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Sample records for advia centaur hiv

  1. Evaluation of the automated ADVIA centaur® XP syphilis assay for serological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Sharon; Zhao, Huiqin; Tan, Phyllis; Saw, Betty; Sethi, Sunil

    2017-02-20

    We evaluated the performance of the ADVIA Centaur XP Syphilis assay (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA) using samples previously tested on the ARCHITECT i4000SR system (Abbott Diagnostics, Lake Forest, IL, USA) and confirmed by the Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA) (SERODIA-TPPA, Fujirebio Diagnostics Inc., Malvern, PA, USA). Clinical patient information was included to aid resolution of discordant samples where available. Precision, interference, and cross-reactivity were also assessed. Relative to patient clinical status, the sensitivity of both the ADVIA Centaur XP and the ARCHITECT assays was 100% (95% CI, 93.9-100), and the specificity of the ADVIA Centaur XP assay was 95.5% (95% CI, 90.4-98.3), which was slightly higher than that of the ARCHITECT assay at 93.9% (95% CI, 88.4-97.3). Overall agreement relative to patient clinical status was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.3-98.8) for the ADVIA Centaur XP assay and 95.8% (95% CI, 91.9-98.2) for the ARCHITECT assay. Overall agreement between the two automated assays was 96.9% (95% CI, 93.3-98.8). ADVIA Centaur XP assay precision was <5% at all index values tested. No significant interference was observed for lipemia or hemolysis; a small effect was seen with some samples for bilirubin. The assay exhibited no significant cross-reactivity with a number of potential interfering factors. The ADVIA Centaur XP Syphilis assay can be considered a sensitive and accurate assay for identification of treponemal antibodies in screening populations as well as patients presenting with suspicion of syphilitic infection.

  2. Measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) employing the ADVIA Centaur platform. Validation, reference interval and comparison to UniQ RIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Cindy Soendersoe; Heickendorff, Lene; Nexo, Ebba

    2014-01-01

    ). In this article, we show that the Centaur PIIINP may be used in place of the much more labor-intensive RIA method, and we present an age stratified reference interval. Methods: We analyzed four control samples 20 times over a period of 5 days. Centaur PIIINP assay measurements were compared with the widely used......Background: Recently, measurement of amino terminal propeptide of type III procollagen (PIIINP) was introduced as a part of the hepatic cirrhotic marker enhanced liver fibrosis™ test on the automated ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay platform (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Tarrytown, NY, USA...... PIIINP assay is suitable for routine use with our newly defined reference interval. The results obtained by Centaur correlates well with those obtained by the previously employed RIA, though the absolute values are higher....

  3. Influence of Vitamin D Binding Protein on Accuracy of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Measurement Using the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D status in different populations relies on accurate measurement of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentrations [i.e., 25(OHD3 and 25(OHD2]. This study evaluated agreement between the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total assay for 25(OHD testing (traceable to the NIST-Ghent reference method procedure and a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for various populations with different levels of vitamin D binding protein (DBP. Total serum 25(OHD concentrations were measured for 36 pregnant women, 40 hemodialysis patients, and 30 samples (DBP-spiked or not from healthy subjects. ELISA measured DBP levels. The mean serum DBP concentrations were higher for pregnancy (415 μg/mL and lower for hemodialysis subjects (198 μg/mL than for healthy subjects and were highest for spiked serum (545 μg/mL. The average bias between the ADVIA Centaur assay and the LC-MS/MS method was −1.4% (healthy, −6.1% (pregnancy, and 4.4% (hemodialysis. The slightly greater bias for samples from some pregnancy and hemodialysis subjects with serum DBP levels outside of the normal healthy range fell within a clinically acceptable range—reflected by analysis of their low-range (≤136 μg/mL, medium-range (137–559 μg/mL, and high-range (≥560 μg/mL DBP groups. Thus, the ADVIA Centaur Vitamin D Total assay demonstrates acceptable performance compared with an LC-MS/MS method for populations containing different amounts of DBP.

  4. [Comparative study of parathormone and vitamin D measurements by three automats: ADVIA Centaur XP® (Siemens), ISYS® (IDS) and Liaison® (Diasorin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardien, Pauline; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Kerspern, Hélène; Bordron, Anne; Carre, Jean-Luc

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D (Vit.D) and parathormone (PTH) measurements are usually prescribed for phosphocalcic metabolism assessment and, especially for Vit.D, more and more frequently for other pathologies. In order to step up to automated techniques for these analysis in our laboratory, we tested 3 devices: ADVIA Centaur XP(®) (Siemens), ISYS(®) (IDS) and Liaison(®) (Diasorin), which allow to simultaneously quantify Vit.D and PTH. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fidelity of these methods as well as study the correlation between them and the radioimmunological techniques previously used in our laboratory : « ELSA PTH » (Iba Cisbio International) and « 25-OH D » (IDS). The comparison of PTH analysis was performed on a population of chronic renal failure patients undergoing haemodialysis. According to our study, the 3 devices show acceptable analytical performances; anyway the measurements realized on the ISYS analyzer are the ones showing the best results in terms of fidelity, and the closest results to those obtained with the RIA reference techniques.

  5. Performance evaluation of the ADVIA 2120 hematology analyzer: an international multicenter clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Neil; Jou, Josep Maria; Devoto, Gianluigi; Lotz, J; Pappas, James; Wranovics, David; Wilkinson, Mary; Fletcher, Suzanne R; Kratz, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Automated cell counters are widely used in modern clinical laboratories to provide reliable, fast, and cost-effective complete blood counts (CBCs), white blood cell differentials, and reticulocyte measurements. In addition, some advanced instruments provide novel parameters, such as the hemoglobin content of reticulocytes or the percentage of hypochromic cells, and are capable of analysis of a variety of body fluids. Bayer recently introduced the ADVIA 2120 system as an automation-ready cell counter for mid- to high-volume testing in the clinical laboratory. This instrument, which builds on the established technology of the ADVIA 120 system, operates with a cyanide-free method for hemoglobin measurement, has a new user interface, and can routinely analyze biological fluid samples in addition to blood. We used 749 samples from 6 worldwide trial sites to evaluate the clinical performance of this new device. Accuracy of the ADVIA 2120 system versus its predecessor model, the ADVIA 120 system, was excellent for all CBC and white cell differential parameters and reticulocyte counts (all correlation coefficients except for basophils >0.9). Correlation of the white cell differential with the standard manual method and within-run precision of the ADVIA 2120 system also was very good. Use of the novel cyanide-free method for hemoglobin measurement had no clinically significant impact on hemoglobin results, even in patients with hemoglobinopathies. We concluded that the ADVIA 2120 system has clinically equivalent performance to the ADVIA 120 system.

  6. Centaur size distribution with DECam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Cesar; Trilling, David E.; Schlichting, Hilke

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of the 2014 centaur search campaign on the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) in Tololo, Chile. This is the largest debiased Centaur survey to date, measuring for the first time the size distribution of small Centaurs (1-10km) and the first time the sizes of planetesimals from which the entire Solar System formed are directly detected.The theoretical model for the coagulation and collisional evolution of the outer solar system proposed in Schlichting et al. 2013 predicts a steep rise in the size distribution of TNOs smaller than 10km. These objects are below the detection limit of current TNO surveys but feasible for the Centaur population. By constraining the number of Centaurs and this feature in their size distribution we can confirm the collisional evolution of the Solar System and estimate the rate at which material is being transferred from the outer to the inner Solar System. If the shallow power law behavior from the TNO size distribution at ~40km can be extrapolated to 1km, the size of the Jupiter Family of Comets (JFC), there would not be enough small TNOs to supply the JFC population (Volk & Malhotra, 2008), debunking the link between TNOs and JFCs.We also obtain the colors of small Centaurs and TNOs, providing a signature of collisional evolution by measuring if there is in fact a relationship between color and size. If objects smaller than the break in the TNO size distribution are being ground down by collisions then their surfaces should be fresh, and then appear bluer in the optical than larger TNOs that are not experiencing collisions.

  7. Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-01-01

    Centaur Rocket Installation in PSL - Propulsion Systems Laboratory #1. The RL-10 Rocket was developed by Pratt and Whitney in the late 1950's and tested at the Lewis Research Center (now known as the John H. Glenn Research Lewis Field). This power plant was the propulsion system for NASA's upper stage Centaur rocket and was significant for being the first to use liquid hydrogen and oxygen as fuel. The Centaur suffered a number of early failures, but later proved to be a very successful upper stage for numerous commercial, NASA and military payloads.

  8. New Scattered Disk Object and Centaur Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Melissa; Wilcox, P.; Stansberry, J.

    2013-10-01

    We report B, V, and R magnitudes for scattered disk objects and centaurs from observations taken in December 2011 and August 2013 using the Lowell Observatory Perkins Telescope with PRISM and observations taken in March 2012 at the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona. Targeted scattered disk objects include 2002 CY224, 2003 UY117, 2006 QJ181, 2008 CT190, 2009 YG19, 2010 FD49, 2010 VZ98. Targeted centaurs include 2002 QX47, 2005 UJ438, 2006 UX184, and 2007 RH283. We will determine if the resultant centaur colors follow the bimodal distribution (B-R either red or gray) previously detected. We will also compare the resultant scattered disk object colors to those published for other scattered disk objects. This work is based on observations with the Perkins Telescope at Lowell Observatory, and with the VATT: The Alice P. Lennon Telescope and the Thomas J. Bannan Astrophysics Facility.

  9. A Centaur in Salaryman's Clothing: Parody and Play in est em's Centaur Manga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Lee

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Japanese manga artist est em (esu to emu is notable for blurring genre boundaries and subverting established conventions in various publications since her debut in 2006. Two of her works, Hatarake, kentaurosu! (‘Work, Centaur!’ and equus, focus exclusively on male centaurs in homosocial settings. Classified as shōjo (girls’ manga and BL (‘boys’ love’ manga respectively, these two works allow female readers to enjoy the pleasures of homoerotic subtexts and intertextual parody. This paper examines how conventions of sexuality and gender, particularly hegemonic masculinity and heterosexuality, are constructed/deconstructed in est em’s centaur manga using the framework of intertextuality, with particular emphasis on parody, pleasure and play. By placing centaurs in realistic, everyday settings, these works present a critique of Japan’s contemporary salaryman culture, while also highlighting issues of alienation and otherness that both female readers and gay men face in their daily lives.

  10. Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Centaur is one of the most powerful rockets in the world. As an upper-stage rocket for the Atlas and Titan boosters it has been a reliable workhorse for NASA for over forty years and has played an essential role in many of NASA's adventures into space. In this CD-ROM you will be able to explore the Centaur's history in various rooms to this virtual museum. Visit the "Movie Theater" to enjoy several video documentaries on the Centaur. Enter the "Interview Booth" to hear and read interviews with scientists and engineers closely responsible for building and operating the rocket. Go to the "Photo Gallery" to look at numerous photos of the rocket throughout its history. Wander into the "Centaur Library" to read various primary documents of the Centaur program. Finally, stop by the "Observation Deck" to watch a virtual Centaur in flight.

  11. On the dynamical evolution and end states of binary centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunini, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical integration of 666 fictitious binary Centaurs coming from the trans Neptunian space. Our population is restricted to tight binaries whose components have sizes between 30 and 100 km. We included the dynamical perturbations from the giant planets, Kozai Cycles induced by the Sun and tidal friction on the orbits of the binaries. We found that most binaries are disrupted during one of the close planetary encounters, making the mean lifetime of binary Centaurs much shorter than the one of single Centaurs. Nearly 10 per cent of the binaries reach a very tight circular orbit, arguing in favour of the existence of a non-negligible population of contact Centaurs. Another 10 per cent survive as a binary during their lifetime as Centaur. Our simulations favour the existence of a small population of very tight binary Centaurs.

  12. Centaur's ring system formation by close encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santana, Thamiris; Winter, Othon

    2016-10-01

    Rupture of small bodies due to close approach to a massive body is a frequent event in the Solar System. Some of these small bodies can just disintegrate completely or suffer a material loss.In this work we study the gravitational interaction between a giant planet and a small body in close encounters in order to simulate the formation of a planetary ring system around a centaur by the partial rupture of the small body.Considering the current Chariklo's body and a disk of particles around it, we simulated the system under close encounters with one of giant planets.Another motivation for the study is also the centaur Chiron, that is a candidate to have a ring system like Chariklo. The characteristics of the encounters are defined by the impact parameter and the velocity at infinity.The results are presented in terms of conditions that could lead to a rupture that could generate a ring like system.

  13. A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffard, Rene; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J.; Mueller, T.; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. The Herschel open time key program "TNOs are Cool!'' observed 130 Centaurs and TNOs in 2009-2012. In this particular work we use Herschel/PACS three-band photometry to obtain monochroma

  14. Two Color Populations of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2016-10-01

    We present new optical colors for 64 Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaur objects measured with the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) and the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT). By combining these new colors with our previously published colors, we increase the sample size of our survey to 154 objects. Our survey is unique in that the uncertainties in our color measurements are less than half the uncertainties in the color measurements reported by other researchers in the literature. Small uncertainties are essential for discerning between a unimodal and a bimodal distribution of colors for these objects as well as detecting correlations between colors and orbital elements. From our survey, it appears red Centaurs have a broader color distribution than grey Centaurs. We find red Centaurs have a smaller orbital inclination angle distribution than grey Centaurs at the 99.3% confidence level. Furthermore, we find that our entire sample of KBOs and Centaurs exhibits bimodal colors at the 99.4% confidence level. KBOs and Centaurs with HV > 7.0 have bimodal colors at the 99.96% confidence level and KBOs with HV < 6.0 have bimodal colors at the 96.3% confidence level.We are grateful to the NASA Solar System Observations Program for support, NAU for joining the Discovery Channel Telescope Partnership, and the Vatican Observatory for the consistent allocation of telescope time over the last 12 years of this project.

  15. Nucleus of the active Centaur C/2011 P2 (PANSTARRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzotta Epifani, E.; Perna, D.; Dotto, E.; Palumbo, P.; Dall'Ora, M.; Micheli, M.; Ieva, S.; Perozzi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In this paper we present observations of the active Centaur C/2011 P2 (PANSTARRS), showing a compact comet-like coma at the heliocentric distance of rh = 9 au. The observations were obtained in the framework of a wider program on Centaurs aimed at searching for comet-like activity in several targets outside Jupiter's aphelion. Methods: We analysed visible images of the Centaur taken at the TNG telescope in the R filter to investigate the level of coma contributing to the target brightness and to derive information on its nucleus size. Results: Centaur C/2011 P2 (PANSTARRS) shows a faint but still detectable comet-like activity, which accounts for more than 50% to the observed brightness. The coma contribution has been subtracted in order to derive an estimate for the Centaur's diameter of D 16 km, assuming an albedo of A = 0.07 (average of albedo measured within the Centaur group). The results for Centaur C/2011 P2 (PANSTARRS) fit in the general picture of the group: Centaurs with smaller perihelion distance q and semi-major axis a are smaller than those remaining farther from the Sun during their orbital path, thus reinforcing the idea that active Centaurs are "comets in fieri". Based on observations collected at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La Palma by the Centro Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias.

  16. Spectrophotometry of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Vilas, F.

    2002-09-01

    We present an ongoing study of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Centaurs. We acquired broadband (UBVRI) and medium band photometry with the 4m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. We present broadband colors of these objects and discuss the results of our search for absorption bands in the visible spectral region. Vilas (Icarus, 111) demonstrated that the existence of the 0.7um absorption feature in asteroids with solar-like colors was strongly correlated with the presence of the 3.0um water of hydration feature. The broad 0.7um absorption band is attributed to a charge-transfer in Fe-bearing hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates), which are a product of aqueous alteration. For aqueous alteration to take place, one must have water ice present in an object, and an energy source to heat the water ice to a liquid water phase. Water ice has already been discovered in some Centaurs (Luu et al. ApJ, 531; Brown AJ, 119), and Durda and Stern (Icarus, 145) estimate that KBOs experience collisional processing regularly throughout their lifetimes. The estimated impact energies are high enough to induce aqueous alteration. We undertook this study to search for evidence of the 0.7um feature in KBOs and Centaurs. We employed medium band Windhorst filters, located at 0.527, 0.666, 0.705, 0.755 and 0.848 um in conjunction with the Mosaic CCD to search for this absorption band, which extends from 0.57-0.83um. Initial analysis suggests that an absorption feature exists near 0.7um in the greyer objects but not the redder objects, following the correlations observed in asteroids. These data are consistent with the absorption band detected near 0.7um by de Bergh et al. (ACM 2002, Berlin) in visible spectra of 2000 EB173 and 2000 GN171. However, further analysis is required to confirm whether the absorption we see is due to phyllosilicates or another source. We will present the results from this analysis. This research was supported through the

  17. Optical alignment of Centaur's inertial guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordan, Andrew L.

    1987-01-01

    During Centaur launch operations the launch azimuth of the inertial platform's U-accelerometer input axis must be accurately established and maintained. This is accomplished by using an optically closed loop system with a long-range autotheodolite whose line of sight was established by a first-order survey. A collimated light beam from the autotheodolite intercepts a reflecting Porro prism mounted on the platform azimuth gimbal. Thus, any deviation of the Porro prism from its predetermined heading is optically detected by the autotheodolite. The error signal produced is used to torque the azimuth gimbal back to its required launch azimuth. The heading of the U-accelerometer input axis is therefore maintained automatically. Previously, the autotheodolite system could not distinguish between vehicle sway and rotational motion of the inertial platform unless at least three prisms were used. One prism was mounted on the inertial platform to maintain azimuth alignment, and two prisms were mounted externally on the vehicle to track sway. For example, the automatic azimuth-laying theodolite (AALT-SV-M2) on the Saturn vehilce used three prisms. The results of testing and modifying the AALT-SV-M2 autotheodolite to simultaneously monitor and maintain alignment of the inertial platform and track the sway of the vehicle from a single Porro prism.

  18. A Chemical and Dynamical Link Between Red Centaur Objects and the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegler, Stephen C.; Romanishin, William; Consolmagno, Guy

    2015-11-01

    We present new B-V, V-R, and B-R colors for 32 Centaurs objects using the 4.3-meter Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) near Happy Jack, AZ and the 1.8-meter Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope on Mt. Graham, AZ. Combining these new colors with our previously reported colors, we now have optical broad-band colors for 58 Centaur objects.Application of the non-parametric Dip Test to our previous sample of only 26 objects showed Centaurs split into gray and red groups at the 99.5% confidence level, and application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to the same sample showed that red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99% confidence level (Tegler et al., 2008, Solar System Beyond Neptune, U Arizona Press, pp. 105-114).Here we report application of the Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test to our sample of 58 Centaurs. We confirm red Centaurs have a higher median albedo than gray Centaurs at the 99.7% level. In addition, we find that red Centaurs have a lower median inclination angle than gray Centaurs at the 99.5% confidence level. Because of their red colors and lower inclination angles, we suggest red Centaurs originate in the cold classical Kuiper belt. We thank the NASA Solar System Observations Program for its support.

  19. Mass Densities of KBOs and Centaurs from Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mueller, Michael; Spencer, J.; Stansberry, J.; Grundy, W.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical and physical properties of the Small Solar System Bodies in the outer Solar system, Centaurs and Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs), contain important clues on the formation and evolution of the early Solar System. The only practical way to study their internal properties, such as chemical com

  20. Implementation of an interpreter for a parallel language in CENTAUR

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the implementation of an interpreter for the parallel language ESTEREL in the CENTAUR system. The dynamic semantics of the language is described and completed with several modules providing a graphical input-output interface, a graphical execution observation tool, and a simple execution controller.

  1. Remote Task-level Commanding of Centaur over Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Ngo, Tam; Burridge, Robert; Wang, Lui; Izygon, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Remote operation of robots on the lunar surface by ground controllers poses unique human-robot interaction challenges due to time delay and constrained bandwidth. One strategy for addressing these challenges is to provide task-level commanding of robots by a ground controller. Decision-support tools are being developed at JSC for remote task-level commanding over time-delay. The approach is to provide ground procedures that guide a controller when executing task-level command sequences and aid awareness of the state of command execution in the robot. This approach is being evaluated using the Centaur robot at JSC. The Centaur Central Commander provides a task-level command interface that executes on the robot side of the delay. Decision support tools have been developed for a human Supervisor in the JSC Cockpit to use when interacting with the Centaur Central Commander. Commands to the Central Commander are defined as instructions in a procedure. Sequences of these instructions are grouped into procedures for the Cockpit Supervisor. When a Supervisor is ready to perform a task, a procedure is loaded into the decision support tool. From this tool, the Supervisor can view command sequences and dispatch individual commands to Centaur. Commands are queued for execution on the robot side of the delay. Reliable command sequences can be dispatched automatically upon approval by the Supervisor. The decision support tool provides the Supervisor with feedback about which commands are waiting for execution and which commands have finished. It also informs the Supervisor when a command fails to have its intended effect. Cockpit procedures are defined using the Procedure Representation Language (PRL) developed at JSC for mission operations. The decision support tool is based on a Procedure Sequencer and multi-agent software developed for human-robot interaction. In this paper the approach for remote task-level commanding of robots is described and the results of the evaluation

  2. ADVIA2120全自动血细胞分析仪在脑脊液细胞计数中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽红; 尹俊清

    2014-01-01

    目的:评价 ADVIA2120全自动血细胞分析仪脑脊液测定模式在脑脊液( Cerebro-Spind Fluid,CSF)细胞计数及分类应用中的价值。方法:采用 ADVIA2120血细胞分析仪脑脊液分析模式对135份脑脊液标本进行计数分析,并与人工显微镜计数法进行结果比对。白细胞分类手工法采用瑞-姬氏染色,仪器法采用荧光染色和流式细胞术原理进行分类。结果:两种方法对脑脊液标本白细胞计数、红细胞计数、单个核及多个核细胞的分类计数检测差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论:应用 ADVIA2120血细胞分析仪的脑脊液分析模式进行脑脊液细胞计数、分类快速准确,有较高临床实用价值。

  3. A photometric search for activity among asteroids and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa Oyarzabal, A.; Mammana, L.; Fernández, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    We present the first results of a long-term observational campaign focused on the detection of activity in selected asteroids and centaurs. Our observational targets are near-Earth asteroids in cometary orbits (cf. [2]), the so called ''main-belt comets'' or ''active asteroids'' (well-known objects as well as potential candidates), and bright centaurs with good orbits, all close to their perihelion passages. In those objects with a former detection of activity, our aim is to contribute to a better physical knowledge of them, and determine, for instance, if the observed activity is transient or permanent. To achieve our goals, we analyzed CCD-filtered images of each observable target acquired with the 2.15-m telescope ''Jorge Sahade'' at CASLEO (San Juan, Argentina), during two runs of three consecutive nights each (during August 2013 and January 2014, respectively). Our study will be completed by future runs with the same instrumentation already assigned to our campaign. As preliminary results, we observed activity in the main-belt comets P/2013 P5 (PANSTARRS) and 133P/(7968) Elst-Pizarro. We also observed the main-belt comet (596) Scheila, which showed an unequivocally stellar appearance. We observed the main-belt comet candidate (3646) Aduatiques (cf. [1]), and noticed in this object a curious feature whose connection to some kind of activity is not well determined yet. We also observed the near-Earth asteroid in cometary orbit 2006 XL_5 (cf. [3]), and the centaurs (281371) 2008 FC_{76}, (332685) 2009 HH_{36}), (382004) 2010 RM_{64}, 2010 XZ_{78}, and 2011 UR_{402}. We have not detected activity in these objects, but an improved analysis is still in progress. %Corresponding author: Andrea Sosa (asosa@fisica.edu.uy)

  4. Effects of non-gravitational forces on orbital evolution of active Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churyumov, Klim; Kovalenko, Nataliya

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are 26 active Centaurs known among 121 discovered .In the present study we have investigated the influence of cometary activity on their orbital evolution by using orbital evolution integrators. Since there is no information on exact values of non-gravitational forces for these cometary Centaurs, because of their large heliocentric distances, we assumed their non-gravitational forces as the one for comet Halley with coefficient of 1/r^{2}, where r is perihelion distance. As a result we got the differences in perihelion passage dates for active Centaurs and differences in their perihelion distances during one period around the Sun and longer time-span.

  5. [Haemolysis and turbidity influence on three analysis methods of quantitative determination of total and conjugated bilirubin on ADVIA 1650].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobert De Paepe, E; Munteanu, G; Schischmanoff, P O; Porquet, D

    2008-01-01

    Plasma bilirubin testing is crucial to prevent the occurrence of neonatal kernicterus. Haemolysis may occur during sampling and interfere with bilirubin determination. Moreover, lipidic infusions may induce plasma lipemia and also interfere with bilirubin measurement. We evaluated the interference of haemolysis and lipemia with three methods of total and direct bilirubin measurement adaptated on an Advia 1650 analyser (Siemens Medical Solutions Diagnostics) : Synermed (Sofibel), Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) and Bilirubin Auto FS (Diasys). The measurement of total bilirubin was little affected by haemolysis with all three methods. The Bilirubin 2 (Siemens) method was the less sensitive to haemolysis even at low bilirubin levels. The measurement of conjugated bilirubin was significantly altered by low heamoglobin concentrations for Bilirubin Auto FS(R) (30 microM or 0,192 g/100 mL haemoglobin) and for Synermed (60 microM or 0,484 g/100 mL haemoglobin). In marked contrast, we found no haemoglobin interference with the Direct Bilirubin 2 reagent which complied with the method validation criteria from the French Society for Biological Chemistry. The lipemia up to 2 g/L of Ivelip did not affect neither the measurement of total bilirubin for all three methods nor the measurement of conjugated bilirubin with the Diasys and Siemens reagents. However, we observed a strong interference starting at 0,5 g/L of Ivelip with the Synermed reagent. Our data suggest that both Siemens and Diasys methods allow to measure accurately total and conjugated bilirubin in hemolytic and lipemic samples, nevertheless, the Siemens methodology is less affected by these interferences.

  6. Influence of the Centaurs and TNOs on the main belt and its families

    OpenAIRE

    Galiazzo, Mattia Alvise; Wiegert, Paul; Aljbaae, Safwan

    2016-01-01

    Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. They are supposed to originate mainly from the TransNeptunian objects, and they are among the sources of NearEarth Objects.TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs) cross Neptune's orbit and produce the Centaurs. We investigate their interactions with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts by these bodies may have played a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt....

  7. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; van Leeuwen, M.W.; Teske, E.

    2009-01-01

    Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2009 Apr 1;134(7):272-8. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency. Prins M, van Leeuwen MW, Teske E. Departm

  8. A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo

    CERN Document Server

    Braga-Ribas, F; Ortiz, J L; Snodgrass, C; Roques, F; Vieira-Martins, R; Camargo, J I B; Assafin, M; Duffard, R; Jehin, E; Pollock, J; Leiva, R; Emilio, M; Machado, D I; Colazo, C; Lellouch, E; Skottfelt, J; Gillon, M; Ligier, N; Maquet, L; Benedetti-Rossi, G; Gomes, A Ramos; Kervella, P; Monteiro, H; Sfair, R; Moutamid, M El; Tancredi, G; Spagnotto, J; Maury, A; Morales, N; Gil-Hutton, R; Roland, S; Ceretta, A; Gu, S -h; Wang, X -b; Harpsøe, K; Rabus, M; Manfroid, J; Opitom, C; Vanzi, L; Mehret, L; Lorenzini, L; Schneiter, E M; Melia, R; Lecacheux, J; Colas, F; Vachier, F; Widemann, T; Almenares, L; Sandness, R G; Char, F; Perez, V; Lemos, P; Martinez, N; Jørgensen, U G; Dominik, M; Roig, F; Reichart, D E; LaCluyze, A P; Haislip, J B; Ivarsen, K M; Moore, J P; Frank, N R; Lambas, D G

    2014-01-01

    Until now, rings have been detected in the Solar System exclusively around the four giant planets. Here we report the discovery of the first minor-body ring system around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo, a body with equivalent radius 124$\\pm$9 km. A multi-chord stellar occultation revealed the presence of two dense rings around Chariklo, with widths of about 7 km and 3 km, optical depths 0.4 and 0.06, and orbital radii 391 and 405 km, respectively. The present orientation of the ring is consistent with an edge-on geometry in 2008, thus providing a simple explanation for the dimming of Chariklo's system between 1997 and 2008, and for the gradual disappearance of ice and other absorption features in its spectrum over the same period. This implies that the rings are partially composed of water ice. These rings may be the remnants of a debris disk, which were possibly confined by embedded kilometre-sized satellites.

  9. When Lulu met the Centaur: Photographic traces of creaturely love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Pettman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The brief triangular love between Nietzche, Salomé, and Rée – as crystallised in the famous photograph of kitsch (literal horse-play, where the woman is depicted as treating the two men as beasts of burden – allows us to consider the role of ‘creaturely love’ in our more general understanding of the lover’s discourse. That is to say, through such images we can explore the role and figure of the animal within ‘the anthropological machine’, itself designed to produce a sense of the human from the inhuman (especially through mediated forms of intimacy. Further, in the different intermedial relationships between photography, poetry, and philosophy, the Centaur – in the letters and texts circulated by this group (later including Rilke – provides a charged specific totem for a libidinal ecology of souls, striving to understand themselves as simultaneously creaturely and spiritual. Such a figure allowed both a recognition and a disavowal of the nonhuman basis (and telos of human affections.

  10. 罗氏生化多项定标液(CFAS)在 ADVIA1800自动生化仪上的应用%Roche biochemical multiple calibration solution (CFAS)used in the ADVIA 1800 automatic biochemical discussion on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周明欣

    2016-01-01

    目的:规范实验室生化项目的参考范围,统一临床检验数值,为临床医师提供更准确、更一致的检验结果,方便患者治疗效果的评价。方法同步于罗氏Cobas C501自动生化仪和ADVIA1800自动生化仪上进行多项目的评价。结果1.定标与校正验证合格;2.正常质控品和异常质控品在可控范围内;3.临床常规标本比对评价没有显著性差异。结论罗氏生化多项定标液(CFAS)在ADVIA1800自动生化仪上的应用效果满意,能为医师提供准确、统一的检验结果,方便医师治疗病人及疗效观察。%Objective to standardize laboratory biochemical reference scope of the project ,unified clinical inspection number , provide clinicians with more accurate and more consistent test results ,convenient patient treatment effect evaluation .Methods the synchronous in roche Cobas C501 automatic biochemistry analyzer and multiple objective evaluation ADVIA 1800 automatic bio‐chemistry analyzer .Results 1 ,the calibration and correction verification qualified ,2 ,normal quality products and quality control within the scope of the controllable ,3 ,there is no significant difference between clinical specimens of normal ratio evaluation .Con‐clusion roche biochemical multiple scaling liquid(CFAS)in the application effect of satisfaction on ADVIA 1800 automatic biochem‐istry analyzer ,for physicians to provide accurate ,unified inspection result ,convenient for doctors treat patients and curative effect observation .

  11. Influence of the Centaurs and TNOs on the main belt and its families

    CERN Document Server

    Galiazzo, Mattia Alvise; Aljbaae, Safwan

    2016-01-01

    Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. They are supposed to originate mainly from the TransNeptunian objects, and they are among the sources of NearEarth Objects.TransNeptunian Objects (TNOs) cross Neptune's orbit and produce the Centaurs. We investigate their interactions with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts by these bodies may have played a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt. We find that Centaurs and TNOs that reach the inner Solar System can modify the orbits of main belt asteroids, though only if their mass is of the order of 1 billion less the mass of the sun for single encounters or, one order less in the case of multiple close encounters. Centaurs and TNOs are unlikely to have significantly dispersed young asteroid families in the main belt, but they can have perturbed some old asteroid families. Current main belt asteroids that originated as Centaurs or Trans-Neptunian Objects may lie ...

  12. Influence of the Centaurs and TNOs on the main belt and its families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiazzo, Mattia A.; Wiegert, Paul; Aljbaae, Safwan

    2016-12-01

    Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. They are supposed to originate mainly from the Trans-Neptunian objects, and they are among the sources of Near-Earth Objects. Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) cross Neptune's orbit and produce the Centaurs. We investigate their interactions with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts by these bodies may have played a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt. We find that Centaurs and TNOs that reach the inner Solar System can modify the orbits of main belt asteroids, though only if their mass is of the order of 10^{-9} m_{⊙} for single encounters or, one order less in case of multiple close encounters. Centaurs and TNOs are unlikely to have significantly dispersed young asteroid families in the main belt, but they could have perturbed some old asteroid families. Current main belt asteroids that originated as Centaurs or Trans-Neptunian Objects may lie in the outer belt with short lifetime ≤ 4 My, most likely between 2.8 and 3.2 au at larger eccentricities than typical of main belt asteroids.

  13. "TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region XI: A Herschel-PACS view of 16 Centaurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffard, R.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Vilenius, E.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, Th; Fornasier, S.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Pal, A.; Kiss, C.; Mueller, M.; Stansberry, J.; Delsanti, A.; Peixinho, N.; Trilling, D.

    2014-01-01

    Centaurs are the transitional population between trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Jupiter-family comets. For this reason it is possible to access the smaller ones, which is more difficult to do with the TNO population. The goal of this work is to characterize a set of 16 Centaurs in terms of their

  14. Acoustic and thermal testing of the Titan/Centaur upper stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Mark; Gibson, Chris; Janes, Ron

    1992-01-01

    A new version of the Centaur high-energy upper stage is being produced by General Dynamics for the USAF/Martin Marietta Titan launch vehicle. The Titan/Centaur upper stage is subject to consecutive acoustic and thermal testing in General Dynamics' Acoustic and Thermal Test Facility (ATTF). All data is acquired and processed digitally using the high-speed data acquisition system located in the ATTF. Processed data from over 250 sensors measuring acceleration, temperature, and sound pressure level is made available to the test team in minutes for use in making real-time test decisions. These tests represent the first consecutive large-scale environmental tests conducted on a complete, pressure stabilized, cryogenically tanked space launch vehicle. Some of the unique challenges involved in testing the Titan/Centaur and how these challenges were met using the ATTF are described.

  15. Self-regulating heater application to Shuttle/Centaur hydrazine fuel line thermal control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkrich, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The Shuttle/Centaur high energy upper stage vehicle thermal environments were more severe than previous Centaur vehicle thermal environments, creating need for a new hydrazine fuel line thermal control technique. Constant power heaters did not satisfy power dissipation requirements, because the power required to maintain fuel line thermal control during cold conditions exceeded the maximum power allowable during hot conditions. Therefore, a Raychem Thermolimit self-regulating heater was selected for this application, and was attached to the hydrazine fuel line with Kapton and aluminum foil tapes. Fuel line/heater thermal modeling and subsequent thermal vacuum chamber testing simulated heater thermal performance during all worst-case Shuttle/Centaur thermal environmental conditions. Fuel line temperatures were maintained between the 4C to 71C limits during all analytical and test cases. Finally, the thermal model predictions were correlated with the test data, thereby ensuring that the model would provide satisfactory predictions for future missions and/or vehicles.

  16. Acoustic and thermal testing of the Titan/Centaur upper stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehringer, Mark; Gibson, Chris; Janes, Ron

    1992-11-01

    A new version of the Centaur high-energy upper stage is being produced by General Dynamics for the USAF/Martin Marietta Titan launch vehicle. The Titan/Centaur upper stage is subject to consecutive acoustic and thermal testing in General Dynamics' Acoustic and Thermal Test Facility (ATTF). All data is acquired and processed digitally using the high-speed data acquisition system located in the ATTF. Processed data from over 250 sensors measuring acceleration, temperature, and sound pressure level is made available to the test team in minutes for use in making real-time test decisions. These tests represent the first consecutive large-scale environmental tests conducted on a complete, pressure stabilized, cryogenically tanked space launch vehicle. Some of the unique challenges involved in testing the Titan/Centaur and how these challenges were met using the ATTF are described.

  17. Thermal Properties Of Trans-neptunian Objects And Centaurs From Combined Herschel And Spitzer Observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, Emmanuel; Santos-Sanz, P.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Müller, T.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Lacerda, P.; Harris, A.; TNOs are Cool Team, [No Value

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory (either PACS or PACS/SPIRE) and Spitzer (MIPS). The combined wavelength range is 24-160 μm and additionally up to 500 μm for a few targets. We apply radiometr

  18. TNOs are Cool: A Survey of the Transneptunian Region: A Herschel-PACSview of 16 Centaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R; Santos-Sanz, P; Vilenius, E; Ortiz, J L; Mueller, Th; Fornasier, S; Lellouch, E; Mommert, M; Pal, A; Kiss, C; Mueller, M; Stansberry, J; Delsanti, A; Peixinho, N; Trilling, D

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize a set of 16 Centaurs in terms of their size, albedo, and thermal properties. We study the correlations for a more extended sample, obtained from the literature, of diameter, albedo, orbital parameters and spectral slopes. We have done three-band photometric observations using Herschel/PACS and we use a consistent method for data reduction and aperture photometry of this sample to obtain monochromatic flux densities at 70, 100 and 160 $\\mu$m. Additionally, we use Spitzer/MIPS flux densities at 24 and 70 $\\mu$m when available. We also include the Centaurs sample observed only with Spitzer/MIPS and Scattered Disk Objects, a dynamical family of TNOs, presented in a previous work of the team. We have determined new radiometric sizes and albedos of 16 Centaurs. The first conclusion is that the albedo of the Centaurs is not determined by their orbit. Similarly we do not find any correlation between diameter and orbital parameters. We also find that most of the objects in our ...

  19. Thermal properties of Trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos-Sanz, P.; Lellouch, E.; Mommert, M.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Mueller, Th.; Kiss, C.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Harris, A. W.; Delsanti, A.; Groussin, O.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory [8] (either PACS or PACS and SPIRE) and Spitzer Space Telescope [12] (MIPS). We apply radiometric modeling techniques (NEATM [2]) to the measured fluxes to de

  20. A new turbidometric digoxin immunoassay on the ADVIA 1650 analyzer is free from interference by spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pradip; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2003-08-01

    Spironolactone and potassium canrenoate (aldosterone antagonist diuretics) are often used with digoxin in clinical practice. It has been well documented in the literature that spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone cross-react with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for digoxin and falsely elevate measured serum digoxin concentrations. Recently a new turbidometric assay for digoxin became commercially available from Bayer Diagnostic for application on the ADVIA 1650 Chemistry analyzer. We studied the potential interference of these compounds in this new digoxin assay. Aliquots of drug-free serum were supplemented with therapeutic and above-therapeutic concentrations of spironolactone, canrenone, and potassium canrenoate, and apparent digoxin concentrations were measured. We observed apparent digoxin concentrations with the FPIA digoxin assay as expected but observed no apparent digoxin levels with the new turbidometric immunoassay. When serum pools prepared from patients receiving digoxin were supplemented with these compounds in concentrations expected in serum in patients receiving these medications, we observed falsely elevated digoxin levels with the FPIA digoxin assay, but no statistically significant change was observed with the new turbidometric assay. We conclude that the new turbidometric assay for digoxin is free from interference by spironolactone, potassium canrenoate, and their common metabolite canrenone.

  1. CCD photometry of active Centaur 166P/2001 T4 (NEAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, J. C.; Ma, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    To study the secular evolution of the activity of Centaur 166P/2001 T4 (Near Earth Asteroid Tracking, NEAT) and its physical properties, we present the results of optical observations of the Centaur taken on 2009 March 29 with the Keck 10-m telescope located atop Mauna Kea, Hawaii. It was still active at rh = 11.9 au post-perihelion. An upper limit of the nucleus radius of aN < 14.32 km is derived. The colour index is B - R = 1.59 ± 0.05. The Afρ value is measured to be 288 ± 19 cm and the corresponding dust production rate is 252 kg s-1. Finally, a possible mechanism of activity is discussed.

  2. Orbit determination of Transneptunian objects and Centaurs for the prediction of stellar occultations

    CERN Document Server

    Desmars, J; Braga-Ribas, F; Vieira-Martins, R; Assafin, M; Vachier, F; Colas, F; Ortiz, J L; Duffard, R; Morales, N; Sicardy, B; Gomes-Júnior, A R; Benedetti-Rossi, G

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of stellar occultations by Transneptunian objects and Centaurs is a difficult challenge that requires accuracy both in the occulted star position as for the object ephemeris. Until now, the most used method of prediction involving tens of TNOs/Centaurs was to consider a constant offset for the right ascension and for the declination with respect to a reference ephemeris. This offset is determined as the difference between the most recent observations of the TNO and the reference ephemeris. This method can be successfully applied when the offset remains constant with time. This paper presents an alternative method of prediction based on a new accurate orbit determination procedure, which uses all the available positions of the TNO from the Minor Planet Center database plus sets of new astrometric positions from unpublished observations. The orbit determination is performed through a numerical integration procedure (NIMA), in which we develop a specific weighting scheme. The NIMA method was appli...

  3. Solar Panel Integration as an Alternate Power Source on Centaur 2 (SPIAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebara, Christine A.; Schuetze, Nich A.; Knochel, Aviana M.; Magruder, Darby F.

    2011-01-01

    The dream of exploration has inspired thousands throughout time. Space exploration, in particular, has taken the past century by storm and caused a great advance in technology. In this project, a retractable solar panel array will be developed for use on the Centaur 2 Rover. Energy generated by the solar panels will go to power the Centaur 2 Robot (C2) or Regolith & Environment Science & Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload, an in-situ resource utilization project. Such payload is designed to drill into lunar and Martian terrain as well as be able to conduct other geological testing; RESOLVE is slated for testing in 2012. Ultimately, this project will fit into NASA s larger goal of deep space exploration as well as long term presence outside Earth s orbit.

  4. Carbonization in Titan Tholins: implication for low albedo on surfaces of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Chaitanya; McKay, Christopher P.; Goesmann, Fred; Schäfer, Nadine; Li, Xiang; Steininger, Harald; Brinckerhoff, William B.; Gautier, Thomas; Reitner, Joachim; Meierhenrich, Uwe J.

    2016-07-01

    Astronomical observations of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) yield two characteristic features - near-infrared (NIR) reflectance and low geometric albedo. The first feature apparently originates due to complex organic material on their surfaces, but the origin of the material contributing to low albedo is not well understood. Titan tholins synthesized to simulate aerosols in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan have also been used for simulating the NIR reflectances of several Centaurs and TNOs. Here, we report novel detections of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nanoscopic soot aggregates and cauliflower-like graphite within Titan tholins. We put forth a proof of concept stating the surfaces of Centaurs and TNOs may perhaps comprise of highly `carbonized' complex organic material, analogous to the tholins we investigated. Such material would apparently be capable of contributing to the NIR reflectances and to the low geometric albedos simultaneously.

  5. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, H W; Lacerda, P; Ip, W H; Holman, M; Protopapas, P; Chen, W P; Burgett, W S; Chambers, K C; Flewelling, H; Huber, M E; Jedicke, R; Kaiser, N; Magnier, E A; Metcalfe, N; Price, P A

    2014-01-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus $< 4$ km radius, with colors $g_{P1}-r_{P1} = 0.5 \\pm 0.02$, $r_{P1}-i_{P1} = 0.12 \\pm 0.02$ and $i_{P1}-z_{P1} = 0.46 \\pm 0.03$. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of $\\sim100$ kg s$^{-1}$. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from $\\sim 40$ kg s$^{-1}$ to 150 kg s$^{-1}$. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgass...

  6. Carbon monoxide in the distantly active centaur 174P/Echeclus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzchos, Kacper; Womack, Maria

    2016-10-01

    60558 Echeclus is very unusual. It has a dual asteroid-comet designation, and is classified as a centaur. A dust-rich outburst was observed when it was at a heliocentric distance, r, of 13.1 AU pre-perihelion (Choi & Weissman 2006). Interestingly, the coma's center of brightness was not at the nucleus location, but was offset by up to 7 arcseconds (Weissman et al. 2006, Tegler et al. 2006). This was hypothesized to be a due to a fragment that split off the nucleus and began outgassing on its own (Fernandez 2009). A smaller coma was observed when Echeclus was at r = 8.5 AU, but overall, the object appears dormant with little or no extended coma observed at optical wavelengths for years at a time (Choi et al. 2015, Rousselot et al. 2015). Echeclus is too far from the Sun for any of the activity to be caused by water-ice sublimation, the dominant cause for most comets. Instead, the coma must have been generated by another mechanism, such as impact or supervolatile outgassing. If a substantial amount of the supervolatile CO were relatively near the surface and outgassing, then its emission could be detected, or significant limits could be set, through radio observations when Echeclus was near perihelion, which occurred at 2015 Apr at r = 5.8 AU. In order to better explore the volatile nature of this centaur, we searched for CO emission from the J=2-1 rotational line at 230 GHz with the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 10-m Sub-millimeter Telescope (SMT) during May and June 2016 when the comet was at r = 6.1 AU, post-perihelion. We find that the CO production rate from Echeclus is substantially lower than what is typically observed for 29P/Schwassmann Wachmann 1, another distantly active comet often classified as a centaur. We report on the measurements and implications.The SMT is operated by the ARO, the Steward Observatory, and the University of Arizona, with support through the NSF University Radio Observatories program (AST-1140030).

  7. Pan-STARRS 1 observations of the unusual active Centaur P/2011 S1(Gibbs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, H. W.; Ip, W. H.; Chen, W. P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Taoyuan 32001, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y. T. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lacerda, P. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Holman, M.; Protopapas, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Huber, M. E.; Jedicke, R.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Price, P. A., E-mail: edlin@gm.astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is an outer solar system comet or active Centaur with a similar orbit to that of the famous 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has been observed by the Pan-STARRS 1 (PS1) sky survey from 2010 to 2012. The resulting data allow us to perform multi-color studies of the nucleus and coma of the comet. Analysis of PS1 images reveals that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has a small nucleus <4 km radius, with colors g {sub P1} – r {sub P1} = 0.5 ± 0.02, r {sub P1} – i {sub P1} = 0.12 ± 0.02, and i {sub P1} – z {sub P1} = 0.46 ± 0.03. The comet remained active from 2010 to 2012, with a model-dependent mass-loss rate of ∼100 kg s{sup –1}. The mass-loss rate per unit surface area of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is as high as that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1, making it one of the most active Centaurs. The mass-loss rate also varies with time from ∼40 kg s{sup –1} to 150 kg s{sup –1}. Due to its rather circular orbit, we propose that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) has 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1-like outbursts that control the outgassing rate. The results indicate that it may have a similar surface composition to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. Our numerical simulations show that the future orbital evolution of P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is more similar to that of the main population of Centaurs than to that of 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1. The results also demonstrate that P/2011 S1 (Gibbs) is dynamically unstable and can only remain near its current orbit for roughly a thousand years.

  8. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit via Shuttle Centaur G Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2014-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982-86 joint NASA-USAF Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57deg inclined orbit: 9,545 lb vs. 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a one hour window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer vs. 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three vs. two burn transfer (12 vs. 11/4 hrs), but could be accommodated by modest modifications to Centaur systems. Future applications were

  9. Three Orbital Burns to Molniya Orbit Via Shuttle_Centaur G Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.

    2015-01-01

    An unclassified analytical trajectory design, performance, and mission study was done for the 1982 to 1986 joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-United States Air Force (USAF) Shuttle/Centaur G upper stage development program to send performance-demanding payloads to high orbits such as Molniya using an unconventional orbit transfer. This optimized three orbital burn transfer to Molniya orbit was compared to the then-baselined two burn transfer. The results of the three dimensional trajectory optimization performed include powered phase steering data and coast phase orbital element data. Time derivatives of the orbital elements as functions of thrust components were evaluated and used to explain the optimization's solution. Vehicle performance as a function of parking orbit inclination was given. Performance and orbital element data was provided for launch windows as functions of launch time. Ground track data was given for all burns and coasts including variation within the launch window. It was found that a Centaur with fully loaded propellant tanks could be flown from a 37 deg inclination low Earth parking orbit and achieve Molniya orbit with comparable performance to the baselined transfer which started from a 57 deg inclined orbit: 9,545 versus 9,552 lb of separated spacecraft weight, respectively. There was a significant reduction in the need for propellant launch time reserve for a 1 hr window: only 78 lb for the three burn transfer versus 320 lb for the two burn transfer. Conversely, this also meant that longer launch windows over more orbital revolutions could be done for the same amount of propellant reserve. There was no practical difference in ground tracking station or airborne assets needed to secure telemetric data, even though the geometric locations of the burns varied considerably. There was a significant adverse increase in total mission elapsed time for the three versus two burn transfer (12 vs. 1-1/4 hr), but could be

  10. Visible spectroscopy of the new ESO Large Program on trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs: final results

    CERN Document Server

    Fornasier, S; de Bergh, C; Alvarez-Candal, A; DeMeo, F; Merlin, F; Perna, D; Guilbert, A; Delsanti, A; Dotto, E; Doressoundiram, A

    2009-01-01

    A second large programme (LP) for the physical studies of TNOs and Centaurs, started at ESO Cerro Paranal on October 2006 to obtain high-quality data, has recently been concluded. In this paper we present the spectra of these pristine bodies obtained in the visible range during the last two semesters of the LP. We investigate the spectral behaviour of the TNOs and Centaurs observed, and we analyse the spectral slopes distribution of the full data set coming from this LP and from the literature. We computed the spectral slope for each observed object, and searched for possible weak absorption features. A statistical analysis was performed on a total sample of 73 TNOs and Centaurs to look for possible correlations between dynamical classes, orbital parameters, and spectral gradient. We obtained new spectra for 28 bodies, 15 of which were observed for the first time. All the new presented spectra are featureless, including 2003 AZ84, for which a faint and broad absorption band possibly attributed to hydrated sil...

  11. Short-term variability of a sample of 29 trans-Neptunian objects and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirouin, A.; Ortiz, J. L.; Duffard, R.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Aceituno, F. J.; Morales, N.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: We attempt to increase the number of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) whose short-term variability has been studied and compile a high quality database with the least possible biases, which may be used to perform statistical analyses. Methods: We performed broadband CCD photometric observations using several telescopes (the 1.5 m telescope at Sierra Nevada Observatory, the 2.2 m Calar Alto telescope and the 2.5 m INT on La Palma). Results: We present the results of 6 years of observations, reduced and analyzed with the same tools in a systematic way. We report completely new data on 15 objects, for 5 objects we present a new analysis of previously published results plus additional data and for 9 objects we present a new analysis of data already published. Lightcurves, possible rotation periods, and photometric amplitudes are reported for all of them. The photometric variability is smaller than previously thought: the mean amplitude of our sample is 0.1 mag and only around 15% of our sample has a larger variability than 0.15 mag. The smaller variability seems to be caused by a bias of previous observations. We find a very weak trend of faster spinning objects towards smaller sizes, which appears to be consistent with the smaller objects being more collisionally evolved, but may also be a specific feature of the Centaurs, the smallest objects in our sample. We also find that the smaller the objects, the larger their amplitude, which is also consistent with the idea that small objects are more collisionally evolved and thus more deformed. Average rotation rates from our work are 7.5 h for the whole sample, 7.6 h for the TNOs alone and 7.3 h for the Centaurs. Maxwellian fits to the period distribution yield similar results. Table 1 and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgTable 3 is available in electronic form in the Center of astronomical Data of Strasbourg cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb

  12. The 250AH/90A active lithium-thionyl chloride cell for Centaur-G application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolla, A. E.; Tura, D. D.

    1987-09-01

    A high rate active Li/SOCl2 cell was designed for use in a 28 volt, 250 amp-hour space battery system. The lithium battery is being considered as a replacement of its heavier silver-zinc counterpart on board the Centaur-G booster rocket which is used to launch payloads from the Space Shuttle cargo bay into deep-space. Basically a feasibility study, this development effort is demonstrating the ability of the lithium cell to deliver up to 90 amps safely at power densities of approximately 25 watts per pound. Test data on 4 prototype units is showing an energy density of 85 watt-hours per pound and 9.0 watt-hours/cu in. The cells tested typically delivered 280 to 300 amp-hours under ambient temperature test conditions using alternating continuous loads of 90, 55, and 20 amperes throughout life. Data from four cells tested are presented to demonstrate the capability of Li/SOCl2 technology for a C/3 discharge rate in active and hermetic cell units.

  13. Supervised Autonomy for Exploration and Mobile Manipulation in Rough Terrain with a Centaur-like Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Schwarz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Planetary exploration scenarios illustrate the need for autonomous robots that are capable to operate in unknown environments without direct human interaction. At the DARPA Robotics Challenge, we demonstrated that our Centaur-like mobile manipulation robot Momaro can solve complex tasks when teleoperated. Motivated by the DLR SpaceBot Cup 2015, where robots should explore a Mars-like environment, find and transport objects, take a soil sample, and perform assembly tasks, we developed autonomous capabilities for Momaro. Our robot perceives and maps previously unknown, uneven terrain using a 3D laser scanner. Based on the generated height map, we assess drivability, plan navigation paths, and execute them using the omnidirectional drive. Using its four legs, the robot adapts to the slope of the terrain. Momaro perceives objects with cameras, estimates their pose, and manipulates them with its two arms autonomously. For specifying missions, monitoring mission progress, on-the-fly reconfiguration, and teleoperation, we developed a ground station with suitable operator interfaces. To handle network communication interruptions and latencies between robot and ground station, we implemented a robust network layer for the ROS middleware. With the developed system, our team NimbRo Explorer solved all tasks of the DLR SpaceBot Camp 2015. We also discuss the lessons learned from this demonstration.

  14. An integrated autonomous rendezvous and docking system architecture using Centaur modern avionics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kurt

    1991-01-01

    The avionics system for the Centaur upper stage is in the process of being modernized with the current state-of-the-art in strapdown inertial guidance equipment. This equipment includes an integrated flight control processor with a ring laser gyro based inertial guidance system. This inertial navigation unit (INU) uses two MIL-STD-1750A processors and communicates over the MIL-STD-1553B data bus. Commands are translated into load activation through a Remote Control Unit (RCU) which incorporates the use of solid state relays. Also, a programmable data acquisition system replaces separate multiplexer and signal conditioning units. This modern avionics suite is currently being enhanced through independent research and development programs to provide autonomous rendezvous and docking capability using advanced cruise missile image processing technology and integrated GPS navigational aids. A system concept was developed to combine these technologies in order to achieve a fully autonomous rendezvous, docking, and autoland capability. The current system architecture and the evolution of this architecture using advanced modular avionics concepts being pursued for the National Launch System are discussed.

  15. Physical properties of the extreme centaur and super-comet candidate 2013 AZ60

    CERN Document Server

    Pál, A; Horner, J; Szakáts, R; Vilenius, E; Müller, Th G; Acosta-Pulido, J; Licandro, J; Cabrera-Lavers, A; Sárneczky, K; Szabó, Gy M; Thirouin, A; Sipőcz, B; Dózsa, Á; Duffard, R

    2015-01-01

    We present estimates of the basic physical properties -- including size and albedo -- of the extreme Centaur 2013 AZ60. These properties have been derived from optical and thermal infrared measurements. Our optical measurements revealed a likely full period of ~9.4 h with a shallow amplitude of 4.5%. By combining optical brightness information and thermal emission data, we are able to derive a diameter of 62.3 +/- 5.3 km and a geometric albedo of 2.9% -- corresponding to an extremely dark surface. Additionally, our finding of ~> 50 Jm^{-2}K^{-1}s^{-1/2} for the thermal inertia is also noticeably for objects in such a distance. The results of dynamical simulations yield an unstable orbit, with a 50% probability that the target will be ejected from the Solar System within 700,000 years. The current orbit of this object as well as its instability could imply a pristine cometary surface. This possibility is in agreement with the observed low geometric albedo and red photometric colour indices for the object, whic...

  16. HIV Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  17. Capillary acquisition devices for high-performance vehicles: Executive summary. [evaluation of cryogenic propellant management techniques using the centaur launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, M. H.; Bradshaw, R. D.; Risberg, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    Technology areas critical to the development of cryogenic capillary devices were studied. Passive cooling of capillary devices was investigated with an analytical and experimental study of wicking flow. Capillary device refilling with settled fluid was studied using an analytical and experimental program that resulted in successful correlation of a versatile computer program with test data. The program was used to predict Centaur D-1S LO2 and LH2 start basket refilling. Comparisons were made between the baseline Centaur D-1S propellant feed system and feed system alternatives including systems using capillary devices. The preferred concepts from the Centaur D-1S study were examined for APOTV and POTV vehicles for delivery and round trip transfer of payloads between LEO and GEO. Mission profiles were determined to provide propellant usage timelines and the payload partials were defined.

  18. Formation of diverse ring-satellite systems around Centaurs through tidal disruption at close encounters with giant planet

    CERN Document Server

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori; Ohtsuki, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Centaurs are minor planets orbiting between Jupiter and Neptune that have or had crossing orbits with one or more giant planets. Recent observations and reinterpretation of previous observations have revealed the existence of ring systems around 10199 Chariklo and 2060 Chiron. However, the origin of the ring systems around such a minor planet is still an open question. Here, we propose that the tidal disruption of a differentiated object that experiences a close encounter with a giant planet could naturally form diverse ring-satellite systems around the Centaurs. During the close encounter, the icy mantle of the passing object is preferentially ripped off by the planet's tidal force and the debris is distributed mostly within the Roche limit of the largest remnant body. Assuming the existence of $20-50$wt% silicate core below the icy mantle, a disk of particles is formed when the objects pass within $0.4-0.8$ of the planet's Roche limit with the relative velocity at infinity $3-6$km s$^{-1}$ and 8h initial sp...

  19. "TNOs are Cool": A survey of the trans-Neptunian region. IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Müller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods: Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for th

  20. "TNOs are Cool" : A survey of the trans-Neptunian region IX. Thermal properties of Kuiper belt objects and Centaurs from combined Herschel and Spitzer observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lellouch, E.; Santos-Sanz, P.; Lacerda, P.; Mommert, M.; Duffard, R.; Ortiz, J. L.; Mueller, T. G.; Fornasier, S.; Stansberry, J.; Kiss, Cs.; Vilenius, E.; Mueller, M.; Peixinho, N.; Moreno, R.; Groussin, O.; Delsanti, A.; Harris, A. W.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs/trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the

  1. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... you get tested. Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  2. HIV Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... your partners. Is abstinence the only 100% effective HIV prevention option? Yes. Abstinence means not having oral, ...

  3. Stability and reproducibility of ADVIA 120-measured red blood cell and platelet parameters in dogs, cats, and horses, and the use of reticulocyte haemoglobin content (CH(R)) in the diagnosis of iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, M; van Leeuwen, M W; Teske, E

    2009-04-01

    Modern laser-based haematology analysers such as the ADVIA 120 have species-specific software and offer the possibility of assessing new haematological parameters. These parameters have yet to be evaluated, and as these analysers are often used in referral laboratories, it is important to know whether the values of haematological parameters change during sample transport. Therefore, samples of EDTA-anticoagulated blood from nine healthy dogs and EDTA- and citrate-anticoagulated blood from six healthy horses were collected and stored at room temperature for 72 and 48 hours, respectively. In canine samples, WBC and the red blood cell parameters Hb, Hb(cell), Ht, MCV, and MCHC changed significantly after only 24 hours of storage. Thus if canine blood samples need to be stored for 24 hours or longer, Hb, RBC, and MCH would appear to be more reliable parameters than Ht, Hb(cell), MCV, and MCHC. The cytoplasmic haemoglobin content (CH(R)) remained stable up to 48 hours. Both dog and horse platelet numbers were stable over time when blood was anticoagulated with EDTA. Of the platelet-derived parameters, MPC was already significantly lower 2 hours after collection of equine blood samples and was also significantly lower 24 hours after collection of canine blood samples. In contrast, MPV levels were significantly higher 48 hours after sample collection. Initial platelet numbers and platelet parameters were significantly different in citrate-anticoagulated blood and EDTA-anticoagulated blood, and platelet numbers and MPM decreased significantly in citrate-anticoagulated blood samples after only 4 hours of storage. After reference intervals for CH(R) had been established using samples from 53 non-anaemic dogs and 150 non-anaemic cats, the use of CH(R) to detect iron deficiency anaemia was tested in 63 dogs and 55 cats with different diseases. With the help of ROC curves, the optimal cut-off point was determined to be 1.22 fmol in dogs and 0.88 fmol in cats, resulting in a

  4. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Holman, Matthew J; Payne, Matthew J; Fraser, Wesley C; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Chen, Wen-Ping; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Wainscoat, Richard J; Tonry, John L; Magnier, Eugene A; Waters, Christopher; Kaiser, Nick; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Lehner, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Although the majority of Centaurs are thought to have originated in the scattered disk, with the high-inclination members coming from the Oort cloud, the origin of the high inclination component of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. Our numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to that of 2008 KV$_{42}$ (Drac), with a half-life of $\\sim 500$ Myr. Comparing similar high inclination TNOs and Centaurs ($q > 10$ AU, $a 60^\\circ$), we find that these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, and occupy a common orbital plane. This orbital configuration has high statistical significance: 3.8-$\\sigma$. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigate a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  5. The Dynamics of Centaurs in the Vicinity of the 2:1 Mean Motion Resonance of Neptune and Uranus Trojan Region

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    In this work we present the results of a suite of dynamical simulations following the orbital evolution of 8,022 hypothetical Centaur objects. These Centaurs begin our integrations on orbits in the vicinity of the 2:1 mean motion resonance with Neptune, and we follow their dynamical evolution for a period of 3 Myr under the gravitational influence of a motionless Sun and the four Jovian planets. The great majority of the test particles studied rapidly escaped from the vicinity of the 2:1 mean motion resonance of Neptune and diffused throughout the Solar System. The average libration time of Centaurs in the vicinity of 2:1 mean motion resonance of Neptune was found to be just 27 kyr. Although two particles did remain near the resonance for more than 1 Myr. Upon leaving the vicinity of the 2:1 resonance, the majority of test particles evolved by a process of random walk in semi-major axis, due to repeated close encounters with the giant planets.

  6. On the Thematic Mode and Narrative Patterns of The Centaur%论《马人》的主题和叙事模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丹丹

    2016-01-01

    In light of Northrop Frye's theory on romance, the present thesis sets out to analyze the the-matic mode as well as the narrative patterns of John Updike's The Centaur. True to the traditional quest motif, The Centaur demonstrates fidelity to God-centered myth by embodying Greek characters and plots. At the same time, it is also a parody of the quest myth. For its simultaneous treatment of both Gods in myth and men in novel, The Centaur is a typical American romance.%从弗莱的罗曼司理论出发,分析厄普代克《马人》的主题和叙事模式.回溯传统、忠实于神话原型的《马人》在主题上延续传统文学的追寻母题.与此同时,文本又多处对追寻母题进行戏仿.这是一部游离于真实和神话世界之间、横亘于以人为本的小说和以神为本的神话之间的文本罗曼司.

  7. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  8. Women and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Women and HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... HIV? What should pregnant women know about HIV? HIV Quick Facts What is HIV? HIV is the ...

  9. Reanalyzing the visible colors of Centaurs and KBOs: what is there and what we might be missing

    CERN Document Server

    Peixinho, Nuno; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Visible colors (BVRI) are a reasonable proxy for real spectra of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects, which are rather linear in this range. Colors provide limited information but remain the best tool to study the bulk surface properties. We explore recurrent effects in the study of visible colors: i) how a correlation could be missed or weakened as a result of the data error bars, ii) the "risk" of missing an existing trend because of low sampling, and the possibility of making quantified predictions on the sample size needed to detect a trend at a given significance level, iii) the use of partial correlations to distinguish the mutual effect of two or more parameters, and iv) the sensitivity of the "reddening line" tool to the central wavelength of the filters used. We have compiled the visible colors of about 370 objects available in the literature and carried out an analysis per dynamical family. Our results show how a) data error bars impose a limit on the detectable correlations regardless of sample size a...

  10. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    CERN Document Server

    Galiazzo, Mattia; Marcos, Raul de la Fuente; Carraro, Giovanni; Maris, Michele; Montalto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs -2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)- and three TNOs -38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)- and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ~1%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discusse...

  11. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ... reduces the risk of HIV transmission . How do HIV medicines work? HIV attacks and destroys the infection- ...

  12. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  13. HIV and Pregnancy

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    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG HIV and Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs HIV ... HIV and Pregnancy FAQ113, December 2012 PDF Format HIV and Pregnancy Pregnancy What is human immunodeficiency virus ( ...

  14. HIV and Rheumatic Disease

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    ... A Patient / Caregiver Diseases & Conditions HIV & Rheumatic Diseases HIV and Rheumatic Disease Fast Facts Rheumatic diseases related ... knows he or she has HIV. What are HIV-associated rheumatic diseases? Some diseases of the joints ...

  15. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  16. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of HIV in the United States, please visit: https://www.aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids- ... HIV, STD, and TB Prevention. What Is HIV? ( http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/faq/faq1.htm ). ...

  18. Reanalyzing the visible colors of Centaurs and KBOs: what is there and what we might be missing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Nuno; Delsanti, Audrey; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2015-05-01

    Since the discovery of the Kuiper belt, broadband surface colors were thoroughly studied as a first approximation to the object reflectivity spectra. Visible colors (BVRI) have proven to be a reasonable proxy for real spectra, which are rather linear in this range. In contrast, near-IR colors (JHK bands) could be misleading when absorption features of ices are present in the spectra. Although the physical and chemical information provided by colors are rather limited, broadband photometry remains the best tool for establishing the bulk surface properties of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and Centaurs. In this work, we explore for the first time general, recurrent effects in the study of visible colors that could affect the interpretation of the scientific results: i) how a correlation could be missed or weakened as a result of the data error bars; ii) the "risk" of missing an existing trend because of low sampling, and the possibility of making quantified predictions on the sample size needed to detect a trend at a given significance level - assuming the sample is unbiased; iii) the use of partial correlations to distinguish the mutual effect of two or more (physical) parameters; and iv) the sensitivity of the "reddening line" tool to the central wavelength of the filters used. To illustrate and apply these new tools, we have compiled the visible colors and orbital parameters of about 370 objects available in the literature - assumed, by default, as unbiased samples - and carried out a traditional analysis per dynamical family. Our results show in particular how a) data error bars impose a limit on the detectable correlations regardless of sample size and that therefore, once that limit is achieved, it is important to diminish the error bars, but it is pointless to enlarge the sampling with the same or larger errors; b) almost all dynamical families still require larger samplings to ensure the detection of correlations stronger than ±0.5, that is, correlations that

  19. Discovery of A New Retrograde Trans-Neptunian Object: Hint of A Common Orbital Plane for Low Semi-Major Axis, High Inclination TNOs and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Tung; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Holman, Matthew J.; Payne, Matthew John; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher; Lacerda, Pedro; Ip, Wing-Huen; Pan-STARRS 1 Builders

    2016-10-01

    The origin of high inclination objects beyond Jupiter, including trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs, remains uncertain. We report the discovery of a retrograde TNO, which we nickname "Niku", detected by the Pan-STARRS 1 Outer Solar System Survey. The numerical integrations show that the orbital dynamics of Niku are very similar to those of 2008 KV42 (Drac), with a half-life of ~ 500 Myr and analogous orbital evolution. Comparing similar high inclination members announced by the Minor-Planet Center (q > 10 AU, a 60), we find these objects exhibit a surprising clustering of ascending node, populating a common orbital plane. The statistical significance of 3.8-sigma suggests it is unlikely to be coincidental. An unknown mechanism is required to explain the observed clustering. This discovery may provide a pathway to investigating a possible reservoir of high-inclination objects.

  20. Living with HIV

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    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS Living With HIV Language: English Spanish Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  1. HIV among Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Women Format: Select One File [155K] Recommend ...

  2. HIV among Transgender People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Transgender People Format: Select One File [82K] ...

  3. HIV Among Asians

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    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  4. 77 FR 15779 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ...-2011-M-0917] Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval... 28, 2011. P090024, FDA-2011-M-0737 Siemens Healthcare ADVIA CENTAUR HBEAG October 11, 2011.... H090002, FDA-2011-M-0848 BSD Medical Corp..... BSD-2000 November 18, 2011. hyperthermia system....

  5. 77 FR 35690 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ...-0208, FDA- 2012-M-0209, FDA-2012-M-0210, FDA-2012-M-0221, and FDA-2012-M-0250] Medical Devices... BSD Medical BSD-2000 November 18, 2011. Corporation. Hyperthermia System. H100004, FDA-2011-M-0919..., 2012. Associates, Inc. Endoprosthesis. P100039, FDA-2012-M-0075 Siemens Healthcare ADVIA Centaur...

  6. HIV Life Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Overview The HIV Life Cycle (Last updated 9/13/2016; last reviewed 9/8/2016) Key Points HIV gradually destroys the immune ... life cycle. What is the connection between the HIV life cycle and HIV medicines? Antiretroviral therapy (ART) ...

  7. HIV Latency

    OpenAIRE

    Robert F. Siliciano; Greene, Warner C.

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 can establish a state of latent infection at the level of individual T cells. Latently infected cells are rare in vivo and appear to arise when activated CD4+ T cells, the major targets cells for HIV-1, become infected and survive long enough to revert back to a resting memory state, which is nonpermissive for viral gene expression. Because latent virus resides in memory T cells, it persists indefinitely even in patients on potent antiretroviral therapy. This latent reservoir is recogni...

  8. Screening and diagnosis for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV testing; HIV screening; HIV screening test; HIV confirmatory test ... Task Force. Final Update Summary: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: Screening. July 2015. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/UpdateSummaryFinal/ ...

  9. HIV/AIDS Coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  10. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 2/24/2017; last reviewed 2/24/2017) Key Points Vaccines protect people from ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  11. Children and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Children Children and HIV Most HIV-positive children under the age of ... Frequently Asked Questions How long do children with HIV typically live? Because effective treatments are relatively new ...

  12. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  13. [HIV and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Vineeta Bansal; Berger, Christoph; Nadal, David; Grawe, Claudia

    2014-08-01

    The use and success of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people has led to a reduction of vertical transmission of HIV. Pregnancy in HIV-positive women became more common. The success of prophylactic measures has led to a dramatic change in care of HIV-positive women. Today, a HIV-positive mother giving birth to a HIV-negative child is standard of care in industrialized countries. We describe the impact of an HIV-infection in pregnancy and outline the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  14. National HIV Testing Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Dr. Kevin A. Fenton, Director of CDC's National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses National HIV Testing Day, an annual observance which raises awareness of the importance of knowing one's HIV status and encourages at-risk individuals to get an HIV test.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  15. Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-11-26

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Steve Nesheim discusses perinatal HIV transmission, including the importance of preventing HIV among women, preconception care, and timely HIV testing of the mother. Dr. Nesheim also introduces the revised curriculum Eliminating Perinatal HIV Transmission intended for faculty of OB/GYN and pediatric residents and nurse midwifery students.  Created: 11/26/2012 by Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention.   Date Released: 11/26/2012.

  16. Dermatomyositis and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamata Chand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV has been linked to several autoimmune disorders since its emergence in the 1980s. By affecting different cells and pathways in the immune system, HIV induces the development of certain autoimmune diseases while prohibiting the emergence of others. Dermatomyositis has been rarely described in patients with HIV. We present a case of dermatomyositis in a patient with HIV and explore the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders in HIV focusing on dermatomyositis.

  17. Photometry of Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects: 2060 Chiron (1977 UB), 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26), 38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiazzo, M.; de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.; Carraro, G.; Maris, M.; Montalto, M.

    2016-07-01

    Both Centaurs and trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are minor bodies found in the outer Solar System. Centaurs are a transient population that moves between the orbits of Jupiter and Neptune, and they probably diffused out of the TNOs. TNOs move mainly beyond Neptune. Some of these objects display episodic cometary behaviour; a few percent of them are known to host binary companions. Here, we study the light-curves of two Centaurs—2060 Chiron (1977 UB) and 10199 Chariklo (1997 CU26)—and three TNOs—38628 Huya (2000 EB173), 28978 Ixion (2001 KX76), and 90482 Orcus (2004 DW)—and the colours of the Centaurs and Huya. Precise, ˜1~%, R-band absolute CCD photometry of these minor bodies acquired between 2006 and 2011 is presented; the new data are used to investigate the rotation rate of these objects. The colours of the Centaurs and Huya are determined using BVRI photometry. The point spread function of the five minor bodies is analysed, searching for signs of a coma or close companions. Astrometry is also discussed. A periodogram analysis of the light-curves of these objects gives the following rotational periods: 5.5±0.4~h for Chiron, 7.0± 0.6~h for Chariklo, 4.45±0.07~h for Huya, 12.4±0.3~h for Ixion, and 11.9±0.5~h for Orcus. The colour indices of Chiron are found to be B-V=0.53±0.05, V-R=0.37±0.08, and R-I=0.36±0.15. The values computed for Chariklo are V-R=0.62±0.07 and R-I=0.61±0.07. For Huya, we find V-R=0.58±0.09 and R-I=0.64±0.20. Our rotation periods are similar to and our colour values are consistent with those already published for these objects. We find very low levels of cometary activity (if any) and no sign of close or wide binary companions for these minor bodies.

  18. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with ... Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the ...

  19. What Is HIV/AIDS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS? Subscribe Translate Text Size Print What Is HIV/AIDS? Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left ... need medical treatment to prevent death. Where DId HIV Come From? Scientists identified a type of chimpanzee ...

  20. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Projects » Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 – ... and to help us Send the Message . Get the Facts What are HIV and AIDS? HIV (human ...

  2. Therapeutic HIV Peptide Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines aim to control chronic HIV infection and eliminate the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therapeutic HIV vaccine is being pursued as part of a functional cure for HIV/AIDS. We have outlined a basic protocol for inducing new T cell immunity during chronic HIV-1...... infection directed to subdominant conserved HIV-1 epitopes restricted to frequent HLA supertypes. The rationale for selecting HIV peptides and adjuvants are provided. Peptide subunit vaccines are regarded as safe due to the simplicity, quality, purity, and low toxicity. The caveat is reduced immunogenicity...

  3. HIV/AIDS Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  4. A new look at the visible color correlations of Centaurs and KBOs: what’s there and what we may be missing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Nuno; Delsanti, Audrey; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2014-11-01

    Broadband surface colors of Centaurs and KBOs are usually seen as a mere rough approximation of their reflectivity spectra. Whereas JHK colors are not the best proxy for the near-IR spectra with possible presence of absorption features of several ices, BVRI colors have shown to be so when it comes to visible spectra. We have compiled a data-set of visible colors available in the literature for 369 objects and analyzed their color vs. color correlations and their color vs. orbital parameters correlations, both globally and by dynamical family. In this work we present the first study on: i) the “degradation” of the detectable strength of a correlation as a function of data error-bars, ii) the “risk” of missing-out existing correlations due to low sampling, iii) the sample-sizes required to “warrant” detection at a given significance level, iv) the use of partial correlations to disentangle complex mutual correlations, and v) the high sensitivity of the so-called “reddening line” to the central wavelength of similar filters at different telescopes. We will discuss, in particular: a) how data error-bars impose a limit on the detectable correlations regardless of sample size and, therefore, once that limit is achieved it is important to diminish the error-bars but pointless to enlarge the sampling with the same or larger errors; b) how almost all families still require larger samplings to “ensure” the detection of correlations stronger than +/-0.5, i.e. correlations that may “explain” ~25% or more of the color variability; and c) how it is statistically equivalent to use any of the different “flavors” of orbital excitation or collisional velocity parameters regarding the famous color-inclination correlation among Classical KBOs, whereas the inclination and Tisserand parameter relative no Neptune cannot be separated from one another.Acknowledgements: NP acknowledges funding by the Gemini-Conicyt Fund, allocated to the project #32120036.

  5. HIV Medication Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV Medication Adherence (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) Key Points Medication adherence means sticking firmly to ... Before and After Starting HIV Medicines . What is medication adherence? Adherence means “to stick firmly.” So for ...

  6. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT results. WB testing, however, causes delays in diagnosis and adds expense. The iPrEx study evaluated the safety and efficacy of daily oral emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate among HIV-seronegative men and transgender women who have sex with men: HIV infection was assessed with two RTs plus WB confirmation, followed by HIV-1 plasma viral load testing. During the iPrEx study, there were 51,260 HIV status evaluations among 2,499 volunteers using RTs: 142 (0.28%) had concordant positive results (100% were eventually confirmed) and 19 (0.04%) had discordant results among 14 participants; 11 were eventually determined to be HIV infected. A streamlined approach using only one RT to screen and a second RT to confirm (without WB) would have had nearly the same accuracy. Discrepant RT results are best evaluated with nucleic acid testing, which would also increase sensitivity. PMID:25378570

  7. HIV and maternal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, Eva; Jamieson, Denise J; Danel, Isabella

    2014-11-01

    The majority of the 17 million women globally that are estimated to be infected with HIV live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, HIV-related causes contributed to 19 000-56 000 maternal deaths in 2011 (6%-20% of maternal deaths). HIV-infected pregnant women have two to 10 times the risk of dying during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared with uninfected pregnant women. Many of these deaths can be prevented with the implementation of high-quality obstetric care, prevention and treatment of common co-infections, and treatment of HIV with ART. The paper summarizes what is known about HIV disease progression in pregnancy, specific causes of HIV-related maternal deaths, and the potential impact of treatment with antiretroviral therapy on maternal mortality. Recommendations are proposed for improving maternal health and decreasing maternal mortality among HIV-infected women based on existing evidence.

  8. Primaer HIV-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Pedersen, B K

    1996-01-01

    , oesophageal candidiasis, meningoencephalitis, rhabdomyolysis and epiglottitis have been reported. The diagnosis of the acute HIV infection syndrome can be established by demonstrating antibodies to HIV or by demonstration of HIV antigen positivity. Detection of virus through culture or PCR may prove......Up to 70% of individuals with primary HIV infection will develop symptoms of an acute illness. The most common symptoms reported are fever, generalized lymphadenopathy, arthralgia and myalgia, headache, pharyngitis, enanthema, skin rash, diarrhoea, and mucocutaneous ulcerations. More rarely...... to be more sensitive, but are not yet used as routine methods. The course of the primary infection has prognostic importance for the subsequent course of HIV infection. This probably reflects the importance of both the viral phenotype and of the initial immune response to HIV. Primary HIV infection should...

  9. Basic HIV/AIDS Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Statistics Center . How many people are diagnosed with HIV each year in the United States? In 2015, ...

  10. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  11. Diet and Nutrition and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... code here Enter ZIP code here Living with HIV/AIDS: Diet and Nutrition--Entire Lesson for Veterans ...

  12. Streamlining HIV Testing for HIV Preexposure Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Guanira, Juan V.; Leigler, Teri; Kallas, Esper; Schechter, Mauro; Sharma, Usha; Glidden, David; Grant, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-testing algorithms for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) should be optimized to minimize the risk of drug resistance, the time off PrEP required to evaluate false-positive screening results, and costs and to expedite the start of therapy for those confirmed to be infected. HIV rapid tests (RTs) for anti-HIV antibodies provide results in less than 1 h and can be conducted by nonlicensed staff at the point of care. In many regions, Western blot (WB) testing is required to confirm reactive RT r...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Link - Drugs and HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors ... GA: CDC, DHHS. Retrieved June 2012 How are Drug Abuse and HIV Related? Drug abuse and addiction ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... access to the latest, federally approved HIV/AIDS medical practice guidelines, HIV treatment and prevention clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the ...

  16. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  17. HIV/AIDS and Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... against the disease. Is There a Vaccine for HIV? No. There is currently no vaccine that will ... in this video! /* // ** // */ Why Do We Need an HIV Vaccine? Today, more people living with HIV than ...

  18. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  19. Travelling with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Pedersen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any...... of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38......%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced...

  20. HIV/AIDS eradication

    OpenAIRE

    Marsden, Matthew D.; Zack, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy can inhibit HIV replication in patients and prevent progression to AIDS. However, it is not curative. Here we provide an overview of what antiretroviral drugs do and how the virus persists during therapy in rare reservoirs, such as latently infected CD4+ T cells. We also outline several innovative methods that are currently under development to eradicate HIV from infected individuals. These strategies include gene therapy approaches intended to create an HIV-resistant i...

  1. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  2. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  3. Mental Health and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  4. Initiation of HIV therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Charlotte Yuk-Fan; Ling, Bingo Wing-Kuen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we numerically show that the dynamics of the HIV system is sensitive to both the initial condition and the system parameters. These phenomena imply that the system is chaotic and exhibits a bifurcation behavior. To control the system, we propose to initiate an HIV therapy based on both the concentration of the HIV-1 viral load and the ratio of the CD4 lymphocyte population to the CD8 lymphocyte population. If the concentration of the HIV-1 viral load is higher than a threshold,...

  5. Unrecognised HIV related deaths.

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, A.

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To establish whether follow up of deaths from selected HIV related causes could increase the number of cases of HIV infection reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre (CDSC), and to estimate the proportion of deaths among HIV positive men that occurred in men who were not known to be HIV positive at the time of death by the person who signed the death certificate. DESIGN--Follow up of draft death entries received by the Office of Po...

  6. FDA-Approved HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (Last updated 2/27/2017; last reviewed 2/27/2017) Treatment with HIV medicines is ... approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of HIV infection in the ...

  7. HIV and Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HAV for people who are at risk for HIV infection, including MSM; users of recreational drugs, whether injected or not; and sex partners of infected people. • • HBV: The best way to prevent HBV ... have or are at risk for HIV infection, including MSM; people who inject drugs; sex ...

  8. Let's Stop HIV Together

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-16

    This podcast features 22 individuals who encourage others in the fight against HIV.  Created: 7/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/16/2012.

  9. Ludacris Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Ludacris, award winning singer and actor, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  10. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient s

  11. HIV and AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  12. HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People who are infected with HIV sometimes try dietary supplements that claim to boost the immune system or counteract side effects of anti-HIV drugs. Supplements that may be helpful Acetyl-L-carnitine. Researchers have used acetyl-L-carnitine to treat ...

  13. Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Michael H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Presents evidence describing benefits of behavioral interventions such as aerobic exercise training on both psychological and immunological functioning among high risk human immunodeficiency virus-Type 1 (HIV-1) seronegative and very early stage seropositive homosexual men. HIV-1 infection is cast as chronic disease for which early…

  14. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra; van Delden, Christian; Giostra, Emiliano; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, Caroline Flora; Elkrief, Laure; Vionnet, J; Berney, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidr...

  15. Indikatorsygdomme for hiv-infektion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birgitte Rønde; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Koch, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The mortality of HIV-infected patients in Denmark approaches that of the background population. Still, half of the HIV-infected patients are diagnosed late, resulting in poorer response to therapy, larger cost and greater transmission rate. A pan-European initiative, "HIV in Europe" has published...... a guideline on indicator-based HIV testing in order to improve early HIV diagnosis. The Danish Society of Infectious Diseases wishes to highlight the importance of indicator-based HIV testing, in order to improve the possibility of early diagnosis and therapy of HIV-infection....

  16. HIV Vaccination, is Breakthrough Underway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Da-Yong; Wu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Ting-Ren; Xu, Bin; Ding, Jian

    2016-01-01

    After long defeats-almost no marked breakthrough in HIV vaccination campaign has been observed during the past two decades, and we still have not lost our faiths for the development of highly effective and low risk HIV vaccines. Many effective vaccines have been discovered and will certainly enter into the markets within the next 5 to 10 years. In order to promote HIV vaccine developments and clinical HIV therapeutic improvements, this perspective addresses the good and bad sides of currently available HIV vaccines, discusses many subjects of medical significance and finally provides up-to-date information in the field of HIV studies, in particular regarding vaccine developments and HIV pathogenesis.

  17. Nutrition and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Filteau, Suzanne

    2017-01-01

    The impact of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is most severe in sub-Saharan African countries already affected by undernutrition and food insecurity. There is a two-way relationship between HIV and undernutrition and food insecurity......, which is mainly synergistic and operating at different levels. HIV infection increases energy and nutrient requirements, yet it reduces food security. The result is nutritional deficiencies, which increase progression of HIV infection. Both undernutrition and food insecurity may also lead to increased...... risk of transmission. Nutritional intake and status may affect metabolism of antiretroviral drugs, some of which may affect body composition, and increase risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, HIV is transmitted through breastfeeding, causing a serious infant feeding dilemma for which...

  18. Cutaneous Leishmaniasis with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talat, Humaira; Attarwala, Sharmeen; Saleem, Mubasshir

    2014-05-01

    Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector borne disease caused by various species of the Leishmania parasite. CL is endemic in the province of Balochistan in Pakistan. In certain instances a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-related immunocompromised is associated with atypical clinical presentation and occurrence of reactivated lesions of CL. Such presentations respond poorly to the standard treatment and frequent relapses are noted. We are reporting three cases of localized and disseminated CL due to Leishmania tropica which responded to meglumine antimoniate. Due to the fact that CL is endemic in Balochistan, we did not consider HIV infection as a causative organism. It was their presentation with history of weight loss and fever that prompted Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) tests for HIV, which turned out to be positive. CL is becoming visible as an opportunistic infection associated with HIV/AIDS and may even be the first symptom in HIV positive patients in an endemic area.

  19. HIV treatment for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosioni Juan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract "No virus, no transmission." Studies have repeatedly shown that viral load (the quantity of virus present in blood and sexual secretions is the strongest predictor of HIV transmission during unprotected sex or transmission from infected mother to child. Effective treatment lowers viral load to undetectable levels. If one could identify and treat all HIV-infected people immediately after infection, the HIV/AIDS epidemic would eventually disappear. Such a radical solution is currently unrealistic. In reality, not all people get tested, especially when they fear stigma and discrimination. Thus, not all HIV-infected individuals are known. Of those HIV-positive individuals for whom the diagnosis is known, not all of them have access to therapy, agree to be treated, or are taking therapy effectively. Some on effective treatment will stop, and in others, the development of resistance will lead to treatment failure. Furthermore, resources are limited: should we provide drugs to asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without indication for treatment according to guidelines in order to prevent HIV transmission at the risk of diverting funding from sick patients in urgent need? In fact, the preventive potential of anti-HIV drugs is unknown. Modellers have tried to fill the gap, but models differ depending on assumptions that are strongly debated. Further, indications for antiretroviral treatments expand; in places like Vancouver and San Francisco, the majority of HIV-positive individuals are now under treatment, and the incidence of new HIV infections has recently fallen. However, correlation does not necessarily imply causation. Finally, studies in couples where one partner is HIV-infected also appear to show that treatment reduces the risk of transmission. More definite studies, where a number of communities are randomized to either receive the "test-and-treat" approach or continue as before, are now in evaluation by funding agencies. Repeated

  20. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and effective in people. What is an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? HIV/AIDS clinical trials help researchers ... to HIV Can anyone participate in an HIV/AIDS clinical trial? It depends on the study. Some ...

  1. HIV and AIDS: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by Audience For Women Free Publications HIV and AIDS--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... HIV treatment. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for H uman I mmunodeficiency V ...

  2. HIV Treatment: What is a Drug Interaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mental Health How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV Treatment What is a Drug Interaction? (Last updated ... Are drug interactions a problem for people with HIV? Treatment with HIV medicines (called antiretroviral therapy or ...

  3. HIV Molecular Immunology 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States); Koup, Richard [Vaccine Research Center National Institutes of Health (United States); de Boer, Rob [Utrecht Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Biology; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Brander, Christian [Institucioi Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute of Massachusetts General Hospital, Cambridge, MA (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-03

    HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2014 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as crossreactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins are provided.

  4. Mobility and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Migrants, refugees, and internally displaced people are vulnerable to HIV because they live in poor areas with little privacy, have different sexual relationships, and lack information about sexual health and services. In response to these problems, HIV prevention and care programs were initiated. The programs include: 1) involving migrant workers as both interviewers and outreach workers to better understand the idea of the migrants per Coordination of Action Research on Mobility and AIDS; 2) improving living conditions; 3) access of migrants to information and services; 4) improving the rights of the people; 5) increasing income; and 6) access to sexual health information that concerns exposure of HIV through different sexual partners.

  5. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  6. HIV among Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Gay and Bisexual Men Language: English Spanish ...

  7. HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over Language: English ...

  8. HIV/AIDS among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African Americans Format: Select One File [163K] ...

  9. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case the person is ever exposed to ... have participated in HIV vaccine studies around the world in the last 25 years, ...

  10. Hepatitis A and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis A Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis A What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis A and HIV Hepatitis A is preventable with ...

  11. HIV and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis B (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... should be treated for both diseases. What is hepatitis B? Hepatitis B is a liver disease caused ...

  12. Hepatitis B and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis B Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis B What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis C . Hepatitis B and HIV About 10% of people living ...

  13. HIV and Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Hepatitis C (Last updated 8/31/2016; last reviewed ... the medicines for any side effects. What is hepatitis C? Hepatitis C is a liver disease caused ...

  14. Hepatitis C and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Problems : Hepatitis C Subscribe Translate Text Size Print Hepatitis C What is Hepatitis? Hepatitis means inflammation of the liver. This condition ... our related pages, Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B . Hepatitis C and HIV About 25% of people living ...

  15. Benchmarking HIV health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Reekie, Joanne; Mocroft, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: State-of-the-art care involving the utilisation of multiple health care interventions is the basis for an optimal long-term clinical prognosis for HIV-patients. We evaluated health care for HIV-patients based on four key indicators. METHODS: Four indicators of health care were...... assessed: Compliance with current guidelines on initiation of 1) combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 2) chemoprophylaxis, 3) frequency of laboratory monitoring, and 4) virological response to cART (proportion of patients with HIV-RNA 90% of time on cART). RESULTS: 7097 Euro...... to North, patients from other regions had significantly lower odds of virological response; the difference was most pronounced for East and Argentina (adjusted OR 0.16[95%CI 0.11-0.23, p HIV health care utilization...

  16. Reduce HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our research has demonstrated remarkable success in reducing HIV risk-associated sexual behaviors among African American adolescents and adults." Read More "Nursing Research" Articles Nursing Research / Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions / Reduce ...

  17. Pregnancy and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Sucu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection is progressing rapidly. In developed countries, the perinatal transmission rates have decreased from 20-30% to 1-2% with the use of antiretroviral therapy and cesarean section. Interventions for the prevention of prenatal transmission has made the prenatal care of pregnant patients with HIV infection more complex. Rapid development of standard care and continuing increase in the distribution of HIV infection has required clinicians taking care of pregnants to have current information. Therefore, in our review we aimed to summarize the prenatal course, treatment and preventive methods for perinatal transmission of HIV. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(4.000: 522-535

  18. SNFing HIV transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukrinsky Michael

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is an essential regulator of transcription of cellular genes. HIV-1 infection induces exit of a core component of SWI/SNF, Ini1, into the cytoplasm and its association with the viral pre-integration complex. Several recent papers published in EMBO Journal, Journal of Biological Chemistry, and Retrovirology provide new information regarding possible functions of Ini1 and SWI/SNF in HIV life cycle. It appears that Ini1 has an inhibitory effect on pre-integration steps of HIV replication, but also contributes to stimulation of Tat-mediated transcription. This stimulation involves displacement of the nucleosome positioned at the HIV promoter.

  19. HIV and Tuberculosis (TB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections and Coinfections HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) (Last updated 9/1/2016; last reviewed ... depends on a person’s individual circumstances. What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious disease that can ...

  20. HIV Treatment Adherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  1. HIV Antibody Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 has a higher prevalence in parts of Africa.) The level of p24 antigen and the amount ... getting pregnant may opt to get tested (see Pregnancy: HIV .) The ... Teens , Young Adults , Adults , and Adults 50 and Up . ...

  2. HIV Molecular Immunology 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusim, Karina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Korber, Bette Tina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Theoretical Division; Brander, Christian [Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain); Barouch, Dan [Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Division of Vaccine Research; de Boer, Rob [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands). Faculty of Biology; Haynes, Barton F. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Duke Human Vaccine Institute and Departments of Medicine, Surgery and Immunology; Koup, Richard [National Inst. of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD (United States). Vaccine Research Center; Moore, John P. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Weill Medical College; Walker, Bruce D. [Ragon Institute, Cambridge, MA (United States); Watkins, David [Wisconsin Regional Primate Research Center, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-04-05

    The scope and purpose of the HIV molecular immunology database: HIV Molecular Immunology is a companion volume to HIV Sequence Compendium. This publication, the 2015 edition, is the PDF version of the web-based HIV Immunology Database (http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/immunology/). The web interface for this relational database has many search options, as well as interactive tools to help immunologists design reagents and interpret their results. In the HIV Immunology Database, HIV-specific B-cell and T-cell responses are summarized and annotated. Immunological responses are divided into three parts, CTL, T helper, and antibody. Within these parts, defined epitopes are organized by protein and binding sites within each protein, moving from left to right through the coding regions spanning the HIV genome. We include human responses to natural HIV infections, as well as vaccine studies in a range of animal models and human trials. Responses that are not specifically defined, such as responses to whole proteins or monoclonal antibody responses to discontinuous epitopes, are summarized at the end of each protein section. Studies describing general HIV responses to the virus, but not to any specific protein, are included at the end of each part. The annotation includes information such as cross-reactivity, escape mutations, antibody sequence, TCR usage, functional domains that overlap with an epitope, immune response associations with rates of progression and therapy, and how specific epitopes were experimentally defined. Basic information such as HLA specificities for T-cell epitopes, isotypes of monoclonal antibodies, and epitope sequences are included whenever possible. All studies that we can find that incorporate the use of a specific monoclonal antibody are included in the entry for that antibody. A single T-cell epitope can have multiple entries, generally one entry per study. Finally, maps of all defined linear epitopes relative to the HXB2 reference proteins

  3. HIV resistance to raltegravir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Francois

    2009-11-24

    Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravir-based treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  4. HIV resistance to raltegravir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clavel François

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Similar to all antiretroviral drugs, failure of raltegravirbased treatment regimens to fully supress HIV replication almost invariably results in emergence of HIV resistance to this new drug. HIV resistance to raltegravir is the consequence of mutations located close to the integrase active site, which can be divided into three main evolutionary pathways: the N155H, the Q148R/H/K and the Y143R/C pathways. Each of these primary mutations can be accompanied by a variety of secondary mutations that both increase resistance and compensate for the variable loss of viral replicative capacity that is often associated with primary resistance mutations. One unique property of HIV resistance to raltegravir is that each of these different resistance pathways are mutually exclusive and appear to evolve separately on distinct viral genomes. Resistance is frequently initiated by viruses carrying mutations of the N155H pathway, followed by emergence and further dominance of viral genomes carrying mutations of the Q148R/H/K or of the Y143R/C pathways, which express higher levels of resistance. Even if some natural integrase polymorphisms can be part of this evolution process, these polymorphisms do not affect HIV susceptibility in the absence of primary mutations. Therefore, all HIV-1 subtypes and groups, together with HIV-2, are naturally susceptible to raltegravir. Finally, because interaction of integrase strand transfer inhibitors with the HIV integrase active site is comparable from one compound to another, raltegravir-resistant viruses express significant cross resistance to most other compounds of this new class of antiretroviral drugs.

  5. Optimizing HIV drug therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Calmy, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The spectrum of drugs used in HIV-infected patients has dramatically changed since triple antiretroviral combinations were introduced, albeit at the expense of some severe adverse events, in 1996. Long term complications of antiretroviral drug exposure, such as HIV lipodystrophy, as well as organ-specific disease of heart and bone are, therefore, a critical issue when designing antiretroviral regimens. Because it is difficult to predict the occurrence of lipodystrophy, and because there is no...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... depict the devastating consequences of compromised judgment and critical thinking that can result from drug use. Young ... HIV epidemic. As we learn more about the critical connection between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS and ...

  7. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or decrease symptoms of illness. To learn about current statistics of HIV in the United States, please ... programs also serve an important role in providing current information on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling ...

  8. HIV/AIDS in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, kills or damages cells of the body's immune system. The most advanced stage of infection with HIV is AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ...

  9. Sex and Sexuality and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO protect against HIV: abstinence (not having sex) male condom female condom Birth control options that DO NOT protect against HIV: oral contraceptive ("the pill") Depo-Provera (shot) emergency contraception ("morning- ...

  10. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV destroys a certain kind of white blood cell that is crucial to the normal function of the human immune system. Loss of these CD4+ cells in people with HIV is a key predictor ...

  11. HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Apps APIs Widgets Order Publications Skip Nav HIV/AIDS Clinical Trials Home > Clinical Trials Español small ... Renal (Kidney) Complications/Damage Skin Diseases FDA-Approved HIV Drugs Abacavir Atazanavir Atripla Cobicistat Combivir Complera Darunavir ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... on HIV/AIDS and related diseases, counseling and testing services, and referrals for medical and social services. ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abuse by any route (not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug ... and can lead to unsafe sexual practices, which put people at risk for getting HIV or transmitting ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & ... In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, delivery, and breastfeeding. HIV destroys a certain kind ...

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the ... clinical trials, and other research information for health care providers, researchers, people affected by HIV/AIDS, and ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the link between drug abuse and HIV infection. It contains information for young people, parents and teachers, ... present time. The virus (HIV) and the disease it causes (AIDS) are often linked and referred to ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing ... please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/age/youth/index.html​ . Resources Publications Drug Facts: HIV/ ...

  18. Living with HIV: Patients Perspective

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-04

    This podcast showcases three people who are living with HIV. The patients share their experiences of being diagnosed with HIV, of the treatments they are undergoing, and on taking responsibility for their health.  Created: 6/4/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/4/2009.

  19. HIV Associated Lupus Like Nephropathy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive patients are at a high risk for the development of a variety of acute and chronic renal diseases. Most patients with HIVAN are of African descent, presenting late in the course of their HIV-1 infection. The only reliable test to establish or rule out the presence of HIVAN (HIV associated nephropathy) is renal biopsy. The most common lesion associated with HIV is a focal segmental glomeruloscelerosis, but several times, other ...

  20. When One Partner Is HIV+

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translate Text Size Print When One Partner Is HIV+ What is a “mixed-status” Relationship? A " ... but you can minimize it. Tips for the HIV-negative Partner If you are the HIV-negative ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV/AIDS, and the general public. U.S. National Library of Medicine HIV/AIDS Information : Specialized Information Services. ... link between drug abuse and HIV. Post on Facebook or Twitter ; add photos to your Flickr , Pinterest , ...

  2. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  3. HIV Sequence Compendium 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Brian Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas Kenneth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Cristian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette Tina Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-05

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. We try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2015. Hence, though it is published in 2015 and called the 2015 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2014 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing. In total, at the end of 2014, there were 624,121 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 7% since the previous year. This is the first year that the number of new sequences added to the database has decreased compared to the previous year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 5834 by end of 2014. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a fraction of these. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/ content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  4. HIV-Associated Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Few cases of HIV and neurocysticercosis co-infection have been reported till date. The symptomatic manifestation of cysticercosis may be further reduced by interactions between the 2 disease processes. In patients with HIV, the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is challenging and management must be individualized depending on the stage and the coexistent opportunistic conditions. We present 2 such cases. First was a 35-year-old driver seropositive for HIV-1 presented with complex partial seizures and a CD4 count of 530 cells/mm(3). The second case was a 40-year-old businessman with a CD4 count of 350 cells/mm(3). Both of them had multiple parenchymal lesions, with 1 being a large cystic lesion. Relatively high CD4 count and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay increased the likelihood for diagnosis and treatment. Both of our patients received cysticidal therapy, and none of them deteriorated with treatment.

  5. HIV infection in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Nguyen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

  6. HIV in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulcahy F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Globally over 50% of HIV-infected individuals are women. With the widespread use of HAART, we can expect women to have mortality rates approaching normal. Indeed, studies have shown that women may expect a slower disease progression than men following seroconversion; furthermore, it appears that female who injects drugs can live longer than their male counterparts. However, other studies from cohort analysis have reported worse outcomes in women. In essence, many studies are consistently underpowered to adequately address these questions. The proportion of women in clinical trials remains at 20 to 30%, with pregnancy potential being a major exclusion factor. Hence, many questions remain unanswered. Recent data suggest women are more likely to present late with a new AIDS diagnosis. Why this should be the case is not well understood. In addition, HIV-positive women should have the same access to reproduction health as their negative counterparts, but unfortunately many inequalities remain. Advise on contraception and fertility services are very variable across both the developed and developing world. Data are limited on the most appropriate use of contraceptives in the presence of HAART, the possible drug interactions and possible increased risk of HIV transmission. There remain significant differences in guidelines regarding prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT across Europe, and implications of stopping and starting HAART for MTCT have not been adequately addressed. The mode of timing of delivery, and the effect of length of time of ruptured membranes on this decision is also contentious. Further issues relate to the desire for HIV-positive women to breastfeed in the setting of HIV viral suppression, where some guidelines now support women in this situation and others categorically would inform child protection authorities. Finally as women age it is more difficult to separate the effect of the menopause and its symptoms from the

  7. Advancing Biosocial Pedagogy for HIV Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark David McGregor

    2011-01-01

    This article develops the concept of biosocial pedagogy in HIV education for this era of expanding biomedical forms of HIV control. With reference to critical pedagogy and teaching and learning materials addressing HIV treatment and prevention, I explain how HIV education can problematize its own role in HIV control. I also discuss how educational…

  8. What is an Investigational HIV Drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... vaccines to treat or prevent HIV. In most cases, an investigational drug ... Medical research studies—also called clinical trials—are done to evaluate ...

  9. What is a Therapeutic HIV Vaccine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children and Adolescents HIV and Women HIV and Gay and Bisexual Men HIV and Older Adults HIV ... system to recognize and effectively fight HIV in case the virus ever enters the ... database of ClinicalTrials.gov study summaries. Click on the title of any trial ...

  10. HIV-2 infection: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana A Ingole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The choice of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-2 differs from that for HIV-1, underscoring the importance of differentiating between the two. Aims: The current study was planned to find out the prevalence of HIV-2 infection at our center and to find out the utility of the current diagnostic algorithm in identifying the type of HIV infection. Setting and Design: Retrospective analysis in a tertiary care teaching institute over a period of three years. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as HIV infected using NACO/WHO HIV testing strategy III were included in the study. They were classified as HIV-1 infected, HIV-2 infected and HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected based on their test results. For discordant samples, immunoblotting result from National Reference Laboratory was considered as final. Statistical Analysis Used: Comparison between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 positive groups for age, gender, route of transmission was made using chi squared test. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Of the total of 66,708 patients tested, 5,238 (7.9% were positive for HIV antibodies. 7.62%, 0.14%, 0.08% and 0.004% were HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-2 co-infected and HIV type indeterminate (HIV-1 Indeterminate, 2+ respectively. The current algorithm could not differentiate between the types of HIV infection (as HIV-1 or HIV-2 in 63 (1.2% cases. Conclusion: In areas like the Indian subcontinent, where epidemic of both HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are ongoing, it is important to modify the current diagnostic algorithms to diagnose and confirm HIV-2 infections.

  11. What to Start: Selecting a First HIV Regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment What to Start: Choosing an HIV Regimen (Last updated 2/24/2016; last reviewed 2/24/ ... of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment (also called antiretroviral therapy or ART) begins with ...

  12. Poverty, sex and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattrass, Nicoli

    2009-10-01

    There is an ongoing debate about the relative importance of economic factors (notably poverty) and sexual behavior in driving the AIDS epidemic. This paper draws on relevant research and cross-country regression analysis to argue that the impact of economic determinants is dwarfed by contextual factors within Africa. The regression analysis suggests that controlling for per capita income, calories per capita and the ratio of female to male participation rates (none of which were statistically significant): being a Southern African country increases expected HIV prevalence 8.3 times; being in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa 3 times; being a predominantly Protestant country 2.5 times; and being a predominantly Muslim country reduces expected HIV prevalence to 62% of the base case. Including the share of income going to the poor did not improve the model and was itself statistically insignificant. The analysis suggests that poverty may play a role in the HIV epidemic in some countries (and may well be a factor affecting the vulnerability of some people to HIV infection in all countries) but that its overall impact is dwarfed by social and behavioral factors.

  13. HIV Excess Cancers JNCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2010, an estimated 7,760 new cancers were diagnosed among the nearly 900,000 Americans known to be living with HIV infection. According to the first comprehensive study in the United States, approximately half of these cancers were in excess of what wo

  14. Modeling HIV Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelson, Alan; Conway, Jessica; Cao, Youfang

    A large effort is being made to find a means to cure HIV infection. I will present a dynamical model of post-treatment control (PTC) or ``functional cure'' of HIV-infection. Some patients treated with suppressive antiviral therapy have been taken off of therapy and then spontaneously control HIV infection such that the amount of virus in the circulation is maintained undetectable by clinical assays for years. The model explains PTC occurring in some patients by having a parameter regime in which the model exhibits bistability, with both a low and high steady state viral load being stable. The model makes a number of predictions about how to attain the low PTC steady state. Bistability in this model depends upon the immune response becoming exhausted when over stimulated. I will also present a generalization of the model in which immunotherapy can be used to reverse immune exhaustion and compare model predictions with experiments in SIV infected macaques given immunotherapy and then taken off of antiretroviral therapy. Lastly, if time permits, I will discuss one of the hurdles to true HIV eradication, latently infected cells, and present clinical trial data and a new model addressing pharmacological means of flushing out the latent reservoir. Supported by NIH Grants AI028433 and OD011095.

  15. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy

    OpenAIRE

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-kumar; B, Nataraju; BS, Nagaraja

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities.

  16. Dental caries in HIV-seropositive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, J A; Mulligan, R; Nelson, E; Brunelle, J; Alves, M E A F; Navazesh, M; Greenspan, D

    2004-11-01

    Reports that compare dental caries indices in HIV-seropositive (HIV+) subjects with HIV-seronegative (HIV-) subjects are rare. The objective of this study was to determine if there was an association between HIV infection and dental caries among women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Subjects included 538 HIV+ and 141 HIV- women at baseline and 242 HIV+ and 66 HIV- women at year 5. Caries indices included DMFS and DFS (coronal caries) and DFSrc (root caries). Cross-sectional analysis of coronal caries data revealed a 1.2-fold-higher caries prevalence among HIV+ women compared with HIV- women. Longitudinally, DMFS increased with increasing age and lower average stimulated salivary volume. Root caries results were not significant except for an overall increased DFSrc associated with smoking. Anti-retroviral therapy was not identified as a risk factor for dental caries.

  17. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2017 What's the ... HIV and of worsening its consequences. What is hepatitis? Photo by ©iStock.com/ Skarie20 Hepatitis is an ...

  18. HIV/AIDS and the Flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters HIV/AIDS and the Flu Questions & Answers Language: English ... people with HIV and AIDS. Should people with HIV/AIDS receive the inactivated influenza vaccine? People with ...

  19. HIV Sequence Compendium 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuiken, Carla [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Foley, Brian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Apetrei, Christian [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Hahn, Beatrice [Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Mizrachi, Ilene [National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bethesda, MD (United States); Mullins, James [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rambaut, Andrew [Univ. of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Wolinsky, Steven [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Korber, Bette [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2010-12-31

    This compendium is an annual printed summary of the data contained in the HIV sequence database. In these compendia we try to present a judicious selection of the data in such a way that it is of maximum utility to HIV researchers. Each of the alignments attempts to display the genetic variability within the different species, groups and subtypes of the virus. This compendium contains sequences published before January 1, 2010. Hence, though it is called the 2010 Compendium, its contents correspond to the 2009 curated alignments on our website. The number of sequences in the HIV database is still increasing exponentially. In total, at the time of printing, there were 339,306 sequences in the HIV Sequence Database, an increase of 45% since last year. The number of near complete genomes (>7000 nucleotides) increased to 2576 by end of 2009, reflecting a smaller increase than in previous years. However, as in previous years, the compendium alignments contain only a small fraction of these. Included in the alignments are a small number of sequences representing each of the subtypes and the more prevalent circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) such as 01 and 02, as well as a few outgroup sequences (group O and N and SIV-CPZ). Of the rarer CRFs we included one representative each. A more complete version of all alignments is available on our website, http://www.hiv.lanl.gov/content/sequence/NEWALIGN/align.html. Reprints are available from our website in the form of both HTML and PDF files. As always, we are open to complaints and suggestions for improvement. Inquiries and comments regarding the compendium should be addressed to seq-info@lanl.gov.

  20. HIV-positive people, HIV-negative partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, L; Volker, M

    1995-01-01

    More relationships exist today between HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners. This article explores the underlying dynamics that might account for this phenomenon. Codependency theories may explain these relationships for some couples. For other couples, it is suggested that positive-negative homosexual relationships may be influenced by both unhealthy and healthy gay developmental experiences as well as by a sense of compassion. The article addresses both HIV-positive people choosing HIV-negative partners and vice versa. Treatment issues for the various theories are discussed and recommendations are made.

  1. HIV and homosexuality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabali, Alefiyah; Khan, Saeed; Warraich, Haider J; Khanani, Mohammad R; Ali, Syed H

    2008-08-01

    In Pakistan, seven times more men are reported to be infected with HIV than women. Among the Pakistani population, modes of HIV transmission include infection through sexual contact, contaminated blood and blood products, injecting drug use, and mother-to-child transmission. Although most sexual transmission of HIV results from unsafe heterosexual contact, homosexual and bisexual contact also represent important modes of transmission. According to unpublished reports, the prevalence of HIV among homosexual and bisexual Pakistani men is reaching alarming proportions. We describe the Pakistani homosexual and bisexual culture, review statistics regarding HIV prevalence and risk behaviour, and identify areas of improvement in the HIV policy with specific focus on men who have sex with men.

  2. Diagnostik af HIV-1 infektionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, C B; Dickmeiss, E; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    1991-01-01

    Different methods have been developed for the diagnosis of HIV infection, i.e. detection of antibodies, antigen and proviral DNA. ELISA methods for detecting HIV-1 antibodies are widely used as screening assays. A sample which is repeatedly positive with ELISA is re-tested with a confirmatory test....... For research purposes, detection of small amounts of proviral DNA can be made with polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The method is not yet applicable in routine diagnosis of HIV infection......., e.g. western blot. Antibodies to HIV-1 are not detectable until 2-3 months after infection, but antigens may be detectable during the last weeks of this initial period, though they disappear with the appearance of the antibodies. In the later stages of HIV infection, HIV antigen is again detectable...

  3. Completeness of HIV reporting on death certificates for Floridians reported with HIV infection, 2000-2011

    OpenAIRE

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Diana M. Sheehan; Fennie, Kristopher P.; Niyonsenga, Theophile; Lieb, Spencer; Maddox, Lorene

    2015-01-01

    HIV mortality is used as a key measure to monitor the impact of HIV throughout the world. It is important that HIV be correctly recorded on death certificates so that the burden of HIV mortality can be tracked accurately. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of failure to correctly report HIV on death certificates and examine patterns of incompleteness by demographic factors. Causes of death on death certificates of people infected with HIV reported to the Florida HIV surve...

  4. Implications of prioritizing HIV cure: new momentum to overcome old challenges in HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, JD; Gilbertson, A; Lo, YR; Vitória, M

    2016-01-01

    Background Curing HIV is a new strategic priority for several major AIDS organizations. In step with this new priority, HIV cure research and related programs are advancing in low, middle, and high-income country settings. This HIV cure momentum may influence existing HIV programs and research priorities. Discussion Despite the early stage of ongoing HIV cure efforts, these changes have directly influenced HIV research funding priorities, pilot programs, and HIV messaging. The building moment...

  5. National HIV/AIDS Strategy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the importance of the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and the work of CDC.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  6. HIV: Social and Environmental Factors

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, discusses how social and environmental factors may put African Americans at greater risk for HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  7. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  8. HIV and chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naicker, Saraladevi; Rahmanian, Sadaf; Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a frequent complication of HIV infection, occurring in 3.5 - 48.5%, and occurs as a complication of HIV infection, other co-morbid disease and infections and as a consequence of therapy of HIV infection and its complications. The classic involvement of the kidney by HIV infection is HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN), occurring typically in young adults of African ancestry with advanced HIV disease in association with APOL1 high-risk variants. HIV-immune complex disease is the second most common diagnosis obtained from biopsies of patients with HIV-CKD. CKD is mediated by factors related to the virus, host genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The host response to HIV infection may influence disease phenotype through activation of cytokine pathways. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), there has been a decline in the incidence of HIVAN, with an increasing prevalence of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Several studies have demonstrated the overall improvement in kidney function when initiating ART for HIV CKD. Progression to end stage kidney disease has been reported to be more likely when high grade proteinuria, severely reduced eGFR, hepatitis B and/C co-infection, diabetes mellitus, extensive glomerulosclerosis, and chronic interstitial fibrosis are present. Improved renal survival is associated with use of renin angiotensin system blockers and viral suppression. Many antiretroviral medications are partially or completely eliminated by the kidney and require dose adjustment in CKD. Certain drug classes, such as the protease inhibitors and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, are metabolized by the liver and do not require dose adjustment. HIV-infected patients requiring either hemo- or peritoneal dialysis, who are stable on ART, are achieving survival rates comparable to those of dialysis patients without HIV infection. Kidney transplantation has been performed successfully in HIV

  9. Body Shape Changes with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policies and Reports Provider Education Provider Education Home HIV Meds Updates Online Courses (CME) Case Studies Journal Articles Glossary Quick References Quick References Home Guidelines Integrated ...

  10. Chemokines, lymphocytes, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farber J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemokines are members of a family of more than 30 human cytokines whose best-described activities are as chemotactic factors for leukocytes and that are presumed to be important in leukocyte recruitment and trafficking. While many chemokines can act on lymphocytes, the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology are poorly understood. The recent discoveries that chemokines can suppress infection by HIV-1 and that chemokine receptors serve, along with CD4, as obligate co-receptors for HIV-1 entry have lent urgency to studies on the relationships between chemokines and lymphocytes. My laboratory has characterized Mig and Crg-2/IP-10, chemokines that are induced by IFN-g and that specifically target lymphocytes, particularly activated T cells. We have demonstrated that the genes for these chemokines are widely expressed during experimental infections in mice with protozoan and viral pathogens, but that the patterns of mig and crg-2 expression differed, suggesting non-redundant roles in vivo. Our related studies to identify new chemokine receptors from activated lymphocytes resulted in the cloning of STRL22 and STRL33. We and others have shown that STRL22 is a receptor for the CC chemokine MIP-3a, and STRL22 has been re-named CCR6. Although STRL33 remains an orphan receptor, we have shown that it can function as a co-receptor for HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins, and that it is active with a broader range of HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins than the major co-receptors described to date. The ability of STRL33 to function with a wide variety of envelope glycoproteins may become particularly important if therapies are instituted to block other specific co-receptors. We presume that investigations into the roles of chemokines and their receptors in lymphocyte biology will provide information important for understanding the pathogenesis of AIDS and for manipulating immune and inflammatory responses for clinical benefit

  11. HIV stigma among substance abusing people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L

    2014-08-01

    HIV-related stigma has a major impact on quality of life and health among people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA). This study examines demographic, mental health, behavioral, contextual, and HIV care-related correlates of HIV stigma among 503 substance abusing PLWHA. Stigma was measured with the HIV Internalized Stigma Measure which has four subscales: stereotypes about HIV, self-acceptance, disclosure concerns, and social relationships. Severe substance dependence (55.3%) and depression (54.7%) were associated with higher HIV stigma across all domains. 49.9% of the sample reported antiretroviral (ARV) medication diversion (the unlawful sale and trading of ARV medications); diverters endorsed significantly higher stigma related to disclosure. 54.1% of the sample reported ≥95% ARV adherence; these individuals reported significantly lower stigma for self-acceptance, disclosure, and social relationships. Multivariate linear regression showed that depression and social support demonstrated significant main effects across stigma domains. Findings suggest that interventions to decrease HIV related stigma may be an important component of initiatives to increase engagement in HIV care.

  12. The kidney in HIV infection: beyond HIV-associated nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Christina M

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are more common in HIV-infected persons than in the general population. AKI is associated with poor health outcomes, including increased risk of heart failure, cardiovascular events, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and mortality. The most common causes of AKI in HIV-infected persons are systemic infections and adverse drug effects. The prevalence of CKD is rising in the HIV-infected population and CKD is increasingly likely to be caused by comorbid conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, that frequently cause CKD in the general population. Guidelines for CKD screening in HIV-infected patients are being revised. It is currently recommended that all patients be screened for creatinine-based estimates of glomerular filtration rate and for urine protein at the time of HIV diagnosis. Annual screening is recommended for high-risk patients. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation are all options for treating ESRD in HIV-infected patients. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis offer similar survival in HIV-infected patients with ESRD. In selected patients with well-controlled HIV infection, kidney transplantation is associated with survival intermediate between that in the overall transplant population and that among transplant recipients older than 65 years. This article summarizes a presentation by Christina M. Wyatt, MD, at the IAS-USA continuing medical education program held in Chicago in May 2012, describing AKI and CKD using case illustrations.

  13. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the ...

  14. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and easy to break. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of ...

  15. Leishmania / HIV co-infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjeux, P

    1995-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by sandflies, is always present in at least 62 countries and is spreading to areas where it had not existed in the past. VL/HIV co-infections are becoming more and more common. In southern Europe, 25-70% of adult VL cases also have HIV infection. 1.5-9% of AIDS cases have newly acquired or reactivated VL. In the Mediterranean area, VL is the most common opportunistic parasitic infection among AIDS cases (i.e., 100 CD4/mcl). AIDS patients with VL have a much shorter survival period than other AIDS patients. VL can lie dormant for years but emerge clinically if an infected person has immunosuppression. Most VL/HIV co-infections in the western hemisphere are in Brazil. East African countries reporting VL/HIV co-infections include Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, and Sudan. Only one VL/HIV co-infected case has been found in Cameroon and in Guinea Bissau. VL/HIV co-infection cases tend to not have the usual VL clinical signs and symptoms (fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly, polyadenopathies), making clinical diagnosis difficult. Since VL test sensitivity in HIV positive patients is reduced 20-40%, it is also difficult to make a serological diagnosis. In the first VL episode of HIV-infected patients, clinicians should use BMA, the safest and most sensitive test. Drug options for VL treatment include pentavalent antimonials, pentamidine, amphotericin B, and amphotericin B encapsulated in liposomes. Treatment failure is rather common in VL/HIV co-infected patients. Researchers from different centers need to conduct trials of various multi-therapy schedules. 70% of VL/HIV co-infected cases in southern Europe use intravenous drugs, suggesting that sharing of needles may account for the co-infection. The World Health Organization has mobilized against VL/HIV co-infections, including setting up a minimal surveillance system.

  16. Common oral lesions associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Lucatorto, F

    1993-09-01

    More than 40 different lesions involving head and neck areas have been associated with HIV infection. The oral cavity may manifest the first sign of HIV infection. Early detection of these conditions can lead to early diagnosis of HIV infection and subsequent appropriate management. Signs, symptoms and management of the most common HIV-associated oral lesions are discussed.

  17. How you get HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    How you get HIV/AIDS Which body fluids contain HIV? HIV is a virus that lives in blood and other fluids in the body. Moving ... answers to any questions you have about HIV/AIDS. Your public health department and health care provider ...

  18. HIV in elderly women after travelling abroad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; David, Kim Peter;

    2016-01-01

    living in Denmark for 40 years was diagnosed with advanced HIV after having been to West Africa for family visits. We want to emphasize that women of older age also have sex that may put them at risk of HIV, that febrile returning travellers should be tested for HIV, and that presence of HIV indicator...

  19. Increasing HIV testing among male partners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Balestre, Eric; Tchendjou, Patrice; Miric, Marija; Darak, Shrinivas; Butsashvili, Maia; Perez-Then, Eddy; Eboko, Fred; Plazy, Melanie; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; du Lou, Annabel Desgrees; Dabis, Francois

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Couple-oriented posttest HIV counselling (COC) provides pregnant women with tools and strategies to invite her partner to HIV counselling and testing. We conducted a randomized trial of the efficacy of COC on partner HIV testing in low/medium HIV prevalence settings (Cameroon, Dominican R

  20. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...

  1. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  2. HIV/AIDS and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have HIV/AIDS and find out you are pregnant or think you may be pregnant, you should let your health care provider know as soon as possible. Some HIV/AIDS medicines may harm your baby. Your health ...

  3. Jamie Foxx Talks About HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-24

    Jamie Foxx, Academy Award winning actor and singer, urges everyone to talk about HIV/AIDS and its prevention.  Created: 7/24/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/24/2012.

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HIV > Learn the Link campaign. This campaign shows teens and young adults that non-injection drug use and alcohol use can lead to poor decision making, which can result in risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection. Although the characters are fictional, ...

  5. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : Google Plus Facebook LinkedIn Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Menu Home Drugs ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV Email Facebook Twitter 2005 –Ongoing Behaviors associated with drug abuse ...

  6. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice ... and decision-making. To learn about HIV among youth, please visit: http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/ ...

  7. HIV surveillance in complex emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, P; Dondero, T J

    2001-04-01

    Many studies have shown a positive association between both migration and temporary expatriation and HIV risk. This association is likely to be similar or even more pronounced for forced migrants. In general, HIV transmission in host-migrant or host-forced-migrant interactions depends on the maturity of the HIV epidemic in both the host and the migrant population, the relative seroprevalence of HIV in the host and the migrant population, the prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that may facilitate transmission, and the level of sexual interaction between the two communities. Complex emergencies are the major cause of mass population movement today. In complex emergencies, additional factors such as sexual interaction between forced-migrant populations and the military; sexual violence; increasing commercial sex work; psychological trauma; and disruption of preventive and curative health services may increase the risk for HIV transmission. Despite recent success in preventing HIV infection in stable populations in selected developing countries, internally displaced persons and refugees (or forced migrants) have not been systematically included in HIV surveillance systems, nor consequently in prevention activities. Standard surveillance systems that rely on functioning health services may not provide useful data in many complex emergency settings. Secondary sources can provide some information in these settings. Little attempt has been made, however, to develop innovative HIV surveillance systems in countries affected by complex emergencies. Consequently, data on the HIV epidemic in these countries are scarce and HIV prevention programs are either not implemented or interventions are not effectively targeted. Second generation surveillance methods such as cross-sectional, population-based surveys can provide rapid information on HIV, STIs, and sexual behavior. The risks for stigmatization and breaches of confidentiality must be recognized

  8. Creating genetic resistance to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John C; Zaia, John A; Rossi, John J

    2012-10-01

    HIV/AIDS remains a chronic and incurable disease, in spite of the notable successes of combination antiretroviral therapy. Gene therapy offers the prospect of creating genetic resistance to HIV that supplants the need for antiviral drugs. In sight of this goal, a variety of anti-HIV genes have reached clinical testing, including gene-editing enzymes, protein-based inhibitors, and RNA-based therapeutics. Combinations of therapeutic genes against viral and host targets are designed to improve the overall antiviral potency and reduce the likelihood of viral resistance. In cell-based therapies, therapeutic genes are expressed in gene modified T lymphocytes or in hematopoietic stem cells that generate an HIV-resistant immune system. Such strategies must promote the selective proliferation of the transplanted cells and the prolonged expression of therapeutic genes. This review focuses on the current advances and limitations in genetic therapies against HIV, including the status of several recent and ongoing clinical studies.

  9. Is an HIV vaccine possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A. Wilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.

  10. Community study of the relative impact of HIV-1 and HIV-2 on intrathoracic tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seng, R; Gustafson, P; Gomes, VF;

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with an increased incidence of and mortality from tuberculosis. Few community studies have examined the effect of HIV-2 on tuberculosis. METHODS: We investigated the association between HIV-1, HIV-2 and active tuberculosis in four districts (population 42...... 709) in Bissau, capital of Guinea-Bissau, with the highest known seroprevalence of HIV-2 infection in the world. From May 1996 to June 1998, tuberculosis surveillance and active case finding among contacts was conducted. Patients were HIV-tested, given specific tuberculosis treatment for 8 months...... was 18.3 times higher (95% CI 12.9-26.0) among HIV-1-positive individuals, 13.7 times higher (9.0-20.7) among dually infected (HIV-1 and HIV-2), and 3.0 times higher (2.1-4.3) among HIV-2-infected compared with HIV-negative individuals. HIV-1 and dually infected tuberculosis patients had a higher...

  11. High Feasibility of Empiric HIV Treatment for Patients With Suspected Acute HIV in an Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Kathleen R; Arora, Sanjay; Walsh, Kristin B; Lora, Meredith; Merjavy, Stephen; Livermore, Shanna; Menchine, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Earlier intervention in acute HIV infection limits HIV reservoirs and may decrease HIV transmission. We developed criteria for empiric antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an emergency department (ED) routine HIV screening program. We assessed the feasibility and willingness of patients with suspected acute HIV infection in the ED to begin ART. A suspected acute HIV infection was defined as a positive HIV antigen antibody combination immunoassay with pending HIV-antibody differentiation test results and HIV RNA viral load. During the study period, there were 16 confirmed cases of acute HIV infection: 11 met our criteria for empiric ART and agreed to treatment, 10 were prescribed ART, and 1 left the ED against medical advice without a prescription for ART. Eight patients completed at least one follow-up visit. Empiric HIV treatment in an ED is feasible, well received by patients, and offers a unique entry point into the HIV care continuum.

  12. Reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries,mother-to-child trans mission of human immune deficiency virus (HIV)is responsible for 5 to 10 percen t o f all new HIV infections.Most children born to HIV-positive mothers are not HIV positive,but one quarter to one third are.The following instert looks at the p o ssibilities for reducing mother-to-child HIV transmission,and discusses some of the questions that are still unanswered.

  13. Nutrition and HIV-Positive Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Kristen S.

    2003-01-01

    When an HIV-positive woman becomes pregnant, additional nutritional considerations are warranted. Compared to routine prenatal nutritional assessment and intervention, pregnant HIV-positive women have increased needs to promote a healthy outcome. This column contains information on HIV and pregnancy, nutrition and infection, and nutrition for HIV-positive pregnancy. This content can be integrated into childbirth education settings to improve care to women who are HIV-positive.

  14. HIV Stigma and Social Capital in Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuca, Yvette P; Asher, Alice; Okonsky, Jennifer; Kaihura, Alphoncina; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Webel, Allison

    Women living with HIV (WLWH) continue to experience HIV-related stigma. Social capital is one resource that could mitigate HIV stigma. Our cross-sectional study examined associations between social capital and HIV-related stigma in 135 WLWH in the San Francisco Bay Area. The mean age of study participants was 48 years; 60% were African American; 29% had less than a high school education; and 19% were employed. Age was significantly associated with perceived HIV stigma (p = .001), but total social capital was not. Women with lower Value of Life social capital scores had significantly higher total stigma scores (p = .010) and higher Negative Self-image stigma scores (p = .001). Women who felt less valued in their social worlds may have been more likely to perceive HIV stigma, which could have negative health consequences. This work begins to elucidate the possible relationships between social capital and perceived HIV stigma.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Monteiro Almeida

    2015-01-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinicall...

  16. Potent Intratype Neutralizing Activity Distinguishes Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) from HIV-1

    OpenAIRE

    Özkaya Şahin, Gülşen; Holmgren, Birgitta; da Silva, Zacarias; Nielsen, Jens; Nowroozalizadeh, Salma; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Månsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Sören; Norrgren, Hans; Aaby, Peter; Jansson, Marianne; Fenyö, Eva Maria

    2012-01-01

    HIV-2 has a lower pathogenicity and transmission rate than HIV-1. Neutralizing antibodies could be contributing to these observations. Here we explored side by side the potency and breadth of intratype and intertype neutralizing activity (NAc) in plasma of 20 HIV-1-, 20 HIV-2-, and 11 dually HIV-1/2 (HIV-D)-seropositive individuals from Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Panels of primary isolates, five HIV-1 and five HIV-2 isolates, were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells a...

  17. Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jeffrey M; Li, Fan; Martelly, Shoria; Byrt, Erin; Rouzier, Vanessa; Leo, Marguerite; Tobin, Nicole; Pannaraj, Pia S; Adisetiyo, Helty; Rollie, Adrienne; Santiskulvong, Chintda; Wang, Shaun; Autran, Chloe; Bode, Lars; Fitzgerald, Daniel; Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2016-07-27

    More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infant's microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants.

  18. Ergotismo y HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Bárbara C. Finn; Sabrina Vadalá; Ana Meraldi; Julio E. Bruetman; Jorge V. Martínez; Pablo Young

    2013-01-01

    El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1), en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarro...

  19. Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing Positive for HIV (Last updated 3/13/2017; last reviewed 3/ ... is the next step after testing positive for HIV? Testing positive for HIV often leaves a person ...

  20. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DrugFacts » HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics Email Facebook ... to AIDS, greatly prolonging lives. What Exactly Is HIV/AIDS? HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. This ...

  1. HIV: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harindra V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has puzzled scientists ever since the illness first came to light in the early 1980s. For over 25 years it has been the subject of fierce debate and the cause of countless arguments. It is now generally accepted that HIV is a descendant of a simian immunodeficiency virus and there are many theories about how this ′zoonosis′ originated and how SIV became HIV in humans. Advances in treatment have steadily reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. However, in the low-income, high-prevalence countries, antiretroviral medication has taken a long time to reach the people who actually need it. Access to medication must greatly improve if millions of deaths are to be avoided. HIV is a preventable disease. Unless great progress is made in prevention, the number of people living with HIV will outstrip the resources available for treatment. The search for effective vaccines and microbicides must therefore be one of the very highest priorities. HIV is a global threat. Action needs to be taken to prevent it killing many more millions than those who have already died. This action needs not only to continue, but to be speeded up considerably.

  2. Autoimmune diseases and HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emilie; Duclos, Antoine; Adelaide, Leopold; Miailhes, Patrick; Hot, Arnaud; Ferry, Tristan; Seve, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To describe the clinical manifestations, treatments, prognosis, and prevalence of autoimmune diseases (ADs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. All HIV-infected patients managed in the Infectious Diseases Department of the Lyon University Hospitals, France, between January 2003 and December 2013 and presenting an AD were retrospectively included. Thirty-six ADs were found among 5186 HIV-infected patients which represents a prevalence of 0.69% including immune thrombocytopenic purpura (n = 15), inflammatory myositis (IM) (n = 4), sarcoidosis (n = 4), Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) (n = 4), myasthenia gravis (n = 2), Graves’ disease (n = 2), and 1 case of each following conditions: systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, autoimmune hepatitis, Hashimoto thyroiditis and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. One patient presented 2 ADs. Thirty patients were known to be HIV-infected when they developed an AD. The AD preceded HIV infection in 2 patients. GBS and HIV infection were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 cases. At AD diagnosis, CD4 T lymphocytes count were higher than 350/mm3 in 63% of patients, between 200 and 350/mm3 in 19% and less than 200/mm3 in 19%. Twenty patients benefited from immunosuppressant treatments, with a good tolerance. ADs during HIV infection are uncommon in this large French cohort. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura, sarcoidosis, IM, and GBS appear to be more frequent than in the general population. Immunosuppressant treatments seem to be effective and well tolerated. PMID:28121924

  3. EFFECT OF HIV PREVENTION AND TREATMENT PROGRAM ON HIV AND HCV TRANSMISSION AND HIV MORTALITY AT AN INDONESIAN NARCOTIC PRISON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni J; Indrati, Agnes K; Isa, Ahmad; Triani, Nurlita; Alam, Nisaa Nur; Herlan, Maria S; Husen, Wahid; Pohan, Herdiman T; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Meheus, Andre; Van Crevel, Reinout; van der Ven, Andre Jam

    2015-09-01

    Validated data regarding HIV-transmission in prisons in developing countries is scarce. We examined sexual and injecting drug use behavior and HIV and HCV transmission in an Indonesian narcotic prison during the implementation of an HIV prevention and treatment program during 2004-2007 when the Banceuy Narcotic Prison in Indonesia conducted an HIV transmission prevention program to provide 1) HIV education, 2) voluntary HIV testing and counseling, 3) condom supply, 4) prevention of rape and sexual violence, 5) antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners and 6) methadone maintenance treatment. During a first survey that was conducted between 2007 and 2009, new prisoners entered Banceuy Narcotics Prison were voluntary tested for HIV and HCV-infection after written informed consent was obtained. Information regarding sexual and injecting risk behavior and physical status were also recorded at admission to the prison. Participants who tested negative for both HIV and HCV during the first survey were included in a second survey conducted during 2008-2011. During both surveys, data on mortality among HIV-seropositive patients were also recorded. All HIV-seropositive participants receive treatment for HIV. HIV/ AIDS-related deaths decreased: 43% in 2006, 18% in 2007, 9% in 2008 and 0% in 2009. No HIV and HCV seroconversion inside Banceuy Narcotic Prison were found after a median of 23 months imprisonment (maximum follow-up: 38 months). Total of 484.8 person-years observation was done. Participants reported HIV transmission risk-behavior in Banceuy Prison during the second survey was low. After implementation of HIV prevention and treatment program, no new HIV or HCV cases were detected and HIV-related mortality decreased.

  4. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Saganic; Jason Carr; Rosa Solorio; Maria Courogen; Tom Jaenicke; Ann Duerr

    2011-01-01

    As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also con...

  5. Regional differences in prevalence of HIV-1 discordance in Africa and enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into an HIV-1 prevention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most HIV-1 transmission in Africa occurs among HIV-1-discordant couples (one partner HIV-1 infected and one uninfected who are unaware of their discordant HIV-1 serostatus. Given the high HIV-1 incidence among HIV-1 discordant couples and to assess efficacy of interventions for reducing HIV-1 transmission, HIV-1 discordant couples represent a critical target population for HIV-1 prevention interventions and prevention trials. Substantial regional differences exist in HIV-1 prevalence in Africa, but regional differences in HIV-1 discordance among African couples, has not previously been reported. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Partners in Prevention HSV-2/HIV-1 Transmission Trial ("Partners HSV-2 Study", the first large HIV-1 prevention trial in Africa involving HIV-1 discordant couples, completed enrollment in May 2007. Partners HSV-2 Study recruitment data from 12 sites from East and Southern Africa were used to assess HIV-1 discordance among couples accessing couples HIV-1 counseling and testing, and to correlate with enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples. HIV-1 discordance at Partners HSV-2 Study sites ranged from 8-31% of couples tested from the community. Across all study sites and, among all couples with one HIV-1 infected partner, almost half (49% of couples were HIV-1 discordant. Site-specific monthly enrollment of HIV-1 discordant couples into the clinical trial was not directly associated with prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, but was modestly correlated with national HIV-1 counseling and testing rates and access to palliative care/basic health care (r = 0.74, p = 0.09. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: HIV-1 discordant couples are a critical target for HIV-1 prevention in Africa. In addition to community prevalence of HIV-1 discordance, national infrastructure for HIV-1 testing and healthcare delivery and effective community outreach strategies impact recruitment of HIV-1 discordant couples into HIV-1 prevention trials.

  6. Oral complications of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair C. Leao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS.

  7. Oral Complications of HIV Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Jair C.; Ribeiro, Camila M. B.; Carvalho, Alessandra A. T.; Frezzini, Cristina; Porter, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict its progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A better understanding of the oral manifestations of AIDS in both adults and children has implications for all health care professionals. The knowledge of such alterations would allow for early recognition of HIV-infected patients. The present paper reviews epidemiology, relevant aspects of HIV infection related to the mouth in both adults and children, as well as current trends in antiretroviral therapy and its connection with orofacial manifestations related to AIDS. PMID:19488613

  8. HIV microbicides: innovation and challenge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-yan

    2010-01-01

    @@ According to Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) report in 2009, the estimated number of people living with HIV-1 is 33.4 million, and half of the infected adults (aged 15-49 years) are women, who acquired HIV-1 mainly through heterosexual exposure. In China, HTV-1 transmission through sexual contact has also increased rapidly, and has reached over 70% in overall cases; heterosexual transmission accounted for 40% and men who had sex with man (MSM) for 32.0%.2,3

  9. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lipodystrophy can be upsetting and affect a person’s self-esteem. Because of lipodystrophy, a person may decide to ... Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents/Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department ...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  11. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  12. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment, and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol.

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health Consequences of Drug Misuse ... be transmitted between users. Other infections-such as hepatitis C-can also be spread this way. Hepatitis ...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... patients who do not abuse drugs. In animal studies, methamphetamine has been shown to increase the amount ... behaviors. NIDA researchers have studied and continue to study the links between drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. ...

  15. Renal issues in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Kidney disease remains a prominent complication of HIV disease, despite beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HIV-associated nephropathy, and on kidney function in general populations of HIV infected patients. Persons of African descent continue to bear a disproportionate burden of severe kidney disease, as is true for the general population. Recently identified genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene may contribute to this burden. As is also true for the general population, markers of kidney disease, including microalbuminuria, are sensitive predictors of cardiovascular disease and mortality among persons living with HIV. The emerging experience with kidney transplantation also suggests this to be a viable option in selected patients.

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Military Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research ... of an uninfected person. In addition, infected pregnant women can pass HIV to their babies during pregnancy, ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health ...

  18. HIV-1 subtypes in Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Maja; Papa, Anna; Papadimitriou, Evagelia; Zerjav, Sonja; Jevtovic, Djordje; Salemovic, Dubravka; Jovanovic, Tanja; Antoniadis, Antonis

    2002-05-01

    To gain insight concerning the genetic diversity of HIV-1 viruses associated with the HIV-1 epidemic in Yugoslavia, 45 specimens from HIV-1-infected individuals were classified into subtypes by sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of the polymerase (pol) region of the viral genome. Forty-one of 45 specimens (91.2%) were identified as pol subtype B, 2 of 45 as subtype C (4.4%), 1 of 45 as CRF01_AE (2.2%), and 1 as CRF02_AG recombinant (2.2%). Nucleotide divergence among subtype B sequences was 4.8%. Results of this study show that among HIV-1-infected patients in Yugoslavia subtype B predominates (91.5%), whereas non-B subtypes are present at a low percentage, mostly related to travel abroad.

  19. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Training News & Events News Nora's Blog NIDA in the News NIDA Notes Podcasts E-Newsletters Public ... with drug abuse are among the main factors in the spread of HIV infection in the United ...

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... in recent years, HIV is no longer a death sentence, as it was when the epidemic began. ... of multicultural public service announcements (PSAs) that use text messaging as a means of communication. The "Text Message" ...

  1. Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to text United Nations. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ; 2015. ← Return to text UNAIDS. 2011 Political Declaration on HIV/AIDS; 2011, available at: ... 2030 ; 2014. ← Return to text Global Fund. Grants Portfolio; ...

  2. Bone disease and HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorosa, Valerianna; Tebas, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of bone demineralization among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the current therapeutic era has been described in multiple studies, sounding the alarm that we may expect an epidemic of fragility fractures in the future. However, despite noting high overall prevalences of osteopenia and osteoporosis, recent longitudinal studies that we review here have generally not observed accelerated bone loss during antiretroviral therapy beyond the initial period after treatment initiation. We discuss the continued progress toward understanding the mechanisms of HIV-associated bone loss, particularly the effects of HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and host immune factors on bone turnover. We summarize results of clinical trials published in the past year that studied the safety and efficacy of treatment of bone loss in HIV-infected patients and provide provisional opinions about who should be considered for bone disease screening and treatment.

  3. Body Shape Changes with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS Home Alternative Therapies Diet and Nutrition Discrimination Drugs and Alcohol Exercise Mental Health Sex and ... injections of dermal fillers that can lessen the appearance of these changes. Abdominal fat gain can be ...

  4. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are at risk for contracting HIV. In general, middle and late teen years are when young people ... Children, Youth and Families The American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (AACAP) The United Negro College Fund, ...

  5. Maraviroc (Celsentri in HIV treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Sacchi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the prognosis of people living with immunodeficiency virus (HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has improved significantly, due to highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART based on a combination of 3-4 anti-HIV drugs; the use ofthese drugs can achieve a durable suppression of HIV viraemia, turning HIV infection into a chronic illness. The three first licensed classes of antiretroviral agents are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs and protease inhibitors (PIs. Until recently, treatment options for individuals developing resistanceto these drugs have been limited, but new drugs in existing classes (second generation NNRTIs and novel PIs and novel classes of drugs (integrase inhibitors, CCR5 antagonists and fusion inhibitors have become clinically available.

  6. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources for Healthcare Professionals HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  7. Performance of 3 Rapid Tests for Discrimination Between HIV-1 and HIV-2 in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Bjarnason Obinah, Magnús Pétur; Jespersen, Sanne;

    2014-01-01

    rapid tests for discrimination between HIV-1, HIV-2, and dual infections among 219 patients from Guinea-Bissau by comparing with the gold standard (INNO-LIA). Genie III HIV-1/HIV-2 was the best performer with regard to discriminatory capacity (agreement 91.8%), followed by Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2...

  8. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  9. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  10. Heterotopic pregnancy in HIV women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Savasi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic pregnancy occurs when intrauterine and ectopic pregnancy are concomitant; overall rate rises from 1/30.000 to 1.5/1000 in assisted reproductive technology pregnancies. HIV (human immunodeficiency virus patients are at increased risk of heterotopic pregnancies due to the greater frequency of assisted reproductive technology and pelvic inflammatory disease. We report the first case of heterotopic pregnancy in HIV woman.

  11. Pharmacotherapy of Pediatric HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rakhmanina, Natella; Phelps, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    With the ongoing epidemic of human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infections in the pediatric age group, the delivery of safe and effective antiretroviral therapy to children and adolescents is crucial to save the lives of millions of children worldwide. Antiretroviral drugs have been demonstrated to significantly decrease HIV-associated morbidity and mortality, assure normal growth and development, and improve survival and quality of life in children and adolescents. The immunologic response ...

  12. HIV-associated anal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Newsom-Davis, Thomas; Bower, Mark

    2010-01-01

    HIV-associated anal carcinoma, a non-AIDS-defining cancer, is a human papillomavirus-associated malignancy with a spectrum of preinvasive changes. The standardized incidence ratio for anal cancer in patients with HIV/AIDS is 20-50. Algorithms for anal cancer screening include anal cytology followed by high-resolution anoscopy for those with abnormal findings. Outpatient topical treatments for anal intraepithelial neoplasia include infrared coagulation therapy, trichloroacetic acid, and imiqui...

  13. Controversies in HIV cure research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Rowena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antiretroviral therapy significantly reduces HIV viral burden and prolongs life, but does not cure HIV infection. The major scientific barrier to a cure is thought to be the persistence of the virus in cellular and/or anatomical reservoirs. Discussion Most efforts to date, including pharmaco, immuno or gene therapy, have failed to cure patients, with the notable exception of a stem cell transplant recipient commonly known as the Berlin patient. This case has revived interest in the potential to cure HIV infection and has highlighted the need to resolve critical questions in the basic, pre-clinical and clinical research spheres as they pertain specifically to efforts to eradicate HIV from the body of an infected person (a sterilizing cure or at least render the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy obsolete (functional cure. This paper describes ongoing debates in each of these research spheres as they were presented and discussed at a satellite session that took place at the 6th International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Rome in July 2011. Summary The resolution of these debates may have important implications for the search for a cure, the most efficient ways to identify and test promising interventions, and ultimately the availability of such a cure to diverse groups of HIV patients around the world.

  14. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  15. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  16. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  17. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  18. HIV Risk Behavior and Access to Services: What Predicts HIV Testing among Heterosexually Active Homeless Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Suzanne L.; Rhoades, Harmony; Tucker, Joan S.; Golinelli, Daniela; Kennedy, David P.; Zhou, Annie; Ewing, Brett

    2012-01-01

    HIV is a serious epidemic among homeless persons, where rates of infection are estimated to be three times higher than in the general population. HIV testing is an effective tool for reducing HIV transmission and for combating poor HIV/AIDS health outcomes that disproportionately affect homeless persons, however, little is known about the HIV…

  19. Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment Following an HIV Regimen: Steps to Take Before and After Starting HIV Medicines (Last updated 3/2/2017; last reviewed 3/2/2017) ... maintain long-term medication adherence. Before starting an HIV regimen, talk to your health care provider about ...

  20. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  1. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  2. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  3. Perceived HIV-Associated Stigma among HIV-Seropositive Men: Psychometric Study of HIV Stigma Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Valle, Adrian; Treviño,Ana Cecilia; Zambrano, Farith Francisco; Urriola, Karla Elizabeth; Sánchez, Luis Antonio; Elizondo,Jesus Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), to provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and to describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods Seventy-five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviate...

  4. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian eValle; Ana Cecilia Treviño; Farith Francisco Zambrano; Karla Elizabeth Urriola; Luis Antonio Sánchez; Jesus Eduardo Elizondo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21), provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated ve...

  5. Disseminated Herpes Zoster in Association with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchabal D

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV infected individuals are susceptible to a wide variety of skin manifestations due to profound defect in cell-mediated immunity. We describe 2 patients with Disseminated Herpes Zoster, both the patients has associated HIV infection.

  6. Emergency Preparedness for People Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Translate Text Size Print Emergency Preparedness Emergencies and HIV/AIDS Emergencies can take many forms. They include ... planning efforts. Emergency Resources for People Living with HIV The Federal Government offers several resources and programs ...

  7. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard;

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  8. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  9. Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) . ...

  10. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Coffie, Patrick A; Messou, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework...

  11. HIV RNA and proviral HIV DNA can be detected in semen after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy although HIV RNA is undetectable in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peiwei; Liu, An; Jiao, Yanmei; Liu, Cuie; Jiang, Taiyi; Zhu, Weijun; Zhu, Yunxia; Wu, Hao; Sun, Lijun

    2016-03-01

    The risk of sexual transmission of HIV is strongly correlated with amounts of genital HIV RNA. Few studies have reported amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen in HIV-infected Chinese patients undergoing antiviral treatment (ART). In this observational study, the amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA in semen were assessed after six months of ART in HIV-infected Chinese individuals, when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood . This study included 19 HIV-infected Chinese men undergoing ART for six months. Amounts of HIV in paired semen and blood samples were assessed using real-time PCR. The C2-V5 region of the HIV envelope (env) genes was cloned and sequenced and genotype and co-receptor usage predicted based on the sequence. It was found that HIV RNA was undetectable in the plasma of most patients (17/19), whereas HIV RNA could be detected in the semen of most patients (16/19). HIV DNA could be detected in both semen and blood. Genetic diversity of HIV between the seminal and blood compartments was identified. Thus, amounts of HIV RNA and HIV DNA remain high in semen of HIV-infected Chinese patients after six months of ART treatment, even when HIV RNA was undetectable in blood.

  12. Variability of assay methods for total and free PSA after WHO standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foj, L; Filella, X; Alcover, J; Augé, J M; Escudero, J M; Molina, R

    2014-03-01

    The variability of total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) results among commercial assays has been suggested to be decreased by calibration to World Health Organization (WHO) reference materials. To characterize the current situation, it is necessary to know its impact in the critical cutoffs used in clinical practice. In the present study, we tested 167 samples with tPSA concentrations of 0 to 20 μg/L using seven PSA and six fPSA commercial assays, including Access, ARCHITECT i2000, ADVIA Centaur XP, IMMULITE 2000, Elecsys, and Lumipulse G1200, in which we only measured tPSA. tPSA and fPSA were measured in Access using the Hybritech and WHO calibrators. Passing-Bablok analysis was performed for PSA, and percentage of fPSA with the Hybritech-calibrated access comparison assay. For tPSA, relative differences were more than 10 % at 0.2 μg/L for ARCHITECT i2000, and at a critical concentration of 3, 4, and 10 μg/L, the relative difference was exceeded by ADVIA Centaur XP and WHO-calibrated Access. For percent fPSA, at a critical concentration of 10 %, the 10 % relative difference limit was exceeded by IMMULITE 2000 assay. At a critical concentration of 20 and 25 %, ADVIA Centaur XP, ARCHITECT i2000, and IMMULITE 2000 assays exceeded the 10 % relative difference limit. We have shown significant discordances between assays included in this study despite advances in standardization conducted in the last years. Further harmonization efforts are required in order to obtain a complete clinical concordance.

  13. Parental HIV Disclosure: From Perspectives of Children Affected by HIV in Henan China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Junfeng; Li, Xiaoming; Qiao, Shan; Zhao, Guoxiang; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Culturally and developmentally appropriate parental HIV disclosure (i.e., parents disclose their HIV infection to children) has been shown to be closely related with the well-being of both HIV-infected parents and their children. However, current practices and effects of parental HIV disclosure remain poorly understood in low and middle-income countries including China. Quantitative data from 626 children affected by parental HIV (orphans and vulnerable children) in Henan, China, were collect...

  14. Determinants of HIV outpatient service utilization according to HIV parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Di Carlo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The increased life expectancy of HIV patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy has had profound consequences for the healthcare systems that provide their care. It is useful to assess whether healthcare resources need to be adapted to the different stages of HIV infection or to patient characteristics [1]. To study how patient features influence utilization of out patient services, we retrospectively analyzed the electronic health record of HIV-positive patients who had followed day-care programs at the AIDS Center of the University of Palermo, Italy. Materials and Methods: 223 HIV-infected subjects were recruited and divided into two groups according to CD4 cell counts (117 with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 and 106 with CD4 count ≥500/mm3. Data on age, gender, race, lifestyle habits (including educational level, drug abuse history, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sexual behaviour BMI, HIV-RNA, CD4+ T-cell count, antiretroviral therapy (ART, comorbidities such as HCV co-infection, osteoporosis biomarker, dyslipidemia, diabetes, renal function and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were recorded in a purposely designed database and were analyzed in relation to AIN by uni- and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Table 1 shows the characteristics of enrolled patients; the average age of the recruited patients was 45.4±9.5 years. 163 individuals were male (73%, 26 were immigrants (12% and 91 (40% were treatment-naïve. Mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate stage of HIV and for treatment monitoring was 6.5 days for CD4 cell count measurements and 9.6 for HIV RNA/drug-resistance testing. When patients were stratified according to CD4 count, mean day care access for laboratory tests to evaluate HIV stage and to monitor treatment was negatively correlated with CD4 cell counts. Table 1 Selected characteristics of 223 HIV-infected patients Variable HIV with a CD4 count ≤500/mm3 n = 117 HIV

  15. HIV Vaccine-Challenges and Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The need for an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine remains the highest priority of the world HIV/AIDS agenda. The generation of an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine proves an enormous scientific challenge. This article reviews the neutralizing antibody problem, elusive immune protection, immunogen design, pre-existing anti-vector immunity and design of phase 3 vaccine trials and the challenges and opportunities in development of HIV/AIDS vaccine are discussed.

  16. Recent update in HIV vaccine development

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, So Youn

    2016-01-01

    Despite the tremendous efforts to develop a successful human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine, the quest for a safe and effective HIV vaccine seems to be remarkably long and winding. Disappointing results from previous clinical trials of VaxGen's AIDSVAXgp120 vaccine and MRKAd5 HIV-1 Gag/Pol/Nef vaccine emphasize that understanding the correlates of immune protection in HIV infection is the key to solve the puzzle. The modest vaccine efficacy from RV144 trial and the successive results ob...

  17. Determinan Perilaku Tes HIV pada Ibu Hamil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanik Setiyawati

    2015-04-01

    pengetahuan tentang HIV dan AIDS, persepsi kerentanan diri dan sikap ibu. Ada hubungan antara PITC, ketersediaan sumber informasi tentang HIV dan AIDS dari keluarga dan kader kesehatan dengan perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. PITC merupakan variabel yang paling berpengaruh terhadap perilaku tes HIV pada ibu hamil. Determinant of HIV Testing Behavior among Pregnant Women Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is one of highlighted issues in accomplishing Millenium Development Goals (MDGs target. Pregnant women with HIV will transmit the virus to their babies. HIV testing is such an opening gate of HIV status that is very important to be conducted on pregnant women. This study aimed to determine the determinant of HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women including education level, knowledge level, perception of selfvulnerability to be HIV-infected, attitudes, Provider-Initiated Testing and Counseling (PITC and availability of information (family and health workers. This study was cross sectional using a survey method. This study was conducted in Mantrijeron and Sleman Primary Health Care that had HIV testing facilities and executed prevention of mother to child transmission program. The subjects of this study were pregnant women visiting such primary health care on August up to October 2014, as much as 54 people. Data collecting used questionnaire. Analysed used were univariate, biviariate, and multivariate. The results showed no relation between educational level, knowledge level about HIV and AIDS, perception of self-vulnerability and attitudes of women.There was a relation between PITC, information source availability about HIV and AIDS from the family and health workers with HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women. PITC is the most influencing variable toward HIV testing behaviour among pregnant women.

  18. A Case of Seronegative HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Spivak, Adam M; Brennan, Tim; O'Connell, Karen; Sydnor, Emily; Thomas M Williams; Robert F. Siliciano; Gallant, Joel E.; Blankson, Joel N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients infected with HIV-1 typically seroconvert within weeks of primary infection. In rare cases, patients do not develop antibodies against HIV-1 despite demonstrable infection. We describe an HLA-B*5802 positive individual who presented with AIDS despite repeatedly negative HIV-1 antibody screening tests. Phylogenetic analysis of env clones revealed little sequence diversity, and weak HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell responses were present to Gag epitopes. The patient seroconverted after immun...

  19. Estimating the impact of plasma HIV-1 RNA reductions on heterosexual HIV-1 transmission risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairam R Lingappa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The risk of sexual transmission of HIV-1 is strongly associated with the level of HIV-1 RNA in plasma making reduction in HIV-1 plasma levels an important target for HIV-1 prevention interventions. A quantitative understanding of the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 transmission risk could help predict the impact of candidate HIV-1 prevention interventions that operate by reducing plasma HIV-1 levels, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART, therapeutic vaccines, and other non-ART interventions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use prospective data collected from 2004 to 2008 in East and Southern African HIV-1 serodiscordant couples to model the relationship of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and heterosexual transmission risk with confirmation of HIV-1 transmission events by HIV-1 sequencing. The model is based on follow-up of 3381 HIV-1 serodiscordant couples over 5017 person-years encompassing 108 genetically-linked HIV-1 transmission events. HIV-1 transmission risk was 2.27 per 100 person-years with a log-linear relationship to log(10 plasma HIV-1 RNA. The model predicts that a decrease in average plasma HIV-1 RNA of 0.74 log(10 copies/mL (95% CI 0.60 to 0.97 reduces heterosexual transmission risk by 50%, regardless of the average starting plasma HIV-1 level in the population and independent of other HIV-1-related population characteristics. In a simulated population with a similar plasma HIV-1 RNA distribution the model estimates that 90% of overall HIV-1 infections averted by a 0.74 copies/mL reduction in plasma HIV-1 RNA could be achieved by targeting this reduction to the 58% of the cohort with plasma HIV-1 levels ≥4 log(10 copies/mL. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This log-linear model of plasma HIV-1 levels and risk of sexual HIV-1 transmission may help estimate the impact on HIV-1 transmission and infections averted from candidate interventions that reduce plasma HIV-1 RNA levels.

  20. Adaptation of the HIV Stigma Scale in Spaniards with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster-RuizdeApodaca, Maria José; Molero, Fernando; Holgado, Francisco Pablo; Ubillos, Silvia

    2015-09-15

    The primary goal of this study was to adapt Berger, Ferrans, & Lahley (2001) HIV Stigma Scale in Spain, using Bunn, Solomon, Miller, & Forehand (2007) version. A second goal assessed whether the four-factor structure of the adapted scale could be explained by two higher-order dimensions, perceived external stigma and internalized stigma. A first qualitative study (N = 40 people with HIV, aged 28-59) was used to adapt the items and test content validity. A second quantitative study analyzed construct and criterion validity. In this study participants were 557 people with HIV, aged 18-76. The adapted HIV Stigma Scale for use in Spain (HSSS) showed a good internal consistency (α = .88) and good construct validity. Confirmatory Factor Analyses yielded a first-order, four-factor structure and a higher-order, bidimensional structure with the two expected factors (RMSEA = .051, 90% CI [.046, .056]; RMR = .073; GFI = .96; AGFI = .96; CFI = .98). Negative relations were found between stigma and quality of life (r = -.39; p stigma (r = -.50; p HIV status disclosure (r = -.35; p Stigma dimension than those who had not suffered them, t (493) = 3.02, p = .003, d = 0.26.

  1. People living with HIV in Estonia: engagement in HIV care in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Raag, Mait; Lutsar, Irja; Uusküla, Anneli

    2016-10-27

    Estonia had the highest rate of newly diagnosed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases in the European Union (24.6/100,000) and an estimated adult HIV prevalence of 1.3% in 2013. HIV medical care, including antiretroviral therapy (ART), is free of charge for people living with HIV (PLHIV). To maximise the health benefits of HIV treatment, universal access should be achieved. Using data from surveillance and administrative databases and the treatment cascade model, we assessed the number of people infected with HIV, diagnosed with HIV, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV care, on ART, and with suppressed viral load (HIV-RNA: Estonia in 2013 had not been diagnosed with HIV, and another quarter, although aware of their HIV-positive serostatus, had not accessed HIV medical care. Although altogether only 12-15% of all PLHIV in Estonia had achieved viral suppression, the main gap in HIV care in Estonia were the 58% of PLHIV who had accessed HIV medical care at least once after diagnosis but were not retained in care in 2013.

  2. HIV-2 infection and chemokine receptors usage - clues to reduced virulence of HIV-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo-Pereira, José Miguel; Santos-Costa, Quirina; Moniz-Pereira, José

    2005-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) are the causative agents of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Without therapeutic intervention, HIV-1 or HIV-2 infections in humans are characterized by a gradual and irreversible immunologic failure that ultimately leads to the onset of a severe immunodeficiency that constitutes the hallmark of AIDS. In the last two decades AIDS has evolved into a global epidemic affecting millions of persons worldwide. Although sharing several identical properties, HIV-1 and HIV-2 have shown some important differences in vivo. In fact, a significant amount of epidemiologic, clinical and virologic data suggest that HIV-2 is in general less virulent than HIV-1. This reduced virulence is revealed by the longer asymptomatic period and the smaller transmission rate that characteristically are observed in HIV-2 infection. In this context, studies using HIV-2 as a model of a naturally less pathogenic infection could bring important new insights to HIV pathogenesis opening to new strategies to vaccines or therapeutic design. The reasons underlying the reduced pathogenicity of HIV-2 are still essentially unknown and surely are the outcome of a combination of distinct factors. In this review we will discuss the importance and the possible implications in HIV-2 pathogenesis, particularly during the asymptomatic period, of a less fitted interaction between viral envelope glycoproteins and cellular receptors that have been described in the way HIV-2 and HIV-1 use these receptors.

  3. Get the Facts, Talk about HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, urges members of the black community to talk about HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  4. Black Americans and HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV/AIDS: The Basics Black Americans and HIV/AIDS: The Basics Feb 07, 2017 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn ... Black Americans have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the epidemic’s beginning, and that disparity has ...

  5. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Pamela.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Pamela, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  6. HIV genetic information and clonal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Based on an analysis of blood cells from five HIV-infected individuals, NCI researchers have identified more than 2,400 HIV DNA insertion sites. Analysis of these sites showed that there is extensive clonal expansion (growth) of HIV infected cells.

  7. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Doug.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Doug, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  8. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. ODell.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases ODell, a man living with HIV, as he tells his story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  9. Voices of Experience: Living with HIV. Denise.

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-07

    This podcast showcases Denise, a woman living with HIV, as she tells her story.  Created: 6/7/2009 by Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention (DHAP), National Center for HIV, Hepatitis, STD, and Tuberculosis Prevention ( NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 6/7/2009.

  10. Changes in US HIV Treatment Guidelines

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-03

    Following the 2012 HIV Treatment Guidelines, which include early diagnosis and treatment with ART, can increase longevity and improve the quality of life for patients living with HIV.  Created: 10/3/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 10/3/2012.

  11. Curcumin derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Z.; Li, J.; Craik, C.S.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Curcumin, a non-toxic natural compound from Curcuma longa, has been found to be an HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Some of its derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory activity against the HIV-1 protease was tested. Curcumin analogues containing boron enhanced the inhibitory activity. At least of the the synthesized compounds irreversibly inhibits the HIV-1 protease.

  12. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Ralf; Nowak, Manfred; Day, Marcus

    2011-05-19

    The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners.The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  13. HIV Infection and Children: A Medical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Virginia

    1998-01-01

    Updates a 10-year medical overview on HIV/AIDS written for a Child Welfare League of America publication. Covers HIV transmission, diagnosis and treatment of HIV in infants, maternal treatment and testing, and advances and challenges, including new drug therapies. Concludes with recommendations on systems of care for affected families. (EV)

  14. HIV and incarceration: prisons and detention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgens Ralf

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The high prevalence of HIV infection among prisoners and pre-trial detainees, combined with overcrowding and sub-standard living conditions sometimes amounting to inhuman or degrading treatment in violation of international law, make prisons and other detention centres a high risk environment for the transmission of HIV. Ultimately, this contributes to HIV epidemics in the communities to which prisoners return upon their release. We reviewed the evidence regarding HIV prevalence, risk behaviours and transmission in prisons. We also reviewed evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and approaches to reduce the risk behaviours and, consequently, HIV transmission in prisons. A large number of studies report high levels of risk behaviour in prisons, and HIV transmission has been documented. There is a large body of evidence from countries around the world of what prison systems can do to prevent HIV transmission. In particular, condom distribution programmes, accompanied by measures to prevent the occurrence of rape and other forms of non-consensual sex, needle and syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapies, have proven effective at reducing HIV risk behaviours in a wide range of prison environments without resulting in negative consequences for the health of prison staff or prisoners. The introduction of these programmes in prisons is therefore warranted as part of comprehensive programmes to address HIV in prisons, including HIV education, voluntary HIV testing and counselling, and provision of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-positive prisoners. In addition, however, action to reduce overcrowding and improve conditions in detention is urgently needed.

  15. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  16. HIV infection is associated with reduced pulmonary diffusing capacity

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prior studies comparing abnormalities in pulmonary function between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons in the current era are limited. OBJECTIVES: To determine the pattern and severity of impairment in pulmonary function in HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 300 HIV-infected men and 289 HIV-uninfected men enrolled from 2009 to 2011 in 2 clinical centers of the Lung HIV Study. Participants completed pre- and postbronch...

  17. HIV-1 assembly in macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benaroch Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms involved in the assembly of newly synthesized Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV particles are poorly understood. Most of the work on HIV-1 assembly has been performed in T cells in which viral particle budding and assembly take place at the plasma membrane. In contrast, few studies have been performed on macrophages, the other major target of HIV-1. Infected macrophages represent a viral reservoir and probably play a key role in HIV-1 physiopathology. Indeed macrophages retain infectious particles for long periods of time, keeping them protected from anti-viral immune response or drug treatments. Here, we present an overview of what is known about HIV-1 assembly in macrophages as compared to T lymphocytes or cell lines. Early electron microscopy studies suggested that viral assembly takes place at the limiting membrane of an intracellular compartment in macrophages and not at the plasma membrane as in T cells. This was first considered as a late endosomal compartment in which viral budding seems to be similar to the process of vesicle release into multi-vesicular bodies. This view was notably supported by a large body of evidence involving the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport machinery in HIV-1 budding, the observation of viral budding profiles in such compartments by immuno-electron microscopy, and the presence of late endosomal markers associated with macrophage-derived virions. However, this model needs to be revisited as recent data indicate that the viral compartment has a neutral pH and can be connected to the plasma membrane via very thin micro-channels. To date, the exact nature and biogenesis of the HIV assembly compartment in macrophages remains elusive. Many cellular proteins potentially involved in the late phases of HIV-1 cycle have been identified; and, recently, the list has grown rapidly with the publication of four independent genome-wide screens. However, their respective

  18. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  19. Effects of HIV status notification on reducing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao Yugang; Jing Jun; Zhang Yanhui; Li Huasheng; Feng Liangui; Ning Zhen; Tan Hongzhuan

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of HIV sexual transmission is much higher among people unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Only a few studies have indicated that the incidence of unsafe sex can be reduced when people know their HIV status.This study was to investigate this effect in China.Methods A cohort study consisting of two surveys was conducted at two different times among a group of people living with HIV/AIDS,whose status was newly diagnosed with HIV via sexual contact,in Shanghai,Chongqing,and Kunming.The first survey was conducted among 823 people tested positive for HIV before notifying them of the HIV status.The second survey was conducted among 650 HIV-positive people at six months following the first survey (after notification of HIV status).The scope of survey covered unsafe sex practices,number of unsafe sexual partners,and frequency of unsafe sexual behaviors over the prior six months.Unsafe sex is defined as unprotected anal or vaginal sex with partners who are HIV positive or whose HIV status is unknown.Results The proportion of unsafe sex was reduced by about 85% after HIV status notification.The risk of HIV sexual transmission was 15 times higher among persons unaware of their HIV status than among those aware.Approximately 95% of new sexually transmitted HIV infections stemmed from 56% of the infected persons unaware of their HIV status in China.Conclusion Timely HIV status notification has the potential to significantly reduce unsafe sex among HIV-infected persons and reduce the risk for HIV transmission via unsafe sex.

  20. Identifying barriers to HIV testing: personal and contextual factors associated with late HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarcz, Sandra; Richards, T Anne; Frank, Heidi; Wenzel, Conrad; Hsu, Ling Chin; Chin, Chi-Sheng Jennie; Murphy, Jessie; Dilley, James

    2011-07-01

    Late diagnosis of HIV is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Despite the availability of HIV testing, persons continue to test late in the course of HIV infection. We used the HIV/AIDS case registry of San Francisco Department of Public Health to identify and recruit 41 persons who developed AIDS within 12 months of their HIV diagnosis to participate in a qualitative and quantitative interview regarding late diagnosis of HIV. Thirty-one of the participants were diagnosed with HIV because of symptomatic disease and 50% of the participants were diagnosed with HIV and AIDS concurrently. Half of the subjects had not been tested for HIV prior to diagnosis. Fear was the most frequently cited barrier to testing. Other barriers included being unaware of improved HIV treatment, free/low cost care, and risk for HIV. Recommendations for health care providers to increase early diagnosis of HIV include routine ascertainment of HIV risk behaviors and testing histories, stronger recommendations for patients to be tested, and incorporating testing into routine medical care. Public health messages to increase testing include publicizing that (1) effective, tolerable, and low cost/free care for HIV is readily available, (2) early diagnosis of HIV improves health outcomes, (3) HIV can be transmitted to persons who engage in unprotected oral and insertive anal sex and unprotected receptive anal intercourse without ejaculation and from HIV-infected persons whose infection is well-controlled with antiretroviral therapy, (4) persons who may be infected based upon these behaviors should be tested following exposure, (5) HIV testing information will be kept private, and (6) encouraging friends and family to get HIV tested is beneficial.

  1. HEFFICON: HIV Effectiveness Italian Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Andrea; Andreoni, Massimo; Perno, Carlo Federico; Lazzarin, Adriano

    2015-04-01

    Since the first acquired immunodeficiency syndrome cases were reported in 1981, more than 1.5 million people have been diagnosed with Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 in Europe, including more than 136,000 new HIV cases in 2013. Recent epidemiological data estimate an incidence of 5-10 newly diagnosed HIV infections per 100,000 population per year in Europe and an average prevalence of infection of 5.7 cases per 100,000 population. In the absence of an effective curative strategy for HIV, optimization of prevention policies and clinical management of HIV positive patients is fundamental to reduce the impact of the HIV pandemic on public health. Clinical trials represent an essential tool for translating research findings into routine clinical practice. Careful evaluation and planning of clinical trials are therefore mandatory in order to provide relevant information to clinicians. The HEFFICON Project was conceived to investigate and pinpoint methodological issues and critical points that need to be addressed in future clinical studies to increase the translation of experimental results to the real life environment.

  2. HIV and tuberculosis in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Soumya Swaminathan; G Narendran

    2008-11-01

    The global impact of the converging dual epidemics of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the major public health challenges of our time. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports 9.2 million new cases of TB in 2006 of whom 7.7% were HIV-infected. Tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients as well as the leading cause of death. Further, there has been an increase in rates of drug resistant tuberculosis, including multi-drug (MDRTB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDRTB), which are difficult to treat and contribute to increased mortality. The diagnosis of TB is based on sputum smear microscopy, a 100-year old technique and chest radiography, which has problems of specificity. Extra-pulmonary, disseminated and sputum smear negative manifestations are more common in patients with advanced immunosuppression. Newer diagnostic tests are urgently required that are not only sensitive and specific but easy to use in remote and resource-poor settings. Treatment of HIV-TB co-infection is complex and associated with high pill burden, overlapping drug toxicities, risk of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and challenges related to adherence. From a programmatic point of view, screening of all HIV-infected persons for tuberculosis and vice-versa will help identify co-infected patients who require treatment for both infections. This requires good coordination and communication between the TB and AIDS control programs, in India.

  3. HIV-associated memory B cell perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiliang; Luo, Zhenwu; Wan, Zhuang; Wu, Hao; Li, Wei; Zhang, Tong; Jiang, Wei

    2015-05-21

    Memory B-cell depletion, hyperimmunoglobulinemia, and impaired vaccine responses are the hallmark of B cell perturbations inhuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. Although B cells are not the targets for HIV infection, there is evidence for B cell, especially memory B cell dysfunction in HIV disease mediated by other cells or HIV itself. This review will focus on HIV-associated phenotypic and functional alterations in memory B cells. Additionally, we will discuss the mechanism underlying these perturbations and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) on these perturbations.

  4. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  5. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Saxena, Shailendra K; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Nair, Madhavan P N

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  6. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB. Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population.

  7. Association of HIV transmissions and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes to HIV/AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Yu-feng; WANG Hua-dong; ZHAO Cun-xi; YAO Ying-shui; YE Dong-qing; JIANG Zuo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immure deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related stigma is an obstacle to the implementation of treatment, care, and support programs for people living with HIV/AIDS. This study explored the association of the HIV knowledge with the attitudes toward HIV/AIDS.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV epidemic rural areas with 5355 participants. Their knowledge and attitudes about HIV/AIDS were assessed, and the associations of HIV transmission and non-transmission knowledge with negative attitudes towards the HIV/AIDS were analyzed.Results Negative attitudes were significantly correlated with the HIV non-transmission knowledge and the correlation was higher than that with HIV transmission knowledge among participants who were male, 20 years old and migrant workers, students and respondents of and above junior high school. However, among those who were female, age 30 and older, illiterate with primary school education, negative attitudes were significantly associated with HIV non-transmission knowledge and the association was lower than that with HIV transmission knowledge.Conclusions HIV transmission knowledge and non-transmission knowledge have different influences on negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS among different demographic subgroups.

  8. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  9. Hiv og kontaktopsporing i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodkjær, Lotte Ørneborg; Østergaard, Lars; Frydenberg, Morten

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Counselling and partner notification play significant roles in the prevention of HIV. In Denmark, there is no overall strategy or monitoring concerning partner notification and the results of partner notification are unknown. The primary purposes of the study were to describe...... the present organisation and conditions concerning partner notification in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about organizational factors was collected through a questionnaire and supplementary interviews. The study population was all consecutive, newly-diagnosed HIV positive persons in the period...... from 1 May 2005 to 1 June 2006. During this period 254 were diagnosed with HIV. RESULTS: The study showed significant differences in the organisation of partner notification. A total of 123 index cases were offered partner notification. The stated number of partners per index case was 2.4, and 1...

  10. HIV treatment cascade in tuberculosis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessells, Richard J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Godfrey-Faussett, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Globally, the number of deaths associated with tuberculosis (TB) and HIV coinfection remains unacceptably high. We review the evidence around the impact of strengthening the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients and explore recent findings about how best to deliver integrated TB/HIV services. Recent findings There is clear evidence that the timely provision of antiretroviral therapy (ART) reduces mortality in TB/HIV coinfected adults. Despite this, globally in 2013, only around a third of known HIV-positive TB cases were treated with ART. Although there is some recent evidence exploring the barriers to achieve high coverage of HIV testing and ART initiation in TB patients, our understanding of which factors are most important and how best to address these within different health systems remains incomplete. There are some examples of good practice in the delivery of integrated TB/HIV services to improve the HIV treatment cascade. However, evidence of the impact of such strategies is of relatively low quality for informing integrated TB/HIV programming more broadly. In most settings, there remain barriers to higher-level organizational and functional integration. Summary There remains a need for commitment to patient-centred integrated TB/HIV care in countries affected by the dual epidemic. There is a need for better quality evidence around how best to deliver integrated services to strengthen the HIV treatment cascade in TB patients, both at primary healthcare level and within community settings. PMID:26352390

  11. Snapshot of HIV pathogenesis in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitin; K; SAKSENA; Bin; WANG; Megan; STEAIN; Rong; Ge; YANG; Lin; Qi; ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Several reviews have focused on the nature of HIV infection and its spread in various geographical regions of China.In contrast, this review provides a comprehensive update on the prevalence of multiple HIV-1 subtypes, consequent emergence of recombinant and novel forms of HIV-1 in China, and the implications this may have on HIV diversity and the development of effective vaccines. In addition it also examines the dissemination of primary drug resistance in therapy na(i)ve patients, as well as co-infections with two other important viruses-hepatitis B and C. The main purpose of this review is to provide a current snapshot of HIV-1 pathogenesis in China and possibly shed some light on the future of HIV evolution, and potential challenges for future vaccine and anti-retroviral therapeutics against HIV strains in this area.

  12. [Care for women with HIV: gender perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Nai-Ying

    2011-12-01

    When women face social and cultural inequality they inevitably bear increased HIV infection risks. The success of antiretroviral therapies in suppressing HIV's viral load and prolonging patient lives has made HIV a treatable chronic disease. Given the same follow-up treatments, research shows no significant differences between men and women in terms of either clinical, immunological or virological parameters at baseline or mortality after one year of antiretroviral therapy. Also, advances in assisted reproductive technologies now makes having HIV-free children possible for HIV couples. Gender equality and human right are essential to effective HIV prevention. Nurses must take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in HIV prevention, treatment and care programs in order to ensure equal gender access to critical healthcare services.

  13. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  14. Update on HIV in Western Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Phillips, Andrew N; Lundgren, Jens D

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection in Western Europe is mainly concentrated among men who have sex with men, heterosexuals who acquired HIV from sub-Saharan African countries, and in people who inject drugs. The rate of newly diagnosed cases of HIV has remained roughly stable since 2004 whereas the number of people...... living with HIV has slowly increased due to new infections and the success of antiretroviral therapy in prolonging life. An ageing population is gradually emerging that will require additional care. There are large differences across countries in HIV testing rates, proportions of people who present...... to care with low CD4+ cell counts, accessibility to treatment and care, and rates of retention once in care. Improved collection of HIV surveillance data will benefit countries and help to understand their epidemic better. However, social inequalities experienced by people with HIV still remain in some...

  15. Combination HIV prevention: significance, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Vermund, Sten H; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2011-03-01

    No single HIV prevention strategy will be sufficient to control the HIV pandemic. However, a growing number of interventions have shown promise in partially protecting against HIV transmission and acquisition, including knowledge of HIV serostatus, behavioral risk reduction, condoms, male circumcision, needle exchange, treatment of curable sexually transmitted infections, and use of systemic and topical antiretroviral medications by both HIV-infected and uninfected persons. Designing the optimal package of interventions that matches the epidemiologic profile of a target population, delivering that package at the population level, and evaluating safety, acceptability, coverage, and effectiveness, all involve methodological challenges. Nonetheless, there is an unprecedented opportunity to develop "prevention packages" that combine various arrays of evidence-based strategies, tailored to the needs of diverse subgroups and targeted to achieve high coverage for a measurable reduction in population-level HIV transmission. HIV prevention strategies that combine partially effective interventions should be scaled up and evaluated.

  16. Recovery of antigenically reactive HIV-2 cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystie, I L; Almeida, J D

    1989-03-01

    Negative staining studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been hampered by the fragile nature of the particles. Although detergent treatment is capable of releasing cores from HIV-2 particles, these are unstable and do not retain morphological integrity. Addition of glutaraldehyde will stabilise these structures but, if used at too high a concentration, will destroy their antigenicity. This study shows that if both detergent and glutaraldehyde are used in correct proportions, antigenically reactive cores can be recovered from HIV-2 cell cultures. More specifically we show that a mixture of 0.1% Nonidet P40 and 0.1% glutaraldehyde produces preparations of HIV-2 cores that are suitable for immune electron microscopy. These cores reacted positively, that is, formed immune complexes, with both human HIV-2 antisera and a mouse monoclonal antibody that, although directed against p24 (HIV-1), reacts also with p25 (HIV-2).

  17. Peak HIV prevalence : a useful outcome variable for ecological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenyon, Chris; Colebunders, Robert; Voeten, Helene; Lurie, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A key question for ecological studies with HIV as the outcome variable is what measure of HIV prevalence to use. In this study we compared the strengths and weaknesses of a variety of measures of HIV prevalence, focusing on peak HIV prevalence and HIV prevalence measured at the same time as the expo

  18. The metabolic syndrome in HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Signe W; Lundgren, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    discusses why the prevalence of MS in the setting of HIV has been reported to range from 7-45% and how antiretroviral drugs might contribute to the development of MS. The MS has been reported to be a 'CVD risk enhancer', and much debate is ongoing on the independent risk of CVD associated with the MS. Based...... on a limited number of studies on MS in HIV with clinical end-points, there is no data to support that the MS is independently associated with an increased risk of CVD....

  19. Polygyny and HIV in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Tfaily

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We review the relationship between polygyny and HIV and identify a positive individual-level correlation, and a negative ecological correlation. We subsequently examine two mechanisms that contribute to the individual-level correlation. First, we find that men in polygynous marriages have more extramarital sex than men in monogamous unions (both in terms of self reports and in terms of spousal reports of the suspicion of adultery. Second, we find evidence of adverse selection of HIV positive women into polygynous unions via an investigation of the relationship between marriage order and polygyny status. We conclude with reflections about possible explanations for the distinct individual and ecological correlations.

  20. Developing a Successful HIV Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Robert C

    2015-07-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) genome integration indicates that persistent sterilizing immunity will be needed for a successful vaccine candidate. This suggests a need for broad antibodies targeting the Env protein. Immunogens targeting gp120 have been developed that block infection in monkeys and mimic the modest success of the RV144 clinical trial in that protection is short-lived following a decline in antibody-depending cell-mediated cytotoxicity-like antibodies. Attempts to induce antibody persistence have been complicated by a loss of efficacy, presumably by increasing the number of HIV-target cells. The key seems to be achieving an immune balance.

  1. HIV-Associated Pathogenesis: The Role of HIV-1 Nef Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoning Xu; Hao Wu

    2006-01-01

    Since the discovery of HIV more than two decades ago, scientific progress has been impressive and has dramatically advanced our understanding of HIV infection, from molecular through cellular and then on to systemic pathogenesis,such as the functions of HIV-1 nef gene. However, there is still much to be learned before we fully understand how the host interacts with the virus at molecular level and how immune responses correlate with protection from disease. This review describes our current knowledge of HIV/AIDS with the reference of HIV nef functions and its role in HIV-1 mediated pathogenesis.

  2. Commentaryon using the SF-36 or MOS-HIV in studies of persons with HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hays Ron D

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purposewas to compare and comment on use of the SF-36 and MOS-HIV instrumentsin studies of persons with HIV disease. Three medical informationdatabases were searched to identify examples of HIV studies thatincluded the MOS-HIV or SF-36. Thirty-nine and 14 published articleswere identified for illustration in comparing the use of the MOS-HIVand SF-36 in HIV disease, respectively. Support for the reliabilityand construct validity of the MOS-HIV and SF-36 was found. Ceilingand floor effects were reported for both the MOS-HIV and SF-36;however, ceiling effects were more common for the MOS-HIV, in partdue to fewer items in the physical, social, and role functioningdomains. The MOS-HIV measures three domains hypothesized to be associatedwith the health deterioration of HIV disease not measured by theSF-36; however, these domains may not assess aspects of HIV diseasethat typify the majority of the persons with HIV disease today.National norms for the U.S. adult population (and other nationsare available for the SF-36. In addition, the SF-36 has been usedin a wide variety of patient populations, enabling comparisons ofHIV-infected persons with persons with other health conditions.No national norms for the MOS-HIV are available. We conclude thatthere is currently insufficient evidence in the literature to recommendthe use of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 in HIV-infected persons. Althoughthe SF-36 is not targeted at HIV, it may be preferable to use theSF-36 over the MOS-HIV due to fewer ceiling effects, availabilityof national norms, and the vast amount of data for other populationsin the U.S. and around the world. Head-to-head comparisons demonstratingthe unique value of the MOS-HIV over the SF-36 are clearly needed.More importantly, additional work needs to be directed at comparingthe MOS-HIV and other putatively HIV-targeted instruments to oneanother to help demarcate aspects of HRQOL that are truly genericversus specific to HIV disease

  3. HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cell activity in an HIV-exposed but uninfected infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Jones, S L; Nixon, D F; Aldhous, M C; Gotch, F; Ariyoshi, K; Hallam, N; Kroll, J S; Froebel, K; McMichael, A

    1993-04-03

    The factors necessary for protective immunity against HIV-1 are unknown. Important information about these factors should come from study of people at high risk of HIV infection who have not apparently become infected. Among these are the estimated 60-85% of children who may be exposed in utero or perinatally to HIV-1 but do not become infected. We observed the transient appearance of HIV-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) activity in a baby born to HIV-1-infected parents, in whom all standard markers of infection remained negative. These findings suggest that HIV-specific CTLs may be a marker for recently exposed, but uninfected, individuals.

  4. Complementary role of HCV and HIV in T-cell activation and exhaustion in HIV/HCV coinfection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feuth, T.; Arends, J.E.; Fransen, J.H.; Nanlohy, N.M.; Erpecum, K.J. van; Siersema, P.D.; Hoepelman, A.I.; Baarle, D. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether T-cell activation and exhaustion is linked to HCV- and HIV disease parameters in HIV/HCV infected individuals, we studied T-cell characteristics in HIV/HCV coinfected patients and controls. METHODS: 14 HIV/HCV coinfected, 19 HCV monoinfected, 10 HIV monoinfected pa

  5. The role of HIV nursing consultants in the care of HIV-infected patients in Dutch hospital outpatient clinics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, Sigrid C. J. M.; Dijkstra, Boukje M.; Hazelzet, Esther E. B.; Grypdonck, Mieke H. F.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In the Netherlands HIV nursing consultants have participated in HIV-care since 1985: their profession has changed with developments in HIV-treatment over time. The study goal was to gather information about their role in HIV-care and to provide an useful example to other (HIV-)care settin

  6. HIV stigma: perceptions from HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in a community dental clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Steven; A York, Jill; DePinto, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background. In the medical sense, stigma has been defined as the collection of negative attitudes and beliefs that are directed at people living with a particular condition or disease process. A cohort study was conducted to explore the HIV stigma that is perceived by HIV-positive individuals versus that perceived by the general population within a community-based dental clinic. Methods. Two separate and independent cross-sectional surveys, the Berger Stigma Scale and the Rutgers-Modified Berger Stigma Scale, were employed in order to analyze the stigma factors of an HIV-positive population versus an HIV-negative general population, respectively. The HIV stigma factors studied included personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes. Results. The total stigma scale scores for the studied HIV-positive population were significantly lower than the total stigma scale scores for the studied HIV-negative population (P HIV-positive individuals experience more stigma than the HIV-positive population in the clinic actually reported. Interventions to reduce HIV stigma should be an integral component of comprehensive care for all patients.

  7. Ergotismo y HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara C. Finn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available El ergotismo es una complicación de la intoxicación aguda y/o el abuso crónico de los derivados del ergot. Se manifiesta por síndrome vasomotor con enfermedad vascular periférica que frecuentemente compromete extremidades. Presentamos cuatro casos de pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana 1 (HIV-1, en tratamiento con antirretrovirales que incluyen inhibidores de la proteasa reforzados con ritonavir, y que habían recibido ergotamina como automedicación. Ellos desarrollaron síntomas de enfermedad vascular periférica y al examen físico sus pulsos estaban disminuidos o ausentes. El Doppler arterial confirmó signos de espasmo arterial difuso en dos de ellos. Se hizo diagnóstico de ergotismo secundario a la asociación de ergotamina-inhibidores de la proteasa. Los pacientes fueron tratados con la discontinuación de las drogas involucradas (inhibidores de la proteasa y ergotamina, bloqueantes cálcicos, profilaxis antitrombótica con enoxaparina, antiagregación con ácido acetil salicílico y uno ellos recibió pentoxifilina e infusión de prostaglandinas vasodilatadoras con mejoría de los síntomas. Discutimos la presentación clínica de esta interacción medicamentosa, difícil de diagnosticar correctamente sin una fuerte sospecha de su existencia.

  8. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples presenting for HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Patrick S; Wall, Kristin M; O'Hara, Brandon; Jones, Jeb; Barnes, Jasper; DiClemente, Ralph; Hoff, Colleen; Scales, Lamont; Salazar, Laura F; Sanchez, Travis; White, Darcy; Wingood, Gina; Allen, Susan; Stephenson, Rob

    2014-01-01

    In the United States, a substantial proportion of HIV transmissions among men who have sex with men (MSM) arise from main sex partners. Couples voluntary HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) is used in many parts of the world with male-female couples, but CHTC has historically not been available in the U.S. and few data exist about the extent of HIV serodiscordance among U.S. male couples. We tested partners in 95 Atlanta male couples (190 men) for HIV. Eligible men were in a relationship for ≥3 months and were not known to be HIV-positive. We calculated the prevalence of couples that were seroconcordant HIV-negative, seroconcordant HIV-positive, or HIV serodiscordant. We evaluated differences in the prevalence of HIV serodiscordance by several dyadic characteristics (e.g., duration of relationship, sexual agreements, and history of anal intercourse in the relationship). Overall, among 190 men tested for HIV, 11 % (n = 20) were newly identified as HIV-positive. Among the 95 couples, 81 % (n = 77) were concordant HIV-negative, 17 % (n = 16) were HIV serodiscordant, and 2 % (n = 2) were concordant HIV-positive. Serodiscordance was not significantly associated with any evaluated dyadic characteristic. The prevalence of undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among male couples in Atlanta is high. Offering testing to male couples may attract men with a high HIV seropositivity rate to utilize testing services. Based on the global evidence base for CHTC with heterosexual couples and the current evidence of substantial undiagnosed HIV serodiscordance among U.S. MSM, we recommend scale-up of CHTC services for MSM, with ongoing evaluation of acceptability and couples' serostatus outcomes.

  9. HIV symptom distress and smoking outcome expectancies among HIV+ smokers: a pilot test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Kristin W; Gonzalez, Adam; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Smoking occurs at high rates among people with HIV/AIDS, but little attention has been paid to understanding the nature of tobacco use among HIV+ smokers, especially the role that HIV symptoms may play in cognitive smoking processes. Accordingly, the present investigation examined the relation between HIV symptom distress (i.e., the degree to which HIV symptoms are bothersome) and smoking outcome expectancies. Fifty-seven HIV+ adult smokers (82.50% male; M(age)=47.18; 45.6% White, 28.1% Black, 17.5% Hispanic) were recruited from AIDS service organizations and hospital-based clinics. On average, participants reported knowing their HIV+ status for 16 years and the majority of participants reported that they acquired HIV through unprotected sex (66.6%). Participants completed measures pertaining to HIV symptoms, smoking behavior, and smoking outcome expectancies. HIV symptom distress was positively related to negative reinforcement, negative consequences, and positive reinforcement smoking outcome expectancies after accounting for relevant covariates. The present research suggests that HIV symptom distress may play an important role in understanding smoking outcome expectancies for smokers with HIV/AIDS. Clinical implications for HIV+ smokers are discussed, including the importance of developing effective smoking cessation treatments that meet the unique needs of this group of smokers.

  10. Usefulness of the HIV Dementia Scale in Nigerian patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi A Ogunrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Information on the cognitive complications of HIV/AIDS from sub-Saharan Africa, where statistics on HIV is alarming, is sparse because of lack of validated cognitive tools. This study assessed the usefulness and predictive validity of the HIV Dementia Scale (HDS as a screening tool among HIV-positive Nigerian Africans. Design: HIV-positive patients were randomly selected over a period of two months. Setting: The HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic of the University teaching hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects: Asymptomatic and symptomatic HIV-positive patients were compared with age, sex and level of education-matched controls. Outcome measures: Cognitive performances on the modified HIV Dementia scale. Results: The performances of 160 HIV-positive (comprising 80 asymptomatic and 80 symptomatic subjects were compared with 80 age, sex and level of education-matched HIV-negative subjects on the HDS. The mean HDS scores (maximum =12 were 10.78±1.18 (comparison subjects, 8.85±1.38 (asymptomatic and 5.2±1.13 (symptomatic; p<0.01. The HDS has a sensitivity of 97.3%, specificity of 80.4%, accuracy of 91.9% and predictive value positive of 91.4% and negative of 93.2%. Conclusion: The utility of the HIV Dementia Scale as a sensitive screening tool for patients with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa was evident but insensitive to memory impairment among asymptomatic HIV patients.

  11. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... parties or hanging out with friends? In the “d’cisions” Webisode series, Kim and her friends never ... always will be associated with HIV/AIDS. The “d’cisions” Webisode series is part of the Drugs + ...

  12. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... clear that injection drug abuse played a significant role in the widespread transmission of the disease. Since ...

  13. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and ... Health Blog The NIDA Science Fair Award for Addiction Science USA Science & Engineering Festival Drug & Alcohol Chat ...

  14. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijsen, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  15. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search ... Drug Testing Drugs and the Brain Genetics Global Health Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Health Consequences of Drug ...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... projects/learn-link-drugs-hiv . 120x90 460x80 486x60 Social Media Send the message to young people and to ... available for your use to share on your social media accounts. About the Campaign Overview The Learn the ...

  17. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... link between drug abuse and HIV. http://1.usa.gov/1z20ww6 How many of us think about ... can’t ignore. Learn the Link: http://1.usa.gov/1uSUAI3 Think you’re not at risk? ...

  18. HIV incidence and risk factors for acquisition in HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda: an HIV vaccine preparedness study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Ruzagira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence of and risk factors for HIV acquisition in a cohort of HIV-uninfected partners from HIV discordant couples in Masaka, Uganda, and to establish its suitability for HIV vaccine trials. METHODS: HIV-uninfected adults living in HIV discordant couple relationships were enrolled and followed for 2 years. Interviews, medical investigations, HIV counseling and testing, syphilis and urine pregnancy (women tests were performed at quarterly visits. Sexual risk behaviour data were collected every 6 months. RESULTS: 495 participants were enrolled, of whom 34 seroconverted during 786.6 person-years of observation (PYO. The overall HIV incidence rate [95% confidence interval (CI] was 4.3 [3.1-6]; and 4.3 [2.8-6.4] and 4.4 [2.5-8] per 100 PYO in men and women respectively. Independent baseline predictors for HIV acquisition were young age [18-24 (aRR = 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.8 and 25-34 (aRR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.8 years]; alcohol use (aRR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6; and reported genital discharge (aRR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6-7.2 in the past year. Condom use frequency in the year preceding enrolment was predictive of a reduced risk of HIV acquisition [sometimes (aRR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8; always (aRR = 0.1, 95% CI 0.02-0.9]. In the follow-up risk analysis, young age [18-24 (aRR = 6.2, 95% CI 2.2-17.3 and 25-34 (aRR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-5.0 years], reported genital discharge (aRR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.1-5.5, serological syphilis (aRR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3-7.7 and the partner being ART naïve (aRR = 4.8, 95% CI 1.4-16.0 were independently associated with HIV acquisition. There were no seroconversions among participants who reported consistent condom use during the study. CONCLUSIONS: The study has identified important risk factors for HIV acquisition among HIV discordant couples. HIV-uninfected partners in discordant couples may be a suitable population for HIV vaccine efficacy trials. However, recent confirmation that

  19. Analysis of Sequence Based Classifier Prediction for HIV Subtypes

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    S. Santhosh Kumar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is a lent virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. The main drawback in HIV treatment process is its sub type prediction. The sub type and group classification of HIV is based on its genetic variability and location. HIV can be divided into two major types, HIV type 1 (HIV-1 and HIV type 2 (HIV-2. Many classifier approaches have been used to classify HIV subtypes based on their group, but some of cases are having two groups in one; in such cases the classification becomes more complex. The methodology used is this paper based on the HIV sequences. For this work several classifier approaches are used to classify the HIV1 and HIV2. For implementation of the work a real time patient database is taken and the patient records are experimented and the final best classifier is identified with quick response time and least error rate.

  20. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  1. HIV/AIDS Medicines: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infectious Diseases) Children Approved Antiretroviral Drugs Used for Pediatric Treatment of HIV Infection (Food and Drug Administration) Patient Handouts FDA-Approved HIV Medicines (AIDSinfo) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get HIV/AIDS ...

  2. Urological aspects of HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyns, Chris F; Smit, Shaun G; van der Merwe, André; Zarrabi, Amir D

    2013-12-01

    The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected people has led to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of opportunistic infections and virus-related malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma, but not cervical or anal cancer. Advanced-stage cervical cancer is associated with a high incidence of urological complications such as hydronephrosis, renal failure, and vesicovaginal fistula. Adult male circumcison can significantly reduce the risk of male HIV acquisition. Although HAART does not completely eradicate HIV, compliance with medication increases life expectancy. HIV infection or treatment can result in renal failure, which can be managed with dialysis and transplantation (as for HIV-negative patients). Although treatment for erectile dysfunction--including phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection therapy, and penile prosthesis--can increase the risk of HIV transmission, treatment decisions for men with erectile dysfunction should not be determined by HIV status. The challenges faced when administering chemotherapy to HIV-infected patients with cancer include late presentation, immunodeficiency, drug interactions, and adverse effects associated with compounded medications. Nonetheless, HIV-infected patients should receive the same cancer treatment as HIV-negative patients. The urologist is increasingly likely to encounter HIV-positive patients who present with the same urological problems as the general population, because HAART confers a prolonged life expectancy. Performing surgery in an HIV-infected individual raises safety issues for both the patient (if severely immunocompromised) and the surgeon, but the risk of HIV transmission from patients on fully suppressive HAART is small.

  3. HIV classification using coalescent theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Letiner, Thomas K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Korber, Bette T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Algorithms for subtype classification and breakpoint detection of HIV-I sequences are based on a classification system of HIV-l. Hence, their quality highly depend on this system. Due to the history of creation of the current HIV-I nomenclature, the current one contains inconsistencies like: The phylogenetic distance between the subtype B and D is remarkably small compared with other pairs of subtypes. In fact, it is more like the distance of a pair of subsubtypes Robertson et al. (2000); Subtypes E and I do not exist any more since they were discovered to be composed of recombinants Robertson et al. (2000); It is currently discussed whether -- instead of CRF02 being a recombinant of subtype A and G -- subtype G should be designated as a circulating recombination form (CRF) nd CRF02 as a subtype Abecasis et al. (2007); There are 8 complete and over 400 partial HIV genomes in the LANL-database which belong neither to a subtype nor to a CRF (denoted by U). Moreover, the current classification system is somehow arbitrary like all complex classification systems that were created manually. To this end, it is desirable to deduce the classification system of HIV systematically by an algorithm. Of course, this problem is not restricted to HIV, but applies to all fast mutating and recombining viruses. Our work addresses the simpler subproblem to score classifications of given input sequences of some virus species (classification denotes a partition of the input sequences in several subtypes and CRFs). To this end, we reconstruct ancestral recombination graphs (ARG) of the input sequences under restrictions determined by the given classification. These restritions are imposed in order to ensure that the reconstructed ARGs do not contradict the classification under consideration. Then, we find the ARG with maximal probability by means of Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The probability of the most probable ARG is interpreted as a score for the classification. To our

  4. Compromiso renal en pacientes HIV+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marta Pernasetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Varias complicaciones nefrológicas pueden ocurrir durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV especialmente en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad o relacionadas con otras infecciones o drogas. Poco conocida es la prevalencia de alteraciones renales subclínicas de pacientes HIV+ surgidas como complicación o relacionadas a la infección y/o tratamiento. Realizamos un corte transversal de pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ referidos en forma consecutiva al consultorio de nefrología para la detección de alteraciones nefrológicas. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes adultos mediante exámenes de sangre y orina, ultrasonido y biopsia renal. Edad media 39.9 ± 10.6 años, 88% varones, tiempo de diagnóstico de la infección: 53.2 ± 41.2 (2-127 meses. El 71% tenían síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (HIV-sida y el 77% recibían con antirretrovirales. La carga viral al momento del estudio fue 7043 ± 3322 copias y el recuento de CD4+ 484 ± 39 cel/mm³. El 30.7% presentó alteraciones del sedimento urinario: albuminuria: 16.6%, hematuria microscópica: 11.5%, hipercalciuria: 10.8% y cristaluria 6%. La media del filtrado glomerular fue 102.2 ± 22.9 ml/min (rango: 34-149. El 41% presentó anormalidades que corresponderían a enfermedad renal crónica (estadios 1 a 3. Los pacientes con alteraciones tenían mayor edad, con duración más prolongada de la infección. Las anomalías renales no se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de HIV-sida. Dos pacientes fueron biopsiados, con hallazgos de nefritis túbulo-intersticial crónica con cristales y glomerulonefritis por IgA. No hubo hallazgos de nefropatía por HIV. El amplio espectro y la alta prevalencia de anormalidades nefrológicas subclínicas encontradas sugieren que los pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ deberían realizar evaluaciones nefrológicas de rutina.

  5. Creating an African HIV clinical research and prevention trials network: HIV prevalence, incidence and transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Kamali

    Full Text Available HIV epidemiology informs prevention trial design and program planning. Nine clinical research centers (CRC in sub-Saharan Africa conducted HIV observational epidemiology studies in populations at risk for HIV infection as part of an HIV prevention and vaccine trial network. Annual HIV incidence ranged from below 2% to above 10% and varied by CRC and risk group, with rates above 5% observed in Zambian men in an HIV-discordant relationship, Ugandan men from Lake Victoria fishing communities, men who have sex with men, and several cohorts of women. HIV incidence tended to fall after the first three months in the study and over calendar time. Among suspected transmission pairs, 28% of HIV infections were not from the reported partner. Volunteers with high incidence were successfully identified and enrolled into large scale cohort studies. Over a quarter of new cases in couples acquired infection from persons other than the suspected transmitting partner.

  6. Intimate partner violence, consenting to HIV testing and HIV status among Zambian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W

    2016-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population.

  7. Social protection: potential for improving HIV outcomes among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, Lucie D; Hodes, Rebecca J; Lorraine Sherr; Mark Orkin, F; Franziska Meinck; Patricia Lim Ah Ken; Winder-Rossi, Natalia E; Jason Wolfe; Marissa Vicari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Advances in biomedical technologies provide potential for adolescent HIV prevention and HIV-positive survival. The UNAIDS 90–90–90 treatment targets provide a new roadmap for ending the HIV epidemic, principally through antiretroviral treatment, HIV testing and viral suppression among people with HIV. However, while imperative, HIV treatment and testing will not be sufficient to address the epidemic among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa. In particular, use of condoms ...

  8. The cascade of HIV care in Russia, 2011–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia Pokrovskaya; Anna Popova; Natalia Ladnaya; Oleg Yurin

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The cascade of HIV care is one of the main tools to assess the individual and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and identify barriers of treatment as prevention (TasP) concept realization. We aimed to characterize the changes in engagement of HIV-positive persons in care in Russia during three years (2011–2013). Methods: We defined seven steps in the cascade of care framework: HIV infected (estimation data), HIV diagnosed, linked to HIV care, retained in HIV...

  9. The HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba: description and tentative explanation of its low HIV prevalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémençon Stéphan

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cuban HIV/AIDS epidemic has the lowest prevalence rate of the Caribbean region. The objective of this paper is to give an overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Cuba and to explore the reasons for this low prevalence. Methods Data were obtained from the Cuban HIV/AIDS programme established in 1983. This programme has an extensive adult HIV testing policy, including testing of all pregnant women. HIV and AIDS cases have been recorded since 1986. Persons found to be HIV-positive are interviewed on their sexual behaviour and partners. Tracing and voluntary testing of these partners are organised. Epidemiological description of this epidemic was obtained from analysis of this data set. Using elementary mathematical analyses, we estimated the coverage of the detection system (percentage of HIV-positive adults detected and the average period between HIV infection and detection. Estimated HIV prevalence rates were corrected to account for the coverage. Results HIV prevalence has increased since 1996. In 2005, the prevalence among pregnant women was 1.2 per 10,000 (16/137000. Estimated HIV prevalence among 15- to 49-year-olds was 8.1 per 10,000 (4913/6065000; 95%CI: 7.9 per 10,000 – 8.3 per 10,000. Most (77% of the HIV-positive adults were men, most (85.1% of the detected HIV-positive men were reported as having sex with men (MSM, and most of the HIV-positive women reported having had sex with MSM. The average period between HIV infection and detection was estimated to be 2.1 years (IQR = 1.7 – 2.2 years. We estimated that, for the year 2005, 79.6% (IQR: 77.3 – 81.4% of the HIV-positive persons were detected. Conclusion MSM drive the HIV epidemic in Cuba. The extensive HIV testing policy may be an important factor in explaining the low HIV prevalence. To reduce the HIV epidemic in Cuba, the epidemic among MSM should be addressed. To understand this epidemic further, data on sexual behaviour should be collected. Now that

  10. Prevalence and characteristics of HIV/HBV and HIV/HCV coinfections in Tuscany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monia Puglia

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Worldwide about 30% of HIV-infected patients are coinfected with HCV or HBV. The HIV/HCV coinfection is more common in individuals who have a history of drug addiction. The aims of this study were to assess the HCV and HBV prevalence in HIV-infected patients and analyze their characteristics. Methods We considered the new HIV diagnoses notified by the regional surveillance system of Tuscany from 2009 to 2013. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the socio-demographic characteristics, routes of transmission, and reason to perform the test. In coinfected patients we assessed the risk for being late presenter (LP or the risk of having AIDS. Results In 5 years of surveillance a total of 1354 new HIV diagnoses were notified: 1188 (87.7% were HIV alone, 106 (7.8% HIV/HCV, 56 (4.1% HIV/HBV, and 4 (0.33% HIV/HCV/HBV. The main risk factor was injection drug use in 52.8% of HCV/HIV cases, while in HIV/HBV patients the main risk factor was sexual exposure. HIV/HBV coinfected patients showed worse clinical and immunological features than HIV and HIV/HCV patients: 78.6% had CD4 count less than 350 mm−3 (vs. 54.6% and 62.1%, respectively and 39.4% had AIDS (vs 20.7% and 7.6%. The risk for being LP triples for HIV/HBV (OR 2.98; 95% IC: 1.56–5.70 than patients with HIV alone. Conclusions We have observed less advanced disease in HIV and HCV-HIV patients compared with HBV–HIV coinfected patients. Moreover, our results show a higher prevalence of HIV/HCV among drug addicts and in the age-group 35–59, corresponding to those born in years considered most at risk for addiction. This study also confirms the finding of a less advanced HIV disease in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

  11. Determining the frequency and mechanisms of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA copackaging by single-virion analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilley, Kari A; Ni, Na; Nikolaitchik, Olga A;

    2011-01-01

    HIV-1 and HIV-2 are derived from two distinct primate viruses and share only limited sequence identity. Despite this, HIV-1 and HIV-2 Gag polyproteins can coassemble into the same particle and their genomes can undergo recombination, albeit at an extremely low frequency, implying that HIV-1 and HIV......-2 RNA can be copackaged into the same particle. To determine the frequency of HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA copackaging and to dissect the mechanisms that allow the heterologous RNA copackaging, we directly visualized the RNA content of each particle by using RNA-binding proteins tagged with fluorescent...... proteins to label the viral genomes. We found that when HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNA are present in viral particles at similar ratios, ∼10% of the viral particles encapsidate both HIV-1 and HIV-2 RNAs. Furthermore, heterologous RNA copackaging can be promoted by mutating the 6-nucleotide (6-nt) dimer initiation...

  12. Relationship between HIV Stigma and Self-Isolation among People Living with HIV in Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Audet, Carolyn M; McGowan, Catherine C.; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Kipp, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: HIV stigma is a contributing factor to poor patient outcomes. Although HIV stigma has been documented, its impact on patient well-being in the southern US is not well understood. METHODS: Thirty-two adults participated in cognitive interviews after completing the Berger HIV or the Van Rie stigma scale. Participant responses were probed to ensure the scales accurately measured stigma and to assess the impact stigma had on behavior. RESULTS: Three main themes emerged regarding HIV...

  13. Kinetic studies of HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein-mediated fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doms Robert W

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env-mediated fusion is driven by the concerted coalescence of the HIV gp41 N-helical and C-helical regions, which results in the formation of 6 helix bundles. Kinetics of HIV Env-mediated fusion is an important determinant of sensitivity to entry inhibitors and antibodies. However, the parameters that govern the HIV Env fusion cascade have yet to be fully elucidated. We address this issue by comparing the kinetics HIV-1IIIB Env with those mediated by HIV-2 from two strains with different affinities for CD4 and CXCR4. Results HIV-1 and HIV-2 Env-mediated cell fusion occurred with half times of about 60 and 30 min, respectively. Binding experiments of soluble HIV gp120 proteins to CD4 and co-receptor did not correlate with the differences in kinetics of fusion mediated by the three different HIV Envs. However, escape from inhibition by reagents that block gp120-CD4 binding, CD4-induced CXCR4 binding and 6-helix bundle formation, respectively, indicated large difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 envelope glycoproteins in their CD4-induced rates of engagement with CXCR4. Conclusion The HIV-2 Env proteins studied here exhibited a significantly reduced window of time between the engagement of gp120 with CD4 and exposure of the CXCR4 binding site on gp120 as compared with HIV-1IIIB Env. The efficiency with which HIV-2 Env undergoes this CD4-induced conformational change is the major cause of the relatively rapid rate of HIV-2 Env mediated-fusion.

  14. A systematic review of measures of HIV/AIDS stigma in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAteer, Carole Ian; Truong, Nhan-Ai Thi; Aluoch, Josephine; Deathe, Andrew Roland; Nyandiko, Winstone M; Marete, Irene; Vreeman, Rachel Christine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV-related stigma impacts the quality of life and care management of HIV-infected and HIV-affected individuals, but how we measure stigma and its impact on children and adolescents has less often been described. Methods We conducted a systematic review of studies that measured HIV-related stigma with a quantitative tool in paediatric HIV-infected and HIV-affected populations. Results and discussion Varying measures have been used to assess stigma in paediatric populations, with most studies utilizing the full or variant form of the HIV Stigma Scale that has been validated in adult populations and utilized with paediatric populations in Africa, Asia and the United States. Other common measures included the Perceived Public Stigma Against Children Affected by HIV, primarily utilized and validated in China. Few studies implored item validation techniques with the population of interest, although scales were used in a different cultural context from the origin of the scale. Conclusions Many stigma measures have been used to assess HIV stigma in paediatric populations, globally, but few have implored methods for cultural adaptation and content validity. PMID:27717409

  15. Sequencing of Gag/Env association with HIV genotyping resolution and HIV-related epidemiologic studies of HIV in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, L; Wang, H W; Xu, Y; Feng, Y; Zhang, H F; Wang, K H

    2016-10-24

    HIV genotyping has led to conflicting results between laboratories. Therefore, identifying the most accurate gene combinations to sequence remains a priority. Datasets of Chinese HIV subtypes based on several markers and deposited in PubMed, Metstr, CNKI, and VIP databases between 2000 and 2015 were studied. In total, 9177 cases of amplification-positive samples from 26 provinces of China were collected and used to classify HIV subtypes based on eight individual genes or a combination thereof. CRF01_AE, CRF07_BC, CRF08_BC and B were the prevalent HIV subtypes in China, accounting for 84.07% of all genotypes. Gag/Env sequencing classified a greater number of HIV subtypes compared to other genes or combination of gene fragments. The geographical distribution of Gag and Gag/Env genotypes was similar to that observed with all genetic markers. Further principal component analysis showed a significantly different geographical distribution pattern of HIV in China for HIV genotypes detected with Gag/Env, which was in line with the distribution of all HIV genotypes in China. Gag/Env sequences had the highest diversity of the eight markers studied, followed by Gag and Gag/Pol/Env; Pol/Env polymorphisms were the least divergent. Gag/Env can serve as a high-resolution marker for HIV genotyping.

  16. HIV/AIDS, Globalizacao e Seguranca Ontológica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security......HIV/AIDS, Entertainment-Education, Communication for Development, Migration, Ontological Security...

  17. Characteristics of HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 Dually Seropositive Adults in West Africa Presenting for Care and Antiretroviral Therapy: The IeDEA-West Africa HIV-2 Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekouevi, Didier K; Coffie, Patrick A.; Eugene Messou; Adrien Sawadogo; Eholie, Serge P.; Djimon Marcel Zannou; Carin Ahouada; Jocelyn Akakpo; Christelle Ahomadegbé; Jules Bashi; Alice Gougounon-Houéto; Angèle Azon-Kouanou; Fabien Houngbé; Sikiratou Koumakpaï; Florence Alihonou

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-2 is endemic in West Africa. There is a lack of evidence-based guidelines on the diagnosis, management and antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-2 or HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. Because of these issues, we designed a West African collaborative cohort for HIV-2 infection within the framework of the International epidemiological Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA). Methods We collected data on all HIV-2 and HIV-1/HIV-2 dually seropositive patients (both ARV-naive and starting ART)...

  18. Group Intervention to Reduce HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among Persons Living With HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Rompa, David; Cage, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    Results of a randomized controlled trial show that a behavioral intervention grounded in social cognitive theory reduces unprotected sexual behaviors among men and women living with HIV infection, with the greatest reductions in HIV transmission risk behaviors occurring with non-HIV-positive sex partners. In this article, the authors describe the…

  19. HIV Care in the Swedish-Danish HIV Cohort 1995-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Häggblom, Amanda; Sönnerborg, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Successful treatment reduces morbidity, mortality and transmission of HIV. We evaluated trends in the treatment status of HIV infected individuals enrolled in care in Sweden and Denmark during the years 1995-2010. Our aim was to assess the proportion of HIV-infected individuals who received...

  20. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  1. Ending the Global HIV/AIDS Pandemic: The Critical Role of an HIV Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauci, Anthony S.; Folkers, Gregory K.; Marston, Hilary D.

    2014-01-01

    While the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic continues, the incidence of HIV infections has fallen because of the deployment of antiretroviral drugs and multiple prevention modalities. To achieve a durable end to the pandemic, a vaccine remains essential. Recent advances in vaccinology offer new promise for an effective HIV vaccine. PMID:25151483

  2. CD4 Cell Counts at HIV Diagnosis among HIV Outpatient Study Participants, 2000–2009

    OpenAIRE

    Kate Buchacz; Carl Armon; Palella, Frank J.; Rose K. Baker; Ellen Tedaldi; Durham, Marcus D.; Brooks, John T.

    2012-01-01

    Background. It is unclear if CD4 cell counts at HIV diagnosis have improved over a 10-year period of expanded HIV testing in the USA. Methods. We studied HOPS participants diagnosed with HIV infection ≤6 months prior to entry into care during 2000–2009. We assessed the correlates of CD4 count

  3. Frequency of HIV Screening in the Veterans Health Administration: Implications for Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiserri, Ronald O.; Rodriguez, Fred; Holodniy, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency of HIV testing across the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the largest provider of HIV care in the United States. An electronic survey was used to determine the volume and location of HIV screening, confirmatory testing, rapid testing and laboratory consent policies in VA medical centers between October 1, 2005, and…

  4. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  5. Applying HIV testing guidelines in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Megan R; Fogler, Jess; Weber, Shannon; Goldschmidt, Ronald H

    2009-12-15

    An estimated one fourth of persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are not aware they are infected. Early diagnosis of HIV has the potential to ensure optimal outcomes for infected persons and to limit the spread of the virus. Important barriers to testing among physicians include insufficient time, reimbursement issues, and lack of patient acceptance. Current HIV testing guidelines address many of these barriers by making the testing process more streamlined and less stigmatizing. The opt-out consent process has been shown to improve test acceptance. Formal pretest counseling and written consent are no longer recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Nevertheless, pretest discussions provide an opportunity to give information about HIV, address fears of discrimination, and identify ongoing high-risk activities. With increased HIV screening in the primary care setting, more persons with HIV could be identified earlier, receive timely and appropriate care, and get treatment to prevent clinical progression and transmission.

  6. HIV:The Virus%HIV病毒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew Lever; 张宏伟

    2004-01-01

    HIV-1和HIV-2是反转录病毒科慢病毒属的成员。本属病毒可感染猫、马、山羊和绵羊,表现为慢性感染,在某些情况下导致免疫缺陷。与其关系最近的是猴免疫缺陷病毒(SIV),HIV-1可能通过种间交叉传播从黑猩猩病毒(SIVcpz)传给人类,而HIV-2可能单独来源于白眉乌猴(SIVsm),因此,HIV-1和HIV-2

  7. Vertikal smitte med hiv i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvinesdal, Birgit Bak; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Herlin, Troels

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vertical transmission of HIV can be reduced if the pregnant woman and new born child receive antiretroviral treatment. Delivery by caesarean section and avoidance of breast feeding further reduce vertical transmission. The aim of this study was to describe the treatment of HIV......-positive pregnant women in Denmark and the risk of vertical transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively describe the risk of vertical transmission of HIV among HIV-positive women giving birth in Denmark during the period, mid-1994 to February 2000. RESULTS: Fifty children were born. One mother gave birth...... mothers was the HIV-infection known until the time of delivery or later. Transmission of HIV did not occur in the 34 mother-child pairs who received antepartum and intrapartum antiretroviral treatment, who had a caesarean delivery, who did not breast-feed, and whose children were given postpartum...

  8. HIV and schistosomiasis in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian Ranzi; Zinyama-Gutsire, Rutendo; Kallestrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vitamin A has widespread effects on immune function and is therefore interesting in HIV-infection. Retinol-binding protein (RBP or RBP4) is a negative acute-phase protein and a marker of vitamin A status. Our aim was to investigate the association of RBP with HIV progression, infection...... with schistosomiasis, inflammatory cytokines, and mortality. METHODS: The study included 192 HIV-infected and 177 HIV-uninfected individuals from Mupfure in rural Zimbabwe. Of these, 208 were infected with Schistosoma haematobium, 27 with S. mansoni and 48 with both. Plasma RBP, HIV-RNA, CD4 cell count, haemoglobin......, cytokines, clinical staging (CDC category), self-reported level of function (Karnoffsky Performance Score, KPS) and schistosomiasis status were assessed at baseline. Participants were followed up for survival 3-4 years post-enrolment. RESULTS: RBP levels were lower in HIV-infected individuals(p

  9. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...... scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  10. Effect of isoprinosine on HIV antigenaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Kroon, S; Sandström, E;

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of isoprinosine on HIV-antigen expression in HIV-positive patients without AIDS. DESIGN: Serum samples from anti-HIV-positive patients without AIDS participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of isoprinosine...... in the treatment of HIV infection were analysed for the presence of HIV antigen. SETTING: Data and samples were collected from the 21 medical centres who participated in the Scandinavian multicentre placebo-controlled isoprinosine study. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Samples were available from 19 of 21 participating...... centres. Of 866 patients who enrolled, baseline serum samples were available for 642 (74%; 308 isoprinosine- and 334 placebo-treated patients). INTERVENTIONS: Treatment was 1 g isoprinosine administered orally three times a day or matching placebo for 24 weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of HIV...

  11. [Stroke in HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lino, Ireneia; Sousa, António; Correia, José

    2007-01-01

    The spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) is changing. New drug treatments have reduced morbidity and mortality of this disease, therefore it is necessary to start treating the HIV infection as a chronical disease. The association of the stroke with the HIV infection was inicially thought to be a result of other opportunistic infeccions and tumors. However, the vascular disease associated with HIV infection has been a subject of research and debate. New evidence shows that the vascular diseases could be a threat for the pacients doing highly active antirretroviral therapy (HAART). In this paper, we review the association between the HIV infection and stroke. Furthermore, we have done an analysis of the risk for the stroke on pacients with HIV infection considering the changes of the infection spectrum by the introduction of HAART.

  12. Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV Eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-02-01

    Passive transfer of antibodies has long been considered a potential treatment modality for infectious diseases, including HIV. Early efforts to use antibodies to suppress HIV replication, however, were largely unsuccessful, as the antibodies that were studied neutralized only a relatively narrow spectrum of viral strains and were not very potent. Recent advances have led to the discovery of a large portfolio of human monoclonal antibodies that are broadly neutralizing across many HIV-1 subtypes and are also substantially more potent. These antibodies target multiple different epitopes on the HIV envelope, thus allowing for the development of antibody combinations. In this review, we discuss the application of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) for HIV treatment and HIV eradication strategies. We highlight bNAbs that target key epitopes, such as the CD4 binding site and the V2/V3-glycan-dependent sites, and we discuss several bNAbs that are currently in the clinical development pipeline.

  13. Nursing Care of HIV-Positive Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ben; Martinsen, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Abstract --Living with HIV seems to be more stressful for women than men. Women exhibit higher levels of depression, lower levels of well-being and lower quality of life than HIVinfected men do. The aim of the review is to provide a comprehensive gender specific knowledge about the emotional...... challenges HIV infected women face in their daily lives. Across all articles one theme that emerged was the challenges about the social environment after being diagnosed with HIV. Three identified show what challenges women with HIV are facing in relation to employment, in relation to other people and a fear...... of stigma. Another theme that emerged was the challenges of different coping mechanisms. There was an evolution in how an HIV diagnosis had affected women´s lives and their ability to cope with their diagnoses. Three identified subthemes show what challenges women with HIV are facing in relation to aiming...

  14. Psychometric properties of a short version of the HIV stigma scale, adapted for children with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapte...

  15. Psychometric properties of a short version of the HIV stigma scale, adapted for children with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklander, M.; Rydström, L.-L.; Ygge, B.-M.; Navér, L.; Wettergren, L.; Eriksson, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapt...

  16. Perceived HIV-associated stigma among HIV-seropositive men: psychometric study of HIV stigma scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eValle

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the internal consistency and factor structure of the abridged Spanish version of the Berger HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-21, provide evidence for its convergent and discriminant validity, and describe perceived stigma in an urban population from northeast Mexico. Methods: Seventy five HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM were recruited. Participants answered the Spanish versions of three Likert-type scales: HSS-21, Robsenberg’s self-esteem scale, and the abbreviated version of the Zung’s Depression Scale.Results: HSS-21 showed high reliability and validity; its factor structure included four components: concern with public attitudes; negative self-image; disclosure concerns; and enacted stigma. The level of stigma was high in 27 out of 75 (36% participants; nevertheless, the score found in the component related to disclosure concerns indicated high level of stigma in 68% of participants. The score of HSS-21 was positively correlated with the score of depression and negatively correlated with the score of self-esteem. Conclusion: Results demonstrated high reliability for the HSS-21; correlations with other scales supported its validity. This scale demonstrated to be a practical tool for assessing stigma among Mexican HIV-positive MSM. High level of stigma was found only in the factor related to disclosure concerns. Policy Implications: Identifying HIV-associated stigma through a short, reliable and validated instrument will allow the development of interventions that cope and manage stigma in HIV-positive MSM. HSS-21 distinguishes between different dimensions of stigma and will contribute to a better understanding of this phenomenon.

  17. HIV and Injection Drug Use PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-11-29

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the December 2016 CDC Vital Signs report. Sharing needles, syringes, and other injection equipment puts you at risk for getting HIV and other infections, including hepatitis. Learn how to reduce your HIV risk.  Created: 11/29/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, Sexual Transmitted Diseases and Tuberculosis Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 11/29/2016.

  18. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  19. Tuberculosis screening in patients with HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Stephanie; Bonsu, Frank; Hanson-Nortey, Nii Nortey

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis screening of people living with HIV (PLHIV) can contribute to early tuberculosis diagnosis and improved patient outcomes. Evidence-based guidelines for tuberculosis screening are available, but literature assessing their implementation and the quality of clinical practice...... is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To assess tuberculosis screening practices and the effectiveness of audit and performance feedback to improve quality of tuberculosis screening at HIV care clinics in Ghana. DESIGN: Healthcare providers at 10 large HIV care clinics prospectively registered patient consultations during...

  20. Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Ananworanich Jintanat; Lakhonphon Sudrak; Kancheva Landolt Nadia T

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sexual behavior of HIV-positive youths, whether infected perinatally, through risky behavior or other ways, is not substantially different from that of HIV-uninfected peers. Because of highly active antiretroviral therapy, increasing number of children, infected perinatally, are surviving into adolescence and are becoming sexually active and need reproductive health services. The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolesce...

  1. Smoking, HIV, and risk of pregnancy loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreich, Daniel; Cates, Jordan; Cohen, Mardge; Weber, Kathleen M.; Seidman, Dominika; Cropsey, Karen; Wright, Rodney; Milam, Joel; Young, Mary A.; Mehta, C. Christina; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Fischl, Margaret A.; Adimora, Adaora A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy increases risks of poor pregnancy outcomes including miscarriage and stillbirth (pregnancy loss), but the effect of smoking on pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women has not been explored. Here, investigated the impact of smoking on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, and estimated the potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions on risk of pregnancy loss among HIV-positive women. Design: We analyzed pregnancy outcomes in HIV-positive and HIV-negative participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2014. Methods: We estimated effects of current smoking at or immediately before pregnancy on pregnancy loss; we controlled for confounding using regression approaches, and estimated potential impact of realistic smoking cessation interventions using a semiparametric g-formula approach. Results: Analysis examined 1033 pregnancies among 659 women. The effect of smoking on pregnancy loss differed dramatically by HIV status: adjusted for confounding, the risk difference comparing current smokers to current nonsmokers was 19.2% (95% confidence limit 10.9–27.5%) in HIV-positive women and 9.7% (95% confidence limit 0.0–19.4%) in HIV-negative women. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. We estimated that we would need to offer a realistic smoking cessation intervention to 36 women to prevent one pregnancy loss. Conclusion: Smoking is a highly prevalent exposure with important consequences for pregnancy in HIV-positive pregnant women in the United States, even in the presence of potent highly active antiretroviral therapy. This evidence supports greater efforts to promote smoking cessation interventions among HIV-positive women, especially those who desire to become pregnant. PMID:27902507

  2. Transmission of HIV in dialysis centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velandia, M; Fridkin, S K; Cárdenas, V; Boshell, J; Ramirez, G; Bland, L; Iglesias, A; Jarvis, W

    1995-06-01

    In August, 1993, 13 dialysis patients at one dialysis centre in Colombia, South America, were found to be HIV positive, and this prompted an epidemiological investigation. We carried out a cohort study of all dialysis centre patients during January, 1992 to December, 1993 (epidemic period) to determine risk factors for HIV seroconversion. Haemodialysis and medical records were reviewed, dialysis centre staff and surviving patients were interviewed, and dialysis practices were observed. Stored sera from all dialysis centre patients were tested for HIV antibody. 12 (52%) of 23 patients tested positive for HIV antibody by enzyme immunoassay and western blot during the epidemic period. Of the 23 tested, 9 (39%) converted from HIV antibody negative to positive (seroconverters) and 10 (44%) remained HIV negative (seronegatives). The HIV seroconversion rate was higher among patients dialysed at the centre while a new patient, who was HIV seropositive, was dialysed there (90% vs 0%; p dialysis centre reprocessed access needles, dialysers, and bloodlines (60% vs 0%). While 2 of 9 HIV seroconverters had had sex with prostitutes, none had received unscreened blood products or had other HIV risk factors. No surgical or dental procedures were associated with HIV seroconversion. Dialysers were reprocessed separately with 5% formaldehyde and were labelled for use on the same patient. Access needles were reprocessed by soaking them in a common container with a low-level disinfectant, benzalkonium chloride; 4 pairs of needles were placed in one pan creating the potential for cross-contamination or use of one patient's needles on another patient. HIV transmission at the dialysis centre was confirmed. Improperly reprocessed patient-care equipment, most probably access needles, is the likely mechanism of transmission. This outbreak was discovered by accident and similar transmission may be occurring in many other countries where low-level disinfectants are used to sterilise critical

  3. A BLUEPRINT FOR HIV VACCINE DISCOVERY

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Dennis R.; Ahmed, Rafi; Barouch, Dan H.; Butera, Salvatore T; Crotty, Shane; Godzik, Adam; Daniel E. Kaufmann; McElrath, M. Juliana; Nussenzweig, Michel C.; Pulendran, Bali; Scanlan, Chris N.; Schief, William R.; Silvestri, Guido; Streeck, Hendrik; Walker, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Despite numerous attempts over many years to develop an HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. A number of approaches are being pursued in the field, including building upon possible efficacy indicated by the recent RV144 clinical trial, which combined two HIV vaccines. Here, we argue for an approach based, in part, on understanding the HIV envelope spike and its interaction with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) at the molecular level and us...

  4. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co

  5. Metabolic Disorders in Patients with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Radu Florentina; Jipa Raluca Elena; Rusu Emilia; Cursaru Raluca; Drăguţ Ramona; Stegaru Daniela; Gheorghiţă Andra Gabriela; Radulian Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and subsequent antiretroviral therapy (ART) are known to be related to different metabolic disorders. Although ART decreased HIV-associated mortality and morbidity, mortality rates in patients with HIV and ART are 3 to 15 higher than those in the general population. More than 50% of the mortality is due to diseases like: diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic renal disease and complications following bone fract...

  6. Drawing conceptual linkages: property rights and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Priya

    2008-12-01

    An understanding of the impact of HIV/AIDS epidemic on broader social development necessitates a closer scrutiny of the relationship between HIV/AIDS and economic productivity. In this article, which is based on her presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Priya Nanda describes the relationship between the widespread exclusion in developing countries of land ownership by women and their vulnerability to HIV and the effects of HIV. The author calls for more research on the complexity and diversity of land tenure systems and property laws.

  7. National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    In observance of National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about the HIV/AIDS among African Americans and what steps can be taken on the national, state, local, and individual levels to address this epidemic.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  8. Protecting Yourself and Your Partners from HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, provides individuals with steps they can take to protect their health from HIV. This podcast was created for National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day, which takes place on February 7.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  9. HIV Testing by Black MSM in Toronto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemon George

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surveillance data suggest that Black men who have sex with men (MSM in Canada contribute to a higher than expected percentage of new HIV diagnoses. HIV testing is an important part of the HIV reduction strategy in Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada recommends HIV testing as a component of periodic routine medical care. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Black MSM in Toronto to determine the factors associated with HIV testing. One hundred sixty-five men were recruited and completed a self-administrative questionnaire. The majority of men identified as gay/homosexual. Lifetime history of HIV testing was reported at 85%, of whom 50% had tested within the last 6 months. Self-reported HIV seroprevalence was 24%. In logistic regression, variables associated with ever testing for HIV were “having friends or family with HIV” and “regularly attending religious services.” Although HIV testing appears to be common among Black MSM in Canada, young Canadian-born men were less likely to test. This observation highlights the need to examine place of birth when tailoring health interventions for Black MSM.

  10. HIV-1 Latency in Monocytes/Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 targets CD4+ T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4+ T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Monocyte/macrophage lineage includes among others, monocytes, macrophages and brain resident macrophages. These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. Much effort has been made in the direction of eliminating HIV-1 resting CD4+ T-cell reservoirs. However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. In this review we will describe our current understanding of the mechanism of latency in monocyte/macrophage lineage and how such cells can be specifically eliminated from the infected host.

  11. HIV Diagnosis and Treatment through Advanced Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfiqar, Hafiza Fizzah; Javed, Aneeqa; Sumbal; Afroze, Bakht; Ali, Qurban; Akbar, Khadija; Nadeem, Tariq; Rana, Muhammad Adeel; Nazar, Zaheer Ahmad; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the chief contributor to global burden of disease. In 2010, HIV was the fifth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years in people of all ages and leading cause for people aged 30–44 years. It is classified as a member of the family Retroviridae and genus Lentivirus based on the biological, morphological, and genetic properties. It infects different cells of the immune system, such as CD4+ T cells (T-helper cells), dendritic cells, and macrophages. HIV has two subtypes: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among these strains, HIV-1 is the most virulent and pathogenic. Advanced diagnostic methods are exploring new ways of treatment and contributing in the reduction of HIV cases. The diagnostic techniques like PCR, rapid test, EIA, p24 antigen, and western blot have markedly upgraded the diagnosis of HIV. Antiretroviral therapy and vaccines are promising candidates in providing therapeutic and preventive regimes, respectively. Invention of CRISPR/Cas9 is a breakthrough in the field of HIV disease management. PMID:28326304

  12. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose G; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97) were female (n=51) and male (n=46). At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. PMID:25540597

  13. Metabolic Disorders in Patients with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Florentina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and subsequent antiretroviral therapy (ART are known to be related to different metabolic disorders. Although ART decreased HIV-associated mortality and morbidity, mortality rates in patients with HIV and ART are 3 to 15 higher than those in the general population. More than 50% of the mortality is due to diseases like: diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases (CVD, chronic renal disease and complications following bone fractures. In patients with HIV the metabolic disorders are mainly caused by mithocondrial toxicity, a side effect of ART, and they are represented by: dyslipidemia, lipoatrophy, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus.

  14. Relationship characteristics and HIV transmission risk in same-sex male couples in HIV serodiscordant relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O

    2014-01-01

    Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care.

  15. Comparing Measures of Late HIV Diagnosis in Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Saganic

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As more US HIV surveillance programs routinely use late HIV diagnosis to monitor and characterize HIV testing patterns, there is an increasing need to standardize how late HIV diagnosis is measured. In this study, we compared two measures of late HIV diagnosis, one based on time between HIV and AIDS, the other based on initial CD4+ results. Using data from Washington's HIV/AIDS Reporting System, we used multivariate logistic regression to identify predictors of late HIV diagnosis. We also conducted tests for trend to determine whether the proportion of cases diagnosed late has changed over time. Both measures lead us to similar conclusions about late HIV diagnosis, suggesting that being male, older, foreign-born, or heterosexual increase the likelihood of late HIV diagnosis. Our findings reaffirm the validity of a time-based definition of late HIV diagnosis, while at the same time demonstrating the potential value of a lab-based measure.

  16. Renal transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients justified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2012-03-02

    HIV infection was previously an absolute contraindication to renal transplantation. However, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), renal transplantation using HIV-negative donor kidneys has successfully been employed for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal failure. In resource-limited countries, places on dialysis programmes are severely restricted; HIV-infected patients, like many others with co-morbidity, are often denied treatment. Kidneys (and other organs) from HIV-infected deceased donors are discarded. The transplantation of HIV-positive donor kidneys to HIV-infected recipients is now a viable alternative to chronic dialysis or transplantation of HIV-negative donor kidneys. This significantly increases the pool of donor kidneys to the advantage of HIV-positive and -negative patients. Arguments are presented that led to our initiation of renal transplantation from HIV-positive deceased donors to HIV-positive recipients at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town.

  17. HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among newly diagnosed HIV-1 individuals in Hebei, a low HIV prevalence province in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinli; Kang, Xianjiang; Liu, Yongjian; Cui, Ze; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Cuiying; Li, Yan; Chen, Suliang; Li, Jingyun; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhao, Hongru

    2017-01-01

    New human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diagnoses are increasing rapidly in Hebei. The aim of this study presents the most extensive HIV-1 molecular epidemiology investigation in Hebei province in China thus far. We have carried out the most extensive systematic cross-sectional study based on newly diagnosed HIV-1 positive individuals in 2013, and characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequences in the whole of Hebei. Nine HIV-1 genotypes based on full length gag-partial pol gene sequence were identified among 610 newly diagnosed naïve individuals. The four main genotypes were circulating recombinant form (CRF)01_AE (53.4%), CRF07_BC (23.4%), subtype B (15.9%), and unique recombinant forms URFs (4.9%). Within 1 year, three new genotypes (subtype A1, CRF55_01B, CRF65_cpx), unknown before in Hebei, were first found among men who have sex with men (MSM). All nine genotypes were identified in the sexually contracted HIV-1 population. Among 30 URFs, six recombinant patterns were revealed, including CRF01_AE/BC (40.0%), CRF01_AE/B (23.3%), B/C (16.7%), CRF01_AE/C (13.3%), CRF01_AE/B/A2 (3.3%) and CRF01_AE/BC/A2 (3.3%), plus two potential CRFs. This study elucidated the complicated characteristics of HIV-1 molecular epidemiology in a low HIV-1 prevalence northern province of China and revealed the high level of HIV-1 genetic diversity. All nine HIV-1 genotypes circulating in Hebei have spread out of their initial risk groups into the general population through sexual contact, especially through MSM. This highlights the urgency of HIV prevention and control in China. PMID:28178737

  18. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  19. New HIV Testing Algorithm: Promising Tool in the Fight Against HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-21

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Phil Peters discusses the new HIV testing algorithm and how this latest technology can improve the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. Early detection of HIV is critical to saving lives, getting patients into treatment, and preventing transmission.  Created: 9/21/2016 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP).   Date Released: 9/21/2016.

  20. Comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis and mortality in persons infected and uninfected with HIV: a Danish population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV.......We aimed to estimate the impact of comorbidity acquired before HIV diagnosis on mortality in individuals infected with HIV....

  1. Detection of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients%HIV/AIDS患者精子中病毒核酸的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王典; 李练兵; 侯志伟; 谢庆东; 康祥锦; 黄天华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To detect the presence of HIV - 1 nucleic acid in spermatozoa of HIV/AIDS patients.Methods Spermatozoon samples of 33 HIV/AIDS patients were prepared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH ) ,in which biotinylated HIV gag and HIV pol were used as probes, was performed to detect HIV nucleic acid in spermatozoa. Results HIV nucleic acid was detected in spermatozoa of 9 patients( 27. 3% ). Conclusion These results further confirm the presence of HIV nucleic acid in sperm of HIV/AIDS patients and indicates that FISH is a sensitive and reliable method to detect the nucleic acid in sperm.%目的 检测HIV/AIDS患者精子中HIV核酸.方法 制备33例HIV/AIDS患者精子样本,采用荧光原位杂交(FISH),以生物素标记的HIV gag及 HIV pol作为双探针对这些患者精子进行HIV核酸检测.结果 在9例(27.3%)患者中检测到阳性荧光信号.结论 HIV/AIDS患者精子存有HIV核酸;FISH是一种检测HIV/AIDS患者精子病毒核酸灵敏而可靠的方法.

  2. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  3. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Khopkar Uday; Raj Sujata; Sukthankar Ashish; Kulkarni M; Wadhwa S

    1992-01-01

    HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chanc...

  4. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  5. HIV Replication at Low Copy Number and its Correlation with the HIV Reservoir: A Clinical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmati, Loredana; D'Ettorre, Gabriella; Parisi, Saverio Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy (antiretroviral therapy--ARV) is demonstrated by the high rates of viral suppression achieved in most treated HIV patients. Whereas contemporary treatments may continuously suppress HIV replication, they do not eliminate the latent reservoir, which can reactivate HIV infection if ARV is discontinued. The persistence of HIV proviral DNA and infectious viruses in CD4+ T cells and others cells has long been considered a major obstacle in eradicating the HIV virus in treated patients. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated the persistence of HIV replication at low copies in most patients on suppressive ARV. The source of this 'residual viraemia' and whether it declines over years of therapy remain unknown. Similarly, little is known regarding the biological relationships between the HIV reservoir and viral replication at low copies. The question of whether this 'residual viraemia' represents active replication or the release of non-productive virus from the reservoir has not been adequately resolved. From a clinical perspective, both the quantification of the HIV reservoir and the detection of low levels of replication in full-responder patients on prolonged ARV may provide important information regarding the effectiveness of treatment and the eradication of HIV. To date, the monitoring of these two parameters has been conducted only for research purposes; the routine use of standardised tests procedure is lacking. This review aims to assess the current data regarding the correlation between HIV replication at low copies and the HIV reservoir and to provide useful information for clinicians.

  6. Broadly Neutralizing Anti-HIV Antibodies Prevent HIV Infection of Mucosal Tissue Ex Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Yanille M; Park, Seo Young; Dezzutti, Charlene S

    2016-02-01

    Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nAbs) specific for HIV are being investigated for use in HIV prevention. Due to their ability to inhibit HIV attachment to and entry into target cells, nAbs may be suitable for use as topical HIV microbicides. As such, they would present an alternative intervention for individuals who may not benefit from using antiretroviral-based products for HIV prevention. We theorize that nAbs can inhibit viral transmission through mucosal tissue, thus reducing the incidence of HIV infection. The efficacy of the PG9, PG16, VRC01, and 4E10 antibodies was evaluated in an ex vivo human model of mucosal HIV transmission. nAbs reduced HIV transmission, causing 1.5- to 2-log10 reductions in HIV replication in ectocervical tissues and ≈3-log10 reductions in HIV replication in colonic tissues over 21 days. These antibodies demonstrated greater potency in colonic tissues, with a 50-fold higher dose being required to reduce transmission in ectocervical tissues. Importantly, nAbs retained their potency and reduced viral transmission in the presence of whole semen. No changes in tissue viability or immune activation were observed in colonic or ectocervical tissue after nAb exposure. Our data suggest that topically applied nAbs are safe and effective against HIV infection of mucosal tissue and support further development of nAbs as a topical microbicide that could be used for anal as well as vaginal protection.

  7. Measuring stigma in people with HIV: psychometric assessment of the HIV stigma scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, B E; Ferrans, C E; Lashley, F R

    2001-12-01

    An instrument to measure the stigma perceived by people with HIV was developed based on the literature on stigma and psychosocial aspects of having HIV. Items surviving two rounds of content review were assembled in a booklet and distributed through HIV-related organizations across the United States. Psychometric analysis was performed on 318 questionnaires returned by people with HIV (19% women, 21% African American, 8% Hispanic). Four factors emerged from exploratory factor analysis: personalized stigma, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concern with public attitudes toward people with HIV. Extraction of one higher-order factor provided evidence of a single overall construct. Construct validity also was supported by relationships with related constructs: self-esteem, depression, social support, and social conflict. Coefficient alphas between .90 and .93 for the subscales and .96 for the 40-item instrument provided evidence of internal consistency reliability. The HIV Stigma Scale was reliable and valid with a large, diverse sample of people with HIV.

  8. Utility of Pooled HIV RNA RT-PCR Assay in Diagnosing Acute HIV Infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张麒; 蒋岩; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The P24 antigen test, HIV RNA PCR test,HIV isolation/culture and fourth-generation HIV uniform Ag/Ab assay are being utilized in diagnosing acute HIV infection in different labs. Many factors limit the use of screening for acute HIV in high-risk populations, in blood donors and during voluntary HIV testing, including, cost, technique, sensitivity and specificity. In this review we explore a new NAAT method which involves HIV RNA RT-PCR on pooled samples. This technique is able to screen for acute infections in a large testing volume and may he used as a screening method in high-risk populations and blood donors.

  9. Associations between HIV and schizophrenia and their effect on HIV treatment outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Pedersen, Marianne G; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Associations between HIV and schizophrenia in people with and without substance use disorders and the effect on timeliness of HIV diagnosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and treatment outcomes are poorly understood. We aimed to assess the association between HIV and schizophrenia...... and the effect on HIV treatment outcomes in people with and without substance use disorders. METHODS: We did a population-based cohort study with data from nationwide registries in Denmark to investigate the risk of schizophrenia after a diagnosis of HIV and the risk of HIV after a diagnosis of schizophrenia......, accounting for substance misuse, timeliness of HIV diagnosis, and treatment success in relation to schizophrenia. We selected the cohort from people born in Denmark between Jan 1, 1955, and Dec 31, 1995, who we followed up from their 16th birthday or Jan 1, 1995 (whichever occurred last) until their death...

  10. HIV, opiates, and enteric neuron dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galligan, J J

    2015-04-01

    Human immune deficient virus (HIV) is an immunosuppressive virus that targets CD4(+) T-lymphocytes. HIV infections cause increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancer. HIV infection can also alter central nervous system (CNS) function causing cognitive impairment. HIV does not infect neurons but it does infect astrocytes and microglia in the CNS. HIV can also infect enteric glia initiating an intestinal inflammatory response which causes enteric neural injury and gut dysfunction. Part of the inflammatory response is HIV induced production of proteins including, Transactivator of transcription (Tat) which contribute to neuronal injury after release from HIV infected glial cells. A risk factor for HIV infection is intravenous drug use with contaminated needles and chronic opiate use can exacerbate neural injury in the nervous system. While most research focuses on the actions of Tat and other HIV related proteins and opiates on the brain, recent data indicate that Tat can cause intestinal inflammation and disruption of enteric neuron function, including alteration of Na(+) channel activity and action potential generation. A paper published in this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility extends these findings by identifying an interaction between Tat and morphine on enteric neuron Na(+) channels and on intestinal motility in vivo using a Tat expressing transgenic mouse model. These new data show that Tat protein can enhance the inhibitory actions of morphine on action potential generation and propulsive motility. These findings are important to our understanding of how HIV causes diarrhea in infected patients and for the use of opioid drugs to treat HIV-induced diarrhea.

  11. The changing face of HIV vaccine research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Nabel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available While there has been remarkable progress in understanding the biology of HIV-1 and its recognition by the human immune system, we have not yet developed an efficacious HIV-1 vaccine. Vaccine challenges include the genetic diversity and mutability of HIV-1 which create a plethora of constantly changing antigens, the structural features of the viral envelope glycoprotein that disguise conserved receptor-binding sites from the immune system, and the presence of carbohydrate moieties that shield potential epitopes from antibodies. Despite these challenges, there has been significant scientific progress in recent years. In 2009, a large-scale clinical trial known as RV144 demonstrated that a HIV-1 vaccine could modestly reduce the incidence of HIV-1 infection. Further, the identification of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (such as VRC01, a human monoclonal antibody capable of neutralizing over 90% of natural HIV-1 isolates, as well as PG and PGT antibodies that recognize conserved glycopeptide epitopes has revealed new opportunities for vaccine design. Our ability to understand HIV-1 structure and antibody epitopes at the atomic level, the rapid advance of computational and bioinformatics approaches to immunogen design, and our newly acquired knowledge that it is possible for a vaccine to reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection, have all opened up new and promising pathways towards the development of an urgently needed effective HIV-1 vaccine. This article summarizes challenges to the development of an HIV-1 vaccine, lessons learned from scientific investigation and completed vaccine trials, and promising developments in HIV-1 vaccine design.

  12. Psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Serovich, Julianne M; Kimberly, Judy A; Hu, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Psychological reactance is defined as the drive to re-establish autonomy after it has been threatened or constrained. People living with HIV may have high levels of psychological reactance due to the restrictions that they may perceive as a result of living with HIV. People living with HIV may also exhibit levels of HIV-related stigma. The relationship between psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma is complex yet understudied. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the association between psychological reactance and HIV-related stigma among women living with HIV. Data were obtained from one time-point (a cross-sectional assessment) of a longitudinal HIV disclosure study. Psychological reactance was measured using the 18-item Questionnaire for the Measurement of Psychological Reactance. HIV-related stigma was measured using the HIV Stigma Scale, which has four domains: personalized, disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes. Principal component analysis was used to derive components of psychological reactance. Linear regression models were used to determine the association between overall psychological reactance and its components, and stigma and its four domains, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. The associations between stigma and mental health were also examined. Three components of psychological reactance were derived: Opposition, Irritability, and Independence. Overall psychological reactance and irritability were associated with all forms of stigma. Opposition was linked to overall and negative self-image stigma. Overall psychological reactance, opposition, and irritability were positively associated with anxiety symptoms while opposition was also associated with Centers for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression depressive symptoms. There were also positive associations between all forms of stigma, and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Health-care providers and counselors for women living with HIV

  13. Homosexual men in HIV serodiscordant relationships: implications for HIV treatment as prevention research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin R Bavinton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Studies in heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples have provided critical evidence on the role of HIV treatments in reducing HIV transmission risk. However, there are limited data regarding the effect of treatment on HIV transmission in homosexual male couples. We examined features of male homosexual HIV serodiscordant relationships that may impact upon the design of HIV treatment and transmission studies. Methods: Data were from a prospective cohort study of HIV-negative homosexual men in Sydney, Australia. Men were followed up with six-monthly interviews and annual testing for HIV. Characteristics of men in HIV serodiscordant and seroconcordant relationships at baseline were compared, and a longitudinal analysis performed of rate of relationship break-up and of HIV incidence. Results: At baseline, 5.5% of participants (n=79 had an HIV-positive partner. Most (80.8% of these relationships were non-monogamous, and 36.7% of men reported recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI with casual partners. The rate of relationship break-up was 29.5 per 100 person-years. Half of men in serodiscordant relationships (49.4% reported recent UAI with their regular partners. HIV incidence was 2.2 per 100 person-years. It was substantially higher in relationships of less than one year's duration (6.1 per 100 person-years and in men who reported unprotected receptive anal intercourse with ejaculation with their regular partners (15.5 per 100 person-years. Conclusions: Levels of HIV transmission risk and incidence were high, particularly in early relationships. Rates of relationship break-up were high. These data suggest that studies of HIV treatments and transmission in homosexual serodiscordant couples should focus on early relationships so as not to underestimate risk, and sample sizes must allow for high rates of relationship break-up.

  14. Evolution of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwers, L.; Pruyt, E.; Hens, L.; Brans, J.p.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics model to study the spread of HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. The HIV/AIDS model includes important feedback mechanisms of the spread of HIV/AIDS, and partly explains the dynamics of the epidemic in a representative Southern African country. The HIV/AIDS model indic

  15. Moral Agency and the Sexual Transmission of HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Ann; Wolitski, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual transmission of HIV occurs because an infected person has unprotected sex with a previously uninfected person. The majority of HIV infections are transmitted by individuals who are unaware of their infection, and most persons who are diagnosed with HIV significantly reduce or eliminate risk behaviors once they learn they have HIV. However,…

  16. Phylodynamic analysis of HIV sub-epidemics in Mochudi, Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Novitsky

    2015-12-01

    Real-time HIV genotyping and breaking down local HIV epidemics into phylogenetically distinct sub-epidemics may help to reveal the structure and dynamics of HIV transmission networks in communities, and aid in the design of targeted interventions for members of the acute sub-epidemics that likely fuel local HIV/AIDS epidemics.

  17. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  18. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection.

  19. Morbidity and risk of subsequent diagnosis of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.......Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis....

  20. How to Find HIV Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and insomnia than people without HIV. Read the AIDS info HIV and Mental Health fact sheet for more information. Below are some places to find mental health treatment services: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ...

  1. Novel Approaches to Inhibit HIV Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka A. Didigu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV entry into target cells is a multi-step process involving binding of the viral glycoprotein, Env, to its receptor CD4 and a coreceptor—either CCR5 or CXCR4. Understanding the means by which HIV enters cells has led to the identification of genetic polymorphisms, such as the 32 base-pair deletion in the ccr5 gene (ccr5∆32 that confers resistance to infection in homozygous individuals, and has also resulted in the development of entry inhibitors—small molecule antagonists that block infection at the entry step. The recent demonstration of long-term control of HIV infection in a leukemic patient following a hematopoietic stem cell transplant using cells from a ccr5∆32 homozygous donor highlights the important role of the HIV entry in maintaining an established infection and has led to a number of attempts to treat HIV infection by genetically modifying the ccr5 gene. In this review, we describe the HIV entry process and provide an overview of the different classes of approved HIV entry inhibitors while highlighting novel genetic strategies aimed at blocking HIV infection at the level of entry.

  2. Governmental policies on HIV infection in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie; SHEN; Dong; Bao; YU

    2005-01-01

    This article is a general review of the evolvement of HIV/AIDS-related public policies in China since 1980's. It tracks the important laws, regulations and other governmental documents in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention mainly at central level.

  3. TB Testing for People Living with HIV

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, explains why it is important for people living with HIV to be tested for TB.  Created: 7/23/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  4. Let's Stop HIV Together PSA (:30)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-16

    This public service announcement features 22 individuals who encourage others in the fight against HIV.  Created: 7/16/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 7/16/2012.

  5. Illusoorne HIV-vaba Eesti / Nastja Portsjonok

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Portsjonok, Nastja

    2011-01-01

    5. juunil 1981 diagnoositi maailmas esimest korda HIV. Eesti on kõige suurema HIV- juhtumite juurdekasvuga riik Euroopa Liidus. Autori hinnangul ei ole me suutnud ennetustööga viia üldist ühiskondlikku ruumi tasemele, mis muudaks vaba seksuaalkäitumise vähem riskantseks

  6. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  7. Phylogenetics of the Danish HIV epidemic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Audelin, Anne Margrethe; Cowan, Susan A; Obel, Niels

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In Denmark 300 new individuals are diagnosed with HIV every year, despite decades of public health campaigns aimed to raise awareness of potential risk behaviour for HIV transmission. It is important to identify the driving forces of the epidemic, to enable more targeted campaigns...

  8. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J. [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); Belshan, Michael, E-mail: michaelbelshan@creighton.edu [Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, Creighton University, Omaha, NE (United States); The Nebraska Center for Virology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. - Highlights: • CypB has been identified in several proteomic studies of HIV-1 infection. • CypB expression is upregulated in activated and infected T-cells. • Over-expression of CypB enhances HIV nuclear import and infection. • The N-terminus of CypB is necessary for these effects.

  9. A Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Associated with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    syndrome and may be useful in HIV-associated cases in lieu of the already low levels of interferon - gamma in HIV patients and its negative effect on...response to recombinant interferon gamma . Br Med J 1987; 294: 1185 40. Wells JV, Ibister, Ries CA. Hematologic Diseases In: Stites DP, Sobo JD

  10. Male reproduction and HIV-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Leeuwen

    2009-01-01

    From its initial presentation in the early nineteen eighties until 1996, HIV-1 infection almost inevitably led to AIDS, which was a death sentence. Because of the short life expectancy, patients were advised against pregnancy. The improved prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection following the int

  11. Stroke in a Patient With HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.

  12. Comorbidity and ageing in HIV infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, K.W.

    2017-01-01

    In the era of modern combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) the HIV-infected population is ageing. Studies have suggested that HIV-infected individuals, even if appropriately treated with cART, may be at increased risk for several age-related conditions. In this thesis a variety of age-related co

  13. Cell signaling pathways and HIV-1 therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Johnny J

    2011-06-01

    Host-virus interactions permeate every aspect of both virus life cycle and host response and involve host cell macromolecular machinery and viral elements. It is these intimate interactions that mandate the outcomes of the infection and pathogenesis. It is also these intimate interactions that lay the foundation for the development of pharmaceutical interventions. HIV-1 is no exception in these regards. In the first two decades, HIV/AIDS research has led to the successful development of a number of antiviral inhibitors and the landmark formulation of the suppressive therapy. It has become apparent that this therapy does not offer a complete solution to cure and eradicate the virus. Meanwhile, this therapy has changed the overall landscape of HIV-associated neurological disorders to a more common and prevalent form so-called minor cognitive motor disorder. Thus, there is an important and continued need for new anti-HIV therapeutics. We believe that this is an excellent opportunity to compile and present the latest works being done during the last few years in this exciting field of HIV-host interactions, particularly cell signaling pathways. We hope that this special issue composed of one brief report, eight thematic reviews, and two original articles will serve to foster the exchange of new scientific ideas on HIV-host interactions and anti-HIV therapy and eventually contribute to HIV/AIDS eradication.

  14. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV+ men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richel, O.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated several aspects of anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) in HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM). This condition has gained clinical interest because of the impressive increase of the anal cancer incidence in HIV+ MSM since the introduction of combination antiretroviral

  15. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  16. Preventing HIV/AIDS in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of School Health, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Examines issues in preventing further Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection among adolescents, highlighting HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases, substance use, adolescent development, cultural and language diversity, health and social service needs, socioeconomic contexts, and role of media, school, and youth-serving organizations.…

  17. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of

  18. Coordinated modulation of circulating miR-21 in HIV, HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension, and HIV/HCV co-infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria N.; Park, Joseph; Nikolic, Ivana; Channick, Richard; Yu, Paul B.; De Marco, Teresa; Hsue, Priscilla; Chan, Stephen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Dysregulation of microRNA-21 (miR-21) is independently associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. To assess expression of miR-21 in these overlapping comorbidities, we measured plasma miR-21 in HIV with and without PAH and then stratified by concomitant HCV infection. miR-21 was increased in HIV and HIV-PAH versus uninfected subjects, but did not differ between these groups. HIV/HCV co-infection correlated with even higher miR-21 levels within the HIV-infected population. These data reveal specific regulation of plasma miR-21 in HIV, HIV/HCV co-infection, and PAH and suggest that miR-21 may integrate complex disease-specific signaling in the setting of HIV infection. PMID:26473639

  19. HIV hos ældre kvinder efter udlandsrejse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; David, Kim Peter

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of HIV infection among female travellers of older age. A Danish woman in her eighties was diagnosed with acute HIV infection after travelling to West Africa. A sexual history was not recorded before her third hospital visit. A West African woman in her seventies who had been...... living in Denmark for 40 years was diagnosed with advanced HIV after having been to West Africa for family visits. We want to emphasize that women of older age also have sex that may put them at risk of HIV, that febrile returning travellers should be tested for HIV, and that presence of HIV indicator...... diseases should lead to HIV testing....

  20. MEMODIFIKASI PERILAKU ORANG YANG RENTAN TERHADAP HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satrio Budi Wibowo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pergaulan bebas dan penggunaan narkoba yang marak di Indonesia, menyebabkan semakin pesatnya penyebaran Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV di Indonesia. Pad a tahun 2000 jumlah pengidap AIDS naik menjadi 3 kali lipat dan parahnya, trend ini terus berlangsung hingga saat ini. Intervensi yang tepat untuk merubah perilaku rentan penyebab menyebamya HIV amat dibutuhkan. Intervensi perlakuan dibuat dengan mentargetkan perilaku yang rentan terhadap penyebaran HIV. Perilaku yang menjadi targen dan akan di rubah dalam tulisan ini adalah; a Perilaku mengkuti tes HIV b Mengurangi perilaku beresiko penyebab penyebaran HIV c Mengembangkan pola hidup sehat pada pengidap HIV.Kata Kunci: lntervensi, HIV

  1. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  2. Anti-HIV diterpenes from Coleus forskohlii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiwala, Hardik S; Sabde, Sudeep; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2009-09-01

    Various extracts of the aerial parts of Coleus forskohlii (Labiatae) were prepared and evaluated at their non cytotoxic concentration against HIV-1 NL4-3. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts showed 45.6, 66.5 and 37.7% inhibition of HIV, respectively in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1(NL4-3) at 5 microg/mL. Four diterpenes, 1-deoxyforskolin, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, forskolin and isoforskolin were isolated from the chloroform extract and tested against the virus. Six semi-synthetic derivatives of forskolin have been prepared to study SAR. 1-Deoxyforskolin and forskolin were found to be active against HIV(NL4-3). This is first report of anti HIV activity of this plant and its isolated constituents.

  3. [Travel medicine for HIV-infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, M; Furrer, H

    2001-06-01

    Many HIV-infected persons travel from temperate zones to (sub)tropical destinations. HIV-specific immigration issues, medical resources abroad and problems regarding travelling with multiple medications have to be anticipated. When prescribing immunizations and specific chemoprophylaxis, the stage of immunodeficiency as well as drug interactions with antiretrovirals and medicaments against opportunistic infections have to be taken into account. Live vaccines may be contraindicated. Immunocompromised HIV-infected travellers have a higher risk for serious courses of diseases by enteropathogens. Therefore a good information about food hygiene is important and a prescription of an antibiotic to take in case of severe diarrhea may be indicated. A new antiretroviral combination therapy should not be started immediately before travelling to the tropics. The possibility to continue an established HIV treatment during travel has to be evaluated cautiously. With good pre-travel advice the risk of severe health problems is low for most HIV-infected travellers.

  4. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population......, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other...

  5. Late presentation for HIV care across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Lundgren, Jens; Antinori, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Late presentation (LP) for HIV care across Europe remains a significant issue. We provide a cross-European update from 34 countries on the prevalence and risk factors of LP for 2010-2013. People aged ≥ 16 presenting for HIV care (earliest of HIV-diagnosis, first clinic visit or cohort enrollment......) after 1 January 2010 with available CD4 count within six months of presentation were included. LP was defined as presentation with a CD4 count HIV diagnosis. Logistic regression investigated changes in LP over time. A total.......02-1.32), and a significant decline in LP in northern Europe (aOR/year later 0.89; 95% CI: 0.85-0.94). Further improvements in effective HIV testing strategies, with a focus on vulnerable groups, are required across the European continent....

  6. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course...... of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted...... the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  7. Contraceptive options for women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Sharon; Steyn, Petrus; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-08-01

    Women living with HIV are often of reproductive age, and many desire effective contraceptive options to delay or prevent pregnancy. We review the safety of various hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive methods for women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Additionally, we discuss drug interactions between contraceptive methods and antiretrovirals and the safety of methods with respect to onward transmission to HIV-negative partners for women in sero-discordant partnerships. In general, most methods are safe for most women living with HIV. An understanding of the reproductive goals of each individual patient, as well as her medical condition and medication, should be taken into account when counselling women on their contraceptive options. Further research is needed to understand drug interactions between contraceptives and antiretrovirals better and how to fulfil the contraceptive needs of HIV-positive women.

  8. Acute coronary syndromes in patients with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seecheran, Valmiki K.; Giddings, Stanley L.

    2017-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has considerably increased the life expectancy of patients infected with HIV. Coronary artery disease is a leading cause of mortality in patients infected with HIV. This is primarily attributed to their increased survival, HAART-induced metabolic derangements, and to HIV itself. The pathophysiology of atherosclerosis in HIV is both multifactorial and complex – involving direct endothelial injury and dysfunction, hypercoagulability, and a significant contribution from traditional cardiac risk factors. The advent of HAART has since heralded a remarkable improvement in outcomes, but at the expense of other unforeseen issues. It is thus of paramount importance to swiftly recognize and manage acute coronary syndromes in HIV-infected patients to attenuate adverse complications, which should translate into improved clinical outcomes. PMID:27845996

  9. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  10. HIV transcription is induced in dying cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E.; Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Schreck, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Panozzo, J. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Using HeLa cells stably transfected with an HIV-LTR-CAT construct, we demonstrated a peak in CAT induction that occurs in viable (but not necessarily cell-division-competent) cells 24 h following exposure to some cell-killing agents. {gamma} rays were the only cell-killing agent which did not induce HIV transcription; this can be attributed to the fact that {gamma}-ray-induced apoptotic death requires functional p53, which is not present in HeLa cells. For all other agents, HIV-LTR induction was dose-dependent and correlated with the amount of cell killing that occurred in the culture. Doses which caused over 99% cell killing induced HIV-LTR transcription maximally, demonstrating that cells that will go on to die by 14 days are the cells expressing HIV-LTR-CAT.

  11. NKT cells in HIV-1 infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell population that have important immunoregulatory functions and have been shown to be involved in host immunity against a range of microorganisms. It also emerges that they might play a role in HIV-1 infection, and therefore be selectively depleted during the early stages of infection. Recent studies are reviewed regarding the dynamics of NKT depletion during HIV-I infection and their recovery under highly active antiretrovirai treatment (HAART). Possible mechanisms for these changes are proposed based on the recent developments in HIV pathogenesis. Further discussions are focused on HIV's disruption of NKT activation by downregulating CDId expression on antigen presentation cells (APC). HIV-1 protein Nefis found to play the major role by interrupting the intraceilular trafficking of nascent and recycling CDId molecules.

  12. Viral markers in HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A L; Dwyer, D E; Dowton, D N

    1993-01-01

    Viral and immune markers are used for monitoring either progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or response to antiviral therapy. Ideal properties of viral markers are that they are present in all HIV-infected persons at all stages of disease, that they are related to disease pathogenesis, that they can be easily quantitated, that this quantitation correlates rapidly and predictably with both disease stage and response to antivirals, and that they can be developed into rapid, reproducible automated tests. Currently available viral markers include HIV p24 antigenemia (after acid glycine dissociation), anti-p24 antibody titres, quantitative DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction performed on cells and plasma, and HIV isolate phenotype. In Australia, these markers have been studied in acute HIV seroconversion, in neonatal infection, in body fluids other than blood, and in monitoring of response to antiviral drug therapy.

  13. Switch to raltegravir-based regimens and HIV DNA decrease in patients with suppressed HIV RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bianco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Raltegravir intensification is associated with an increase in 2-LTR episomal HIV DNA= circles, indicating a persistent low-level replication, in some individuals in ART with suppressed HIV RNA. We aimed at monitoring residual plasma HIV RNA and cellular HIV DNA in virologically suppressed patients switching to a raltegravir-based regimen. Materials and Methods: Forty-six HIV-infected subjects on PI or NNRTI based-regimens, with plasma HIV RNA level 200 cells/µL for ≥12 months were enrolled. Thirty-four patients switched to raltegravir-based regimen (RASTA study group and 12 continued a PI or NNRTI based-regimen (control group. Ultrasensitive HIV residual viremia and total PBMC HIV DNA were assessed at baseline (W0, 24 (W24 and 48 (W48 weeks. HIV RNA levels were determined by an ultrasensitive test derived from a commercial real time PCR (limit of detection 5 copies/ml. A real time PCR was used to quantify HIV DNA copy numbers in PBMCs. Results: At W0, HIV DNA was detected in all patients while at W48 it was detectable in 82.3% of RASTA group vs 100% of controls (p=0.01. The difference between the average values of HIV DNA log10 copies/10°6 CD4 at W0 (median 3.11, IQR 2.70–3.45 and W48 (median 2.87, IQR 2.24–3.38 was statistically significant for RASTA group (p=0.035. Male gender (mean difference −0.37 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, p=0.023 and previous PI based-ART (mean difference +0.39 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, p=0.036 were predictive of HIV DNA level at W0. After adjusting for previous PI based-ART, male gender was the only variable independently associated with HIV DNA size at W0 (mean difference −0.326 log10 copies/10°6 PBMC, 95% CI −0.641, −0.011 p=0.043. Ultrasensitive HIV-1 RNA was detectable at W0 in 50% of RASTA group versus 66.7% of controls and at W48 in 32.4% versus 45.5%, respectively. No differences were found between HIV RNA levels at W0 and W48 within and between the two groups. Conclusions: Switching to

  14. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: U.S. HIV and AIDS Cases Reported through December 2001. Year-End Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This report presents tables on: persons reported to be living with HIV infection and AIDS, by area and age group; AIDS cases and annual rates and HIV infection cases, by area and age group; male and female adult/adolescent annual AIDS and HIV infection rates; AIDS and HIV cases by age group, exposure category, and sex; male and female…

  15. 78 FR 31568 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... White HIV/AIDS Program, Part C Early Intervention Services Grant Under the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program.... ACTION: Notice of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program Part C Early Intervention Services One-Time Noncompetitive Award to Ensure Continued HIV Primary Medical Care. SUMMARY: To prevent a lapse in comprehensive...

  16. HIV-Associated Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients With Well-Suppressed HIV-Infection : A Comparative Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirkaya, Nazli; Wit, Ferdinand W N M; van Den Berg, Thomas J T P; Kooij, Katherine W; Prins, Maria; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Abramoff, Michael D; Reiss, Peter; Verbraak, Frank D

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Loss of neuroretinal structure and function, ascribed to a 'HIV-associated Neuroretinal Disorder' (HIV-NRD), in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections, has been reported in HIV-infected individuals treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Whether HIV-infected individu

  17. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro JG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Castro,1 Deborah L Jones,2 Stephen M Weiss2 1Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97 were female (n=51 and male (n=46. At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. Keywords: STD clinic, biomedical HIV prevention, PrEP, male

  18. Osteoporosis in postmenopausal women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Fionnuala; Walker-Bone, Karen; Tariq, Shema

    2017-01-01

    The widespread availability of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV from a life-limiting condition to one with near-normal life expectancy. HIV is associated with an increased risk of osteopenia and osteoporosis, with people living with HIV (PLHIV) potentially experiencing these conditions at a younger age than their HIV-negative counterparts. The mechanisms driving bone disease in HIV are complex and include: an increased prevalence of traditional risk factors; other comorbid conditions; and HIV-associated factors such as viral effects, systemic inflammation, and ART-related factors. One-third of PLHIV in the United Kingdom are female, and increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are reaching menopausal age. Oestrogen decline in the context of an elevated background risk of poor bone health results in WLHIV being at greater risk of osteoporosis than women without HIV. European HIV guidelines therefore recommend routine screening of postmenopausal WLHIV using FRAX(©) for clinical risk factors, with or without bone mineral density scanning. Data support the use of calcium and vitamin D supplementation, and bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis in PLHIV. Additionally, some patients with confirmed osteoporosis may benefit from a switch to an ART agent with a better bone safety profile. However, there remains a notable paucity of data on HIV and menopause, including the impact of hormone replacement therapy on the bone health of WLHIV. In conclusion, it is important that clinicians are aware that postmenopausal WLHIV are a group at particular risk of bone disease, who require proactive screening and advice about preventative measures.

  19. HIV/AIDS and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Bernardo M; Mota, Licia Maria H; Pileggi, Gecilmara S; Safe, Izabella P; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2015-05-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first recognized in the United States in 1981, and the HIV/AIDS epidemic has since spread to affect all countries. The interface of HIV/AIDS with opportunistic infectious diseases is well characterized, but further research is required into the concurrence of other chronic diseases. The objective of this review was to identify possible interferences of HIV infection in the diagnosis and management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A review of the available evidence was conducted using the GRADE approach. Overall, the quality of evidence was low. Our main conclusions were: (1) the occurrence of rheumatoid-like arthritis in patients with HIV/AIDS is quite rare; therefore, it is not recommended that HIV infection be considered routinely as a differential diagnosis in this condition (C2); (2) HIV infection may lead to rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody positivity, but usually at low titers (C1); (3) RA might cause false-positive HIV serology and ELISA seems to be a more specific test for HIV in patients with RA (C2); (4) RA and AIDS may coexist, even in cases of severe immunosuppression (C1); (5) RA emergence may seldom occur during or after immune reconstitution (C1); and (6) there is insufficient safety data to recommend use of specific disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in RA patients with HIV/AIDS. Therefore, these drugs should be used cautiously (C1).

  20. Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Chi; Mishra, Vinod; Ksobiech, Kate

    2011-11-01

    High HIV rates among cohabiting couples in many African countries have led to greater programmatic emphasis on spousal communication in HIV prevention. This study examines how demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of cohabiting adults influence their dyadic communication about HIV. A central focus of this research is on how the position of women relative to their male partners influences spousal communication about HIV prevention. The authors analyze gaps in spousal age and education and females' participation in household decision making as key factors influencing spousal communication about HIV, while controlling for sexual behaviors of both partners as well as other individual and contextual factors. Data were obtained from the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey for 1,388 cohabiting couples. Information regarding spousal communication was self-reported, assessing whether both, either, or neither partner ever discussed HIV prevention with the other. Analyses showed higher levels of education for the female partner and participation in household decision making are positively associated with spousal communication about HIV prevention. With females' education and other factors controlled, couples with more educated male partners were more likely to have discussed HIV prevention than couples in which both partners have the same level of education. Spousal communication was also positively associated with household wealth status and exposure to the mass media, but couples in which male partners reported having nonspousal sex in the past year were less likely to have discussed HIV prevention with their spouses. Findings suggest HIV prevention programs should promote female empowerment and encourage male participation in sexual health discussion.

  1. Oral mucosal lesions and HIV viral load in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, D; Komaroff, E; Redford, M; Phelan, J A; Navazesh, M; Alves, M E; Kamrath, H; Mulligan, R; Barr, C E; Greenspan, J S

    2000-09-01

    The prevalence of oral lesions was assessed in a five-center subset of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) and correlated with other features of HIV disease. Oral examinations were performed by dental examiners on 729 women (577 HIV-positive and 152 HIV-negative) during baseline examination. Significant differences between the groups were found for the following oral lesions: pseudomembranous candidiasis, 6.1% and 2.0%, respectively; erythematous candidiasis, 6.41% and 0.7%, respectively; all oral candidiasis, pseudomembranous and/or erythematous, 13.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Hairy leukoplakia was observed in 6.1% of HIV-positive women. No significant differences were found for recurrent aphthous ulcers, herpes simplex lesions, or papillomas. Kaposi's sarcoma was seen in 0.5% of HIV-positive and 0% of HIV-negative women. Using multiple logistic regression models controlling for use of antiretrovirals and antifungals, in HIV-positive women the presence of oral candidiasis was associated with a CD4 count <200 cells/microl, cigarette smoking, and heroin/methadone use; the presence of hairy leukoplakia was not related to CD4 count but was associated with high viral load. Oral candidiasis and hairy leukoplakia are confirmed as being common features of HIV infection in women and appear to be associated with HIV viral load, immunosuppression, and various other behaviorally determined variables.

  2. HIV and depression in Eastern Nigeria: the role of HIV-related stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyebuchi-Iwudibia, Oscar; Brown, Amy

    2014-01-01

    To examine the prevalence of depression among HIV-positive patients in Eastern Nigeria and to explore its association with HIV-related stigma. One hundred and five patients with a diagnosis of HIV attending HIV clinics in Eastern Nigeria completed a questionnaire consisting of demographic and health background, the Patients Health Questionnaire (to measure depression) and the Berger HIV stigma scale. As many as 33.3% of participants were considered depressed. Depression was positively correlated with overall stigma score with further analysis finding a positive correlation with all four subscales of the questionnaire (personalised stigma, disclosure, negative self-image and public attitudes). Individuals experiencing more side effects of HIV treatment were also rated as more depressed. A regression analysis found that negative self-image and number of treatment side effects were significant predictors of depression. Depression is positively associated with HIV-related stigma in this sample in Eastern Nigeria. As both stigma and depression have been shown to have a negative impact on quality of life for those with HIV, health professionals working to support them should be aware of the impact of stigma on risk of depression. Screening for both HIV-related stigma and depression would be an important intervention to promote both physical and psychological well-being amongst HIV-positive patients in Eastern Nigeria.

  3. A Novel Class of HIV-1 Antiviral Agents Targeting HIV via a SUMOylation-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Ikenna G; Li, Shirley; Li, Baozong; Li, Haitang; Chang, Tammy; Li, Yi-Jia; Vega, Ramir; Rossi, John; Yee, Jiing-Kuan; Zaia, John; Chen, Yuan

    2015-12-08

    We have recently identified a chemotype of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-specific protease (SENP) inhibitors. Prior to the discovery of their SENP inhibitory activity, these compounds were found to inhibit HIV replication, but with an unknown mechanism. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of how these compounds inhibit HIV-1. We found that they do not affect HIV-1 viral production, but significantly inhibited the infectivity of the virus. Interestingly, virions produced from cells treated with these compounds could gain entry and carry out reverse transcription, but could not efficiently integrate into the host genome. This phenotype is different from the virus produced from cells treated with the class of anti-HIV-1 agents that inhibit HIV protease. Upon removal of the SUMO modification sites in the HIV-1 integrase, the compound no longer alters viral infectivity, indicating that the effect is related to SUMOylation of the HIV integrase. This study identifies a novel mechanism for inhibiting HIV-1 integration and a new class of small molecules that inhibits HIV-1 via such mechanism that may contribute a new strategy for cure of HIV-1 by inhibiting the production of infectious virions upon activation from latency.

  4. Religion and HIV in Tanzania: influence of religious beliefs on HIV stigma, disclosure, and treatment attitudes

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    Ostermann Jan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Religion shapes everyday beliefs and activities, but few studies have examined its associations with attitudes about HIV. This exploratory study in Tanzania probed associations between religious beliefs and HIV stigma, disclosure, and attitudes toward antiretroviral (ARV treatment. Methods A self-administered survey was distributed to a convenience sample of parishioners (n = 438 attending Catholic, Lutheran, and Pentecostal churches in both urban and rural areas. The survey included questions about religious beliefs, opinions about HIV, and knowledge and attitudes about ARVs. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess how religion was associated with perceptions about HIV, HIV treatment, and people living with HIV/AIDS. Results Results indicate that shame-related HIV stigma is strongly associated with religious beliefs such as the belief that HIV is a punishment from God (p Conclusion The decision to start ARVs hinged primarily on education-level and knowledge about ARVs rather than on religious factors. Research results highlight the influence of religious beliefs on HIV-related stigma and willingness to disclose, and should help to inform HIV-education outreach for religious groups.

  5. Complement and HIV-I infection/HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengming; Dai, Shen; Gordon, Jennifer; Qin, Xuebin

    2014-04-01

    The various neurological complications associated with HIV-1 infection, specifically HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) persist as a major public health burden worldwide. Despite the widespread use of anti-retroviral therapy, the prevalence of HAND is significantly high. HAND results from the direct effects of an HIV-1 infection as well as secondary effects of HIV-1-induced immune reaction and inflammatory response. Complement, a critical mediator of innate and acquired immunity, plays important roles in defeating many viral infections by the formation of a lytic pore or indirectly by opsonization and recruitment of phagocytes. While the role of complement in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection and HAND has been previously recognized for over 15 years, it has been largely underestimated thus far. Complement can be activated through HIV-1 envelope proteins, mannose-binding lectins (MBL), and anti-HIV-1 antibodies. Complement not only fights against HIV-1 infection but also enhances HIV-1 infection. In addition, HIV-1 can hijack complement regulators such as CD59 and CD55 and can utilize these regulators and factor H to escape from complement attack. Normally, complement levels in brain are much lower than plasma levels and there is no or little complement deposition in brain cells. Interestingly, local production and deposition of complement are dramatically increased in HIV-1-infected brain, indicating that complement may contribute to the pathogenesis of HAND. Here, we review the current understanding of the role of complement in HIV-1 infection and HAND, as well as potential therapeutic approaches targeting the complement system for the treatment and eradications of HIV-1 infection.

  6. HIV-1 transmission linkage in an HIV-1 prevention clinical trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Campbell, Mary S [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Mullins, James I [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Hughes, James P [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Wong, Kim G [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Raugi, Dana N [UNIV OF WASHINGTON; Scrensen, Stefanie [UNIV OF WASHINGTON

    2009-01-01

    HIV-1 sequencing has been used extensively in epidemiologic and forensic studies to investigate patterns of HIV-1 transmission. However, the criteria for establishing genetic linkage between HIV-1 strains in HIV-1 prevention trials have not been formalized. The Partners in Prevention HSV/HIV Transmission Study (ClinicaITrials.gov NCT00194519) enrolled 3408 HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples to determine the efficacy of genital herpes suppression with acyclovir in reducing HIV-1 transmission. The trial analysis required laboratory confirmation of HIV-1 linkage between enrolled partners in couples in which seroconversion occurred. Here we describe the process and results from HIV-1 sequencing studies used to perform transmission linkage determination in this clinical trial. Consensus Sanger sequencing of env (C2-V3-C3) and gag (p17-p24) genes was performed on plasma HIV-1 RNA from both partners within 3 months of seroconversion; env single molecule or pyrosequencing was also performed in some cases. For linkage, we required monophyletic clustering between HIV-1 sequences in the transmitting and seroconverting partners, and developed a Bayesian algorithm using genetic distances to evaluate the posterior probability of linkage of participants sequences. Adjudicators classified transmissions as linked, unlinked, or indeterminate. Among 151 seroconversion events, we found 108 (71.5%) linked, 40 (26.5%) unlinked, and 3 (2.0%) to have indeterminate transmissions. Nine (8.3%) were linked by consensus gag sequencing only and 8 (7.4%) required deep sequencing of env. In this first use of HIV-1 sequencing to establish endpoints in a large clinical trial, more than one-fourth of transmissions were unlinked to the enrolled partner, illustrating the relevance of these methods in the design of future HIV-1 prevention trials in serodiscordant couples. A hierarchy of sequencing techniques, analysis methods, and expert adjudication contributed to the linkage

  7. HIV status awareness, partnership dissolution and HIV transmission in generalized epidemics.

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    Georges Reniers

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: HIV status aware couples with at least one HIV positive partner are characterized by high separation and divorce rates. This phenomenon is often described as a corollary of couples HIV Testing and Counseling (HTC that ought to be minimized. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implications of partnership dissolution in serodiscordant couples for the propagation of HIV. METHODS: We develop a compartmental model to study epidemic outcomes of elevated partnership dissolution rates in serodiscordant couples and parameterize it with estimates from population-based data (Rakai, Uganda. RESULTS: Via its effect on partnership dissolution, every percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence in monogamous populations by 0.27 percent for women and 0.63 percent for men. These effects are even larger when the assumption of monogamy can be relaxed, but are moderated by other behavior changes (e.g., increased condom use in HIV status aware serodiscordant partnerships. When these behavior changes are taken into account, each percentage point increase in HIV status awareness reduces HIV incidence by 0.13 and 0.32 percent for women and men, respectively (assuming monogamy. The partnership dissolution effect exists because it decreases the fraction of serodiscordant couples in the population and prolongs the time that individuals spend outside partnerships. CONCLUSION: Our model predicts that elevated partnership dissolution rates in HIV status aware serodiscordant couples reduce the spread of HIV. As a consequence, the full impact of couples HTC for HIV prevention is probably larger than recognized to date. Particularly high partnership dissolution rates in female positive serodiscordant couples contribute to the gender imbalance in HIV infections.

  8. Subtype classification of Iranian HIV-1 sequences registered in the HIV databases, 2006-2013.

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    Kazem Baesi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rate of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection in Iran has increased dramatically in the past few years. While the earliest cases were among hemophiliacs, injection drug users (IDUs fuel the current epidemic. Previous molecular epidemiological analysis found that subtype A was most common among IDUs but more recent studies suggest CRF_35AD may be more prevalent now. To gain a better understanding of the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 infection in Iran, we analyzed all Iranian HIV sequence data from the Los Alamos National Laboratory. METHODS: All Iranian HIV sequences from subtyping studies with pol, gag, env and full-length HIV-1 genome sequences registered in the HIV databases (www.hiv.lanl.gov between 2006 and 2013 were downloaded. Phylogenetic trees of each region were constructed using Neighbor-Joining (NJ and Maximum Parsimony methods. RESULTS: A total of 475 HIV sequences were analyzed. Overall, 78% of sequences were CRF_35AD. By gene region, CRF_35AD comprised 83% of HIV-1 pol, 62% of env, 78% of gag, and 90% of full-length genome sequences analyzed. There were 240 sequences re-categorized as CRF_AD. The proportion of CRF_35AD sequences categorized by the present study is nearly double the proportion of what had been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Phylogenetic analysis indicates HIV-1 subtype CRF_35AD is the predominant circulating strain in Iran. This result differed from previous studies that reported subtype A as most prevalent in HIV- infected patients but confirmed other studies which reported CRF_35AD as predominant among IDUs. The observed epidemiological connection between HIV strains circulating in Iran and Afghanistan may be due to drug trafficking and/or immigration between the two countries. This finding suggests the possible origins and transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS within Iran and provides useful information for designing control and intervention strategies.

  9. A typology of structural approaches to HIV prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Alexander C

    2012-01-01

    Renewed enthusiasm for biomedical HIV prevention strategies has followed the recent publication of several high-profile HIV antiretroviral therapy-based HIV prevention trials. In a recent article, Roberts & Matthews (2012) accurately note some of the shortcomings of these individually targeted approaches to HIV prevention and advocate for increased emphasis on structural interventions that have more fundamental effects on the population distribution of HIV. However, they make some implicit as...

  10. HIV/AIDS/STI Surveillance Report:Report Number 22

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadhani, Angela; Somi, Geoffrey; Josiah, Robert; Matee, M.; Hokororo, Joseph; Nondi, Joseph; Sambu, Veryeh; Lema, Levina; Kilama, Bonita; Mlingi, Grace; Mogela, Deus; Nkingwa, Mathias; Lengaki, Lina; Urassa, Jenesta; Bukuku, May

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the activities of the Tanzanian NACP of the MoHSW in dealing with the HIV pandemic as of December 2010. It includes analysis of the following interventions: blood transfusion services, HIV care and treatment, Counselling and Testing for HIV infection, Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV infection (PMTCT) as well as M&E reports and surveillance of HIV infection in the country. The following have been achieved regarding the blood transfusions serv...

  11. A Pharmacogenomical perspective in HIV/AIDS Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Matin Ahmad Khan

    2012-01-01

    A Medical/ Health Care Provider, with specializations in Medicine (Family Medicine, Pediatrics, ‎Psychiatry, Medicine,TB, STI, Sexual Medicine ) , ‎One among few Qualified HIV/AIDS Specialists/Physicians in India (HIV Medicine Fellowship ‎‎(from School of Tropical Medicine Kolkata) ‎and credentialed globally as AAHIVM HIV Specialist™, (American Academy of HIV Medicine ‎Specialist, USA -- an accredited US Body providing certification as HIV Specialist) ‎and recognized for the expertises in Cou...

  12. Macronutrient Supplementation and Food Prices in HIV Treatment12

    OpenAIRE

    Sztam, Kevin A.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Infection caused by HIV and malnutrition have a complex interaction and often coexist geographically. Malnutrition has synergistic immune effects and HIV affects nutritional status. HIV care and treatment programs are compelled to confront this dual burden to optimize HIV outcomes. In this article, we review the published literature concerning intervention studies in adults and children and the effect of food prices on HIV treatment programs. While the evidence base is relatively incomplete f...

  13. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    and with HIV among current and nonsmoking individuals from a population-based, nationwide HIV cohort and a cohort of matched HIV-negative individuals.Results. A total of 2921 HIV patients and 10 642 controls were followed for 14 281 and 45 122 person-years, respectively. All-cause and non...... is tripled and the population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking is doubled among HIV patients compared to the background population....

  14. Minor Contribution of Chimeric Host-HIV Readthrough Transcripts to the Level of HIV Cell-Associated gag RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Alexander O; DeMaster, Laura K; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Reiss, Peter; O'Doherty, Una; Berkhout, Ben

    2015-11-11

    Cell-associated HIV unspliced RNA is an important marker of the viral reservoir. HIV gag RNA-specific assays are frequently used to monitor reservoir activation. Because HIV preferentially integrates into actively transcribed genes, some of the transcripts detected by these assays may not represent genuine HIV RNA but rather chimeric host-HIV readthrough transcripts. Here, we demonstrate that in HIV-infected patients on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy, such host-derived transcripts do not significantly contribute to the HIV gag RNA level.

  15. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent......Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...... of serum HIV RNA (p HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p

  16. Current status of HIV/AIDS in the ART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Kazuhisa

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread to humans from chimpanzees (HIV-1 groups M and N), gorillas (HIV-1 groups P and O), and sooty mangabeys (HIV-2). HIV is spread mainly through blood or body fluids. Subjects can become infected with HIV by sexual contact, needle sharing, blood transfusions, or maternal transmissions as a blood-borne virus or via breast-milk. The incubation period of HIV-1 from infection to the development of AIDS ranges from 8 to 11 years. In the past 3 decades, HIV has caused a great burden to global wealth and health. According to the WHO global health survey, 36.7 million people were infected with HIV, causing 1.1 million deaths in 2015. Since the discovery of HIV-1, many anti-retroviral drugs have been developed. Following the discovery and wide-spread use of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) the life expectancy of HIV infected individuals has substantially increased. By 2015, all major guidelines recommended treating all HIV-infected adults regardless of their CD4 count. Despite effective ART with virological suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), cardiovascular diseases (CVD), metabolic syndrome (MS), bone abnormalities and non-HIV-associated malignancies remain a major complication associated with HIV infection. In this review article, I would like to describe recent ART status and problems in the ART-era.

  17. Hospitalizations among HIV controllers and persons with medically controlled HIV in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study

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    Trevor A Crowell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV controllers (HICs experience relatively low-level viraemia and CD4 preservation without antiretroviral therapy (ART, but also immune activation that may predispose to adverse clinical events such as cardiovascular disease and hospitalization. The objective of this study was to characterize the rates and reasons for hospitalization among HICs and persons with medically controlled HIV. Methods: Subjects with consistently well-controlled HIV were identified in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study. ART prescription and HIV-1 RNA data were used to categorize subjects as HICs or medically controlled as defined by ≥3 HIV-1 RNA measurements ≤2000 or ≤400 copies/mL, respectively, representing the majority of measurements spanning ≥12 months. Hospitalizations were tallied and assigned diagnostic categories. All-cause hospitalization rates were compared between groups using negative binomial regression. Results and discussion: Of 3106 subjects followed from 2000 to 2013, 221 were HICs, including 33 elite (1.1% and 188 viraemic (6.0% controllers, who contributed 882 person-years (PY of observation time. An additional 870 subjects with medically controlled HIV contributed 4217 PY. Mean hospitalization rates were 9.4/100 PY among HICs and 8.8/100 PY among medically controlled subjects. Non-AIDS-defining infections were the most common reason for hospitalization (2.95/100 PY and 2.70/100 PY, respectively and rates of cardiovascular hospitalization were similar in both groups (0.45/100 PY and 0.76/100 PY. There was no difference in hospitalization rate for HICs compared with subjects with medically controlled HIV (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.15 [95% confidence interval 0.80 to 1.65]. Conclusions: All-cause and cardiovascular hospitalization rates did not differ between HICs and persons with medically controlled HIV. Non-AIDS defining infections were common in this young, healthy, predominantly male cohort of military

  18. Evaluation of four rapid tests for diagnosis and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Guinea-Conakry, West Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillet, Pascale; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Zachariah, Rony; Duclos, Nanfack; Moctar, Diallo; Beelaert, Greet; Fransen, Katrien

    2010-01-01

    With both HIV-1 and HV-2 prevalent in Guinea-Conakry, accurate diagnosis and differentiation is crucial for treatment purposes. Thus, four rapid HIV tests were evaluated for their HIV-1 and HIV-2 diagnostic and discriminative capacity for use in Guinea-Conakry. These included SD Bioline HIV 1/2 3.0 (Standard Diagnostics Inc.), Genie II HIV1/HIV2 (Bio-Rad), First Response HIV Card Test 1-2.0 (PMC Medical) and Immunoflow HIV1-HIV2 (Core Diagnostics). Results were compared with gold standard tes...

  19. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

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    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and

  20. Prevention of perinatal HIV transmission: the Perinatal HIV Hotline perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldura, Jess Fogler

    2011-01-01

    Among the most frequently asked questions by callers to the National Perinatal HIV Hotline are those on the use of hormonal contraception in women receiving antiretroviral therapy. Estradiol levels are reduced by ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (PIs), nelfinavir, and nevirapine and increased by non-ritonavir-boosted PIs (except nelfinavir), efavirenz, and etravirine. Oral contraceptives do not affect antiretroviral drug levels, and several options are available for hormonal contraception that can compensate for or avoid the effects of antiretroviral drugs on estrogen levels. Other common questions on the hotline involve interpretation and management issues that arise from indeterminate Western blot test results early and late in pregnancy and from positive rapid test results during labor. Many questions focus on appropriate selection of antiretroviral drugs in pregnancy and the need to change regimens to reduce risk of birth defects in the child. This articlesummarizes a presentation by Jess Fogler Waldura, MD, at the 13th Annual Clinical Conference for the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program held in August 2010 in Washington, DC.