainly located in developing countries where making communities more flood resilient is a priority. Despite different flood forecasting initiatives are now available from academia and research centers, what is often missing is the connection between the timely hazard detection and the community response to warnings. In order to bridge the gap between science and decision makers, UN agencies play a key role on the dissemination of information in the field and on capacity-building to local governments. In this context, having a reliable global early warning system in the UN would concretely improve existing in house capacities for Humanitarian Response and the Disaster Risk Reduction. For those reasons, UNITAR-UNOSAT has developed together with USGS and CIMA Foundation a Global Flood EWS called "Flood-FINDER". The Flood-FINDER system is a modelling chain which includes meteorological, hydrological and hydraulic models that are accurately linked to enable the production of warnings and forecast inundation scenarios up to three weeks in advance. The system is forced with global satellite derived precipitation products and Numerical Weather Prediction outputs. The modelling chain is based on the "Continuum" hydrological model and risk assessments produced for GAR2015. In combination with existing hydraulically reconditioned SRTM data and 1D hydraulic models, flood scenarios are derived at multiple scales and resolutions. Climate and flood data are shared through a Web GIS integrated platform. First validation of the modelling chain has been conducted through a flood hindcasting test case, over the Chao Phraya river basin in Thailand, using multi temporal satellite-based analysis derived for the exceptional flood event of 2011. In terms of humanitarian relief operations, the EO-based services of flood mapping in rush mode generally suffer from delays caused by the time required for their activation, programming, acquisitions and

  11. Comparison performance of split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle and hybrid electric vehicle using ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rashid Muhammad Ikram

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicle suffers from relatively short range and long charging times and consequently has not become an acceptable solution to the automotive consumer. The addition of an internal combustion engine to extend the range of the electric vehicle is one method of exploiting the high efficiency and lack of emissions of the electric vehicle while retaining the range and convenient refuelling times of a conventional gasoline powered vehicle. The term that describes this type of vehicle is a hybrid electric vehicle. Many configurations of hybrid electric vehicles have been designed and implemented, namely the series, parallel and power-split configurations. This paper discusses the comparison between Split Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle(SPHEV and Hybrid Electric Vehicle(HEV. Modelling methods such as physics-based Resistive Companion Form technique and Bond Graph method are presented with powertrain component and system modelling examples. The modelling and simulation capability of existing tools such as ADvanced VehIcle SimulatOR (ADVISOR is demonstrated through application examples. Since power electronics is indispensable in hybrid vehicles, the issue of numerical oscillations in dynamic simulations involving power electronics is briefly addressed.

  12. Simulating Study on Drive System Performance for Hybrid Electric Bus Based on ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xingxing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric bus has a number of advantages when compared with ordinary passenger cars, but in the dynamic matching and the vehicle performance are difficult to detect, thus limits its development process. In this paper, combined with the actual models, the hybrid electric bus module parameters were modified in the software of ADVISOR (Advanced Vehicle Simulator, main including: module of the vehicle, the wheel module, motor module, a battery module and engine module, three kinds of bus models for A, B and C were established, and the related performance that need to be analyzed was set up, such as acceleration, gradability, emissions and energy utilization and so on, in order to ensure the vehicle running in the same environment and convenient for comparison, a fixed vehicle driving cycles was chose, then the simulation results was analyzed, and the various performance was compared with the dynamic indicators and economic indicators which determined by referencing of traditional city bus standard and each other, and finally, the performance optimal model of B was chose out which can meet the demand, its related performance parameters of the simulation results are as follows: the best gradability is 26%, maximum speed is 72.7km/h, maximum acceleration is 1.7m/s2, 0~50km/h acceleration time is 9.5s and fuel consumption is 25L/km.

  13. Randomized Comparison of Mobile and Web-Tools to Provide Dementia Risk Reduction Education: Use, Engagement and Participant Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elodie; Hatherly, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. Objective The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Methods Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Results Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups

  14. Geology for Global Development: Training young geoscientists to communicate and do effective disaster risk reduction in the developing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, J. C.

    2012-04-01

    Geoscientists have a crucial role to play in improving disaster risk reduction and supporting communities to build resilience and reduce vulnerability. Across the world millions live in severe poverty, without access to many of the basic needs that are often taken for granted - a clean water supply, a reliable food source, safe shelter and suitable infrastructure. This lack of basic needs results in communities being particularly vulnerable to devastating natural hazards, such as floods, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and landslides. Here we discuss two major gaps which can limit the engagement of geoscience students and recent graduates in the serious debates surrounding resilience and effective disaster risk reduction: (i) Geoscience undergraduate and postgraduate courses rarely give students the opportunity to engage with issues such as vulnerability, sustainability, knowledge exchange and cross-cultural communication. (ii) There are very few opportunities for geoscience students to gain experience in this sector through UK or overseas placements. Geology for Global Development (GfGD), established in 2011, is starting to work with UK students and recent graduates to fill these gaps. GfGD aims to inspire and engage young geoscientists, supporting them to apply their interdisciplinary knowledge and skills to generate solutions and resources which support NGOs, empower communities and help build resilience to natural hazards. This is being and will be done through: (i) active university groups hosting seminars and discussion groups; (ii) blog articles; (iii) opportunities to contribute to technical papers; (iv) workshops and conferences; and (v) UK and overseas placements. GfGD seeks to play a key role in the training and development of geoscience graduates with the necessary 'soft-skills' and opportunities to make an important contribution to improving disaster risk reduction, fighting poverty and improving people's lives.

  15. Scientific Opinion on the risk of Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The EFSA Panel on Plant Health conducted a pest risk assessment for Dickeya dianthicola for the EU territory under the scenario of current EU plant health legislation and identified and evaluated risk reduction options. The probability of entry was considered low for carnation cuttings and mother plants because association of D. dianthicola with carnation is rare nowadays. Probability of entry was considered higher for other host plants for planting that are not subject to statutory control. However, this pathogen already occurs in these crops in the EU, and its transfer from them to carnation is unlikely. The probability of establishment is high in the open field but low in protected crops. The probability of spread is moderate in the open field but low in protected crops. Under current phytosanitary measures, but with voluntary certification and sanitation practices in place, consequences for carnation are minimal since no carnation crop losses have been reported in the last 25 years. The risk reduction options with best effectiveness and feasibility are those addressing the sanitary status of the propagation material. However, although the prevalence of D. dianthicola on carnation is low at present, current EU measures appear to have some potential weaknesses, particularly because of lack of details on the testing of mother plants. If the current regulation were to be removed, no major consequences or changes in the potential impact of D. dianthicola are expected provided the current general hygiene practices applied in the European voluntary certification schemes are maintained. If, on the other hand, the current legislation were removed and a voluntary certification scheme was not maintained, contamination of carnation crops by D. dianthicola is expected, with ensuing detrimental effects. Additional risk reduction options to reduce the probability of entry, establishment, spread and impact were identified. Uncertainties on the

  16. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Wegscheider

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences.

    The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1 identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2 bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3 can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk.

    Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  17. Building Partner Capacity: DOD Should Improve Its Reporting to Congress on Challenges to Expanding Ministry of Defense Advisors Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Ministry of Defense Advisors ( MODA ) program more slowly than planned. It had 2 advisors in the field in Kosovo and Montenegro for most of fiscal year...approval process and with advisor recruitment and training. DOD has met most but not all legislative requirements for the MODA program. As required by...of each Global MODA deployment, which could help Congress assess the value of the program in relation to other capacity-building efforts (see figure

  18. Perceptions of farmers on health risks and risk reduction measures in wastewater-irrigated urban vegetable farming in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Konradsen, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    , authorities and the general public, especially if they had some incentives. These findings demonstrate the need to involve farmers as early as possible in intervention projects especially in informal farming practices, like urban agriculture, where restrictions are difficult to implement. This will ensure......Most irrigation water used in urban vegetable farming in Ghana is contaminated with untreated wastewater. This poses health risks to farmers and consumers. As part of a study to explore options for health risk reduction, this paper summarizes farmers' perceptions on health risks and possible risk...

  19. Do Financial Advisors Live Up to Their Reputation: The Case of Major Assets Restructurings of Chinese Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Cen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether top-tier advisors provide superior services by examining the relationship between reputation (measured by whether it is a top-10 advisor ranked on deal value of financial advisors on the bidder side and stock market-based/accounting-based performance of bidders. Using Chinese listed companies with major assets reorganizations (MARs, M&As with large-scale target, we find top-tier advisors are associated with higher excess returns (CARs, implying that reputation generates a verification effect on investors. But we find no significant relationship between the advisor reputation and bidders’ accounting-based performance post-MARs. The findings indicate that although advisor reputation can attract M&A business and sends positive signal to the market, it does not lead to stronger financial performance in the long run. That is, the so-called top-tier financial advisors fail to live up to their reputation. We also find that payment premium is an intervening variable between advisor reputation and the long-term accounting-based performance of bidders, suggesting that top-tier advisors fail in their duties to help clients achieve greater share of synergy gains.

  20. An intensive nurse-led, multi-interventional clinic is more successful in achieving vascular risk reduction targets than standard diabetes care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacMahon Tone, J

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this research was to determine whether an intensive, nurse-led clinic could achieve recommended vascular risk reduction targets in patients with type 2 diabetes as compared to standard diabetes management.

  1. Model-Based Enterprise Summit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Models Become Much More Efficient and Effective When Coupled With Knowledge Design Advisors CAD Fit Machine Motion KanBan Trigger Models Tolerance...Based Enterprise Geometry Kinematics Design Advisors Control Physics Planning System Models CAD Fit Machine Motion KanBan Trigger Models Tolerance

  2. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part IV: Competency-based Education and Training Guidelines to Promote Community Resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Violet; Cooper, Guy Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Twitter can be an effective tool for disaster risk reduction but gaps in education and training exist in current public health and disaster management educational competency standards.  Eleven core public health and disaster management competencies are proposed that incorporate Twitter as a tool for effective disaster risk reduction.  Greater funding is required to promote the education and training of this tool for those in professional schools and in the current public health and disaster management workforce.

  3. Guide to good practices for the selection, training, and qualification of shift technical advisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-02-01

    The DOE Guide to Good Practices For the Selection, Training, and Qualification of Shift Technical Advisors can be used by any DOE nuclear facility that has implemented the shift technical advisor (STA) position. DOE Order 5480.20A, Personnel Selection, Qualification and Training Requirements for DOE Nuclear Facilities, states that only Category A reactors must have a shift technical advisor. However, many DOE nuclear facilities have implemented the shift technical advisor position to provide independent on-shift technical advice and counsel to the shift operating personnel to help determine cause and mitigation of facility accidents. Those DOE nuclear facilities that have implemented or are going to implement the shift technical advisor position will find this guide useful. This guide addresses areas that may be covered by other training programs. In these cases, it is unnecessary (and undesirable) to duplicate these areas in the STA training program as long as the specific skills and knowledge essential for STAs are addressed. The guide is based on the premise that the trainee has not completed any facility-specific training other than general employee training.

  4. Guide to good practices for the selection, training, and qualification of shift technical advisors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-02-01

    The DOE Guide to Good Practices For The Selection, Training, and Qualification of Shift Technical Advisors can be used by any DOE nuclear facility that has implemented the shift technical advisor position. DOE Order 5480-20, ``Personnel Selection, Qualification, Training, and Staffing Requirements at DOE Reactor and Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities,`` states that only Category A reactors must use shift technical advisor position. However, many DOE nuclear facilities have implemented the shift technical advisor position to provide independent on-shift technical advice and counsel to the shift operating personnel to help determine cause and mitigation of facility accidents. Those DOE nuclear facilities that have implemented or are going to implement the shift technical advisor position will find this guide useful. This guide addresses areas that may be covered by other training programs. In these cases, it is unnecessary (and undesirable) to duplicate these areas in the STA training program as long as the specific skills and knowledge essential for STAs are addressed. The guide is presented based on the premise that the trainee has not completed any facility-specific training other than general employee training.

  5. Viewpoints of students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences regarding their academic advisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Fallah Yakhdani

    2012-02-01

    Results: The majority of samples were from Nursing, Midwifery, and Public Health School and a few from Faculty of Medicine. The majority of students (41.8% agreed to have the same advisor from the first term to the last. Also the results showed that the functions of advisors were poor in the areas of constant supervision and monitoring of students’ educational status (35.8%, preparing the timetable for performing the personal or group counseling (41.8% and providing counseling sessions according to the timetable (42.3%. But their functions were fair in the areas of acceptable guidance of students in the educational problems (35.1%, and the advisor’s familiarity to educational regulations (43.9%. It is necessary to note that the advisor's ability in making the intimate relationship with students (37.1%, and the advisors’ motivation and tendency to guidance and counseling (30.1% were the two items evaluated excellent by students. Conclusion: It is necessary that advisors make the students familiar with educational regulations at the first semester of higher education. Also, the policies and regulations for advisors will clarify their activities and will help them to perform better.

  6. Population vulnerability and disaster risk reduction: A situation analysis among the landslide affected communities in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Damodaran Santha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Landslides affect at least 15% of the land area of India, exceeding 0.49 million km2. Taking the case of landslide affected communities in the state of Kerala in India, this paper demonstrates that the focus has seldom been placed on assessing and reducing vulnerability. From the perspective of political economy, this paper argues that vulnerability reduction has to be the main priority of any disaster risk reduction programme. This paper also demonstrates that the interactions between ecological and social systems are usually complex and non-linear in nature. In contrast, interventions to tackle landslide risks have followed a linear course, assuming that one hazard event acts independently of another. The key findings of the study show that lack of access to political power, decision making, and resources, insecure livelihoods,environmental degradation, and ine#ectiveness of the state approach to disaster risk reduction are some of the major factors that lead to increasing vulnerability. Qualitative in nature, the primary data were collected through in-depth interviews with people from different groups such as farmers affected by the landslides and secondary floods, men and women living in the temporary shelter, government representatives involved in relief activities, health authorities, and elected representatives.

  7. Barriers to Knowledge Translation Regarding the Use of Probiotics as a Risk-Reduction Strategy for Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon

    2016-08-01

    Increasingly, evidence supports enteral probiotics are an important risk-reduction strategy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) among very low birth-weight and extremely low birth-weight preterm infants. Yet, the majority of providers remain reluctant to implement practice changes. The aim of this study was to better understand the discrepancy between the available evidence and clinical practice regarding the use of probiotics and other NEC prevention strategies in New Jersey. Using an exploratory descriptive design, a multimodal interprofessional survey was developed and executed to elicit intensive care nursery provider knowledge, views, and current practice. Although the sample size was small (N = 29), approximately one-half of respondents familiar with the literature rated the quality of the evidence regarding probiotics as "above average" to "excellent." These respondents were "very likely" to "extremely likely" to recommend probiotics as an NEC prevention strategy; however, none actually prescribed this intervention. The most important reason respondents did not prescribe probiotics was the focus on providing exclusive maternal and donor breast milk feedings. Other confounding factors included provision of oral colostrum care, standardized feeding protocols, and withholding feedings during blood transfusion. Study results suggested that some providers (primarily nurses) were not familiar with probiotic literature, which may contribute to deficits in knowledge translation to practice. Areas for future study include identifying improved mechanisms for knowledge dissemination, recognizing and addressing barriers and facilitators to knowledge translation, and understanding how probiotics fit and/or contrast with other NEC risk-reduction strategies in the research and clinical settings.

  8. Indigenous Institutions and Their Role in Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience: Evidence from the 2009 Tsunami in American Samoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rumbach

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Indigineity has emerged as an important area of focus for research and policy making on disaster risk reduction (DRR and resilience. Most research on indigeneity and DRR centers on indigenous knowledge and its integration with western scientific understandings of hazards and risk. Through a detailed case study of the 2009 tsunami in American Samoa, we argue that indigenous institutions also play a critical role in disaster risk reduction and resilience. Based on original data from semistructured interviews, village planning meetings, and focus group discussions, we describe how the indigenous institutions of fa'a Samoa, or the culture of Samoa, operated in a time of crisis by: (1 structuring emergency decision making and authority; (2 assigning roles and responsibilities during crises; (3 building effective lines of communication between villages and outside actors; (4 providing a system of accountability for vulnerable people; and (5 acting as gatekeepers to villages and mobilizing social groups to act. We then suggest some ways that indigenous institutions could be better leveraged to help create more resilient communities.

  9. The efficacy of a programme of landslide risk reduction in areas of unplanned housing in the Eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Malcolm G; Holcombe, Elizabeth; Esquivel, Maricarmen; Toro, Joaquin; Ghesquiere, Francis

    2010-04-01

    Poor countries are disproportionately affected by the cost of disasters. Yet there is evidence of the benefits of seeking to mitigate the impact of a disaster, compared with the costs incurred in 'making good' after a major event has occurred. This article reviews a programme of landslide risk reduction in unplanned communities in the Eastern Caribbean. The construction of appropriate surface water management measures, based on the application of scientific and engineering principles, has been demonstrated to reduce the hazard from rainfall-triggered landslides. Adopting a community-based approach additionally delivers social and environmental benefits relating to employment generation, improvements in the environmental conditions within the community, and improvements slope management practices. The sustained implementation of the community-based projects has provided the necessary evidence-base for these practices to influence Government policy and practice, and gain recognition from regional development agencies. The strategic and incremental uptake of the community-based methodology is demonstrated to be an effective means for delivering physical landslide risk reduction measures in the most 'at risk' areas of unplanned housing.

  10. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2013-12-01

    This research project adopted an interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). New data were produced that: (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  11. Investigating the effect of in-service training on advisors' effectiveness through psychological empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Dokaneheeifard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is one of the fundamental concepts in any organization including ministry of education of Iran. Teachers and counselors are the main assets of this organization and education plays a key role in achieving the organization's goals. In-service training is a technique for improving the quality and effectiveness of the advisors. This paper presents a study on the effect of in-service training on advisors’ effectiveness through psychological empowerment. The study uses a questionnaire developed by Spreitzer (1995 [Spreitzer, G. M. (1995. Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Dimensions, measurement, and validation. Academy of management Journal, 38(5, 1442-1465.] to examine the effects of five variables; namely self- efficacy, self-determination, impact, meaningfulness and trust. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined that all five psychological empowerment components had positive and meaningful effects on in-service training. In addition, in-service training maintained positive and meaningful impacts on all components on psychological empowerment. Moreover, in-service training positively influenced on psychological empowerment.

  12. Smoke and mirrors: Limited value of relative risk reductions for assessing the benefits of disease-modifying therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Magd

    2015-05-01

    A reduction in relapse rate is the main primary outcome in most clinical trials in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), with the effect of a treatment commonly expressed as relative risk reduction for this outcome. Physicians often assume that a drug with a higher relative risk reduction demonstrated in one trial is more effective than a drug with a lower relative risk reduction in another, and may pass this idea on to younger physicians and to patients. The use of the relative risk reduction as a measure of drug efficacy can be misleading, as it depends on the nature of the population studied: a treatment effect characterized by a lower relative risk reduction may be more clinically meaningful than one with a higher relative risk reduction. This concept is especially important with regard to clinical trials in patients with MS, where relapse rates in placebo groups have been declining in recent decades. Direct, head-to-head comparisons are the only way to compare the efficacy of the different treatments for MS.

  13. Development of risk reduction behavioral counseling for Ebola virus disease survivors enrolled in the Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Neetu; Malik, Tasneem; Ariyarajah, Archchun; Ongpin, Patricia; Hogben, Matthew; McDonald, Suzanna L R; Marrinan, Jaclyn; Massaquoi, Thomas; Thorson, Anna; Ervin, Elizabeth; Bernstein, Kyle; Ross, Christine; Liu, William J; Kroeger, Karen; Durski, Kara N; Broutet, Nathalie; Knust, Barbara; Deen, Gibrilla F

    2017-09-01

    During the 2014-2016 West Africa Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) epidemic, the public health community had concerns that sexual transmission of the Ebola virus (EBOV) from EVD survivors was a risk, due to EBOV persistence in body fluids of EVD survivors, particularly semen. The Sierra Leone Ebola Virus Persistence Study was initiated to investigate this risk by assessing EBOV persistence in numerous body fluids of EVD survivors and providing risk reduction counseling based on test results for semen, vaginal fluid, menstrual blood, urine, rectal fluid, sweat, tears, saliva, and breast milk. This publication describes implementation of the counseling protocol and the key lessons learned. The Ebola Virus Persistence Risk Reduction Behavioral Counseling Protocol was developed from a framework used to prevent transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The framework helped to identify barriers to risk reduction and facilitated the development of a personalized risk-reduction plan, particularly around condom use and abstinence. Pre-test and post-test counseling sessions included risk reduction guidance, and post-test counseling was based on the participants' individual test results. The behavioral counseling protocol enabled study staff to translate the study's body fluid test results into individualized information for study participants. The Ebola Virus Persistence Risk Reduction Behavioral Counseling Protocol provided guidance to mitigate the risk of EBOV transmission from EVD survivors. It has since been shared with and adapted by other EVD survivor body fluid testing programs and studies in Ebola-affected countries.

  14. The figure of the helper advisor in cases of sexual abuse against people with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena MARTORELL CAFRANGA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the main barriers that people with intellectual disabilities who have suffered sexual abuse have to face when they access the Justice system. Regarding these barriers, the Victim Support Unit for People with Intellectual Disabilities of the Fundación Carmen Pardo-Valcarce proposes the inclusion in the judicial process of a helper advisor. The entry into force in 2015 of the Law 4/2015, in 27 April, the Statute of the crime victim represents an exemplary opportunity to ensure the incorporation of support proposals involving the insertion of the helper advisor in the judicial process in cases where the victim is a person with intellectual disabilities. In this paper we analyse the impact of the helper advisor, with particular emphasis on cases that have been dismissed under instruction.

  15. Employing virtual advisors in preventive care for underserved communities: results from the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby C; Bickmore, Timothy W; Campero, Maria Ines; Pruitt, Leslie A; Yin, James Langxuan

    2013-01-01

    Electronically delivered health promotion programs that are aimed primarily at educated, health-literate individuals have proliferated, raising concerns that such trends could exacerbate health disparities in the United States and elsewhere. The efficacy of a culturally and linguistically adapted virtual advisor that provides tailored physical activity advice and support was tested in low-income older adults. Forty inactive adults (92.5% Latino) 55 years of age and older were randomized to a 4-month virtual advisor walking intervention or a waitlist control. Four-month increases in reported minutes of walking/week were greater in the virtual advisor arm (mean increase = 253.5 ± 248.7 minutes/week) relative to the control (mean increase = 26.8 ± 67.0 minutes/week; p = .0008). Walking increases in the virtual advisor arm were substantiated via objectively measured daily steps (slope analysis p = .002). All but one intervention participant continued some interaction with the virtual advisor in the 20-week poststudy period (mean number of poststudy sessions = 14.0 ± 20.5). The results indicate that a virtual advisor delivering culturally and linguistically adapted physical activity advice led to meaningful 4-month increases in walking relative to control among underserved older adults. This interactive technology, which requires minimal language and computer literacy, may help reduce health disparities by ensuring that all groups benefit from e-health opportunities.

  16. Battery thermal models for hybrid vehicle simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaran, Ahmad A.

    This paper summarizes battery thermal modeling capabilities for: (1) an advanced vehicle simulator (ADVISOR); and (2) battery module and pack thermal design. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) ADVISOR is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment. There are several battery models in ADVISOR for various chemistry types. Each one of these models requires a thermal model to predict the temperature change that could affect battery performance parameters, such as resistance, capacity and state of charges. A lumped capacitance battery thermal model in the Matlab/Simulink environment was developed that included the ADVISOR battery performance models. For thermal evaluation and design of battery modules and packs, NREL has been using various computer aided engineering tools including commercial finite element analysis software. This paper will discuss the thermal ADVISOR battery model and its results, along with the results of finite element modeling that were presented at the workshop on "Development of Advanced Battery Engineering Models" in August 2001.

  17. Profile of a leader: pioneer government advisor: Laura Holland, RN, RRC, CBE, LLD (1883 - 1956).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, E; Zilm, G; Warbinek, E

    2000-01-01

    Laura Holland, nurse and social worker, became one of Canada's first official "nurse advisors" to government when she was appointed Advisor to the B.C. Ministry of Health and Welfare from 1938 to 1945. Before that appointment, she had served, with distinction, as a Nursing Sister in World War I, brought innovative Red Cross and public health advances to northern Ontario, reformed Children's Aid services in Vancouver and B.C., and started a new department that combined nursing/social work in the field during the Great Depression of the 1930s. She was an extraordinary leader.

  18. Studies on the effect of flaw detection probability assumptions on risk reduction at inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Cronvall, O.; Maennistoe, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Gunnars, J.; Alverlind, L.; Dillstroem, P. (Inspecta Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gandossi, L. (European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium))

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the project was to study the effect of POD assumptions on failure probability using structural reliability models. The main interest was to investigate whether it is justifiable to use a simplified POD curve e.g. in risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) studies. The results of the study indicate that the use of a simplified POD curve could be justifiable in RI-ISI applications. Another aim was to compare various structural reliability calculation approaches for a set of cases. Through benchmarking one can identify differences and similarities between modelling approaches, and provide added confidence on models and identify development needs. Comparing the leakage probabilities calculated by different approaches at the end of plant lifetime (60 years) shows that the results are very similar when inspections are not accounted for. However, when inspections are taken into account the predicted order of magnitude differs. Further studies would be needed to investigate the reasons for the differences. Development needs and plans for the benchmarked structural reliability models are discussed. (author)

  19. Studies on the effect of flaw detection probability assumptions on risk reduction at inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K.; Cronvall, O.; Maennistoe, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)); Gunnars, J.; Alverlind, L.; Dillstroem, P. (Inspecta Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)); Gandossi, L. (European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium))

    2009-12-15

    The aim of the project was to study the effect of POD assumptions on failure probability using structural reliability models. The main interest was to investigate whether it is justifiable to use a simplified POD curve e.g. in risk-informed in-service inspection (RI-ISI) studies. The results of the study indicate that the use of a simplified POD curve could be justifiable in RI-ISI applications. Another aim was to compare various structural reliability calculation approaches for a set of cases. Through benchmarking one can identify differences and similarities between modelling approaches, and provide added confidence on models and identify development needs. Comparing the leakage probabilities calculated by different approaches at the end of plant lifetime (60 years) shows that the results are very similar when inspections are not accounted for. However, when inspections are taken into account the predicted order of magnitude differs. Further studies would be needed to investigate the reasons for the differences. Development needs and plans for the benchmarked structural reliability models are discussed. (author)

  20. Building knowledge systems for sustainable agriculture: supporting private advisors to adequately address sustainable farm management in regular service contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerkx, L.W.A.; Jansen, J.

    2010-01-01

    Advisory service provisioning on sustainability issues such as environmental care and food safety is considered suboptimal in privatized extension systems, which comprise a diverse set of private advisors. Apart from funding dedicated ‘public good’ projects, government also relies on these advisors

  1. The Role of the Graduate-Level Academic Advisor for Military and Student Veterans: An Ethnographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of a graduate-level academic advisor is essential to all levels of higher education. With the introduction of the Post 9/11 GI Bill, there has been an influx of military and student veterans enrolling in postsecondary and graduate-level education programs. The role of the academic advisor has increased significantly with the influx of…

  2. 17 CFR 4.41 - Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the principals thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising by commodity pool... ADVISORS Advertising § 4.41 Advertising by commodity pool operators, commodity trading advisors, and the... advertise in a manner which: (1) Employs any device, scheme or artifice to defraud any participant or client...

  3. Contextualizing Gay-straight Alliances: Student, Advisor, and Structural Factors Related to Positive Youth Development among Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served,…

  4. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Sadia; Akib, Shatirah; M.T.R. Khan; Shirazi, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to...

  5. Experimental Study on Tsunami Risk Reduction on Coastal Building Fronted by Sea Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Rahman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study was conducted to idealize the efficacy of sea wall in controlling the tsunami forces on onshore structures. Different types of sea walls were placed in front of the building model. The tsunami forces and the wave heights were measured with and without the sea wall conditions. Types of sea wall, wall height, and wall positions were varied simultaneously to quantify the force reductions. Maximum of 41% forces was reduced by higher sea wall, positioned closer proximity to the model whereas this reduction was about 27% when the wall height was half of the high wall. Experimental investigations revealed that wall with adequate height and placed closer to the structures enables a satisfactory predictor of the force reduction on onshore structures. Another set of tests were performed with perforated wall placing near the building model. Less construction cost makes the provision of perforated sea wall interesting. The overall results showed that the efficacy of perforated wall is almost similar to solid wall. Hence, it can be efficiently used instead of solid wall. Moreover, overtopped water that is stuck behind the wall is readily gone back to the sea through perforations releasing additional forces on the nearby structures.

  6. Hydro-meteorological risk reduction through land restoration in Rangárvellir, Iceland - an overview of the HydroResilience project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, David C.; Pétursdóttir, Þórunn; Halldórsson, Guðmundur

    2017-04-01

    Ecosystems that are in equilibrium provide vital resources to local inhabitants, including protection from naturally occurring disasters. Natural vegetation cover has been optimized over many years to retain a maximum of rainfall runoff by increasing the field capacity (FC) of the soil cover, securing water availability during droughts and reducing the flood risk during heavy precipitation events. In this presentation we will present the HydroResilience project, which will assess the effects of ecosystem restoration on the runoff dynamics of rainfall water in Rangárvellir, a restoration area in southern Iceland. The Rangárvellir area presents ideal conditions for such investigations. Dramatic deforestation during the last millennium and year round livestock grazing along with devastating ash depositions during volcanic eruptions and a harsh sub-polar oceanic climate have led to severe degradation in Rangárvellir. Since the beginning of the 20th century diverse restoration measures have been implemented making Rangárvellir an ideal case study to investigate the effects of restoration on hydro-meteorological risk reduction. In this project we will assess and quantify the evolution of water resources in Rangárvellir by assessing the runoff dynamics in the main rivers of Rangárvellir under four main scenarios: i) present conditions, ii) degraded conditions as was the case 100 years ago, iii) under hypothetical fully restored ecosystems and, finally, iv) under conditions of a scenario developed in collaboration with local stakeholder groups to optimize socio-ecological benefits. For this purpose the dynamics of the relevant hydrological processes in the area (incl. river runoff, ground water table, snow cover duration, and soil moisture dynamics) will be reconstructed using hydrological models to run the above mentioned scenarios. The scientific findings and conclusion of this project will generate valuable insights on the effects of land restoration on hydro

  7. Barriers to Condom Use: Results for Men and Women Enrolled in HIV Risk Reduction Trials in Outpatient Drug Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Brooks, Audrey J; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Calsyn, Donald A; Tross, Susan

    2016-01-01

    HIV transmission often occurs through heterosexual high-risk sex. Even in the era of HIV combination prevention, promoting condom use, and understanding condom barriers, remain priorities, especially among substance-dependent individuals. Men and women (N=729) in outpatient drug treatment participated in a five-session gender-specific risk reduction group or one-session HIV Education group. Condom barriers (Motivation, Partner-related, Access/Availability, Sexual experience) were assessed at baseline and 6-month follow-up. Completing either intervention was associated with fewer motivation and partner-related barriers. Among women, reductions in motivation and sexual experience barriers were associated with less sexual risk with primary partners. Condom barriers are important to gender-specific HIV prevention; given limited resources, brief interventions maximizing active components are needed.

  8. Prevalence of Malaria and Use of Malaria Risk Reduction Measures among Returning Pregnant Women in South Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dræbel, Tania Aase; Gueth Kueil, Bill; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Background The study assessed aspects of malaria infection, prevention and treatment in a population of resettled pregnant women in South Sudan. Methods During April and May 2008, a cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate malaria prevalence and to assess the use of malaria risk reduction...... measures and their associations with selected background characteristics. Two hundred and twenty women were tested for malaria parasitaemia and questioned about their malaria prevention and treatment practices. Results The results showed a prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia of 9.......1%. No statistically significant associations were observed between selected background characteristics and malaria infection status. However, school attendance was significantly associated with insecticide-treated net ownership (OR = 6.52, 95% CI 2.37–17.94; p = 0.001) and access to malaria diagnosis and treatment...

  9. Safe sleep practices and sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction: NICU and well-baby nursery graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Aja J; Evans, Patricia W; Etchegaray, Jason M; Ottenbacher, Allison; Arnold, Cody

    2013-11-01

    Our primary objective was to compare parents of infants cared for in newborn intensive care units (NICUs) and infants cared for in well-baby ("general") nurseries with regard to knowledge and practice of safe sleep practices/sudden infant death syndrome risk reduction measures and guidelines. Our secondary objective was to obtain qualitative data regarding reasons for noncompliance in both populations. Sixty participants (30 from each population) completed our survey measuring safe sleep knowledge and practice. Parents of NICU infants reported using 2 safe sleep practices-(a) always placing baby in crib to sleep and (b) always placing baby on back to sleep-significantly more frequently than parents of well infants. Additional findings and implications for future studies are discussed.

  10. Outcomes of a Digital Health Program With Human Coaching for Diabetes Risk Reduction in a Medicare Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Sweet, Cynthia M; Chiguluri, Vinay; Gumpina, Rajiv; Abbott, Paul; Madero, Erica N; Payne, Mike; Happe, Laura; Matanich, Roger; Renda, Andrew; Prewitt, Todd

    2017-01-01

    To examine the outcomes of a Medicare population who participated in a program combining digital health with human coaching for diabetes risk reduction. People at risk for diabetes enrolled in a program combining digital health with human coaching. Participation and health outcomes were examined at 16 weeks and 6 and 12 months. A total of 501 participants enrolled; 92% completed at least nine of 16 core lessons. Participants averaged 19 of 31 possible opportunities for weekly program engagement. At 12 months, participants lost 7.5% ( SD = 7.8%) of initial body weight; among participants with clinical data, glucose control improved (glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c] change = -0.14%, p = .001) and total cholesterol decreased (-7.08 mg/dL, p = .008). Self-reported well-being, depression, and self-care improved ( p health, and well-being. The findings support digital programs with human coaching for reducing chronic disease risk among older adults.

  11. Communicating risk using absolute risk reduction or prolongation of life formats: cluster-randomised trial in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Charlotte Gry; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Larsen, Pia Veldt

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is important that patients are well-informed about risks and benefits of therapies to help them decide whether to accept medical therapy. Different numerical formats can be used in risk communication but It remains unclear how the different formats affect decisions made by real-life...... patients. AIM: To compare the impact of using Prolongation Of Life (POL) and Absolute Risk Reduction (ARR) information formats to express effectiveness of cholesterol-lowering therapy on patients' redemptions of statin prescriptions, and on patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction....... The COMRADE questionnaire was used to measure patients' confidence in their decision and satisfaction with the risk communication. RESULTS: Of the 240 patients included for analyses, 112 were allocated to POL information and 128 to ARR. Patients redeeming a statin prescription totalled six (5.4%) when...

  12. Reducing risks to health and wellbeing at mass gatherings: the role of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Aitsi-Selmi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass gatherings of people at religious pilgrimages and sporting events are linked to numerous health hazards, including the transmission of infectious diseases, physical injuries, and an impact on local and global health systems and services. As with other forms of disaster, mass gathering-related disasters are the product of the management of different hazards, levels of exposure, and vulnerability of the population and environment, and require comprehensive risk management that looks beyond single hazards and response. Incorporating an all-hazard, prevention-driven, evidence-based approach that is multisectoral and multidisciplinary is strongly advocated by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. This paper reviews some of the broader impacts of mass gatherings, the opportunity for concerted action across policy sectors and scientific disciplines offered by the year 2015 (including through the Sendai Framework, and the elements of a 21st century approach to mass gatherings.

  13. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, A.; Barclay, J.; Simmons, P.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-07-01

    The uncertainty brought about by intermittent volcanic activity is fairly common at volcanoes worldwide. While better knowledge of any one volcano's behavioural characteristics has the potential to reduce this uncertainty, the subsequent reduction of risk from volcanic threats is only realised if that knowledge is pertinent to stakeholders and effectively communicated to inform good decision making. Success requires integration of methods, skills and expertise across disciplinary boundaries. This research project develops and trials a novel interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction on the remote volcanic island of Tristan da Cunha (South Atlantic). For the first time, volcanological techniques, probabilistic decision support and social scientific methods were integrated in a single study. New data were produced that (1) established no spatio-temporal pattern to recent volcanic activity; (2) quantified the high degree of scientific uncertainty around future eruptive scenarios; (3) analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4) evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience; and (5) evaluated the effectiveness of a scenario planning approach, both as a method for integrating the different strands of the research and as a way of enabling on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification and management, and capacity building within their community. The paper provides empirical evidence of the value of an innovative interdisciplinary framework for reducing volcanic risk. It also provides evidence for the strength that comes from integrating social and physical sciences with the development of effective, tailored engagement and communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  14. Landslide Catastrophes and Disaster Risk Reduction: A GIS Framework for Landslide Prevention and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available As catastrophic phenomena, landslides often cause large-scale socio-economic destruction including loss of life, economic collapse, and human injury. In addition, landslides can impair the functioning of critical infrastructure and destroy cultural heritage and ecological systems. In order to build a more landslide resistant and resilient society, an original GIS-based decision support system is put forth in order to help emergency managers better prepare for and respond to landslide disasters. The GIS-based landslide monitoring and management system includes a Central Repository System (CRS, Disaster Data Processing Modules (DDPM, a Command and Control System (CCS and a Portal Management System (PMS. This architecture provides valuable insights into landslide early warning, landslide risk and vulnerability analyses, and critical infrastructure damage assessments. Finally, internet-based communications are used to support landslide disaster modelling, monitoring and management.

  15. Comprehensive Cardiovascular Risk Reduction and Cardiac Rehabilitation in Diabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinl, Robert E.; Dhindsa, Devinder S.; Mahlof, Elliot N.; Schultz, William M.; Ricketts, Johnathan C.; Varghese, Tina; Esmaeeli, Amirhossein; Allard-Ratick, Marc P.; Millard, Anthony J.; Kelli, Heval M.; Sandesara, Pratik B.; Eapen, Danny J.; Sperling, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity has contributed to a growing burden of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (DM) worldwide. MetS is defined as central obesity along with associated factors such as hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. MetS and DM are associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Healthy behavioural modification is the cornerstone for reducing the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease burden in this population. Comprehensive, multi-disciplinary cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs reduce mortality and hospitalizations in patients with MetS and DM. Despite this benefit, patients with MetS and DM are less likely to attend and complete CR because of numerous barriers. Implementation of innovative CR delivery models might improve utilization of CR and cardiovascular outcomes in this high-risk population. PMID:27692115

  16. Assessment and risk reduction of infectious pathogens on chiropractic treatment tables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husbands Chris

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the presence of pathogenic microbes on chiropractic treatment tables in one outpatient teaching clinic. Additional aims were to test inexpensive disinfectants on tables that may kill microbes and suggest infection control measures for chiropractic offices, clinics and classrooms. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of pathogenic microbes on treatment tables in one outpatient teaching clinic and determine a simple behavioral model for infection control including table disinfection and accepted hand washing and sanitizing protocols. Methods 10 treatment tables were selected and sampled for possible microbial flora on face and hand pieces. Samples were cultured on MacConky's agar and mannitol salt agar, labeled and incubated for up to 48 hours. Confirmatory testing of microbes to determine if drug resistant flora were present was performed. Among tables tested, 5 were selected to test disinfectants. One-half of the face piece and 1 hand piece were treated with two different wipes and then post-tested for microbes. Results Pathogenic microbes were present on chiropractic treatment tables including methicillin-resistant Staph aureus. Simple disinfectants neutralized the pathogens. A rudimentary disinfection procedure and infection control measures are suggested based on the findings. Conclusion Pathogenic microbes may be present on chiropractic treatment tables and can be effectively killed with proper disinfecting. Hand washing/sanitizing is an important measure in infection control as is table disinfecting. Rudimentary behavioral changes to improve chiropractic clinic infection control are needed. More comprehensive behavioral models are needed. All teaching clinics and private chiropractic offices should adopt infection control practices including routine table disinfecting and hand sanitizing. Effective measures can be put in place at minimal costs. Accrediting bodies of chiropractic institutions

  17. Predictors of and health- and fall-related program outcomes resulting from complete and adequate doses of a fall risk reduction program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielenz, Thelma J; Durbin, Laura L; Hertzberg, Fern; Nobile-Hernandez, Diana; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-06-01

    Falls are dangerous and costly for older adults. The A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader (AMOB/VLL) program is an evidence-based fall risk reduction program that could help reduce this burden. This study introduced a door-through-door transportation program to improve program delivery (N = 126). Characteristics predicting completion of all eight AMOB/VLL sessions were identified using logistic regression. Individual growth models were employed to determine the immediate, intermediate, and long-term goal outcomes resulting from receiving an adequate dose of the program (five to eight sessions). Self-restriction of activities due to fear of falling (OR 5.04, 95 % CI 1.86-13.69) and a lower frequency of moderate and vigorous physical activity (OR 1.14, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27) were significantly predictive of receiving a complete dose. Three outcome goals were significant, including (1) immediate-improved self-efficacy of managing medications and treatments, (2) intermediate-reduced activity limitations, and (3) intermediate-reduced physical disability. Self-restriction of activities due to a fear of falling and physical activity levels may be simple and effective screening questions to prevent AMOB/VLL attrition. In our study, those who did receive the program improved on a specific type of self-efficacy and on self-reported physical functioning.

  18. Temblor, an App to Transform Seismic Science into Personal Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilgen, V.; Jacobson, D. S.; Stein, R. S.; Lotto, G. C.; Sevilgen, S.; Kim, A.

    2016-12-01

    Government agencies and academic researchers provide a rich stream of seismic and engineering data. In addition to rapid earthquake notifications and damage assessments, these form the basis of probabilistic seismic hazard assessments and loss evaluations used by emergency management agencies, practicing engineers and geologists, and the insurance industry. But the data and the assessments that grow out of them are notoriously difficult for the public to comprehend. For example, who but the cognoscenti understands what "2% exceedance probability in 50 years," "0.5 g peak ground acceleration," or "moment-magnitude" mean? Nowhere is this divide more stark than in earthquake insurance. Using proprietary models, insurers calculate the probability of a payout above the deductible for your home policy, but sell the policy as "peace of mind" or "the strength to rebuild." How can a homeowner act in her best financial interests under these circumstances? Temblor (temblor.net) is our attempt to make seismic risk lucid, personal, and actionable. Free and ad-free, Temblor uses the best available public data and methods. Temblor gives you the seismic hazard rank of your location anywhere in the U.S. In its maps, you can see the active faults and recent quakes, and the landslide, liquefaction, tsunami inundation, and flood zones around you. Temblor also displays the Global Earthquake Activity Rate (GEAR) model of Bird et al. (2015). By entering the construction year and square footage for homes within the U.S., you learn the likely cost for seismic damage, and how that cost could be reduced by retrofit or covered by insurance. To give context to this decision, the app compares your seismic risk to other risks homeowners protect themselves against or insure for. Temblor estimates the cost and the most probable financial and safety benefits of a retrofit based on your location, home age and size, so you can decide if the expenditure makes sense. Seeking to make quakes more

  19. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thi Tran, Tuyet-Hanh; Nguyen, Ngoc-Bich; Le, Vu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Background A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009), and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011). It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (Pdioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (Pdioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas. PMID:23791241

  20. Soil factors of ecosystems' disturbance risk reduction under the impact of rocket fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krechetov, Pavel; Koroleva, Tatyana; Sharapova, Anna; Chernitsova, Olga

    2016-04-01

    Environmental impacts occur at all stages of space rocket launch. One of the most dangerous consequences of a missile launch is pollution by components of rocket fuels ((unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH)). The areas subjected to falls of the used stages of carrier rockets launched from the Baikonur cosmodrome occupy thousands of square kilometers of different natural landscapes: from dry steppes of Kazakhstan to the taiga of West Siberia and mountains of the Altai-Sayany region. The study aims at assessing the environmental risk of adverse effects of rocket fuel on the soil. Experimental studies have been performed on soil and rock samples with specified parameters of the material composition. The effect of organic matter, acid-base properties, particle size distribution, and mineralogy on the decrease in the concentration of UDMH in equilibrium solutions has been studied. It has been found that the soil factors are arranged in the following series according to the effect on UDMH mobility: acid-base properties > organic matter content >clay fraction mineralogy > particle size distribution. The estimation of the rate of self-purification of contaminated soil is carried out. Experimental study of the behavior of UDMH in soil allowed to define a model for calculating critical loads of UDMH in terrestrial ecosystems.

  1. Vulnerability studies and integrated assessments for hazard risk reduction in Pittsburgh, PA (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klima, K.

    2013-12-01

    Today's environmental problems stretch beyond the bounds of most academic disciplines, and thus solutions require an interdisciplinary approach. For instance, the scientific consensus is changes in the frequency and severity of many types of extreme weather events are increasing (IPCC 2012). Yet despite our efforts to reduce greenhouse gases, we continue to experience severe weather events such as Superstorm Sandy, record heat and blizzards, and droughts. These natural hazards, combined with increased vulnerability and exposure, result in longer-lasting disruptions to critical infrastructure and business continuity throughout the world. In order to protect both our lives and the economy, we must think beyond the bounds of any one discipline to include an integrated assessment of relevant work. In the wake of recent events, New York City, Washington, DC, Chicago, and a myriad of other cities have turned to their academic powerhouses for assistance in better understanding their vulnerabilities. This talk will share a case study of the state of integrated assessments and vulnerability studies of energy, transportation, water, real estate, and other main sectors in Pittsburgh, PA. Then the talk will use integrated assessment models and other vulnerability studies to create coordinated sets of climate projections for use by the many public agencies and private-sector organizations in the region.

  2. 77 FR 43808 - Advisory Committee and Species Working Group Technical Advisor Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC124 Advisory Committee and Species Working Group... nominations for technical advisors to the Advisory Committee's species working groups. DATES: Nominations must... working groups for the purpose of providing advice and recommendations to the U.S. Commissioners and...

  3. Bioenergy, Land Use Change and Climate Change Mitigation. Report for Policy Advisors and Policy Makers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndes, Goran [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Bird, Nell [Joanneum Research (Austria); Cowle, Annette [National Centre for Rural Greenhouse Gas Research (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    The report addresses a much debated issue - bioenergy and associated land use change, and how the climate change mitigation from use of bioenergy can be influenced by greenhouse gas emissions arising from land use change. The purpose of the report was to produce an unbiased, authoritative statement on this topic aimed especially at policy advisors and policy makers.

  4. 78 FR 11909 - Emerging Global Advisors, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... primarily in a non-diversified portfolio of equity securities traded in non-U.S. markets. 2. EGA, a Delaware... portfolios of the Funds (as defined below). Any Sub-Advisor will be registered under the Advisers Act. The... consist of a portfolio of securities (including fixed income securities and/or equity securities) and/or...

  5. 78 FR 23242 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... Administration research initiatives in neuroscience and technology's impact on productivity and employment... President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST) AGENCY: Office of Science, Department of... Technology (PCAST), and describes the functions of the Council. Notice of this meeting is required under...

  6. Characteristics of and Challenges for Advisors within a Privatized Extension System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knuth, Ulrike; Knierim, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to provide evidence on the consequences of the privatization process in Brandenburg with a focus on the agricultural advisors' situation. Before the background of future European Union (EU) expectations on Farm Advisory Systems (FAS), their capacities and competences to respond to such challenges are discussed.…

  7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON INDUSTRIAL PROPERTY RIGHTS AND THE ROLE OF PATENT ADVISOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel\tI.\tNĂSTASE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Patent advisor must have extensive experience in industrial property activity in order to analyse together with the inventor of all aspects related to the invention, both during drafting documentation and during its review by the Office of Inventions, and then, throughout the period of validity of the patent.

  8. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five low/lower-mid

  9. Foreign Military Advisor Proficiency: The Need for Screening, Selection and Qualification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-12

    reinforce it. Although certain individuals seem to instinctively possess the requisite skill set, others must undergo extensive interpersonal ...Forces Advisor Guide (2008), highlights the additional interpersonal aspects that affect cohesion. “The most frequent complaints voiced by SF...ambiguity, realistic goal and task setting, open-mindedness, ability to withhold judgment, empathy, communicativeness, flexibility, curiosity, warmth

  10. Architects, Captains, and Dreamers: Creating Advisor Roles that Foster Youth-Adult Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Dana; Lewis, Tiffanie; Sanders, Felicia

    2013-01-01

    While research has documented the many ways in which student voice can enable educational change, the process of how adults can help to enable student voice is less clear. This article examines how adults new to working as advisors of student voice initiatives begin to develop partnerships with young people. Using a Youth-Adult Partnership…

  11. Defining the Peer Advisor in the U.S. Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Peer advisor (PA) programs in study abroad offices have greatly increased in the past few years. Nevertheless, although many agree that PAs have many useful advantages, a clear definition of the PA within the study abroad context remains unavailable. Hence, the purpose of this pilot study is to find out how the PA is perceived by study abroad…

  12. 77 FR 42176 - Technical Amendment to Rules for the Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Trading and Markets, Commission, 100 F Street NE., Washington, DC 20549-7010. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 249 RIN 3235-AK69 Technical Amendment to Rules for the Temporary Registration of Municipal Advisors AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment...

  13. Connections versus Expertise of Legal Advisors, and Acquirers’ Failure to Learn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westbrock, B.; Weitzel, G.U.; Muehlfeld, K.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on theories of social networks and organizational learning, we theorize about the importance that acquirers attribute to network-related and expertise-related factors in selecting legal advisors in international M&As. We also assess the outcome implications of these network-related and exper

  14. Correlation between Leadership Effectiveness and Personality Preferences at a Hungarian Independent Financial Advisor Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, Aranka; Budavári-Takács, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of our research is to study, with the help of the dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (hereinafter: MBTI) the personality preferences of those leaders at the financial advisor company who are successful already. In the present study first we introduce the preferences of MBTI. Then we go on to define our hypothesis…

  15. The Advisor as Servant: The Theoretical and Philosophical Relevance of Servant Leadership to Academic Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Jeffrey L.

    2007-01-01

    Servant. This novel actively portrays Greenleaf's concept of servant leadership by describing the extracurricular work of a university professor. Consequently, some scholars have demonstrated the relevance of servant leadership to classroom instruction (Powers & Moore, 2005). However, it was not as an instructor, but as an advisor that the…

  16. A Case Study on Two Advisor-Advisee Relationships in a Master's TESOL Program in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheryl Wei-yu

    2010-01-01

    Situated in an MA TESOL program in a large Taiwanese university, this study is a qualitative case study on two advising relationships. Three central issues were examined closely: (a) the nature of the advising relationships; (b) the challenges students encountered in the process of completing their theses; and (c) the advisors and advisee's…

  17. Use of Appreciative Inquiry to Explore the Experiences of Faculty Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Valerie Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Academic advising significantly impacts student achievement, persistence, and retention, yet it continues to be an area of weakness for many institutions. The purpose of this sequential mixed-methods case study was to explore the experiences of faculty advisors to identify strengths and weaknesses in their knowledge and skills. Appreciative…

  18. The Moderating Effect of Personality Traits on Advisor Relationships in Predicting Doctoral Student Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosh, Emily P.

    2014-01-01

    Personality affects relationships. During the doctoral education, the second most important factor in degree completion, after financial support, is the student-advisor relationship. Approximately half of doctoral students do not finish their degrees. While it is known mentors have a profound impact on the success of doctoral students, the effect…

  19. 76 FR 62871 - President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... TECHNOLOGY POLICY President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Meeting AGENCY: Office of Science... Science and Technology (PCAST) is an advisory group of the nation's leading scientists and engineers, appointed by the President to augment the science and technology advice available to him from inside...

  20. 77 FR 54571 - President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ..., business, government, military, homeland- security, and education communities in a national dialogue...-54572] [FR Doc No: 2012-21853] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION President's Board of Advisors on Historically... Universities (Board), U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of an open meeting. SUMMARY: This...

  1. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  2. The role of religious advisors in mental health care in the World Mental Health surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovess-Masfety, Vivianne; Evans-Lacko, Sara; Andrade, Laura Helena; Benjet, Corina; Ten Have, Margreet; Wardenaar, Klaas; Karam, Elie G; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Abdumalik, Jibril; Haro Abad, Josep Maria; Florescu, Silvia; Wu, Benjamin; De Jonge, Peter; Altwaijri, Yasmina; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Posada-Villa, José; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Huang, Yueqin; Hu, Chiyi; Viana, Maria Carmen; Fayyad, John; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Demyttenaere, Koen; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Murphy, Samuel; Xavier, Miguel; Takeshima, Tadashi; Gureje, Oye

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of religious advisors in mental health care (MHC) according to disorder severity, socio-demographics, religious involvement and country income groups. METHODS: Face to face household surveys in ten high income (HI), six upper-middle income (UMI) and five

  3. Between Two Advisors: Interconnecting Academic and Workplace Settings in an Emerging Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Lehtinen, Erno; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a new training design for continuing professional development that aims to support the learning of the novel knowledge and skills needed in emerging professional fields by interconnecting academic and workplace settings. The training design is based on using two advisors, one from working life and the other from an academic…

  4. Reframing Doctoral Programs: A Program of Human Inquiry for Doctoral Students and Faculty Advisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shambaugh, R. Neal

    2000-01-01

    Proposes the Program of Human Inquiry as a framework for joint student-faculty portfolios by graduate students and faculty advisors. The program consists of four components: (1) acknowledgment of what one brings to graduate studies; (2) a plan of study, (3) a record of rigorous negotiated "avenues of inquiry," and (4) ongoing discussion of values…

  5. New strategy toward dioxin risk reduction for local residents surrounding severe dioxin hotspots in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu-Anh Le

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A public health intervention program with active involvement of local related stakeholders was piloted in the Bien Hoa dioxin hotspot (2007–2009, and then expanded to the Da Nang dioxin hotspot in Vietnam (2009–2011. It aimed to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure of local residents through foods. This article presents the results of the intervention in Da Nang. Methodology: To assess the results of this intervention program, pre- and post-intervention knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP surveys were implemented in 400 households, randomly selected from four wards surrounding the Da Nang Airbase in 2009 and 2011, respectively. Results: After the intervention, the knowledge on the existence of dioxin in food, dioxin exposure pathways, potential high-risk foods, and preventive measures significantly increased (P<0.05. Ninety-eight percent were willing to follow advice on preventing dioxin exposure. Practices to reduce the risk of dioxin exposure also significantly improved (P<0.05. After intervention, 60.4% of households undertook exposure preventive measures, significantly higher than that of the pre-intervention survey (39.6%; χ2=40.15, P<0.001. High-risk foods had quite low rates of daily consumption (from 0 to 2.5% and were significantly reduced (P<0.05. Conclusions: This is seen as an effective intervention strategy toward reducing the risk of human exposure to dioxin at dioxin hotspots. While greater efforts are needed for remediating dioxin-polluted areas inside airbases, there is also evidence to suggest that, during the past four decades, pollution has expanded to the surrounding areas. For this reason, this model should be quickly expanded to the remaining dioxin hotspots in Vietnam to further reduce the exposure risks in other areas.

  6. Towards a cross-domain interoperable framework for natural hazards and disaster risk reduction information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Robert; Harrison, Matthew; Barredo, José I.; Thomas, Florian; Llorente Isidro, Miguel; Cerba, Otakar; Pfeiffer, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    The vast amount of information and data necessary for comprehensive hazard and risk assessment presents many challenges regarding the lack of accessibility, comparability, quality, organisation and dissemination of natural hazards spatial data. In order to mitigate these limitations an interoperable framework has been developed in the framework of the development of legally binding Implementing rules of the EU INSPIRE Directive1* aiming at the establishment of the European Spatial Data Infrastructure. The interoperability framework is described in the Data Specification on Natural risk zones - Technical Guidelines (DS) document2* that was finalized and published on 10.12. 2013. This framework provides means for facilitating access, integration, harmonisation and dissemination of natural hazard data from different domains and sources. The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, the paper demonstrates the applicability of the interoperable framework developed in the DS and highlights the key aspects of the interoperability to the various natural hazards communities. Secondly, the paper "translates" into common language the main features and potentiality of the interoperable framework of the DS for a wider audience of scientists and practitioners in the natural hazards domain. Further in this paper the main five aspects of the interoperable framework will be presented. First, the issue of a common terminology for the natural hazards domain will be addressed. A common data model to facilitate cross domain data integration will follow secondly. Thirdly, the common methodology developed to provide qualitative or quantitative assessments of natural hazards will be presented. Fourthly, the extensible classification schema for natural hazards developed from a literature review and key reference documents from the contributing community of practice will be shown. Finally, the applicability of the interoperable framework for the various stakeholder groups will be also

  7. THE NATIONAL CENTER FOR RADIOECOLOGY: A NETWORK OF EXCELLENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL AND HUMAN RADIATION RISK REDUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannik, T.

    2013-01-09

    graduate education training program for radioecology. Recently, NCoRE hosted a workshop to identify the immediate needs for science-driven discoveries, tool development and the generation of scientific data to support the legislative decision-making process for remediation strategies, long-term monitoring of radiologically-contaminated sites and protection of human health and the environment. Some of the immediate strategic research needs were identified in the fields of functional genomics for determining low-dose effects, improved low-level dosimetry, and mixed (radiological and chemical) contaminant studies. Longer term strategic research and tool development areas included development of radioecology case study sites, comprehensive decision-making tools, consequence response actions, and optimized scenario based ecosystem modeling. A summary of the NCoRE workshop findings related to waste management needs and priority areas will be presented in this paper.

  8. The influence of TripAdvisor portal on hotel bussines in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čačić Krunoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous researches have shown the existence of influence of specialized Web 2.0 portals on hotel business. One of most famous portals of that kind is TripAdvisor. The goal of this work is to determine the degree and mode of representation of hotels in Serbia on TripAdvisor portal. The results of the conducted research show that in past years the number of hotels from Serbia represented on this portal has increased significantly. At the end of 2012 there have been registered 3.288 comments which evaluated the service quality of 165 hotels from Serbia. The average vote, on five-degree scale, calculated at the level of all represented hotels at the end of 2012 was 3,92. Considering that Belgrade represents the primarily business, administrative and touristic center of Serbia, on the Belgrade's hotels specimen there has been analyzed the connection between business performances of hotels expressed through indicator TREVPAR and their image on TripAdvisor expressed through average vote determined based on user's comments, as well as in relation with TripAdvisor Popularity Index (TPI. The results show the high degree of correlation between analyzed features on the specimen of Belgrade's hotels, in range of hotels of second (4* and third category (3*. Having in mind the results of conducted research it is obvious that the hotels managers from Serbia should adopt and implement the corresponding procedures of monitoring and adequate reactions on contents on TripAdvisor, considering their influence on behavior of modern consumer in hotels.

  9. SY 09-1 LOWERING SALT INTAKE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK REDUCTION: WHAT IS THE EVIDENCE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    countries need to satisfy stringent cost-effectiveness criteria within a general climate of ageing populations, escalating healthcare demands and recently reduced financial resources. Economic modelling studies have assessed the health effects and financial cost of reducing population salt intake. Despite methodological differences, they all demonstrate that a reduction in salt intake is cost saving. These economic savings would be achieved with either voluntary or mandatory reductions in the salt content of processed foods. Health benefits would be up to 20 times greater with government legislation on salt limits in processed foods. Cost savings are also estimated for a 15% reduction in salt intake in low- and middle-income countries, which would avert 13.8 M deaths over 10 years at an initial cost of less than $0.40 (US) per person per year.The political imperative. Over the following 20 years both scientific evidence and public health initiatives have led to renewed recommendations from the WHO in 2007 and 2012 not to exceed a population average salt intake of 5 g per day. A significant step toward global policy action was the 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases (NCDs), which set a target for population salt reduction as a priority to reduce premature CVD mortality by 2025. Revised WHO guidelines now recommend a 30% reduction of salt intake by 2025 and a final maximum target of 5 g per day. The latter target was then adopted by the 66 World Health Assembly through its resolution in 2013.The controversy. This important shift in public health has not occurred without obstinate opposition from organizations concerned primarily with the profits deriving from population high salt intake and less with public health benefits. The food and beverage industry has been particularly obstructive regarding public health actions, either directly or through its public relations organizations. Its strategies have included mass media campaigns

  10. Maintenance of improved lipid levels following attendance at a cardiovascular risk reduction clinic: a 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen J Pearson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Glen J Pearson1,5, Kari L Olson6, Nicole E Panich1, Sumit R Majumdar2,5, Ross T Tsuyuki1,4, Dawna M Gilchrist2,5, Ali Damani4, Gordon A Francis3,5The MILLARR Study (Maintenance of Improved Lipid Levels Following Attendance at a Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic 1Department of Medicine, Divisions of Cardiology; 2General Internal Medicine; 3Endocrinology and Metabolism; Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences; 4University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 5Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC, University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 6University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA; 7Family Medicine (Private Practice, Calgary, Alberta, CanadaBackground: Specialty cardiovascular risk reduction clinics (CRRC increase the proportion of patients attaining recommended lipid targets; however, it is not known if the benefits are sustained after discharge. We evaluated the impact of a CRRC on lipid levels and assessed the long-term effect of a CRRC in maintaining improved lipid levels following discharge.Methods: The medical records of consecutive dyslipidemic patients discharged >6 months from a tertiary hospital CRRC from January 1991 to January 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome was the change in patients’ lipid levels between the final CRRC visit and the most recent primary care follow-up. A worst-case analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential impact of the patients in whom the follow-up lipid profiles post-discharge from the CRRC were not obtained.Results: Within the CRRC (median follow-up = 1.28 years in 1064 patients, we observed statistically significant improvements in all lipid parameters. In the 411 patients for whom post-discharge lipid profiles were available (median follow-up = 2.41 years, there were no significant differences observed in low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC, or triglycerides since CRRC discharge; however, there

  11. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder think tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, M. P.; van Bers, C.; van der Keur, P.; Henriksen, H. J.; Luther, J.; Kuhlicke, C.; Jaspers, F.; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.; Mysiak, J.; Calliari, E.; Warner, K.; Daniel, H.; Coppola, J.; McGrath, P. F.

    2014-08-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011-September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and the Caribbean, East and West Africa, the European Mediterranean, and South and Southeast Asia), intending to strengthen capacity development for stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction (DRR) and climate change adaptation, in the context of natural hazards. This communication concludes with a selection of recommendations for capacity development in DRR and climate change adaptation from the perspective of governance issues.

  12. A closer look at associations between hospital leadership walkrounds and patient safety climate and risk reduction: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendimann, René; Milne, Judy; Frush, Karen; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Frankel, Allan; Sexton, J Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Leadership walkrounds (WRs) are widely used in health care organizations to improve patient safety. This retrospective, cross-sectional study evaluated the association between WRs and caregiver assessments of patient safety climate and patient safety risk reduction across 49 hospitals in a nonprofit health care system. Linear regression analyses using units' participation in WRs were conducted. Survey results from 706 hospital units revealed that units with ≥ 60% of caregivers reporting exposure to at least 1 WR had a significantly higher safety climate, greater patient safety risk reduction, and a higher proportion of feedback on actions taken as a result of WRs compared with those units with leadership WR exposure.

  13. PS1-42: Beyond Risk Reduction: Decision-Making Factors Among Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendle, Katharine; Halley, Meghan; Ventre, Nicole; Frosch, Dominick; May, Suepattra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer are electing to undergo contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM)—or removal of the healthy breast—at rapidly increasing rates worldwide. CPM significantly reduces the risk of recurrence of contralateral breast cancer; however, it is also believed to be unnecessary for most patients due to the relatively low risk of contralateral breast cancer, and the effectiveness of less invasive treatment options. Additionally, since the risk of systemic metastases often exceeds the risk of contralateral breast cancer, most patients will not receive any survival benefit. As such, there is a growing need to understand why patients are electing to have CPM. Drawing from prospective, in-depth interviews with breast cancer patients, we explore how women are making this decision and investigate what factors beyond risk reduction may be impacting their decision. Methods Participants were recruited from a multispecialty clinic in Northern California. Participants were interviewed at four time points during their treatment journey. Medical records for each participant were reviewed to confirm therapies received. Analysis of interview transcripts used grounded theory to identify emergent decision-making factors across participants. Results Of the 41 patients enrolled in the study, 11 (27%) women elected to have CPM. The majority of these women underwent BCRA testing (9 or 82%), but only two women received a positive result. Influential factors identified across participants were: 1) desire to reduce or avoid breast cancer treatment; 2) having a close relationship with someone who died from breast cancer; 3) wanting to maintain (or improve) breast appearance; and 4) receiving imaging results that showed “suspicious” but ultimately benign changes in their healthy breast. Conclusions The decision to undergo CPM is impacted by a variety of factors including, but not limited to, risk reduction. Moreover, perceptions of

  14. LastQuake: a comprehensive strategy for rapid engagement of earthquake eyewitnesses, massive crowdsourcing and risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Roussel, F.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Steed, R.; Frobert, L.

    2015-12-01

    LastQuake is a smartphone app, browser add-on and the most sophisticated Twitter robot (quakebot) for earthquakes currently in operation. It fulfills eyewitnesses' needs by offering information on felt earthquakes and their effects within tens of seconds of their occurrence. Associated with an active presence on Facebook, Pinterest and on websites, this proves a very efficient engagement strategy. For example, the app was installed thousands of times after the Ghorka earthquake in Nepal. Language barriers have been erased by using visual communication; for example, felt reports are collected through a set of cartoons representing different shaking levels. Within 3 weeks of the magnitude 7.8 Ghorka earthquakes, 7,000 felt reports with thousands of comments were collected related to the mainshock and tens of its aftershocks as well as 100 informative geo-located pics. The QuakeBot was essential in allowing us to be identified so well and interact with those affected. LastQuake is also a risk reduction tool since it provides rapid information. Rapid information is similar to prevention since when it does not exist, disasters can happen. When no information is available after a felt earthquake, the public block emergency lines by trying to find out the cause of the shaking, crowds form potentially leading to unpredictable crowd movement, rumors spread. In its next release LastQuake will also provide people with guidance immediately after a shaking through a number of pop-up cartoons illustrating "do/don't do" items (go to open places, do not phone emergency services except if people are injured…). LastQuake's app design is simple and intuitive and has a global audience. It benefited from a crowdfunding campaign (and the support of the Fondation MAIF) and more improvements have been planned after an online feedback campaign organized in early June with the Ghorka earthquake eyewitnesses. LastQuake is also a seismic risk reduction tools thanks to its very rapid

  15. Drought risk reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Z.; Roerink, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the shortage of water resources and its inhomogeneous distribution in space and time, large scale droughts occur frequently all over the world. Consequently, drought has become a key factor constraining the economic development and threatening the food security. This report describes the resu

  16. Consideration on the health risk reduction related to attainment of the new particulate matter standards in Poland: A top-down policy risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobza, Joanna; Pastuszka, Józef S; Gulis, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Policies can influence health of a population in various ways. Numerous epidemiological studies supported by toxicological investigations demonstrate a positive association between ambient concentrations of airborne particulate matter and increased adverse cardio-respiratory events, including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this paper was to present the concept of the top-down health policy risk assessment approach model developed to estimate the expected health risk reduction associated with policy aiming at attaining the new particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in diameter (PM10) standards in Poland. The top-down approach guides the analysis of causal chains from the policy to health outcomes. In this case study we tried to estimate the predicted health effects of the policy change over the past 20 years. Since Polish annual standard for PM10 changed from 50 μg/m³ in 1990 to 40 μg/m³ in 2010, we calculated the relative risk associated with decreasing PM10 in diameter to 10 μg/m3 in the annual level of PM10 for 6 adverse health effects. The relative risk slightly decreased for almost all adverse health effects, which means that the relative decrease in the incidence of health effects from the baseline incidence should range from about 0.5-0.6% for heart disease admissions to > 1% for respiratory admissions. The obtained results indicate that implementation of the new ambient air standards could influence improvement of the health status of Polish population. A top-down policy health risk assessment model can be one of the main tools in this process, providing harmonized guidance how to seek evidence-based information, which could serve policy-makers.

  17. Frequent use of an automated bolus advisor improves glycemic control in pediatric patients treated with insulin pump therapy: results of the Bolus Advisor Benefit Evaluation (BABE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Ralph; Rees, Christen; Jacobs, Nehle; Parkin, Christopher G; Lyden, Maureen R; Petersen, Bettina; Wagner, Robin S

    2016-08-01

    The relationship between frequency and sustained bolus advisor (BA) use and glycemic improvement has not been well characterized in pediatric populations. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of frequent and persistent BA use on glycemic control among pediatric type 1 diabetes patients. In this 6-month, single-center, retrospective cohort study, 104 children [61 girls, mean age: 12.7 yr, mean HbA1c 8.0 (1.6)% [64 (17.5) mmol/mol

  18. Nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in the Nordic and Arctic regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bring, Arvid; Kalantari, Zahra

    2017-04-01

    Natural ecological functions provide essential and fundamental benefits to mankind, but can also be actively employed in nature-based solutions to specific challenges in society. For example, water-related ecosystem services have a role in such societal benefits as flood protection, erosion control, and excess nutrient removal. Ecosystem services may be produced and consumed in different locations, and research has recently attempted to formalize this discrepancy in identifying service providing areas (SPAs), service benefitting areas (SBAs), and service connecting areas (SCAs). However, in terms of water-related services, there is a lack of formal evaluation of how SPAs, SBAs, and SCAs are related to hydrological measures such as discharge, flood recurrence, excess nutrient removal, etc. We seek to map SPAs, SBAs and SCAs for a number of key ecosystem services in the Nordic and Arctic region though established ecological definitions (typically, based on land use) and evaluate the findings alongside metrics of hydrological connectivity (river networks), provisioning areas (runoff generating areas), and benefitting areas (river stretches where water flow is moderated). We make use of extensive GIS analysis using both high-resolution land cover data and river network maps. In the end, the results are expected to contribute to identifying how water-related ecosystem services can be employed as nature-based solutions for hydro-meteorological risk reduction and nutrient removal in a changing climate in the Nordic and Arctic regions.

  19. Hazagora: will you survive the next disaster? - A serious game to raise awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoux, S.; Delcamp, A.; Poppe, S.; Michellier, C.; Canters, F.; Kervyn, M.

    2016-01-01

    Natural disasters are too often presented as resulting from extreme natural phenomena affecting helpless populations, with people being insufficiently aware of the factors leading to disasters and of the existing strategies to mitigate their impacts. We developed a board game aimed at raising awareness about geohazards and disaster risk reduction strategies. The target groups are (1) secondary school students and citizens and (2) scientists and stakeholders involved in risk management activities. For the first group, the aim is to induce a better understanding of the geohazards and disasters they are confronted with in the media or in their daily lives; for the second, the objective is to generate discussion about risk management strategies. The game was tested with students in Belgium and with citizens, earth scientists, and risk managers in several African countries. Based on analysis of the most common game strategies observed, the players' reactions during the game, and their answers to a short questionnaire, we analyzed the main learning outcomes conveyed by this game. The game Hazagora appears to positively enhance the players' insights into processes involved in disasters. As such, the game is an effective, fun learning tool to introduce participants to the concepts of geohazards and disasters and to generate discussion.

  20. Active heroin injectors' perceptions and use of methadone maintenance treatment: cynical performance or self-prescribed risk reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, S; Anderson, K; Hoffer, L

    1999-12-01

    In addition to the numerous heroin users who voluntarily enter methadone treatment as a way to free themselves from illicit drug addiction and those ordered to do so by the courts, there are a large number of opioid users who enter methadone treatment with other objectives in mind. These include shorter-term goals that users do not necessarily equate with complete heroin abstinence. In this paper we report the results of a qualitative study designed to identify and describe the motivations active heroin users have for entering methadone treatment, and to suggest that many of these short-term methadone episodes may operate as self-prescribed attempts at risk reduction, and act as pilot tests for users considering or anticipating entering treatment to quit the use of illicit drugs. We argue that heroin users' motivations, perceptions about methadone, and the strategies they devise for adapting methadone treatment for their own needs should be recognized for their value in reducing the multiple risks associated with drug use.

  1. An interdisciplinary approach to volcanic risk reduction under conditions of uncertainty: a case study of Tristan da Cunha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hicks

    2013-12-01

    analysed the physical vulnerability of the community as a consequence of their geographical isolation and exposure to volcanic hazards; (4 evaluated social and cultural influences on vulnerability and resilience. Despite their isolation and prolonged periods of hardship, islanders have demonstrated an ability to cope with and recover from adverse events. This resilience is likely a function of remoteness, strong kinship ties, bonding social capital, and persistence of shared values and principles established at community inception. While there is good knowledge of the styles of volcanic activity on Tristan, given the high degree of scientific uncertainty about the timing, size and location of future volcanism, a qualitative scenario planning approach was used as a vehicle to convey this information to the islanders. This deliberative, anticipatory method allowed on-island decision makers to take ownership of risk identification, management and capacity building within their community. This paper demonstrates the value of integrating social and physical sciences with development of effective, tailored communication strategies in volcanic risk reduction.

  2. Reducing risks to health and wellbeing at mass gatherings: the role of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Murray, Virginia; Heymann, David; McCloskey, Brian; Azhar, Esam I; Petersen, Eskild; Zumla, Alimuddin; Dar, Osman

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings of people at religious pilgrimages and sporting events are linked to numerous health hazards, including the transmission of infectious diseases, physical injuries, and an impact on local and global health systems and services. As with other forms of disaster, mass gathering-related disasters are the product of the management of different hazards, levels of exposure, and vulnerability of the population and environment, and require comprehensive risk management that looks beyond single hazards and response. Incorporating an all-hazard, prevention-driven, evidence-based approach that is multisectoral and multidisciplinary is strongly advocated by the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030. This paper reviews some of the broader impacts of mass gatherings, the opportunity for concerted action across policy sectors and scientific disciplines offered by the year 2015 (including through the Sendai Framework), and the elements of a 21(st) century approach to mass gatherings. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Academic-Community Partnership to Develop a Patient-Centered Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Program for Latina Primary Care Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A

    2016-06-01

    This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients.

  4. The process of candidates choose graduate programs: an analysis from the advisor perspective; O processo de escolha de candidatos a programas de Pos-Graduacao: uma analise a partir da perspectiva do orientador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Ridnal Joao do

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to identify the criteria used by advisors in the decision-making on whether to accept a candidate for mentoring in a postgraduate strictu sensu program and examines possible relationships between this decision and their scientific production and mentees evasion. In order to meet these goals one seeks to identify and analyze the selection criteria of candidates for the master's and doctorate programs at an institution; in this case, the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute - IPEN. More specifically, one seeks to study similarities and differences between those criteria among the advisors; find out whether there is a correlation between the selection criteria and the advisors characteristics (Profile); identify the selection process used by advisors and point out which are the motivations that lead to evasion according to their point of view. To meet these challenges, as the starting point of the research, a conceptual model was designed in order to form the basis for the preparation of the script for the interviews with open-ended questions as to identify the selection criteria used by a small group of advisors with a predefined profile. From that point, based on the responses obtained in interviews, the survey was expanded to all advisors working in the IPEN Postgraduate program by implementing an online survey using Google Docs app for data collection. These data were then analyzed and reorganized according to an operational model of research that would guide the analysis by structural equation modeling (SEM) by means of the SmartPLS software, in order to identify the presence or absence of correlation between the criteria adopted by the advisors and their academic production and the evasion of their mentees, for that one relied on studies in: Bazerman and Moore (2010); Cohen (1988); Hair Jr. et al (2009); Hansmann and Ringle (2004); Martins (1997); Ringle, C.; Silva and Bido (2014); Sousa (2007); Sousa and Yu (2014); Torres (2014); Yu (2011

  5. Lifestyle counseling for type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care: results of the APHRODITE study after 0.5 and 1.5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, P.W.; Milder, I.E.J.; Wielaard, F.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Oers, van H.; Westert, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the overall effect of the Active Prevention in High-Risk Individuals of Diabetes Type 2 in and Around Eindhoven (APHRODITE) lifestyle intervention on type 2 diabetes risk reduction in Dutch primary care after 0.5 and 1.5 years and to evaluate the variability between general

  6. Up and down the sanitation ladder: Harmonizing the treatment and multiple-barrier perspectives on risk reduction in wastewater irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, P.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    perspective has strengths and mitations. Rather than being opposing philosophies, they both support health risk reduction but in different ways depending on the level of the country in the sanitation ladder. Since each perspective has limitations, the recommendation is to capitalize on their strengths...

  7. Mediation Analysis of the Efficacy of the Eban HIV/STD Risk-Reduction Intervention for African American HIV Serodiscordant Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Jemmott, John B; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Pequegnat, Willo; Wingood, Gina M; Wyatt, Gail E; Landis, J Richard; Remien, Robert H

    2016-06-01

    Targeting couples is a promising behavioral HIV risk-reduction strategy, but the mechanisms underlying the effects of such interventions are unknown. We report secondary analyses testing whether Social-Cognitive-Theory variables mediated the Eban HIV-risk-reduction intervention's effects on condom-use outcomes. In a multisite randomized controlled trial conducted in four US cities, 535 African American HIV-serodiscordant couples were randomized to the Eban HIV risk-reduction intervention or attention-matched control intervention. Outcomes were proportion condom-protected sex, consistent condom use, and frequency of unprotected sex measured pre-, immediately post-, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Potential mediators included Social-Cognitive-Theory variables: outcome expectancies and self-efficacy. Mediation analyses using the product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework revealed that condom-use outcome expectancy, partner-reaction outcome expectancy, intention, self-efficacy, and safer-sex communication improved post-intervention and mediated intervention-induced improvements in condom-use outcomes. These findings underscore the importance of targeting outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and safer-sex communication in couples-level HIV risk-reduction interventions.

  8. A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, M.; Bers, van C.; Mysiak, J.; Calliari, E.; Haque, A.; Warner, K.; Yuzva, K.; Zissener, M.; Jaspers, A.M.J.; Timmerman, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This publication, A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project is one of two main CATALYST knowledge products that focus on the transformative approaches and measures that can support Disa

  9. Brief Communication: CATALYST - a multi-regional stakeholder Think Tank for fostering capacity development in disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Hare, M.P.; Bers, van C.; Keur, van der P.

    2014-01-01

    This brief communication presents the work and objectives of the CATALYST project on "Capacity Development for Hazard Risk Reduction and Adaptation" funded by the European Commission (October 2011–September 2013). CATALYST set up a multi-regional think tank covering four regions (Central America and

  10. A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hare, M.; Bers, van C.; Mysiak, J.; Calliari, E.; Haque, A.; Warner, K.; Yuzva, K.; Zissener, M.; Jaspers, A.M.J.; Timmerman, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    This publication, A Best Practices Notebook for Disaster Risk Reduction and Climate Change Adaptation: Guidance and Insights for Policy and Practice from the CATALYST Project is one of two main CATALYST knowledge products that focus on the transformative approaches and measures that can support Disa

  11. Establishing a risk reduction model for the inbound supply chain in an oil refinery / H.C. Swanepoel

    OpenAIRE

    Swanepoel, Helena Catharina

    2011-01-01

    Companies are in business to make money; money is not there just to be taken. The drive should be on Cash Focus and Project Excellence, the ultimate goal and first price is always to grow stakeholder value sustainability. To be able to achieve just that, the focus should be on: - Operations excellence - Functional excellence - Capital excellence - Value-driven leadership The mission of the oil refinery is to refine crude oil utilising high conversion capability, gen...

  12. What secondary school career advisors in New Zealand Know about pharmacy and how that knowledge affects student career choices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aspden, Trudi; Cooper, Rachel; Liu, Yue; Marowa, Munyaradzi; Rubio, Christine; Waterhouse, Elisabeth-Jane; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-01-01

    To explore what career advisors at secondary schools (high schools) in New Zealand know about the pharmacy profession, how they obtain that knowledge, and what their potential influence is on students' decisions to study pharmacy...

  13. 78 FR 21349 - Meeting of the Board of Advisors to the Presidents of the Naval Postgraduate School and Naval War...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... and Naval War College, Naval Postgraduate School Subcommittee AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD... also through the Board of Advisors (BOA) to the Presidents of NPS and Naval War College report on...

  14. Scientific Opinion on the risk of Phyllosticta citricarpa (Guignardia citricarpa for the EU territory with identification and evaluation of risk reduction options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Panel conducted a risk assessment of Phyllosticta citricarpa for the EU. P. citricarpa causes citrus black spot (CBS and is absent from the EU. Under the scenario of absence of specific risk reduction options against P. citricarpa, the risk of entry of P. citricarpa was rated as likely for citrus plants for planting and citrus fruit with leaves, moderately likely for citrus fruit without leaves, unlikely for citrus leaves for cooking and very unlikely for Tahiti lime fruit without leaves. Establishment was rated as moderately likely because susceptible hosts are widely available and environmental conditions in many EU citrus-growing areas are suitable (with high uncertainty for P. citricarpa ascospore production, dispersal and infection.  Current fungicide treatments will not prevent establishment. Environmental favourability is increased by the use of sprinkler and micro-sprinkler irrigation in some EU citrus-growing locations. Spread with trade was rated as moderately likely. Model results indicate that CBS epidemics are most likely to develop in EU citrus-growing areas in late summer to early autumn and in some locations also in late spring to early summer. CBS is expected to affect mainly lemons and late-maturing sweet orange and mandarin varieties, with moderate negative consequences for the production of fresh fruit, but with environmental impact of additional fungicide treatments. Negative consequences would be minor for early-maturing citrus varieties and minimal for citrus for processing. Uncertainty concerning the consequences is high, mainly because of the lack of data on critical climate response parameters for the pathogen but also because information on impact in areas at the limits of the current distribution is scarce. Since eradication and containment are difficult, phytosanitary measures should focus on preventing entry. Current phytosanitary measures are evaluated to be effective, with the exception of pest

  15. Effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vanessa; Sievenpiper, John L; de Souza, Russell J; Jayalath, Viranda H; Mirrahimi, Arash; Agarwal, Arnav; Chiavaroli, Laura; Mejia, Sonia Blanco; Sacks, Frank M; Di Buono, Marco; Bernstein, Adam M; Leiter, Lawrence A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Vuksan, Vladimir; Bazinet, Richard P; Josse, Robert G; Beyene, Joseph; Kendall, Cyril W C; Jenkins, David J A

    2014-05-13

    Evidence from controlled trials encourages the intake of dietary pulses (beans, chickpeas, lentils and peas) as a method of improving dyslipidemia, but heart health guidelines have stopped short of ascribing specific benefits to this type of intervention or have graded the beneficial evidence as low. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the effect of dietary pulse intake on established therapeutic lipid targets for cardiovascular risk reduction. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected trials for relevant articles published through Feb. 5, 2014. We included RCTs of at least 3 weeks' duration that compared a diet emphasizing dietary pulse intake with an isocaloric diet that did not include dietary pulses. The lipid targets investigated were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and non-high-density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol. We pooled data using a random-effects model. We identified 26 RCTs (n = 1037) that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Diets emphasizing dietary pulse intake at a median dose of 130 g/d (about 1 serving daily) significantly lowered LDL cholesterol levels compared with the control diets (mean difference -0.17 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.25 to -0.09 mmol/L). Treatment effects on apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol were not observed. Our findings suggest that dietary pulse intake significantly reduces LDL cholesterol levels. Trials of longer duration and higher quality are needed to verify these results. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01594567.

  16. Is there an environmental benefit from remediation of a contaminated site? Combined assessments of the risk reduction and life cycle impact of remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemming, Gitte; Chambon, Julie C; Binning, Philip J; Bjerg, Poul L

    2012-12-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment is presented for four different management options for a trichloroethene-contaminated site with a contaminant source zone located in a fractured clay till. The compared options are (i) long-term monitoring (ii) in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD), (iii) in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) with permanganate and (iv) long-term monitoring combined with treatment by activated carbon at the nearby waterworks. The life cycle assessment included evaluation of both primary and secondary environmental impacts. The primary impacts are the local human toxic impacts due to contaminant leaching into groundwater that is used for drinking water, whereas the secondary environmental impacts are related to remediation activities such as monitoring, drilling and construction of wells and use of remedial amendments. The primary impacts for the compared scenarios were determined by a numerical risk assessment and remedial performance model, which predicted the contaminant mass discharge over time at a point of compliance in the aquifer and at the waterworks. The combined assessment of risk reduction and life cycle impacts showed that all management options result in higher environmental impacts than they remediate, in terms of person equivalents and assuming equal weighting of all impacts. The ERD and long-term monitoring were the scenarios with the lowest secondary life cycle impacts and are therefore the preferred alternatives. However, if activated carbon treatment at the waterworks is required in the long-term monitoring scenario, then it becomes unfavorable because of large secondary impacts. ERD is favorable due to its low secondary impacts, but only if leaching of vinyl chloride to the groundwater aquifer can be avoided. Remediation with ISCO caused the highest secondary impacts and cannot be recommended for the site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of AIDS prevention programs by lay health advisors for migrants in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijn, Carolien; de Vries, Nanne K; Voorham, Toon; Brandsma, Jeanine; Meis, Max; Hospers, Harm J

    2004-05-01

    Two studies describe the effectiveness of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) prevention programs by lay health advisors (LHAs) for migrants in The Netherlands. The effects of such AIDS programs were evaluated (Study 1) and compared with the effects of professional health advisors (PHAs, i.e. medical doctors or nurses) (Study 2). The first study concerned Turkish and Moroccan migrants and showed positive effects on knowledge, behavioral control, and social norm towards condom use. Iraqi refugees participated in the second study that concerned a direct comparison of LHA- and PHA-based programs. Both programs result in positive effects in terms of attitude change and knowledge, but the LHA program resulted in a stronger intention to discuss AIDS with children. Analyses predicting intention to use condoms provide evidence that LHA programs lead to a stronger relation between attitudes and intention. This suggests that LHA-based AIDS programs are more successful in inducing internally motivated intentions to safe sex practices, such as condom use.

  18. Knowledge and attitude of physicians in a major teaching hospital towards atherosclerotic risk reduction therapy in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Omran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Al-OmranDepartment of Surgery, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is a marker of advanced atherosclerosis with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Although intensive risk reduction therapy is critical in reducing the adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with PAD, the awareness of this information among all physicians is felt to be low. Given the role of family physicians (FP, general internists (GI, cardiologists (C, and vascular surgeons (VS in treating patients with PAD, we sought to determine their perceptions and knowledge of risk reduction therapy in these patients.Methods and results: We conducted a cross-sectional self-administered survey of 84 physicians who work at a major teaching hospital. FP, GI, C, and VS represent 39%, 33%, 16%, and 12% of the surveyed physicians, respectively. The recommended targets of LDL-cholesterol, blood glucose and blood pressure in PAD patients were known to 37.3%, 94.1% and 35.3% of physicians, respectively. The majority of physicians reported to screen for risk factors in PAD. Although 86.3% of physicians would recommend antiplatelets therapy in PAD, only 17.6% would recommend angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors; 25.5% would recommend nicotine replacement therapy for smokers and 62.7% would recommend statins. Compared to other specialties, cardiologists had the lowest threshold, whereas GI had the highest threshold for initiating antiplatelets and statins for patients with PAD.Conclusion: The perceptions towards risk reduction in PAD identify glaring knowledge and action gaps. Effective strategies to encourage health professionals to use risk reduction therapy are needed.Keywords: peripheral arterial disease, risk reduction, atherosclerosis

  19. Building Rapport Between International Graduate Students and Their Faculty Advisors: Cross-Cultural Mentoring Relationships at the University of Guelph

    OpenAIRE

    Faiza Omar; James P. Mahone; Jane Ngobia; John FitzSimons

    2016-01-01

    Mentoring graduate students is very challenging, even when both the student and faculty have similar cultural values. Many international students have a different culture from that of Canadian. Their challenge is adapting to their new environment, and for their faculty advisors to understand and work well with them. This research explored the relationships, experience, and challenges of international graduate students and their faculty advisors at the University of Guelph, through focus group...

  20. Aviation Security Force Assistance: Joint General Purpose Forces as Air Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    David E. Thaler et al., Building Partner Health Capacity with U.S. Military Forces: Enhancing AFSOC Health Engagement Missions (Santa Monica, CA: RAND...language, and diplomacy.” 36 Similarly, the advisor must be careful to avoid demonstrating frustration with host nation personnel and must be...Africa. 12 USAFRICOM conducted the first APF event in Accra, Ghana in March, 2012, with participation of service members from Ghana , Togo, Benin

  1. Hotel assessment through social media: The case of TripAdvisor

    OpenAIRE

    Molinillo, Sebastian; Fernández-Morales, Antonio; Ximénez-de-Sandoval, Jose Luis; Coca-Stefaniak, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Hotel booking decisions are increasingly influenced by consumer feedback available on social media sites. Using data submitted by customers on TripAdvisor, this study analyzes the customer satisfaction ratings posted for 2,211 hotels. The study provides four key contributions to our knowledge on this subject. Firstly, a comparative analysis was conducted of customer ratings for hotels located on the Spanish coast and Portugal's southern coast. Secondly, significant differences were found in t...

  2. Foreign Security Force Advisor Training, Doctrine, and Manning for 2015 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    advisor team requirements on a scheduled rotation instead of short notice, mid- tour, temporary duty, or IA. Scheduled rotation supports the monitor’s...to rotate back home. As an officer, my experiences in the Maldives, Iraq, and Afghanistan took me on a completely different path. Unlike my...moved in; and sugar plantations were concentrated under American Control” (p. 150). The U.S. military deployed to the region when its investments

  3. The American Military Advisor: Dealing with Senior Foreign Officials in the Islamic World

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    leader accustomed to administering vast areas of land, significant budgets, and large numbers of people. He might sit on the floor , wear a turban and... floor , thumb his prayer beads, and listen to flute and drum music, the advisor should be adept at taking his boots off and resting cross-legged for a...salary structure set by regulation, or is it based on fees for service, on the order of American waiters and waitresses who receive only a token

  4. Lessons from the Past: Vital Factors Influencing Military Advisors in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    under the very odd conditions of Arabia, your practical work will not be as good as, perhaps, you think it is.11 Lawrence was writing specifically...Republic of Vietnam senior military officers, who were writing subsequent to the U.S. departure from Vietnam. They had little reason to be overly...and Christopher L. Vowels . The Human Dimension of Advising: An Analysis of Interpersonal, Linguistic, Cultural, and Advisory Aspects of the Advisor

  5. In TripAdvisor we trust: Rankings, calculative regimes and systems trust

    OpenAIRE

    Jeacle, I.; Carter, Chris

    2011-01-01

    A proliferation of rankings and league tables increasingly permeate everyday life. An objective of this paper is to explain the profusion of such rankings, in particular on-line user review rankings, in contemporary society and what this means for our understanding of the role of accounting. The online travel website TripAdvisor and its hotel ranking system is a prominent example of this new phenomenon. The site increasingly appears to play the role of trusted intermediary for the ‘independen...

  6. Hotel assessment through social media: The case of TripAdvisor

    OpenAIRE

    Molinillo, Sebastian; Fernández-Morales, Antonio; Ximénez-de-Sandoval, Jose Luis; Coca-Stefaniak, Andres

    2016-01-01

    Hotel booking decisions are increasingly influenced by consumer feedback available on social media sites. Using data submitted by customers on TripAdvisor, this study analyzes the customer satisfaction ratings posted for 2,211 hotels. The study provides four key contributions to our knowledge on this subject. Firstly, a comparative analysis was conducted of customer ratings for hotels located on the Spanish coast and Portugal's southern coast. Secondly, significant differences were found in t...

  7. Correlation Between Leadership Effectiveness and Personality Preferences at a Hungarian Independent Financial Advisor Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mészáros Aranka

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of our research is to study, with the help of the dimensions of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (hereinafter: MBTI the personality preferences of those leaders at the financial advisor company who are successful already. In the present study first we introduce the preferences of MBTI. Then we go on to define our hypothesis regarding the typical preferences of the leaders, focusing on the main leadership tasks of the company.

  8. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-10-11

    Currently the world faces epidemic of several closely related conditions: obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The lipid profile of these patients and those with metabolic syndrome is characterized by the concurrent presence of qualitative as well as quantitative lipoprotein abnormalities: low levels of HDL, increased triglycerides, and prevalence of LDL particles that are smaller and denser than normal. This lipid phenotype has been defined as atherogenic dyslipidemia. Overwhelming evidences demonstrate that all components of the atherogenic dyslipidemia are important risk-factors for cardiovascular diseases. Optimal reduction of cardiovascular risk through comprehensive management of atherogenic dyslipidemias basically depends of the presence of efficacious lipid-modulating agents (beyond statin-based reduction of LDL-C). The most important class of medications which can be effectively used nowadays to combat atherogenic dyslipidemias is the fibrates. From a clinical point of view, in all available 5 randomized control trials beneficial effects of major fibrates (gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, bezafibrate) were clearly demonstrated and were highly significant in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. In these circumstances, the main determinant of the overall results of the trial is mainly dependent of the number of the included appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. In a meta-analysis of dyslipidemic subgroups totaling 4726 patients a significant 35% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular events was observed compared with a non significant 6% reduction in those without dyslipidemia. However, different fibrates may have a somewhat different spectrum of effects. Currently only fenofibrate was investigated and proved to be effective in reducing microvascular complications of diabetes. Bezafibrate reduced the severity of intermittent claudication. Cardinal differences between bezafibrate and other fibrates are related to the effects on

  9. Fibrates are an essential part of modern anti-dyslipidemic arsenal: spotlight on atherogenic dyslipidemia and residual risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently the world faces epidemic of several closely related conditions: obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2DM. The lipid profile of these patients and those with metabolic syndrome is characterized by the concurrent presence of qualitative as well as quantitative lipoprotein abnormalities: low levels of HDL, increased triglycerides, and prevalence of LDL particles that are smaller and denser than normal. This lipid phenotype has been defined as atherogenic dyslipidemia. Overwhelming evidences demonstrate that all components of the atherogenic dyslipidemia are important risk-factors for cardiovascular diseases. Optimal reduction of cardiovascular risk through comprehensive management of atherogenic dyslipidemias basically depends of the presence of efficacious lipid-modulating agents (beyond statin-based reduction of LDL-C. The most important class of medications which can be effectively used nowadays to combat atherogenic dyslipidemias is the fibrates. From a clinical point of view, in all available 5 randomized control trials beneficial effects of major fibrates (gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, bezafibrate were clearly demonstrated and were highly significant in patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. In these circumstances, the main determinant of the overall results of the trial is mainly dependent of the number of the included appropriate patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia. In a meta-analysis of dyslipidemic subgroups totaling 4726 patients a significant 35% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular events was observed compared with a non significant 6% reduction in those without dyslipidemia. However, different fibrates may have a somewhat different spectrum of effects. Currently only fenofibrate was investigated and proved to be effective in reducing microvascular complications of diabetes. Bezafibrate reduced the severity of intermittent claudication. Cardinal differences between bezafibrate and other fibrates are

  10. A Bilateral U.S. - Russia Contribution to Disaster Risk Reduction in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Gordeev, E.; Bratton, J.; Ismail-Zadeh, A.

    2012-12-01

    An accepted principle of disaster risk reduction is that all stakeholders should be engaged in the process. For extreme geophysical events, this almost always means stakeholders in more than one country. Even when the direct impacts on the ground from violent shaking or explosive eruptions are confined to a single country, effects to lives and property may be carried thousands of kilometers from the event source by tsunamis or ash clouds, respectively. The formation of G-EVER recognizes the need for neighbors to join together on disaster risk reduction. There is much to be gained by sharing real-time monitoring data and databases on past extreme events, mapping risks seamlessly across borders, and establishing best practices through sharing of experiences. Each extreme event is a learning opportunity, and the recent lessons have been particularly painful. Our science, while progressing, is still inadequate both in content and in application. There has also been lack of recognition that the "worst case" is indeed possible. Among the various collaborations needed to reduce disaster risk is bilateral collaboration, because borders are obstacles and exist between two countries with rules that have been determined by those countries. Borders are used by all countries for protection of national and economic security. They restrict flow of people, equipment, and information, but not seismic waves, tsunamis, and ash. Even the relatively minor event of sea ice arriving early in Nome, Alaska last fall involved both Russia and the U.S. in a relief effort to bring fuel. It is the responsibility of natural hazard scientists and crisis managers to work together across borders, and where necessary make the case to their governments for sharing of data and information based on an expanded view of national security. The Bilateral Presidential Commission initiated by U.S. President Barrack Obama and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev has provided a framework in which to expand

  11. KLIMA 2050: a research-based innovation centre for risk reduction through climate adaptation of infrastructure and buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Anders; Time, Berit; Kvande, Tore; Sivertsen, Edvard; Cepeda, Jose; Lappegard Hauge, Åshild; Bygballe, Lena; Almås, Anders-Johan

    2016-04-01

    Klima 2050 - Risk reduction through climate adaptation of buildings and infrastructure is a Centre for Research based Innovation (SFI), funded jointly by the Research Council of Norway (RCN) and the partners of the centre. The aim of Klima 2050 is to reduce the societal risks associated with climate changes, including enhanced precipitation and flood water exposure within the built environment. The Centre will strengthen companies' innovation capacity through a focus on long-term research. It is also a clear objective to facilitate close cooperation between Research & Development, performing companies, public entities, and prominent research groups. Emphasis will be placed on development of moisture-resilient buildings, storm-water management, blue-green solutions, mitigation measures for water-triggered landslides, socio-economic incentives and decision-making processes. Both extreme weather and gradual climatic changes will be addressed. The Centre consists of a consortium of 18 partners from three sectors: industry, public entities and research/education organizations. The partners from the industry/private sector include a variety of companies from the building industry. The public entities comprise the most important infrastructure owners in Norway (public roads, railroads, buildings, airports), as well as the directorate for water and energy. The research and education partners are SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, the Norwegian Business School, the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, the Norwegian Meteorological Institute, and the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute. This contribution presents the main research plans and activities of this Centre, which was started in 2015 and will run for 8 years, until 2023. The presentation also includes options for international cooperation in the Centre via PhD and postdoctoral positions, MSc projects and guest-researcher stays with Klima 2050 partners.

  12. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabia Henry-Akintobi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355 group, an immediate post-test (n = 228 group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110 group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001. Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008, and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001. Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011, marijuana (p = 0.011, illegal drugs (p = 0.002, and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003. Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women.

  13. Efficacy of enhanced HIV counseling for risk reduction during pregnancy and in the postpartum period: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Maman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Pregnancy and the postpartum period present important intervention opportunities. Counseling can leverage the motivation women have during this time to change behaviors that may negatively affect their health and the heath of their infants. METHODS: Pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic in South Africa were randomly allocated to treatment (n=733 and control arms (n=747. Treatment arm participants received enhanced HIV pre- and post-test counseling, legal support and access to support groups at baseline, which occurred at the first antenatal visit, and then six and ten weeks postpartum. Control arm participants received standard HIV testing and counseling (HTC and two postpartum attention control sessions. Outcomes were incidence of sexually transmitted infection (STI by 14 weeks postpartum and past 30-day inconsistent condom use at 14 weeks and 9 months postpartum. RESULTS: There were no intervention effects on incident STIs for either HIV-negative (adjusted risk ratio (aRR 1.01, 95% CI 0.71-1.44 or HIV-positive participants (aRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.23. The intervention was associated with a 28% decrease in risk of past 30-day inconsistent condom use at nine-months among HIV-negative women (aRR 0.72,95% CI 0.59-0.88, but did not affect inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive women (aRR1.08; 95% CI 0.67-1.75. DISCUSSION: An enhanced counseling intervention during pregnancy and the postpartum period can lead to reductions in inconsistent condom use among HIV-negative women. Results underscore the importance of the counseling that accompanies HIV HTC. More work is needed to understand how to promote and sustain risk reduction among HIV-positive women. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683461.

  14. LastQuake app: a tool for risk reduction that focuses on earthquakes that really matter to the public!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossu, R.; Steed, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.; Roussel, F.; Frobert, L.

    2015-12-01

    Many seismic events are only picked up by seismometers but the only earthquakes that really interest the public (and the authorities) are those which are felt by the population. It is not a magnitude issue only; even a small magnitude earthquake, if widely felt can create a public desire for information. In LastQuake, felt events are automatically discriminated through the reactions of the population on the Internet. It uses three different and complementary methods. Twitter Earthquake detection, initially developed by the USGS, detects surges in the number of tweets containing the word "earthquake" in different languages. Flashsourcing, developed by EMSC, detects traffic surges caused by eyewitnesses on its website - one of the top global earthquake information websites. Both detections happen typically within 2 minutes of an event's occurrence. Finally, an earthquake is also confirmed as being felt when at least 3 independent felt reports (questionnaires) are collected. LastQuake automatically merges seismic data, direct (crowdsourced) and indirect eyewitnesses' contributions, damage scenarios and tsunami alerts to provide information on felt earthquakes and their effects in a time ranging from a few tens of seconds to 90 minutes. It is based on visual communication to erase language hurdles, for instance, it crowdsources felt reports through simple cartoons as well as geo-located pics. It was massively adopted in Nepal within hours of the Gorkha earthquake and collected thousands of felt reports and more than 100 informative pics. LastQuake is also a seismic risk reduction tools thanks to its very rapid information. When such information does not exist, people tend to call emergency services, crowds emerge and rumors spread. In its next release, LastQuake will also have "do/don't do" cartoons popping up after an earthquake to encourage appropriate behavior.

  15. GSNL 2.0: leveraging on Open Science to promote science-based decision making in Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Rubbia, Giuliana; Abruzzese, Luigi

    2017-04-01

    In 2010 the GEO Geohazard Supersites and Natural Laboratories initiative (GSNL) launched the concept of a global partnership among the geophysical scientific community and the satellite and in situ data providers, aiming to promote scientific advancements in the knowledge of seismic and volcanic phenomena. The initial goal was successfully achieved, and many more new scientific results were obtained than it could have been possible if the Supersites had not existed (http://www.earthobservations.org/gsnl.php). At the same time the Supersites have demonstrated to be able to effectively support the rapid transfer of useful scientific information to the risk managers, exploiting the existing institutional relationships between the Supersite coordinators and the local decision makers. However, a more demanding call for action is given by the Sendai Framework 2015-2030 (outcome of the 2015 UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction), where for the first time the knowledge of the risk components and the science based decision-making process are defined as top priorities for an effective DRR. There are evident possible synergies between the Sendai framework, GEO, the CEOS (Committee on Earth Observation Satellites), and GSNL, but for maximum benefit and effectiveness the latter needs to progress at a faster pace towards a full implementation of the Open Science approach to geohazard science. In the above global framework the Supersites can represent local test beds where to experiment coordination, collaboration and communication approaches and technological solutions tailored to the local situation, to ensure that the scientific community can contribute the information needed for the best possible decision making. This vision and the new developments of GSNL 2.0 have been approved by the GEO Program Board, and a clear roadmap has been set for the period 2017-2019. We will present the approach and the implementation plan at the conference.

  16. The Health, Enlightenment, Awareness, and Living (HEAL) Intervention: Outcome of an HIV and Hepatitis B and C Risk Reduction Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry-Akintobi, Tabia; Laster, Nastassia; Trotter, Jennie; Jacobs, DeBran; Johnson, Tarita; King Gordon, Tandeca; Miller, Assia

    2016-01-01

    African American women have among the highest HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C incidence rates in the United States, especially among those homeless or incarcerated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Enlightenment, Awareness and Living Intervention, designed to decrease HIV/AIDS, hepatitis and related risky behaviors. The thirteen-session intervention was implemented among homeless and formerly incarcerated low-income African American women, ages 18 to 55, in Atlanta, Georgia from 2006 to 2010. A single group repeated measures study design was employed and consisted of a pre-test (n = 355) group, an immediate post-test (n = 228) group with a response rate of 64%, and a six-month follow up (n = 110) group with response rate of 48%, completing a 135-item survey. Paired-sample t-tests, McNemar tests, and repeated measures ANOVA were applied to compare survey results. Participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in hepatitis B and C knowledge over time (p < 0.001). Statistically significant decreases were also reported for unprotected sex in exchange for money, drugs or shelter (p = 0.008), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (p < 0.001). Reported substance use decreased with statistical significance for alcohol (p = 0.011), marijuana (p = 0.011), illegal drugs (p = 0.002), and crack/cocaine (p = 0.003). Findings broaden the evidence base related to the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS and hepatitis risk reduction interventions designed for homeless and previously incarcerated African American women. PMID:27669284

  17. TOBACCO DEPENDENCE TREATMENT WITH NICOTINE REPLACEMENT THERAPY AS ONE OF THE METHODS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE RISK REDUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Vikhireva

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate efficacy and safety of nicotine chewing gum and inhaler in individuals trying to quit smoking. To assess expected reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD and total mortality relative risks (RR.Material and methods. In this open, parallel study, 169 relatively healthy male smokers aged 18-60 years were randomly assigned to free choice vs admission of Nicorette gum (2/4 mg or inhaler (10 mg. At baseline, all participants smoked ≥15 cig/d, for ≥3 years. The intervention phase lasted 3 months; follow-up evaluations were made at 3, 6 and 12 months after nicotine replacement therapy (NRT initiation.Results. Twelve-month results were obtained for 152 subjects (response rate 89.9%. Point prevalence abstinence and reduction (smoking ≤50% of basic daily cigarette amount rates were 19.7% and 35.5%, respectively. Neither abstinence, nor reduction rates depended on Nicorette form (gum vs inhaler, or on choice vs admission factor. The main predictors of long-term efficacy were nicotine dependence severity and contacts with other smokers.NRT was not associated with negative dynamics in objective health parameters (blood pressure, heart rate, ECG parameters, body weight, and body mass index or self-evaluation of health. Both Nicorette forms seemed to be safe and well-tolerated.At 12 months, the expected mean RR reduction for CVD mortality reached 19%, for total mortality – 21%.Conclusion. In Russian clinical settings, NRT efficacy and safety are similar to that demonstrated in numerous international trials. NRT can be recommended as one of the methods of assistance to quit smoking and, therefore, for CVD risk reduction.

  18. Increased protected sex and abstinence among Namibian youth following a HIV risk-reduction intervention: a randomized, longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, B F; Li, X; Kahihuata, J; Fitzgerald, A M; Neumbo, S; Kanduuombe, G; Ricardo, I B; Galbraith, J S; Terreri, N; Guevara, I; Shipena, H; Strijdom, J; Clemens, R; Zimba, R F

    1998-12-24

    To evaluate an HIV risk-reduction intervention among Namibian adolescents. A randomized trial of a 14-session face-to-face intervention emphasizing abstinence and safer sexual practices conducted among 515 youths (median age 17 years and median grade 11) attending 10 secondary schools located in two districts in Namibia. Youths were randomly assigned to the intervention or control condition at the level of the individual. HIV risk behaviours, intentions and perceptions were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 6 and 12 months post-intervention. Among all 515 youths who enrolled in the programme, rates of either abstinence or sex with a condom were not different between control and intervention youths at baseline or in the follow-up period. However, analyses conducted among the subset of youths who were sexually inexperienced at baseline (n = 255) revealed that a higher percentage of intervention youths (17%) than control youths (9%, P<0.05) remained sexually inexperienced one year later. Moreover, in the immediate post-intervention period, among baseline virgins who subsequently initiated sex, intervention youths were more likely than control youths to use a condom (18 versus 10%, P<0.05). Additional HIV-related risk behaviours (failure to discuss previous HIV risk exposure with one's sexual partner and alcohol use), intentions to use condoms, and perceptions of the ability to use condoms were positively affected by the intervention. There is evidence that the 'My Future is My Choice' (MFMC) intervention is reducing HIV risk behaviours among sexually inexperienced participants aged 15-18. Related risk behaviours and perceptions are also positively impacted by the intervention.

  19. Bacterial screening of platelet components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant, an effective risk reduction measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carl; Allen, Jennifer; Brailsford, Susan; Roy, Anjana; Ball, Joanne; Moule, Richard; Vasconcelos, Mariza; Morrison, Rachael; Pitt, Tyrone

    2017-05-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood components remains a major cause of sepsis in transfusion medicine. Between 2006 and 2010 in the 5 years before the introduction of bacterial screening of platelet (PLT) components by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), seven cases of PLT component-associated transmission of bacterial infection were recorded for 10 patients, three of which were fatal. Sampling of individual PLT components was undertaken at 36 to 48 hours after donation and tested in the BacT/ALERT system with 8 mL inoculated into each of aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. Bottles were incubated until the end of the 7-day shelf life and initial reactive bottles were examined for contamination. Bacterial screened time-expired PLTs were tested as in the screen method. From February 2011 to September 2015, a total of 1,239,029 PLT components were screened. Initial-reactive, confirmed-positive, and false-positive rates were 0.37, 0.03, and 0.19%, respectively. False-negative cultures, all with Staphylococcus aureus, occurred on four occasions; three were visually detected before transfusion and one confirmed transmission resulted in patient morbidity. The NHSBT screening protocol effectively reduced the number of clinically adverse transfusion transmissions by 90% in this reporting period, compared to a similar time period before implementation. Delayed testing of 4515 time-expired PLT units after screening revealed no positives. The implementation of bacterial screening of PLT components with the NHSBT BacT/ALERT protocol was an effective risk reduction measure and increased the safety of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.

  20. Slovak trial on cardiovascular risk reduction following national guidelines with CaDUET® (the STRONG DUET study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedacko, Jan; Pella, Daniel; Jarcuska, Peter; Sabol, Frantisek; Kmec, Jan; Lopuchovsky, Tomas; Merkovska, Lucia; Jedlickova, Lucia; Janicko, Martin; Sajty, Matej

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin for reducing blood pressure (BP), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC), and predicted 10-year cardiovascular (CV) risk have been demonstrated in low CV risk countries. The Slovak Trial on Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Following National Guidelines with CaDUET® (amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium; Pfizer, Morrisville, PA, USA; STRONG DUET) study evaluated its clinical utility in Slovakia, one of the highest CV risk regions in Europe. This was a two-phase study involving 100 outpatient cardiologist and internist departments in Slovakia. Phase 1 assessed BP control and CV risk profiles in adults with treated hypertension, and phase 2 was an open-label, multicenter, observational study. In the phase 2 study, patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension and three or more coronary heart disease risk factors received single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10 or 10/10 mg) for 12 weeks. Major outcomes were the percentage of patients achieving target BP (≤140/90 mmHg) and/or LDL-C (≤3 mmol/L) and reductions in predicted 10-year CV risk. Of the 4,672 phase 1 patients, 80.8% had uncontrolled hypertension and 61.4% had dyslipidemia. Of the 1,406 phase 2 patients, 90.3% of patients achieved target BP at week 12, 66.3% achieved target LDL-C, and 60.7% achieved both. The mean 10-year CV risk was reduced by 49% (P risk in patients with uncontrolled hypertension in Slovakia. The treatment was well-tolerated and safe. Use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin in high CV-risk countries could lead to significant improvements in CV risk management.