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Sample records for advia centaur hiv

  1. Measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) employing the ADVIA Centaur platform. Validation, reference interval and comparison to UniQ RIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Heickendorff, Lene; Nexo, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    ). In this article, we show that the Centaur PIIINP may be used in place of the much more labor-intensive RIA method, and we present an age stratified reference interval. Methods: We analyzed four control samples 20 times over a period of 5 days. Centaur PIIINP assay measurements were compared with the widely used......Background: Recently, measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) was introduced as a part of the hepatic cirrhotic marker enhanced liver fibrosis™ test on the automated ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay platform (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA...... PIIINP assay is suitable for routine use with our newly defined reference interval. The results obtained by Centaur correlates well with those obtained by the previously employed RIA, though the absolute values are higher....

  2. HIRENASD Unstructured Grids - Centaur software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — These grids were constructed using Centaur software at DLR in Germany. The grids designed for node based (labeled 'cv') and cell-centered solvers (labeled 'cc') are...

  3. Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL - Propulsion Systems Laboratory #1. The RL-10 Rocket was developed by Pratt and Whitney in the late 1950's and tested at the Lewis Research Center (now known as the John H. Glenn Research Lewis Field). This power plant was the propulsion system for NASA's upper stage Centaur rocket and was significant for being the first to use liquid hydrogen and oxygen as fuel. The Centaur suffered a number of early failures, but later proved to be a very successful upper stage for numerous commercial, NASA and military payloads.

  4. New Limits to CO Outgassing in Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drahus, Michał; Yang, Bin; Lis, Dariusz C.; Jewitt, David

    2016-09-01

    Centaurs are small solar system objects orbiting between Jupiter and Neptune. They are widely believed to be escapees from the trans-Neptunian region on their way to become Jupiter-family comets. Indeed, some Centaurs exhibit the characteristic cometary appearance. The sublimation of carbon monoxide has been proposed as a driver of activity in distant comets, but no strong detection of gaseous CO in a Centaur other than 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 has been reported to date. Here we report the results of a deep search for CO outgassing in three Centaurs: (315898), (342842), and (382004). Our survey was carried out using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on nine nights in late 2011. The targeted rotational line J(2-1) of CO is undetected in all three objects in spite of high instrumental sensitivity. We find the model-dependent three-sigma upper limits to the CO production rate of 2.13 × 1027 molecules s-1 for (315898), 1.32 × 1027 molecules s-1 for (342842), and 1.17 × 1027 molecules s-1 for (382004), which are among the most sensitive obtained to date. These upper limits are consistently analyzed in the context of published CO data of fourteen Centaurs and one well-observed comet, C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp), and support an earlier suggestion that the surfaces of most Centaurs are not dominated by exposed CO ice.

  5. Centaurs as a hazard to civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Bill; Asher, David; Bailey, Mark; Steel, Duncan

    2015-12-01

    Assessments of the risk posed by near-Earth objects ignore the possibility of a giant comet entering the inner solar system. Bill Napier, David Asher, Mark Bailey and Duncan Steel examine the likelihood and potential consequences of the appearance of such a centaur.

  6. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  7. Centaur's ring system formation by close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santana, Thamiris; Winter, Othon

    2016-10-01

    Rupture of small bodies due to close approach to a massive body is a frequent event in the Solar System. Some of these small bodies can just disintegrate completely or suffer a material loss.In this work we study the gravitational interaction between a giant planet and a small body in close encounters in order to simulate the formation of a planetary ring system around a centaur by the partial rupture of the small body.Considering the current Chariklo's body and a disk of particles around it, we simulated the system under close encounters with one of giant planets.Another motivation for the study is also the centaur Chiron, that is a candidate to have a ring system like Chariklo. The characteristics of the encounters are defined by the impact parameter and the velocity at infinity.The results are presented in terms of conditions that could lead to a rupture that could generate a ring like system.

  8. Centaur Application to Robotic and Crewed Lunar Lander Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birckenstaedt, Bonnie; Kutter, Bernard F.; Zegler, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Human space exploration, while a clear imperative for the progression of human civilization, can be severely impeded by excessively high operational costs and perceived high risk. A cost effective method of accomplishing every phase of exploration transport is mandatory to avoid this trap. Centaur, the upper stage on the current Lockheed Martin Atlas V rocket, is an excellent candidate for modification as a robotic and possible human transport vehicle to our nearest neighbor. The Centaur is produced in Denver, Colorado. Centaur has proven to be extremely robust and reliable, with 77 consecutive successful flights. Modifications to the current design would allow the Centaur to function as an in-space propulsion system. With its present capability Centaur can directly support robotic probe landings on the moon and is directly extensible to larger landing tasks including high-mass crewed missions. Lunar descent would be accomplished in two phases: primary descent using the RL10 engine and a final horizontal terminal phase powered by pressure fed thrusters mounted along the Centaur tank. Utilizing the Centaur for human exploration would greatly reduce cost by leveraging an already designed and manufactured stage. It would increase safety by its robustness and redundancy that the Centaur has proven in many successful launches. With the Centaur concept for human exploration, NASA can have the safety and cost effectiveness needed to explore the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

  9. Centaure: an heterogeneous parallel architecture for computer vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation deals with the architecture of parallel computers dedicated to computer vision. In the first chapter, the problem to be solved is presented, as well as the architecture of the Sympati and Symphonie computers, on which this work is based. The second chapter is about the state of the art of computers and integrated processors that can execute computer vision and image processing codes. The third chapter contains a description of the architecture of Centaure. It has an heterogeneous structure: it is composed of a multiprocessor system based on Analog Devices ADSP21060 Sharc digital signal processor, and of a set of Symphonie computers working in a multi-SIMD fashion. Centaure also has a modular structure. Its basic node is composed of one Symphonie computer, tightly coupled to a Sharc thanks to a dual ported memory. The nodes of Centaure are linked together by the Sharc communication links. The last chapter deals with a performance validation of Centaure. The execution times on Symphonie and on Centaure of a benchmark which is typical of industrial vision, are presented and compared. In the first place, these results show that the basic node of Centaure allows a faster execution than Symphonie, and that increasing the size of the tested computer leads to a better speed-up with Centaure than with Symphonie. In the second place, these results validate the choice of running the low level structure of Centaure in a multi- SIMD fashion. (author)

  10. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffard, Rene; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. The Herschel open time key program "TNOs are Cool!'' observed 130 Centaurs and TNOs in 2009-2012. In this particular work we use Herschel/PACS three-band photometry to obtain monochroma

  11. Thermal Properties of Centaurs Asbolus and Chiron

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Y R; Sheppard, S S

    2002-01-01

    We have measured the mid-infrared thermal continua from two Centaurs, inactive (8405) Asbolus and active 95P=(2060) Chiron, and have constrained their geometric albedos, p, and effective radii, R, with the Standard Thermal Model for slow rotators. These are the first such measurements of Asbolus; we find R=33 km +/- 2 km and p=0.12 +/- 0.03. This albedo is higher than all of those confidently known for active cometary nuclei. The thermal inertia is comparable to or lower than those of main belt asteroids, the Moon, and Chiron; lower than those of the icy Galilean satellites; and much lower than those of near-Earth asteroids. For Chiron, we find R=74 km +/- 4 km and p=0.17 +/- 0.02. While this albedo is consistent with the established value, previous radiometry by others implied a larger radius. This effect may be partially due to a varying infrared dust coma but all datasets have too low signal to be sure. Four Centaur albedos (out of about 30 objects) are now known. They show a diversity greater than that of...

  12. Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2016-10-01

    We present new optical colors for 64 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaur objects measured with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). By combining these new colors with our previously published colors, we increase the sample size of our survey to 154 objects. Our survey is unique in that the uncertainties in our color measurements are less than half the uncertainties in the color measurements reported by other researchers in the literature. Small uncertainties are essential for discerning between a unimodal and a bimodal distribution of colors for these objects as well as detecting correlations between colors and orbital elements. From our survey, it appears red Centaurs have a broader color distribution than grey Centaurs. We find red Centaurs have a smaller orbital inclination angle distribution than grey Centaurs at the 99.3% confidence level. Furthermore, we find that our entire sample of KBOs and Centaurs exhibits bimodal colors at the 99.4% confidence level. KBOs and Centaurs with HV > 7.0 have bimodal colors at the 99.96% confidence level and KBOs with HV < 6.0 have bimodal colors at the 96.3% confidence level.We are grateful to the NASA Solar System Observations Program for support, NAU for joining the Discovery Channel Telescope Partnership, and the Vatican Observatory for the consistent allocation of telescope time over the last 12 years of this project.

  13. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  14. A Chemical and Dynamical Link Between Red Centaur Objects and the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2015-11-01

    We present new B-V, V-R, and B-R colors for 32 Centaurs objects using the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) near Happy Jack, AZ and the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ. Combining these new colors with our previously reported colors, we now have optical broad-band colors for 58 Centaur objects.Application of the non-parametric Dip Test to our previous sample of only 26 objects showed Centaurs split into gray and red groups at the 99.5% confidence level, and application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to the same sample showed that red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99% confidence level (Tegler et al., 2008, Solar System Beyond Neptune, U Arizona Press, pp. 105-114).Here we report application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to our sample of 58 Centaurs. We confirm red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99.7% level. In addition, we find that red Centaurs have a lower median inclination angle than gray Centaurs at the 99.5% confidence level. Because of their red colors and lower inclination angles, we suggest red Centaurs originate in the cold classical Kuiper belt. We thank the NASA Solar System Observations Program for its support.

  15. Implementation of an interpreter for a parallel language in CENTAUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an interpreter for the parallel language ESTEREL in the CENTAUR system. The dynamic semantics of the language is described and completed with several modules providing a graphical input-output interface, a graphical execution observation tool, and a simple execution controller.

  16. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  17. Assessing the contribution of Centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    OpenAIRE

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that the internal luminosity of Neptune is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, the luminosity of Neptune can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether Centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce the luminosity of Neptune. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Nept...

  18. Large retrograde Centaurs: visitors from the Oort cloud?

    CERN Document Server

    Marcos, C de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Among all the asteroid dynamical groups, Centaurs have the highest fraction of objects moving in retrograde orbits. The distribution in absolute magnitude, H, of known retrograde Centaurs with semi-major axes in the range 6-34 AU exhibits a remarkable trend: 10% have H 12 mag. The largest objects, namely (342842) 2008 YB3, 2011 MM4 and 2013 LU28, move in almost polar, very eccentric paths; their nodal points are currently located near perihelion and aphelion. In the group of retrograde Centaurs, they are obvious outliers both in terms of dynamics and size. Here, we show that these objects are also trapped in retrograde resonances that make them unstable. Asteroid 2013 LU28, the largest, is a candidate transient co-orbital to Uranus and it may be a recent visitor from the trans-Neptunian region. Asteroids 342842 and 2011 MM4 are temporarily submitted to various high-order retrograde resonances with the Jovian planets but 342842 may be ejected towards the trans-Neptunian region within the next few hundred kyr....

  19. ADVIA2120全自动血细胞分析仪在脑脊液细胞计数中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽红; 尹俊清

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价 ADVIA2120全自动血细胞分析仪脑脊液测定模式在脑脊液( Cerebro-Spind Fluid,CSF)细胞计数及分类应用中的价值。方法:采用 ADVIA2120血细胞分析仪脑脊液分析模式对135份脑脊液标本进行计数分析,并与人工显微镜计数法进行结果比对。白细胞分类手工法采用瑞-姬氏染色,仪器法采用荧光染色和流式细胞术原理进行分类。结果:两种方法对脑脊液标本白细胞计数、红细胞计数、单个核及多个核细胞的分类计数检测差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:应用 ADVIA2120血细胞分析仪的脑脊液分析模式进行脑脊液细胞计数、分类快速准确,有较高临床实用价值。

  20. A photometric search for activity among asteroids and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Oyarzabal, A.; Mammana, L.; Fernández, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We present the first results of a long-term observational campaign focused on the detection of activity in selected asteroids and centaurs. Our observational targets are near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (cf. [2]), the so called ''main-belt comets'' or ''active asteroids'' (well-known objects as well as potential candidates), and bright centaurs with good orbits, all close to their perihelion passages. In those objects with a former detection of activity, our aim is to contribute to a better physical knowledge of them, and determine, for instance, if the observed activity is transient or permanent. To achieve our goals, we analyzed CCD-filtered images of each observable target acquired with the 2.15-m telescope ''Jorge Sahade'' at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina), during two runs of three consecutive nights each (during August 2013 and January 2014, respectively). Our study will be completed by future runs with the same instrumentation already assigned to our campaign. As preliminary results, we observed activity in the main-belt comets P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS) and 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. We also observed the main-belt comet (596) Scheila, which showed an unequivocally stellar appearance. We observed the main-belt comet candidate (3646) Aduatiques (cf. [1]), and noticed in this object a curious feature whose connection to some kind of activity is not well determined yet. We also observed the near-Earth asteroid in cometary orbit 2006 XL_5 (cf. [3]), and the centaurs (281371) 2008 FC_{76}, (332685) 2009 HH_{36}), (382004) 2010 RM_{64}, 2010 XZ_{78}, and 2011 UR_{402}. We have not detected activity in these objects, but an improved analysis is still in progress. %Corresponding author: Andrea Sosa (asosa@fisica.edu.uy)

  1. [Haemolysis and turbidity influence on three analysis methods of quantitative determination of total and conjugated bilirubin on ADVIA 1650].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert De Paepe, E; Munteanu, G; Schischmanoff, P O; Porquet, D

    2008-01-01

    Plasma bilirubin testing is crucial to prevent the occurrence of neonatal kernicterus. Haemolysis may occur during sampling and interfere with bilirubin determination. Moreover, lipidic infusions may induce plasma lipemia and also interfere with bilirubin measurement. We evaluated the interference of haemolysis and lipemia with three methods of total and direct bilirubin measurement adaptated on an Advia 1650 analyser (Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics) : Synermed (Sofibel), Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) and Bilirubin Auto FS (Diasys). The measurement of total bilirubin was little affected by haemolysis with all three methods. The Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) method was the less sensitive to haemolysis even at low bilirubin levels. The measurement of conjugated bilirubin was significantly altered by low heamoglobin concentrations for Bilirubin Auto FS(R) (30 microM or 0,192 g/100 mL haemoglobin) and for Synermed (60 microM or 0,484 g/100 mL haemoglobin). In marked contrast, we found no haemoglobin interference with the Direct Bilirubin 2 reagent which complied with the method validation criteria from the French Society for Biological Chemistry. The lipemia up to 2 g/L of Ivelip did not affect neither the measurement of total bilirubin for all three methods nor the measurement of conjugated bilirubin with the Diasys and Siemens reagents. However, we observed a strong interference starting at 0,5 g/L of Ivelip with the Synermed reagent. Our data suggest that both Siemens and Diasys methods allow to measure accurately total and conjugated bilirubin in hemolytic and lipemic samples, nevertheless, the Siemens methodology is less affected by these interferences.

  2. Effects of non-gravitational forces on orbital evolution of active Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, Klim; Kovalenko, Nataliya

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are 26 active Centaurs known among 121 discovered .In the present study we have investigated the influence of cometary activity on their orbital evolution by using orbital evolution integrators. Since there is no information on exact values of non-gravitational forces for these cometary Centaurs, because of their large heliocentric distances, we assumed their non-gravitational forces as the one for comet Halley with coefficient of 1/r^{2}, where r is perihelion distance. As a result we got the differences in perihelion passage dates for active Centaurs and differences in their perihelion distances during one period around the Sun and longer time-span.

  3. Assessing the contribution of Centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E

    2015-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that the internal luminosity of Neptune is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, the luminosity of Neptune can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether Centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce the luminosity of Neptune. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order the observed value for Neptune, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates, and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  4. Assessing the contribution of centaur impacts to ice giant luminosities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    Voyager 2 observations revealed that Neptune's internal luminosity is an order of magnitude higher than that of Uranus. If the two planets have similar interior structures and cooling histories, Neptune's luminosity can only be explained by invoking some energy source beyond gravitational contraction. This paper investigates whether centaur impacts could provide the energy necessary to produce Neptune's luminosity. The major findings are (1) that impacts on both Uranus and Neptune are too infrequent to provide luminosities of order Neptune's observed value, even for optimistic impact-rate estimates and (2) that Uranus and Neptune rarely have significantly different impact-generated luminosities at any given time. Uranus and Neptune most likely have structural differences that force them to cool and contract at different rates.

  5. Size determination of the Centaur Chariklo from millimeter-wavelength bolometer observations

    OpenAIRE

    Altenhoff, W.J.; Menten, K. M.; Bertoldi, F.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Max-Planck Millimeter Bolometer Array (MAMBO) at the IRAM 30m telescope we detected emission at 250 GHz from the Centaur Chariklo (1997 CU26). The observed continuum flux density implies a photometric diameter of 273 km. The resulting geometric albedo is 0.055, somewhat higher than expected from a comparison with most of the other few Centaurs and cometary nuclei for which such data are available.

  6. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E. Departm

  7. A long term study of Centaur 174P/Echeclus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselot, Philippe; Korsun, Pavlo; Kulyk, Irina; Petit, Jean-Marc; Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie

    2015-11-01

    Centaur 174P/Echeclus was discovered by the Spacewatch program on March 3, 2000 and initially labelled (60558) 2000 EC 98 . On December 30, 2005, a surprising cometary outburst was discovered with the 5-m Mount Palomar Observatory telescope. This outburst corresponded to a change in the overall visual magnitude from about 21 to about 14. At that time (60558) 2000 EC 98 was located at 13.07 au to the Sun and was subsequently renamed with a cometary designation. This outburst lasted a few months and, one year later, no coma could be detected. Another secondary outburst happened in 2011 and lasted also a few months. This target was at its perihelion (5.82 au) on April 22, 2015.We present new observational data obtained with the 2.5-m Nordic Optical Telescope during the 2011 outburst and in July 2013, and with the robotic 2-m Liverpool telescope on April 27, 2014, August 13, 2014 and June 1, 2015. We also found archive observational data obtained on December 22, 2005.These archive images point out the extremely high level of the 174P/Echeclus activity during the first outburst. The R-magnitude and Afrho parameter of the target were estimated to 14.8 and 56000±3000 cm respectively. During the second outburst, in 2011, the activity level of the Centaur was lower, the R-Afrho parameters were 1200±100 cm and 480±70 cm in June and July respectively. The dust production rates needed to produce the observed comae were approximately 700 kg.s-1 in 2005 and between 10 and 20 kg.s-1 in 2011 assuming the average grain geometric albedo of 0.1 and low outflow velocities of the dust, less than 10 m.s-1. A possible scenario of the dust coma formation for the first outburst will also be proposed using a Monte Carlo modeling.Before the outburst the lightcurve amplitude was 0.24 magnitude in the R-band with a rotation period of 26.80 h (if a double-peaked lightcurve is assumed). The observational data obtained after the outburst with the NOT do not permit to detect any clear variation

  8. 罗氏生化多项定标液(CFAS)在 ADVIA1800自动生化仪上的应用%Roche biochemical multiple calibration solution (CFAS)used in the ADVIA 1800 automatic biochemical discussion on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明欣

    2016-01-01

    目的:规范实验室生化项目的参考范围,统一临床检验数值,为临床医师提供更准确、更一致的检验结果,方便患者治疗效果的评价。方法同步于罗氏Cobas C501自动生化仪和ADVIA1800自动生化仪上进行多项目的评价。结果1.定标与校正验证合格;2.正常质控品和异常质控品在可控范围内;3.临床常规标本比对评价没有显著性差异。结论罗氏生化多项定标液(CFAS)在ADVIA1800自动生化仪上的应用效果满意,能为医师提供准确、统一的检验结果,方便医师治疗病人及疗效观察。%Objective to standardize laboratory biochemical reference scope of the project ,unified clinical inspection number , provide clinicians with more accurate and more consistent test results ,convenient patient treatment effect evaluation .Methods the synchronous in roche Cobas C501 automatic biochemistry analyzer and multiple objective evaluation ADVIA 1800 automatic bio‐chemistry analyzer .Results 1 ,the calibration and correction verification qualified ,2 ,normal quality products and quality control within the scope of the controllable ,3 ,there is no significant difference between clinical specimens of normal ratio evaluation .Con‐clusion roche biochemical multiple scaling liquid(CFAS)in the application effect of satisfaction on ADVIA 1800 automatic biochem‐istry analyzer ,for physicians to provide accurate ,unified inspection result ,convenient for doctors treat patients and curative effect observation .

  9. When Lulu met the Centaur: Photographic traces of creaturely love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Pettman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief triangular love between Nietzche, Salomé, and Rée – as crystallised in the famous photograph of kitsch (literal horse-play, where the woman is depicted as treating the two men as beasts of burden – allows us to consider the role of ‘creaturely love’ in our more general understanding of the lover’s discourse. That is to say, through such images we can explore the role and figure of the animal within ‘the anthropological machine’, itself designed to produce a sense of the human from the inhuman (especially through mediated forms of intimacy. Further, in the different intermedial relationships between photography, poetry, and philosophy, the Centaur – in the letters and texts circulated by this group (later including Rilke – provides a charged specific totem for a libidinal ecology of souls, striving to understand themselves as simultaneously creaturely and spiritual. Such a figure allowed both a recognition and a disavowal of the nonhuman basis (and telos of human affections.

  10. A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo

    CERN Document Server

    Braga-Ribas, F; Ortiz, J L; Snodgrass, C; Roques, F; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Assafin, M; Duffard, R; Jehin, E; Pollock, J; Leiva, R; Emilio, M; Machado, D I; Colazo, C; Lellouch, E; Skottfelt, J; Gillon, M; Ligier, N; Maquet, L; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Gomes, A Ramos; Kervella, P; Monteiro, H; Sfair, R; Moutamid, M El; Tancredi, G; Spagnotto, J; Maury, A; Morales, N; Gil-Hutton, R; Roland, S; Ceretta, A; Gu, S -h; Wang, X -b; Harpsøe, K; Rabus, M; Manfroid, J; Opitom, C; Vanzi, L; Mehret, L; Lorenzini, L; Schneiter, E M; Melia, R; Lecacheux, J; Colas, F; Vachier, F; Widemann, T; Almenares, L; Sandness, R G; Char, F; Perez, V; Lemos, P; Martinez, N; Jørgensen, U G; Dominik, M; Roig, F; Reichart, D E; LaCluyze, A P; Haislip, J B; Ivarsen, K M; Moore, J P; Frank, N R; Lambas, D G

    2014-01-01

    Until now, rings have been detected in the Solar System exclusively around the four giant planets. Here we report the discovery of the first minor-body ring system around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo, a body with equivalent radius 124$\\pm$9 km. A multi-chord stellar occultation revealed the presence of two dense rings around Chariklo, with widths of about 7 km and 3 km, optical depths 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii 391 and 405 km, respectively. The present orientation of the ring is consistent with an edge-on geometry in 2008, thus providing a simple explanation for the dimming of Chariklo's system between 1997 and 2008, and for the gradual disappearance of ice and other absorption features in its spectrum over the same period. This implies that the rings are partially composed of water ice. These rings may be the remnants of a debris disk, which were possibly confined by embedded kilometre-sized satellites.

  11. Reflections on Centaur Upper Stage Integration by the NASA Lewis (Glenn) Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Glenn (then Lewis) Research Center (GRC) led several expendable launch vehicle (ELV) projects from 1963 to 1998, most notably the Centaur upper stage. These major, comprehensive projects included system management, system development, integration (both payload and stage), and launch operations. The integration role that GRC pioneered was truly unique and highly successful. Its philosophy, scope, and content were not just invaluable to the missions and vehicles it supported, but also had significant Agencywide benefits. An overview of the NASA Lewis Research Center (now the NASA Glenn Research Center) philosophy on ELV integration is provided, focusing on Atlas/Centaur, Titan/Centaur, and Shuttle/Centaur vehicles and programs. The necessity of having a stable, highly technically competent in-house staff is discussed. Significant depth of technical penetration of contractor work is another critical component. Functioning as a cohesive team was more than a concept: GRC senior management, NASA Headquarters, contractors, payload users, and all staff worked together. The scope, content, and history of launch vehicle integration at GRC are broadly discussed. Payload integration is compared to stage development integration in terms of engineering and organization. Finally, the transition from buying launch vehicles to buying launch services is discussed, and thoughts on future possibilities of employing the successful GRC experience in integrating ELV systems like Centaur are explored.

  12. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmet, Brian R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  13. A Portrait of the Centaur 2060 Chiron: new results from groundbased and Herschel observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Müller, T.; Panuzzo, P.; Kiss, C.; Lim, T.; Mommert, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Vilenius, E.; Tozzi, G. P.; Mottola, S.; Duffard, R.; Barucci, M. A.

    2013-09-01

    The Herschel Open Time Key Program entitled "TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region" has been awarded 373 hours to investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs [1]. In this work we present the results of the combined SPIRE and PACS instruments observations over 6 bands of the Centaur 2060 Chiron, together with groundbased observations used to constrain its absolute magnitude, to investigate possible cometary activity and its surface composition. The estimated nuclear HV magnitude during the Herschel observations is 5.81±0.08, indicating a high flux from the Centaur comparable to that of its activity peak during 1989. Using this HV value, our Chiron's best size estimation, from NEATM and TPM modelling, is 218±20 km, with an albedo of 16±3 %, a value higher than previous Chiron's albedo estimation. Chiron shows the strongest decrease in the emissivity versus wavelength in the TNOs and Centaurs sample investigated with the PACS and SPIRE instruments. The results on the cometary activity analysis both in the visual and far infrared images will also be presented.

  14. TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region: A Herschel-PACSview of 16 Centaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R; Santos-Sanz, P; Vilenius, E; Ortiz, J L; Mueller, Th; Fornasier, S; Lellouch, E; Mommert, M; Pal, A; Kiss, C; Mueller, M; Stansberry, J; Delsanti, A; Peixinho, N; Trilling, D

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of 16 Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. We study the correlations for a more extended sample, obtained from the literature, of diameter, albedo, orbital parameters and spectral slopes. We have done three-band photometric observations using Herschel/PACS and we use a consistent method for data reduction and aperture photometry of this sample to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100 and 160 $\\mu$m. Additionally, we use Spitzer/MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 $\\mu$m when available. We also include the Centaurs sample observed only with Spitzer/MIPS and Scattered Disk Objects, a dynamical family of TNOs, presented in a previous work of the team. We have determined new radiometric sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs. The first conclusion is that the albedo of the Centaurs is not determined by their orbit. Similarly we do not find any correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. We also find that most of the objects in our ...

  15. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Observations of 50 TNOs and Centaurs (Desmars+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmars, J.; Camargo, J. I. B.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Assafin, M.; Vachier, F.; Colas, F.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Sicardy, B.; Gomes-Junior, A. R.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.

    2015-10-01

    The table provides 2895 ground-based observations of 50 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs performed between 2007 and 2014. The table contains the name of the observed TNO, the date of the observation, the topocentric ICRS coordinates of the object and the IAU observatory code. (1 data file).

  16. Thermal properties of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Mueller, Th.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Delsanti, A.; Groussin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory [8] (either PACS or PACS and SPIRE) and Spitzer Space Telescope [12] (MIPS). We apply radiometric modeling techniques (NEATM [2]) to the measured fluxes to de

  17. Thermal Properties Of Trans-neptunian Objects And Centaurs From Combined Herschel And Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Santos-Sanz, P.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Müller, T.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Lacerda, P.; Harris, A.; TNOs are Cool Team, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory (either PACS or PACS/SPIRE) and Spitzer (MIPS). The combined wavelength range is 24-160 μm and additionally up to 500 μm for a few targets. We apply radiometr

  18. A new turbidometric digoxin immunoassay on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer is free from interference by spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pradip; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-08-01

    Spironolactone and potassium canrenoate (aldosterone antagonist diuretics) are often used with digoxin in clinical practice. It has been well documented in the literature that spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone cross-react with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for digoxin and falsely elevate measured serum digoxin concentrations. Recently a new turbidometric assay for digoxin became commercially available from Bayer Diagnostic for application on the ADVIA 1650 Chemistry analyzer. We studied the potential interference of these compounds in this new digoxin assay. Aliquots of drug-free serum were supplemented with therapeutic and above-therapeutic concentrations of spironolactone, canrenone, and potassium canrenoate, and apparent digoxin concentrations were measured. We observed apparent digoxin concentrations with the FPIA digoxin assay as expected but observed no apparent digoxin levels with the new turbidometric immunoassay. When serum pools prepared from patients receiving digoxin were supplemented with these compounds in concentrations expected in serum in patients receiving these medications, we observed falsely elevated digoxin levels with the FPIA digoxin assay, but no statistically significant change was observed with the new turbidometric assay. We conclude that the new turbidometric assay for digoxin is free from interference by spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.

  19. CCD photometry of active Centaur 166P/2001 T4 (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. C.; Ma, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    To study the secular evolution of the activity of Centaur 166P/2001 T4 (Near Earth Asteroid Tracking, NEAT) and its physical properties, we present the results of optical observations of the Centaur taken on 2009 March 29 with the Keck 10-m telescope located atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It was still active at rh = 11.9 au post-perihelion. An upper limit of the nucleus radius of aN < 14.32 km is derived. The colour index is B - R = 1.59 ± 0.05. The Afρ value is measured to be 288 ± 19 cm and the corresponding dust production rate is 252 kg s-1. Finally, a possible mechanism of activity is discussed.

  20. Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Christine A.; Schuetze, Nich A.; Knochel, Aviana M.; Magruder, Darby F.

    2011-01-01

    The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on the Centaur 2 Rover. Energy generated by the solar panels will go to power the Centaur 2 Robot (C2) or Regolith & Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, an in-situ resource utilization project. Such payload is designed to drill into lunar and Martian terrain as well as be able to conduct other geological testing; RESOLVE is slated for testing in 2012. Ultimately, this project will fit into NASA s larger goal of deep space exploration as well as long term presence outside Earth s orbit.

  1. Orbit determination of Transneptunian objects and Centaurs for the prediction of stellar occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Desmars, J; Braga-Ribas, F; Vieira-Martins, R; Assafin, M; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Sicardy, B; Gomes-Júnior, A R; Benedetti-Rossi, G

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of stellar occultations by Transneptunian objects and Centaurs is a difficult challenge that requires accuracy both in the occulted star position as for the object ephemeris. Until now, the most used method of prediction involving tens of TNOs/Centaurs was to consider a constant offset for the right ascension and for the declination with respect to a reference ephemeris. This offset is determined as the difference between the most recent observations of the TNO and the reference ephemeris. This method can be successfully applied when the offset remains constant with time. This paper presents an alternative method of prediction based on a new accurate orbit determination procedure, which uses all the available positions of the TNO from the Minor Planet Center database plus sets of new astrometric positions from unpublished observations. The orbit determination is performed through a numerical integration procedure (NIMA), in which we develop a specific weighting scheme. The NIMA method was appli...

  2. Carbonization in Titan Tholins: implication for low albedo on surfaces of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chaitanya; McKay, Christopher P.; Goesmann, Fred; Schäfer, Nadine; Li, Xiang; Steininger, Harald; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Gautier, Thomas; Reitner, Joachim; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical observations of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) yield two characteristic features - near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and low geometric albedo. The first feature apparently originates due to complex organic material on their surfaces, but the origin of the material contributing to low albedo is not well understood. Titan tholins synthesized to simulate aerosols in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan have also been used for simulating the NIR reflectances of several Centaurs and TNOs. Here, we report novel detections of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nanoscopic soot aggregates and cauliflower-like graphite within Titan tholins. We put forth a proof of concept stating the surfaces of Centaurs and TNOs may perhaps comprise of highly `carbonized' complex organic material, analogous to the tholins we investigated. Such material would apparently be capable of contributing to the NIR reflectances and to the low geometric albedos simultaneously.

  3. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H W; Lacerda, P; Ip, W H; Holman, M; Protopapas, P; Chen, W P; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Huber, M E; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Price, P A

    2014-01-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus $< 4$ km radius, with colors $g_{P1}-r_{P1} = 0.5 \\pm 0.02$, $r_{P1}-i_{P1} = 0.12 \\pm 0.02$ and $i_{P1}-z_{P1} = 0.46 \\pm 0.03$. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of $\\sim100$ kg s$^{-1}$. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from $\\sim 40$ kg s$^{-1}$ to 150 kg s$^{-1}$. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgass...

  4. Extra-red transneptunian objects and Centaurs: Composition and chemical history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Barucci, M. A.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Emery, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present the results of a systematic analysis of the surface composition of ten of the reddest transneptunian objects (TNOs). The goal of the analysis is to determine the current chemical compositions of these extra-red objects and investigate possible paths of chemical evolution since formation. The sample consists of six objects from the classical and resonant populations, one detached object, and three Centaurs. The classical and resonant objects are expected to be similar to each other in composition, while the surfaces of the three Centaurs could have been significantly modified as their orbits evolved. Furthermore, Brown et al. (Brown, M.E., Schaller, E.L., & Fraser, W.C., 2011. A Hypothesis for the Color Diversity of the Kuiper Belt. ApJL, 739, L60) propose that objects with red color are rich in methanol. The available data consist of broad-band photometric measurements in the wavelength range between 0.3 and 4.5 μ m. The photometric measurements are scaled to the albedo at 0.55 μ m to yield an approximation of the spectral shape of each object that is then compared to a library of synthetic spectra of mixtures of materials known to be present on the surfaces of TNOs. Errors as well as phase-angle differences are taken into account as part of the fitting uncertainty. For each object, we obtain a range of compositions that match their spectral distribution within the estimated errors. This yields the likelihood for the various materials to be present on the surface as well as a rough measure of the uncertainty of the estimate. All objects show presence of methanol and/or methane on their surface, supporting the Brown et al. (2011) hypothesis. To further analyze our results, ices are grouped into 'stable' (H_2O), 'partially stable' (CH_3OH, CO_2), and 'volatile' (CH_4, CO, N_2). Our results show some difference in the amount of 'volatile' and 'partially stable' ices among the classical and resonant objects. A trend in the sense of less ice present on

  5. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. XI. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffard, R.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.; Trilling, D.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Centaurs are the transitional population between trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Jupiter-family comets. Their physical properties provide an insight into TNO properties, but only under restricted conditions since Centaurs are closer to the Sun and Earth. For this reason it is possible to access the smaller ones, which is more difficult to do with the TNO population. Aims: The goal of this work is to characterize a set of 16 Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. We study the correlations, for a more extended sample obtained from the literature, of diameter, albedo, orbital parameters, and spectral slopes. Methods: We performed three-band photometric observations using Herschel-PACS and used a consistent method for the data reduction and aperture photometry of this sample to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100, and 160 μm. Additionally, we used Spitzer-MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 μm when available. We also included in our Centaur sample scattered disk objects, a dynamical family of TNOs, using results previously published by our team, and some Centaurs observed only with the Spitzer-MIPS instrument. Results: We have determined new radiometric sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs. The first conclusion is that the albedos of Centaur objects are not correlated with their orbital parameters. Similarly, there is no correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. Most of the objects in our sample are dark (pv< 7%) and most of them are small (D< 120 km). However, there is no correlation between albedo and diameter, in particular for the group of small objects as albedo values are homogeneously distributed between 4 to 16%. The correlation with the color of the objects showed that red objects are all small (mean diameter 65 km), while the gray ones span a wide range of sizes (mean diameter 120 km). Moreover, the gray objects tend to be darker, with a mean albedo of 5.6%, compared with a mean of 8.5% (ranging from 5 to

  6. Carbon monoxide in the distantly active centaur 174P/Echeclus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Kacper; Womack, Maria

    2016-10-01

    60558 Echeclus is very unusual. It has a dual asteroid-comet designation, and is classified as a centaur. A dust-rich outburst was observed when it was at a heliocentric distance, r, of 13.1 AU pre-perihelion (Choi & Weissman 2006). Interestingly, the coma's center of brightness was not at the nucleus location, but was offset by up to 7 arcseconds (Weissman et al. 2006, Tegler et al. 2006). This was hypothesized to be a due to a fragment that split off the nucleus and began outgassing on its own (Fernandez 2009). A smaller coma was observed when Echeclus was at r = 8.5 AU, but overall, the object appears dormant with little or no extended coma observed at optical wavelengths for years at a time (Choi et al. 2015, Rousselot et al. 2015). Echeclus is too far from the Sun for any of the activity to be caused by water-ice sublimation, the dominant cause for most comets. Instead, the coma must have been generated by another mechanism, such as impact or supervolatile outgassing. If a substantial amount of the supervolatile CO were relatively near the surface and outgassing, then its emission could be detected, or significant limits could be set, through radio observations when Echeclus was near perihelion, which occurred at 2015 Apr at r = 5.8 AU. In order to better explore the volatile nature of this centaur, we searched for CO emission from the J=2-1 rotational line at 230 GHz with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 10-m Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT) during May and June 2016 when the comet was at r = 6.1 AU, post-perihelion. We find that the CO production rate from Echeclus is substantially lower than what is typically observed for 29P/Schwassmann Wachmann 1, another distantly active comet often classified as a centaur. We report on the measurements and implications.The SMT is operated by the ARO, the Steward Observatory, and the University of Arizona, with support through the NSF University Radio Observatories program (AST-1140030).

  7. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lacerda, P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Holman, M.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: edlin@gm.astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  8. The CENTAUR network contribution to the gene-based technology: Dissemination of information, international collaboration and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CENTAUR Network (FAO Established Veterinary Biotechnology/Epidemiology Network for Central and Eastern Europe) is designed for cooperation and information of workers in state and regional veterinary directorates, veterinary practitioners, teachers from veterinary schools, advanced students, politicians specialized in agriculture, economy, science management, workers from diagnostic and research laboratories, breeders and other interested parties. It contributes to the use of the Internet, to the improvement of communication in English, to deepening of co-operation between workers with similar interests and to the better link with international organizations and internationally recognized centres of excellence. Formally, 23 countries officially belong to the CENTAUR network. However, in reality nearly one thousand CENTAUR network members are from the all continents. The membership is free and everybody can profit from all information offered. The CENTAUR is creating a protective belt for Central and Eastern European Countries especially those with the 'economies in transition' regarding the devastating Transboundary Animal Diseases such as bluetongue, foot and mouth disease and other vesicular diseases, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, sheep and goat pox, classical swine fever, African swine fever, BSE/TSE, as well as other priority diseases and supports the prevention of a possible risk of biological terrorism. CENTAUR is based on the voluntary cooperation of countries concerned. The main task is to achieve compatibility of the disease control standards namely for better disease and contamination diagnosis and vaccine production, the modern computerized veterinary epidemiology and food safety and consumer protection with the OIE and EU international requirements. It is contributing to the accession of 8 Eastern European countries to the EU in 2004 and some other countries at a later stage. CENTAUR maintains in

  9. First ultraviolet reflectance measurements of several Kuiper Belt objects, Kuiper Belt object satellites, and new ultraviolet measurements of A Centaur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, S. A.; Schindhelm, E. [Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Cunningham, N. J., E-mail: astern@swri.edu [Nebraska Wesleyan University, 5000 Saint Paul Avenue, Lincoln, NE 68504 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We observed the 2600-3200 Å (hereafter, mid-UV) reflectance of two Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), two KBO satellites, and a Centaur, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Other than measurements of the Pluto system, these constitute the first UV measurements obtained of KBOs, and KBO satellites, and new HST UV measurements of the Centaur 2060 Chiron. We find significant differences among these objects, constrain the sizes and densities of Haumea's satellites, and report the detection of a possible spectral absorption band in Haumea's spectrum near 3050 Å. Comparisons of these objects to previously published UV reflectance measurements of Pluto and Charon are also made here.

  10. Dense and narrow rings discovered around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicardy, B.; Braga-Ribas, F.; Benedetti-Rossi, G.; Ligier, N.; Maquet, L.; Roques, F.; Leiva Espinoza, R.; El Moutamid, M.; Duffard, R.; Morales, N.; Ortiz, J. L.; Snodgrass, C.; Skottfelt, J.; Harpsøe, K.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Jehin, E.; Pollock, J.; Assafin, M.; Camargo, J.; Desmars, J.; Vieira-Martins, R.; Dumas, C.; Ivanov, V.; Maury, A.; Korhonen, H.; Leitzinger, M.

    2014-07-01

    A stellar occultation observed on June 3, 2013 revealed the unexpected presence of two dense rings around (10199) Chariklo [1], the largest Centaur object known to date with a radius of 124±9 km [2]. The two rings have respective orbital radii, widths, and normal optical depths of a_1= 391 km, W_1= 7 km, τ_1= 0.4 and a_2= 405 km, W_2= 3 km, τ_2= 0.06 [1]. They are separated by a gap of about 9 km with an optical depth less than 0.004 (1-sigma limit). The presence of those rings has been confirmed during another stellar occultation observed from ESO/NTT La Silla, ESO/VLT Paranal and San Pedro de Atacama on February 16, 2014. More results on the azimuthal variations of the rings and mass estimations of their putative shepherding satellites will be presented. This is the first ring system ever observed that does not pertain to a giant planet. The existence of such a system raises several questions as to the origin and evolution of rings around such a small object. This discovery also suggests that rings may be a more frequent feature than previously thought, in particular, around small bodies. Possible models for the ring formation will be proposed. They can be classified into collisional scenarios that disrupted an impactor or a pre-existing satellite, tidal disruption of an inward-migrating satellite, or material produced by a cometary activity of the central body.

  11. Physical properties of the extreme centaur and super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, A; Horner, J; Szakáts, R; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th G; Acosta-Pulido, J; Licandro, J; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Sárneczky, K; Szabó, Gy M; Thirouin, A; Sipőcz, B; Dózsa, Á; Duffard, R

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates of the basic physical properties -- including size and albedo -- of the extreme Centaur 2013 AZ60. These properties have been derived from optical and thermal infrared measurements. Our optical measurements revealed a likely full period of ~9.4 h with a shallow amplitude of 4.5%. By combining optical brightness information and thermal emission data, we are able to derive a diameter of 62.3 +/- 5.3 km and a geometric albedo of 2.9% -- corresponding to an extremely dark surface. Additionally, our finding of ~> 50 Jm^{-2}K^{-1}s^{-1/2} for the thermal inertia is also noticeably for objects in such a distance. The results of dynamical simulations yield an unstable orbit, with a 50% probability that the target will be ejected from the Solar System within 700,000 years. The current orbit of this object as well as its instability could imply a pristine cometary surface. This possibility is in agreement with the observed low geometric albedo and red photometric colour indices for the object, whic...

  12. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  13. Formation of diverse ring-satellite systems around Centaurs through tidal disruption at close encounters with giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Centaurs are minor planets orbiting between Jupiter and Neptune that have or had crossing orbits with one or more giant planets. Recent observations and reinterpretation of previous observations have revealed the existence of ring systems around 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron. However, the origin of the ring systems around such a minor planet is still an open question. Here, we propose that the tidal disruption of a differentiated object that experiences a close encounter with a giant planet could naturally form diverse ring-satellite systems around the Centaurs. During the close encounter, the icy mantle of the passing object is preferentially ripped off by the planet's tidal force and the debris is distributed mostly within the Roche limit of the largest remnant body. Assuming the existence of $20-50$wt% silicate core below the icy mantle, a disk of particles is formed when the objects pass within $0.4-0.8$ of the planet's Roche limit with the relative velocity at infinity $3-6$km s$^{-1}$ and 8h initial sp...

  14. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Müller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods: Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for th

  15. "TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs/trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the

  16. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, M; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2009-04-01

    Modern laser-based haematology analysers such as the ADVIA 120 have species-specific software and offer the possibility of assessing new haematological parameters. These parameters have yet to be evaluated, and as these analysers are often used in referral laboratories, it is important to know whether the values of haematological parameters change during sample transport. Therefore, samples of EDTA-anticoagulated blood from nine healthy dogs and EDTA- and citrate-anticoagulated blood from six healthy horses were collected and stored at room temperature for 72 and 48 hours, respectively. In canine samples, WBC and the red blood cell parameters Hb, Hb(cell), Ht, MCV, and MCHC changed significantly after only 24 hours of storage. Thus if canine blood samples need to be stored for 24 hours or longer, Hb, RBC, and MCH would appear to be more reliable parameters than Ht, Hb(cell), MCV, and MCHC. The cytoplasmic haemoglobin content (CH(R)) remained stable up to 48 hours. Both dog and horse platelet numbers were stable over time when blood was anticoagulated with EDTA. Of the platelet-derived parameters, MPC was already significantly lower 2 hours after collection of equine blood samples and was also significantly lower 24 hours after collection of canine blood samples. In contrast, MPV levels were significantly higher 48 hours after sample collection. Initial platelet numbers and platelet parameters were significantly different in citrate-anticoagulated blood and EDTA-anticoagulated blood, and platelet numbers and MPM decreased significantly in citrate-anticoagulated blood samples after only 4 hours of storage. After reference intervals for CH(R) had been established using samples from 53 non-anaemic dogs and 150 non-anaemic cats, the use of CH(R) to detect iron deficiency anaemia was tested in 63 dogs and 55 cats with different diseases. With the help of ROC curves, the optimal cut-off point was determined to be 1.22 fmol in dogs and 0.88 fmol in cats, resulting in a

  17. HIV Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov More information ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  18. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  19. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Holman, Matthew J; Payne, Matthew J; Fraser, Wesley C; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J; Tonry, John L; Magnier, Eugene A; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV$_{42}$ (Drac), with a half-life of $\\sim 500$ Myr. Comparing similar high inclination TNOs and Centaurs ($q > 10$ AU, $a 60^\\circ$), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-$\\sigma$. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigate a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  20. The Dynamics of Centaurs in the Vicinity of the 2:1 Mean Motion Resonance of Neptune and Uranus Trojan Region

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the results of a suite of dynamical simulations following the orbital evolution of 8,022 hypothetical Centaur objects. These Centaurs begin our integrations on orbits in the vicinity of the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune, and we follow their dynamical evolution for a period of 3 Myr under the gravitational influence of a motionless Sun and the four Jovian planets. The great majority of the test particles studied rapidly escaped from the vicinity of the 2:1 mean motion resonance of Neptune and diffused throughout the Solar System. The average libration time of Centaurs in the vicinity of 2:1 mean motion resonance of Neptune was found to be just 27 kyr. Although two particles did remain near the resonance for more than 1 Myr. Upon leaving the vicinity of the 2:1 resonance, the majority of test particles evolved by a process of random walk in semi-major axis, due to repeated close encounters with the giant planets.

  1. Reanalyzing the visible colors of Centaurs and KBOs: what is there and what we might be missing

    CERN Document Server

    Peixinho, Nuno; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Visible colors (BVRI) are a reasonable proxy for real spectra of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, which are rather linear in this range. Colors provide limited information but remain the best tool to study the bulk surface properties. We explore recurrent effects in the study of visible colors: i) how a correlation could be missed or weakened as a result of the data error bars, ii) the "risk" of missing an existing trend because of low sampling, and the possibility of making quantified predictions on the sample size needed to detect a trend at a given significance level, iii) the use of partial correlations to distinguish the mutual effect of two or more parameters, and iv) the sensitivity of the "reddening line" tool to the central wavelength of the filters used. We have compiled the visible colors of about 370 objects available in the literature and carried out an analysis per dynamical family. Our results show how a) data error bars impose a limit on the detectable correlations regardless of sample size a...

  2. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    CERN Document Server

    Galiazzo, Mattia; Marcos, Raul de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni; Maris, Michele; Montalto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs -2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)- and three TNOs -38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)- and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ~1%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discusse...

  3. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  4. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PrEP PEP Living With HIV Opportunistic Infections Travel Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV ... kill or neutralize viruses and bacteria. Researchers are studying both vaginal and rectal microbicides to see if ...

  5. The Diverse Solar Phase Curves of Distant Icy Bodies. Part I: Photometric Observations of 18 Trans-Neptunian Objects, 7 Centaurs, and Nereid

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinowitz1, D L; Tourtellotte3, S W; Rabinowitz1, David L.; Schaefer2, Bradley E.; Tourtellotte3, Suzanne W.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the solar phase curves in B, V, and I for 18 Trans-Neptunian Objects, 7 Centaurs, and Nereid and determined the rotation curves for 10 of these targets. For each body, we have made ~100 observations uniformly spread over the entire visible range. We find that all the targets except Nereid have linear phase curves at small phase angles ( 3 deg, the Centaurs (54598) Bienor and (32532) Thereus have phase curves that flatten. The recently discovered Pluto-scale bodies (2003 UB313, 2005 FY9, and 2003 EL61), like Pluto, have neutral colors compared to most TNOs and small phase coefficients (< 0.1 mag/deg). Together these two properties are a likely indication for large TNOs of high-albedo, freshly coated icy surfaces. We find several bodies with significantly wavelength-dependent phase curves. The TNOs (50000) Quaoar, (120348) 2004 TY364 (47932), and 2000 GN171 have unusually high I-band phase coefficients (0.290+/-0.038, 0.413+/-0.064, 0.281+/-0.033 mag/deg, respectively) and much lower coeffic...

  6. Discovery of a New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of a Common Orbital Plane for Low Semimajor Axis, High-inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew J.; Fraser, Wesley C.; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Tonry, John L.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high-inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname “Niku,” detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ˜500 Myr. Comparing similar high-inclination TNOs and Centaurs (q > 10 au, a 60°), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-σ. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  7. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  8. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > Get tested for HIV HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Get tested for HIV When should I get tested for HIV? Types ... to top More information on Get tested for HIV Explore other publications and websites HIV Anonymous Testing, ...

  10. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew John; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Pan-STARRS 1 Builders

    2016-10-01

    The origin of high inclination objects beyond Jupiter, including trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs, remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. The numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to those of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ~ 500 Myr and analogous orbital evolution. Comparing similar high inclination members announced by the Minor-Planet Center (q > 10 AU, a 60), we find these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, populating a common orbital plane. The statistical significance of 3.8-sigma suggests it is unlikely to be coincidental. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  11. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  12. HIV and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  13. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking ... exactly as prescribed. Why is adherence to an HIV regimen important? Adherence to an HIV regimen gives ...

  14. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  15. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  16. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: HIV Screening Tests; AIDS Test; AIDS Screen; HIV Serology; ...

  17. [HIV lipodystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snopková, S; Matýsková, M; Povolná, K; Polák, P; Husa, P

    2010-12-01

    Combined antiretroviral therapy results in extraordinary decrease of morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected patients and in an essential change of the HIV/AIDS disease prognosis. However, long-term intake of antiretroviral medicaments is related to occurrence of metabolic and morphological abnormalities, of which some have been combined into a new syndrome--the so called HIV lipodystrophy. The HIV lipodystrophy syndrome covers metabolic and morphological changes. Metabolic changes include dyslipidaemia with hypercholesterolaemia and/or hypertriglyceridaemia, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinaemia and hyperlaktataemia. Morphological changes have the nature of lipoatrophia (loss of subcutaneous fat--on the cheeks, on extremities, on buttocks and marked prominence of surface veins) or lipohypertrophia (growth of fat tissue--on the chest, in the dorsocervical area, lipomatosis of visceral tissues and organs, fat accumulation in the abdominal area). Several HIV lipodystrophy features are very similar to the metabolic syndrome of the general population. That is why this new syndrome represents a prospective risk of premature atherosclerosis and increase of the cardiovascular risk in young HIV positive individuals. The article mentions major presented studies dealing with the relation of antiretroviral treatment and the cardiovascular risk. The conclusions of the studies are not unequivocal--this is, among others, given by the reason that their length is short from the viewpoint of atherogenesis. The major risk of subclinical atherosclerosis acceleration seems to be related to the deep immunodeficiency and low number of CD4+ lymphocytes and florid, uncontrolled HIV infection with a high number of HIV-1 RNA copies actually circulating in the plasma. The question, whether metabolic and morphological changes related to HIV and cART carry a similar atherogenic potential as in the general population, remains open for future. PMID:21261108

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/faq/faq1.htm ). ...

  19. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Language: English Español (Spanish) Format: Select ...

  20. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/22/2015; last reviewed 9/22/2015) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/ ... STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/faq/faq1.htm ). Atlanta, ...

  2. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  3. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Basic Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... HIV. Interested in learning more about CDC's HIV statistics? Terms, Definitions, and Calculations Used in CDC HIV ...

  4. How HIV Causes AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  5. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Vaccines are products that ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  6. Preventing HIV with Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Preventing HIV with medicine Get medicine right after you ... during sex. Return to top More information on Preventing HIV with medicine Explore other publications and websites ...

  7. HIV-AIDS Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 ... cancers. Why is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in ...

  8. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, E; Orrell, C.; K Stoloff; Joska, J.

    2012-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with HIV, as preceding conditions or consequent to HIV infection. This potentially compromises HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral (ARV) treatment adherence. We provide a brief guide to the diagnosis and treatment of common mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS, including: prescribing psychotropics in HIV; neuropsychiatric side-effects of ARVs and other medications commonly prescribed in HIV; and the diagnosis and treatment of depression, anxie...

  9. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiazzo, M.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.; Carraro, G.; Maris, M.; Montalto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs—2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)—and three TNOs—38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)—and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ˜1~%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discussed. A periodogram analysis of the light-curves of these objects gives the following rotational periods: 5.5±0.4~h for Chiron, 7.0± 0.6~h for Chariklo, 4.45±0.07~h for Huya, 12.4±0.3~h for Ixion, and 11.9±0.5~h for Orcus. The colour indices of Chiron are found to be B-V=0.53±0.05, V-R=0.37±0.08, and R-I=0.36±0.15. The values computed for Chariklo are V-R=0.62±0.07 and R-I=0.61±0.07. For Huya, we find V-R=0.58±0.09 and R-I=0.64±0.20. Our rotation periods are similar to and our colour values are consistent with those already published for these objects. We find very low levels of cometary activity (if any) and no sign of close or wide binary companions for these minor bodies.

  10. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  11. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  12. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lactic Acidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV medicines. All HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class may cause lactic acidosis, but ... some HIV medicines. HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class can cause the body to ...

  13. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug abuse ... access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, ...

  16. Psychotropic prescribing in HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Reid

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders frequently co-occur with HIV, as preceding conditions or consequent to HIV infection. This potentially compromises HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral (ARV treatment adherence. We provide a brief guide to the diagnosis and treatment of common mental disorders in people living with HIV/AIDS, including: prescribing psychotropics in HIV; neuropsychiatric side-effects of ARVs and other medications commonly prescribed in HIV; and the diagnosis and treatment of depression, anxiety, psychosis, agitation, sleep disturbance, pain, and mania. Psychotropic treatments recommended were drawn primarily from those available in the public sector of South Africa.

  17. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers Prevention Resources Newsletter Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  18. Pregnancy and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 17, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 611 Pregnancy and HIV HOW DO BABIES GET AIDS? HOW CAN WE ... doses due to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy, giving HIV a chance to develop resistance The risk of ...

  19. Smoking and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 28, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 803 Smoking and HIV WHY IS SMOKING MORE DANGEROUS FOR ... It can also worsen liver problems like hepatitis. Smoking and Side Effects People with HIV who smoke ...

  20. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  1. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  2. Hepatitis A and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  3. HIV Treatment Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  4. Stages of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  5. Hepatitis C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  6. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. HIV Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 14, 2016 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 126 HIV Resistance Testing WHAT IS RESISTANCE? HOW DOES RESISTANCE ... ARVs. If you miss doses of your medications, HIV will multiply more easily. More mutations will occur. ...

  8. Exercise and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV WHY IS EXERCISE IMPORTANT? WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? WHAT ARE THE RISKS OF EXERCISE? ... healthier while ageing with HIV. WHAT ARE THE ADVANTAGES OF EXERCISE? Regular, moderate exercise has many of ...

  9. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are at greater risk for getting HIV during sex with infected partners. If a woman with HIV is pregnant, her newborn baby can catch the virus from her before birth, during the birthing process, or from breastfeeding. When doctors know a mom-to-be has HIV, they can do things ...

  10. Primaer HIV-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    , oesophageal candidiasis, meningoencephalitis, rhabdomyolysis and epiglottitis have been reported. The diagnosis of the acute HIV infection syndrome can be established by demonstrating antibodies to HIV or by demonstration of HIV antigen positivity. Detection of virus through culture or PCR may prove...

  11. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT results. WB testing, however, causes delays in diagnosis and adds expense. The iPrEx study evaluated the safety and efficacy of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men: HIV infection was assessed with two RTs plus WB confirmation, followed by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing. During the iPrEx study, there were 51,260 HIV status evaluations among 2,499 volunteers using RTs: 142 (0.28%) had concordant positive results (100% were eventually confirmed) and 19 (0.04%) had discordant results among 14 participants; 11 were eventually determined to be HIV infected. A streamlined approach using only one RT to screen and a second RT to confirm (without WB) would have had nearly the same accuracy. Discrepant RT results are best evaluated with nucleic acid testing, which would also increase sensitivity. PMID:25378570

  12. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  13. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  15. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS ... but no cure, at the present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse and HIV both affect the brain. Research has shown that HIV causes greater injury to cells ... do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter ... research findings and news updates. Read on to Learn the Link between drug abuse and HIV and ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... chances of unsafe behavior by altering judgment and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  2. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmy, A; van Delden, C; Giostra, E; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, C; Elkrief, L; Vionnet, J; Berney, T

    2016-08-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidrug-resistant viruses. Five months after transplantation, HIV viremia remains undetectable. This observation supports the inclusion of appropriate HIV-positive donors for transplants specifically allocated to HIV-positive recipients. PMID:27109874

  3. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  4. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity......Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... and hence adjuvants are included to enhance and direct the immune response. Although the vaccine has been tested in ART naïve individuals, we recommend future testing of the vaccine during (early started) ART that improves immune function and to select individuals likely to benefit. Peptides representing...

  5. HIV and Fertility Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sebnem Kalemli-Ozcan; Belgi Turan

    2010-01-01

    Young (2005) argues that HIV related population declines reinforced by the fertility response to the epidemic will lead to higher capital-labor ratios and to higher per capita incomes in the affected countries of Africa. Using household level data on fertility from South Africa and relying on between cohort variation in country level HIV infection, he estimates a large negative effect of HIV prevalence on fertility. However, the studies that utilize the recent rounds of Demographic Health Sur...

  6. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  7. Let's Stop HIV Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-16

    This podcast features 22 individuals who encourage others in the fight against HIV.  Created: 7/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/16/2012.

  8. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  9. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health days Meetings and consultations 2014 Fact sheets Features Commentaries 2014 Multimedia Contacts HIV/AIDS Fact sheet Updated July 2016 Key facts HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, having claimed more than 35 million lives so far. In 2015, 1.1 (940 000– ...

  10. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  11. Living with HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infection with HIV is serious. But the outlook for people with HIV/AIDS is improving. If you are infected with HIV, there are many things you can do to ... health care provider who knows how to treat HIV. You may want to join a support group. ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS, populations most at risk, trends in HIV/AIDS, and ... increasingly at risk for HIV infection through risky sexual behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. In the early years of ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and abuse can contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS and affect treatment for infected patients. Abusing alcohol ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that ... AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people if an ...

  15. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  16. HIV-Associated Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kogieleum; Naidoo, Kasavan; Padayatchi, Nesri; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha

    2011-01-01

    The intersecting HIV and Tuberculosis epidemics in countries with a high disease burden of both infections pose many challenges and opportunities. For patients infected with HIV in high TB burden countries, the diagnosis of TB, ARV drug choices in treating HIV-TB coinfected patients, when to initiate ARV treatment in relation to TB treatment, managing immune reconstitution, minimising risk of getting infected with TB and/or managing recurrent TB, minimizing airborne transmission, and infection control are key issues. In addition, given the disproportionate burden of HIV in women in these settings, sexual reproductive health issues and particular high mortality rates associated with TB during pregnancy are important. The scaleup and resource allocation to access antiretroviral treatment in these high HIV and TB settings provide a unique opportunity to strengthen both services and impact positively in meeting Millennium Development Goal 6. PMID:20871843

  17. Indikatorsygdomme for hiv-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Koch, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of HIV-infected patients in Denmark approaches that of the background population. Still, half of the HIV-infected patients are diagnosed late, resulting in poorer response to therapy, larger cost and greater transmission rate. A pan-European initiative, "HIV in Europe" has published...... a guideline on indicator-based HIV testing in order to improve early HIV diagnosis. The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases wishes to highlight the importance of indicator-based HIV testing, in order to improve the possibility of early diagnosis and therapy of HIV-infection....

  18. Indikatorsygdomme for hiv-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Koch, Anders;

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of HIV-infected patients in Denmark approaches that of the background population. Still, half of the HIV-infected patients are diagnosed late, resulting in poorer response to therapy, larger cost and greater transmission rate. A pan-European initiative, "HIV in Europe" has published a...... guideline on indicator-based HIV testing in order to improve early HIV diagnosis. The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases wishes to highlight the importance of indicator-based HIV testing, in order to improve the possibility of early diagnosis and therapy of HIV-infection....

  19. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  20. HIV treatment for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosioni Juan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated

  1. HIV treatment for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosioni, Juan; Calmy, Alexandra; Hirschel, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions) is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear.Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission.More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated waves of testing would precisely

  2. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  3. HIV transmission biology: translation for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Keshet; Sharma, Amit; Overbaugh, Julie

    2015-11-01

    Rigorous testing of new HIV-prevention strategies is a time-consuming and expensive undertaking. Thus, making well informed decisions on which candidate-prevention approaches are most likely to provide the most benefit is critical to appropriately prioritizing clinical testing. In the case of biological interventions, the decision to test a given prevention approach in human trials rests largely on evidence of protection in preclinical studies. The ability of preclinical studies to predict efficacy in humans may depend on how well the model recapitulates key biological features of HIV transmission relevant to the question at hand. Here, we review our current understanding of the biology of HIV transmission based on data from animal models, cell culture, and viral sequence analysis from human infection. We summarize studies of the bottleneck in viral transmission; the characteristics of transmitted viruses; the establishment of infection; and the contribution of cell-free and cell-associated virus. We seek to highlight the implications of HIV-transmission biology for development of prevention interventions, and to discuss the limitations of existing preclinical models. PMID:26418086

  4. HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men Format: Select one ...

  5. Benchmarking HIV health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care were...... assessed: Compliance with current guidelines on initiation of 1) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 2) chemoprophylaxis, 3) frequency of laboratory monitoring, and 4) virological response to cART (proportion of patients with HIV-RNA 90% of time on cART). RESULTS: 7097 Euro...... to North, patients from other regions had significantly lower odds of virological response; the difference was most pronounced for East and Argentina (adjusted OR 0.16[95%CI 0.11-0.23, p HIV health care utilization...

  6. HIV and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheets Permission to Use Fact Sheets Sponsors and Advertising Privacy Policy Project ... Disease WHY SHOULD PEOPLE WITH HIV CARE ABOUT KIDNEY DISEASE? WHAT IS NORMAL KIDNEY FUNCTION? HOW DO I KNOW IF THERE ARE PROBLEMS ...

  7. HIV among Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mobilization, HIV testing, and coordinated referral networks and service integration). Developing Act Against AIDS communication materials to reach transgender people, including campaigns such as: Doing It , which ... & services . San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Francisco, ...

  8. HIV/AIDS Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few years. But today, there are many effective medicines to fight the infection, and people with HIV ... healthier lives. There are five major types of medicines: Reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors - interfere with a critical ...

  9. Vaccinations and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 207 Vaccinations and HIV WHAT ARE VACCINATIONS? WHAT’S DIFFERENT FOR ... your viral load within 4 weeks of any vaccination. Flu shots have been studied more than any ...

  10. HIV Genotypic Resistance Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the disease progression and to minimize viral replication and mutation. However, a person may be initially infected with a drug-resistant HIV strain or drug resistance may develop during treatment, ...

  11. SNFing HIV transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukrinsky Michael

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is an essential regulator of transcription of cellular genes. HIV-1 infection induces exit of a core component of SWI/SNF, Ini1, into the cytoplasm and its association with the viral pre-integration complex. Several recent papers published in EMBO Journal, Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Retrovirology provide new information regarding possible functions of Ini1 and SWI/SNF in HIV life cycle. It appears that Ini1 has an inhibitory effect on pre-integration steps of HIV replication, but also contributes to stimulation of Tat-mediated transcription. This stimulation involves displacement of the nucleosome positioned at the HIV promoter.

  12. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  13. Mental Health and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  14. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  15. HIV, poverty and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2010-03-01

    This review examines the interactions of financial status and HIV and its implications for women. MEDLINE and Google scholar were searched using the keywords 'women', 'poverty' and 'HIV' in any field of the article. The search was limited to articles published in English over the last 10 years. The first section of the article tries to establish whether poverty or wealth is a risk factor for HIV. There is credible evidence for both arguments. While wealth shows an increased risk for both sexes, poverty places women at a special disadvantage. The second section explains how the financial status interacts with other 'non biological' factors to put women at increased risk. While discrimination based on these factors disadvantage women, there are some paradoxical observations that do not fit with the traditional line of explanation (e.g. paradoxical impact of wealth and education on HIV). The final section assesses the impact of HIV in driving poverty and the role of women in interventional programmes. The specific impact of poverty on females in families living with HIV is less explored. Though microfinance initiatives to empower women are a good idea in theory, the actual outcome of such a programme is less convincing. PMID:24037044

  16. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the following HIV medicines in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) drug class . Stavudine (brand name: Zerit) Zidovudine ( ... is an HIV medicine in the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drug class . Efavirenz is one of the ...

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated area of ... requires immediate medical attention. Why do people with HIV develop rash? A rash is an irritated area ...

  18. Creating a National HIV Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, David H; Wood, Brian R; Karpenko, Andrew; Unruh, Kenton T; Kinney, Rebecca G; Roscoe, Clay; Nelson, John

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the HIV care provider workforce has not kept pace with an expanding HIV epidemic. To effectively address this HIV workforce shortage, a multipronged approach is needed that includes high-quality, easily accessible, up-to-date HIV education for trainees and practicing providers. Toward this objective, the University of Washington, in collaboration with the AIDS Education and Training Center National Coordinating Resource Center, is developing a modular, dynamic curriculum that addresses the entire spectrum of the HIV care continuum. Herein, we outline the general principles, content, organization, and features of this federally funded National HIV Curriculum, which allows for longitudinal, active, self-directed learning, as well as real-time evaluation, tracking, and feedback at the individual and group level. The online curriculum, which is in development, will provide a free, comprehensive, interactive HIV training and resource tool that can support national efforts to expand and strengthen the United States HIV clinical care workforce. PMID:27086188

  19. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  20. Women and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) The human ... HIV, is a sexually transmitted infection and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS. Today, about one in four Americans ...

  1. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... risky choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. The "After the Party" PSA tells the story of the girl who is HIV-positive (from the "Text Message" spot) from her own ...

  3. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Apps APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español small ... Renal (Kidney) Complications/Damage Skin Diseases FDA-Approved HIV Drugs Abacavir Atazanavir Atripla Cobicistat Combivir Complera Darunavir ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood cell that is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in people with HIV is a key predictor ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 1 Some hopeful news is that, in recent years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as ... contracting HIV. In general, middle and late teen years are when young people engage in risk-taking ...

  6. Diagnostik af HIV-1 infektionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C B; Dickmeiss, E; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1991-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for the diagnosis of HIV infection, i.e. detection of antibodies, antigen and proviral DNA. ELISA methods for detecting HIV-1 antibodies are widely used as screening assays. A sample which is repeatedly positive with ELISA is re-tested with a confirmatory test......, e.g. western blot. Antibodies to HIV-1 are not detectable until 2-3 months after infection, but antigens may be detectable during the last weeks of this initial period, though they disappear with the appearance of the antibodies. In the later stages of HIV infection, HIV antigen is again detectable...... in a proportion of patients. Detection and quantitation of HIV antigen are used as indicators of disease progression and for monitoring the antiviral efficacy of therapeutic interventions. When no antibodies or antigens can be detected in persons suspected of having HIV infection, culture of HIV can be performed...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, and the media with links ... 177(1):355-361. How are Teens Affected? Young people are at risk for contracting HIV. In general, ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... made risky choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. The "After the Party" PSA tells the story of the girl who is HIV-positive (from the "Text Message" spot) from her ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: ... what to do to counter these trends. Online Resources NIDA for Teens Web site : This Web site ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  12. HIV/AIDS: Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  13. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  14. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... It provides them with useful information on the science behind drug abuse. NIDA’s Easy-to-Read Drug ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS ( ... is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the link between drug abuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service ... many of us think about HIV/AIDS when we’re at parties or hanging out with friends? ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... risky choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. The "After the Party" PSA tells the ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please ... programs also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior that resulted in HIV infection. Watch the "After ... poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there ... causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to as "HIV/AIDS." HIV can be transferred between people ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov : This blog fosters public discussions on using new media effectively in response to HIV/AIDS, as ... as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These new media tools offer new ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  4. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-04

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV, as well as other information about the science of drug abuse is available at NIDA's home page . blog.AIDS.gov : This blog fosters public discussions on using new media effectively in response to HIV/AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... transmitting HIV/AIDS or other infectious diseases. Research Reports: HIV/AIDS : Explores the link between drug abuse ... at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction have been linked with HIV/AIDS ... this regard, the role that non-injection drug abuse plays in the spread of HIV is less ...

  8. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  9. HIV in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, S

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Southeast Asia. Prostitution and injecting drug use are two major factors in the appearance of HIV/AIDS in a country. But, it is the correct social network that assures its transmission to epidemic proportions. Heterosexual transmission in Cambodia, Myanmar, and Thailand is linked with prevalence among female sex workers and their clients. In Malaysia, the Ministry of Health responded immediately, but the number of new infections continued to increase. The failures suggest the need for more effective, intensive health education programs, outreach by nongovernmental organizations, and peer education at the grassroots level and in remote areas. Public health officials need to promote political change. International agencies could play an important role, if countries such as Myanmar, Cambodia, and Viet Nam were open to international exchanges. In Myanmar, political unrest has a priority over the need for aggressive health interventions. In Indonesia, the Islamic influence prevents recognition of the country's significant sex industry or the existence of a homosexual community. In Cambodia, health officials warned about the high number of sexual partners, high mobility rate, and low condom use, but HIV spread rapidly in the 1990s. Thailand initiated a 100% condom campaign to combat HIV prevalence in the 1990s, and HIV prevalence declined among sex workers and military recruits. Risk factors for rapid transmission include mobility, the number of sexual partners/sex worker, the proportion engaging in commercial sex, and the rate of regular condom use among sex workers. PMID:12294443

  10. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  11. Estimating the Impact of Plasma HIV-1 RNA Reductions on Heterosexual HIV-1 Transmission Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lingappa, Jairam R.; Hughes, James P.; Wang, Richard S.; BAETEN, Jared M.; Connie Celum; Gray, Glenda E.; Stevens, Wendy S.; Deborah Donnell; Campbell, Mary S.; Carey Farquhar; Essex, M.; Mullins, James I.; Coombs, Robert W.; Helen Rees; Lawrence Corey

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART), therapeutic vaccines, and other ...

  12. HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of HIV and neurocysticercosis co-infection have been reported till date. The symptomatic manifestation of cysticercosis may be further reduced by interactions between the 2 disease processes. In patients with HIV, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is challenging and management must be individualized depending on the stage and the coexistent opportunistic conditions. We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm(3). The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3). Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment.

  13. [HIV 2012 : research update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, G M N

    2012-10-01

    HIV therapy is able to achieve complete viral suppression in up to 90% of patients. Thus, most patients will benefit from long-term effective and tolerable therapy combinations. Antiretroviral therapy, however, can still lead to side effects, is costly, and its success is dependent on sufficient health system resources and access to different drug combinations. Established tools in prevention and novel approaches to avoid spread of HIV infection are crucial to combat the epidemic. Recent advances in research about how drug regimens stop viral transmission ("treatment as prevention"), how the immune system defends against HIV (natural killer cells, broad neutralizing antibodies), and how cellular factors restrict viral replication are import milestones on the long way to stopping the global epidemic and to fostering vaccine development. PMID:22961071

  14. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  15. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Prevention HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials (Last updated 9/15/2015; last reviewed 9/15/2015) Key Points HIV/AIDS clinical ... safe and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help ...

  16. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  17. Aggressive HIV-1?

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoek Lia; de Ronde Anthony; Berkhout Ben

    2005-01-01

    Abstract New York City health officials announced on February 11, 2005 that a patient rapidly developed full-blown AIDS shortly after being diagnosed with a rare, drug-resistant strain of HIV-1. The New York City Department of Health issued an alert to all hospitals and doctors and a press conference was held to announce the emergence of an aggressive HIV-1 strain that may be difficult to treat and that appears to trigger rapid progression to AIDS. Is the panic justified?

  18. HIV-2 infection: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Ingole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The choice of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 differs from that for HIV-1, underscoring the importance of differentiating between the two. Aims: The current study was planned to find out the prevalence of HIV-2 infection at our center and to find out the utility of the current diagnostic algorithm in identifying the type of HIV infection. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis in a tertiary care teaching institute over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as HIV infected using NACO/WHO HIV testing strategy III were included in the study. They were classified as HIV-1 infected, HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected based on their test results. For discordant samples, immunoblotting result from National Reference Laboratory was considered as final. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 positive groups for age, gender, route of transmission was made using chi squared test. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of the total of 66,708 patients tested, 5,238 (7.9% were positive for HIV antibodies. 7.62%, 0.14%, 0.08% and 0.004% were HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected and HIV type indeterminate (HIV-1 Indeterminate, 2+ respectively. The current algorithm could not differentiate between the types of HIV infection (as HIV-1 or HIV-2 in 63 (1.2% cases. Conclusion: In areas like the Indian subcontinent, where epidemic of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are ongoing, it is important to modify the current diagnostic algorithms to diagnose and confirm HIV-2 infections.

  19. Incorporation of chimeric HIV-SIV-Env and modified HIV-Env proteins into HIV pseudovirions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Low level incorporation of the viral glycoprotein (Env) into human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) particles is a major drawback for vaccine strategies against HIV/AIDS in which HIV particles are used as immunogen. Within this study, we have examined two strategies aimed at achieving higher levels of Env incorporation into non-infectious pseudovirions (PVs). First, we have generated chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins containing the truncated C-terminal tail region of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac239-Env767stop, which mediates strongly increased incorporation of SIV-Env into SIV particles. In a second strategy, we have employed a truncated HIV-Env protein (Env-Tr752N750K) which we have previously demonstrated to be incorporated into HIV virions, generated in infected T-cells, to a higher level than that of Wt-HIV-Env. Although the chimeric HIV/SIV Env proteins were expressed at the cell surface and induced increased levels of cell-cell fusion in comparison to Wt-HIV-Env, they did not exhibit increased incorporation into either HIV-PVs or SIV-PVs. Only Env-Tr752N750K exhibited significantly higher (threefold) levels of incorporation into HIV-PVs, an improvement, which, although not dramatic, is worthwhile for the large-scale preparation of non-infectious PVs for vaccine studies aimed at inducing Env humoral responses

  20. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  1. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  2. HIV and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV AIDS.gov: www.aids.gov AIDS Healthcare Foundation: www.hivcare.org POZ Magazine: www.poz.com • Educational conferences and materials for medical professionals and patients • A wealth of information in the Survival Guide • PH patient ...

  3. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as the interactions and adverse reactions that may occur. Methods: A MEDLINE search on anglo-saxonic literature was conducted, from 1993 until 2011, using the key-words: HIV, AIDS, psychosis, depression, anxiety, secondary mania, antidepressive agents, antipsychotics, benzodiazepines, HAART. Results: We found 100 articles, of which 66 were included and 34 excluded. The articles that showed no specific data on the use of psychotropic drugs in HIV patients were excluded. Discussion: Pharmachologic interactions may occur by occupation of the same metabolic pathways. Further research is needed with indications for best practices. Psychotherapeutic interventions should be considered. Conclusion: The choice of the therapeutic intervention, namely when considering psychotropic drugs with the lowest number of interactions and adverse effects is crucial in order to achieve therapeutic success in the treatment of HIV infected patients.

  4. HIV / AIDS: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: Symptoms , Diagnosis, Prevention and Treatment Past Issues / ... Most people who have become recently infected with HIV will not have any symptoms. They may, however, ...

  5. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... to people with HIV/AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  6. Managing Your Treatment of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Related information How ... any reason. Return to top More information on Managing your treatment of HIV/AIDS Explore other publications ...

  7. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  8. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  9. Developing strategies for HIV-1 eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Durand, Christine M.; Blankson, Joel N.; Siliciano, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) suppresses HIV-1 replication, transforming the outlook for infected patients. However, reservoirs of replication-competent forms of the virus persist during HAART, and when treatment is stopped, high rates of HIV-1 replication return. Recent insights into HIV-1 latency, as well as a report that HIV-1 infection was eradicated in one individual, have renewed interest in finding a cure for HIV-1 infection. Strategies for HIV-1 eradication include gene...

  10. HIV-miR-H1 evolvability during HIV pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Lamers, Susanna L.; Fogel, Gary B.; Michael S McGrath

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) in viruses has generated considerable attention into their functional relevance in processes such as cell death, viral proliferation, and oncogenesis. Two early studies found no detectable miRNAs expressed within HIV; however, several studies have verified the existence and function of three HIV miRNAs, most notably HIV-miR-TAR, thus making the earlier results controversial. Although miRNAs are highly conserved within most species, HIV is known to have a hi...

  11. Implications of prioritizing HIV cure: new momentum to overcome old challenges in HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, JD; Gilbertson, A; Lo, YR; Vitória, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Curing HIV is a new strategic priority for several major AIDS organizations. In step with this new priority, HIV cure research and related programs are advancing in low, middle, and high-income country settings. This HIV cure momentum may influence existing HIV programs and research priorities. Discussion Despite the early stage of ongoing HIV cure efforts, these changes have directly influenced HIV research funding priorities, pilot programs, and HIV messaging. The building moment...

  12. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  13. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  14. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferdinand Roesch; Oussama Meziane; Anna Kula; Sébastien Nisole; Françoise Porrot; Ian Anderson; Fabrizio Mammano; Ariberto Fassati; Alessandro Marcello; Monsef Benkirane; Olivier Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    International audience HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C) and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs) modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C) on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively inve...

  15. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  16. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  17. HIV-1 Antiretroviral Drug Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Arts, Eric J.; Hazuda, Daria J.

    2012-01-01

    The most significant advance in the medical management of HIV-1 infection has been the treatment of patients with antiviral drugs, which can suppress HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels. The discovery of HIV-1 as the causative agent of AIDS together with an ever-increasing understanding of the virus replication cycle have been instrumental in this effort by providing researchers with the knowledge and tools required to prosecute drug discovery efforts focused on targeted inhibition with ...

  18. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV

  19. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  20. Psychotropic Drugs and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Lúcia Moreira; Melinda Carmen Godinho Pereira; Diogo Telles-Correia

    2014-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disor- ders like psychosis, depression and anxiety. Psychiatric comorbidities may interfere with adherence to antiretroviral treatment. Therefore, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions are essential. However, the administration of a psychotropic drug to HAART therapy can result in drug interactions.Objectives: This review aims to analyze the various psychotropic drugs that can be used in these patients, as well as ...

  1. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  2. A conditionally replicating HIV-1 vector interferes with wild-type HIV-1 replication and spread.

    OpenAIRE

    Dropulić, B; Hĕrmánková, M; Pitha, P M

    1996-01-01

    Defective-interfering viruses are known to modulate virus pathogenicity. We describe conditionally replicating HIV-1 (crHIV) vectors that interfere with wild-type HIV-1 (wt-HIV) replication and spread. crHIV vectors are defective-interfering HIV genomes that do not encode viral proteins and replicate only in the presence of wt-HIV helper virus. In cells that contain both wt-HIV and crHIV genomes, the latter are shown to have a selective advantage for packaging into progeny virions because the...

  3. The kidney in HIV infection: beyond HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more common in HIV-infected persons than in the general population. AKI is associated with poor health outcomes, including increased risk of heart failure, cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. The most common causes of AKI in HIV-infected persons are systemic infections and adverse drug effects. The prevalence of CKD is rising in the HIV-infected population and CKD is increasingly likely to be caused by comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that frequently cause CKD in the general population. Guidelines for CKD screening in HIV-infected patients are being revised. It is currently recommended that all patients be screened for creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate and for urine protein at the time of HIV diagnosis. Annual screening is recommended for high-risk patients. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation are all options for treating ESRD in HIV-infected patients. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis offer similar survival in HIV-infected patients with ESRD. In selected patients with well-controlled HIV infection, kidney transplantation is associated with survival intermediate between that in the overall transplant population and that among transplant recipients older than 65 years. This article summarizes a presentation by Christina M. Wyatt, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in Chicago in May 2012, describing AKI and CKD using case illustrations.

  4. HIV DNA Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are distinguished from other viruses by two characteristic steps in the viral replication cycle. The first is reverse transcription, which results in the production of a double-stranded DNA copy of the viral RNA genome, and the second is integration, which results in covalent attachment of the DNA copy to host cell DNA. The initial catalytic steps of the integration reaction are performed by the virus-encoded integrase (IN) protein. The chemistry of the IN-mediated DNA breaking and joining steps is well worked out, and structures of IN-DNA complexes have now clarified how the overall complex assembles. Methods developed during these studies were adapted for identification of IN inhibitors, which received FDA approval for use in patients in 2007. At the chromosomal level, HIV integration is strongly favored in active transcription units, which may promote efficient viral gene expression after integration. HIV IN binds to the cellular factor LEDGF/p75, which promotes efficient infection and tethers IN to favored target sites. The HIV integration machinery must also interact with many additional host factors during infection, including nuclear trafficking and pore proteins during nuclear entry, histones during initial target capture, and DNA repair proteins during completion of the DNA joining steps. Models for some of the molecular mechanisms involved have been proposed, but important details remain to be clarified. PMID:22762018

  5. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, B

    1995-01-01

    The field of psychoneuroimmunology has been evolving over the past thirty years and is based on connecting the mind and body using a concept known as hardiness. Hardiness generally consists of three main parameters: commitment, control, and challenge, but in working with HIV-infected patients, a fourth parameter, community, is added. Various mental health scales are used to assess how patients cope with stress; effects of stress on the immune system can also be assessed by determining proliferation of various types of lymphocytes. Various studies conducted on asymptomatic HIV-positive subjects prior to and following notification of HIV-1 antibody status measured immune system function in patients that were or were not involved in aerobic exercise or group, cognitive, or behavioral modification. Those who participated in interventions had lower or minimal decreases in immunologic parameters compared to controls. A University of Miami research team theorizes that in the absence of aerobic conditioning or behavioral restructuring, a cascade of events occurs which decreases the individual's immunologic endocrine and neuropathic functioning. The patients' hardiness is what keeps them from falling under a medical hex, that is, keeps them from allowing the person in power (the doctor) to take away their hope, which would cause the cascade to occur. Support groups are good ways to help patients develop hardiness within a trusting atmosphere.

  6. Characteristics, Immunological Response & Treatment Outcomes of HIV-2 Compared with HIV-1 & Dual Infections (HIV 1/2) in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara, Montaldo; Rony, Zachariah; Homa, Mansoor; Bhanumati, Varghese; Ladomirska, Joanna; Manzi, M.; Wilson, N; Alaka, Deshpande; Harries, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information available on HIV-2 and dual infection (HIV-1/2) is limited. This study was carried out among HIV positive individuals in an urban referral clinic in Khar, Mumbai, India, to report on relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 and baseline characteristics, response to and outcomes on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Retrospective analysis of programme data (May 2006-May 2009) at Khar HIV/AIDS clinic at Mumbai, India was done. Three test algori...

  7. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ... HIV/AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Past ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse ...

  10. Jamie Foxx Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Jamie Foxx, Academy Award winning actor and singer, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... home page . blog.AIDS.gov : This blog fosters public discussions on using new media effectively in response to HIV/AIDS, as well as HIV/AIDS research and policies. AIDS.gov New Media Tools : These new media ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ... at: https://www.drugabuse.gov/news-events/public-education-projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 ...

  13. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug abuse and HIV. We have produced a set of ... the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug abuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount of HIV in brain cells 1 . Drug abuse treatment. Since the late 1980s, research has shown that treating drug abuse is an ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public service ads (PSA) where an HIV-positive teenager recounts the night she went to a party and under the influence of drugs and alcohol engaged in risky sexual behavior that resulted in HIV infection. Watch the "After ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined ... Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide Get this Publication Español View Webisodes View Videos "After the Party" " ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... info. nih.gov : AIDSinfo, a service of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), offers ... affected by HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/ . Reference Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center ... services, and referrals for medical and social services. Reference Marcondes, M.C. et al. “Methamphetamine increases brain ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood ... DC Department of Health AIDS Arms, Inc. National Community Center of Excellence in Women’s Health National Women’s ...

  1. Syphilis in the HIV Era

    OpenAIRE

    Kassutto, Sigall; Doweiko, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of syphilis has consistently increased from 2000 to 2002. We report a case of acquired syphilis with symptoms of Tullio phenomenon in a patient concurrently diagnosed with HIV infection. The resurgence of syphilis in HIV-positive groups at high risk has public health implications for prevention of both diseases.

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... NIDA TV PEERx Drugs & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  3. How you get HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. Moving ... answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  4. Increasing HIV testing among male partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican R

  5. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  6. Notification following new positive HIV test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2016-09-01

    Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191

  7. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the...... predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult...... seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11...

  8. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  9. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  10. Persistent HIV-1 replication during antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Deeks, Steven G

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the capacity of HIV-1 to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings Although ART is highly effective at inhibiting HIV replication, it is not curative. Several mechanisms contribute to HIV persistence during ART, including HIV latency, immune dysfunction, and perhaps persistent low-level spread of the virus to uninfected cells (replication). The success in curing HIV will depend on ef...

  11. HIV, opiates and enteric neuron dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Galligan, James J.

    2015-01-01

    HIV is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4+ T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory re...

  12. Rapid HIV Testing in Large Urban Jails

    OpenAIRE

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Nunn, Amy; Baucom, Sharon; Getachew, Asresahegn; Akinwumi, Akin; Herdman, Bruce; DiBartolo, Phil; Spencer, Susan; Brown, Devon; Lesansky, Henry; Kuo, Irene

    2012-01-01

    HIV prevalence is higher in jails than in the community, yet many jails do not conduct HIV testing. Jails in Baltimore, Maryland; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and the District of Columbia have implemented innovative rapid HIV testing programs. We have summarized the results of these programs, including the numbers of persons tested, rapid and confirmatory HIV test results, and numbers of persons newly diagnosed with HIV. We have described facilitators and challenges of implementation. These pr...

  13. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  14. Reward, attention, and HIV-related risk in HIV+ individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A; Kronemer, Sharif I; Rilee, Jessica J; Sacktor, Ned; Marvel, Cherie L

    2016-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is often contracted through engaging in risky reward-motivated behaviors such as needle sharing and unprotected sex. Understanding the factors that make an individual more vulnerable to succumbing to the temptation to engage in these risky behaviors is important to limiting the spread of HIV. One potential source of this vulnerability concerns the degree to which an individual is able to resist paying attention to irrelevant reward information. In the present study, we examine this possible link by characterizing individual differences in value-based attentional bias in a sample of HIV+ individuals with varying histories of risk-taking behavior. Participants learned associations between experimental stimuli and monetary reward outcome. The degree of attentional bias for these reward-associated stimuli, reflected in their ability to capture attention when presented as task-irrelevant distractors, was then assessed both immediately and six months following reward learning. Value-driven attentional capture was related to substance abuse history and non-planning impulsiveness during the time leading up to contraction of HIV as measured via self-report. These findings suggest a link between the ability to ignore reward-associated information and prior HIV-related risk-taking behavior. Additionally, particular aspects of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders were related to attentional bias, including motor deficits commonly associated with HIV-induced damage to the basal ganglia. PMID:26484383

  15. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women: Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinivas Darak; Inge Hutter; Sanjeevani Kulkarni; Vinay Kulkarni; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardiz...

  16. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children (“parental HIV disclosure”), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5–16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication...

  17. Possible ring material around centaur (2060) Chiron

    CERN Document Server

    Ortiz, J L; Pinilla-Alonso, N; Alvarez-Candal, A; Santos-Sanz, P; Morales, N; Fernández-Valenzuela, E; Licandro, J; Bagatin, A Campo; Thirouin, A

    2015-01-01

    We propose that several short duration events observed in past stellar occultations by Chiron were produced by rings material. From a reanalysis of the stellar occultation data in the literature we determined two possible orientations of the pole of Chiron's rings, with ecliptic coordinates l=(352+/-10) deg, b=(37+/-10) deg or l=(144+/-10) deg, b=(24+/-10) deg . The mean radius of the rings is (324 +/- 10) km. One can use the rotational lightcurve amplitude of Chiron at different epochs to distinguish between the two solutions for the pole. Both imply lower lightcurve amplitude in 2013 than in 1988, when the rotational lightcurve was first determined. We derived Chiron's rotational lightcurve in 2013 from observations at the 1.23-m CAHA telescope and indeed its amplitude is smaller than in 1988. We also present a rotational lightcurve in 2000 from images taken at CASLEO 2.15-m telescope that is consistent with our predictions. Out of the two poles the l=(144+/-10) deg, b=(24+/-10) deg solution provides a bett...

  18. Ergotismo y HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara C. Finn; Sabrina Vadalá; Ana Meraldi; Julio E. Bruetman; Jorge V. Martínez; Pablo Young

    2013-01-01

    El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1), en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarro...

  19. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  20. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  1. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  2. Rapid Assay for Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Immunoglobulin G Antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Group M, HIV-1 Group O, and HIV-2

    OpenAIRE

    Vallari, Ana S.; Hickman, Robert K.; Hackett, John R.; Brennan, Catherine A.; Varitek, Vincent A.; Devare, Sushil G.

    1998-01-01

    A rapid immunodiagnostic test that detects and discriminates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections on the basis of viral type, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) group M, HIV-1 group O, or HIV-2, was developed. The rapid assay for the detection of HIV (HIV rapid assay) was designed as an instrument-free chromatographic immunoassay that detects immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to HIV. To assess the performance of the HIV rapid assay, 470 HIV-positive plasma samples were tested by PCR and/or Western b...

  3. Why do HIV-1 and HIV-2 use different pathways to develop AZT resistance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 develops resistance to all available drugs, including the nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs such as AZT. ATP-mediated excision underlies the most common form of HIV-1 resistance to AZT. However, clinical data suggest that when HIV-2 is challenged with AZT, it usually accumulates resistance mutations that cause AZT resistance by reduced incorporation of AZTTP rather than selective excision of AZTMP. We compared the properties of HIV-1 and HIV-2 reverse transcriptase (RT in vitro. Although both RTs have similar levels of polymerase activity, HIV-1 RT more readily incorporates, and is more susceptible to, inhibition by AZTTP than is HIV-2 RT. Differences in the region around the polymerase active site could explain why HIV-2 RT incorporates AZTTP less efficiently than HIV-1 RT. HIV-1 RT is markedly more efficient at carrying out the excision reaction with ATP as the pyrophosphate donor than is HIV-2 RT. This suggests that HIV-1 RT has a better nascent ATP binding site than HIV-2 RT, making it easier for HIV-1 RT to develop a more effective ATP binding site by mutation. A comparison of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RT shows that there are numerous differences in the putative ATP binding sites that could explain why HIV-1 RT binds ATP more effectively. HIV-1 RT incorporates AZTTP more efficiently than does HIV-2 RT. However, HIV-1 RT is more efficient at ATP-mediated excision of AZTMP than is HIV-2 RT. Mutations in HIV-1 RT conferring AZT resistance tend to increase the efficiency of the ATP-mediated excision pathway, while mutations in HIV-2 RT conferring AZT resistance tend to increase the level of AZTTP exclusion from the polymerase active site. Thus, each RT usually chooses the pathway best suited to extend the properties of the respective wild-type enzymes.

  4. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased. PMID:26863859

  5. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  6. Compromiso renal en pacientes HIV+

    OpenAIRE

    María Marta Pernasetti; Carlos Chiurchiu; Jorge de la Fuente; Javier de Arteaga; Walter Douthat; Cecilia Bardosy; Abel Zarate; Pablo U. Massari

    2010-01-01

    Varias complicaciones nefrológicas pueden ocurrir durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV) especialmente en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad o relacionadas con otras infecciones o drogas. Poco conocida es la prevalencia de alteraciones renales subclínicas de pacientes HIV+ surgidas como complicación o relacionadas a la infección y/o tratamiento. Realizamos un corte transversal de pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ referidos en forma consecutiva al consultorio de nef...

  7. HIV microbicides: innovation and challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) report in 2009, the estimated number of people living with HIV-1 is 33.4 million, and half of the infected adults (aged 15-49 years) are women, who acquired HIV-1 mainly through heterosexual exposure. In China, HTV-1 transmission through sexual contact has also increased rapidly, and has reached over 70% in overall cases; heterosexual transmission accounted for 40% and men who had sex with man (MSM) for 32.0%.2,3

  8. Oral complications of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair C. Leao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.

  9. Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial ("Partners HSV-2 Study", the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8-31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49% of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.

  10. HIV / AIDS Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  11. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M;

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0...

  12. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  13. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  14. EASY-HIT: HIV Full-Replication Technology for Broad Discovery of Multiple Classes of HIV Inhibitors▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Kremb, Stephan; Helfer, Markus; Heller, Werner; Hoffmann, Dieter; Wolff, Horst; Kleinschmidt, Andrea; Cepok, Sabine; Hemmer, Bernhard; Durner, Jörg; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    HIV replication assays are important tools for HIV drug discovery efforts. Here, we present a full HIV replication system (EASY-HIT) for the identification and analysis of HIV inhibitors. This technology is based on adherently growing HIV-susceptible cells, with a stable fluorescent reporter gene activated by HIV Tat and Rev. A fluorescence-based assay was designed that measures HIV infection by two parameters relating to the early and the late phases of HIV replication, respectively. Validat...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Military ... be transmitted between users. Other infections-such as hepatitis C-can also be spread this way. Hepatitis ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ... Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

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    Full Text Available ... educational institutions, magazines, newspapers, companies, events, and radio stations for helping to raise awareness of the link ... Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP Radio WPFW Radio WOL Radio News & Events ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... got high at a party and made risky choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. ... Network TV Organizations: AIDS.gov AIDS Alliance for Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Pathol. 2010. 177(1):355-361. How are Teens Affected? Young people are at risk for contracting HIV. In general, middle and late teen years are when young people engage in risk- ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects ... not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ... AIDS : This site provides information both for health care providers and for Veterans and the public. Past ...

  4. Answers about HIV Vaccine Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trial participation by people of all races/ethnicities, genders and socioeconomic backgrounds. • Support vaccine volunteers and/or ... preventive HIV vaccines. These include leading universities, biotechnology companies, pharmaceutical firms and government agencies such as NIAID. • ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract ... AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... between drug abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and ... AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is treatment, but no cure, ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... can suppress the virus and prevent or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of ... choices that ultimately led to an HIV-positive diagnosis. The "After the Party" PSA tells the story ...

  8. Maraviroc (Celsentri in HIV treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the prognosis of people living with immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has improved significantly, due to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART based on a combination of 3-4 anti-HIV drugs; the use ofthese drugs can achieve a durable suppression of HIV viraemia, turning HIV infection into a chronic illness. The three first licensed classes of antiretroviral agents are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs and protease inhibitors (PIs. Until recently, treatment options for individuals developing resistanceto these drugs have been limited, but new drugs in existing classes (second generation NNRTIs and novel PIs and novel classes of drugs (integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists and fusion inhibitors have become clinically available.

  9. Drugs That Fight HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... program of the National Institutes of Health Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) NRTIs block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme HIV- ... these products are on last page.) Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs bind to and alter reverse transcriptase, ...

  10. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and acronyms) Brand Name FDA Approval Date Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) NRTIs block reverse transcriptase, an enzyme HIV ... AZT, ZDV) Retrovir March 19, 1987 Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) NNRTIs bind to and later alter reverse ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Military Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women ... After the Party" "Text Message" NIDA Home Site Map FAQs Accessibility Privacy FOIA(NIH) Working at NIDA ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in people with HIV is a key predictor of the development of AIDS. Because of their compromised immune system, ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the Director The Link Between HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse ... Web site. Sincerely, Nora D. Volkow, M.D. Director National Institute on Drug Abuse Collaborators Thanks to ...

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    Full Text Available ... Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Military Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women ... AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

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    Full Text Available ... are at risk for contracting HIV. In general, middle and late teen years are when young people ... Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Web banner ads that you can download and add to your Web site. Please link these banners ... abuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , and Instagram pages; ...

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... public service ads (PSA) where an HIV-positive teenager recounts the night she went to a party ...

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... teens and young adults have never known a world without it. NIDA’s "Learn the Link" campaign continues to raise awareness among this generation of the real risks of drug use for transmitting HIV, and ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Festival Big Mini Film Festival Visual AIDS Bus Boys and Poets Sistahs Getting Real About HIV Conference Radio Stations: WTOP ... & Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main ... lead people to engage in impulsive and unsafe behaviors. Injection drug use. People typically associate drug abuse ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental ... virus) is the virus that causes AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome). AIDS is a disease of the immune system for which there is ...

  4. Body Shape Changes with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  5. Sex and Sexuality and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research (MIRECC) Military Exposures Polytrauma Rehabilitation Spinal Cord Injury Telehealth Womens Health Issues Wellness Programs MyHealtheVet Nutrition Quitting Smoking ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... Consequences Mental Health Military Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical ... decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please visit: ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis ( ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  8. HIV disclosure in the workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Degroote, S.; Vogelaers, D.; Koeck, R.; Borms, R.; De Meulemeester, L.; Vandijck, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: As HIV is currently a chronic and manageable disease, an increasing amount of people living with HIV (PLHIV) are (again) active on the labour market. Since research on this topic is scarce, this study aimed to explore experiences of PLHIV in the workplace, especially concerning disclosure and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Methods: A questionnaire was developed and validated in collaboration with Sensoa (Flemish expertise centre for sexual health) and participants were recru...

  9. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  10. New Antiretroviral Treatment for HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowski, Melissa E; Pérez, Sarah E; Biagi, Mark; Littler, John A

    2016-09-01

    The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) has set the global goal of ending the AIDS world epidemic by 2030. In order to end this epidemic they have established a 90-90-90 goal to be achieved by 2020, which may be problematic, especially in low- and middle-income countries. This goal includes 90% of individuals with HIV globally being diagnosed, on treatment, and virologically suppressed. Based on global estimates from 2014-2015, approximately 36.9 million individuals are living with HIV. Of those, 53% have been diagnosed with HIV, 41% are on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 32% have viral suppression with <1000 copies/ml. Comprehensive approaches are needed to improve the number of people living with HIV (PLWH) who are diagnosed, linked, and engaged in care. Once PLWH are retained in care, treatment is key to both HIV prevention and transmission. The development and advancement of new ART is necessary to assist in reaching these goals by improving safety profiles, decreasing pill burden, improving quality of life and life expectancy, and creating new mechanisms to overcome resistance. The focus of this review is to highlight and review data for antiretroviral agents recently added to the market as well as discuss agents in various stages of development (new formulations and mechanisms of action). PMID:27539455

  11. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmarti, Montserrat; Ibáñez, Laura; Huertas, Sonia; Badenes, Dolors; Dalmau, David; Slevin, Mark; Krupinski, Jerzy; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Jaen, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with increased risk of cognitive impairment represent an urgent requirement. Future efforts should also focus on diagnostic keys and searching for useful strategies in order to decrease HIV neurotoxicity within the CNS. PMID:25945248

  12. [Ergotism and HIV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Bárbara C; Vadalá, Sabrina; Meraldi, Ana; Bruetman, Julio E; Martínez, Jorge V; Young, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Ergotism is a complication of acute intoxication and/or chronic abuse of ergot derivatives. It expresses itself through a vasomotor syndrome with peripheral vascular disease which frequently involves extremities. We report four cases of HIV-1 infected patients treated with antiretroviral drugs including boosted-protease inhibitors who had self-treated themselves with ergotamine. They developed peripheral vascular disease symptoms and their pulses where diminished or absent in the physical examination. Arterial Doppler confirmed diffused arterial spasm in two of them. Ergotism following ergotamine-protease inhibitors association was diagnosed. Patients were treated through the discontinuity of involved drugs (protease inhibitors and ergotamine), calcium blockers; antithrombotic prophylaxis with enoxaparine, antiaggregant therapy with acetylsalicylic acid, and one of them received pentoxifylline and vasodilator prostaglandins infusion, with amelioration of the symptoms. We discuss the clinical presentation of this drug interaction, difficult to diagnose properly without a strong suspicion of its existence. PMID:23924536

  13. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  14. Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) ... maintain long-term medication adherence. Before starting an HIV regimen, talk to your health care provider about ...

  15. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  16. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  17. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  18. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  19. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  20. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  1. A Small Dose of HIV? HIV Vaccine Mental Models and Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Peter A.; Seiden, Danielle S.; Roberts, Kathleen J.; Kakinami, Lisa; Duan, Naihua

    2009-01-01

    Existing knowledge and beliefs related to HIV vaccines provide an important basis for the development of risk communication messages to support future HIV vaccine dissemination. This study explored HIV vaccine mental models among adults from segments of the population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Nine focus groups were conducted with…

  2. Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mississippi Medical Center led a team of laboratory investigators who provided HIV antiretroviral therapy for 18 months to a baby ... The landmark discovery was made by two pediatric HIV experts, Deborah ... findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( ...

  3. Premature and accelerated aging: HIV or HAART?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Smith; R. de Boer; S. Brul; Y. Budovskaya; H. van der Spek

    2013-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly increased life expectancy of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive population. Nevertheless, the average lifespan of HIV-patients remains shorter compared to uninfected individuals. Immunosenescence, a current explanation for t

  4. Emergency Preparedness for People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  5. Lower Your Sexual Risk of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  6. How Do You Get HIV or AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  7. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard;

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  8. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  9. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  10. HIV/AIDS Living Cases, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Living HIV and AIDS cases by gender, race/ethnicity, current age group, and exposure category in California, 2012. Table includes all persons living with HIV or...

  11. Quantifying Ongoing HIV-1 Exposure in HIV-1–Serodiscordant Couples to Identify Individuals With Potential Host Resistance to HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Mackelprang, Romel D.; Jared M Baeten; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Farquhar, Carey; de Bruyn, Guy; Essex, Max; McElrath, M. Juliana; NAKKU-JOLOBA, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Immunogenetic correlates of resistance to HIV-1 in HIV-1–exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals with consistently high exposure may inform HIV-1 prevention strategies. We developed a novel approach for quantifying HIV-1 exposure to identify individuals remaining HIV-1 uninfected despite persistent high exposure.

  12. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Coffie, Patrick A; Messou, Eugene;

    2013-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework o...

  13. Determinants of HIV outpatient service utilization according to HIV parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased life expectancy of HIV patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy has had profound consequences for the healthcare systems that provide their care. It is useful to assess whether healthcare resources need to be adapted to the different stages of HIV infection or to patient characteristics [1]. To study how patient features influence utilization of out patient services, we retrospectively analyzed the electronic health record of HIV-positive patients who had followed day-care programs at the AIDS Center of the University of Palermo, Italy. Materials and Methods: 223 HIV-infected subjects were recruited and divided into two groups according to CD4 cell counts (117 with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 and 106 with CD4 count ≥500/mm3. Data on age, gender, race, lifestyle habits (including educational level, drug abuse history, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviour BMI, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy (ART, comorbidities such as HCV co-infection, osteoporosis biomarker, dyslipidemia, diabetes, renal function and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded in a purposely designed database and were analyzed in relation to AIN by uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Table 1 shows the characteristics of enrolled patients; the average age of the recruited patients was 45.4±9.5 years. 163 individuals were male (73%, 26 were immigrants (12% and 91 (40% were treatment-naïve. Mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate stage of HIV and for treatment monitoring was 6.5 days for CD4 cell count measurements and 9.6 for HIV RNA/drug-resistance testing. When patients were stratified according to CD4 count, mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate HIV stage and to monitor treatment was negatively correlated with CD4 cell counts. Table 1 Selected characteristics of 223 HIV-infected patients Variable HIV with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 n = 117 HIV

  14. Loneliness and HIV-related stigma explain depression among older HIV-positive adults

    OpenAIRE

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Brennan, Mark; Karpiak, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in the treatment of HIV have resulted in a large growing population of older adults with HIV. These aging adults face added social, psychological, and physical challenges associated with the aging process. Correlations between depression, loneliness, health, and HIV/AIDS-related stigma have been studied, but there is little evaluation of these associations among HIV-positive adults over the age of 50. Data for these analyses were taken from the Research on Older Adults with HIV (ROAH...

  15. HIV Replication at Low Copy Number and its Correlation with the HIV Reservoir: A Clinical Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmati, Loredana; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy (antiretroviral therapy - ARV) is demonstrated by the high rates of viral suppression achieved in most treated HIV patients. Whereas contemporary treatments may continuously suppress HIV replication, they do not eliminate the latent reservoir, which can reactivate HIV infection if ARV is discontinued. The persistence of HIV proviral DNA and infectious viruses in CD4+ T cells and others cells has long been considered a major obstacle in eradicating the HIV v...

  16. Prevalence and Change in Psychiatric Disorders Among Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; McKay, Mary M.; Abrams, Elaine J

    2012-01-01

    As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (P...

  17. HIV shedding from male circumcision wounds in HIV-infected men: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Godfrey Kigozi; Jordyn Manucci; Grabowski, Mary K.; David Serwadda; Richard Musoke; Redd, Andrew D.; Fred Nalugoda; Steven J Reynolds; Nehemiah Kighoma; Oliver Laeyendecker; Justin Lessler; Gray, Ronald H.; Thomas C Quinn; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 35 million people are currently infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS by destroying immune system cells, and every year, 2 million more people become HIV-positive. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can keep HIV in check, but there is no cure for AIDS. Consequently, prevention of HIV acquisition and transmission is an important component of efforts to control the AIDS epidemic. Because HIV is most often spread through unprotected sex with an infected partne...

  18. HIV/AIDS, Comorbidity, and Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, Amy; Sullivan, Lynn; Fiellin, David; ,

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is common among people infected with HIV and plays an important role in their health outcomes. Because alcohol use complicates HIV infection and contributes to comorbid diseases, it is important for researchers and practitioners to understand these interactions and to integrate alcohol treatment with medical management of long-term HIV infection and associated comorbidity. The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) is a large, multisite study of the effects of alcohol use on HIV outco...

  19. Recent update in HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...

  20. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  1. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lessells, Richard J; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only arou...

  2. Adolescent HIV/AIDS: Issues and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Naswa Smriti; Marfatia Y

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence (10- 19 years) is a phase of physical growth and development accompanied by sexual maturation, often leading to intimate relationships. Adolescent HIV/AIDS is a separate epidemic and needs to be handled and managed separately from adult HIV. The adolescents can be subdivided into student, slum and street youth; street adolescents being most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS. Among various risk factors and situations for adolescents contracting HIV virus are adolescent sex workers, child traf...

  3. HIV-related neuropathy: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Schütz SG; Robinson-Papp J

    2013-01-01

    Sonja G Schütz, Jessica Robinson-Papp Department of Neurology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Distal symmetric polyneuropathy (DSP) related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most common neurologic complications of HIV, possibly affecting as many as 50% of all individuals infected with HIV. Two potentially neurotoxic mechanisms have been proposed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of HIV DSP: neurotoxicity resulting from the viru...

  4. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  5. Development of an "Impact of HIV" Instrument for HIV Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, April L; Kallen, Michael A; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E; Giordano, Thomas P

    2015-01-01

    As with cancer survivors, HIV-infected people may have unique physical, psychological, social, and existential challenges over their lifespans, yet no single instrument can assess such challenges. A newly created Impact of HIV Survey, modified from Zebrack's Impact of Cancer Scale, was developed and completed by 356 HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy. Factor analyses confirmed seven scales within 38 items: Health Awareness, Positive Self-Evaluation, Positive Outlook, Value of Relationships, Negative Self-Evaluation-Outlook, Health Anxiety, and Body Changes (Cronbach's alphas range = 0.54-0.93). Participants scored high on health awareness, positive outlook, and value of relationships; high on health worry; and low on body image concerns. Patients with HIV for 15 years and longer tended to have higher positive self-evaluation scores and lower negative self-evaluation-outlook scores compared to those with HIV for a shorter duration. The initial survey version had good internal validity with potential utility in research and clinical care.

  6. Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART, therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use prospective data collected from 2004 to 2008 in East and Southern African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to model the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and heterosexual transmission risk with confirmation of HIV-1 transmission events by HIV-1 sequencing. The model is based on follow-up of 3381 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples over 5017 person-years encompassing 108 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission events. HIV-1 transmission risk was 2.27 per 100 person-years with a log-linear relationship to log(10 plasma HIV-1 RNA. The model predicts that a decrease in average plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.74 log(10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.60 to 0.97 reduces heterosexual transmission risk by 50%, regardless of the average starting plasma HIV-1 level in the population and independent of other HIV-1-related population characteristics. In a simulated population with a similar plasma HIV-1 RNA distribution the model estimates that 90% of overall HIV-1 infections averted by a 0.74 copies/mL reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA could be achieved by targeting this reduction to the 58% of the cohort with plasma HIV-1 levels ≥4 log(10 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This log-linear model of plasma HIV-1 levels and risk of sexual HIV-1 transmission may help estimate the impact on HIV-1 transmission and infections averted from candidate interventions that reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels.

  7. Tuberculosis Facts - TB and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts TB and HIV/AIDS What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one person to another. ... HIV) infection affect TB? The HIV, or the AIDS virus, helps TB germs make you sick because ...

  8. Changes in US HIV Treatment Guidelines

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-03

    Following the 2012 HIV Treatment Guidelines, which include early diagnosis and treatment with ART, can increase longevity and improve the quality of life for patients living with HIV.  Created: 10/3/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 10/3/2012.

  9. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. ODell.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases ODell, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  10. HIV genetic information and clonal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on an analysis of blood cells from five HIV-infected individuals, NCI researchers have identified more than 2,400 HIV DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sites showed that there is extensive clonal expansion (growth) of HIV infected cells.

  11. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Pamela.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Pamela, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  12. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Doug.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Doug, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  13. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Denise.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Denise, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  14. The Global HIV Epidemics among Sex Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Wirtz, Andrea; Baral, Stefan; Decker, Michele; Murray, Laura; Poteat, Tonia; Pretorius, Carel; Sherman, Susan; Sweat, Mike; Semini, Iris; N'Jie, N'Della; Stanciole, Anderson; Butler, Jenny; Osornprasop, Sutayut; Oelrichs, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Since the beginning of the epidemic sex workers have experienced a heightened burden of HIV across settings, despite their higher levels of HIV protective behaviors (UNAIDS, 2009). Unfairly, sex workers have often been framed as 'vectors of disease' and 'core transmitters' rather than workers and human beings with rights in terms of HIV prevention and beyond. By gaining a deeper understand...

  15. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  16. Methylation: a regulator of HIV-1 replication?

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang Kuan-Teh; Yedavalli Venkat RK

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Recent characterizations of methyl transferases as regulators of cellular processes have spurred investigations into how methylation events might influence the HIV-1 life cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that protein-methylation can positively and negatively regulate HIV-1 replication. How DNA- and RNA- methylation might impact HIV-1 is also discussed.

  17. Impact of Chromatin on HIV Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Agosto, Luis M.; Matthew Gagne; Henderson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin influences Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) integration and replication. This review highlights critical host factors that influence chromatin structure and organization and that also impact HIV integration, transcriptional regulation and latency. Furthermore, recent attempts to target chromatin associated factors to reduce the HIV proviral load are discussed.

  18. Get the Facts, Talk about HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, urges members of the black community to talk about HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  19. Differences in HIV vaccine acceptability between genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakinami, Lisa; Newman, Peter A; Lee, Sung-Jae; Duan, Naihua

    2008-05-01

    The development of safe and efficacious preventive HIV vaccines offers the best long-term hope of controlling the AIDS pandemic. Nevertheless, suboptimal uptake of safe and efficacious vaccines that already exist suggest that HIV vaccine acceptability cannot be assumed, particularly among communities most vulnerable to HIV. The present study aimed to identify barriers and motivators to future HIV vaccine acceptability among low socioeconomic, ethnically diverse men and women in Los Angeles County. Participants completed a cross-sectional survey assessing their attitudes and beliefs regarding future HIV vaccines. Hypothetical HIV vaccine scenarios were administered to determine HIV vaccine acceptability. Two-sided t-tests were performed, stratified by gender, to examine the association between vaccine acceptability and potential barriers and motivators. Barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability differed between men and women. For women, barriers to HIV vaccine acceptability were related to their intimate relationships (pnegative experiences with health care providers (pGender-specific interventions may increase vaccine acceptability among men and women at elevated risk for HIV infection. Among women, interventions need to focus on addressing barriers due to gendered power dynamics in relationships and discrimination in health care. Among men, education that addresses fears and misconceptions about adverse effects of HIV vaccination on health and the importance of vaccination as one component of integrated HIV prevention may increase vaccine acceptability. PMID:18484322

  20. HIV Infection and Children: A Medical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    Updates a 10-year medical overview on HIV/AIDS written for a Child Welfare League of America publication. Covers HIV transmission, diagnosis and treatment of HIV in infants, maternal treatment and testing, and advances and challenges, including new drug therapies. Concludes with recommendations on systems of care for affected families. (EV)

  1. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  2. HIV/AIDS and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Baingana, Florence; Thomas, Rachel; Comblain, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Mental and neurological disorders have an intertwined relationship with HIV, yet are often overlooked when AIDS interventions are planned and implemented. Cognitive disorders, substance abuse, and disorders of personality can influence behavior in ways that lead to greater risk of HIV infection. Conversely, HIV/AIDS itself can lead to psychological conditions due to circumstances surroundi...

  3. HIV Prevention Readiness in Undergraduates and Inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Michael E.; And Others

    Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission is increasingly an international priority. Education of high-risk populations, such as incarcerated individuals, is particularly important in thwarting the spread of HIV. To address this concern, the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of inmates concerning HIV and AIDS related issues are…

  4. HIV diagnosis, linkage to HIV care, and HIV risk behaviors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive female sex workers in Kigali, Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Braunstein; M.M. Umulisa; N.J. Veldhuijzen; E. Kestelyn; C.M. Ingabire; J. Nyinawabega; J.H.H.M. van de Wijgert; D. Nash

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate linkage-to-care, sexual behavior change, and psychosocial experiences among newly HIV-diagnosed female sex workers (FSWs) in Rwanda. FSWs (n = 800) with unknown serostatus were screened for HIV during 2007/2008. Women testing HIV positive (n = 192) were referred to care and asked to retu

  5. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  6. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  7. HIV surveillance by testing saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A M; Parry, J V; Best, S J; Smith, A M; de Silva, M; Mortimer, P P

    1988-10-01

    Saliva specimens were tested for HIV antibody (anti-HIV) by an immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody capture radioimmunoassay (GACRIA) and three sensitive commercial assays. In tests on 460 seronegative subjects and 196 seropositive subjects GACRIA was 99.8% specific and 100% sensitive. The Wellcome HIV monoclonal and Abbott recombinant DNA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were also highly specific (99.8%, 100%) but they were less sensitive (90.9%, 82.0%). The Fujirebio particle agglutination assay was sensitive (97.8%) but its specificity was poor (84.1%). In testing saliva specimens from populations with an anti-HIV prevalence greater than 0.5%, sampling by GACRIA alone could provide a good estimate of the true prevalence. For true prevalences less than 0.5% good estimates could only be obtained if positive GACRIA reactions were confirmed by another independent salivary assay. Salivary testing for anti HIV is a convenient and potentially an accurate epidemiological tool.

  8. HEFFICON: HIV Effectiveness Italian Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Andrea; Andreoni, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases were reported in 1981, more than 1.5 million people have been diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Europe, including more than 136,000 new HIV cases in 2013. Recent epidemiological data estimate an incidence of 5-10 newly diagnosed HIV infections per 100,000 population per year in Europe and an average prevalence of infection of 5.7 cases per 100,000 population. In the absence of an effective curative strategy for HIV, optimization of prevention policies and clinical management of HIV positive patients is fundamental to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic on public health. Clinical trials represent an essential tool for translating research findings into routine clinical practice. Careful evaluation and planning of clinical trials are therefore mandatory in order to provide relevant information to clinicians. The HEFFICON Project was conceived to investigate and pinpoint methodological issues and critical points that need to be addressed in future clinical studies to increase the translation of experimental results to the real life environment.

  9. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumya Swaminathan; G Narendran

    2008-11-01

    The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography, which has problems of specificity. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities, risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India.

  10. Effects of HIV status notification on reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Yugang; Jing Jun; Zhang Yanhui; Li Huasheng; Feng Liangui; Ning Zhen; Tan Hongzhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of HIV sexual transmission is much higher among people unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Only a few studies have indicated that the incidence of unsafe sex can be reduced when people know their HIV status.This study was to investigate this effect in China.Methods A cohort study consisting of two surveys was conducted at two different times among a group of people living with HIV/AIDS,whose status was newly diagnosed with HIV via sexual contact,in Shanghai,Chongqing,and Kunming.The first survey was conducted among 823 people tested positive for HIV before notifying them of the HIV status.The second survey was conducted among 650 HIV-positive people at six months following the first survey (after notification of HIV status).The scope of survey covered unsafe sex practices,number of unsafe sexual partners,and frequency of unsafe sexual behaviors over the prior six months.Unsafe sex is defined as unprotected anal or vaginal sex with partners who are HIV positive or whose HIV status is unknown.Results The proportion of unsafe sex was reduced by about 85% after HIV status notification.The risk of HIV sexual transmission was 15 times higher among persons unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Approximately 95% of new sexually transmitted HIV infections stemmed from 56% of the infected persons unaware of their HIV status in China.Conclusion Timely HIV status notification has the potential to significantly reduce unsafe sex among HIV-infected persons and reduce the risk for HIV transmission via unsafe sex.

  11. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  12. Nursing Care of HIV-Positive Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben; Martinsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    to improve quality of life after being diagnosed with HIV, a sharp distinction between HIV and AIDS and a religious and spiritually coping. Identifying the emotional challenges women living with HIV face in their daily lives may help nurses obtain a clearer understanding and greater knowledge of how...... to provide HIV-positive women with effective care that empower and support these women in managing their chronic disease. However to ensure that nurses have the proper tools for effective care for women living with HIV European studies are essentials in relation to what emotional challenges these women...

  13. Grappling with HIV transmission risks: narratives of rural women in eastern Kenya living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kako, Peninnah M; Stevens, Patricia E; Karani, Anna K; Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Banda, Anne

    2012-01-01

    As people live longer and more productively with HIV infection, issues of agency in reducing HIV risk are particularly important for HIV-infected women living in high prevalence, underresourced countries such as Kenya. Because of their gendered lives, in that being masculine is associated with dominance and being feminine is associated with passiveness, women in rural Kenya must cope with continued HIV transmission risk even after knowing they are infected with HIV. In this narrative interview study, informed by theories of gender and postcolonial feminism, we examined personal accounts of HIV risk and risk reduction of 20 rural women in eastern Kenya who were living with HIV. From our analysis of the women's narratives, two major themes emerged: gender-based obstacles even in the context of a known HIV diagnosis, and struggles with economic pressures amid HIV risks. Implications for policy, programs, and research are discussed. PMID:22137546

  14. Hiv og kontaktopsporing i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg; Østergaard, Lars; Frydenberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Counselling and partner notification play significant roles in the prevention of HIV. In Denmark, there is no overall strategy or monitoring concerning partner notification and the results of partner notification are unknown. The primary purposes of the study were to describe...... the present organisation and conditions concerning partner notification in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about organizational factors was collected through a questionnaire and supplementary interviews. The study population was all consecutive, newly-diagnosed HIV positive persons in the period...... from 1 May 2005 to 1 June 2006. During this period 254 were diagnosed with HIV. RESULTS: The study showed significant differences in the organisation of partner notification. A total of 123 index cases were offered partner notification. The stated number of partners per index case was 2.4, and 1...

  15. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  16. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen testing to detect HIV infection in female sex workers in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, R K; Ali, K; Thoe, S Y

    1995-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterised by seroconversion after a ¿window¿ period of 2 to 3 months. After this period antibodies are usually detectable by screening tests (enzyme immunoassay or particle agglutination) confirmed by Western blot analysis. We studied 1000 newly enrolled female sex workers who had not been previously tested for HIV to assess the usefulness of HIV antigen testing to improve the efficacy of HIV infection detection. Blood was taken at enrollment for HIV antigen and HIV antibody testing. The Abbott HIVAG-1 test was used to detect antigen; antibody detection was by the Abbott recombinant HIV-1/HIV-2 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test, the Fujirebio Serodia-HIV particle agglutination (PA) test for screening, and the Diagnostic Biotechnology HIV Blot 2.2 Western blot (WB) test for antibody confirmation. Of the 1000 samples, 26 were positive for HIV antibody testing (26/26 for EIA, 25/25 for PA, 26/26 for WB), giving a prevalence rate of 2.6%, Of these 26 seropositive samples 1 was positive on HIV antigen testing. There were no samples which were antigen-positive and antibody-negative. HIV antigen testing does not add to increased efficacy of HIV detection among female sex workers in Singapore.

  17. Association of HIV transmissions and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yu-feng; WANG Hua-dong; ZHAO Cun-xi; YAO Ying-shui; YE Dong-qing; JIANG Zuo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immure deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related stigma is an obstacle to the implementation of treatment, care, and support programs for people living with HIV/AIDS. This study explored the association of the HIV knowledge with the attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV epidemic rural areas with 5355 participants. Their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS were assessed, and the associations of HIV transmission and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS were analyzed.Results Negative attitudes were significantly correlated with the HIV non-transmission knowledge and the correlation was higher than that with HIV transmission knowledge among participants who were male, 20 years old and migrant workers, students and respondents of and above junior high school. However, among those who were female, age 30 and older, illiterate with primary school education, negative attitudes were significantly associated with HIV non-transmission knowledge and the association was lower than that with HIV transmission knowledge.Conclusions HIV transmission knowledge and non-transmission knowledge have different influences on negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among different demographic subgroups.

  18. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  19. Pathogenesis of HIV-associated pulmonary hypertension: potential role of HIV-1 Nef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almodovar, Sharilyn; Hsue, Priscilla Y; Morelli, Julie; Huang, Laurence; Flores, Sonia C

    2011-06-01

    Infection with HIV increases the risk for lung diseases, including noninfectious pulmonary hypertension (PH). HIV-associated PH (HIV-PH) is an important lung disease in HIV-infected persons who live longer with antiretrovirals. The early stages of HIV-PH may be overlooked by healthcare providers due to nonspecific symptoms, including progressive dyspnea and nonproductive cough. HIV-PH may be detected via chest radiographs, CT scans, or electrocardiograms, but Doppler echocardiography is the most useful screening test to identify candidates for right heart catheterization. HIV-PH has a poor prognosis with high mortality; improved biomarkers to identify earlier stages of PH would benefit clinical care. The HIV-PH mechanism remains unknown, but HIV proteins such as Tat and Nef may play a role. HIV-1 Nef is a broad-spectrum adaptor protein that may affect HIV-infected and uninfected pulmonary vascular cells. Studies in macaques suggest that Nef is important in HIV-PH pathogenesis because monkeys infected with a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) expressing HIV-nef (SHIVnef) alleles, but not monkeys infected with the native SIV, develop pulmonary vascular remodeling. Four consistent amino acid mutations arose spontaneously in Nef passaged in the monkeys. To translate these findings to humans, one research endeavor of the Lung HIV Study focuses on the identification of HIV nef mutations in HIV-infected individuals with PH compared with HIV-infected normotensive patients. We present some of the preliminary evidence. Ongoing longitudinal studies will establish the connection between Nef mutations and the propensity for HIV-PH. PMID:21653533

  20. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together...

  1. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  2. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  3. Snapshot of HIV pathogenesis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin; K; SAKSENA; Bin; WANG; Megan; STEAIN; Rong; Ge; YANG; Lin; Qi; ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Several reviews have focused on the nature of HIV infection and its spread in various geographical regions of China.In contrast, this review provides a comprehensive update on the prevalence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes, consequent emergence of recombinant and novel forms of HIV-1 in China, and the implications this may have on HIV diversity and the development of effective vaccines. In addition it also examines the dissemination of primary drug resistance in therapy na(i)ve patients, as well as co-infections with two other important viruses-hepatitis B and C. The main purpose of this review is to provide a current snapshot of HIV-1 pathogenesis in China and possibly shed some light on the future of HIV evolution, and potential challenges for future vaccine and anti-retroviral therapeutics against HIV strains in this area.

  4. Non-infectious Pulmonary Diseases and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplette, M; Crothers, K; Attia, E F

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary complications remain among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality for individuals with HIV despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and improvement in its efficacy and availability. The prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary diseases is rising in this population, reflecting both an increase in smoking and the independent risk associated with HIV. The unique mechanisms of pulmonary disease in these patients remain poorly understood, and direct effects of HIV, genetic predisposition, inflammatory pathways, and co-infections have all been implicated. Lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pulmonary hypertension are the most prevalent non-infectious pulmonary diseases in persons with HIV, and the risk of each of these diseases is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) persons than in the general population. This review discusses the latest advances in the literature on these important complications of HIV infection. PMID:27121734

  5. The value of reducing HIV stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    HIV-stigma is a major reason why HIV continues to be a global epidemic. Interventions targeting HIV-stigma are therefore necessary. To find an intervention that is worthwhile, a Cost-Benefit Analysis is needed which compares costs and benefits. There are many documented costs of HIV-stigma. What is missing is a valuation of the benefits of reducing HIV-stigma. The purpose of this paper is to present a general method that can be used to value the benefits of stigma reduction programs. The method involves estimating the marginal rate of substitution (MRS) between stigma and income in the utility function of older people with HIV. To illustrate how our framework can be used, we applied it to a sample of just over 900 people coming from the 2005-06 ROAH study (Research on Older Adults with HIV) in New York City. PMID:26820574

  6. [HIV in elderly women after travelling abroad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; David, Kim Peter; Lebech, Anne-Mette; Storgaard, Merete

    2016-05-01

    We report two cases of HIV infection among female travellers of older age. A Danish woman in her eighties was diagnosed with acute HIV infection after travelling to West Africa. A sexual history was not recorded before her third hospital visit. A West African woman in her seventies who had been living in Denmark for 40 years was diagnosed with advanced HIV after having been to West Africa for family visits. We want to emphasize that women of older age also have sex that may put them at risk of HIV, that febrile returning travellers should be tested for HIV, and that presence of HIV indicator diseases should lead to HIV testing. PMID:27137117

  7. The metabolic syndrome in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    discusses why the prevalence of MS in the setting of HIV has been reported to range from 7-45% and how antiretroviral drugs might contribute to the development of MS. The MS has been reported to be a 'CVD risk enhancer', and much debate is ongoing on the independent risk of CVD associated with the MS. Based...... on a limited number of studies on MS in HIV with clinical end-points, there is no data to support that the MS is independently associated with an increased risk of CVD....

  8. Polygyny and HIV in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Tfaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We review the relationship between polygyny and HIV and identify a positive individual-level correlation, and a negative ecological correlation. We subsequently examine two mechanisms that contribute to the individual-level correlation. First, we find that men in polygynous marriages have more extramarital sex than men in monogamous unions (both in terms of self reports and in terms of spousal reports of the suspicion of adultery. Second, we find evidence of adverse selection of HIV positive women into polygynous unions via an investigation of the relationship between marriage order and polygyny status. We conclude with reflections about possible explanations for the distinct individual and ecological correlations.

  9. Humanes Immundefizienz-Virus (HIV)

    OpenAIRE

    Neye, Niko

    2010-01-01

    Since the first reports of an unusual cluster of severe pneumonia in June 1981, HIV/AIDS has become a huge pandemia that claimed more than 25 million casualties by the year 2006. At present, it is estimated that 33 million people have been infected with HIV world-wide. The overwhelming majority of which (96%) live in the low- and middle-income countries with the region of Sub-Saharan Africa being particularly badly affected. In this work, a comprehensive investigation of scientific publica...

  10. Initiation of HIV Reverse Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Marquet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription of retroviral genomes into double stranded DNA is a key event for viral replication. The very first stage of HIV reverse transcription, the initiation step, involves viral and cellular partners that are selectively packaged into the viral particle, leading to an RNA/protein complex with very specific structural and functional features, some of which being, in the case of HIV-1, linked to particular isolates. Recent understanding of the tight spatio-temporal regulation of reverse transcription and its importance for viral infectivity further points toward reverse transcription and potentially its initiation step as an important drug target.

  11. Commentaryon using the SF-36 or MOS-HIV in studies of persons with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purposewas to compare and comment on use of the SF-36 and MOS-HIV instrumentsin studies of persons with HIV disease. Three medical informationdatabases were searched to identify examples of HIV studies thatincluded the MOS-HIV or SF-36. Thirty-nine and 14 published articleswere identified for illustration in comparing the use of the MOS-HIVand SF-36 in HIV disease, respectively. Support for the reliabilityand construct validity of the MOS-HIV and SF-36 was found. Ceilingand floor effects were reported for both the MOS-HIV and SF-36;however, ceiling effects were more common for the MOS-HIV, in partdue to fewer items in the physical, social, and role functioningdomains. The MOS-HIV measures three domains hypothesized to be associatedwith the health deterioration of HIV disease not measured by theSF-36; however, these domains may not assess aspects of HIV diseasethat typify the majority of the persons with HIV disease today.National norms for the U.S. adult population (and other nationsare available for the SF-36. In addition, the SF-36 has been usedin a wide variety of patient populations, enabling comparisons ofHIV-infected persons with persons with other health conditions.No national norms for the MOS-HIV are available. We conclude thatthere is currently insufficient evidence in the literature to recommendthe use of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 in HIV-infected persons. Althoughthe SF-36 is not targeted at HIV, it may be preferable to use theSF-36 over the MOS-HIV due to fewer ceiling effects, availabilityof national norms, and the vast amount of data for other populationsin the U.S. and around the world. Head-to-head comparisons demonstratingthe unique value of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 are clearly needed.More importantly, additional work needs to be directed at comparingthe MOS-HIV and other putatively HIV-targeted instruments to oneanother to help demarcate aspects of HRQOL that are truly genericversus specific to HIV disease

  12. HIV-Associated Pathogenesis: The Role of HIV-1 Nef Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoning Xu; Hao Wu

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV more than two decades ago, scientific progress has been impressive and has dramatically advanced our understanding of HIV infection, from molecular through cellular and then on to systemic pathogenesis,such as the functions of HIV-1 nef gene. However, there is still much to be learned before we fully understand how the host interacts with the virus at molecular level and how immune responses correlate with protection from disease. This review describes our current knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the reference of HIV nef functions and its role in HIV-1 mediated pathogenesis.

  13. Counseling for HIV Prevention: Clinical Interventions and HIV Antibody Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Donald H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes some developmental foundations for HIV counseling. Asserts that, in both formal sessions and moments of opportunity, educators, clinicians, and counselors can use the counseling relationship to promote healthy behavior change. This clinical process depends on careful self-appraisal, good counseling skills, and responsiveness to the…

  14. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  15. Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Duvall (Melody); K. Loré (Karin); H. Blaak (Hetty); D.A. Ambrozak (David); W.C. Adams (William); K. Santos (Kathlyn); C. Geldmacher (Christof); J.R. Mascola (John); A.J. McMichael (Andrew); A. Jaye (Assan); H. Whittle; S.L. Rowland-Jones (Sarah); R.A. Koup (Richard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractHuman immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process be

  16. Ergotismo y HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C. Finn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1, en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarrollaron síntomas de enfermedad vascular periférica y al examen físico sus pulsos estaban disminuidos o ausentes. El Doppler arterial confirmó signos de espasmo arterial difuso en dos de ellos. Se hizo diagnóstico de ergotismo secundario a la asociación de ergotamina-inhibidores de la proteasa. Los pacientes fueron tratados con la discontinuación de las drogas involucradas (inhibidores de la proteasa y ergotamina, bloqueantes cálcicos, profilaxis antitrombótica con enoxaparina, antiagregación con ácido acetil salicílico y uno ellos recibió pentoxifilina e infusión de prostaglandinas vasodilatadoras con mejoría de los síntomas. Discutimos la presentación clínica de esta interacción medicamentosa, difícil de diagnosticar correctamente sin una fuerte sospecha de su existencia.

  17. Human defensins 5 and 6 enhance HIV-1 infectivity through promoting HIV attachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wuyuan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. The levels of defensins are frequently elevated in genital fluids from individuals with STIs. We have previously shown that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6 promote HIV entry and contribute to Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated enhancement of HIV infectivity in vitro. In this study, we dissect the molecular mechanism of the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. Results HD5 and HD6 primarily acted on the virion to promote HIV infection. Both HD5 and HD6 antagonized the anti-HIV activities of inhibitors of HIV entry (TAK 779 and fusion (T-20 when the inhibitors were present only during viral attachment; however, when these inhibitors were added back during viral infection they overrode the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. HD5 and HD6 enhanced HIV infectivity by promoting HIV attachment to target cells. Studies using fluorescent HIV containing Vpr-GFP indicated that these defensins enhanced HIV attachment by concentrating virus particles on the target cells. HD5 and HD6 blocked anti-HIV activities of soluble glycosaminoglycans including heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and dextran sulfate. However, heparin, at a high concentration, diminished the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6. Additionally, the degree of the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6, was increased in heparinase-treated cells. These results suggest that HD5 and haparin/heparan sulfate compete for binding to HIV. Conclusions HD5 and HD6 increased HIV infectivity by concentrating virus on the target cells. These defensins may have a negative effect on the efficacy of microbicides, especially in the setting of STIs.

  18. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples presenting for HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Wall, Kristin M; O'Hara, Brandon; Jones, Jeb; Barnes, Jasper; DiClemente, Ralph; Hoff, Colleen; Scales, Lamont; Salazar, Laura F; Sanchez, Travis; White, Darcy; Wingood, Gina; Allen, Susan; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, a substantial proportion of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) arise from main sex partners. Couples voluntary HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is used in many parts of the world with male-female couples, but CHTC has historically not been available in the U.S. and few data exist about the extent of HIV serodiscordance among U.S. male couples. We tested partners in 95 Atlanta male couples (190 men) for HIV. Eligible men were in a relationship for ≥3 months and were not known to be HIV-positive. We calculated the prevalence of couples that were seroconcordant HIV-negative, seroconcordant HIV-positive, or HIV serodiscordant. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance by several dyadic characteristics (e.g., duration of relationship, sexual agreements, and history of anal intercourse in the relationship). Overall, among 190 men tested for HIV, 11 % (n = 20) were newly identified as HIV-positive. Among the 95 couples, 81 % (n = 77) were concordant HIV-negative, 17 % (n = 16) were HIV serodiscordant, and 2 % (n = 2) were concordant HIV-positive. Serodiscordance was not significantly associated with any evaluated dyadic characteristic. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples in Atlanta is high. Offering testing to male couples may attract men with a high HIV seropositivity rate to utilize testing services. Based on the global evidence base for CHTC with heterosexual couples and the current evidence of substantial undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among U.S. MSM, we recommend scale-up of CHTC services for MSM, with ongoing evaluation of acceptability and couples' serostatus outcomes.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About NIDA Director's Page Organization Legislative Activities Advisory Boards & Groups Working at NIDA Donating to NIDA Contact Us Sharing Tools and Badges Other Resources Strategic Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  20. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Grijsen

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parties or hanging out with friends? In the “d’cisions” Webisode series, Kim and her friends never ... always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” Webisode series is part of the Drugs + ...

  2. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn ...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... associated with drug abuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United States. Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media ... Plan Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV or transmitting it to someone else. Biological effects of drugs. Drug abuse and addiction can affect a person's ... the discussion between friends, and the importance of family. For more information, read a ... Drug Abuse, Dr. Nora D. Volkow. Message from the ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter ... Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Medical Consequences Mental Health Military Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & ...

  8. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public Education Projects Contact the Press Office Meetings & Events Media Guide ... Search Share Print Home » News & Events » Public Education Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the ...

  9. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... send the message to young people and to parents, teachers, and the media about the link between drug abuse and HIV. We have produced a set of multicultural public service announcements (PSAs) that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" PSA features two young girls ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... includes radio announcements that can still be aired. Send the Message Overview Please help us send the message to young people and to parents, ... risks and benefits when making decisions. Watch the "Send the Message About Drugs and HIV" Video How ...

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... young people engage in risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors. Unsafe sexual practices increase a person's risk of ... HIV, and it encourages them to share this information with their peers to prevent ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study ...

  12. CROI 2016: Neurologic Complications of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Serena S; Ances, Beau M

    2016-01-01

    The brain remains a major target for HIV infection and a site of potential complications for HIV-infected individuals. Emerging data presented at the 2016 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections suggest that during the early stages of infection, activated CD4+ cells may traffic the virus into the central nervous system (CNS). HIV is detectable in cells and tissues of the CNS in some individuals despite suppressive antiretroviral treatment. A potential source of cerebrospinal fluid HIV escape may be compartmentalized HIV replication within macrophage lineage cells. Virally infected cells can traffic out of the CNS and may have the potential to reseed the systemic compartment. Additional modifiers of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) were identified, including female sex and hepatic dysfunction. Large epidemiologic studies reported an elevated risk of stroke among HIV-infected individuals, related to traditional vascular risk factors, history of recreational drug use, and HIV measures (lower CD4+ cell nadir and higher viral load). Brain imaging may provide a noninvasive means for detecting early changes in the brain associated with HIV infection and may assist in prognosis of HAND. Some potential adjunctive therapies to standard antiretroviral therapy for HIV-infected individuals were considered. PMID:27398860

  13. Impacts to HIV/AIDS of gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Taşçı

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important dimension in understanding the evolution of the epidemic. HIV/AIDS is one of the vital problems of our century. HIV/AIDS is not merely a medical disease but also is a problem, which possesses economical, cultural, psychological and social dimensions. Women are more vulnerable to HIV than men because of biological and cultural factors. Besides women who carry HIV virus experience difficulty in taking care of their own health, they also carry the burden of possibility that their children and other members of the family might catch HIV virus. Most often, social support is insufficient and the conditions brought by treatment cannot be utilized appropriately due to external interventions. Most of the problems that women under the risk of HIV run into are largely social rather than medical. Many women infected with HIV were isolated because they didn’t get of sufficient social support or didn’t equal time for their care and it is thought that this inequality still continues. An analysis of the impact of gender on HIV/AIDS demonstrates the importance of integrating gender into HIV programming and finding ways to strengthen women by implementing policies and programs that increase their access to education and information. Women's empowerment is vital to reversing the epidemic.

  14. Compromiso renal en pacientes HIV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marta Pernasetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Varias complicaciones nefrológicas pueden ocurrir durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV especialmente en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad o relacionadas con otras infecciones o drogas. Poco conocida es la prevalencia de alteraciones renales subclínicas de pacientes HIV+ surgidas como complicación o relacionadas a la infección y/o tratamiento. Realizamos un corte transversal de pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ referidos en forma consecutiva al consultorio de nefrología para la detección de alteraciones nefrológicas. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes adultos mediante exámenes de sangre y orina, ultrasonido y biopsia renal. Edad media 39.9 ± 10.6 años, 88% varones, tiempo de diagnóstico de la infección: 53.2 ± 41.2 (2-127 meses. El 71% tenían síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (HIV-sida y el 77% recibían con antirretrovirales. La carga viral al momento del estudio fue 7043 ± 3322 copias y el recuento de CD4+ 484 ± 39 cel/mm³. El 30.7% presentó alteraciones del sedimento urinario: albuminuria: 16.6%, hematuria microscópica: 11.5%, hipercalciuria: 10.8% y cristaluria 6%. La media del filtrado glomerular fue 102.2 ± 22.9 ml/min (rango: 34-149. El 41% presentó anormalidades que corresponderían a enfermedad renal crónica (estadios 1 a 3. Los pacientes con alteraciones tenían mayor edad, con duración más prolongada de la infección. Las anomalías renales no se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de HIV-sida. Dos pacientes fueron biopsiados, con hallazgos de nefritis túbulo-intersticial crónica con cristales y glomerulonefritis por IgA. No hubo hallazgos de nefropatía por HIV. El amplio espectro y la alta prevalencia de anormalidades nefrológicas subclínicas encontradas sugieren que los pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ deberían realizar evaluaciones nefrológicas de rutina.

  15. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  16. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  17. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health STDs Home Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).* Sexual risk behaviors place adolescents at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted ...

  18. HIV infection is associated with diffusing capacity impairment in women

    OpenAIRE

    FITZPATRICK, Meghan E.; Gingo, Matthew R.; Kessinger, Cathy; Lucht, Lorrie; Kleerup, Eric; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Claman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Fong, Serena; Huang, Laurence; Morris, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory dysfunction is common in HIV, but few studies have directly assessed whether HIV remains an independent risk factor for pulmonary function abnormalities in the antiretroviral therapy era. Additionally, few studies have focused on pulmonary outcomes in HIV+ women.

  19. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-2-Infected Patients Is Less Affected by Antiretroviral Treatment-sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 Dually Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hønge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; Møller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during follow-up without antiretroviral therapy (ART). At follow-up on ART, median sCD163 levels were decreased for HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.001), but not among HIV-2 (P = 0.093) or HIV-1/2 dually infected patients (P = 0.145). The larger decrease in sCD163 levels among HIV-1-infected patients during ART may indicate an HIV type-dependent differential effect of ART on macrophage activation during HIV infection. PMID:26825178

  20. Urological aspects of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Chris F; Smit, Shaun G; van der Merwe, André; Zarrabi, Amir D

    2013-12-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected people has led to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and virus-related malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma, but not cervical or anal cancer. Advanced-stage cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of urological complications such as hydronephrosis, renal failure, and vesicovaginal fistula. Adult male circumcison can significantly reduce the risk of male HIV acquisition. Although HAART does not completely eradicate HIV, compliance with medication increases life expectancy. HIV infection or treatment can result in renal failure, which can be managed with dialysis and transplantation (as for HIV-negative patients). Although treatment for erectile dysfunction--including phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection therapy, and penile prosthesis--can increase the risk of HIV transmission, treatment decisions for men with erectile dysfunction should not be determined by HIV status. The challenges faced when administering chemotherapy to HIV-infected patients with cancer include late presentation, immunodeficiency, drug interactions, and adverse effects associated with compounded medications. Nonetheless, HIV-infected patients should receive the same cancer treatment as HIV-negative patients. The urologist is increasingly likely to encounter HIV-positive patients who present with the same urological problems as the general population, because HAART confers a prolonged life expectancy. Performing surgery in an HIV-infected individual raises safety issues for both the patient (if severely immunocompromised) and the surgeon, but the risk of HIV transmission from patients on fully suppressive HAART is small.

  1. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  2. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  3. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  4. HIV-1 Tat and HIV-associated Dementia%HIV-1Tat蛋白与艾滋病脑病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周勤华; 姚鑫; 惠斌

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 gene expression requires the transcriptional activator protein Tal of human immunodeficiency virus-1 ( HIV-1) , which stimulates viral transcript elongation. A significant number of people infected with the HIV develop neurologic complications. HIV-1-associated dementia( HAD) is a severe central nervous system(CNS) disorder neurologically induced by HIV-1. HAD represents the most severe form of HIV-related neuropsychiatric impairment and is characterized by motor dysfunction and impaired cognitions and behaviors. HIV-1 trans-activator of transcription( Tat) is an important factor in viral pathogenesis. The Tat protein not only drives the regulatory regions of the virus, but also might be actively released from the cells and then interacts with the cell surface receptors of other uninfected cells in the brain leading to cellular dysfunction. Growing evidence indicates that HIV-1 Tat protein play a major role in pathogenesis of HAD. This article reviewed the pleomorphic actions of Tat protein and the evidence supporting its central role in the neuropathogenesis of HAD.%Tat蛋白是HIV-1编码的反式转录激活因子,其主要功能是反式激活HIV-1病毒基因组转录的起始和延伸,启动病毒复制,近年来研究发现,Tat蛋白在HIV-1感染所引起的严重中枢神经系统(CNS)并发症——艾滋病脑病中起重要作用,是艾滋病脑病发生与发展的重要致病因子.本文就HIV-1 Tat蛋白在艾滋病脑病中的研究进展作一综述.

  5. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...

  6. Kinetic studies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doms Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env-mediated fusion is driven by the concerted coalescence of the HIV gp41 N-helical and C-helical regions, which results in the formation of 6 helix bundles. Kinetics of HIV Env-mediated fusion is an important determinant of sensitivity to entry inhibitors and antibodies. However, the parameters that govern the HIV Env fusion cascade have yet to be fully elucidated. We address this issue by comparing the kinetics HIV-1IIIB Env with those mediated by HIV-2 from two strains with different affinities for CD4 and CXCR4. Results HIV-1 and HIV-2 Env-mediated cell fusion occurred with half times of about 60 and 30 min, respectively. Binding experiments of soluble HIV gp120 proteins to CD4 and co-receptor did not correlate with the differences in kinetics of fusion mediated by the three different HIV Envs. However, escape from inhibition by reagents that block gp120-CD4 binding, CD4-induced CXCR4 binding and 6-helix bundle formation, respectively, indicated large difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoproteins in their CD4-induced rates of engagement with CXCR4. Conclusion The HIV-2 Env proteins studied here exhibited a significantly reduced window of time between the engagement of gp120 with CD4 and exposure of the CXCR4 binding site on gp120 as compared with HIV-1IIIB Env. The efficiency with which HIV-2 Env undergoes this CD4-induced conformational change is the major cause of the relatively rapid rate of HIV-2 Env mediated-fusion.

  7. Strategies and Outcomes of HIV Status Disclosure in HIV-Positive Young Women with Abuse Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Clum, Gretchen A.; Czaplicki, Lauren; Andrinopoulos, Katherine; Muessig, Kathryn; Hamvas, L.; Ellen, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    Young women with HIV and histories of physical and/or sexual abuse in childhood may be vulnerable to difficulties with disclosure to sexual partners. Abuse in childhood is highly prevalent in HIV-positive women, and has been associated with poorer communication, low assertiveness, low self worth, and increased risk for sexual and other risk behaviors that increase the risk of secondary transmission of HIV. HIV disclosure may be an important link between abuse and sexual risk behaviors. Qualit...

  8. Assessment of linkages from HIV testing to enrolment and retention in HIV care in Central Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Celso Azarias Inguane; Stephen Gloyd; João Luis Manuel; Charlene Brown; Vincent Wong; Orvalho Augusto; Wisal Mustafa Hassan; Lúcia Vieira; Pires Afonso; Mehol Jamnadás; Jama Joy Bernard; James Cowan; Samuel Kalibala; James Pfeiffer

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Effectiveness of the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) throughout sub-Saharan Africa is highly dependent on adequate enrolment and retention in HIV care. However, the measurement of both has been challenging in these settings. This study aimed to assess enrolment and retention in HIV care (pre-ART and ART) among HIV-positive adults in Central Mozambique, including identification of barriers and facilitators. Methods: We assessed linkages to and retention in HIV car...

  9. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Baveewo Steven; Kamya Moses R; Mayanja-Kizza Harriet; Fatch Robin; Bangsberg David R; Coates Thomas; Hahn Judith A; Wanyenze Rhoda K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing o...

  10. Indeterminate and discrepant rapid HIV test results in couples' HIV testing and counselling centres in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Boeras Debrah I; Luisi Nicole; Karita Etienne; McKinney Shila; Sharkey Tyronza; Keeling Michelle; Chomba Elwyn; Kraft Colleen; Wall Kristin; Bizimana Jean; Kilembe William; Tichacek Amanda; Caliendo Angela M; Hunter Eric; Allen Susan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many HIV voluntary testing and counselling centres in Africa use rapid antibody tests, in parallel or in sequence, to establish same-day HIV status. The interpretation of indeterminate or discrepant results between different rapid tests on one sample poses a challenge. We investigated the use of an algorithm using three serial rapid HIV tests in cohabiting couples to resolve unclear serostatuses. Methods Heterosexual couples visited the Rwanda Zambia HIV Research Group tes...

  11. Mental Health in Youth Infected with and Affected by HIV: The Role of Caregiver HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health. Method Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N = 545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Results HIV+ youth reported ...

  12. The virus stops with me: HIV-infected Ugandans' motivations in preventing HIV transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Rachel; Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lindkvist, Pille; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Few Positive Prevention interventions have been implemented in Africa; however, greater attention is now being paid to interventions that include messages of personal responsibility or altruism that may motivate HIV-infected individuals towards HIV prevention behaviors in Africa. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews in 2004 with HIV-infected men and women purposefully sampled to represent a range of sexual activities among clients of an AIDS support organization in Uganda. Qualitative interviews were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 1092 HIV-infected men and women. Clients were interviewed about their concerns around sexual HIV transmission, feelings of responsibility and reasons for these feelings, as well as about the challenges and consequences of actions to prevent HIV transmission. The reasons they provided for their sense of prevention responsibility revolved around ethical and practical themes. Responsibility toward sexual partners was linked to the belief that conscious transmission of HIV equals murder, would cause physical and emotional harm, and would leave children orphaned. The primary reason specific to preventing HIV transmission to unborn children was the perception that they are 'innocent'. Most participants felt that HIV-infected individuals held a greater responsibility for preventing HIV transmission than did HIV-uninfected individuals. Respondents reported that their sense of responsibility lead them to reduce HIV transmission risk, encourage partner testing, disclose HIV test results, and assume an HIV/AIDS educator role. Challenges to HIV preventive behavior and altruistic intentions included: sexual desire; inconsistent condom use, especially in long term relationships; myths around condom use; fear of disclosure; gender-power dynamics; and social and financial pressure. Our finding that altruism played an important role in motivating preventive behaviors among HIV-infected persons in Uganda supports the inclusion of altruistic

  13. Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples

    OpenAIRE

    Anglemyer, Andrew; Rutherford, George W.; Horvath, Tara; Baggaley, Rachel C; Egger, Matthias; Siegfried, Nandi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Antiretroviral drugs have been shown to reduce risk of mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and are also widely used for post-exposure prophylaxis for parenteral and sexual exposures. Sexual transmission may be lower in couples in which one partner is infected with HIV and the other is not and the infected partner is on antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES To determine if ART use in an HIV-infected member of an HIV-discordant couple is ...

  14. Stabilizing HIV prevalence masks high HIV incidence rates amongst rural and urban women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Kharsany, Ayesha BM; Frohlich, Janet A; Werner, Lise; Mashego, May; Mlotshwa, Mukelisiwe; Madlala, Bernadette T; Ntombela, Fanelesibonge; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2010-01-01

    Background In mature generalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics, as survival from accessing antiretroviral treatment (ART) increases, HIV prevalence data may be suboptimal and difficult to interpret without HIV incidence rates.

  15. Determining the frequency and mechanisms of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA copackaging by single-virion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A;

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 are derived from two distinct primate viruses and share only limited sequence identity. Despite this, HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag polyproteins can coassemble into the same particle and their genomes can undergo recombination, albeit at an extremely low frequency, implying that HIV-1 and HIV......-2 RNA can be copackaged into the same particle. To determine the frequency of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA copackaging and to dissect the mechanisms that allow the heterologous RNA copackaging, we directly visualized the RNA content of each particle by using RNA-binding proteins tagged with fluorescent...... proteins to label the viral genomes. We found that when HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA are present in viral particles at similar ratios, ∼10% of the viral particles encapsidate both HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNAs. Furthermore, heterologous RNA copackaging can be promoted by mutating the 6-nucleotide (6-nt) dimer initiation...

  16. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...... (agreement 90.9%) and SD Bioline HIV-1/2 3.0 (agreement 84.5%). Our results underscore the need for evaluation of tests in relevant populations before implementation.......As HIV-2 is intrinsically resistant to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, it is mandatory to discriminate between HIV types before initiating antiretroviral treatment. Guinea-Bissau has the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. We evaluated 3...

  17. A systematic review of measures of HIV/AIDS stigma in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, Carole Ian; Truong, Nhan-Ai Thi; Aluoch, Josephine; Deathe, Andrew Roland; Nyandiko, Winstone M; Marete, Irene; Vreeman, Rachel Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-related stigma impacts the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its impact on children and adolescents has less often been described. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. Results and discussion Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in paediatric populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with paediatric populations in Africa, Asia and the United States. Other common measures included the Perceived Public Stigma Against Children Affected by HIV, primarily utilized and validated in China. Few studies implored item validation techniques with the population of interest, although scales were used in a different cultural context from the origin of the scale. Conclusions Many stigma measures have been used to assess HIV stigma in paediatric populations, globally, but few have implored methods for cultural adaptation and content validity. PMID:27717409

  18. HIV/AIDS, Globalizacao e Seguranca Ontológica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security......HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security...

  19. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...... scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  20. Effect of isoprinosine on HIV antigenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Kroon, S; Sandström, E;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoprinosine on HIV-antigen expression in HIV-positive patients without AIDS. DESIGN: Serum samples from anti-HIV-positive patients without AIDS participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of isoprinosine...... in the treatment of HIV infection were analysed for the presence of HIV antigen. SETTING: Data and samples were collected from the 21 medical centres who participated in the Scandinavian multicentre placebo-controlled isoprinosine study. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Samples were available from 19 of 21 participating...... centres. Of 866 patients who enrolled, baseline serum samples were available for 642 (74%; 308 isoprinosine- and 334 placebo-treated patients). INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was 1 g isoprinosine administered orally three times a day or matching placebo for 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of HIV...

  1. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotze, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p

  2. HIV:The Virus%HIV病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Lever; 张宏伟

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1和HIV-2是反转录病毒科慢病毒属的成员。本属病毒可感染猫、马、山羊和绵羊,表现为慢性感染,在某些情况下导致免疫缺陷。与其关系最近的是猴免疫缺陷病毒(SIV),HIV-1可能通过种间交叉传播从黑猩猩病毒(SIVcpz)传给人类,而HIV-2可能单独来源于白眉乌猴(SIVsm),因此,HIV-1和HIV-2

  3. Vertikal smitte med hiv i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvinesdal, Birgit Bak; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Herlin, Troels;

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vertical transmission of HIV can be reduced if the pregnant woman and new born child receive antiretroviral treatment. Delivery by caesarean section and avoidance of breast feeding further reduce vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the treatment of HIV......-positive pregnant women in Denmark and the risk of vertical transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively describe the risk of vertical transmission of HIV among HIV-positive women giving birth in Denmark during the period, mid-1994 to February 2000. RESULTS: Fifty children were born. One mother gave birth...... mothers was the HIV-infection known until the time of delivery or later. Transmission of HIV did not occur in the 34 mother-child pairs who received antepartum and intrapartum antiretroviral treatment, who had a caesarean delivery, who did not breast-feed, and whose children were given postpartum...

  4. Recent update in HIV vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results obtained from the correlate of risk analysis have reinvigorated the HIV vaccine research field leading to various novel strategies. This paper will review the brief history and recent advances in HIV vaccine development. PMID:26866018

  5. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  6. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  7. HIV Care in the Swedish-Danish HIV Cohort 1995-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Häggblom, Amanda; Sönnerborg, Anders;

    2013-01-01

    Successful treatment reduces morbidity, mortality and transmission of HIV. We evaluated trends in the treatment status of HIV infected individuals enrolled in care in Sweden and Denmark during the years 1995-2010. Our aim was to assess the proportion of HIV-infected individuals who received...

  8. Discriminatory capacity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 of the new rapid confirmation assay Geenius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herssens, Natacha; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2014-11-01

    The currently used HIV confirmatory assays, Western blot and line immunoassay, are costly, complex and time-consuming. There is a need for cheaper, simpler and faster assays for use in high- and low-resource settings. Furthermore, it is necessary to differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection due to differences in disease progression, monitoring and treatment options. Because the new Geenius HIV 1/2 Confirmatory Assay (Bio-Rad) has a European Community (CE) label, this study focused on its differentiation capacity using serum/plasma specimens from established HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV untypable infections from the AIDS Reference Laboratory (ARL) of the Institute of Tropical Medicine (ITM) in Belgium. The results were compared with ARL's standard algorithm for diagnosis of HIV-infection and the new interpretation criteria for discrimination of the INNO-LIA HIVI/II Score, Fujirebio, Ghent, Belgium (LIA). The study showed a performance comparable to that of the reference LIA, with an overall sensitivity of 99.3% and specificity of 98%. Differentiation capacity was much better for the Geenius assay, with 93.8% of samples identified correctly as HIV-1 or HIV-2. When the new interpretation criteria for the LIA were used, the differentiation capacity of LIA increased to 98.5%. The results show that the Geenius assay is a reliable and fast alternative for the confirmation and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection in resource-rich and poor settings.

  9. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  10. Frequency of HIV Screening in the Veterans Health Administration: Implications for Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, Ronald O.; Rodriguez, Fred; Holodniy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency of HIV testing across the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. An electronic survey was used to determine the volume and location of HIV screening, confirmatory testing, rapid testing and laboratory consent policies in VA medical centers between October 1, 2005, and…

  11. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.

    2014-01-01

    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  12. CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Buchacz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 at HIV diagnosis (late HIV diagnosis by logistic regression. Results. Of 1,203 eligible patients, 936 (78% had a CD4 count within 3 months after HIV diagnosis. Median CD4 count at HIV diagnosis was 299 cells/mm3 and did not significantly improve over time (P=0.13. Comparing periods 2000-2001 versus 2008-2009, respectively, 39% and 35% of patients had a late HIV diagnosis (P=0.34. Independent correlates of late HIV diagnosis were having an HIV risk other than being MSM, age ≥35 years at diagnosis, and being of nonwhite race/ethnicity. Conclusions. There is need for routine universal HIV testing to reduce the frequency of late HIV diagnosis and increase opportunity for patient- and potentially population-level benefits associated with early antiretroviral treatment.

  13. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  14. Predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care.

    OpenAIRE

    Huntington, S. E.; Thorne, C.; Bansi, L. K.; Anderson, J.; Newell, M. L.; Taylor, G P; Pillay, D.; Hill, T; Tookey, P A; Sabin, C.A.; UK Collaborative HIV Cohort Study and the National Stu

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe predictors of pregnancy and changes in pregnancy incidence among HIV-positive women accessing HIV clinical care. METHODS: Data were obtained through the linkage of two separate studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort study (UK CHIC), a cohort of adults attending 13 large HIV clinics; and the National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), a national surveillance study of HIV-positive pregnant women. Pregnancy incidence was measured using the proportion of wo...

  15. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Gwadz, Marya; Charles M Cleland; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Lynch, Laura; Banfield, Angela; McCright-Gill, Talaya; del Olmo, Montserrat; Martinez, Belkis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends persons at high risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%) but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines i...

  16. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    OpenAIRE

    Marya eGwadz; Charles M Cleland; Alexandra eKutnick; Noelle Regina Leonard; Amanda Spring Ritchie; Laura eLynch; Angela eBanfield; Talaya eMcCright-Gill; Montserrat edel Olmo; Belkis eMartinez

    2016-01-01

    Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%), but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and ...

  17. Transmission of HIV in dialysis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, M; Fridkin, S K; Cárdenas, V; Boshell, J; Ramirez, G; Bland, L; Iglesias, A; Jarvis, W

    1995-06-01

    In August, 1993, 13 dialysis patients at one dialysis centre in Colombia, South America, were found to be HIV positive, and this prompted an epidemiological investigation. We carried out a cohort study of all dialysis centre patients during January, 1992 to December, 1993 (epidemic period) to determine risk factors for HIV seroconversion. Haemodialysis and medical records were reviewed, dialysis centre staff and surviving patients were interviewed, and dialysis practices were observed. Stored sera from all dialysis centre patients were tested for HIV antibody. 12 (52%) of 23 patients tested positive for HIV antibody by enzyme immunoassay and western blot during the epidemic period. Of the 23 tested, 9 (39%) converted from HIV antibody negative to positive (seroconverters) and 10 (44%) remained HIV negative (seronegatives). The HIV seroconversion rate was higher among patients dialysed at the centre while a new patient, who was HIV seropositive, was dialysed there (90% vs 0%; p dialysis centre reprocessed access needles, dialysers, and bloodlines (60% vs 0%). While 2 of 9 HIV seroconverters had had sex with prostitutes, none had received unscreened blood products or had other HIV risk factors. No surgical or dental procedures were associated with HIV seroconversion. Dialysers were reprocessed separately with 5% formaldehyde and were labelled for use on the same patient. Access needles were reprocessed by soaking them in a common container with a low-level disinfectant, benzalkonium chloride; 4 pairs of needles were placed in one pan creating the potential for cross-contamination or use of one patient's needles on another patient. HIV transmission at the dialysis centre was confirmed. Improperly reprocessed patient-care equipment, most probably access needles, is the likely mechanism of transmission. This outbreak was discovered by accident and similar transmission may be occurring in many other countries where low-level disinfectants are used to sterilise critical

  18. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  19. Animal Models for HIV Cure Research

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin B Policicchio; Pandrea, Ivona; Apetrei, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1/AIDS pandemic continues to spread unabated worldwide, and no vaccine exists within our grasp. Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been developed, but ART cannot clear the virus from the infected patient. A cure for HIV-1 is badly needed to stop both the spread of the virus in human populations and disease progression in infected individuals. A safe and effective cure strategy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection will require multiple tools, and appropriate animal ...

  20. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in adults. Hence, over the past decade, tuberculosis incidence has increased in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. The association between tuberculosis ...

  1. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  2. Tanzania HIV/AIDS, Work and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Sabine; Rai, Pallavi

    2004-01-01

    This paper was prepared as part of a series addressing the context of HIV/AIDS, work and development at the country level. It examines the demographic and socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. The paper describes the effects of HIV/AIDS on labour supply and on the demand in key skills and occupations. It identifies current and potential shortages inhuman resource capacity that will significantly affect economic development and growth in Tanzania. It also develops policy implications ...

  3. Persistent HIV-1 replication during antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Picado, Javier; Deeks, Steven G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The present review will highlight some of the recent findings regarding the capacity of HIV-1 to replicate during antiretroviral therapy (ART). Recent findings Although ART is highly effective at inhibiting HIV replication, it is not curative. Several mechanisms contribute to HIV persistence during ART, including HIV latency, immune dysfunction, and perhaps persistent low-level spread of the virus to uninfected cells (replication). The success in curing HIV will depend on efficiently targeting these three aspects. The degree to which HIV replicates during ART remains controversial. Most studies have failed to find any evidence of HIV evolution in blood, even with samples collected over many years, although a recent very intensive study of three individuals suggested that the virus population does shift, at least during the first few months of therapy. Stronger but still not definitive evidence for replication comes from a series of studies in which standard regimens were intensified with an integration inhibitor, resulting in changes in episomal DNA (blood) and cell-associated RNA (tissue). Limited drug penetration within tissues and the presence of immune sanctuaries have been argued as potential mechanisms allowing HIV to spread during ART. Mathematical models suggest that HIV replication and evolution is possible even without the selection of fully drug-resistant variants. As persistent HIV replication could have clinical consequences and might limit the efficacy of curative interventions, determining if HIV replicates during ART and why, should remain a key focus of the HIV research community. Summary Residual viral replication likely persists in lymphoid tissues, at least in a subset of individuals. Abnormal levels of immune activation might contribute to sustain virus replication. PMID:27078619

  4. Computational Studies of HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Schaal, Wesley

    2002-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the causative agent of the pandemic disease Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV acts to disrupt the immune system which makes the body susceptible to opportunistic infections. Untreated, AIDS is generally fatal. Twenty years of research by countless scientists around the world has led to the discovery and exploitation of several targets in the replication cycle of HIV. Many lives have been saved, prolonged and improved as a result of this mass...

  5. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  6. Development of HIV vectors for anti-HIV gene therapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Poeschla, E; Corbeau, P; Wong-Staal, F

    1996-01-01

    Current gene therapy protocols for HIV infection use transfection or murine retrovirus mediated transfer of antiviral genes into CD4+ T cells or CD34+ progenitor cells ex vivo, followed by infusion of the gene altered cells into autologous or syngeneic/allogeneic recipients. While these studies are essential for safety and feasibility testing, several limitations remain: long-term reconstitution of the immune system is not effected for lack of access to the macrophage reservoir or the pluripo...

  7. Seven Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Antigen-Antibody Combination Assays: Evaluation of HIV Seroconversion Sensitivity and Subtype Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Thoai Duong; Martin, Lynn; Daghfal, David; Sandridge, Arnold; West, Daniel; Bristow, Richard; Chalouas, Laurence; Qiu, Xiaoxing; Lou, Sheng C.; Hunt, Jeffrey C.; Schochetman, Gerald; Devare, Sushil G.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the performance of two prototype human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) combination assays, one from Abbott Laboratories (AxSYM HIV Ag-Ab) and the other from bioMerieux (VIDAS HIV Duo Ultra), versus five combination assays commercially available in Europe. The assays were Enzygnost HIV Integral, Genscreen Plus HIV Ag-Ab, Murex HIV Ag-Ab Combination, VIDAS HIV Duo, and Vironostika HIV Uniform II Ag-Ab. All assays were evaluated for the ability t...

  8. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4⁺ cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...... in HIV infection, including mechanisms, relevance for clinical care, and possible solutions....

  9. Drawing conceptual linkages: property rights and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Priya

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on broader social development necessitates a closer scrutiny of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and economic productivity. In this article, which is based on her presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Priya Nanda describes the relationship between the widespread exclusion in developing countries of land ownership by women and their vulnerability to HIV and the effects of HIV. The author calls for more research on the complexity and diversity of land tenure systems and property laws.

  10. Protecting Yourself and Your Partners from HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, provides individuals with steps they can take to protect their health from HIV. This podcast was created for National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, which takes place on February 7.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  11. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    In observance of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the HIV/AIDS among African Americans and what steps can be taken on the national, state, local, and individual levels to address this epidemic.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  12. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  13. eHealth interventions for HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts

    2012-01-01

    The rapidly changing media landscape and proliferation of new technologies creates vast new opportunities for HIV prevention. The fast growth of the relatively new eHealth field is a testament to the excitement and promise of these new technologies. eHealth interventions in HIV prevention tested to date include computer- and Internet-based interventions; chat room interventions; text messaging interventions; and social media. The current article provides a brief review of these types of interventions in HIV prevention, including their unique advantages and evidence of efficacy. Implications for future research in the eHealth HIV prevention field are discussed. PMID:22519523

  14. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  15. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  16. Pityrosporum Infection In HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaviarasan P K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.

  17. Relationship characteristics and HIV transmission risk in same-sex male couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care.

  18. Macro-level Implicit HIV Prejudice and the Health of Community Residents with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carol T.; Varni, Susan E.; Solomon, Sondra E.; DeSarno, Michael J.; Bunn, Janice Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study examined how community levels of implicit HIV prejudice are associated with the psychological and physical well-being of people with HIV living in those same communities. It also examined whether community motivation to control prejudice and/or explicit HIV prejudice moderates the relationship of implicit prejudice and well-being. Methods Participants were 206 people with HIV living in 42 different communities in New England who completed measures that assessed psychological distress, thriving, and physical well-being. Telephone surveys of 347 residents of these same communities (selected via random digit dialing) were used to assess community explicit HIV prejudice and motivation to control HIV prejudice. These community residents then completed an on-line measure of implicit prejudice toward people with HIV, the Implicit Association Test (IAT, Greenwald et al., 1998). Results Multilevel analyses showed that higher community implicit HIV prejudice was associated with greater psychological distress among residents with HIV living in that community. The physical well-being of participants with HIV was negatively related to community implicit HIV prejudice in communities in which residents were unmotivated to control HIV prejudice or had high levels of explicit HIV prejudice. Conclusions These findings indicate that implicit prejudice of residents of real-world communities may create an environment that may impair the well-being of stigmatized people. Implicit prejudice can therefore be considered an element of macro-level or structural stigma. The discussion considered the possible role of implicit HIV prejudice on a community’s social capital as one pathway by which it compromises the well-being of residents with HIV. PMID:27505199

  19. Long-Range HIV Genotyping Using Viral RNA and Proviral DNA for Analysis of HIV Drug Resistance and HIV Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novitsky, Vlad; Zahralban-Steele, Melissa; McLane, Mary Fran; Moyo, Sikhulile; van Widenfelt, Erik; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Makhema, Joseph; Essex, M

    2015-08-01

    The goal of the study was to improve the methodology of HIV genotyping for analysis of HIV drug resistance and HIV clustering. Using the protocol of Gall et al. (A. Gall, B. Ferns, C. Morris, S. Watson, M. Cotten, M. Robinson, N. Berry, D. Pillay, and P. Kellam, J Clin Microbiol 50:3838-3844, 2012, doi:10.1128/JCM.01516-12), we developed a robust methodology for amplification of two large fragments of viral genome covering about 80% of the unique HIV-1 genome sequence. Importantly, this method can be applied to both viral RNA and proviral DNA amplification templates, allowing genotyping in HIV-infected subjects with suppressed viral loads (e.g., subjects on antiretroviral therapy [ART]). The two amplicons cover critical regions across the HIV-1 genome (including pol and env), allowing analysis of mutations associated with resistance to protease inhibitors, reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NRTIs] and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTIs]), integrase strand transfer inhibitors, and virus entry inhibitors. The two amplicons generated span 7,124 bp, providing substantial sequence length and numbers of informative sites for comprehensive phylogenic analysis and greater refinement of viral linkage analyses in HIV prevention studies. The long-range HIV genotyping from proviral DNA was successful in about 90% of 212 targeted blood specimens collected in a cohort where the majority of patients had suppressed viral loads, including 65% of patients with undetectable levels of HIV-1 RNA loads. The generated amplicons could be sequenced by different methods, such as population Sanger sequencing, single-genome sequencing, or next-generation ultradeep sequencing. The developed method is cost-effective-the cost of the long-range HIV genotyping is under $140 per subject (by Sanger sequencing)-and has the potential to enable the scale up of public health HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26041893

  20. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  1. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-03-02

    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  2. GACPAT HIV 1 + 2: a simple, inexpensive assay to screen for, and discriminate between, anti-HIV 1 and anti-HIV 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, J V; Connell, J A; Reinbott, P; Garcia, A B; Avillez, F; Mortimer, P P

    1995-01-01

    A simple and cheap assay suitable for screening for anti-HIV 1 and anti-HIV 2 and discriminating between them was evaluated. In it specimens are incubated in U-bottomed microplate wells coated with anti-human IgG for 30 min at room temperature. After washing, 100 microliters of a 1 in 50 dilution of HIV 1-coated gelatin particles (Serodia-HIV 1/2, Fujirebio) are added. Settling patterns are read on the second day: A positive reaction is indicated by adherence of the particles and a negative by a button. The HIV 1 particles are then washed away and HIV 2 particles added. Anti-HIV 2 reaction patterns are read on the third day. To assess the performance of the modified "GACPAT HIV 1 + 2" assay a panel of 1,621 serum/plasma specimens was used. It comprised validated anti-HIV 1 positive (n = 220), anti-HIV 2 positive (n = 214), dual anti-HIV 1/anti-HIV 2 positive (n = 11), and anti-HIV negative (n = 1,176) serum/plasma specimens. All 434 specimens that contained anti-HIV 1 or anti-HIV 2 reacted positively with the homologous particles. The 11 dually positive specimens reacted positively with both HIV 1 and HIV 2 particles. Five (2.3%) anti-HIV 1 and five (2.3%) anti-HIV 2 positive specimens gave positive reactions with both particle types, but none of the five cross-reactive anti-HIV 2 specimens were dually reactive when the order of particle addition was reversed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  4. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was show...

  5. A Decline in New HIV Infections in South Africa: Estimating HIV Incidence from Three National HIV Surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Rehle, Thomas M.; Timothy B Hallett; Olive Shisana; Victoria Pillay-van Wyk; Khangelani Zuma; Henri Carrara; Sean Jooste

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 200...

  6. New HIV Testing Algorithm: Promising Tool in the Fight Against HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-21

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Phil Peters discusses the new HIV testing algorithm and how this latest technology can improve the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. Early detection of HIV is critical to saving lives, getting patients into treatment, and preventing transmission.  Created: 9/21/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP).   Date Released: 9/21/2016.

  7. Short Communication: Circulating Plasma HIV-1 Viral Protein R in Dual HIV-1/Tuberculosis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Toossi, Zahra; Liu, Shigou; Wu, Mianda; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Hirsch, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating free HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is found in up to one third of subjects with HIV-1 infection. Free Vpr presumably shares some of the immunopathogenic effects of cell-associated Vpr. Here we assessed Vpr in plasma and pleural fluid from HIV/tuberculosis (TB) dually infected subjects with pleural TB and from plasma of patients with pulmonary HIV/TB. Vpr was assessed by western blot analysis. In plasma from HIV/TB subjects with pulmonary TB free Vpr could be detected in 47%. Only on...

  8. HIV Integrase Inhibitors with Nucleobase Scaffolds: Discovery of a Highly Potent anti-HIV Agent

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Vasu; Chi, Guochen; Ptak, Roger; Neamati, Nouri

    2006-01-01

    HIV integrase is essential for HIV replication. However, there are currently no integrase inhibitors in clinical use for AIDS. We have discovered a conceptually new β-diketo acid that is a powerful inhibitor of both the 3′-processing and strand transfer steps of HIV-1 integrase. The in vitro anti-HIV data of this inhibitor were remarkable as exemplified by its highly potent antiviral therapeutic efficacy against HIVTEKI and HIV-1NL4-3 replication in PBMC (TI >4,000 and >10,000, respectively).

  9. Towards smarter HIV laws: considerations for improving HIV-specific legislation in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eba, Patrick Michael

    2016-05-01

    As of 31 July 2014, some 27 countries in sub-Saharan Africa had adopted HIV-specific legislation to respond to the legal challenges posed by the HIV epidemic. However, serious concerns raised about these laws have led to calls for their repeal and review. Through the theory of "smarter legislation", this article develops a framework for analysing the concerns relating to the process, content and implementation of HIV-specific laws. This theoretical framework provides specific guidance and considerations for reforming HIV-specific laws and for ensuring that they achieve their goals of creating enabling legal environments for the HIV response. PMID:27578351

  10. Alkylating HIV-1 Nef - a potential way of HIV intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nef is a 27 KDa HIV-1 accessory protein. It downregulates CD4 from infected cell surface, a mechanism critical for efficient viral replication and pathogenicity. Agents that antagonize the Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation may offer a new class of drug to combat HIV infection and disease. TPCK (N-α-p-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone and TLCK (N-α-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone are alkylation reagents that chemically modify the side chain of His or Cys residues in a protein. In search of chemicals that inhibit Nef function, we discovered that TPCK and TLCK alkylated HIV Nef. Methods Nef modification by TPCK was demonstrated on reducing SDS-PAGE. The specific cysteine residues modified were determined by site-directed mutagenesis and mass spectrometry (MS. The effect of TPCK modification on Nef-CD4 interaction was studied using fluorescence titration of a synthetic CD4 tail peptide with recombinant Nef-His protein. The conformational change of Nef-His protein upon TPCK-modification was monitored using CD spectrometry Results Incubation of Nef-transfected T cells, or recombinant Nef-His protein, with TPCK resulted in mobility shift of Nef on SDS-PAGE. Mutagenesis analysis indicated that the modification occurred at Cys55 and Cys206 in Nef. Mass spectrometry demonstrated that the modification was a covalent attachment (alkylation of TPCK at Cys55 and Cys206. Cys55 is next to the CD4 binding motif (A56W57L58 in Nef required for Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation and for AIDS development. This implies that the addition of a bulky TPCK molecule to Nef at Cys55 would impair Nef function and reduce HIV pathogenicity. As expected, Cys55 modification reduced the strength of the interaction between Nef-His and CD4 tail peptide by 50%. Conclusions Our data suggest that this Cys55-specific alkylation mechanism may be exploited to develop a new class of anti HIV drugs.

  11. Detection of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者精子中病毒核酸的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 李练兵; 侯志伟; 谢庆东; 康祥锦; 黄天华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence of HIV - 1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients.Methods Spermatozoon samples of 33 HIV/AIDS patients were prepared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) ,in which biotinylated HIV gag and HIV pol were used as probes, was performed to detect HIV nucleic acid in spermatozoa. Results HIV nucleic acid was detected in spermatozoa of 9 patients( 27. 3% ). Conclusion These results further confirm the presence of HIV nucleic acid in sperm of HIV/AIDS patients and indicates that FISH is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the nucleic acid in sperm.%目的 检测HIV/AIDS患者精子中HIV核酸.方法 制备33例HIV/AIDS患者精子样本,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH),以生物素标记的HIV gag及 HIV pol作为双探针对这些患者精子进行HIV核酸检测.结果 在9例(27.3%)患者中检测到阳性荧光信号.结论 HIV/AIDS患者精子存有HIV核酸;FISH是一种检测HIV/AIDS患者精子病毒核酸灵敏而可靠的方法.

  12. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  13. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  14. Utility of Pooled HIV RNA RT-PCR Assay in Diagnosing Acute HIV Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒; 蒋岩; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The P24 antigen test, HIV RNA PCR test,HIV isolation/culture and fourth-generation HIV uniform Ag/Ab assay are being utilized in diagnosing acute HIV infection in different labs. Many factors limit the use of screening for acute HIV in high-risk populations, in blood donors and during voluntary HIV testing, including, cost, technique, sensitivity and specificity. In this review we explore a new NAAT method which involves HIV RNA RT-PCR on pooled samples. This technique is able to screen for acute infections in a large testing volume and may he used as a screening method in high-risk populations and blood donors.

  15. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...... 709) in Bissau, capital of Guinea-Bissau, with the highest known seroprevalence of HIV-2 infection in the world. From May 1996 to June 1998, tuberculosis surveillance and active case finding among contacts was conducted. Patients were HIV-tested, given specific tuberculosis treatment for 8 months...... and followed regarding mortality. Simultaneously, an HIV sero-survey was performed in a random sample of 1748 permanent residents. RESULTS: During a 25-month period, 366 tuberculosis cases were identified. After excluding cases among visitors to the area, and adjusting for age, the incidence of tuberculosis...

  16. Associations between HIV and schizophrenia and their effect on HIV treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Pedersen, Marianne G; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between HIV and schizophrenia in people with and without substance use disorders and the effect on timeliness of HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and treatment outcomes are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association between HIV and schizophrenia...... and the effect on HIV treatment outcomes in people with and without substance use disorders. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study with data from nationwide registries in Denmark to investigate the risk of schizophrenia after a diagnosis of HIV and the risk of HIV after a diagnosis of schizophrenia......, accounting for substance misuse, timeliness of HIV diagnosis, and treatment success in relation to schizophrenia. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 1995, who we followed up from their 16th birthday or Jan 1, 1995 (whichever occurred last) until their death...

  17. The changing face of HIV vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Nabel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been remarkable progress in understanding the biology of HIV-1 and its recognition by the human immune system, we have not yet developed an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine challenges include the genetic diversity and mutability of HIV-1 which create a plethora of constantly changing antigens, the structural features of the viral envelope glycoprotein that disguise conserved receptor-binding sites from the immune system, and the presence of carbohydrate moieties that shield potential epitopes from antibodies. Despite these challenges, there has been significant scientific progress in recent years. In 2009, a large-scale clinical trial known as RV144 demonstrated that a HIV-1 vaccine could modestly reduce the incidence of HIV-1 infection. Further, the identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (such as VRC01, a human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing over 90% of natural HIV-1 isolates, as well as PG and PGT antibodies that recognize conserved glycopeptide epitopes has revealed new opportunities for vaccine design. Our ability to understand HIV-1 structure and antibody epitopes at the atomic level, the rapid advance of computational and bioinformatics approaches to immunogen design, and our newly acquired knowledge that it is possible for a vaccine to reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection, have all opened up new and promising pathways towards the development of an urgently needed effective HIV-1 vaccine. This article summarizes challenges to the development of an HIV-1 vaccine, lessons learned from scientific investigation and completed vaccine trials, and promising developments in HIV-1 vaccine design.

  18. Homosexual men in HIV serodiscordant relationships: implications for HIV treatment as prevention research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Bavinton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies in heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples have provided critical evidence on the role of HIV treatments in reducing HIV transmission risk. However, there are limited data regarding the effect of treatment on HIV transmission in homosexual male couples. We examined features of male homosexual HIV serodiscordant relationships that may impact upon the design of HIV treatment and transmission studies. Methods: Data were from a prospective cohort study of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Men were followed up with six-monthly interviews and annual testing for HIV. Characteristics of men in HIV serodiscordant and seroconcordant relationships at baseline were compared, and a longitudinal analysis performed of rate of relationship break-up and of HIV incidence. Results: At baseline, 5.5% of participants (n=79 had an HIV-positive partner. Most (80.8% of these relationships were non-monogamous, and 36.7% of men reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with casual partners. The rate of relationship break-up was 29.5 per 100 person-years. Half of men in serodiscordant relationships (49.4% reported recent UAI with their regular partners. HIV incidence was 2.2 per 100 person-years. It was substantially higher in relationships of less than one year's duration (6.1 per 100 person-years and in men who reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with ejaculation with their regular partners (15.5 per 100 person-years. Conclusions: Levels of HIV transmission risk and incidence were high, particularly in early relationships. Rates of relationship break-up were high. These data suggest that studies of HIV treatments and transmission in homosexual serodiscordant couples should focus on early relationships so as not to underestimate risk, and sample sizes must allow for high rates of relationship break-up.

  19. HIV-1 RNA quantification in CRF02_AG HIV-1 infection: too easy to make mistakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarelli, Paola; Taramasso, Lucia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Sticchi, Laura; Nigro, Nicola; Barresi, Renata; Viscoli, Claudio; Bruzzone, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients newly infected by HIV-1 non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) is increasing worldwide, including in the western countries. We report on a primary HIV-1 infection in a Caucasian patient. A routine quantitative assay (Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 2.0, BioMérieux SA) showed 6,700 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. A combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) consistent with low baseline HIV-1 RNA was started. Few days later, the analysis performed with REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool - Version 3.0 attributed the HIV-1 sequence to the CRF02_AG recombinant form. Therefore, a second real-time PCR assay was performed, using the Versant HIV-1 RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics) which revealed a HIV-1 RNA of 230,000 copies/ml. Consequently, the ongoing cART was potentiated. This case suggests that the wide genetic variability of HIV-1 subtypes may affect the capability of the commonly used assays to detect and accurately quantify HIV-1 RNA in non-B subtypes and CRFs. In presence of CRFs different commercial HIV-1 RNA tests should be performed to find the most reliable for viral load quantification at the diagnosis, because it influences the choice of cART, and during the follow-up. Indeed, international guidelines for HIV-1 infection management suggest to monitor patient' HIV-RNA with the same assay over the course of treatment. As different commercial tests can be performed in the same laboratory with considerable difficulty, the laboratory should select an assay that is suitable not only for the more prevalent strain, but also for less frequent ones that, nevertheless, can occur. Then, knowing and investigating the spread of non-B strains has essential clinical and laboratory implications. PMID:27196556

  20. Minority Women's Health: HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Women's Health > African-Americans Minority Women's Health HIV/AIDS Find HIV/AIDS Prevention & Service Providers GO Enter your location, such ... For more information on this widget, please visit AIDS.gov . Please contact contact@aids.gov with any ...