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Sample records for adverse-weather precision guidance

  1. A cost-effective adverse-weather precision guidance system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellerhoff, R.; Burgett, S.

    1995-08-01

    This SAND report documents the results of an LDRD project undertaken to study the accuracy of terrain-aided navigation coupled with highly accurate topographic maps. A revolutionary new mapping technology, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR), has the ability to make terrain maps of extremely high accuracy and spatial resolution, more than an order of magnitude better than currently available DMA map products. Using a laser altimeter and the Sandia Labs Twin Otter Radar Testbed, fix accuracies of less than 3 meters CEP were obtained over urban and natural terrain regions.

  2. Precision optical navigation guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubov, D.; McCormick, K.; Nolan, P.; Johnson, D.; Dellosa, M.; Volfson, L.; Fallahpour, A.; Willner, A.

    2016-05-01

    We present the new precision optical navigation guidance system approach that provides continuous, high quality range and bearing data to fixed wing aircraft during landing approach to an aircraft carrier. The system uses infrared optical communications to measure range between ship and aircraft with accuracy and precision better than 1 meter at ranges more than 7.5 km. The innovative receiver design measures bearing from aircraft to ship with accuracy and precision better than 0.5 mRad. The system provides real-time range and bearing updates to multiple aircraft at rates up to several kHz, and duplex data transmission between ship and aircraft.

  3. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively.

  4. High Precision GNSS Guidance for Field Mobile Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Jurišica

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System guidance for field mobile robots. Several GNSS systems and receivers, as well as multiple measurement methods and principles of GNSS systems are examined. We focus mainly on sources of errors and investigate diverse approaches for precise measuring and effective use of GNSS systems for real‐ time robot localization. The main body of the article compares two GNSS receivers and their measurement methods. We design, implement and evaluate several mathematical methods for precise robot localization.

  5. Quantifying the impact of adverse weather conditions on road network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Calvert, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions regularly lead to severe congestion and large travel time delays on road networks all over the world. Different climate scenarios indicate that in the future adverse weather conditions are likely to become more frequent, last longer and will be more extreme. Although clima

  6. New Precision Guidance Method Based on Bistatic Synthetic Apterture Radar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chun; ZENG Tao

    2008-01-01

    A new method is presented to improve guidance precision.This method is based on histatic synthetic aperture radar.The illuminator works in side looking mode,providing the synthetic aperture and the receiver is disposed on the seeker which operates in the forward looking mode.The receiving antenna is composed of four sub-antennas and so four synthetic aperture radar(SAR)images are to be generated.Target is positioned in SAR images by image matching.The bearing and elevation of image element of target are measured by the principle of monopulse angular measurement.Theory of the proposed method is derived and simulation on bearing measurement is done.Simulation shows that the method is valid and if SNR of target's image is above 30 dB.the angular measuring difference is witbin the confines of 0.04 degree.

  7. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  8. Effect of adverse weather on neonatal caribou survival — a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationship between adverse weather and neonatal caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. survival in North America by examining the available literature and our own findings. The viewpoint that adverse weather on the calving ground can result in major losses of newborn barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus calves is largely unsupported. Published reports of calf mortality caused by adverse weather are questionable because causes of death were rarely determined by postmortem examinations. Circumstantial evidence associated with the small samples of dead calves does not support published assumptions that the mortality was weather related, or that high losses due to adverse weather are common events. The applicability of results from physiological testing are questionable, because the calves were restrained and the behaviour of unrestrained animals was ignored in the conclusions drawn from the tests. The relationship between adverse weather and calf mortality is more speculation than documentation yet often has been uncritically cited. In our view, healthy newborn barren-ground caribou are well adapted physiologically and behaviourally to cope with all but the most severe adverse weather.

  9. Automated, Real-Time Targeting and Guidance Software for Lunar Descent and Precision Landing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — he objective of this proposal is to research, design and develop an automated real-time targeting and guidance (ARTGUID) software for precision lunar landing and...

  10. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to, flood, freeze, hurricane, hail, tidal surge, volcanic eruption, and wildfire on non-Federal land... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions. 760.203 Section 760.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  11. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Rötter, Reimund P.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Europe is the largest producer of wheat, the second most widely grown cereal crop after rice. The increased occurrence and magnitude of adverse and extreme agroclimatic events are considered a major threat for wheat production. We present an analysis that accounts for a range of adverse weather...... the probability of single and multiple adverse events occurring within one season. We showed that the occurrence of adverse conditions for 14 sites representing the main European wheat-growing areas might substantially increase by 2060 compared to the present (1981–2010). This is likely to result in more frequent...... crop failure across Europe. This study provides essential information for developing adaptation strategies....

  12. Precisely shaped acoustic ablation of tumors utilizing steerable needle and 3D ultrasound image guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Stolka, Philipp; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Clarke, Clyde; Rucker, Caleb; Croom, Jordon; Burdette, E. Clif; Webster, Robert J., III

    2010-02-01

    Many recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of interstitial ablative approaches for the treatment of hepatic tumors. Despite these promising results, current systems remain highly dependent on operator skill, and cannot treat many tumors because there is little control of the size and shape of the zone of necrosis, and no control over ablator trajectory within tissue once insertion has taken place. Additionally, tissue deformation and target motion make it extremely difficult to place the ablator device precisely into the target. Irregularly shaped target volumes typically require multiple insertions and several overlapping (thermal) lesions, which are even more challenging to accomplish in a precise, predictable, and timely manner without causing excessive damage to surrounding normal tissues. In answer to these problems, we have developed a steerable acoustic ablator called the ACUSITT with the ability of directional energy delivery to precisely shape the applied thermal dose . In this paper, we address image guidance for this device, proposing an innovative method for accurate tracking and tool registration with spatially-registered intra-operative three-dimensional US volumes, without relying on an external tracking device. This method is applied to guid-ance of the flexible, snake-like, lightweight, and inexpensive ACUSITT to facilitate precise placement of its ablator tip within the liver, with ablation monitoring via strain imaging. Recent advancements in interstitial high-power ultrasound applicators enable controllable and penetrating heating patterns which can be dynamically altered. This paper summarizes the design and development of the first synergistic system that integrates a novel steerable interstitial acoustic ablation device with a novel trackerless 3DUS guidance strategy.

  13. Precision-guided surgical navigation system using laser guidance and 3D autostereoscopic image overlay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hongen; Ishihara, Hirotaka; Tran, Huy Hoang; Masamune, Ken; Sakuma, Ichiro; Dohi, Takeyoshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a precision-guided surgical navigation system for minimally invasive surgery. The system combines a laser guidance technique with a three-dimensional (3D) autostereoscopic image overlay technique. Images of surgical anatomic structures superimposed onto the patient are created by employing an animated imaging method called integral videography (IV), which can display geometrically accurate 3D autostereoscopic images and reproduce motion parallax without the need for special viewing or tracking devices. To improve the placement accuracy of surgical instruments, we integrated an image overlay system with a laser guidance system for alignment of the surgical instrument and better visualization of patient's internal structure. We fabricated a laser guidance device and mounted it on an IV image overlay device. Experimental evaluations showed that the system could guide a linear surgical instrument toward a target with an average error of 2.48 mm and standard deviation of 1.76 mm. Further improvement to the design of the laser guidance device and the patient-image registration procedure of the IV image overlay will make this system practical; its use would increase surgical accuracy and reduce invasiveness.

  14. Centimetre-precision guidance of moving implements in the open field: a simulation based on GPS measurements.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, H.L.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Zuydam, van R.P.

    1998-01-01

    High quality and sustainable agricultural production in the open field will be supported by centimetre-precision guidance of agricultural implements. In this paper, a complete guidance system is proposed and simulated using real sensor data obtained from a real time kinematic (RTK) differential glob

  15. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only.

  16. A robust and high precision optimal explicit guidance scheme for solid motor propelled launch vehicles with thrust and drag uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Arnab; Padhi, Radhakant; Mallaram, Sanjeev; Mallikarjuna Rao, G.; Manickavasagam, M.

    2016-10-01

    A new nonlinear optimal and explicit guidance law is presented in this paper for launch vehicles propelled by solid motors. It can ensure very high terminal precision despite not having the exact knowledge of the thrust-time curve apriori. This was motivated from using it for a carrier launch vehicle in a hypersonic mission, which demands an extremely narrow terminal accuracy window for the launch vehicle for successful initiation of operation of the hypersonic vehicle. The proposed explicit guidance scheme, which computes the optimal guidance command online, ensures the required stringent final conditions with high precision at the injection point. A key feature of the proposed guidance law is an innovative extension of the recently developed model predictive static programming guidance with flexible final time. A penalty function approach is also followed to meet the input and output inequality constraints throughout the vehicle trajectory. In this paper, the guidance law has been successfully validated from nonlinear six degree-of-freedom simulation studies by designing an inner-loop autopilot as well, which enhances confidence of its usefulness significantly. In addition to excellent nominal results, the proposed guidance has been found to have good robustness for perturbed cases as well.

  17. Adaptation options for wheat in Europe will be limited by increased adverse weather events under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Hlavinka, Petr; Semenov, Mikhail A

    2015-11-06

    Ways of increasing the production of wheat, the most widely grown cereal crop, will need to be found to meet the increasing demand caused by human population growth in the coming decades. This increase must occur despite the decrease in yield gains now being reported in some regions, increased price volatility and the expected increase in the frequency of adverse weather events that can reduce yields. However, if and how the frequency of adverse weather events will change over Europe, the most important wheat-growing area, has not yet been analysed. Here, we show that the accumulated probability of 11 adverse weather events with the potential to significantly reduce yield will increase markedly across all of Europe. We found that by the end of the century, the exposure of the key European wheat-growing areas, where most wheat production is currently concentrated, may increase more than twofold. However, if we consider the entire arable land area of Europe, a greater than threefold increase in risk was predicted. Therefore, shifting wheat production to new producing regions to reduce the risk might not be possible as the risk of adverse events beyond the key wheat-growing areas increases even more. Furthermore, we found a marked increase in wheat exposure to high temperatures, severe droughts and field inaccessibility compared with other types of adverse events. Our results also showed the limitations of some of the presently debated adaptation options and demonstrated the need for development of region-specific strategies. Other regions of the world could be affected by adverse weather events in the future in a way different from that considered here for Europe. This observation emphasizes the importance of conducting similar analyses for other major wheat regions.

  18. THE ROLE OF ASTRO-GEODETIC IN PRECISE GUIDANCE OF LONG TUNNELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirghasempour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of prime aspects of surveying projects is guidance of paths of a long tunnel from different directions and finally ending all paths in a specific place. This kind of underground surveying, because of particular condition, has some different points in relation to the ground surveying, including Improper geometry in underground transverse, low precise measurement in direction and length due to condition such as refraction, distinct gravity between underground point and corresponding point on the ground (both value and direction of gravity and etc. To solve this problems, astro-geodetic that is part of geodesy science, can help surveying engineers. In this article, the role of astronomy is defined in two subjects: 1- Azimuth determination of directions from entrance and exit nets of tunnel and also calibration of gyro-theodolite to use them in Underground transvers: By astronomical methods, azimuth of directions can be determine with an accuracy of 0.5 arcsecond, whereas, nowadays, no gyroscope can measure the azimuth in this accuracy; For instance, accuracy of the most precise gyroscope (Gyromat 5000 is 1.2 cm over a distance of one kilometre (2.4 arcsecond. Furthermore, the calibration methods that will be mention in this article, have significance effects on underground transverse. 2- Height relation between entrance point and exit point is problematic and time consuming; For example, in a 3 km long tunnel ( in Arak- Khoram Abad freeway, to relate entrance point to exit point, it is necessary to perform levelling about 90 km. Other example of this boring and time consuming levelling is in Kerman tunnel. This tunnel is 36 km length, but to transfer the entrance point height to exit point, 150 km levelling is needed. According to this paper, The solution for this difficulty is application of astro-geodetic and determination of vertical deflection by digital zenith camera system TZK2-D. These two elements make possible to define geoid profile

  19. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David

    2002-01-01

    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  20. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a entrance ramp control (ERC strategies; (b mainline control strategies; (c alternate routes choice; (d information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED, were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world.

  1. Towards More Precise Design Guidance: Specifying and Testing the Functions of Assigned Student Roles in Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Alyssa Friend; Saghafian, Marzieh; Padmanabhan, Poornima

    2012-01-01

    While assigning student roles is a popular technique in online discussions, roles and the responsibilities allocated to them have not been consistently assigned. This makes it difficult to compare implementations and generate principled guidance for role design. This study critically examined frequently assigned student roles and identified a set…

  2. Flight evaluation of a computer aided low-altitude helicopter flight guidance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Harry N.; Jones, Raymond D.; Clark, Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The Flight Systems Development branch of the U.S. Army's Avionics Research and Development Activity (AVRADA) and NASA Ames Research Center have developed for flight testing a Computer Aided Low-Altitude Helicopter Flight (CALAHF) guidance system. The system includes a trajectory-generation algorithm which uses dynamic programming and a helmet-mounted display (HMD) presentation of a pathway-in-the-sky, a phantom aircraft, and flight-path vector/predictor guidance symbology. The trajectory-generation algorithm uses knowledge of the global mission requirements, a digital terrain map, aircraft performance capabilities, and precision navigation information to determine a trajectory between mission way points that seeks valleys to minimize threat exposure. This system was developed and evaluated through extensive use of piloted simulation and has demonstrated a 'pilot centered' concept of automated and integrated navigation and terrain mission planning flight guidance. This system has shown a significant improvement in pilot situational awareness, and mission effectiveness as well as a decrease in training and proficiency time required for a near terrain, nighttime, adverse weather system. AVRADA's NUH-60A STAR (Systems Testbed for Avionics Research) helicopter was specially modified, in house, for the flight evaluation of the CALAHF system. The near terrain trajectory generation algorithm runs on a multiprocessor flight computer. Global Positioning System (GPS) data are integrated with Inertial Navigation Unit (INU) data in the flight computer to provide a precise navigation solution. The near-terrain trajectory and the aircraft state information are passed to a Silicon Graphics computer to provide the graphical 'pilot centered' guidance, presented on a Honeywell Integrated Helmet And Display Sighting System (IHADSS). The system design, piloted simulation, and initial flight test results are presented.

  3. Precise Estimates of the Physical Parameters for the Exoplanet System HD 17156 Enabled by Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Transit and Asteroseismic Observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutzman, Philip; Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.;

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of three distinct transits of HD 17156b obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We analyzed both the transit photometry and previously published radial velocities to find the planet-star radius ratio Rp /R sstarf = 0.07454 ± 0.00035, in......We present observations of three distinct transits of HD 17156b obtained with the Fine Guidance Sensors on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We analyzed both the transit photometry and previously published radial velocities to find the planet-star radius ratio Rp /R sstarf = 0.07454 ± 0...

  4. Complex Grid Failure Propagating Chain Model in Consideration of Adverse Weather%计及恶劣天气因素的复杂电网连锁故障事故链模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文颖; 杨楠; 张建立; 孙建华; 姚峰; 王佳明

    2012-01-01

    In condition of adverse weather, the probability of components failure in the power grid was increasing significantly and amplifying the probability of serious grid accidents. In comparison with the evolution of grid self-organized criticality and the section development of failure propagation chain, this paper first proposed that the failure propagation chain could be characterized as an effective tool for expressing the grid self-organized status. Then, after the analysis of traditional cascading failure chain, the complex grid failure propagating chain model, using grid self-organized criticality, in consideration of adverse weather, was established, simulating the potential cascading failure trail during the process of evolution of grid self-organized status in form of failure propagating chain. The introduction of this model can provide a key reference for grid operator in screening the weakness of power grid. The simulation of Henan power grid proves the availability and feasibility of the model.%恶劣天气条件下电网各元件发生故障的机率明显增加,加大了电网恶性事故发生的概率。通过电网自组织临界态的演化与事故链各环节发展的对比,指出事故链可以作为表征电网自组织临界态进程的有效工具。在传统电网事故链模型基础之上,基于白组织临界理论,建立计及恶劣天气因素的复杂电网连锁故障事故链模型及其仿真算法,以事故链的形式仿真电网自临界状态演化进程中潜在的连锁故障传播途径,为运行方式制订人员甄别恶劣天气下电网危险环节提供重要依据。对河南电网的实例分析,证明了所提出模型的有效性和可行性。

  5. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Multiplexin as a Target of SAGA Deubiquitinase Activity in Glia Required for Precise Axon Guidance During Drosophila Visual Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqun Ma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Spt-Ada-Gcn5 Acetyltransferase (SAGA complex is a transcriptional coactivator with histone acetylase and deubiquitinase activities that plays an important role in visual development and function. In Drosophila melanogaster, four SAGA subunits are required for the deubiquitination of monoubiquitinated histone H2B (ubH2B: Nonstop, Sgf11, E(y2, and Ataxin 7. Mutations that disrupt SAGA deubiquitinase activity cause defects in neuronal connectivity in the developing Drosophila visual system. In addition, mutations in SAGA result in the human progressive visual disorder spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7. Glial cells play a crucial role in both the neuronal connectivity defect in nonstop and sgf11 flies, and in the retinal degeneration observed in SCA7 patients. Thus, we sought to identify the gene targets of SAGA deubiquitinase activity in glia in the Drosophila larval central nervous system. To do this, we enriched glia from wild-type, nonstop, and sgf11 larval optic lobes using affinity-purification of KASH-GFP tagged nuclei, and then examined each transcriptome using RNA-seq. Our analysis showed that SAGA deubiquitinase activity is required for proper expression of 16% of actively transcribed genes in glia, especially genes involved in proteasome function, protein folding and axon guidance. We further show that the SAGA deubiquitinase-activated gene Multiplexin (Mp is required in glia for proper photoreceptor axon targeting. Mutations in the human ortholog of Mp, COL18A1, have been identified in a family with a SCA7-like progressive visual disorder, suggesting that defects in the expression of this gene in SCA7 patients could play a role in the retinal degeneration that is unique to this ataxia.

  6. Guidance navigation & control system for precision fix-point homing parafoil%精确定点归航翼伞控制系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春; 吕智慧; 黄伟; 沈超

    2012-01-01

    采用嵌入式归航控制器、双天线GPS定位定向仪、无线数传机、大力矩直流伺服电机等设备,自主设计归航控制、落点预置、遥控通讯和GPS数据处理等软件,研制具有自动归航和人工遥控归航2种工作模式的精确定点归航翼伞控制系统.其中,在自动归航模式下系统根据GPS收到的位置航向等信息控制翼伞向预设目标点靠近;而在人工遥控的模式下,由地面操作人员通过地面控制计算机发送无线遥控指令控制翼伞归航.对该控制系统进行系统地面联试和负载试验的验证.研究结果表明:本研究提供的控制系统满足了可控翼伞定点归航的需要.%Using embedded navigation & control device, double-antenna GPS device, unwire data transporter and big moment direct current electromotor, navigation control software, landing point pre-setting software, remote control & communication software, GPS data converse software was designed independently. Precision fix-point homing parafoil control system which has two working modes of automatic homing and manual remote control was developed. In the automatic homing mode, system controls parafoil approaching the pre-setted target point. And in the manual remote control mode, ground operating person sends remote control instructions to operate parafoil returning using ground control computer. And the control system was validated by association test and load test, respectively. The result indicates that the control system our research provided fulfilled the demand of controllable parafoil fix-point homing.

  7. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.N. Rajanikanth

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing such a system are described.

  8. Guidance Systems of Fighter Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    K.N. Rajanikanth; Rao, R S; P. S. Subramanyam; Ajai Vohra

    2005-01-01

    Mission performance of a fighter aircraft is crucial for survival and strike capabilities in todays' aerial warfare scenario. The guidance functions of such an aircraft play a vital role inmeeting the requirements and accomplishing the mission success. This paper presents the requirements of precision guidance for various missions of a fighter aircraft. The concept ofguidance system as a pilot-in-loop system is pivotal in understanding and designing such a system. Methodologies of designing s...

  9. Role of telecommunications in precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture has been made possible by the confluence of several technologies: geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, image analysis software, low-cost microcomputer-based variable rate controller/recorders, and precision tractor guidance systems. While these techn...

  10. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  11. Why precision?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes

    2012-05-15

    Precision measurements together with exact theoretical calculations have led to steady progress in fundamental physics. A brief survey is given on recent developments and current achievements in the field of perturbative precision calculations in the Standard Model of the Elementary Particles and their application in current high energy collider data analyses.

  12. Enhanced mission performance from autonomous instrument guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Jørgensen, Peter Siegbjørn; Betto, Maurizio;

    2006-01-01

    examples of such autonomous space instrumentation. With its full autonomy, this star tracker is capable of providing, in real-time, the absolute orientation with respect to the celestial reference frame with an accuracy of a few arc seconds. This high accuracy along with the robust operations, low weight...... acquisition and pointing (PROBA). Here three applications of the mu ASC as an autonomous onboard precision guide for precision vector instrumentation are presented. These are autonomous onboard antenna guidance, telescope guidance and tracking and high accuracy and wide range laser rangers....

  13. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Jie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  14. Precision mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kittell, David

    1989-01-01

    David Kittell, the father of the discipline, Precision Mechanics, shares the foundation of this science with you in his highly practical and fun to read book, Precision Mechanics. Based on his highly acclaimed course by the same name, first taught at the Perkin-Elmer Technical institute in Norwalk, Connecticut, and later as a short course offered in such places as Bell Labs, SPIE, IEEE, NASA, and several national labs, you will find this book relevant and immediately useful.

  15. Progress on diagnosis and therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer under guidance of precision medicine%精准医学理念指导下的分化型甲状腺癌诊治进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张娟娟(综述); 王少华(审校)

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer is increasing recently, and differentiated thyroid cancer accounts for more than 90% of all thyroid malignancies.Although the degree of malignancy of thyroid cancer is lower and prognosis is better, but there is pos-sibility to relapse and metastasis.The concept of precision medicine has paid more and more attention by many surgeons.This paper reviews how to get perfect diagnosis and therapy of differentiated thyroid cancer to reduce risk of relapse and metastasis by application of precision medicine.%近年来甲状腺癌的发病率逐年增高,其中分化型甲状腺癌( differentiated thyroid cancer, DTC)占90%以上。虽然甲状腺癌恶性程度较低,预后较好,但仍有复发和转移的可能。精准医学是以个体化医疗为基础发展起来的新型医学概念与医疗模式。文中对如何应用精准医学理念完善DTC的诊断、治疗以及减少复发和转移的风险进行综述。

  16. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  17. On guidance and volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billings, M.B.; Jennings, R.; Lev, B.

    2013-01-01

    Survey evidence suggests that managers voluntarily disclose information, particularly earnings guidance, with an aim toward dampening share price volatility. Yet, consultants and influential institutions advise against providing guidance — citing fears of litigation and market penalties associated w

  18. Precision metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J

    2012-08-28

    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  19. Common Mistakes of a Lancair Pilot facing Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Zorrilla

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the origin of the main causes of accidents that occur in experimental Lancair aircrafts. By its nature, the experimental aircrafts exhibit unique flight conditions that could become difficult during inclement weather. For this study, we used the database of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB in the United States, from January 2005 to December 2014, taking into account ten cases of fatal accidents involving planes from this brand. It was concluded that the disorientation and decision-making related to errors were the main reasons, which are directly associated with pilots skills at the time of the accident. Also, a thorough analysis of this research is recommended for a subsequent application to actual cases in the Colombian Air Force.

  20. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  1. The mechanism and key molecules involved in pollen tube guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Hidenori

    2015-01-01

    During sexual reproduction of flowering plants, pollen tube guidance by pistil tissue is critical for the delivery of nonmotile sperm cells to female gametes. Multistep controls of pollen tube guidance can be divided into two phases: preovular guidance and ovular guidance. During preovular guidance, various female molecules, including stimulants for pollen germination and pollen tube growth, are provided to support tube growth toward the ovary, where the ovules are located. After entering the ovary, pollen tubes receive directional cues from their respective target ovules, including attractant peptides for precise, species-preferential attraction. Successful pollen tube guidance in the pistil requires not only nutritional and directional controls but also competency controls to make pollen tubes responsive to guidance cues, regulation to terminate growth once a pollen tube arrives at the target, and strategies to stop ovular attraction depending on the fertilization of female gametes.

  2. Corporate information management guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Information Management (IM) Council, IM representatives from nearly all Headquarters (HQ) organizations have been meeting over the past year as the Corporate Guidance Group (CGG) to develop useful and sound corporate information management (IM) guidance. The ability of the Department`s IM community to develop such unified guidance continues to be critical to the success of future Departmental IM planning processes and the establishment of a well-coordinated IM environment between Headquarters and field organizations. This report, with 26 specific corporate IM guidance items documented and unanimously agreed to, as well as 12 items recommended for further development and 3 items deferred for future consideration, represents a highly successful effort by the IM community. The effort has proven that the diverse DOE organizations can put aside individual preferences and work together towards a common and mutually beneficial goal. In examining most areas and issues associated with information management in the Department, they have developed specific, far-reaching, and useful guidance. The IM representatives recommend that the documented guidance items provided in this report and approved by the DOE IM Council be followed by all IM organizations. The representatives also strongly recommend that the guidance process developed by the CGG be the single process for developing corporate IM guidance.

  3. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  4. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  5. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  6. Precision Positioning and Inertial Guidance Sensors. Technology and Operational Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    quelques caractdristiques importantes quant & Is pr~cision do local isation. -ces distances ne sont pas mesdrdea directement. Chaque utilisateur lea d...the user equipment tesi locations in the southwestern United States. The Navstar satellites transmit a composite signal at two L-band frequencies. One...total program. VII. SUWO.RY OF TESI RESULTS By count, the predominant Class II t,.rminal configuration tested ias an an actively synchronized user

  7. Fault-Tolerant Precision Formation Guidance for Interferometry Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A methodology is to be developed that will allow the development and implementation of fault-tolerant control system for distributed collaborative spacecraft. The...

  8. My view on occupation guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Occupation instruction needs to the support of theories,in the case of the occupation guidance theory is not very developed in our country,It has very important sense that absorbing and drawing lessons from the advanced occupation guidance theory,and targeting guidance to occupation guidance work,.

  9. Anticipatory guidance through DVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Sandra; McMahon, Pamela M; Calongne, Laurinda; Steele-Moses, Susan K

    2014-03-01

    The major purpose of the study was to determine if a 5-minute DVD is an effective method for communicating anticipatory guidance to parents at their child's 4-month well-child visit. A total of 84 caregivers were randomly assigned to receive anticipatory guidance through standard care (written anticipatory guidance handout and free talk) or DVD (DVD format + standard care). Participants completed a brief questionnaire immediately before and after their visit. As anticipated, knowledge scores improved significantly from pre-test to post-test. There was also a significant interaction between format used for anticipatory guidance and time. Specifically, there was greater improvement in knowledge over time for parents in the DVD group as compared with the standard care group. Additionally, the mean knowledge level of those in the DVD group as compared with those in the standard care group trended toward significance. Finally, visit length was shortened by nearly 3 minutes in the DVD group, and close to 100% of all respondents, regardless of anticipatory guidance format, indicated that they were very satisfied with their visit and amount of information learned.

  10. RESEARCH OF GUIDANCE TECHNOLOGY FOR ASSEMBLY MODELING IN VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Technology of movement and knowledge guidance in virtual assembly is presented. The designer can move the mechanical part precisely under the movement guidance. The movement guidance is implemented based on constraint recognition and assembly degree of freedom analysis. A multi-hierarchy knowledge base is built to represent the assembly knowledge and information. The virtual assembly system judges the requirement of the designer based on the context of design task and searches for the useful knowledge and information, which can be provided to the designer in a natural way.

  11. Career guidance on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    2013-01-01

    This article is about how the notion of place can be used in an analysis of career guidance practices and their development. It is about how a focus on the context of career guidance can develop an awareness of the place where guidance is practiced and support the development of career guidance...... in new places. In this article I introduce an analytical perspective on place; I give the example of the guidance café a practice development that took place into serious consideration because it was an attempt to develop career guidance practice through relocating it....

  12. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  13. Active/Passive Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) Laser Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-31

    which provides finer details useful for target recognition and idenification . 2. The millimeter wave radar is more efficient for search, and for range...determination than the FLIR. 3. The radar is more effective during adverse weather, particularly fog . The atmosphere is more transparent and less of a

  14. Regulatory guidance document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  15. PIV Logon Configuration Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Glen Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-04

    This document details the configurations and enhancements implemented to support the usage of federal Personal Identity Verification (PIV) Card for logon on unclassified networks. The guidance is a reference implementation of the configurations and enhancements deployed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) by Network and Infrastructure Engineering – Core Services (NIE-CS).

  16. PROFESSIONAL GUIDANCE: EXPERIENCE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Pinto de Almeida Bizarria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an account of a career guidance with a group of five teenagers ( 16 and 19 , students of pre-university preparatory course offered by a public university in the state of Ceará . The work group dynamics was from a privileged form of performance by allowing a greater enrichment of the discussions , considering the heterogeneity and diversity of the group . To address relevant issues in career guidance based on the theory Socio-Historical , a roadmap of action process was constructed from three axes . Each axis has worked in two sessions that match a date. The first axis called " meaning of choice," worked on thematic choice process . With regard to the axis " World of Work " was discussed idealizations and representations about the professions , the labor market and the vestibular / ESMS . Emotional links with the professions , skills and ideas on skills and information professions : Finally , the " self " axis, which contains the themes was developed .

  17. Guidance and Control Architecture Design and Demonstration for Low Ballistic Coefficient Atmospheric Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Sean

    2014-01-01

    We propose to develop a robust guidance and control system for the ADEPT (Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology) entry vehicle. A control-centric model of ADEPT will be developed to quantify the performance of candidate guidance and control architectures for both aerocapture and precision landing missions. The evaluation will be based on recent breakthroughs in constrained controllability/reachability analysis of control systems and constrained-based energy-minimum trajectory optimization for guidance development operating in complex environments.

  18. 78 FR 56752 - Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral Pressurized Water Reactors Reviews AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft Interim Staff Guidance; request for comment... comment on, draft Interim Staff Guidance (ISG) ESP/COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance...

  19. A Further Look at X-33 Entry Guidance and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping

    1999-01-01

    An entry guidance design developed at Iowa State University (ISU) for the X-33 advanced technology demonstrator is outlined and compared with the X-33 entry guidance algorithms developed at NASA Marshall. Both designs are based on the Space Shuttle entry guidance concept, but significant improvements have been made to enhance the performance and reduce the complexity. The ISU design was incorporated into MAVERIC, a high fidelity vehicle simulation software for the X-33, and evaluated in Monte Carlo simulations against random dispersions in propulsion system, wind and atmospheric properties, aerodynamic coefficients, interaction between propulsion and aerodynamics, and navigation data. The simulations clearly demonstrated the capability and precision of the ISU entry guidance design in successfully guiding the X-33 in some rather difficult flight scenarios. As the entry guidance development for the X-33 is completing, this report also offers some review of the strength and limitations of the current Shuttle-based entry guidance framework, and finally some potential candidates for next generation of more capable and cost-effective entry guidance designs are discussed.

  20. Precision agriculture '09 : papers presented at the 7th European conference on precision agriculture, Wageningen, The Netherlands, 6-8 July 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Goense, D.; Lokhorst, C.

    2009-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is becoming ever more relevant as the agricultural industry struggles to come to terms with the environment, economics, traceability, vehicle guidance and crop management. Whilst some benefits have proved elusive, others contribute positively to today's agriculture. Research co

  1. Guidance of Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, George

    1997-01-01

    The paper describes a method for guiding a dynamic system through a given set of points. The paradigm is a fully automatic aircraft subject to air traffic control (ATC). The ATC provides a sequence of way points through which the aircraft trajectory must pass. The way points typically specify time, position, and velocity. The guidance problem is to synthesize a system state trajectory which satisfies both the ATC and aircraft constraints. Complications arise because the controlled process is multi-dimensional, multi-axis, nonlinear, highly coupled, and the state space is not flat. In addition, there is a multitude of possible operating modes, which may number in the hundreds. Each such mode defines a distinct state space model of the process by specifying the state space coordinatization, the partition of the controls into active controls and configuration controls, and the output map. Furthermore, mode transitions must be smooth. The guidance algorithm is based on the inversion of the pure feedback approximations, which is followed by iterative corrections for the effects of zero dynamics. The paper describes the structure and modules of the algorithm, and the performance is illustrated by several example aircraft maneuvers.

  2. [Precision Nursing: Individual-Based Knowledge Translation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Li-Chi; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Su, Sui-Lung

    2016-12-01

    U.S. President Obama announced a new era of precision medicine in the Precision Medicine Initiative (PMI). This initiative aims to accelerate the progress of personalized medicine in light of individual requirements for prevention and treatment in order to improve the state of individual and public health. The recent and dramatic development of large-scale biologic databases (such as the human genome sequence), powerful methods for characterizing patients (such as genomics, microbiome, diverse biomarkers, and even pharmacogenomics), and computational tools for analyzing big data are maximizing the potential benefits of precision medicine. Nursing science should follow and keep pace with this trend in order to develop empirical knowledge and expertise in the area of personalized nursing care. Nursing scientists must encourage, examine, and put into practice innovative research on precision nursing in order to provide evidence-based guidance to clinical practice. The applications in personalized precision nursing care include: explanations of personalized information such as the results of genetic testing; patient advocacy and support; anticipation of results and treatment; ongoing chronic monitoring; and support for shared decision-making throughout the disease trajectory. Further, attention must focus on the family and the ethical implications of taking a personalized approach to care. Nurses will need to embrace the paradigm shift to precision nursing and work collaboratively across disciplines to provide the optimal personalized care to patients. If realized, the full potential of precision nursing will provide the best chance for good health for all.

  3. Drag-based composite super-twisting sliding mode control law design for Mars entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenhua; Yang, Jun; Li, Shihua; Guo, Lei

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the drag-based trajectory tracking guidance problem is investigated for Mars entry vehicle subject to uncertainties. A composite super twisting sliding mode control method based on finite-time disturbance observer is proposed for guidance law design. The proposed controller not only eliminates the effects of matched and mismatched disturbances due to uncertainties of atmospheric models and vehicle aerodynamics but also guarantees the continuity of control action. Numerical simulations are carried out on the basis of Mars Science Laboratory mission, where the results show that the proposed methods can improve the Mars entry guidance precision as compared with some existing guidance methods including PID and ADRC.

  4. Final OSWER Vapor Intrusion Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is preparing to finalize its guidance on assessing and addressing vapor intrusion, which is defined as migration of volatile constituents from contaminated media in the subsurface (soil or groundwater) into the indoor environment. In November 2002, EPA issued draft guidance o...

  5. Restructuring Guidance and Counseling Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Beverly A.; Daly, Timothy P.

    1993-01-01

    Briefly reviews counseling profession's call for revitalization and transformation in school counseling and guidance programs. Summarizes one school system's efforts during late 1980s and early 1990s to transform its program from services and crisis orientation into a comprehensive developmental model based on Myrick's developmental guidance and…

  6. Guidance in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V. Jurist Lional

    2010-01-01

    Secondary School Students face a lot of problems in their body as well as in mind due to puberty that tends to adolescence stage. Adolescence has peculiar characters of their own. They need proper Guidance and Counselling to tackle their own problems. Guidance is described as a counselling service to assist the individual in achieving self…

  7. Guidance at the educational marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    in educational policies and institutions. As educational systems have expanded and, further, have been restructured with the expansion of choice opportunities since the 1980s, guidance has become prioritized as a form of counseling or coaching, which can support students. Thus, guidance has become an important...

  8. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion.

  9. WIPP waste characterization program sampling and analysis guidance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Characterization Program Sampling and Analysis Guidance Manual (Guidance Manual) provides a unified source of information on the sampling and analytical techniques that enable Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to comply with the requirements established in the current revision of the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) for the WIPP Experimental-Waste Characterization Program (the Program). This Guidance Manual includes all of the sampling and testing methodologies accepted by the WIPP Project Office (DOE/WPO) for use in implementing the Program requirements specified in the QAPP. This includes methods for characterizing representative samples of transuranic (TRU) wastes at DOE generator sites with respect to the gas generation controlling variables defined in the WIPP bin-scale and alcove test plans, as well as waste container headspace gas sampling and analytical procedures to support waste characterization requirements under the WIPP test program and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The procedures in this Guidance Manual are comprehensive and detailed and are designed to provide the necessary guidance for the preparation of site specific procedures. The use of these procedures is intended to provide the necessary sensitivity, specificity, precision, and comparability of analyses and test results. The solutions to achieving specific program objectives will depend upon facility constraints, compliance with DOE Orders and DOE facilities' operating contractor requirements, and the knowledge and experience of the TRU waste handlers and analysts. With some analytical methods, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the Guidance Manual procedures may be used directly. With other methods, such as nondestructive/destructive characterization, the Guidance Manual provides guidance rather than a step-by-step procedure.

  10. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  11. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  12. Haptic Guidance Needs to Be Intuitive Not Just Informative to Improve Human Motor Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugge, Winfred; Kuling, Irene A.; Brenner, Eli; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Humans make both random and systematic errors when reproducing learned movements. Intuitive haptic guidance that assists one to make the movements reduces such errors. Our study examined whether any additional haptic information about the location of the target reduces errors in a position reproduction task, or whether the haptic guidance needs to be assistive to do so. Holding a haptic device, subjects made reaches to visible targets without time constraints. They did so in a no-guidance condition, and in guidance conditions in which the direction of the force with respect to the target differed, but the force scaled with the distance to the target in the same way. We examined whether guidance forces directed towards the target would reduce subjects’ errors in reproducing a prior position to the same extent as do forces rotated by 90 degrees or 180 degrees, as it might because the forces provide the same information in all three cases. Without vision of the arm, both the accuracy and precision were significantly better with guidance directed towards the target than in all other conditions. The errors with rotated guidance did not differ from those without guidance. Not surprisingly, the movements tended to be faster when guidance forces directed the reaches to the target. This study shows that haptic guidance significantly improved motor performance when using it was intuitive, while non-intuitively presented information did not lead to any improvements and seemed to be ignored even in our simple paradigm with static targets and no time constraints. PMID:26982481

  13. Research on Additional Loss of Guidance Optical Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI De-dong; HAO Chong-yang

    2010-01-01

    The factors which cause additional losses of guidance optical fiber in wound state were analyzed. A mathematical model used to analyze the macro-bend losses in the cross region producing in the precision winding process was established.For an actual guidance optical fiber, the measured data of the fiber's additional losses under low temperature and the loss curves with radius were given in the paper. The simulation results were compared with the test data. It shows that the addi-tional losses of optical fiber caused by bending and low temperature can meet the actual requirements of the fiber optical guidance system. The established model can be used to predict the change trend of fiber losses in the winding process with a certain tensile force.

  14. Precision performance lamp technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Dean A.; Kiesa, James E.; Dean, Raymond A.

    1997-09-01

    A principal function of a lamp is to produce light output with designated spectra, intensity, and/or geometric radiation patterns. The function of a precision performance lamp is to go beyond these parameters and into the precision repeatability of performance. All lamps are not equal. There are a variety of incandescent lamps, from the vacuum incandescent indictor lamp to the precision lamp of a blood analyzer. In the past the definition of a precision lamp was described in terms of wattage, light center length (LCL), filament position, and/or spot alignment. This paper presents a new view of precision lamps through the discussion of a new segment of lamp design, which we term precision performance lamps. The definition of precision performance lamps will include (must include) the factors of a precision lamp. But what makes a precision lamp a precision performance lamp is the manner in which the design factors of amperage, mscp (mean spherical candlepower), efficacy (lumens/watt), life, not considered individually but rather considered collectively. There is a statistical bias in a precision performance lamp for each of these factors; taken individually and as a whole. When properly considered the results can be dramatic to the system design engineer, system production manage and the system end-user. It can be shown that for the lamp user, the use of precision performance lamps can translate to: (1) ease of system design, (2) simplification of electronics, (3) superior signal to noise ratios, (4) higher manufacturing yields, (5) lower system costs, (6) better product performance. The factors mentioned above are described along with their interdependent relationships. It is statistically shown how the benefits listed above are achievable. Examples are provided to illustrate how proper attention to precision performance lamp characteristics actually aid in system product design and manufacturing to build and market more, market acceptable product products in the

  15. Pandemic influenza guidance for corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this guidance document is to assist members of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM), and the organizations for which they work, in managing the impact of a pandemic of influenza or other contagious respiratory disease on patients, employees, and business. This guidance document outlines actions to take before and during an influenza pandemic on the basis of two main strategies: (1) reducing the spread of the virus within facilities; and (2) providing medical care and medical surveillance to client/patient populations. Facilities in which ACOEM members serve include government agencies and the military, universities, and corporations, which generally have multiple locations/sites and their own medical staff, with members responsible for medical care and disease control. This guidance is for organizations with outpatient occupational medicine services, to be used as appropriate. Medical centers should also use guidance that addresses additional employee and external patient care needs.1–3 The ACOEM fully supports implementation of occupational influenza programs that conform with guidance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), with other guidance from the US Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations and guidance.

  16. Transsphenoidal pituitary resection with intraoperative MR guidance: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergolizzi, Richard S., Jr.; Schwartz, Richard B.; Hsu, Liangge; Wong, Terence Z.; Black, Peter M.; Martin, Claudia; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1999-05-01

    The use of intraoperative MR image guidance has the potential to improve the precision, extent and safety of transsphenoidal pituitary resections. At Brigham and Women's Hospital, an open-bore configuration 0.5T MR system (SIGNA SP, GE Medical Systems, Milwaukee, WI) has been used to provide image guidance for nine transsphenoidal pituitary adenoma resections. The intraoperative MR system allowed the radiologist to direct the surgeon toward the sella turcica successfully while avoiding the cavernous sinus, optic chiasm and other sensitive structures. Imaging performed during the surgery monitored the extent of resection and allowed for removal of tumor beyond the surgeon's view in five cases. Dynamic MR imaging was used to distinguish residual tumor from normal gland and postoperative changes permitting more precise tumor localization. A heme-sensitive long TE gradient echo sequence was used to evaluate for the presence of hemorrhagic debris. All patients tolerated the procedure well without significant complications.

  17. Precision Clock Evaluation Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Tests and evaluates high-precision atomic clocks for spacecraft, ground, and mobile applications. Supports performance evaluation, environmental testing,...

  18. CAREER GUIDANCE EXPERIENCE ABROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Tolstoguzov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of careeroriented activities carried out with students of schools in developed and developing countries. Career Guidance in Russia, despite the vast experience of its implementation, is experiencing serious difficulties. In this regard, it is important to take into account the international experience career-oriented activities, such as in the developed countries of North America and the European Union as well as in several Asian countries with rapidly growing economies and a large demographic potential, taking into account the best variants for the Russian education system. Methods. The experience of career-oriented work undertaken with pupils of the USA, Canada, Israel, France, UK, Germany, Denmark, Sweden, Japan, Singapore, China and India is shown on the basis of the comparative analysis of different publications and information sources. The author has made an attempt to generalize the principles of psycho-pedagogical and administrative assistance in professional self-determination of senior pupils abroad. Scientific novelty. The approaches to career-oriented activities in countries with different levels of economic development are compared for the first time. Some principles are revealed. Firstly, the higher the income level per capita in the country, the greater attention is given to vocational guidance. The politics in the developed countries is based on interests of the individual: children’s acquaintance with the world of professions begins already at younger school and the moment of definitive selfdetermination is postponed till the end of their senior stage of education; the possibility of direction change of professional preparation in case of detection of discrepancy of qualities of the pupil to originally selected profile is provided. Career-oriented activity in developing countries, on the contrary, is rigidly coordinated to requirements of economy and a labour market

  19. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  20. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors - A Review

    CERN Document Server

    Benedict, G Fritz; Nelan, Edmund P; Harrison, Thomas E

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary Gaia results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the Gaia limit in the coming era of 20-30m telescopes.

  1. Recent Events in Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.; Bullman, Jack (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This article summarizes recent events in Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) in space, weapons and missiles, and aircraft. The section on space includes recent developments with the following NASA spacecraft and space vehicles: Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous, Deep Space 1, Microwave Anisotropy Probe, Earth Observer-1, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the International Space Station, X-38, and X-40A. The section on weapons and missiles includes recent developments with the following missiles: Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile, Storm Shadow/Scalp EG precision standoff missile, Hellfire missile, AIM-120C Advanced medium-range air-to-air missile, Derby missile, Arrow 2, and the Standard Missile SM-3. The section on aircraft includes recent developments with the following aircraft: Joint Strike Fighter, X-31, V-22, Couger/SUDer Puma Mk. 2, Predator B 001, and the Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle.

  2. Response to work activity guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memorandum is concerning the request from the FY95 Platte-Kansas Rivers Ecosystem Work Activity Guidance for refuge managers to review the purposes of refuges...

  3. CDM Convective Forecast Planning guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CDM Convective Forecast Planning (CCFP) guidance product provides a foreast of en-route aviation convective hazards. The forecasts are updated every 2 hours and...

  4. Guidance molecules in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nasarre, Patrick; Potiron, Vincent; Drabkin, Harry; Roche, Joëlle

    2010-01-01

    Guidance molecules were first described in the nervous system to control axon outgrowth direction. They are also widely expressed outside the nervous system where they control cell migration, tissue development and establishment of the vascular network. In addition, they are involved in cancer development, tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. This review is primarily focused on their functions in lung cancer and their involvement in lung development is also presented. Five guidance molecule fam...

  5. Precision Teaching: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Precision teaching is introduced as a method of helping students develop fluency or automaticity in the performance of academic skills. Precision teaching involves being aware of the relationship between teaching and learning, measuring student performance regularly and frequently, and analyzing the measurements to develop instructional and…

  6. Quality in career guidance: The Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach......Quality assurance systems are introduced in career guidance to monitor, control and develop guidance interventions. The Danish case represents at centrally driven, top-down approach...

  7. Current Trends in Tactical Missile Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vathsal

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of tactical missile guidance is very challenging and has been treated using several basic metlfodologies in the past four decades. Major techniques can be grouped underclassical guidance laws, modern guidance laws, l'aws for manoeuvring targets, predictive guidance for endgame scenario, and guidance laws based on intelligent control methods. Each technique has some advantages and disadvantages while implementing in a practical system. Guidance law selection is dictated by nature of flight profile like boost, midcourse, terminal homing, etc, and also miss-distance and a single-shot kill probability. This paper presents a brief survey of the existing techniques and current trends in tactical missile guidance.

  8. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  9. Precision Measurement in Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quake, Stephen

    Is biology a quantitative science like physics? I will discuss the role of precision measurement in both physics and biology, and argue that in fact both fields can be tied together by the use and consequences of precision measurement. The elementary quanta of biology are twofold: the macromolecule and the cell. Cells are the fundamental unit of life, and macromolecules are the fundamental elements of the cell. I will describe how precision measurements have been used to explore the basic properties of these quanta, and more generally how the quest for higher precision almost inevitably leads to the development of new technologies, which in turn catalyze further scientific discovery. In the 21st century, there are no remaining experimental barriers to biology becoming a truly quantitative and mathematical science.

  10. A NEW EFFICIENT METHOD TO BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR BALLISTIC ROCKET GUIDANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The exploitation of rocket guidance technology on the basis of the guidance law of Space Shuttle and Pegasus rocket was performed. A new efficient method of numerical iteration solution to the boundary value problem was put forward. The numerical simulation results have shown that the method features good performances of stability, robustness, high precision, and algebraic formulas in real computation. By virtue of modern DSP (digital signal processor) high speed chip technology, the algorithm can be used in real time and can adapt to the requirements of the big primary bias of rocket guidance.

  11. Laser precision microfabrication

    CERN Document Server

    Sugioka, Koji; Pique, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Miniaturization and high precision are rapidly becoming a requirement for many industrial processes and products. As a result, there is greater interest in the use of laser microfabrication technology to achieve these goals. This book composed of 16 chapters covers all the topics of laser precision processing from fundamental aspects to industrial applications to both inorganic and biological materials. It reviews the sate of the art of research and technological development in the area of laser processing.

  12. Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordano, A. J.; Mcswain, G. G.; Fernandes, S. T.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Autonomous Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) Bridging program is reviewed to demonstrate the program plan and GN&C systems for the Space Shuttle. The ascent CN&C system is described in terms of elements such as the general-purpose digital computers, sensors for the navigation subsystem, the guidance-system software, and the flight-control subsystem. Balloon-based and lidar wind soundings are used for operations assessment on the day of launch, and the guidance software is based on dedicated units for atmospheric powered flight, vacuum powered flight, and abort-specific situations. Optimization of the flight trajectories is discussed, and flight-control responses are illustrated for wavelengths of 500-6000 m. Alternate sensors are used for load relief, and adaptive GN&C systems based on alternate gain synthesis are used for systems failures.

  13. Information architecture. Volume 3: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this document, as presented in Volume 1, The Foundations, is to assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and promulgating information architecture guidance. This guidance is aimed at increasing the development of information architecture as a Departmentwide management best practice. This document describes departmental information architecture principles and minimum design characteristics for systems and infrastructures within the DOE Information Architecture Conceptual Model, and establishes a Departmentwide standards-based architecture program. The publication of this document fulfills the commitment to address guiding principles, promote standard architectural practices, and provide technical guidance. This document guides the transition from the baseline or defacto Departmental architecture through approved information management program plans and budgets to the future vision architecture. This document also represents another major step toward establishing a well-organized, logical foundation for the DOE information architecture.

  14. Signaling mechanisms in cortical axon growth, guidance and branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eKalil

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Precise wiring of cortical circuits during development depends upon axon extension, guidance and branching to appropriate targets. Motile growth cones at axon tips navigate through the nervous system by responding to molecular cues, which modulate signaling pathways within axonal growth cones. Intracellular calcium signaling has emerged as a major transducer of guidance cues but exactly how calcium signaling pathways modify the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton to evoke growth cone behaviors and axon branching is still mysterious. Axons must often pause in their outgrowth while their branches extend into targets. Some evidence suggests a competition between growth of axons and branches but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Since it is difficult to study growing axons deep within the mammalian brain, much of what we know about signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics has come from studies of axonal growth cones, in many cases from non-mammalian species, growing in tissue culture. Consequently it is not well understood how guidance cues relevant to mammalian neural development in vivo signal to the growth cone cytoskeleton during axon outgrowth and guidance. In this review we describe our recent work in dissociated cultures of developing rodent sensorimotor cortex in the context of the current literature on molecular guidance cues, calcium signaling pathways and cytoskeletal dynamics that regulate growth cone behaviors. A major challenge is to relate findings in tissue culture to mechanisms of cortical development in vivo. Toward this goal, we describe our recent work in cortical slices, which preserve the complex cellular and molecular environment of the mammalian brain but allow direct visualization of growth cone behaviors and calcium signaling. Findings from this work suggest that mechanisms regulating axon growth and guidance in dissociated culture neurons also underlie development of cortical connectivity in vivo.

  15. Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: rationale for and challenges of guidance development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Lavis, John N; Lewin, Simon; Atun, Rifat; Røttingen, John-Arne; Dröschel, Daniel; Beck, Lise; Abalos, Edgardo; El-Jardali, Fadi; Gilson, Lucy; Oliver, Sandy; Wyss, Kaspar; Tugwell, Peter; Kulier, Regina; Pang, Tikki; Haines, Andy

    2012-01-01

    In the first paper in a three-part series on health systems guidance, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch and colleagues examine how guidance is currently formulated in low- and middle-income countries, and the challenges to developing such guidance.

  16. Estimating sparse precision matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, Nikhil; White, Martin; Zhou, Harrison H.; O'Connell, Ross

    2016-08-01

    We apply a method recently introduced to the statistical literature to directly estimate the precision matrix from an ensemble of samples drawn from a corresponding Gaussian distribution. Motivated by the observation that cosmological precision matrices are often approximately sparse, the method allows one to exploit this sparsity of the precision matrix to more quickly converge to an asymptotic 1/sqrt{N_sim} rate while simultaneously providing an error model for all of the terms. Such an estimate can be used as the starting point for further regularization efforts which can improve upon the 1/sqrt{N_sim} limit above, and incorporating such additional steps is straightforward within this framework. We demonstrate the technique with toy models and with an example motivated by large-scale structure two-point analysis, showing significant improvements in the rate of convergence. For the large-scale structure example, we find errors on the precision matrix which are factors of 5 smaller than for the sample precision matrix for thousands of simulations or, alternatively, convergence to the same error level with more than an order of magnitude fewer simulations.

  17. Cooperative Guidance for Multimissile Salvo Attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Shiyu; Zhou Rui

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative guidance problems of multiple missiles are considered in this article. A cooperative guidance scheme, where coordi-nation algorithms and local guidance laws are combined together, is proposed. This scheme actually builds up a hierarchical cooperative guidance architecture, which may provide a general solution to the multimissile cooperative guidance problems. In the case of salvo attacks which require missiles to hit the target simultaneously, both centralized and distributed coordination algorithms are derived based on the impact-time-control guidance (ITCG) law. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  18. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jungmann, Klaus P

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular groun dstate hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular Quantum Electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  19. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-09-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 µs. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In particular ground state hyperfine structure transitions can be measured by microwave spectroscopy to deliver the muon magnetic moment. The frequency of the 1s-2s transition in the hydrogen-like atom can be determined with laser spectroscopy to obtain the muon mass. With such measurements fundamental physical interactions, in particular quantum electrodynamics, can also be tested at highest precision. The results are important input parameters for experiments on the muon magnetic anomaly. The simplicity of the atom enables further precise experiments, such as a search for muonium-antimuonium conversion for testing charged lepton number conservation and searches for possible antigravity of muons and dark matter.

  20. Precision genome editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Bennett, Eric P; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2014-01-01

    Precise and stable gene editing in mammalian cell lines has until recently been hampered by the lack of efficient targeting methods. While different gene silencing strategies have had tremendous impact on many biological fields, they have generally not been applied with wide success in the field...... of glycobiology, primarily due to their low efficiencies, with resultant failure to impose substantial phenotypic consequences upon the final glycosylation products. Here, we review novel nuclease-based precision genome editing techniques enabling efficient and stable gene editing, including gene disruption...... by introducing single or double-stranded breaks at a defined genomic sequence. We here compare and contrast the different techniques and summarize their current applications, highlighting cases from the field of glycobiology as well as pointing to future opportunities. The emerging potential of precision gene...

  1. Precision Experiments at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    de Boer, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP) established the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics with unprecedented precision, including all its radiative corrections. These led to predictions for the masses of the top quark and Higgs boson, which were beautifully confirmed later on. After these precision measurements the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 1999 jointly to 't Hooft and Veltman "for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics". Another hallmark of the LEP results were the precise measurements of the gauge coupling constants, which excluded unification of the forces within the SM, but allowed unification within the supersymmetric extension of the SM. This increased the interest in Supersymmetry (SUSY) and Grand Unified Theories, especially since the SM has no candidate for the elusive dark matter, while Supersymmetry provides an excellent candidate for dark matter. In addition, Supersymmetry removes the quadratic divergencies of the SM and {\\it predicts} the Hig...

  2. Improving Precision of Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    Types in programming languages provide a powerful tool for the programmer to document the code so that a large aspect of the intent can not only be presented to fellow programmers but also be checked automatically by compilers. The precision with which types model the behavior of programs...... is crucial to the quality of these automated checks, and in this thesis we present three different improvements to the precision of types in three different aspects of the Java programming language. First we show how to extend the type system in Java with a new type which enables the detection of unintended...... mixing of unrelated types. Secondly, we present an improvement of the type checking algorithm in Java which enables the compiler to detect and ease the use of a common programming idiom called guarded casts. Thirdly, we present an improvement of the precision with which classes generated by a parser...

  3. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gritsenko, P.G.; Ilina, O.; Friedl, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In

  4. Abortion Information: A Guidance Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolleat, Patricia L.

    1975-01-01

    A number of questions relating to providing abortion information to teenagers can be raised from legal, ethical and philosophical standpoints. The purpose of this article is to examine abortion information-giving from the perspective of counseling and guidance theory and practice. (Author)

  5. Guidance: Interim Municipal Settlement Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim guidance and fact sheets regarding settlements involving municipalities or municipal waste under Section 122 CERCLA as amended by SARA. Interim policy sets forth the criteria by which EPA generally determines whether to exercise enforcement discretion to pursue MSW generators and transporters as PRPs.

  6. Teacher Guidance of Knowledge Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Baruch; Dreyfus, Tommy; Hadas, Nurit; Hershkowitz, Rina

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on how teachers guide construction of knowledge in classrooms. We suggest that guidance hinges on the kind of dialogue teachers choose to engage students in. We propose several classroom dialogue types relevant for the construction of knowledge and suggest that critical dialogue is particularly effective for knowledge…

  7. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  8. Atmospheric guidance techniques and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Gavert, D. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Orbiter entry guidance system controls the Space Shuttle Orbiter from the initial atmospheric penetration point to the point at which an earth relative velocity of 2500 feet/second is reached. At the latter point, control of the Orbiter is transferred to the terminal area energy management system. The entry guidance system is based on the concept that the range to be flown during entry is a unique function of the drag deceleration profile flown throughout the entry. The range prediction during entry is based on analytic equations which are simple drag deceleration functions of earth relative velocity above Mach 10.5 and energy with respect to the earth below Mach 10.5. Flight through the entry corridor is accomplished by linking these simple drag deceleration functions together in series in order to define a drag deceleration reference profile. The results of the first three Space Shuttle missions have not only verified the entry guidance concept but have also demonstrated the stability of the guidance system.

  9. Precision electron polarimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudakov, Eugene A. [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    A new generation of precise Parity-Violating experiments will require a sub-percent accuracy of electron beam polarimetry. Compton polarimetry can provide such accuracy at high energies, but at a few hundred MeV the small analyzing power limits the sensitivity. M{\\o}ller polarimetry provides a high analyzing power independent on the beam energy, but is limited by the properties of the polarized targets commonly used. Options for precision polarimetry at ~300 MeV will be discussed, in particular a proposal to use ultra-cold atomic hydrogen traps to provide a 100\\%-polarized electron target for M{\\o}ller polarimetry.

  10. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  11. Precision Health Economics and Outcomes Research to Support Precision Medicine: Big Data Meets Patient Heterogeneity on the Road to Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixi Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The “big data” era represents an exciting opportunity to utilize powerful new sources of information to reduce clinical and health economic uncertainty on an individual patient level. In turn, health economic outcomes research (HEOR practices will need to evolve to accommodate individual patient–level HEOR analyses. We propose the concept of “precision HEOR”, which utilizes a combination of costs and outcomes derived from big data to inform healthcare decision-making that is tailored to highly specific patient clusters or individuals. To explore this concept, we discuss the current and future roles of HEOR in health sector decision-making, big data and predictive analytics, and several key HEOR contexts in which big data and predictive analytics might transform traditional HEOR into precision HEOR. The guidance document addresses issues related to the transition from traditional to precision HEOR practices, the evaluation of patient similarity analysis and its appropriateness for precision HEOR analysis, and future challenges to precision HEOR adoption. Precision HEOR should make precision medicine more realizable by aiding and adapting healthcare resource allocation. The combined hopes for precision medicine and precision HEOR are that individual patients receive the best possible medical care while overall healthcare costs remain manageable or become more cost-efficient.

  12. Precision Health Economics and Outcomes Research to Support Precision Medicine: Big Data Meets Patient Heterogeneity on the Road to Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yixi; Guzauskas, Gregory F; Gu, Chengming; Wang, Bruce C M; Furnback, Wesley E; Xie, Guotong; Dong, Peng; Garrison, Louis P

    2016-11-02

    The "big data" era represents an exciting opportunity to utilize powerful new sources of information to reduce clinical and health economic uncertainty on an individual patient level. In turn, health economic outcomes research (HEOR) practices will need to evolve to accommodate individual patient-level HEOR analyses. We propose the concept of "precision HEOR", which utilizes a combination of costs and outcomes derived from big data to inform healthcare decision-making that is tailored to highly specific patient clusters or individuals. To explore this concept, we discuss the current and future roles of HEOR in health sector decision-making, big data and predictive analytics, and several key HEOR contexts in which big data and predictive analytics might transform traditional HEOR into precision HEOR. The guidance document addresses issues related to the transition from traditional to precision HEOR practices, the evaluation of patient similarity analysis and its appropriateness for precision HEOR analysis, and future challenges to precision HEOR adoption. Precision HEOR should make precision medicine more realizable by aiding and adapting healthcare resource allocation. The combined hopes for precision medicine and precision HEOR are that individual patients receive the best possible medical care while overall healthcare costs remain manageable or become more cost-efficient.

  13. Ultra Precision Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-20

    Sieder , Tate], [Baur, Isermann], [Kays, London, 1984]. We have addressed the question of controolling the temperature of oil used in a precision...Stanford, CA, USA. Sidman, M.D., 1986, Adaptive Control of a Flexible Structure, Ph.D. Thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Sieder , E.N

  14. Teaching with Precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Ted; Solity, Jonathan

    1982-01-01

    Use of precision teaching principles with learning problem students involves five steps: specifying performance, recording daily behavior, charting daily behavior, recording the teaching approach, and analyzing data. The approach has been successfully implemented through consultation of school psychologists in Walsall, England. (CL)

  15. Precision Muonium Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus P.

    2016-01-01

    The muonium atom is the purely leptonic bound state of a positive muon and an electron. It has a lifetime of 2.2 $\\mu$s. The absence of any known internal structure provides for precision experiments to test fundamental physics theories and to determine accurate values of fundamental constants. In p

  16. A guidance concept for hypersonic aerospacecrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Shinji

    In this paper a guidance concept for hypersonic re-entry flights is presented. The method uses a closed-form guidance technique based on a drag acceleration reference profile. A guidance law for range control is developed. It employs a physical relation between vehicle energy and range instead of a prediction-correction technique used for Shuttle entry guidance. Simulation results show that the algorithm provides good performance.

  17. Theoretical motivations for precision measurements of oscillation parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Pascoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two theoretical motivations of precision measurements of oscillation parameters. One is the guidance for flavour model building with flavour symmetries, and the other is the connection with the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We also present our recent progress in these aspects, a new approach of flavour model building based on cross coupling in the flavon potential and a novel mechanism of leptogenesis via phase transition.

  18. Low cost automated precise time measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, A.; Liposchak, P.

    1973-01-01

    The Aerospace Guidance and Metrology Center (AGMC) has the responsibility for the dissemination of Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) to Air Force timing systems requiring microsecond time. In order to maintain traceability to the USNO Master Clock in Washington D.C., and accomplish efficient logging of time and frequency data on individual precision clocks, a simple automatic means of acquiring precise time has been devised. The Automatic Time Interval Measurement System (ATIMS) consists of a minicomputer (8K Memory), teletype terminal, electronic counter, Loran C receiver, time base generator and locally-manufactured relay matrix panel. During the measurement process, the computer controls the relay matrix which selects for comparison 13 atomic clocks against a reference clock and the reference versus Loran C. Through use of the system teletype, the operator is able to set the system clock (hours, minutes and seconds), examine and/or modify all clock data and constants, and set measurement intervals. This is done in a conversational manner. A logic flow diagram, system schematic, source listing and software components are included in the presentation.

  19. Providing Career Guidance for Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Pamela G.

    This module is directed at personnel working or planning to work in the areas of guidance, counseling, placement and follow-through in junior and senior high school settings, grades 7-12. The module topic is career guidance for young women of junior and senior high school age, aand the focus will be on providing nonbiased career guidance which…

  20. The Self in Guidance: Assumptions and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Richard; Payne, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the assumptions of "self" made in the professional and managerial discourses of guidance. Suggests that these assumptions obstruct the capacity of guidance workers to explain their own practices. Drawing on contemporary debates over identity, modernity, and postmodernity, argues for a more explicit debate about the self in guidance. (RJM)

  1. Quality Assurance in University Guidance Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    In Europe there is no common quality assurance framework for the delivery of guidance in higher education. Using a case study approach in four university career guidance services in England, France and Spain, this article aims to study how quality is implemented in university career guidance services in terms of strategy, standards and models,…

  2. 78 FR 53792 - Draft Guidance for Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is revising its licensing guidance for reciprocity. The NRC is requesting public comment on draft NUREG-1556, Volume 19, Revision 1, ``Consolidated Guidance about Materials Licenses: Guidance for Agreement State Licensees about NRC Form 241 `Report of Proposed Activities in Non- Agreement States, Areas of Exclusive Federal Jurisdiction, of Offshore......

  3. Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard

    2004-01-01

    When working with traffic planning or guidance it is common practice to view the vehicles as a combined mass. >From this models are employed to specify the vehicle supply and demand for each region. As the models are complex and the calculations are equally demanding the regions and the detail...... can be obtained through cellular phone tracking or GPS systems. This information can then be used to provide individual traffic guidance as opposed to the mass information systems of today -- dynamic roadsigns and trafficradio. The goal is to achieve better usage of road and time. The main topic...... of the paper is the possibilities of using ABIT when disruptions occur (accidents, congestion, and roadwork). The discussion will be based on realistic case studies....

  4. Teleautonomous guidance for mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borenstein, J.; Koren, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Teleautonomous guidance (TG), a technique for the remote guidance of fast mobile robots, has been developed and implemented. With TG, the mobile robot follows the general direction prescribed by an operator. However, if the robot encounters an obstacle, it autonomously avoids collision with that obstacle while trying to match the prescribed direction as closely as possible. This type of shared control is completely transparent and transfers control between teleoperation and autonomous obstacle avoidance gradually. TG allows the operator to steer vehicles and robots at high speeds and in cluttered environments, even without visual contact. TG is based on the virtual force field (VFF) method, which was developed earlier for autonomous obstacle avoidance. The VFF method is especially suited to the accommodation of inaccurate sensor data (such as that produced by ultrasonic sensors) and sensor fusion, and allows the mobile robot to travel quickly without stopping for obstacles.

  5. Review of soil contamination guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, M.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Soldat, J.K.

    1981-08-01

    A review of existing and proposed radioactive soil contamination standards and guidance was conducted for United Nuclear Corporation (UNC), Office of Surplus Facilities Management. Information was obtained from both government agencies and other sources during a literature survey. The more applicable standards were reviewed, evaluated, and summarized. Information pertaining to soil contamination for both facility operation and facility decommissioning was obtained from a variety of sources. These sources included: the Code of Federal Regulations, regulatory guides, the Federal Register, topical reports written by various government agencies, topical reports written by national laboratories, and publications from the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). It was difficult to directly compare the standards and guidance obtained from these sources since each was intended for a specific situation and different units or bases were used. However, most of the information reviewed was consistent with the philosophy of maintaining exposures at levels as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA).

  6. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  7. 2011 Army Strategic Planning Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    TESI ) of 22,000 Soldiers, the Army’s total force by the end of the mid-term period is programmed to be 520K (AC). We will achieve a more...dwell ratios, extending TESI authority to adequately man deploying units and sustain the All-Volunteer Force, right-sizing the generating force, and... TESI Temporary End-Strength Increase WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction 2011 ARMY STRATEGIC PLANNING GUIDANCE Page 19 2011

  8. Precision Chemical Abundance Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yong, David; Grundahl, Frank; Meléndez, Jorge;

    2012-01-01

    This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate that the ob......This talk covers preliminary work in which we apply a strictly differential line-by-line chemical abundance analysis to high quality UVES spectra of the globular cluster NGC 6752. We achieve extremely high precision in the measurement of relative abundance ratios. Our results indicate...... that the observed abundance dispersion exceeds the measurement uncertainties and that many pairs of elements show significant correlations when plotting [X1/H] vs. [X2/H]. Our tentative conclusions are that either NGC 6752 is not chemically homogeneous at the ~=0.03 dex level or the abundance variations...

  9. Precision Muon Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P

    2015-01-01

    The muon is playing a unique role in sub-atomic physics. Studies of muon decay both determine the overall strength and establish the chiral structure of weak interactions, as well as setting extraordinary limits on charged-lepton-flavor-violating processes. Measurements of the muon's anomalous magnetic moment offer singular sensitivity to the completeness of the standard model and the predictions of many speculative theories. Spectroscopy of muonium and muonic atoms gives unmatched determinations of fundamental quantities including the magnetic moment ratio $\\mu_\\mu / \\mu_p$, lepton mass ratio $m_{\\mu} / m_e$, and proton charge radius $r_p$. Also, muon capture experiments are exploring elusive features of weak interactions involving nucleons and nuclei. We will review the experimental landscape of contemporary high-precision and high-sensitivity experiments with muons. One focus is the novel methods and ingenious techniques that achieve such precision and sensitivity in recent, present, and planned experiment...

  10. A passion for precision

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    For more than three decades, the quest for ever higher precision in laser spectroscopy of the simple hydrogen atom has inspired many advances in laser, optical, and spectroscopic techniques, culminating in femtosecond laser optical frequency combs  as perhaps the most precise measuring tools known to man. Applications range from optical atomic clocks and tests of QED and relativity to searches for time variations of fundamental constants. Recent experiments are extending frequency comb techniques into the extreme ultraviolet. Laser frequency combs can also control the electric field of ultrashort light pulses, creating powerful new tools for the emerging field of attosecond science.Organiser(s): L. Alvarez-Gaume / PH-THNote: * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  11. Precision laser aiming system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Brandon R.; Todd, Steven N.

    2009-04-28

    A precision laser aiming system comprises a disrupter tool, a reflector, and a laser fixture. The disrupter tool, the reflector and the laser fixture are configurable for iterative alignment and aiming toward an explosive device threat. The invention enables a disrupter to be quickly and accurately set up, aligned, and aimed in order to render safe or to disrupt a target from a standoff position.

  12. Precision disablement aiming system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monda, Mark J.; Hobart, Clinton G.; Gladwell, Thomas Scott

    2016-02-16

    A disrupter to a target may be precisely aimed by positioning a radiation source to direct radiation towards the target, and a detector is positioned to detect radiation that passes through the target. An aiming device is positioned between the radiation source and the target, wherein a mechanical feature of the aiming device is superimposed on the target in a captured radiographic image. The location of the aiming device in the radiographic image is used to aim a disrupter towards the target.

  13. Evaluation of the Production CH-47D Adverse Weather Cockpit (AWC) Aerial Refueling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    aircraft longitudinal axis at a preset elevation. The system also has an automatic tracking feature which enables the optics to automatically track an...I degrees left of the aircraft longitudinal axis. Approximately 25 percent of the screen is obtcured when looking 90 degrees right of the aircraft ... aircraft longitudinal axis before the tip of the refueling probe is visible on the right side of the screen, When looking 90 degrees right of the aircraft

  14. ECCM Performance of the Digital Microwave Radio under Adverse Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    idenif by block numb.r) Propagation, rain attenuation, Ku-band, alternate routing, digital microwave radio 2 . ABTRACT (1 4 Power N 01010061 W imF V block...Washington D.C. at 15 GHz 3 2. Coefficient of Fog Attenuation 4 3. Line of Sight Multipath Fading Statistics at 15 GHz 6 4. Transmission Through a film...atmospheric attenuation from water vapor, fog , water film on antennas and in particular from rain. The fade margins necessary to overcome these attenuations

  15. Impact Of Technological Innovations For Coffee Production In Adverse Weather Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bliska, Flavia; Turco, Patricia; Tosto, Sergio; Fronzaglia, Thomaz; Vegro, Celso

    2013-01-01

    A major concern of the Brazilian coffee growers is closely related to the quantitative and qualitative impacts on the coffee sector as a result of possible climate changes, particularly regarding the production of Arabica coffee varieties, which have better beverage quality. This is because low temperatures (below 18 ° C) or elevated (above 23 ° C), causes the blocking of the biological functions responsible for the development of coffee tree, resulting in abortion of flowers and consequent...

  16. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  17. The influence of adverse weather conditions on probability of congestion on dutch motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Stralen, W.J.H.; Calvert, S.C.; Molin, E.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the influence o

  18. The influence of adverse weather conditions on the probability of congestion on Dutch motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Stralen, W.; Calvert, S.C.; Molin, E.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. However, to the best of our knowledge this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the inf

  19. Optimum PN Guidance Law for Maneuvering Target

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-cai; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    An optimum PN guidance law for maneuvering target is developed using optimal control theory. By estimating the target position and setting the cost function, the guidance law can be deduced even without knowing the missile lateral acceleration. Since the quadratic cost function can make a compromise between the miss distance andthe control constraint, the optimum guidance law obtained is more general. Also, introduced line of sight rate as the input, a practical form of this guidance law is derived. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the guidance laws.

  20. Dissecting Repulsive Guidance Molecule/Neogenin function and signaling during neural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, D.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    During neural development a series of precisely ordered cellular processes acts to establish a functional brain comprising millions of neurons and many more neuronal connections. Neogenin and its repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) ligands contribute to neuronal network formation by inducing axon repu

  1. 78 FR 76297 - Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    .../or sex or use data ] mining technology to obtain such information from social media sites, the... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management Guidance AGENCY: Federal... supervisory guidance entitled ``Social Media: Consumer Compliance Risk Management Guidance'' (Guidance)....

  2. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  3. Precision Electroweak Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Przysiezniak, H

    2000-01-01

    This talk describes some of the precision electroweak measurements from around the world, namely those related to the Z and W bosons, the top quark mass, sin2 theta_ W at NuTeV, and three other fundamental measurements: alpha-1 m2_ Z, (g-2)_mu at the E821 BNL experiment as well as the atomic parity violation (APV) measurement for the Cesium atom. These and other measurements are set in the context of the Standard Model (SM) and of the electroweak fit predictions. Future prospects for forthcoming experiments are briefly discussed.

  4. Orthobiologic Interventions Using Ultrasound Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard; Abdelshahed, Dena; Jayaram, Prathap

    2016-08-01

    The application of regenerative therapies for the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions has emerged over the last decade with recent acceleration. These include prolotherapy, platelet-rich plasma, and mesenchymal stem cell therapy. These strategies augment the body's innate physiology to heal pathologic processes. This article presents an overview of platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cell therapy for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries. A brief literature review is included, as are techniques for the use of ultrasound guidance to assist with these procedures.

  5. Quality guidance and quality formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the quality guidance model of Steenkamp and van Trijp that includes consumer quality formation processes. Quality expectations and quality experiences are seen as antecedents of perceived overall product quality conceptual model is applied using LISREL to a data...... set on Danish butter cookies. Five plausible models of the relation between expectation, experience and perceived product quality are estimated. Finally one model is selected on the basis of three criteria: chi-square, RMSEA and AIC: The results show a model where expectations are indirectly related...... to perceived quality through experience. Udgivelsesdato: APR...

  6. Agent Based Individual Traffic Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen

    This thesis investigates the possibilities in applying Operations Research (OR) to autonomous vehicular traffic. The explicit difference to most other research today is that we presume that an agent is present in every vehicle - hence Agent Based Individual Traffic guidance (ABIT). The next...... evolutionary step for the in-vehicle route planners is the introduction of two-way communication. We presume that the agent is capable of exactly this. Based on this presumption we discuss the possibilities and define a taxonomy and use this to discuss the ABIT system. Based on a set of scenarios we conclude...

  7. Sporophytic control of pollen tube growth and guidance in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lausser, Andreas; Kliwer, Irina; Srilunchang, Kanok-orn; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pollen tube germination, growth, and guidance (progamic phase) culminating in sperm discharge is a multi-stage process including complex interactions between the male gametophyte as well as sporophytic tissues and the female gametophyte (embryo sac), respectively. Inter- and intra-specific crossing barriers in maize and Tripsacum have been studied and a precise description of progamic pollen tube development in maize is reported here. It was found that pollen germination and initial tube growth are rather unspecific, but an early, first crossing barrier was detected before arrival at the transmitting tract. Pollination of maize silks with Tripsacum pollen and incompatible pollination of Ga1s/Ga1s-maize silks with ga1-maize pollen revealed another two incompatibility barriers, namely transmitting tract mistargeting and insufficient growth support. Attraction and growth support by the transmitting tract seem to play key roles for progamic pollen tube growth. After leaving transmitting tracts, pollen tubes have to navigate across the ovule in the ovular cavity. Pollination of an embryo sac-less maize RNAi-line allowed the role of the female gametophyte for pollen tube guidance to be determined in maize. It was found that female gametophyte controlled guidance is restricted to a small region around the micropyle, approximately 50-100 microm in diameter. This area is comparable to the area of influence of previously described ZmEA1-based short-range female gametophyte signalling. In conclusion, the progamic phase is almost completely under sporophytic control in maize.

  8. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  9. Optimal terminal guidance for exoatmospheric interception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Wenbin; Chen Wanchun; Yang Liang; Liu Xiaoming; Zhou Hao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, two optimal terminal guidance (OTG) laws, one of which takes into account the final velocity vector constraint, are developed for exoatmospheric interception using optimal control theory. In exoatmospheric interception, because the proposed guidance laws give full consideration to the effect of gravity, they consume much less fuel than the traditional guidance laws while requiring a light computational load. In the development of the guidance laws, a unified optimal guidance problem is put forward, where the final velocity vector constraint can be consid-ered or neglected by properly adjusting a parameter in the cost function. To make this problem ana-lytically solvable, a linear model is used to approximate the gravity difference, the difference of the gravitational accelerations of the target and interceptor. Additionally, an example is provided to show that some achievements of this study can be used to significantly improve the fuel efficiency of the pulsed guidance employed by the interceptor whose divert thrust level is fixed.

  10. Space Telescope precision pointing control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, G. A.; Crum, R. C.; Dougherty, H. J.; Hegel, D. K.; Kelley, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has the most stringent pointing requirements imposed on any spacecraft to date. The overall HST stability shall not exceed 0.007 arc-seconds rms. The Pointing Control System utilizes fine guidance sensors and rate gyros for attitude reference and rate information. Control torques are provided by reaction wheels. A digital computer collects the sensor data, performs the control law computations, and sends torque commands to the reaction wheels. To attain this precision pointing, improvements were made to the rate gyros to lower their noise characteristics and to the reaction wheels to reduce their emitted vibration levels. The control system design was validated in a test sequence which progressed from model verification tests on an air-bearing to operations-oriented, closed loop testing on the assembled vehicle. A test system is described which allowed the simultaneous production of test case command loads for the flight computer and plots of predicted profiles to assist in test data analysis. Workarounds were required during system test to accommodate gyro biases and noise introduced into the closed loop system. Testing and analysis indicate that the HST will provide the capability to meet the requirements for precision pointing.

  11. Precision Medicine in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision medicine helps doctors select cancer treatments that are most likely to help patients based on a genetic understanding of their disease. Learn about the promise of precision medicine and the role it plays in cancer treatment.

  12. Mathematics for modern precision engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Paul J; Forbes, Alistair B

    2012-08-28

    The aim of precision engineering is the accurate control of geometry. For this reason, mathematics has a long association with precision engineering: from the calculation and correction of angular scales used in surveying and astronomical instrumentation to statistical averaging techniques used to increase precision. This study illustrates the enabling role the mathematical sciences are playing in precision engineering: modelling physical processes, instruments and complex geometries, statistical characterization of metrology systems and error compensation.

  13. International governmental agencies and career guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Conger, Stuart

    1999-01-01

    The international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), like many national and international organizations concerned with economic development believes that career guidance has an important role in promoting the development of a country's human resources. (Mapping the future: Young People and career guidance OECD, 1996). Generally the economic development agencies always recommend that career guidance services should be strengthened. Too frequently, however, they do no...

  14. Experimental Precision and Variety Comparison Precision in Regional Crop Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Fan-ling; ZHANG Qun-yuan; GE Zhi-nan; YANG Fu-xin; ZHANG De-gui; LIU Wen-xin

    2002-01-01

    According to the basic concepts of precision and the principles of analysis of variance (ANOVA), precision types for experiments and variety comparison in regional crop trials (RCT) were studied and developed; expected variety comparison precision (EVCP) and realized variety comparison precision (RVCP) and the corresponding statistical indexes of them were proposed. It was explained that experimental precision (EP) and variety comparison precision (VCP) are two kinds of precision of RCT; EP includes error precision and variety mean precision, which can be measured respectively by the coefficient of variation of single observation's error (CVe) and the coefficient of variation of variety mean's error (CVY); VCP includes EVCP and RVCP, which can be measured respectively by the detectable least relative difference (DLRD) and the relative least significant distance (RLSD); EP is an important factor of VCP but not identical to it; RVCP is the realization of EVCP. Besides error, experimental design and GE interaction and ANOVA model affect VCP. Several application examples for these precision indexes were presented, and the precision of regional cotton trials in the Yellow River Valley and the Changjiang Valley were investigated through the historical data of RCTs from 1980 to 1999.

  15. Fusion Guidance in Endovascular Peripheral Artery Interventions: A Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sailer, Anna M., E-mail: anni.sailer@mumc.nl; Haan, Michiel W. de, E-mail: m.de.haan@mumc.nl; Graaf, Rick de, E-mail: r.de.graaf@mumc.nl; Zwam, Willem H. van, E-mail: w.van.zwam@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Schurink, Geert Willem H., E-mail: gwh.schurink@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Nelemans, Patricia J., E-mail: patty.nelemans@maastrichtuniversity.nl [Maastricht University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology (Netherlands); Wildberger, Joachim E., E-mail: j.wildberger@mumc.nl; Das, Marco, E-mail: m.das@mumc.nl [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of endovascular guidance by means of live fluoroscopy fusion with magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and computed tomography angiography (CTA).MethodsFusion guidance was evaluated in 20 endovascular peripheral artery interventions in 17 patients. Fifteen patients had received preinterventional diagnostic MRA and two patients had undergone CTA. Time for fluoroscopy with MRA/CTA coregistration was recorded. Feasibility of fusion guidance was evaluated according to the following criteria: for every procedure the executing interventional radiologists recorded whether 3D road-mapping provided added value (yes vs. no) and whether PTA and/or stenting could be performed relying on the fusion road-map without need for diagnostic contrast-enhanced angiogram series (CEAS) (yes vs. no). Precision of the fusion road-map was evaluated by recording maximum differences between the position of the vasculature on the virtual CTA/MRA images and conventional angiography.ResultsAverage time needed for image coregistration was 5 ± 2 min. Three-dimensional road-map added value was experienced in 15 procedures in 12 patients. In half of the patients (8/17), intervention was performed relying on the fusion road-map only, without diagnostic CEAS. In two patients, MRA roadmap showed a false-positive lesion. Excluding three patients with inordinate movements, mean difference in position of vasculature on angiography and MRA/CTA road-map was 1.86 ± 0.95 mm, implying that approximately 95 % of differences were between 0 and 3.72 mm (2 ± 1.96 standard deviation).ConclusionsFluoroscopy with MRA/CTA fusion guidance for peripheral artery interventions is feasible. By reducing the number of CEAS, this technology may contribute to enhance procedural safety.

  16. Hybrid Guidance System for Relative Navigation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future NASA architectures and missions will involve many distributed platforms that must work together. This in turn requires guidance, navigation and control...

  17. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeld Jensen; Morten Larsen; Nielsen, Søren H.; Leon B. Larsen; Kent S. Olsen; Rasmus N. Jørgensen

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to ena...

  18. 78 FR 37231 - Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug Applications: Stability Testing of Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry; Guidance on Abbreviated New Drug... the availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``ANDAs: Stability Testing of Drug Substances and... generic drug review, FDA is recommending that the generic drug industry follow the approach in...

  19. Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: rationale for and challenges of guidance development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Bosch-Capblanch

    Full Text Available In the first paper in a three-part series on health systems guidance, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch and colleagues examine how guidance is currently formulated in low- and middle-income countries, and the challenges to developing such guidance.

  20. Arrival Metering Precision Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  1. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  2. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... compensation arrangements at a financial institution do not encourage employees to take excessive risks....

  3. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  4. Minimum variation guidance laws for interceptor missiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Shima, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new approach to guidance law design using linear quadratic optimal control theory, minimizing throughout the engagement the variation of the control input as well as the integral control effort. The guidance law is derived for arbitrary order missile dynamics and target maneu

  5. Driving change : sustainable development action plans Guidance

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This guidance builds upon the Sustainable Development Commission’s previous guidance, Getting Started (August 2005), which set out the basic elements that the Sustainable Development Commission would expect to see in a good Sustainable Development Action Plan. Publisher PDF Original published August 2005.

  6. [Precision nutrition in the era of precision medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P Z; Wang, H

    2016-12-06

    Precision medicine has been increasingly incorporated into clinical practice and is enabling a new era for disease prevention and treatment. As an important constituent of precision medicine, precision nutrition has also been drawing more attention during physical examinations. The main aim of precision nutrition is to provide safe and efficient intervention methods for disease treatment and management, through fully considering the genetics, lifestyle (dietary, exercise and lifestyle choices), metabolic status, gut microbiota and physiological status (nutrient level and disease status) of individuals. Three major components should be considered in precision nutrition, including individual criteria for sufficient nutritional status, biomarker monitoring or techniques for nutrient detection and the applicable therapeutic or intervention methods. It was suggested that, in clinical practice, many inherited and chronic metabolic diseases might be prevented or managed through precision nutritional intervention. For generally healthy populations, because lifestyles, dietary factors, genetic factors and environmental exposures vary among individuals, precision nutrition is warranted to improve their physical activity and reduce disease risks. In summary, research and practice is leading toward precision nutrition becoming an integral constituent of clinical nutrition and disease prevention in the era of precision medicine.

  7. Precise Truss Assembly Using Commodity Parts and Low Precision Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komendera, Erik; Reishus, Dustin; Dorsey, John T.; Doggett, W. R.; Correll, Nikolaus

    2014-01-01

    Hardware and software design and system integration for an intelligent precision jigging robot (IPJR), which allows high precision assembly using commodity parts and low-precision bonding, is described. Preliminary 2D experiments that are motivated by the problem of assembling space telescope optical benches and very large manipulators on orbit using inexpensive, stock hardware and low-precision welding are also described. An IPJR is a robot that acts as the precise "jigging", holding parts of a local structure assembly site in place, while an external low precision assembly agent cuts and welds members. The prototype presented in this paper allows an assembly agent (for this prototype, a human using only low precision tools), to assemble a 2D truss made of wooden dowels to a precision on the order of millimeters over a span on the order of meters. The analysis of the assembly error and the results of building a square structure and a ring structure are discussed. Options for future work, to extend the IPJR paradigm to building in 3D structures at micron precision are also summarized.

  8. Beauty and Precision: Weaving Complex Educational Technology Projects with Visual Instructional Design Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derntl, Michael; Parrish, Patrick; Botturi, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Instructional design and technology products result from many options and constraints. On the one hand, solutions should be creative, effective and flexible; on the other hand, developers and instructors need precise guidance and details on what to do during development and implementation. Communication of and about designs is supported by design…

  9. Utilizing Precision Teaching To Measure Growth of Reading Comprehension Skills in Low Achieving Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitti, Joanne M.

    A practicum addressed the problem of reading comprehension skills in low achieving students by monitoring their progress utilizing precision teaching. Based on referrals from classroom teachers, guidance counselors, and parents, five students ranging in ability levels from kindergarten through grade 8 were accepted into the program for one or more…

  10. An Adaptive Weighted Differential Game Guidance Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ping; FANG Yangwang; ZHANG Fengming; XIAO Bingsong; HU Shiguo; ZONG Shuning

    2012-01-01

    For intercepting modern high maneuverable targets,a novel adaptive weighted differential game guidance law based on the game theory of mixed strategy is proposed,combining two guidance laws which are derived from the perfect and imperfect information pattem,respectively.The weights vary according to the estimated error of the target's acceleration,the guidance law is generated by directly using the estimation of target's acceleration when the estimated error is small,and a differential game guidance law with adaptive penalty coefficient is implemented when the estimated error is large.The adaptive penalty coefficients are not constants and they can be adjusted with current target maneuverability.The superior homing performance of the new guidance law is verified by computer simulations.

  11. M1156 Precision Guidance Kit (PGK) Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    the data was determined to be combinable, p- value = 0.230. 25 P- value = 0.175, based on Fisher’s Exact Test.    37  Table 4-2. Summary of PGK...Artillery Charge System ( MACS ) propellant charges (M231, M232, and M232A1)  Artillery fire support mission-processing components, including fire...vulnerabilities. During the IOT&E, the Army conducted an AA to determine the ability of a unit equipped with PGK to protect, defend, recover, and restore

  12. Guidance and Control of a Man-Portable Precision Munition Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    history.................................................................................................20 Figure 15. Trajectory ...2) Projectile body (rigid) forces include axial force, normal force, and side ( Magnus ) force...static pitching, pitch damping, and Magnus components

  13. Guidance, Control and Positioning of Future Precision Guided Stand-off Weapons Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    ngcessairsment lieu entre deux missiles adjacents. Les missiles i et i+1 entrent en collision si l𔄀cart relatif &. passe par le domajne & entre deux recal ... airbag manufacturers. The resulting ejection concept incorporates a dual airbag system in which individual submunitions are grouped into subpacks...consisting of submunitions, an airbag and foam dunnage. These subpacks are arranged around one or more primary airbags which are used to eject the subpacks

  14. Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations. Volume 3: Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space shuttle guidance, navigation, and control design equations are presented. The space-shuttle mission includes three relatively distinct guidance phases which are discussed; atmospheric boost, which is characterized by an adaptive guidance law; extra-atmospheric activities; and re-entry activities, where aerodynamic surfaces are the principal effectors. Guidance tasks include pre-maneuver targeting and powered flight guidance, where powered flight is defined to include the application of aerodynamic forces as well as thruster forces. A flow chart which follows guidance activities throughout the mission from the pre-launch phase through touchdown is presented. The main guidance programs and subroutines used in each phase of a typical rendezvous mission are listed. Detailed software requirements are also presented.

  15. 76 FR 63676 - Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG-2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION Final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance DSS-ISG- 2010-01: Staff Guidance Regarding... final Division of Safety Systems Interim Staff Guidance, (DSS-ISG) DSS- ISG-2010-01, ``Staff Guidance... guidance to the NRC staff reviewer to address the increased complexity of recent spent fuel pool...

  16. Woman Precision Parachuting World Champion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    1. Twenty-four-year-old Sheng Jun won three gold medals at the 22nd World Parachuting Championships. one for women’s group total score title. one for women’s group precision landing title and the other for women’s individual precision landing title. She also created the women’s individual precision landing record of the World Championships by scoring 0.00 ten times.

  17. Centroid precision and orientation precision of planar localization microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGray, C; Copeland, C R; Stavis, S M; Geist, J

    2016-09-01

    The concept of localization precision, which is essential to localization microscopy, is formally extended from optical point sources to microscopic rigid bodies. Measurement functions are presented to calculate the planar pose and motion of microscopic rigid bodies from localization microscopy data. Physical lower bounds on the associated uncertainties - termed centroid precision and orientation precision - are derived analytically in terms of the characteristics of the optical measurement system and validated numerically by Monte Carlo simulations. The practical utility of these expressions is demonstrated experimentally by an analysis of the motion of a microelectromechanical goniometer indicated by a sparse constellation of fluorescent nanoparticles. Centroid precision and orientation precision, as developed here, are useful concepts due to the generality of the expressions and the widespread interest in localization microscopy for super-resolution imaging and particle tracking.

  18. Augmented Reality Repair Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidharth Bhatia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The daily life of a common man revolves around various forms of appliances/gadgets he uses throughout the day such as a mobile phone, laptop, printer, microwave oven, washing machine, etc. Although these appliances/gadgets are taken by most of the people for granted, the problem occurs when any of these things do not work as they are expected to. Getting them to the repair shops for every small glitch is expensive as well as time consuming. Although most of the companies which produce these appliances/gadgets do supply them with basic manuals, which deal with how to solve these minor issues, but reading them and at the same time repairing the corresponding appliance/gadget can be a frustrating task at times. These problems can be reduced to a large extent if some kind of live guidance is available. In this paper we propose a method to do so with the help of an augmented reality based system that will guide the user to carry out small scale repair jobs on these gadgets. All that is required is a decent webcam and a computing device, with a processor of 1 GHz or more and a display screen.

  19. Precision Teaching: Discoveries and Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper defines precision teaching; describes its monitoring methods by displaying a standard celeration chart and explaining charting conventions; points out precision teaching's roots in laboratory free-operant conditioning; discusses its learning tactics and performance principles; and describes its effectiveness in producing learning gains.…

  20. More Questions on Precision Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Precision teaching can accelerate basic skills progress of special needs children. Issues discussed include using probes as performance tests, charting daily progress, using the charted data to modify teaching methods, determining appropriate age levels, assessing the number of students to be precision taught, and carefully allocating time. (JDD)

  1. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  2. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  3. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  4. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  5. Tracking the key point of a building in infrared imaging guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yi-mei; Zhou, Fu-gen; Jin, Ting

    2013-09-01

    Ground target detection is very important in precise infrared imaging guidance. To address this problem, an accurate tracking algorithm of the key points, i.e., vertex of buildings is proposed. First, the feature points are extracted by Kanade-Lucas-Tomasi (KLT) algorithm, and the template of feature points is updated constantly in the tracking process according to the offset. Then based on the extracted feature points, the key point can be positioned using the geometric relation between the feature points and the key point. Third, the algorithm tracks the feature points and uses the geometric relation to track the key point in the next frame. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in tracking the key point of buildings in front-lower infrared image sequences for long time precise guidance.

  6. Smart-Divert Powered Descent Guidance to Avoid the Backshell Landing Dispersion Ellipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Acikmese, Behcet

    2013-01-01

    A smart-divert capability has been added into the Powered Descent Guidance (PDG) software originally developed for Mars pinpoint and precision landing. The smart-divert algorithm accounts for the landing dispersions of the entry backshell, which separates from the lander vehicle at the end of the parachute descent phase and prior to powered descent. The smart-divert PDG algorithm utilizes the onboard fuel and vehicle thrust vectoring to mitigate landing error in an intelligent way: ensuring that the lander touches down with minimum- fuel usage at the minimum distance from the desired landing location that also avoids impact by the descending backshell. The smart-divert PDG software implements a computationally efficient, convex formulation of the powered-descent guidance problem to provide pinpoint or precision-landing guidance solutions that are fuel-optimal and satisfy physical thrust bound and pointing constraints, as well as position and speed constraints. The initial smart-divert implementation enforced a lateral-divert corridor parallel to the ground velocity vector; this was based on guidance requirements for MSL (Mars Science Laboratory) landings. This initial method was overly conservative since the divert corridor was infinite in the down-range direction despite the backshell landing inside a calculable dispersion ellipse. Basing the divert constraint instead on a local tangent to the backshell dispersion ellipse in the direction of the desired landing site provides a far less conservative constraint. The resulting enhanced smart-divert PDG algorithm avoids impact with the descending backshell and has reduced conservatism.

  7. Active disturbance rejection control for drag tracking in mars entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yuanqing; Chen, Rongfang; Pu, Fan; Dai, Li

    2014-03-01

    Future Mars missions will require precision landing capability, which motivates the need for entry closed-loop guidance schemes. A new tracking law - active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) - is presented in this paper. The ability of the ADRC tracking law to handle the atmospheric models and the vehicle’s aerodynamic errors is investigated. Monte Carlo simulations with dispersions in entry state variables, drag and lift coefficients, and atmospheric density show effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Precision guided parachute LDRD final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilkey, J.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Aided Navigation and Remote Sensing Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Precision Guided Parachute LDRD, a two year program at Sandia National Laboratories which developed a Global Positioning System (GPS) guided parachute capable of autonomous flight and landings. A detailed computer model of a gliding parachute was developed for software only simulations. A hardware in-the-loop simulator was developed and used for flight package system integration and design validation. Initial parachute drop tests were conducted at Sandia`s Coyote Canyon Cable Facility, followed by a series of airdrops using Ross Aircraft`s Twin Otter at the Burris Ranch Drop Zone. Final flights demonstrated in-flight wind estimation and the capability to fly a commanded heading. In the past, the cost and logistical complexity of an initial navigation system ruled out actively guiding a parachute. The advent of the low-cost, light-weight Global Positioning System (GPS) has eliminated this barrier. By using GPS position and velocity measurements, a guided parachute can autonomously steer itself to a targeted point on the ground through the use of control drums attached to the control lanyards of the parachute. By actively correcting for drop point errors and wind drift, the guidance accuracy of this system should be on the order of GPS position errors. This would be a significant improvement over unguided airdrops which may have errors of a mile or more.

  9. The language of GABA in pollen tube growth and guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghui YU; Yan CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The achievement of double fertilization in higher plants requires the successful transport of sperm cells to the female gametes, the ovules. Pollen tubes, the tubular structure protruding from pollens, carrying the sperms play an important role in this process. How a pollen tube precisely guides its direction to gain its goal is of mystery. Previous investigation indicated that mul-tiple signal clues from the pistils function as the route signs to regulate the pathway of pollen tube growth. Among the signal clues, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) seems to be universal. Its gradient concentration has been found both in tobacco and Arabidopsis pollen tube guid-ance. In the communication of pollens and pistils, what on earth GABA tells pollen tubes is of great interest. The GABA receptors on the pollen membrane are thought to be the hinge in the language conversation. In this review, the mechanism of GABA gradient formation is investigated. The possible GABA receptor on the pollen membrane is examined and its function is discussed. To decipher the possible language of GABA in pollen tube growth and guidance, multiple methods are needed. The combination of transcriptome and proteomics assay is expected to unveil the secret.

  10. Beyond Black: An Alternative to Ethnocentric Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Robert C.

    1977-01-01

    This article is a clarification of the author's personal philosophy in the guidance and counseling of youth and adults, and clarification of commonalities that form the raison d'etre of all student personnel services. (Author)

  11. RCRA Programmatic Information Policy and Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the hazardous waste...

  12. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  13. Adaptive Missile Guidance Using GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Sharad Rupnar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The name adaptive means we can guide any missile using GPS in any critical conditions. GPS guided missiles, using the exceptional navigational and surveying abilities of GPS, after being launched, could deliver a warhead to any part of the globe via the interface of the onboard computer in the missile with the GPS satellite system.GPS allows accurate targeting of various military weapons including ICBMs, cruise missiles and precision-guided munitions. Artillery projectiles with embedded GPS receivers able to withstand accelerations of 12,000 G have been developed for use in 155mm.GPS guided weapons, with their technological advances over previous, are the superior weapon of choice in modern days

  14. Magnetic guidance of charged particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dubbers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many experiments and devices in physics use static magnetic fields to guide charged particles from a source onto a detector, and we ask the innocent question: What is the distribution of particle intensity over the detector surface? One should think that the solution to this seemingly simple problem is well known. We show that, even for uniform guide fields, this is not the case, and we present analytical point spread functions (PSF for magnetic transport that deviate strongly from previous results. The “magnetic” PSF shows unexpected singularities, which were recently also observed experimentally, and which make detector response very sensitive to minute changes of position, field amplitude, or particle energy. In the field of low-energy particle physics, these singularities may become a source of error in modern high precision experiments, or may be used for instrument tests.

  15. Reach on laser imaging technology to terminal guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xue-chun; Jin, Guang-yong; Wu, Zhi-chao; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    The development of range-imaging devices is motivated by various ground and space applications. Tasks in space missions include docking, rendezvous, manipulating robotic arms, landing and autonomous rover applications, sample identification and surface mapping. The ground applications include the guidance of vehicles, robotic and manipulator arms, and other autonomous or teleoperated machines, as well as surface or construction model generation. Without the scanner devices, scannerless imaging lidars have the characteristic of high frame rate, wide field of view and high reliability,which can be successful used in terminal guidance. Diode pumped laser radar with high repetition rate is studied in this paper. A bistatic system is set up and a high speed signal processor for the system is researched. In a conceptual sense, the imaging lidar has two parts, a transmitter and a receiver. Their field of views overlap throughout the measuring range.The imaging lidar operates as follows. Based on principle of pulsed time-of-flight (TOF) laser range finding, the solid-state laser diode-pumped laser produces short laser pulses, which though the expanded lens, then reach the target. The back reflected light is collected with a receiver lens and fed through optical fibres to discrete avalanche photo diodes (APDs). When a received pulse is detected by the comparator a time to digital converter (TDC) stops counting and a time interval, corresponding to the range, is produced. The precision of a single measurement is about +/-4.0cm, but better precision is achieved by averaging. Information about the reflectivity of the target is gathered by recording the amplitude of the received pulse. Range images with the lidar prototype were taken indoors, the measuring distance was about 14m.

  16. Precision Targeting: Filling the Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    operations were also repeatedly mentioned. 80 Many units focus a preponderance of their training and energy on the finish portion of the process...General David H. “Multi-National Force-Iraq Commander’s Counterinsurgency Guidance.” Military Review, September-October 2008. http://usacac.army.mil...J7. June 15, 2012. http://blogs.defensenews.com/saxotech-access/pdfs/decade-of-war-lessons-learned.pdf. Watts, Stephan; Baxter , Caroline; Dunigan

  17. Accuracy and precision of an IGRT solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gareth J; Rowbottom, Carl G; Mackay, Ranald I

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) can potentially improve the accuracy of delivery of radiotherapy treatments by providing high-quality images of patient anatomy in the treatment position that can be incorporated into the treatment setup. The achievable accuracy and precision of delivery of highly complex head-and-neck intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans with an IGRT technique using an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator and the Pinnacle Treatment Planning System (TPS) was investigated. Four head-and-neck IMRT plans were delivered to a semi-anthropomorphic head-and-neck phantom and the dose distribution was measured simultaneously by up to 20 microMOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transmitter) detectors. A volumetric kilovoltage (kV) x-ray image was then acquired in the treatment position, fused with the phantom scan within the TPS using Syntegra software, and used to recalculate the dose with the precise delivery isocenter at the actual position of each detector within the phantom. Three repeat measurements were made over a period of 2 months to reduce the effect of random errors in measurement or delivery. To ensure that the noise remained below 1.5% (1 SD), minimum doses of 85 cGy were delivered to each detector. The average measured dose was systematically 1.4% lower than predicted and was consistent between repeats. Over the 4 delivered plans, 10/76 measurements showed a systematic error > 3% (3/76 > 5%), for which several potential sources of error were investigated. The error was ultimately attributable to measurements made in beam penumbrae, where submillimeter positional errors result in large discrepancies in dose. The implementation of an image-guided technique improves the accuracy of dose verification, particularly within high-dose gradients. The achievable accuracy of complex IMRT dose delivery incorporating image-guidance is within +/- 3% in dose over the range of sample points. For some points in high-dose gradients

  18. Precision engineering: an evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Chris J

    2012-08-28

    Precision engineering is a relatively new name for a technology with roots going back over a thousand years; those roots span astronomy, metrology, fundamental standards, manufacturing and money-making (literally). Throughout that history, precision engineers have created links across disparate disciplines to generate innovative responses to society's needs and wants. This review combines historical and technological perspectives to illuminate precision engineering's current character and directions. It first provides us a working definition of precision engineering and then reviews the subject's roots. Examples will be given showing the contributions of the technology to society, while simultaneously showing the creative tension between the technological convergence that spurs new directions and the vertical disintegration that optimizes manufacturing economics.

  19. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  20. The voice of users in adult career guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance.......Is the voice of users heard in adult career guidance? Pan-Nordic Research shows that users are seen as recipients rather than agents i adult career guidance....

  1. The Development of a Lifelong Guidance System in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Borbely-Pecze, Bors Tibor

    2011-01-01

    The development of a lifelong guidance system in Hungary Systematic work is currently being undertaken in Hungary to develop a lifelong guidance system, in line with principles outlined by leading international organisations. The origins of career guidance in Hungary, and the nature of the current career guidance system, are outlined. The main…

  2. Launch flexibility using NLP guidance and remote wind sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Evin J.; Bradt, Jerre E.; Hardtla, John W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the use of lidar wind measurements in the implementation of a guidance strategy for a nonlinear programming (NLP) launch guidance algorithm. The NLP algorithm uses B-spline command function representation for flexibility in the design of the guidance steering commands. Using this algorithm, the guidance system solves a two-point boundary value problem at each guidance update. The specification of different boundary value problems at each guidance update provides flexibility that can be used in the design of the guidance strategy. The algorithm can use lidar wind measurements for on pad guidance retargeting and for load limiting guidance steering commands. Examples presented in the paper use simulated wind updates to correct wind induced final orbit errors and to adjust the guidance steering commands to limit the product of the dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack for launch vehicle load alleviation.

  3. Raising the Profile of Career Guidance: Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Bryan

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance (IAEVG) launched the Educational and Vocational Guidance Practitioner credential (EVGP) as one means of formally acknowledging the knowledge, skills, and personal attributes that practitioners need in order to provide quality career development services to clients. This…

  4. Measuring Integrated Socioemotional Guidance at School: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire (SEG-Q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen; Struyf, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…

  5. 78 FR 48201 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2013-01; Guidance for... Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance (JLD-ISG), JLD-ISG-2013-01, ``Guidance for... to http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/isg/japan-lessons-learned.html and refer to...

  6. Guidance Trade-off for Aerocapture Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernis, P.; Gelly, G.; Ferreira, E.; da Costa, R.; Ortega, G.

    In the very late 90's, EADS-ST began home funded studies on aerocapture problems. The objectives of these studies were at that time to prepare a possible cooperation within the NASA/Cnes MSR-Orbiter program by investigating this new orbital insertion technique studying different algorithmic solutions from a guidance point of view. According to these preliminary studies, EADS-ST was retained in 2002 by ESA to study insertion techniques such as aerocapture, aero-gravity assist or aerobraking techniques within the frame of Technological Research Program able to bring solutions to Aurora program. In the frame of the ATPE (Aeroassist Technologies for Planetary Exploration) TRP program, EADS-ST, led by Astrium-Gmbh (now part of EADS-ST), developed and implemented an efficient and simple guidance scheme able to cope with mission requirements for aerocapture on Mars, Venus or the Earth: the Feedback Trajectory Control, or FTC. The development of this guidance scheme was made according to a preliminary trade-off analysis using different guidance schemes. Among those ones was an original predictor-corrector guidance scheme, already analyzed within the frame of the MSR-O mission. But, the FTC algoritm was prefered because of its good results and high simplicity. This paper presents an upgrade of the original Apoapsis Predictor, or AP, with the improvement of its robustness woth respect to off-nomonal flight conditions and its process simplification. A new trade-off analysis is then detailed on a Mars Sample return mission.

  7. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  8. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1982-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory.

  9. Kinematic precision of gear trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Goldrich, R. N.; Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1983-01-01

    Kinematic precision is affected by errors which are the result of either intentional adjustments or accidental defects in manufacturing and assembly of gear trains. A method for the determination of kinematic precision of gear trains is described. The method is based on the exact kinematic relations for the contact point motions of the gear tooth surfaces under the influence of errors. An approximate method is also explained. Example applications of the general approximate methods are demonstrated for gear trains consisting of involute (spur and helical) gears, circular arc (Wildhaber-Novikov) gears, and spiral bevel gears. Gear noise measurements from a helicopter transmission are presented and discussed with relation to the kinematic precision theory. Previously announced in STAR as N82-32733

  10. The magic road to precision

    CERN Document Server

    Safronova, M S; Safronova, U I; Clark, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    We predict a sequence of magic-zero wavelengths for the Sr excited $5s5p~ ^3P_0$ state, and provide a general roadmap for extracting transition matrix elements using precise frequency measurements. We demonstrate that such measurements can serve as a best global benchmark of the spectroscopic accuracy that is required for the development of high-precision predictive methods. These magic-zero wavelengths are also needed for state-selective atom manipulation for implementation of quantum logic operations. We also identify five magic wavelengths of the $5s^2\\ ^1S_0 - 5s5p\\ ^3P_0$ Sr clock transition between 350 nm and 500 nm which can also serve as precision benchmarks.

  11. Precise Orbit Determination for ALOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryo; Nakamura, Shinichi; Kudo, Nobuo; Katagiri, Seiji

    2007-01-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) has been developed to contribute to the fields of mapping, precise regional land coverage observation, disaster monitoring, and resource surveying. Because the mounted sensors need high geometrical accuracy, precise orbit determination for ALOS is essential for satisfying the mission objectives. So ALOS mounts a GPS receiver and a Laser Reflector (LR) for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). This paper deals with the precise orbit determination experiments for ALOS using Global and High Accuracy Trajectory determination System (GUTS) and the evaluation of the orbit determination accuracy by SLR data. The results show that, even though the GPS receiver loses lock of GPS signals more frequently than expected, GPS-based orbit is consistent with SLR-based orbit. And considering the 1 sigma error, orbit determination accuracy of a few decimeters (peak-to-peak) was achieved.

  12. Virtual Ultrasound Guidance for Inexperienced Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Timothy; Martin, David

    2012-01-01

    Medical ultrasound or echocardiographic studies are highly operator-dependent and generally require lengthy training and internship to perfect. To obtain quality echocardiographic images in remote environments, such as on-orbit, remote guidance of studies has been employed. This technique involves minimal training for the user, coupled with remote guidance from an expert. When real-time communication or expert guidance is not available, a more autonomous system of guiding an inexperienced operator through an ultrasound study is needed. One example would be missions beyond low Earth orbit in which the time delay inherent with communication will make remote guidance impractical. The Virtual Ultrasound Guidance system is a combination of hardware and software. The hardware portion includes, but is not limited to, video glasses that allow hands-free, full-screen viewing. The glasses also allow the operator a substantial field of view below the glasses to view and operate the ultrasound system. The software is a comprehensive video program designed to guide an inexperienced operator through a detailed ultrasound or echocardiographic study without extensive training or guidance from the ground. The program contains a detailed description using video and audio to demonstrate equipment controls, ergonomics of scanning, study protocol, and scanning guidance, including recovery from sub-optimal images. The components used in the initial validation of the system include an Apple iPod Classic third-generation as the video source, and Myvue video glasses. Initially, the program prompts the operator to power-up the ultrasound and position the patient. The operator would put on the video glasses and attach them to the video source. After turning on both devices and the ultrasound system, the audio-video guidance would then instruct on patient positioning and scanning techniques. A detailed scanning protocol follows with descriptions and reference video of each view along with

  13. Active evacuation guidance using sensor agent robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ise, Daiki; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    Evacuation systems for buildings are designed based on event scenarios, so they are not prepared for unexpected events that are not included in the scenarios. In this paper, we propose a new active evacuation guidance system using sensor agent robots. We first introduce a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to be used in conjunction with sensor agent robots for active evacuation guidance. Then the role of sensor agent robots is explained. An algorithm to immediately access the safety of the building after a large earthquake is also proposed using only the information taken by a sensor agent robot.

  14. Aerospace plane guidance using geometric control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Mark A.; Mease, Kenneth D.

    1990-01-01

    A reduced-order method employing decomposition, based on time-scale separation, of the 4-D state space in a 2-D slow manifold and a family of 2-D fast manifolds is shown to provide an excellent approximation to the full-order minimum-fuel ascent trajectory. Near-optimal guidance is obtained by tracking the reduced-order trajectory. The tracking problem is solved as regulation problems on the family of fast manifolds, using the exact linearization methodology from nonlinear geometric control theory. The validity of the overall guidance approach is indicated by simulation.

  15. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  16. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  17. Introduction to precise numerical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Aberth, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    Precise numerical analysis may be defined as the study of computer methods for solving mathematical problems either exactly or to prescribed accuracy. This book explains how precise numerical analysis is constructed. The book also provides exercises which illustrate points from the text and references for the methods presented. All disc-based content for this title is now available on the Web. · Clearer, simpler descriptions and explanations ofthe various numerical methods· Two new types of numerical problems; accurately solving partial differential equations with the included software and computing line integrals in the complex plane.

  18. Precision protection through indirect correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yao, E-mail: 616969274@qq.com

    2016-04-15

    The dynamics of the quantum Fisher information of the parameters of the initial atomic state is studied, in the framework of open quantum systems, for a pair of static two-level atoms coupled to a bath of fluctuating vacuum scalar fields. Our results show that the correlations between the two atoms as well as the precision limit in quantum metrology are determined by the separation between the two atoms. Remarkably, when the separation between the two atoms approaches zero, the quantum Fisher information, thus the precision limit of the estimation of the parameters of the initial atomic state will be survived from the vacuum fluctuations after long time evolution.

  19. ELECTROWEAK PHYSICS AND PRECISION STUDIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MARCIANO, W.

    2005-10-24

    The utility of precision electroweak measurements for predicting the Standard Model Higgs mass via quantum loop effects is discussed. Current values of m{sub W}, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}(m{sub Z}){sub {ovr MS}} and m{sub t} imply a relatively light Higgs which is below the direct experimental bound but possibly consistent with Supersymmetry expectations. The existence of Supersymmetry is further suggested by a 2{sigma} discrepancy between experiment and theory for the muon anomalous magnetic moment. Constraints from precision studies on other types of ''New Physics'' are also briefly described.

  20. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  1. Midcourse Guidance Law Based on High Target Acquisition Probability Considering Angular Constraint and Line-of-Sight Angle Rate Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Random disturbance factors would lead to the variation of target acquisition point during the long distance flight. To acquire a high target acquisition probability and improve the impact precision, missiles should be guided to an appropriate target acquisition position with certain attitude angles and line-of-sight (LOS angle rate. This paper has presented a new midcourse guidance law considering the influences of random disturbances, detection distance restraint, and target acquisition probability with Monte Carlo simulation. Detailed analyses of the impact points on the ground and the random distribution of the target acquisition position in the 3D space are given to get the appropriate attitude angles and the end position for the midcourse guidance. Then, a new formulation biased proportional navigation (BPN guidance law with angular constraint and LOS angle rate control has been derived to ensure the tracking ability when attacking the maneuvering target. Numerical simulations demonstrates that, compared with the proportional navigation guidance (PNG law and the near-optimal spatial midcourse guidance (NSMG law, BPN guidance law demonstrates satisfactory performances and can meet both the midcourse terminal angular constraint and the LOS angle rate requirement.

  2. Precision Machining Technology. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This curriculum guide was developed from a Technical Committee Report prepared with the assistance of industry personnel and containing a Task List which is the basis of the guide. It presents competency-based program standards for courses in precision machining technology and is part of the Idaho Vocational Curriculum Guide Project, a cooperative…

  3. Future challenges for precision QCD

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurements at Run II of the LHC continue to demand smaller theoretical uncertainties. In this meeting we aim to bring together experts in the field to discuss current issues in the theoretical models. Topics of particular interest are Higgs and Top quark physics, new techniques for infrared subtraction and loop integrals as well as fixed order and parton shower matching beyond NLO.

  4. Precision Teaching ... and All That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, E. C.; Solity, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Two proponents of the precision teaching approach to teaching the handicapped discuss such principles as: the problem of partial application of the method; relationship to behaviorism; relationship to experiential learning; and the importance of fluency in task performance, mastery learning, and recordkeeping. (DB)

  5. Precision Cleaning - Path to Premier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackler, Scott E.

    2008-01-01

    ITT Space Systems Division s new Precision Cleaning facility provides critical cleaning and packaging of aerospace flight hardware and optical payloads to meet customer performance requirements. The Precision Cleaning Path to Premier Project was a 2007 capital project and is a key element in the approved Premier Resource Management - Integrated Supply Chain Footprint Optimization Project. Formerly precision cleaning was located offsite in a leased building. A new facility equipped with modern precision cleaning equipment including advanced process analytical technology and improved capabilities was designed and built after outsourcing solutions were investigated and found lacking in ability to meet quality specifications and schedule needs. SSD cleans parts that can range in size from a single threaded fastener all the way up to large composite structures. Materials that can be processed include optics, composites, metals and various high performance coatings. We are required to provide verification to our customers that we have met their particulate and molecular cleanliness requirements and we have that analytical capability in this new facility. The new facility footprint is approximately half the size of the former leased operation and provides double the amount of throughput. Process improvements and new cleaning equipment are projected to increase 1st pass yield from 78% to 98% avoiding $300K+/yr in rework costs. Cost avoidance of $350K/yr will result from elimination of rent, IT services, transportation, and decreased utility costs. Savings due to reduced staff expected to net $4-500K/yr.

  6. Precise laser refractometry of liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonchukov, S.; Vakurov, M.; Yermachenko, V.

    2006-01-01

    The results of development of two versions of the intracavity laser refractometry in reflection (ILRR) are reviewed in this paper. The ILRR method is based on the use of the properties of two-mode lasers with broken cavity and allows the precise refractive investigations of turbid media to be fulfil

  7. Analytical impact time and angle guidance via time-varying sliding mode technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yao; Sheng, Yongzhi; Liu, Xiangdong

    2016-05-01

    To concretely provide a feasible solution for homing missiles with the precise impact time and angle, this paper develops a novel guidance law, based on the nonlinear engagement dynamics. The guidance law is firstly designed with the prior assumption of a stationary target, followed by the practical extension to a moving target scenario. The time-varying sliding mode (TVSM) technique is applied to fulfill the terminal constraints, in which a specific TVSM surface is constructed with two unknown coefficients. One is tuned to meet the impact time requirement and the other one is targeted with a global sliding mode, so that the impact angle constraint as well as the zero miss distance can be satisfied. Because the proposed law possesses three guidance gain as design parameters, the intercept trajectory can be shaped according to the operational conditions and missile׳s capability. To improve the tolerance of initial heading errors and broaden the application, a new frame of reference is also introduced. Furthermore, the analytical solutions of the flight trajectory, heading angle and acceleration command can be totally expressed for the prediction and offline parameter selection by solving a first-order linear differential equation. Numerical simulation results for various scenarios validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law and demonstrate the accuracy of the analytic solutions.

  8. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  9. Epilepsy in the Classroom: Guidance for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassner, Lee M.

    This paper for educators, school psychologists, and counselors attempts to provide guidance for meeting the needs of students with epilepsy. Stressed throughout the paper are ways to provide for the child's special needs while fostering his/her self esteem and full participation in classroom activities. The paper addresses the following topics:…

  10. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Earlier works have shown field trial designs to be very labor extensive, even when combining autoguidancesystems with conventional machinery.Designing routes for semi-automated systems in a controlled manner is both resource demandingand complicated. Different types of auto-guidance systems vary ...

  11. Museum Personnel's Opinions on Mobile Guidance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hirokazu; Sekiguchi, Hiromi; Yabumoto, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    While opinions from the general public are certainly important, opinions from the museum staff are also necessary to improve user service systems. this article introduces two groups of museum staff who have evaluated the usability of mobile guidance systems in Japanese museums. One group is the research team who used the PDA system in the National…

  12. Designing Schoolwide Programs. Non-Regulatory Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This guidance offers a renewed vision for the use of the schoolwide program, both as a reform strategy and as a means of realizing the high standards for student achievement envisioned by the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). It is intended to be used as a companion document to the statute and regulations, as well as a technical assistance…

  13. Cannabinoid receptor CB2 modulates axon guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duff, Gabriel; Argaw, Anteneh; Cecyre, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Navigation of retinal projections towards their targets is regulated by guidance molecules and growth cone transduction mechanisms. Here, we present in vitro and in vivo evidences that the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) is expressed along the retino-thalamic pathway and exerts a modulatory action ...

  14. MR Thermometry for guidance of thermal therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprinkhuizen, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis has aimed to further investigate magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry (MRT) techniques as to become a reliable guidance tool for thermal therapy. The various physical processes allowing for temperature measurements based upon the MR signal are described. It is de

  15. 33 CFR 385.5 - Guidance memoranda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guidance memoranda. 385.5 Section 385.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE EVERGLADES RESTORATION PLAN General...

  16. Guidance on Port Biological Baseline Surveys (PBBS)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Awad, A.; Haag, F.; Anil, A.C.; Abdulla, A.

    This publication has been prepared by GBP, IOI, CSIR-NIO and IUCN in order to serve as guidance to those who are planning to carry out a port biological baseline survey, in particular in the context of Ballast Water Management. It has been drafted...

  17. Hypermedia Authoring with Writing Process Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-En; Sung, Yao-Ting; Zheng, Jie-Wen

    2007-01-01

    A writing process of five stages, setting the topic and goals, planning the outline, organising the structure, building the content, and reviewing, is proposed to guide hypermedia authoring. To explore the effects of the system designed with writing-process guidance, this study enrolled 108 seventh graders at a junior high school as experimental…

  18. Athletics Guidance Aims for Level Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2013-01-01

    A document from the U.S. Department of Education intended to clarify schools' responsibility to make sure students with disabilities have access to extracurricular sports has drawn sharply different opinions. Disability-rights advocates welcome the guidance, while critics say federal officials are pushing requirements that could place new…

  19. Effective Child Guidance: An Educator's Guidebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brent Mathews

    This guidebook is designed to assist educators in becoming more effective child guidance leaders within the school system. Sections discuss the following areas: (1) indicators of current emotional problems; (2) children's common emotional problems, including fears, separation and loss, misbehavior motivations, aggressiveness, stealing, lying,…

  20. 76 FR 35024 - Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics Corporation, Also Known as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Precision Dynamics Corporation San Fernando, CA; Precision Dynamics... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 28, 2011, applicable to workers of Precision Dynamics... the subject firm. The Valencia, California location of Precision Dynamics Corporation, also known...

  1. Advances in spacecraft atmospheric entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito Manrique, Joel

    In order to advance entry guidance technology two different research areas have been explored with the objective of increasing the reachable landing area and the landing accuracy for future Mars missions. Currently only the northern hemisphere of Mars is available for landing due to its low elevation. Only low elevation landing sites have the necessary atmospheric density to allow landing using current Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology. In order to reach most of the Ancient Highlands, the majority of the southern hemisphere, advanced EDL technology is needed in multiple fields, including entry guidance. The first research area is the definition and applications of reachable and controllable sets for entry. The definition of the reachable and controllable sets provides a framework for the study of the capabilities of an entry vehicle in a given planet. Reachable and controllable sets can be used to comprehensively characterize the envelope of trajectories that a vehicle can fly, the sites it can reach and the entry states that can be accommodated. The sets can also be used for the evaluation of trajectory planning algorithms and to assist in the selection of the entry or landing sites. In essence, the reachable and controllable sets offer a powerful vehicle and trajectory analysis and design framework that allows for better mission design choices. In order to illustrate the use of the sets, they are computed for a representative Mars mission using two different vehicle configurations. The sets characterize the impact of the vehicle configuration on the entry capability. Furthermore, the sets are used to find the best skip-entry trajectory for a return from the Moon mission, highlighting the utility of the sets in atmospheric maneuvers other than entry. The second research area is the development of the components of an entry guidance algorithm that allow high elevation landing and provide as well high landing accuracy. The approach taken follows the

  2. Cobalt: Development and Maturation of GN&C Technologies for Precision Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M.; Restrepo, Carolina; Seubert, Carl; Amzajerdian, Farzin

    2016-01-01

    The CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies (COBALT) instrument is a terrestrial test platform for development and maturation of guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) technologies for precision landing. The project is developing a third-generation Langley Research Center (LaRC) navigation doppler lidar (NDL) for ultra-precise velocity and range measurements, which will be integrated and tested with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) lander vision system (LVS) for terrain relative navigation (TRN) position estimates. These technologies together provide precise navigation knowledge that is critical for a controlled and precise touchdown. The COBALT hardware will be integrated in 2017 into the GN&C subsystem of the Xodiac rocket-propulsive vertical test bed (VTB) developed by Masten Space Systems, and two terrestrial flight campaigns will be conducted: one open-loop (i.e., passive) and one closed-loop (i.e., active).

  3. A Formal Investigation of the Organization of Guidance Behavior: Implications for Humans and Autonomous Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Zhaodan

    Guidance behavior generated either by artificial agents or humans has been actively studied in the fields of both robotics and cognitive science. The goals of these two fields are different. The former is the automatic generation of appropriate or even optimal behavior, while the latter is the understanding of the underlying mechanism. Their challenges, though, are closely related, the most important one being the lack of a unified, formal and grounded framework where the guidance behavior can be modeled and studied. This dissertation presents such a framework. In this framework, guidance behavior is analyzed as the closed-loop dynamics of the whole agent-environment system. The resulting dynamics give rise to interaction patterns. The central points of this dissertation are that: first of all, these patterns, which can be explained in terms of symmetries that are inherent to the guidance behavior, provide building blocks for the organization of behavior; second, the existence of these patterns and humans' organization of their guidance behavior based on these patterns are the reasons that humans can generate successful behavior in spite of all the complexities involved in the planning and control. This dissertation first gives an overview of the challenges existing in both scientific endeavors, such as human and animal spatial behavior study, and engineering endeavors, such as autonomous guidance system design. It then lays out the foundation for our formal framework, which states that guidance behavior should be interpreted as the collection of the closed-loop dynamics resulting from the agent's interaction with the environment. The following, illustrated by examples of three different UAVs, shows that the study of the closed-loop dynamics should not be done without the consideration of vehicle dynamics, as is the common practice in some of the studies in both autonomous guidance and human behavior analysis. The framework, the core concepts of which are

  4. Downstream of guidance receptors: entering the baroque period of axon guidance signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Dietmar

    2003-09-25

    The Roundabout ("Robo") family of transmembrane proteins are the receptors and mediators of the repellent axon guidance signal Slit. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Robo signaling leads to growth cone or neuron repulsion are still poorly understood. A study by Fan et al. in this issue of Neuron expands the repertoire of Robo pathway components and stimulates a new look at axon guidance signaling in general.

  5. Trajectory shaping guidance law based on virtual angle with terminal constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijing Hu; Xuemei Huang

    2013-01-01

    A trajectory shaping guidance law based on virtual angle (TSGLBVA) is proposed for a re-entry vehicle with the con-straints of terminal impact angles and their time derivatives. In the view of differential properties of the maneuvering trajectory, a virtual angle and a virtual radius are defined. Also, the shaping trajectory of the vehicle is established by the polynomials of the virtual angle. Then, four optimized parameters are selected ac-cording to the theorem of parameters transformation presented in this paper. Final y, a convergent variant of the Nelder-Mead algo-rithm is adopted to obtain the reference trajectory, and a trajectory feedback tracking guidance law is designed. The simulation re-sults demonstrate that the TSGLBVA ensures the re-entry vehicle to impact a target precisely from a specified direction with smal terminal load factor command, as wel as to obtain a maximum or constrained terminal velocity according to various requirements.

  6. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time localization system for an autonomous vehicle passing through 0.25 m wide crop rows at 6 km/h. Localization is achieved by fusion of mea-surements from a row guidance sensor and a GPS receiver. Conventional agricultural practice applies inputs such as herbicide...... at a constant rate ignoring the spatial variability in weed, soil, and crop. Sensing with a guided vehicle allow cost effective mapping of field variability and inputs may be adjusted accordingly. Essential to such a vehicle is real-time localization. GPS allow precise absolute sensing but it is not practical...... to guide the vehicle relative to the crop rows on an absolute coordinate. A row guidance sensor is therefore included to sense the position relative to the rows. The vehicle path in the field is re-planned online in order to allow for crop row irregularities sensed by the row sensor. The path generation...

  7. Aerocapture guidance and navigation for the Rosetta Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Martinez, J. B.; Hechler, M.

    The aerocapture/reentry phase of the Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission Rosetta when returning from the Comet back to earth is discussed. The guidance and navigation process for a guided atmospheric entry to ground from an entry velocity of over 15 km/s has been simulated and the feasibility of such an entry at an entry angle of -10.5 deg, using an Apollo shape vehicle and guidance methods similar to those used for Apollo and the Shuttle Orbiter, has been demonstrated. Landing precision of less than 10 km at accelerations below 20 g can be reached. Critical areas of system design like the center of gravity location of the entry vehicle are addressed.

  8. Hierarchical patterning of multifunctional conducting polymer nanoparticles as a bionic platform for topographic contact guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Dominic; Zou, Jianli; Chen, Xianjue; Munshi, Alaa; Smith, Nicole M; Agarwal, Vipul; Hodgetts, Stuart I; Plant, Giles W; Bakker, Anthony J; Harvey, Alan R; Luzinov, Igor; Iyer, K Swaminathan

    2015-02-24

    The use of programmed electrical signals to influence biological events has been a widely accepted clinical methodology for neurostimulation. An optimal biocompatible platform for neural activation efficiently transfers electrical signals across the electrode-cell interface and also incorporates large-area neural guidance conduits. Inherently conducting polymers (ICPs) have emerged as frontrunners as soft biocompatible alternatives to traditionally used metal electrodes, which are highly invasive and elicit tissue damage over long-term implantation. However, fabrication techniques for the ICPs suffer a major bottleneck, which limits their usability and medical translation. Herein, we report that these limitations can be overcome using colloidal chemistry to fabricate multimodal conducting polymer nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrate that these polymer nanoparticles can be precisely assembled into large-area linear conduits using surface chemistry. Finally, we validate that this platform can act as guidance conduits for neurostimulation, whereby the presence of electrical current induces remarkable dendritic axonal sprouting of cells.

  9. NEW PRECISION PIEZOELECTRIC STEP ACTUATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianfang; YANG Zhigang; FAN Zunqiang; CHENG Guangming

    2006-01-01

    A new precision piezoelectric actuator is proposed to improve its drive capabilities. The actuator is based on the piezoelectric technology. It adopts the principle of bionics and works with a new method of stator initiative anchoring/loosen and a distortion structure of double-side thin flexible hinge. It solves the problem of anchoring/loosen, frequency, journey, resolution and velocity. The experiment shows that the new linear piezoelectric actuator works with high frequency (100 Hz), high speed (502 μm/s), large travel (>10 mm), high resolution (0.05 μm) and high load (100 N). This kind of new piezoelectric actuator will be applied for large travel and high resolution driving device, optics engineering, precision positioning and some micromanipulation field.

  10. 75 FR 48973 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella... availability of a draft guidance entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During Production, Storage, and Transportation''...

  11. Numerical precision and data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, W.

    1978-01-01

    Technical proposals and recommendations for revising FORTRAN were studied and categorized. In the area of numerical precision, the proposals basically agree on a set of necessary parameters, although a wide range of nomenclature and specific function names are used. Environmental parameters identified include the following: (1) base of floating point representation, (2) largest positive real number, exponent and integer, (3) largest negative real number, exponent and integer, (4) number of significant digits, and (5) exponent bias.

  12. Precise Quantification of Nanoparticle Internalization

    OpenAIRE

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J.; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured...

  13. Precision photometry for planetary transits

    CERN Document Server

    Pont, F; Pont, Frederic; Moutou, Claire

    2007-01-01

    We review the state of the art in follow-up photometry for planetary transit searches. Three topics are discussed: (1) Photometric monitoring of planets discovered by radial velocity to detect possible transits (2) Follow-up photometry of candidates from photometric transit searches to weed out eclipsing binaries and false positives (3) High-precision lightcurves of known transiting planets to increase the accuracy on the planet parameters.

  14. Fit to Electroweak Precision Data

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, J

    2006-01-01

    A brief review of electroweak precision data from LEP, SLC, the Tevatron, and low energies is presented. The global fit to all data including the most recent results on the masses of the top quark and the W boson reinforces the preference for a relatively light Higgs boson. I will also give an outlook on future developments at the Tevatron Run II, CEBAF, the LHC, and the ILC.

  15. Environment-assisted precision measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldstein, G.; Cappellaro, P.; Maze, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which are ...... achieves nearly Heisenberg-limited precision measurement, using a novel class of entangled states. We discuss specific applications to improve clock sensitivity using trapped ions and magnetic sensing based on electronic spins in diamond......We describe a method to enhance the sensitivity of precision measurements that takes advantage of the environment of a quantum sensor to amplify the response of the sensor to weak external perturbations. An individual qubit is used to sense the dynamics of surrounding ancillary qubits, which...... are in turn affected by the external field to be measured. The resulting sensitivity enhancement is determined by the number of ancillas that are coupled strongly to the sensor qubit; it does not depend on the exact values of the coupling strengths and is resilient to many forms of decoherence. The method...

  16. [Auditory guidance systems for the visually impaired people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Nie, Min; Luo, Lan; Tong, Shanbao; Niu, Jinhai; Zhu, Yisheng

    2010-04-01

    Visually impaired people face many inconveniences because of the loss of vision. Therefore, scientists are trying to design various guidance systems for improving the lives of the blind. Based on sensory substitution, auditory guidance has become an interesting topic in the field of biomedical engineering. In this paper, we made a state-of-technique review of the auditory guidance system. Although there have been many technical challenges, the auditory guidance system would be a useful alternative for the visually impaired people.

  17. Effect of Autopilot Structure on Proportional Navigation Guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Qun-li; LIU Yi-ying; QI Zai-kang

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of acceleration autopilot and attitude autopilot are discussed in detail.Also, a comparison study was made between these two different types of control schemes for guidance loop.By means of simulation, it is concluded that the guidance accuracy is mainly determined by the slowest subsystem among different system dynamics.For air-to-ground missiles, with limited terminal guidance time, the control scheme of acceleration autopilot combined with proportional navigation guidance (PNG) law is the better choice.

  18. Radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Overgaard, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances and clinical research over the past few decades have given radiation oncologists the capability to personalize treatments for accurate delivery of radiation dose based on clinical parameters and anatomical information. Eradication of gross and microscopic tumours with prese...... image guidance and particle therapy, and novel biological concepts for personalized treatment, including biomarker-guided prescription, combined treatment modalities and adaptation of treatment during its course.......Technological advances and clinical research over the past few decades have given radiation oncologists the capability to personalize treatments for accurate delivery of radiation dose based on clinical parameters and anatomical information. Eradication of gross and microscopic tumours...... with preservation of health-related quality of life can be achieved in many patients. Two major strategies, acting synergistically, will enable further widening of the therapeutic window of radiation oncology in the era of precision medicine: technology-driven improvement of treatment conformity, including advanced...

  19. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG documents and interim staff guidance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development...

  20. Managing Student Behavior during Large Group Guidance: What Works Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarto, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Participants provided information pertaining to managing non-task-related behavior of students during large group guidance lessons. In particular, school counselors were asked often how often they provide large group guidance, the frequency of which students exhibit off-task and/or disruptive behavior during guidance lessons, and techniques they…

  1. Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, B.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.

  2. 76 FR 43690 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration (Formerly 2007D-0309) Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Electrocardiograph Electrodes; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. 75 FR 54637 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document for Certain Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) Catheters; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  4. Tobaccofree Sports Stadia: European Policies and Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Philpott

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over 20 million people – including many children and young people - attend professional football matches across Europe each week, with many more attending other professional and amateur sports fixtures. The vast majority of European sports venues take place in semi-enclosed structures with roofed stands, and yet there are still very low levels of smokefree and tobaccofree policies in operation. Building on research findings that only 10 out of UEFA’s 54 European countries have football stadia that operate tobaccofree policies, Healthy Stadia has worked with UEFA and World Heart Federation to develop new guidance materials for clubs, multi-purpose stadium operators and governing bodies of sport to assist in the development and enforcement of strong tobacco control policies. This presentation will give a benchmark of current policies in place, support offered through the new guidance materials, and advice on how sports organisations can go beyond national tobacco control legislation to implement tobaccofree policies.

  5. Practical guidance on undertaking a service evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moule, Pam; Armoogum, Julie; Dodd, Emily; Donskoy, Anne-Laure; Douglass, Emma; Taylor, Julie; Turton, Pat

    2016-07-06

    This article describes the basic principles of evaluation, focusing on the evaluation of healthcare services. It emphasises the importance of evaluation in the current healthcare environment and the requirement for nurses to understand the essential principles of evaluation. Evaluation is defined in contrast to audit and research, and the main theoretical approaches to evaluation are outlined, providing insights into the different types of evaluation that may be undertaken. The essential features of preparing for an evaluation are considered, and guidance provided on working ethically in the NHS. It is important to involve patients and the public in evaluation activity, offering essential guidance and principles of best practice. The authors discuss the main challenges of undertaking evaluations and offer recommendations to address these, drawing on their experience as evaluators.

  6. [Problems of reception in a guidance center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattelaer, P

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this communication is not to criticise the work of guidance, but to analyse its efficiency and validity in order to formulate concrete proposals. One can distinguish three periods in the evolution of the work in a guidance center. In the first period, it is a methodological concern which presided to this type of work. In the second period, one thought that there was to many preliminary investigations and it was decided to take the child in treatment more rapidly. During the third period, the attention has primarily be centered on the child's problems. The author suggests some solutions. He considers it is necessary to abandon the multidisciplinary approach. He advises to always consider one case at the time within a therapeutic and diagnostic frame. Therapy has to be conducted by one person, even if this person has to treat the whole family.

  7. Guidance and control, 1993; Annual Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference, 16th, Keystone, CO, Feb. 6-10, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Robert D.; Bickley, George

    Papers from the sixteenth annual American Astronautical Society Rocky Mountain Guidance and Control Conference are presented. The topics covered include the following: advances in guidance, navigation, and control; control system videos; guidance, navigation and control embedded flight control systems; recent experiences; guidance and control storyboard displays; and applications of modern control, featuring the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) performance enhancement study. For individual titles, see A95-80390 through A95-80436.

  8. Puncture of thoracic lesions under sonographic guidance.

    OpenAIRE

    Afschrift, M; Nachtegaele, P; Voet, D; Noens, L.; Van Hove, W; Van der Straeten, M; Verdonk, G

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-six punctures of thoracic lesions have been performed with a compound B-scanner or a real-time linear-array scanner for guidance. Twenty-three fluid collections were punctured and aspiration biopsies were performed on 13 echogenic lesions. All the punctures were successful at the first attempt. No complications occurred. The results confirm the usefulness of sonography for guiding punctures of thoracic fluid effusions and solid masses. Usually a static B-scanner is sufficient, but when...

  9. Orbital maneuvering vehicle guidance, navigation and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, W. G.; Finnell, W., III

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) concept and its intended role. It recaps the past activities leading up to the current concept and summarizes the present status and plans. The various types of missions and operating modes required by the OMV are described as the basis of the guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) requirements. The general GN&C problem is outlined with potential hardware solutions.

  10. Pollution Control Guidance for Geothermal Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, Robert P.

    1978-06-01

    This report summarizes the EPA regulatory approach toward geothermal energy development. The state of knowledge is described with respect to the constituents of geothermal effluents and emissions, including water, air, solid wastes, and noise. Pollutant effects are discussed. Pollution control technologies that may be applicable are described along with preliminary cost estimates for their application. Finally discharge and emission limitations are suggested that may serve as interim guidance for pollution control during early geothermal development.

  11. Education, consultation, guidance, students, advisor, teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Seyedmajidi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Student counseling and supervision play an important role to overcome learning problems and to achieve educational goals. The present study is intended to investigate viewpoints of students regarding educational guidance and advice studying at Babol University of Medical Sciences. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional survey, viewpoints of 480 students were collected by a questionnaire. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been approved before. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17 software. Chi- square and ANOVA tests were administered. Results: 61.2% of all participants were female and 38.8% were males with mean age of 21.3±4.0. 37.2% of these students lacked sufficient knowledge and information on how to request from their advisors for help and guidance. Half of students (50.3% reported attendance of advisors and holding routine consultation is inappropriate. Advisors made more educational files for females compare to males (P=0.001. No difference observed regarding educational disciplines of the advisors regarding students were dissatisfied with help and guidance received from paramedics and dentistry students in most fields (87.3% and 81.5% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that either student has no sufficient information about tasks of advisors and/or advisors may not do their tasks properly. It is recommended the students to be acquainted with advisors’ tasks upon their entrance into the university. Training classes for new academics would be helpful.

  12. Reliability history of the Apollo guidance computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo guidance computer was designed to provide the computation necessary for guidance, navigation and control of the command module and the lunar landing module of the Apollo spacecraft. The computer was designed using the technology of the early 1960's and the production was completed by 1969. During the development, production, and operational phase of the program, the computer has accumulated a very interesting history which is valuable for evaluating the technology, production methods, system integration, and the reliability of the hardware. The operational experience in the Apollo guidance systems includes 17 computers which flew missions and another 26 flight type computers which are still in various phases of prelaunch activity including storage, system checkout, prelaunch spacecraft checkout, etc. These computers were manufactured and maintained under very strict quality control procedures with requirements for reporting and analyzing all indications of failure. Probably no other computer or electronic equipment with equivalent complexity has been as well documented and monitored. Since it has demonstrated a unique reliability history, it is important to evaluate the techniques and methods which have contributed to the high reliability of this computer.

  13. 78 FR 12759 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Attachment to Guidance on Antiviral Product Development-Conducting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Antiviral Product Development--Conducting and Submitting Virology Studies to the Agency: Guidance for... guidance for industry entitled ``Attachment to Guidance on Antiviral Product Development--Conducting and... important for supporting clinical trials of products in development for the treatment of HCV. HCV...

  14. Is Career Guidance for the Individual or for the Market? Implications of EU Policy for Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmo-Prvulovic, Ingela

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the essential understanding and underlying perspectives of career implicit in EU career guidance policy in the twenty-first century, as well as the possible implications of these for the future mission of guidance. Career theories, models and concepts that serve career guidance are shaped on the twentieth-century industrial…

  15. 77 FR 71019 - Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... COMMISSION Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance JLD-ISG-2012-04; Guidance on...: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Japan Lessons-Learned Project Directorate Interim Staff Guidance issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing the Final Japan...

  16. Methods for Precise Submesh Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Morgenstern

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we describe and compare several recently proposed algorithms for precise submesh allocation in a two-dimensional mesh connected system. The methods surveyed include various frame sliding strategies, the maximum boundary value heuristic, and interval set scan techniques. In addition, a new enhancement to the interval set scan method is described. This enhancement results in an algorithm that has better allocation and run-time performance under a FCFS scheduling policy than any of the other proposed methods. We present results drawn from an extensive simulation study to illustrate the relative efficiency of the various methods.

  17. Improving Precision of Generated ASTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Johnni

    The parser-generator is an essential tool in grammarware and its output, the parse tree in form of the concrete or abstract syntax tree, often forms the basis for the whole structure of the grammarware application. Several tools for Java encode the parse tree in a class hierarchy generated to mod...... the parsed documents closely within the Java type system. We present two algorithms used in the generation of such classes which improve the precision with which the parsed input is modeled and show that these improvements greatly ease the use of the generated classes....

  18. The Many Faces of Precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eClark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An appreciation of the many roles of ‘precision-weighting’ (upping the gain on select populations of prediction error units opens the door to better accounts of planning and ‘offline simulation’, makes suggestive contact with large bodies of work on embodied and situated cognition, and offers new perspectives on the ‘active brain’. Combined with the complex affordances of language and culture, and operating against the essential backdrop of a variety of more biologically basic ploys and stratagems, the result is a maximally context-sensitive, restless, constantly self-reconfiguring architecture.

  19. Variable structure guidance law for attacking surface maneuver targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yanhua; Xu Bo

    2008-01-01

    The characteristics of surface maneuver targets are analyzed and a 3-D relative motion model for missiles and targets is established. A variable structure guidance law is designed considering the characteristics of targets. In the guidance law, the distance between missiles and targets as well as the missile-target relative velocity are all substituted by estimation values. The estimation errors, the target's velocity, and the maneuver acceleration are all treated as bounded disturbance. The guidance law proposed can be implemented conveniently in engineering with little target information. The performance of the guidance system is analyzed theoretically and the numerical simulation result shows the effectiveness of the guidance law.

  20. Comparison of the precision of three commonly used GPS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Chavoshi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Development of science in various fields has caused change in the methods to determine geographical location. Precision farming involves new technology that provides the opportunity for farmers to change in factors such as nutrients, soil moisture available to plants, soil physical and chemical characteristics and other factors with the spatial resolution of less than a centimeter to several meters to monitor and evaluate. GPS receivers based on precision farming operations specified accuracies are used in the following areas: 1 monitoring of crop and soil sampling (less than one meter accuracy 2 use of fertilizer, pesticide and seed work (less than half a meter accuracy 3 Transplantation and row cultivation (precision of less than 4 cm (Perez et al., 2011. In one application of GPS in agriculture, route guidance precision farming tractors in the fields was designed to reduce the transmission error that deviate from the path specified in the range of 50 to 300 mm driver informed and improved way to display (Perez et al., 2011. In another study, the system automatically guidance, based on RTK-GPS technology, precision tillage operations was used between and within the rows very close to the drip irrigation pipe and without damage to their crops at a distance of 50 mm (Abidine et al., 2004. In another study, to compare the accuracy and precision of the receivers, 5 different models of Trimble Mark GPS devices from 15 stations were mapped, the results indicated that minimum error was related to Geo XT model with an accuracy of 91 cm and maximum error was related to Pharos model with an accuracy of 5.62 m (Kindra et al., 2006. Due to the increasing use of GPS receivers in agriculture as well as the lack of trust on the real accuracy and precision of receivers, this study aimed to compare the positioning accuracy and precision of three commonly used GPS receivers models used to specify receivers with the lowest error for precision

  1. 78 FR 32667 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Rheumatoid Arthritis... guidance for industry entitled ``Rheumatoid Arthritis: Developing Drug Products for Treatment.'' This... products developed as drug-device combination products. This guidance revises the guidance for...

  2. 75 FR 17143 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological and Physical Medicine Device Guidance Documents; Availability... physical medicine devices. FDA has developed a draft special controls guidance document for each of the 11... Guidance Document: Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulator for Aesthetic Purposes; Draft Guidance for...

  3. Vision-GPS Fusion for Guidance of an Autonomous Vehicle in Row Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    at a constant rate ignoring the spatial variability in weed, soil, and crop. Sensing with a guided vehicle allow cost effective mapping of field variability and inputs may be adjusted accordingly. Essential to such a vehicle is real-time localization. GPS allow precise absolute sensing but it is not practical...... to guide the vehicle relative to the crop rows on an absolute coordinate. A row guidance sensor is therefore included to sense the position relative to the rows. The vehicle path in the field is re-planned online in order to allow for crop row irregularities sensed by the row sensor. The path generation...

  4. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-02-23

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. Evaluation of the Usefulness of the Respiratory Guidance System in the Respiratory Gating Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yeong Cheol; Kim, Sun Myung; Do, Gyeong Min; Park, Geun Yong; Kim, Gun Oh; Kim, Young Bum [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Guro Hospital, Korea Univeristy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    guidance system than free breathing or breathing with auditory guidance alone. In particular, the above system was excellent at the reproduction of respiratory cycles in care units. Such a system enables to reduce time due to unstable breathing and to perform more precise and detailed treatment.

  6. Shuttle entry guidance revisited using nonlinear geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1994-11-01

    The entry guidance law for the space shuttle orbiter is revisited using nonlinear geometric methods. The shuttle guidance concept is to track a reference drag trajectory that has been designed to lead a specified range and velocity. It is shown that the approach taken in the original derivation of the shuttle entry guidance has much in common with the more recently developed feedback linearization method of differential geometric control. Using the feedback linearization method, however, an alternative, potentially superior, guidance law was formulated. Comparing the two guidance laws based performance domains in state space, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, the alternative guidance law achieves the desired performance over larger domains in state space; the stability domain of the laws are similar. With larger operating domain for the shuttle or some other entry vehicle, the alternative guidance law should be considered.

  7. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  8. Helium 3 neutron precision polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Christopher

    2009-10-01

    Measuring neutron polarization to a high degree of precision is critical for the next generation of neutron decay correlation experiments. Polarized neutrons are also used in experiments to probe the hadronic weak interaction which contributes a small portion (˜10-7) of the force between nucleons. Using a beam of cold neutrons at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE), we polarized neutrons and measured their absolute polarization to ˜0.1%. Neutrons were polarized by passing them through a ^3He spin filter, relying on the maximally spin dependent 3He neutron absorption cross section. The neutron polarization can be determined by measuring the wavelength-dependent neutron transmission through the ^3He cell. An independent measurement of the neutron polarization was also obtained by passing the polarized beam through an RF spin flipper and a second polarized ^3He cell, used as an analyzer. To measure the efficiency of the spin flipper, the same measurements were made after reversing the ^3He polarization in the polarizer by using NMR techniques (adiabatic fast passage). We will show the consistency of these two measurements and the resulting precision of neutron polarimetry using these techniques.

  9. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  10. Precision luminosity measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassen, Rolf; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Belogurov, Sergey; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Bizzeti, Andrea; Bjørnstad, Pål Marius; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brambach, Tobias; Bressieux, Joël; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Brown, Henry; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Ciba, Krzystof; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pascal; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Geraci, Angelo; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, Vladimir; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Hunt, Philip; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jaton, Pierre; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Korolev, Mikhail; Kozlinskiy, Alexandr; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leo, Sabato; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lopez-March, Neus; Lowdon, Peter; Lu, Haiting; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martens, Aurelien; Martín Sánchez, Alexandra; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Moggi, Niccolò; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Katharina; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Nicol, Michelle; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Oggero, Serena; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Orlandea, Marius; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Arantza; Pal, Bilas Kanti; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Parkinson, Christopher John; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Perrin-Terrin, Mathieu; Pescatore, Luca; Pesen, Erhan; Pessina, Gianluigi; Petridis, Konstantin; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Anthony; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Sparkes, Ailsa; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Subbiah, Vijay Kartik; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilschut, Hans; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Wen Chao; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zvyagin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Measuring cross-sections at the LHC requires the luminosity to be determined accurately at each centre-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$. In this paper results are reported from the luminosity calibrations carried out at the LHC interaction point 8 with the LHCb detector for $\\sqrt{s}$ = 2.76, 7 and 8 TeV (proton-proton collisions) and for $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5 TeV (proton-lead collisions). Both the "van der Meer scan" and "beam-gas imaging" luminosity calibration methods were employed. It is observed that the beam density profile cannot always be described by a function that is factorizable in the two transverse coordinates. The introduction of a two-dimensional description of the beams improves significantly the consistency of the results. For proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV a relative precision of the luminosity calibration of 1.47% is obtained using van der Meer scans and 1.43% using beam-gas imaging, resulting in a combined precision of 1.12%. Applying the calibration to the full data set determin...

  11. DESIGN OF FARMLAND GIS FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Precision Agriculture, also known as Precision Farming, or Prescription Farming, is a modern agriculture technology system, which brings " precision" into agriculture system. All concepts of Precision Agriculture are established on the collection and management of variable cropland information. As the tool of collecting, managing and analyzing spatial data, GIS is the key technology of integrated Precision Agriculture system. This article puts forward the concept of Farmland GIS and designs Farmland GIS into five modules, and specifies the functions of the each module, which builds the foundation for practical development of the software. The study and development of Farmland GIS will propel the spreading of Precision Agriculture technology in China.

  12. Manufacturing Precise, Lightweight Paraboloidal Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Frederick Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A process for fabricating a precise, diffraction- limited, ultra-lightweight, composite- material (matrix/fiber) paraboloidal telescope mirror has been devised. Unlike the traditional process of fabrication of heavier glass-based mirrors, this process involves a minimum of manual steps and subjective judgment. Instead, this process involves objectively controllable, repeatable steps; hence, this process is better suited for mass production. Other processes that have been investigated for fabrication of precise composite-material lightweight mirrors have resulted in print-through of fiber patterns onto reflecting surfaces, and have not provided adequate structural support for maintenance of stable, diffraction-limited surface figures. In contrast, this process does not result in print-through of the fiber pattern onto the reflecting surface and does provide a lightweight, rigid structure capable of maintaining a diffraction-limited surface figure in the face of changing temperature, humidity, and air pressure. The process consists mainly of the following steps: 1. A precise glass mandrel is fabricated by conventional optical grinding and polishing. 2. The mandrel is coated with a release agent and covered with layers of a carbon- fiber composite material. 3. The outer surface of the outer layer of the carbon-fiber composite material is coated with a surfactant chosen to provide for the proper flow of an epoxy resin to be applied subsequently. 4. The mandrel as thus covered is mounted on a temperature-controlled spin table. 5. The table is heated to a suitable temperature and spun at a suitable speed as the epoxy resin is poured onto the coated carbon-fiber composite material. 6. The surface figure of the optic is monitored and adjusted by use of traditional Ronchi, Focault, and interferometric optical measurement techniques while the speed of rotation and the temperature are adjusted to obtain the desired figure. The proper selection of surfactant, speed or rotation

  13. Precision Electrospray Thruster Assembly (PETA) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — New low cost, low volume, low power, rugged electrospray thrusters will be ideal as actuators for precision thrusting, if provided with precision high voltage power...

  14. Design, calibration and testing of precise magnetometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primdahl, Fritz; Merayo, José M.G.; Brauer, Peter;

    2003-01-01

    The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a LEO satellite are discussed.......The requirements for precise global mapping of the Earth's vector magnetic field from a LEO satellite are discussed....

  15. Inflationary Perturbations and Precision Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Habib, S; Heitmann, K; Jungman, G; Habib, Salman; Heinen, Andreas; Heitmann, Katrin; Jungman, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    Inflationary cosmology provides a natural mechanism for the generation of primordial perturbations which seed the formation of observed cosmic structure and lead to specific signals of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background radiation. In order to test the broad inflationary paradigm as well as particular models against precision observations, it is crucial to be able to make accurate predictions for the power spectrum of both scalar and tensor fluctuations. We present detailed calculations of these quantities utilizing direct numerical approaches as well as error-controlled uniform approximations, comparing with the (uncontrolled) traditional slow-roll approach. A simple extension of the leading-order uniform approximation yields results for the power spectra amplitudes, the spectral indices, and the running of spectral indices, with accuracy of the order of 0.1% - approximately the same level at which the transfer functions are known. Several representative examples are used to demonstrate these resul...

  16. Precision moisture generation and measurement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Irwin, Adriane Nadine

    2010-03-01

    In many industrial processes, gaseous moisture is undesirable as it can lead to metal corrosion, polymer degradation, and other materials aging processes. However, generating and measuring precise moisture concentrations is challenging due to the need to cover a broad concentration range (parts-per-billion to percent) and the affinity of moisture to a wide range surfaces and materials. This document will discuss the techniques employed by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory of the Materials Reliability Department at Sandia National Laboratories to generate and measure known gaseous moisture concentrations. This document highlights the use of a chilled mirror and primary standard humidity generator for the characterization of aluminum oxide moisture sensors. The data presented shows an excellent correlation in frost point measured between the two instruments, and thus provides an accurate and reliable platform for characterizing moisture sensors and performing other moisture related experiments.

  17. Precision QCD measurements at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirumov Hayk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of recent experimental results on perturbative QCD from the HERA experiments H1 and ZEUS is presented. All inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering are combined. They span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q2, and in Bjorken x. This data set is used as the sole input to NLO and NNLO QCD analyses to determine new sets of parton distributions, HERAPDF2.0, with small experimental uncertainties and an estimate of model and parametrisation uncertainties. Also shown are new results on inclusive jet, dijet and trijet differential cross sections measured in neutral current deep inelastic scattering. The precision jet data is used to extract the strong coupling αs at NLO with small experimental errors.

  18. Precision cosmology and the landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael

    2006-10-01

    After reviewing the cosmological constant problem -- why is Lambda not huge? -- I outline the two basic approaches that had emerged by the late 1980s, and note that each made a clear prediction. Precision cosmological experiments now indicate that the cosmological constant is nonzero. This result strongly favors the environmental approach, in which vacuum energy can vary discretely among widely separated regions in the universe. The need to explain this variation from first principles constitutes an observational constraint on fundamental theory. I review arguments that string theory satisfies this constraint, as it contains a dense discretuum of metastable vacua. The enormous landscape of vacua calls for novel, statistical methods of deriving predictions, and it prompts us to reexamine our description of spacetime on the largest scales. I discuss the effects of cosmological dynamics, and I speculate that weighting vacua by their entropy production may allow for prior-free predictions that do not resort to explicitly anthropic arguments.

  19. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  20. Ultrasonic precision optical grinding technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Bechtold, Michael J.; Fess, Edward; Wolfs, Frank L.; Bechtold, Rob

    2015-10-01

    As optical geometries become more precise and complex and a wider range of materials are used, the processes used for manufacturing become more critical. As the preparatory stage for polishing, this is especially true for grinding. Slow processing speeds, accelerated tool wear, and poor surface quality are often detriments in manufacturing glass and hard ceramics. The quality of the ground surface greatly influences the polishing process and the resulting finished product. Through extensive research and development, OptiPro Systems has introduced an ultrasonic assisted grinding technology, OptiSonic, which has numerous advantages over traditional grinding processes. OptiSonic utilizes a custom tool holder designed to produce oscillations in line with the rotating spindle. A newly developed software package called IntelliSonic is integral to this platform. IntelliSonic automatically characterizes the tool and continuously optimizes the output frequency for optimal cutting while in contact with the part. This helps maintain a highly consistent process under changing load conditions for a more accurate surface. Utilizing a wide variety of instruments, test have proven to show a reduction in tool wear and increase in surface quality while allowing processing speeds to be increased. OptiSonic has proven to be an enabling technology to overcome the difficulties seen in grinding of glass and hard optical ceramics. OptiSonic has demonstrated numerous advantages over the standard CNC grinding process. Advantages are evident in reduced tool wear, better surface quality, and reduced cycle times due to increased feed rates. These benefits can be seen over numerous applications within the precision optics industry.

  1. Serving size guidance for consumers: is it effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, G P; Pourshahidi, L K; Wallace, J M W; Kerr, M A; McCrorie, T A; Livingstone, M B E

    2012-11-01

    Larger portion sizes (PS) may be inciting over-eating and contributing to obesity rates. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the effectiveness of serving size (SS) guidance. The aims of the present review are to evaluate SS guidance; the understanding, usability and acceptability of such guidance, its impact on consumers and potential barriers to its uptake. A sample of worldwide SS guidance schemes (n 87) were identified using targeted and untargeted searches, overall these were found to communicate various inconsistent and often conflicting messages about PS selection. The available data suggest that consumers have difficulty in understanding terms such as 'portion size' and 'serving size', as these tend to be used interchangeably. In addition, discrepancies between recommended SS and those present on food labels add to the confusion. Consumers generally understand and visualise SS best when expressed in terms of household measures rather than actual weights. Only a limited number of studies have examined the direct impact of SS guidance on consumer behaviour with equivocal results. Although consumers recognise that guidance on selecting SS would be helpful, they are often unwilling to act on such guidance. The challenge of achieving consumer adherence to SS guidance is formidable due to several barriers including chronic exposure to larger PS, distorted consumption norms and perceptions, the habit of 'cleaning one's plate' and language barriers for ethnic minorities. In conclusion, the impact of SS guidance on consumers merits further investigation to ensure that future guidance resonates with consumers by being more understandable, usable and acceptable.

  2. Evolved Acceleration Guidance for Planetary Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, K. D.; Leavitt, J. A.; Ferch, M.

    The U.S. Apollo and Shuttle programs have proven the viability and effectiveness of acceleration guidance. New capabilities have been developed to augment this basic concept. Algorithms have been designed for low lift to drag ratio vehicles and for mid to high lift to drag ratio vehicles. These algorithms have been tested for Mars landing and for earth entry of reusable launch vehicles and have performed well in both cases. Also the trajectory planner has been incorporated into a landing footprint generator that is designed for on-board use.

  3. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission.

  4. Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces (PASS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-06

    Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) This program was directed at generating functionalized surfaces and assemblies for electronic and...journals: Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Precision Assembly of Systems on Surfaces ( PASS ) Report Title This...PRECISION ASSEMBLY OF SYSTEMS ON SURFACES ( PASS ) PI: Timothy M. Swager Massachusetts Institute of Technology Final Report: DARPA, Defense

  5. 21 CFR 872.3165 - Precision attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precision attachment. 872.3165 Section 872.3165...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3165 Precision attachment. (a) Identification. A precision attachment or preformed bar is a device made of austenitic alloys or alloys containing 75...

  6. Networked Control System for the Guidance of a Four-Wheel Steering Agricultural Robotic Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Paciência Godoy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A current trend in the agricultural area is the development of mobile robots and autonomous vehicles for precision agriculture (PA. One of the major challenges in the design of these robots is the development of the electronic architecture for the control of the devices. In a joint project among research institutions and a private company in Brazil a multifunctional robotic platform for information acquisition in PA is being designed. This platform has as main characteristics four-wheel propulsion and independent steering, adjustable width, span of 1,80 m in height, diesel engine, hydraulic system, and a CAN-based networked control system (NCS. This paper presents a NCS solution for the platform guidance by the four-wheel hydraulic steering distributed control. The control strategy, centered on the robot manipulators control theory, is based on the difference between the desired and actual position and considering the angular speed of the wheels. The results demonstrate that the NCS was simple and efficient, providing suitable steering performance for the platform guidance. Even though the simplicity of the NCS solution developed, it also overcame some verified control challenges in the robot guidance system design such as the hydraulic system delay, nonlinearities in the steering actuators, and inertia in the steering system due the friction of different terrains.

  7. Entry, Descent, and Landing Guidance and Control Approaches to Satisfy Mars Human Mission Landing Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia; Powell, Richard W.

    2017-01-01

    Precision landing on Mars is a challenge. All Mars lander missions prior to the 2012 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) had landing location uncertainty ellipses on the order of hundreds of kilometers. Sending humans to the surface of Mars will likely require multiple landers delivered in close proximity, which will in turn require orders of magnitude improvement in landing accuracy. MSL was the first Mars mission to use an Apollo-derived bank angle guidance to reduce the size of the landing ellipse. It utilized commanded bank angle magnitude to control total range and bank angle reversals to control cross range. A shortcoming of this bank angle guidance is that the open loop phase of flight created by use of bank reversals increases targeting errors. This paper presents a comparison of entry, descent and landing performance for a vehicle with a low lift-to-drag ratio using both bank angle control and an alternative guidance called Direct Force Control (DFC). DFC eliminates the open loop flight errors by directly controlling two forces independently, lift and side force. This permits independent control of down range and cross range. Performance results, evaluated using the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST2), including propellant use and landing accuracy, are presented.

  8. Adaptive guidance law design based on characteristic model for reentry vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG JunChun; HU Jun; NI MaoLin

    2008-01-01

    In this paper an adaptive guidance law based on the characteristic model is designed to track a reference drag acceleration for reentry vehicles like the Shuttle. The characteristic modeling method of linear constant systems is extended for single-input and single-output (SlSO) linear time-varying systems so that the characteristic model can be established for reentry vehicles. A new nonlinear differential golden-section adaptive control law is presented. When the coefficients belong to a bounded closed convex set and their rate of change meets some constraints, the uniformly asymptotic stability of the nonlinear differential golden-section adaptive control system is proved. The tracking control law, the nonlinear differential golden-section control law, and the revised logical integral control law are integrated to design an adaptive guidance law based on the characteristic model. This guidance law overcomes the disadvantage of the feedback linearization method which needs the precise model. Simulation results show that the proposed method has better performance of tracking the reference drag acceleration than the feedback linearization one.

  9. Investigation of the Guidance Law for an Image Homing Guidance System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANGGUAN Yin-li

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at a type of image homing guided missile. The guided trajectory characteristics and the initial condition of the homing guidance are analyzed by calculating the miss distance of the image guided missile. Several modified proportional navigation laws which are easy for engineering implementation are introduced.

  10. 78 FR 48175 - Retrospective Review of Draft Guidance Documents Issued Before 2010; Withdrawal of Guidances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... changes in interpretation of policies that are of other than minor in nature, or discuss complex... assist industry with clinical evaluation and requirements for drug approval. The guidances identified for... the Division of Anti-Infective Drug Products''--issued February 1997. 6. ``Empiric Therapy of...

  11. Optimal guidance of extended trajectory shaping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Lin Defu; Cheng Zhenxuan; Wang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    To control missile’s miss distance as well as terminal impact angle, by involving the time-to-go-nth power in the cost function, an extended optimal guidance law against a constant maneu-vering target or a stationary target is proposed using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. An extended trajectory shaping guidance (ETSG) law is then proposed under the assumption that the missile-target relative velocity is constant and the line of sight angle is small. For a lag-free ETSG system, closed-form solutions for the missile’s acceleration command are derived by the method of Schwartz inequality and linear simulations are performed to verify the closed-form results. Normalized adjoint systems for miss distance and terminal impact angle error are presented independently for stationary targets and constant maneuvering targets, respectively. Detailed discussions about the terminal misses and impact angle errors induced by terminal impact angle constraint, initial heading error, seeker zero position errors and target maneuvering, are performed.

  12. Practical guidance for charting ethics consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Courtenay R; Smith, Martin L; Tawose, Olubukunola Mary; Sharp, Richard R

    2014-03-01

    It is generally accepted that appropriate documentation of activities and recommendations of ethics consultants in patients' medical records is critical. Despite this acceptance, the bioethics literature is largely devoid of guidance on key elements of an ethics chart note, the degree of specificity that it should contain, and its stylistic tenor. We aim to provide guidance for a variety of persons engaged in clinical ethics consultation: new and seasoned ethics committee members who are new to ethics consultation, students and trainees in clinical ethics, and those who have significant experience with ethics consultation so that they can reflect on their practice. Toward the goal of promoting quality charting practices in ethics consultations, we propose recommendations on a broad array of questions concerning clinical ethics consultation chart notes, including whether and when to write a chart note, and practical considerations for the tenor, purpose, and content of a chart note. Our broader aim is to promote discussion about good charting practices in clinical ethics, with the hope of contributing to clear standards of excellence in clinical ethics consultation.

  13. Precision Adjustable Liquid Regulator (ALR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhold, R.; Parker, M.

    2004-10-01

    A passive mechanical regulator has been developed for the control of fuel or oxidizer flow to a 450N class bipropellant engine for use on commercial and interplanetary spacecraft. There are several potential benefits to the propulsion system, depending on mission requirements and spacecraft design. This system design enables more precise control of main engine mixture ratio and inlet pressure, and simplifies the pressurization system by transferring the function of main engine flow rate control from the pressurization/propellant tank assemblies, to a single component, the ALR. This design can also reduce the thermal control requirements on the propellant tanks, avoid costly Qualification testing of biprop engines for missions with more stringent requirements, and reduce the overall propulsion system mass and power usage. In order to realize these benefits, the ALR must meet stringent design requirements. The main advantage of this regulator over other units available in the market is that it can regulate about its nominal set point to within +/-0.85%, and change its regulation set point in flight +/-4% about that nominal point. The set point change is handled actively via a stepper motor driven actuator, which converts rotary into linear motion to affect the spring preload acting on the regulator. Once adjusted to a particular set point, the actuator remains in its final position unpowered, and the regulator passively maintains outlet pressure. The very precise outlet regulation pressure is possible due to new technology developed by Moog, Inc. which reduces typical regulator mechanical hysteresis to near zero. The ALR requirements specified an outlet pressure set point range from 225 to 255 psi, and equivalent water flow rates required were in the 0.17 lb/sec range. The regulation output pressure is maintained at +/-2 psi about the set point from a P (delta or differential pressure) of 20 to over 100 psid. Maximum upstream system pressure was specified at 320 psi

  14. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific polynomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law.

  15. Guidance and dispersion studies of National Launch System ascent trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. W.; Chang, Hopen; Freeman, Scott E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Launch System (NLS) is a joint concept, between DoD and NASA, for building a family of new launch vehicles. Two of the many choices to be made are the trajectory shaping methods and the onboard guidance scheme. This paper presents results from some ongoing studies to address these issues. First, potential gains from new guidance concepts are listed. Next the paper gives a list of possible discriminators between different guidance schemes, lists a number of potential guidance schemes, and explains two in some detail. A reference scheme is tested to determine its performance versus the discriminators. Finally, results from some special studies using the reference guidance scheme are given, including the effects of closed-loop guidance initiation time, time of enforcement of sideslip, vehicle roll for engine out, time and location of an engine out, use of load relief control, and use of day of launch wind biasing.

  16. A New Strategy of Guidance Command Generation for Re-entry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie DaoCheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance command for re-entry vehicle can be in various formats, but the Euler angles can be provided directly by gyros, so designers used to develop autopilot with commands of Euler angles. After the generation of commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle, it’s important to settle how to convert commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle to commands of Euler angles. Traditional conversion strategy relies on bank angle, but the solution to bank angle comprises complicated calculation and can’t be precise. This paper introduces a new conversion strategy of guidance command. This strategy relies on the relative position and velocity measured by seeker, an auxiliary coordinate is established as a transition, the transformation matrix from launch coordinate to body coordinate is solved in a new way, then the commands of Euler angles are obtained. The calculation of bank angle is avoided. The autopilot designed with the converted Euler-angle commands, can track commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle steadily. The vehicle reaches the target point precisely. Simulation results show that the new conversion strategy based on seeker information from commands of angle of attack and sideslip angle to Euler-angle commands is valid.

  17. A New Strategy of Guidance Command Generation for Re-entry Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Daocheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Guidance command for re-entry vehicle can be in lots of formats, but the Euler angles can be provided directly by gyros, so designers used to develop autopilot with commands of Euler angles. After the generation of commands of attack angle and sideslip angle, it’s important to settle how to convert commands of attack angle and sideslip angle to commands of Euler angles. Traditional conversion strategy relies on bank angle, solution to bank angle comprises complicated calculation and can’t be precise. This paper introduces a new conversion strategy of guidance command. This strategy relies on the relative position and velocity measured by seeker, an auxiliary coordinateis established as a transition, the transformation matrix from launch coordinate to body coordinate is solved in a new way, then the commands of Euler angles are obtained. The calculation of bank angle is avoided. The autopilot designed with the converted Euler-angle commands, can track commands of attack angle and sideslip angle steadily.The vehicle reaches the target point precisely. Simulation results show that the new conversion strategy based on seeker information from commands of attack angle and sideslip angle to Euler-angle commands is right.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(1, pp.93-100, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.2360

  18. The role of image guidance in respiratory gated radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Fredberg Persson, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    cycle, and thereby enable dose escalation and/or reduction of dose to organs at risk. Without adequate use of respiratory correlated image guidance on a regular basis, respiratory beam gating may however have a detrimental effect on target coverage. Image guidance of tumour respiratory motion...... is therefore of utmost importance for the safe introduction of respiratory gating. In this short overview, suitable image guidance strategies for respiratory gated radiotherapy are reviewed for two cancer sites; breast cancer and lung tumours....

  19. Precision is in their nature

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    There are more than 100 of them in the LHC ring and they have a total of about 400 degrees of freedom. Each one has 4 motors and the newest ones have their own beam-monitoring pickups. Their jaws constrain the relativistic, high-energy particles to a very small transverse area and protect the machine aperture. We are speaking about the LHC collimators, those ultra-precise instruments that leave escaping unstable particles no chance.   The internal structure of a new LHC collimator featuring (see red arrow) one of the beam position monitor's pickups. Designed at CERN but mostly produced by very specialised manufacturers in Europe, the LHC collimators are among the most complex elements of the accelerator. Their job is to control and safely dispose of the halo particles that are produced by unavoidable beam losses from the circulating beam core. “The LHC collimation system has been designed to ensure that beam losses in superconducting magnets remain below quench limits in al...

  20. Precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottstein, Claudia; Wu, Guohui; Wong, Benjamin J; Zasadzinski, Joseph Anthony

    2013-06-25

    Nanoparticles have opened new exciting avenues for both diagnostic and therapeutic applications in human disease, and targeted nanoparticles are increasingly used as specific drug delivery vehicles. The precise quantification of nanoparticle internalization is of importance to measure the impact of physical and chemical properties on the uptake of nanoparticles into target cells or into cells responsible for rapid clearance. Internalization of nanoparticles has been measured by various techniques, but comparability of data between different laboratories is impeded by lack of a generally accepted standardized assay. Furthermore, the distinction between associated and internalized particles has been a challenge for many years, although this distinction is critical for most research questions. Previously used methods to verify intracellular location are typically not quantitative and do not lend themselves to high-throughput analysis. Here, we developed a mathematical model which integrates the data from high-throughput flow cytometry measurements with data from quantitative confocal microscopy. The generic method described here will be a useful tool in biomedical nanotechnology studies. The method was then applied to measure the impact of surface coatings of vesosomes on their internalization by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). RES cells are responsible for rapid clearance of nanoparticles, and the resulting fast blood clearance is one of the major challenges in biomedical applications of nanoparticles. Coating of vesosomes with long chain polyethylene glycol showed a trend for lower internalization by RES cells.

  1. Studying antimatter with laser precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The next generation of antihydrogen trapping devices, ALPHA-2, is moving into CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD) hall. This brand-new experiment will allow the ALPHA collaboration to conduct studies of antimatter with greater precision. ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst was recently awarded a grant by the Carlsberg Foundation, which will be used to purchase equipment for the new experiment.   A 3-D view of the new magnet (in blue) and cryostat. The red lines show the paths of laser beams. LHC-type current leads for the superconducting magnets are visible on the top-right of the image. The ALPHA collaboration has been working to trap and study antihydrogen since 2006. Using antiprotons provided by CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD), ALPHA was the first experiment to trap antihydrogen and to hold it long enough to study its properties. “The new ALPHA-2 experiment will use integrated lasers to probe the trapped antihydrogen,” explains Jeffrey Hangst, ALP...

  2. The Age of Precision Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David T.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, our understanding of the evolution and fate of the universe has increased dramatically. This "Age of Precision Cosmology" has been ushered in by measurements that have both elucidated the details of the Big Bang cosmology and set the direction for future lines of inquiry. Our universe appears to consist of 5% baryonic matter; 23% of the universe's energy content is dark matter which is responsible for the observed structure in the universe; and 72% of the energy density is so-called "dark energy" that is currently accelerating the expansion of the universe. In addition, our universe has been measured to be geometrically flat to 1 %. These observations and related details of the Big Bang paradigm have hinted that the universe underwent an epoch of accelerated expansion known as Uinflation" early in its history. In this talk, I will review the highlights of modern cosmology, focusing on the contributions made by measurements of the cosmic microwave background, the faint afterglow of the Big Bang. I will also describe new instruments designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background in order to search for evidence of cosmic inflation.

  3. Image guidance quality assurance of a G4 CyberKnife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantelis, E.; Petrokokkinos, L.; Antypas, C.

    2009-05-01

    The image guidance of a CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system was quality controlled, including the overall performance of the target locating subsystem and the performance of the x-ray generators and flat panel digital cameras subcomponents. Accuracy and precision of the kV and exposure time settings of the x-ray generators, linearity of the x-ray output, spatial resolution and geometrical distortion of the acquired x-ray images were measured. Total accuracy and precision of the target locating subsystem in defining the position of an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom placed on treatment couch was also measured. Accuracy and precision of the kV as well as exposure time settings and linearity of the x-ray output were found within the acceptance limits suggested in diagnostic radiology. The acquired x-ray images were found to depict the shapes of the imaging objects without any geometrical distortion, being able to resolve differences in the features of imaging objects with critical frequency of 1.3 lp/mm and 1.5 lp/mm for camera A and B, respectively. Total target locating system accuracy was found within 0.2 mm and 0.2° in translations and rotations, respectively. Corresponding precision was found lower than 0.5%. These findings render the target locating subsystem of the CyberKnife capable of accurately registering the patient to treatment position and monitoring patient's movement during treatment delivery.

  4. Image guidance quality assurance of a G4 CyberKnife robotic stereotactic radiosurgery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis, E; Antypas, C [CyberKnife center, Iatropolis-Magnitiki Tomografia, Ethnikis Antistaseos 54-56, Chalandri, 152 31, Athens (Greece); Petrokokkinos, L [University of Athens, Physics Department, Nuclear and Particle Section, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vpantelis@phys.uoa.gr

    2009-05-15

    The image guidance of a CyberKnife robotic radiosurgery system was quality controlled, including the overall performance of the target locating subsystem and the performance of the x-ray generators and flat panel digital cameras subcomponents. Accuracy and precision of the kV and exposure time settings of the x-ray generators, linearity of the x-ray output, spatial resolution and geometrical distortion of the acquired x-ray images were measured. Total accuracy and precision of the target locating subsystem in defining the position of an anthropomorphic head and neck phantom placed on treatment couch was also measured. Accuracy and precision of the kV as well as exposure time settings and linearity of the x-ray output were found within the acceptance limits suggested in diagnostic radiology. The acquired x-ray images were found to depict the shapes of the imaging objects without any geometrical distortion, being able to resolve differences in the features of imaging objects with critical frequency of 1.3 lp/mm and 1.5 lp/mm for camera A and B, respectively. Total target locating system accuracy was found within 0.2 mm and 0.2 deg. in translations and rotations, respectively. Corresponding precision was found lower than 0.5%. These findings render the target locating subsystem of the CyberKnife capable of accurately registering the patient to treatment position and monitoring patient's movement during treatment delivery.

  5. Axon guidance and neuronal migration research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Proper migration of neuronal somas and axonal growth cones to designated locations in the developing brain is essential for the assembly of functional neuronal circuits.Rapid progress in research of axon guidance and neuronal migration has been made in the last twenty years.Chinese researchers began their exploration in this field ten years ago and have made significant contributions in clarifying the signal transduction of axon guidance and neuronal migration.Several unique experimental approaches,including the migration assay of single isolated neurons in response to locally delivered guidance cues,have been developed by Chinese neuroscientists to investigate the molecular machinery underlying these guidance events.

  6. Integrating mechanisms of visual guidance in naturalistic language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Moreno I; Keller, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Situated language production requires the integration of visual attention and linguistic processing. Previous work has not conclusively disentangled the role of perceptual scene information and structural sentence information in guiding visual attention. In this paper, we present an eye-tracking study that demonstrates that three types of guidance, perceptual, conceptual, and structural, interact to control visual attention. In a cued language production experiment, we manipulate perceptual (scene clutter) and conceptual guidance (cue animacy) and measure structural guidance (syntactic complexity of the utterance). Analysis of the time course of language production, before and during speech, reveals that all three forms of guidance affect the complexity of visual responses, quantified in terms of the entropy of attentional landscapes and the turbulence of scan patterns, especially during speech. We find that perceptual and conceptual guidance mediate the distribution of attention in the scene, whereas structural guidance closely relates to scan pattern complexity. Furthermore, the eye-voice span of the cued object and its perceptual competitor are similar; its latency mediated by both perceptual and structural guidance. These results rule out a strict interpretation of structural guidance as the single dominant form of visual guidance in situated language production. Rather, the phase of the task and the associated demands of cross-modal cognitive processing determine the mechanisms that guide attention.

  7. Precision laser automatic tracking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy, R F; Peters, C J; McGann, E J; Lang, K T

    1966-04-01

    A precision laser tracker has been constructed and tested that is capable of tracking a low-acceleration target to an accuracy of about 25 microrad root mean square. In tracking high-acceleration targets, the error is directly proportional to the angular acceleration. For an angular acceleration of 0.6 rad/sec(2), the measured tracking error was about 0.1 mrad. The basic components in this tracker, similar in configuration to a heliostat, are a laser and an image dissector, which are mounted on a stationary frame, and a servocontrolled tracking mirror. The daytime sensitivity of this system is approximately 3 x 10(-10) W/m(2); the ultimate nighttime sensitivity is approximately 3 x 10(-14) W/m(2). Experimental tests were performed to evaluate both dynamic characteristics of this system and the system sensitivity. Dynamic performance of the system was obtained, using a small rocket covered with retroreflective material launched at an acceleration of about 13 g at a point 204 m from the tracker. The daytime sensitivity of the system was checked, using an efficient retroreflector mounted on a light aircraft. This aircraft was tracked out to a maximum range of 15 km, which checked the daytime sensitivity of the system measured by other means. The system also has been used to track passively stars and the Echo I satellite. Also, the system tracked passively a +7.5 magnitude star, and the signal-to-noise ratio in this experiment indicates that it should be possible to track a + 12.5 magnitude star.

  8. Review of Development of Missile-borne SAR Guidance Technology%弹载合成孔径雷达制导技术发展综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德成

    2009-01-01

    弹载合成孔径雷达制导技术是合成孔径雷达(SAR)技术和精确制导技术相结合的一个高新科技,是提高精确打击目标的重要方法.文中介绍了国外SAR制导技术的最新发展,如调频连续波、单脉冲三维成像、多模复合制导雷达技术的应用,指出高速图像处理、高效算法及轻型低功耗等是未来精确制导技术的发展重点;综合分析了在研发SAR制导技术的工作中需要解决多项成像技术内容,最后指出为适应精确制导武器性能的不断提高,弹载SAR制导技术需要注意修正和完善之处,以提高对要害部位的打击.%Missile-borne SAR guidance technology is a high-tech combination of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and precision guidance technology and is an important method for improving target strike precision. In this paper, latest development of foreign SAR guidance technology is reviewed, such as FMCW SAR, mono-pulae 3D imaging radar and multi-mode composite guidance ra-dar technology, high-speed image processing, new effective algorithm, then light-weight, low power consumption are pointed out as the key fields in future precision guidance technology. Some imaging issues that sliould be solved in R&D of SAR guidance technol-ogy are analyzed. Finally, it is pointed out that missile-borne SAR guidance technology should evolve in some respects to enhance performance of precision guidance weapons and to improve the strike effect on vital hostile properties.

  9. Technical guidance for siting criteria development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, D.C.; Sprung, J.L.; Alpert, D.J.; Diegert, K.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Ritchie, L.T.; Strip, D.R.; Johnson, J.D.; Hansen, K.; Robinson, J.

    1982-12-01

    Technical guidance to support the formulation and comparison of possible siting criteria for nuclear power plants has been developed in four areas: (1) consequences of hypothetical severe nuclear-power-plant accidents, (2) characteristics of population distributions about current reactor sites, (3) site availability within the continental United States, and (4) socioeconomic impacts of reactor siting. The impact on consequences of source-term magnitude, meteorology, population distribution, and emergency response have been analyzed. Population distributions about current sites were analyzed to identify statistical characteristics, time trends, and regional differences. A site-availability data bank was constructed for the continential United States. The data bank contains information about population densities, seismicity, topography, water availability, and land-use restrictions. Finally, the socioeconomic impacts of rural-industrialization projects, energy boomtowns, and nuclear power plants were examined to determine their nature, magnitude, and dependence on site demography and remoteness.

  10. Optical technologies for intraoperative neurosurgical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Pablo A; Roberts, David W; Lu, Fa-Ke; Golby, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    Biomedical optics is a broadly interdisciplinary field at the interface of optical engineering, biophysics, computer science, medicine, biology, and chemistry, helping us understand light-tissue interactions to create applications with diagnostic and therapeutic value in medicine. Implementation of biomedical optics tools and principles has had a notable scientific and clinical resurgence in recent years in the neurosurgical community. This is in great part due to work in fluorescence-guided surgery of brain tumors leading to reports of significant improvement in maximizing the rates of gross-total resection. Multiple additional optical technologies have been implemented clinically, including diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and imaging, optical coherence tomography, Raman spectroscopy and imaging, and advanced quantitative methods, including quantitative fluorescence and lifetime imaging. Here we present a clinically relevant and technologically informed overview and discussion of some of the major clinical implementations of optical technologies as intraoperative guidance tools in neurosurgery.

  11. ROUTE PLAN DESIGNER FOR TRACTOR GUIDANCE SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveistrup, Daniel; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Green, Ole

    2010-01-01

    thedevelopment and deployment of georeferenced routes to be used for full scale field trial designsassisted by auto-steering solutions, including the steps needed to lay out the full scale multitreatmentsetups, georeference these setups via Google Earth and transfer them to an auto-guidancetractor computer....... The software works in conjunction with Google Earth to import field boundaries,and for viewing, validating and georeferencing completed field trial designs. The software isplatform independent and online distributed by means of the Java development environment.Two case studies were applied for demonstrating...... was outlined, it took less thanone hour entering the design into the software and generating the auto-guidance files.KeywordsGIS, Auto steering systems, plot trial design, full-scale field trials, Java...

  12. Improvements in inservice testing regulatory guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.L.

    1996-12-01

    Over the last few years, the NRC has issued guidance to licensees toward improving the quality of requests for relief or alternatives to the code requirements and bring some measure of consistency to the implementation of the code requirements. Based on the majority of the recent submittals, the overall quality has improved. If all of the steps in the internal process for responding to the requests are timely, the review of an updated program can be completed in six to nine months. When a single or only a few requests are submitted, the staff is generally able to complete an evaluation in less than three months. When schedules are related to outages or exigent circumstances, the NRC responds accordingly. The improvements in schedules can be attributed to publication of staff guideline documents, licensees` efforts in preparing more complete descriptions and justification and an increase in the number of NRC technical staff reviewers assigned to IST.

  13. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 3: A comparison of waypoint guidance algorithms for RNAV/MLS transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an investigation carried out for the Langley Research Center Terminal Configured Vehicle Program are presented. The investigation generated and compared three path update algorithms designed to provide smooth transition for an aircraft guidance system from DME, VORTAC, and barometric navaids to the more precise MLS by modifying the desired 3-D flight path. The first, called the Zero Cross Track, eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude error by designating the first valid MLS aircraft position as the desired first waypoint, while retaining all subsequent waypoints. The discontinuity in track angle is left unaltered. The second, called the Tangent Path also eliminates the discontinuity in cross track and altitude and choose a new desired heading to be tangent to the next oncoming circular arc turn. The third, called the Continued Track eliminates the discontinuity in cross track, altitude and track angle by accepting the current MLS position and track angle as the desired ones and recomputes the location of the next waypoint. A method is presented for providing a waypoint guidance path reconstruction which treats turns of less than, and greater than, 180 degrees in a uniform manner to construct the desired path.

  14. Dopaminergic axon guidance: which makes what?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia ePrestoz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mesotelencephalic pathways in the adult central nervous system have been studied in great detail because of their implication in major physiological functions as well as in psychiatric, neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the ontogeny of these pathways and the molecular mechanisms that guide dopaminergic axons during embryogenesis have been only recently studied. This line of research is of crucial interest for the repair of lesioned circuits in adulthood following neurodegenerative diseases or common traumatic injuries. For instance, in the adult, the anatomic and functional repair of the nigrostriatal pathway following dopaminergic embryonic neuron transplantation suggests that specific guidance cues exist which govern embryonic fibers outgrowth, and suggests that axons from transplanted embryonic cells are able to respond to theses cues, which then guide them to their final targets. In this review, we first synthesize the work that has been performed in the last few years on developing mesotelencephalic pathways, and summarize the current knowledge on the identity of cellular and molecular signals thought to be involved in establishing mesotelencephalic dopaminergic neuronal connectivity during embryogenesis in the central nervous system of rodents. Then, we review the modulation of expression of these molecular signals in the lesioned adult brain and discuss their potential role in remodeling the mesotelencephalic dopaminergic circuitry, with a particular focus on Parkinson’s disease. Identifying guidance molecules involved in the connection of grafted cells may be useful for cellular therapy in Parkinsonian patients, as these molecules may help direct axons from grafted cells along the long distance they have to travel from the substantia nigra to the striatum.

  15. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  16. Regulatory guidance on soil cover systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, J.D. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in September 1991, completed revisions to 14 sections of the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for the Review of a License Application for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility. The major purposes of the SRP are to ensure the quality and uniformity of the NRC staff`s safety reviews, and to present a well-defined base from which to evaluate the acceptability of information and data provided in the Safety Analysis Report (SAR) portion of the license application. SRP 3.2, entitled, Design Considerations for Normal and Abnormal/Accident Conditions, was one of the sections that was revised by the NRC staff. This revision was completed to provide additional regulatory guidance on the important considerations that need to be addressed for the proper design and construction of soil cover systems that are to be placed over the LLW. The cover system over the waste is acknowledged to be one of the most important engineered barriers for the long-term stable performance of the disposal facility. The guidance in revised SRP 3.2 summarizes the previous efforts and recommendations of the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and a peer review panel on the placement of soil cover systems. NRC published these efforts in NUREG/CR-5432. The discussions in this paper highlight selected recommendations on soil cover issues that the NRC staff considers important for ensuring the safe, long-term performance of the soil cover systems. The development phases to be discussed include: (1) cover design; (2) cover material selection; (3) laboratory and field testing; (4) field placement control and acceptance; and (5) penetrations through the constructed covers.

  17. Study on noise of precision panel saw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUWan-yi; QIYing-jie; ZHANGZhao-hao; QIXiao-jie

    2003-01-01

    According to ZBJ65015-89 standard about noise level testing method of woodworking toot, the noise testing for MJg0# and MJCl125 precision panel saws was conducted by using model ND2 precision soundqevel apparatus and double frequency wave filter. The testing results showed that the unloaded running noise source of precision panel saw was mainly from main saw blade and its aeromechanic noise was the largest. The rotating speed was determined as an important factor to impact dynamic characters of precision panel saw as the unloaded running noise increased along with speed increasing. For reducing noise of precision panel saw, the first important way is to reduce the aeromechanic noise produced by main saw blade rotating at high speed; based on assuring the processing precision, choosing tow speed is a better way to drop dawn noise; from the view of design, the diameter of clamping lid is better of half of outer diameter of main saw blade.

  18. [Progress in precision medicine: a scientific perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B; Li, L M

    2017-01-10

    Precision medicine is a new strategy for disease prevention and treatment by taking into account differences in genetics, environment and lifestyles among individuals and making precise diseases classification and diagnosis, which can provide patients with personalized, targeted prevention and treatment. Large-scale population cohort studies are fundamental for precision medicine research, and could produce best evidence for precision medicine practices. Current criticisms on precision medicine mainly focus on the very small proportion of benefited patients, the neglect of social determinants for health, and the possible waste of limited medical resources. In spite of this, precision medicine is still a most hopeful research area, and would become a health care practice model in the future.

  19. Modeling and control of precision actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Kiong, Tan Kok

    2013-01-01

    IntroductionGrowing Interest in Precise ActuatorsTypes of Precise ActuatorsApplications of Precise ActuatorsNonlinear Dynamics and ModelingHysteresisCreepFrictionForce RipplesIdentification and Compensation of Preisach Hysteresis in Piezoelectric ActuatorsSVD-Based Identification and Compensation of Preisach HysteresisHigh-Bandwidth Identification and Compensation of Hysteretic Dynamics in Piezoelectric ActuatorsConcluding RemarksIdentification and Compensation of Frict

  20. Vision-Aided Autonomous Precision Weapon Terminal Guidance Using a Tightly-Coupled INS and Predictive Rendering Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    VRML reference frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.5. Ellipsoid, geoid , and Earth surface compared . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.6. WGS...and navigation, two common models of the Earthare the ellipsoid and the geoid . A datum defines a unique ellipsoidal model of the Earth with minimum...error in the area of interest. A geoid is a gravitation equipotential model of the Earth. This means that at any given point on a geoid , the surface is

  1. On magnetic guidance of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, H.

    2016-04-01

    High precision beta decay experiments with polarized neutrons, employing magnetic guiding fields for the decay electrons in combination with energy dispersive detectors, initiated detailed studies of the point spread function (PSF) for homogeneous magnetic fields. A PSF describes the radial probability distribution of mono-energetic electrons at the detector plane which were emitted from a point-like source. With regard to accuracy considerations for high-precision experiments unwanted singularities occur as function of the radial detector coordinate which have recently been discussed in detail by Dubbers (2015) [3]. In the present article mathematical inconsistencies in the approximations to calculate PSFs have been corrected. In addition, numerical orbit calculations have been performed for inhomogeneous magnetic fields which show that, on the one hand, generalizations on the basis of adiabaticity considerations must be handled with care but indicate, on the other hand, that non-adiabaticity would not prevent a proposed check of magnetic field configurations.

  2. Precision transport of LHC superconducting magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    These photos show tests of the first convoy with a prototype short straight section (SSS) quadrupole in the LHC tunnel. There is little free space in the tunnel as the SSS convoy passes alongside a dipole vacuum vessel. These convoys feature infrared guidance, which offsets the minimal clearance in the tunnel and limits vibration, both of which could damage the fragile magnets.

  3. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T......, which is shown to be approximated by a χ2 distribution. Application of this test to the results of determinations of manganese in human serum by a method of established precision, led to the detection of airborne pollution of the serum during the sampling process. The subsequent improvement in sampling...... conditions was shown to give not only increased precision, but also improved accuracy of the results....

  4. Precision injection molding of freeform optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2016-08-01

    Precision injection molding is the most efficient mass production technology for manufacturing plastic optics. Applications of plastic optics in field of imaging, illumination, and concentration demonstrate a variety of complex surface forms, developing from conventional plano and spherical surfaces to aspheric and freeform surfaces. It requires high optical quality with high form accuracy and lower residual stresses, which challenges both optical tool inserts machining and precision injection molding process. The present paper reviews recent progress in mold tool machining and precision injection molding, with more emphasis on precision injection molding. The challenges and future development trend are also discussed.

  5. Precision Higgs boson measurement at CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)718111

    2016-01-01

    The design of the next generation collider in high energy physics will primarily focus on the possibility to achieve high precision of the measurements of interest. The necessary precision limits are set, in the first place, by the measurement of the Higgs boson but also by measurements that are sensitive to signs of New Physics. The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) is an attractive option for a future multi-TeV linear electron-positron collider, with the potential to cover a rich physics program with high precision. In this lecture the CLIC accelerator, detector and backgrounds will be presented with emphesis on the capabilities of CLIC for precision Higgs physics.

  6. Exemplary Career Guidance Programs 1995: Secondary and Postsecondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Esmeralda S.; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    This document presents nine exemplary career guidance and counseling programs identified by the National Center for Research in Vocational Education's Office of Student Services. Chapter 1 presents a synthesis of the nationally recognized career guidance programs successful in assisting students in their career development. It provides a…

  7. Making Connections: Guidance and Career Education in the Middle Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Marion; Ziegler, Suzanne

    This report is an examination of recommended and actual school-based guidance policies, programs, and practices for young adolescents. The information is drawn from Canadian and international publications, and from a survey of guidance and career education programs for grades 7-8 in Ontario boards of education and schools, called The 1990 Ontario…

  8. Guidance on the environmental risk assessment of plant pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsne Simon, E.

    2011-01-01

    the environmental risks of plant pests that have previously been used in pest risk assessment. The limitations identified by the review led the Panel to define the new methodology for environmental risk assessment which is described in this guidance document. The guidance is primarily addressed to the EFSA PLH...

  9. Thinking Differently about Guidance: Power, Children's Autonomy and Democratic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millei, Zsuzsa

    2012-01-01

    This article critiques guidance approaches to discipline, that are employed in early childhood environments with an aim to create democratic environments for children, and as part of "good" practices. Advocates of guidance claim that this is a more humane or democratic approach to discipline that empowers children, and therefore, power in the…

  10. Finding the Optimal Guidance for Enhancing Anchored Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Bathke, Arne; Hasselbring, Ted S.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of different methods of guidance with anchored instruction on students' mathematical problem-solving performance. The purpose of this research was to iteratively design a learning environment to find the optimal level of guidance. Two iterations of the software were compared. The first iteration used explicit…

  11. Interdisciplinarity in Vocational Guidance: An Action Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valach, Ladislav; Young, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In addressing the issue of interdisciplinary research in vocational guidance, twelve propositions important for understanding the vocational guidance process as joint, goal-directed action are presented. They address the encounter between client and counsellor leading to relational ethics, the relevance of everyday action theory and methods for…

  12. Guidance of Nonlinear Nonminimum-Phase Dynamic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasia, Santosh

    1997-01-01

    The first two years research work has advanced the inversion-based guidance theory for: (1) systems with non-hyperbolic internal dynamics; (2) systems with parameter jumps; (3) systems where a redesign of the output trajectory is desired; and (4) the generation of recovery guidance maneuvers.

  13. 76 FR 81513 - Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in Shell Eggs During... with certain provisions contained in FDA's final rule ``Prevention of Salmonella Enteritidis in...

  14. Meta-Narrative on Guidance and Counselling in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamarasseri, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of guidance and counselling provide emphasis and strength to the educational program. The major goals of counselling are to promote personal growth and to prepare students to become motivated workers and responsible citizens. The chief aim of an educational guidance is to develop the ability of co-ordinating with the school…

  15. 78 FR 49782 - Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Interim Staff Guidance on Changes During Construction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft interim staff guidance; request for comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing this notice for use of, and to solicit public comment on the draft Interim...

  16. Career Guidance and Social Exclusion: A Cautionary Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the relationship of career guidance to public-policy interventions designed to address social exclusion. Analyzes the nature and origin of the concept of social exclusion and reviews the roles of career guidance in response to it, particularly in relation to young people who have dropped out of formal education or are at high risk of…

  17. Counseling, Guidance, and the Morality of Help-Giving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael J.

    1971-01-01

    A review of: (1) The Counseling Center in Higher Education, Phillip J. Gallagher and George D. Demos, (2) The Guidance Process, Herman J. Peters, (3) Counseling and Guidance in the Twentieth Century: Reflections and Reformulations, William H. Van Hoose and John J. Pietrofesa, and (4) Value Orientations in Counseling and Psychotherapy: The Meanings…

  18. Operator radiation exposure in cone-beam computed tomography guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.; Strijen Van, M. J L; Meijer, E.; Heesewijk Van, J. P M; Mali, W. P T M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Quantitative analysis of operator dose in cone-beam computed tomography guidance (CBCT-guidance) and the effect of protective shielding. Methods: Using a Rando phantom, a model was set-up to measure radiation dose for the operator hand, thyroid and gonad region. The effect of sterile rad

  19. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: American Indian Religious Freedom Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This Reference Book contains a copy of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act and guidance for DOE compliance with the statute. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically.

  20. Rethinking Careers Education and Guidance: Theory, Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Law, Bill; Killeen, John; Kidd, Jennifer M.; Hawthorn, Ruth

    This book contains 21 papers on the theory, context, provision, practice, and development of career counseling and guidance in Great Britain. The following papers are included: "Preface" (Tony Watts et al.); "The Social Context of Guidance" (John Killeen); "Career Theory" (John Killeen); "A Career-Learning…

  1. Critical Perspectives on Adolescent Vocational Guidance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; McWhirter, Benedict T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the lens of critical psychology is applied to adolescent career development and vocational guidance in Chile. The authors describe and critique the status of adolescent vocational guidance in Chile, the reproduction of extant social inequities in Chilean education, and offer recommendations for enhancing vocational guidance…

  2. Cone-beam CT-guidance in Interventional Radiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. CBCT-guidance (CBCT-guidance) is a new stereotactic technique for needle interventions, combining 3D soft-tissue cone-beam CT, needle planningsoftware, and real-time fluoroscopy. Our objective was to evaluate the use, feasibility and outcome of this technique. To determine the effectiv

  3. Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected.......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe is based on a particular, positivtic model. Other approaches are largely neglected....

  4. HFE Process Guidance and Standards for potential application to updating NRC guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo; J. J. Persensky

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews and evaluates the human factors engineering (HFE) programs of applicants for nuclear power plant construction permits, operating licenses, standard design certifications, and combined operating licenses. The purpose of these safety reviews is to help ensure that personnel performance and reliability are appropriately supported. Detailed design review procedures and guidance for the evaluations is provided in three key documents: the Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800), the HFE Program Review Model (NUREG-0711), and the Human-System Interface Design Review Guidelines (NUREG-0700). These documents were last revised in 2007, 2004 and 2002, respectively. The NRC is committed to the periodic update and improvement of these guidance documents to ensure that they remain state-of-the-art design evaluation tools. Thus, the NRC has initiated a project with BNL to update the NRC guidance to remain current with recent research on human performance, advances in HFE methods and tools, and new technology. INL supported Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) to update the detailed HFE review criteria contained in NUREG-0711 and NUREG-0700 based on (1) feedback obtained from end users, (2) the results of NRC research and development efforts supporting the NRC staff’s HFE safety reviews, and (3) other material the project staff identify as applicable to the update effort. INL submitted comments on development plans and sections of NUREGs 0800, 0711, and 0700. The contractor prepared the report attached here as the deliverable for this work.

  5. Key performance indicators for the assessment of pediatric pharmacotherapeutic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jeffrey S; Patel, Dimple; Jayaraman, Bhuvana; Narayan, Mahesh; Zuppa, Athena

    2008-07-01

    Given the paucity of actual guidance provided for managing pediatric drug therapy, prescribing caregivers must be able to draw on the limited published information in pediatrics and/or guidance provided in adults with some account for expected pediatric response. Guidance for managing drug therapy in children is clearly desirable. Our objectives were to construct key performance indicators (KPIs) for pediatric pharmacotherapy guidance to identify drugs where pharmacotherapy guidance would be most beneficial. A pilot survey to assess variation in caregiver appreciation for pediatric dosing guidance has also been constructed to provide a complementary subjective assessment. Three KPI categories, drug utilization (based on hospital admission and billing data collected from 2001 through 2006), medical need, and guidance outcome value along with a KPI composite score have been proposed. Low scores are favored with respect to prioritization for pharmacotherapy guidance. The pilot survey consisted of 15 questions to assess 1) physician knowledge regarding dosing guidance, 2) attitudes toward dose modification and patient individualization, 3) the accessibility, ease of use and appropriateness of existing data stores, and 4) frequency of dosing modification, consultation of dosing compendiums and estimate of success rate in dosing guidance. Pilot results suggest that dosing guidance is generally viewed as important and that the existing resources are insufficient to guide recommendations for all drugs. While the majority of respondents check more than one resource less than 25% of the time, at least 25% of the respondents check more than one resource 25-50% of the time. The majority viewed the relevance of dosing guidance very important to the management of drug therapy. The questionnaire is being extended to the primary care centers, the Kids First Network and specialty care centers. Results will guide the development of decision support systems (DSS) that provide patient

  6. Extended High-Gain Observer for Mars Entry Guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyuan Cui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available To deliver a Mars entry vehicle to the prescribed parachute deployment point, active entry guidance is essential. This paper addresses the problem of Mars atmospheric entry guidance through drag tracking method with extended high gain observer. First, an extended high gain observer combined with feedback linearization is applied in drag tracking for Mars entry longitudinal guidance.  The observer estimates the drag and drag rate for drag tracking, estimates the perturbation due to model uncertainty and disturbance, and compensate for the perturbation by canceling its estimate. Then, bank reversal is adopted in the lateral plane to reduce the cross-range error. Finally, Mars entry simulation is performed to assess the performance of the adaptive guidance law. The results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law exhibits good performance.

  7. A Three-Dimensional Cooperative Guidance Law of Multimissile System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to conduct saturation attacks on a static target, the cooperative guidance problem of multimissile system is researched. A three-dimensional guidance model is built using vector calculation and the classic proportional navigation guidance (PNG law is extended to three dimensions. Based on this guidance law, a distributed cooperative guidance strategy is proposed and a consensus protocol is designed to coordinate the time-to-go commands of all missiles. Then an expert system, which contains two extreme learning machines (ELM, is developed to regulate the local proportional coefficient of each missile according to the command. All missiles can arrive at the target simultaneously under the assumption that the multimissile network is connected. A simulation scenario is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method.

  8. A guide to CERCLA site assessment. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This Pocket Guide is a condensed version of information provided in three EPA documents: Guidance for Performing Preliminary Assessments Under CERCLA, Guidance for Performing Site Inspections Under CERCLA, and Hazard Ranking System Guidance Manual. Additionally the guide provides a DOE perspective on site assessment issues and information on the Federal Agency Hazardous Waste Compliance Docket as well as data sources for DOE site assessments. The guide is intended to present this information in a simple, portable, and direct manner that will allow the user to effectively focus on those aspects of the site assessment process of interest. The guide is not intended as a substitute for the three EPA guidance documents mentioned previously. DOE investigators should be thoroughly familiar with the EPA guidance before conducting site assessments. Use this pocketguide as an overview of procedures and requirements and as a field guide.

  9. Guidance Receptors in the Nervous and Cardiovascular Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubina, K A; Tkachuk, V A

    2015-10-01

    Blood vessels and nervous fibers grow in parallel, for they express similar receptors for chemokine substances. Recently, much attention is being given to studying guidance receptors and their ligands besides the growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines necessary to form structures in the nervous and vascular systems. Such guidance molecules determine trajectory for growing axons and vessels. Guidance molecules include Ephrins and their receptors, Neuropilins and Plexins as receptors for Semaphorins, Robos as receptors for Slit-proteins, and UNC5B receptors binding Netrins. Apart from these receptors and their ligands, urokinase and its receptor (uPAR) and T-cadherin are also classified as guidance molecules. The urokinase system mediates local proteolysis at the leading edge of cells, thereby providing directed migration. T-cadherin is a repellent molecule that regulates the direction of growing axons and blood vessels. Guidance receptors also play an important role in the diseases of the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  10. European Universities' Guidance on Research Integrity and Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert Bonn, Noémie; Godecharle, Simon; Dierickx, Kris

    2017-02-01

    Research integrity is imperative to good science. Nonetheless, many countries and institutions develop their own integrity guidance, thereby risking incompatibilities with guidance of collaborating institutions. We retrieved guidance for academic integrity and misconduct of 18 universities from 10 European countries and investigated accessibility, general content, principles endorsed, and definitions of misconduct. Accessibility and content differ substantially between institutions. There are general trends of common principles of integrity and definitions of misconduct, yet differences remain. Parallel with previous research, we distinguish different approaches in integrity guidance; one emphasizes broad values of integrity, and the other details negative behaviors of misconduct. We propose that a balance between both approaches is necessary to preserve trust, meaning, and realism of guidance on research integrity.

  11. 78 FR 12761 - Guidance for Industry: Guidance on the Labeling of Certain Uses of Lecithin Derived From Soy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Labeling of Certain Uses of Lecithin Derived From Soy Under Section 403(w) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... ``Guidance for Industry: Guidance on the Labeling of Certain Uses of Lecithin Derived From Soy Under Section... certain uses of lecithin derived from soy under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C...

  12. An Investigation of the Guidance Counselling Needs of Adults with Dyslexia in the Adult Educational Guidance Initiative (AEGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elftorp, Petra; Hearne, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of adult learners with dyslexia is an under-researched area in Ireland at present. This article will discuss the findings from phase one of a mixed methods research study, which is investigating the guidance counselling needs of clients with dyslexia within the Adult Education Guidance Initiative (AEGI). The research is underpinned…

  13. 76 FR 48870 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  14. 75 FR 69089 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Tissue Adhesive With Adjunct Wound Closure Device Intended for the Topical Approximation of Skin; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  15. 76 FR 22906 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  16. 76 FR 6622 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act) (21 U... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Contact Cooling System for Aesthetic Use;...

  17. 76 FR 43332 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Focused Ultrasound Stimulator System for Aesthetic Use; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  18. 75 FR 70271 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... wound therapy into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Non-Powered Suction Apparatus Device Intended for...

  19. 76 FR 29251 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls; Guidance Document: Topical Oxygen Chamber for Extremities; Availability; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  20. 76 FR 20992 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... into class II (special controls) under section 513(f)(2) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Low Level Laser System for Aesthetic Use;...

  1. 75 FR 68364 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Full-Field Digital Mammography System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...

  2. 76 FR 16425 - Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Ovarian Adnexal Mass Assessment Score Test System; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food and...

  3. Ultra-precision processes for optics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, William R.

    1991-12-01

    The Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) is developing advanced manufacturing technologies for fabrication of ultra precision optical components, aiming for a ten-fold improvement in precision and a shortening of the scheduled lead time. Current work focuses on diamond single point turning, ductile grinding, ion milling, and in/on process metrology.

  4. Precision Teaching: By Teachers for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsley, Ogden R.

    1990-01-01

    The founding policies of precision teaching are discussed: monitor frequency daily, use self-recording, use standard charts to display major changes, and accept that the child knows best how he or she learns. Contributions of teachers that have furthered the development of precision teaching are documented. (JDD)

  5. Usefulness of Models in Precision Nutrient Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Manevski, Kiril; Zhenjiang, Zhou

    and mineral composition. Mapping of crop status and the spatial-temporal variability within fields with red-infrared reflection are used to support decision on split fertilisation and more precise dosing. The interpretation and use of these various data in precise nutrient management is not straightforward...

  6. High precision laser forming for micro actuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folkersma, Ger K.G.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Brouwer, D.M.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Nakata, Yoshiki; Xu, Xianfan; Roth, Stephan; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2014-01-01

    For assembly of micro-devices, such as photonic devices, the precision alignment of components is often critical for their performance. Laser forming, also known as laser-adjusting, can be used to create an integrated microactuator to align the components with sub-micron precision after bonding. In

  7. Precision constraints on extra fermion generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Jens; Langacker, Paul

    2010-07-16

    There has been recent renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak precision constraints, in particular, in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for extra families and analyze them in view of the latest electroweak precision data.

  8. A Functional Description of a Digital Flight Test System for Navigation and Guidance Research in the Terminal Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance, navigation, and control system, the Simulated Shuttle Flight Test System (SS-FTS), when interfaced with existing aircraft systems, provides a research facility for studying concepts for landing the space shuttle orbiter and conventional jet aircraft. The SS-FTS, which includes a general-purpose computer, performs all computations for precisely following a prescribed approach trajectory while properly managing the vehicle energy to allow safe arrival at the runway and landing within prescribed dispersions. The system contains hardware and software provisions for navigation with several combinations of possible navigation aids that have been suggested for the shuttle. The SS-FTS can be reconfigured to study different guidance and navigation concepts by changing only the computer software, and adapted to receive different radio navigation information through minimum hardware changes. All control laws, logic, and mode interlocks reside solely in the computer software.

  9. Special techniques in ultra-precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Min, Xu; Chen, Dong; Wang, JunHua

    2007-12-01

    As the development of ultra-precision machining, the SPDT (single point diamond turning) was applied for the manufacture of a variety of optical components for its high precision , versatility and lower manufacturing cost. Whereas, the improvement of ultra-precision machining is not only related to the most topnotch equipments in the world but also closely linked to the special techniques in the ultra-precision Machining. Therefore, the industrialization and marketization of the ultra-precision machining will not be realized without these special techniques. This paper introduces the principle, trait and application of some important special techniques which can match the SPDT efficaciously, they are FTS, STS, SSS, ACT, VQ, LADT and UADT techniques.

  10. Precision Measurement Physics and Its Methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-hui YE; Jia-ming LI; Jun LUO

    2009-01-01

    @@ Precision Measurement Physics deals with the frontier problems in science, and plays a multi-disciplinary and fundamental role in strongly advancing the sciences. It is well known that an improvement of measuring precision in physics by an order of magnitude often implies a new or unknown effect to be explored, consequently even a new physical law to be established. There is no doubt that the development of modern physics is so closely related to precision measurements. During the past few decades, the methodologies and physics of precision measurements have achieved tremendous breakthroughs, and therefore have extended our understanding of the physics world.In addition, some technologies developed in this process have been applied in our daily life. Also, we can expect Precision Measurement Physics to make more significant progress toward verifying the basic laws of physics, and to find more practical applications in the future.

  11. Precision surveying the principles and geomatics practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ogundare, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive overview of high precision surveying, including recent developments in geomatics and their applications This book covers advanced precision surveying techniques, their proper use in engineering and geoscience projects, and their importance in the detailed analysis and evaluation of surveying projects. The early chapters review the fundamentals of precision surveying: the types of surveys; survey observations; standards and specifications; and accuracy assessments for angle, distance and position difference measurement systems. The book also covers network design and 3-D coordinating systems before discussing specialized topics such as structural and ground deformation monitoring techniques and analysis, mining surveys, tunneling surveys, and alignment surveys. Precision Surveying: The Principles and Geomatics Practice: * Covers structural and ground deformation monitoring analysis, advanced techniques in mining and tunneling surveys, and high precision alignment of engineering structures *...

  12. TIME-SPACE CONCEPT FOR PRECISION MEASUREMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaokang; PENG Donglin; ZHU Ge; WANG Xianquan

    2008-01-01

    The transformation between time and space is discussed. To improve real-time response speed of intelligent measuring system, the concept of exchanging program execution time with more circuitry is presented working in cycle mode. Displacement measuring by magnification is achieved with period measurement by magnification. To change the condition that traditional precision measurement depends on machining precision greatly, the concept of measuring space with time and theory of time-space coordinate transformation are proposed. Guided by the idea of measuring space with time, differential frequency measurement system and time grating displacement sensor are developed based on the proposed novel methods. And high-precision measurement is achieved without high-precision manufacture, which embeds the remarkable characteristics of low cost but high precision to the devices. Experiment and test results conform the validity of the proposed time-space concept.

  13. 78 FR 31943 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Contract Manufacturing Arrangements for Drugs: Quality Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Contract Manufacturing... guidance for industry entitled ``Contract Manufacturing Arrangements for Drugs: Quality Agreements.'' This... draft guidance for industry entitled ``Contract Manufacturing Arrangements for Drugs: Quality...

  14. 75 FR 63189 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Investigational New Drug Applications-Determining Whether Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Investigational New Drug... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled... draft guidance for industry entitled ``Investigational New Drug Applications (INDs)--Determining...

  15. 77 FR 20025 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for Reporting Drug Sample Distribution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Compliance Policy for... guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug Sample Distribution Information Under... availability of a draft guidance for industry entitled ``Compliance Policy on Reporting Drug...

  16. 78 FR 57395 - Guidance for Industry on Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... ``Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations.'' This document provides guidance to sponsors, contract... retention of electronic source data in FDA-regulated clinical investigations. This guidance promotes... a guidance for industry entitled ``Electronic Source Data in Clinical Investigations.''...

  17. 78 FR 19271 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Metronidazole Vaginal Gel.'' The guidance provides specific recommendations on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to...

  18. 77 FR 58399 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Pentosan Polysulfate Sodium.'' The recommendations provide specific guidance on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated...

  19. 78 FR 46965 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine Rectal Suppositories...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence... guidance for industry entitled ``Bioequivalence Recommendations for Mesalamine.'' The recommendations provide specific guidance on the design of bioequivalence (BE) studies to support abbreviated new...

  20. 75 FR 48179 - Comprehensive List of Guidance Documents at the Food and Drug Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Operating by Centrifugal or Filtration Separation Principle 11/29/2007 Guidance for Industry: Adequate and... Guidance Document: In Vitro HIV Drug Resistance Genotype Assay 8/08/2007 Guidance for Industry:...

  1. 76 FR 9583 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarketing Evaluation in Early Phase...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... guidance for industry entitled ``Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarketing Evaluation in Early Phase Clinical Studies.'' The draft guidance is intended to assist the pharmaceutical industry and other investigators... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Clinical...

  2. 78 FR 33848 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... No. FDA-2013-D-0589] Draft Guidance for Industry on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral Drugs... guidance for industry entitled ``Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Developing Antiretroviral...

  3. Guidance manual for conducting technology demonstration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, Robert L.; Morris, Michael I.; Singh, Suman P.N.

    1991-12-01

    This demonstration guidance manual has been prepared to assist Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), staff in conducting demonstrations. It is prepared in checklist style to facilitate its use and assumes that Energy Systems personnel have project management responsibility. In addition to a detailed step-by-step listing of procedural considerations, a general checklist, logic flow diagram, and several examples of necessary plans are included to assist the user in developing an understanding of the many complex activities required to manage technology demonstrations. Demonstrations are pilot-scale applications of often innovative technologies to determine the commercial viability of the technologies to perform their designed function. Demonstrations are generally conducted on well-defined problems for which existing technologies or processes are less than satisfactory in terms of effectiveness, cost, and/or regulatory compliance. Critically important issues in demonstration management include, but are not limited to, such factors as communications with line and matrix management and with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Energy Systems staff responsible for management oversight, budgetary and schedule requirements, regulatory compliance, and safety.

  4. Minisatellite Attitude Guidance Using Reaction Wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion STROE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In a previous paper [2], the active torques needed for the minisatellite attitude guidance from one fixed attitude posture to another fixed attitude posture were determined using an inverse dynamics method. But when considering reaction/momentum wheels, instead of this active torques computation, the purpose is to compute the angular velocities of the three reaction wheels which ensure the minisatellite to rotate from the initial to the final attitude. This paper presents this computation of reaction wheels angular velocities using a similar inverse dynamics method based on inverting Euler’s equations of motion for a rigid body with one fixed point, written in the framework of the x-y-z sequence of rotations parameterization. For the particular case A=B not equal C of an axisymmetric minisatellite, the two computations are compared: the active torques computation versus the computation of reaction wheels angular velocities ̇x , ̇y and ̇z. An interesting observation comes out from this numerical study: if the three reaction wheels are identical (with Iw the moment of inertia of one reaction wheel with respect to its central axis, then the evolutions in time of the products between Iw and the derivatives of the reaction wheels angular velocities, i.e. ̇ , ̇ and ̇ remain the same and do not depend on the moment of inertia Iw.

  5. Flight Guidance System Validation Using SPIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydich, Dimitri; Nowakowski, John

    1998-01-01

    To verify the requirements for the mode control logic of a Flight Guidance System (FGS) we applied SPIN, a widely used software package that supports the formal verification of distributed systems. These requirements, collectively called the FGS specification, were developed at Rockwell Avionics & Communications and expressed in terms of the Consortium Requirements Engineering (CoRE) method. The properties to be verified are the invariants formulated in the FGS specification, along with the standard properties of consistency and completeness. The project had two stages. First, the FGS specification and the properties to be verified were reformulated in PROMELA, the input language of SPIN. This involved a semantics issue, as some constructs of the FGS specification do not have well-defined semantics in CoRE. Then we attempted to verify the requirements' properties using the automatic model checking facilities of SPIN. Due to the large size of the state space of the FGS specification an exhaustive state space analysis with SPIN turned out to be impossible. So we used the supertrace model checking procedure of SPIN that provides for a partial analysis of the state space. During this process, we found some subtle errors in the FGS specification.

  6. Guidance and control for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Peter J.

    1994-06-01

    Techniques for the guidance, control, and navigation of unmanned ground vehicles are described in terms of the communication bandwidth requirements for driving and control of a vehicle remote from the human operator. Modes of operation are conveniently classified as conventional teleoperation, supervisory control, and fully autonomous control. The fundamental problem of maintaining a robust non-line-of-sight communications link between the human controller and the remote vehicle is discussed, as this provides the impetus for greater autonomy in the control system and the greatest scope for innovation. While supervisory control still requires the man to be providing the primary navigational intelligence, fully autonomous operation requires that mission navigation is provided solely by on-board machine intelligence. Methods directed at achieving this performance are described using various active and passive sensing of the terrain for route navigation and obstacle detection. Emphasis is given to TV imagery and signal processing techniques for image understanding. Reference is made to the limitations of current microprocessor technology and suitable computer architectures. Some of the more recent control techniques involve the use of neural networks, fuzzy logic, and data fusion and these are discussed in the context of road following and cross country navigation. Examples of autonomous vehicle testbeds operated at various laboratories around the world are given.

  7. Integrating scientific guidance into marine spatial planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassweiler, Andrew; Costello, Christopher; Hilborn, Ray; Siegel, David A

    2014-04-22

    Marine spatial planning (MSP), whereby areas of the ocean are zoned for different uses, has great potential to reduce or eliminate conflicts between competing management goals, but only if strategically applied. The recent literature overwhelmingly agrees that including stakeholders in these planning processes is critical to success; but, given the countless alternative ways even simple spatial regulations can be configured, how likely is it that a stakeholder-driven process will generate plans that deliver on the promise of MSP? Here, we use a spatially explicit, dynamic bioeconomic model to show that stakeholder-generated plans are doomed to fail in the absence of strong scientific guidance. While strategically placed spatial regulations can improve outcomes remarkably, the vast majority of possible plans fail to achieve this potential. Surprisingly, existing scientific rules of thumb do little to improve outcomes. Here, we develop an alternative approach in which models are used to identify efficient plans, which are then modified by stakeholders. Even if stakeholders alter these initial proposals considerably, results hugely outperform plans guided by scientific rules of thumb. Our results underscore the importance of spatially explicit dynamic models for the management of marine resources and illustrate how such models can be harmoniously integrated into a stakeholder-driven MSP process.

  8. Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Bearing Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S.; Esper, J.; Pan, J.; Decker, J.

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.

  9. A method for cleaning optical precision surface of laser gyro cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ying; Jiao, Ling Yan; Lin, Na Na; Zhang, Dong

    2016-10-01

    Laser gyro is the only one non-electromechanical high-precision inertial sensitive instruments in aircraft inertial guidance systems. Ultra high vacuum acquisition is a key segment during the manufacturing process of laser gyro. The surface cleanliness and integrity have decisive influence on the sealing performance of ultra-high vacuum. A cleaning technology for the optical surface of laser gyro cavity was found by experiment. Meanwhile, the analysis of the adsorption mechanism of contaminant on the laser gyro cavity surface and overview of common optical element cleaning technology were given. The result showed that the new cleaning technology improved the cleanliness of the cavity optical surface without any damage and provided a reliable solution for chronic leak of high precision laser gyro cavity.

  10. Experimental Investigations of a Precision Sensor for an Automatic Weapons Stabilizer System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobiichuk, Igor

    2016-12-24

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of a precision sensor for an automatic weapons stabilizer system. It also describes the experimental equipment used and the structure of the developed sensor. A weapons stabilizer is designed for automatic guidance of an armament unit in the horizontal and vertical planes when firing at ground and air targets that are quickly maneuvering, and at lower speeds when firing anti-tank missiles, as well as the bypass of construction elements by the armament unit, and the automatic tracking of moving targets when interacting with a fire control system. The results of experimental investigations have shown that the error of the precision sensor developed on the basis of a piezoelectric element is 6 × 10(-10) m/s² under quasi-static conditions, and ~10(-5) m/s² for mobile use. This paper defines metrological and calibration properties of the developed sensor.

  11. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Nielsen, Søren H

    2014-01-01

    software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored......Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached...... the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing...

  12. Airborne Precision Spacing for Dependent Parallel Operations Interface Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Paul M.; Takallu, M. A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Weiser, Jarold; Turner, Dexter

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of proposed cockpit interfaces to support Airborne Precision Spacing (APS) operations for aircraft performing dependent parallel approaches (DPA). NASA has proposed an airborne system called Pair Dependent Speed (PDS) which uses their Airborne Spacing for Terminal Arrival Routes (ASTAR) algorithm to manage spacing intervals. Interface elements were designed to facilitate the input of APS-DPA spacing parameters to ASTAR, and to convey PDS system information to the crew deemed necessary and/or helpful to conduct the operation, including: target speed, guidance mode, target aircraft depiction, and spacing trend indication. In the study, subject pilots observed recorded simulations using the proposed interface elements in which the ownship managed assigned spacing intervals from two other arriving aircraft. Simulations were recorded using the Aircraft Simulation for Traffic Operations Research (ASTOR) platform, a medium-fidelity simulator based on a modern Boeing commercial glass cockpit. Various combinations of the interface elements were presented to subject pilots, and feedback was collected via structured questionnaires. The results of subject pilot evaluations show that the proposed design elements were acceptable, and that preferable combinations exist within this set of elements. The results also point to potential improvements to be considered for implementation in future experiments.

  13. Sensor and actuator considerations for precision, small machines: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S T; Seugling, R M

    2005-04-04

    This article reviews some design considerations for the scaling down in size of instruments and machines with a primary aim to identify technologies that may provide more optimal performance solutions than those, often established, technologies used at macroscopic, or conventional, scales. Dimensional metrology within emerging applications will be considered for meso- through micro-down to nanometer level systems with particular emphasis on systems for which precision is directly related to function. In this paper, attention is limited to some of the more fundamental issues associated with scaling. For example, actuator work or power densities or the effect of noise on the sensor signals can be readily evaluated and provide some guidance in the selection for any given size of device. However, with reductions in scale these parameters and/or phenomena that limit performance may change. Within this review, the authors have tried to assess these complex inter-relationships between performance and scale, again from a fundamental perspective. In practice, it is likely that the nuances of implementation and integration of sensor, actuator and/or mechanism designs will determine functionality and commercial viability of any particular system development.

  14. Image guidance in endoscopic sinus surgery and skull base surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitchell R.Gore; Brent A.Senior

    2012-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to review the current clinical applications and impact of intraoperative imaging on endoscopic sinonasal and skull base procedures in adult and pediatric patients.Methods The PubMed database was searched for articles related to the use of image guidance in otolaryngology using the search terms "image guidance otolaryngology".This was supplemented by the authors′ experience utilizing image guidance in nearly 3000 endoscopic sinus and skull base procedures.Results The literature demonstrates that intraoperative image guidance has utility in primary and revision endoscopic sinus surgery,as well as endoscopic surgery of the skull base.Image guidance also has applications in pediatric endoscopic surgery,such as pediatric sinus surgery and repair of choanal atresia.Conclusions Intraoperative image guidance,when combined with a thorough knowledge of paranasal sinus and skull base anatomy and technical proficiency,can provide improved safety when performing otolaryngologic procedures from endoscopic sinus surgery to endoscopic skull base surgery.While not a substitute for knowledge of anatomy,the increased availability and usability of image guidance systems make them a useful tool in the armamentarium of the otolaryngologist/head and neck surgeon and neurosurgeon.

  15. Three-dimensional robust diving guidance for hypersonic vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwen; Liu, Luhua; Tang, Guojian; Bao, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional robust guidance law based on H∞ filter and H∞ control is proposed to meet the constraints of the impact accuracy and the flight direction under process disturbances for the dive phase of hypersonic vehicle. Complete three-dimensional coupling relative motion equations are established and decoupled into linear ones by feedback linearization to simplify the design process of the further guidance law. Based on the linearized equations, H∞ filter is introduced to eliminate the measurement noises of line-of-sight angles and estimate the angular rates. Furthermore, H∞ robust control is well employed to design guidance law, and the filtered information is used to generate guidance commands to meet the guidance goal accurately and robustly. The simulation results of CAV-H indicate that the proposed three-dimensional equations can describe the coupling character more clearly than the traditional decoupling guidance, and the proposed guidance strategy can guide the vehicle to satisfy different multiple constraints with high accuracy and robustness.

  16. The Too-Much-Precision Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschelder, David D; Friese, Malte; Schaerer, Michael; Galinsky, Adam D

    2016-12-01

    Past research has suggested a fundamental principle of price precision: The more precise an opening price, the more it anchors counteroffers. The present research challenges this principle by demonstrating a too-much-precision effect. Five experiments (involving 1,320 experts and amateurs in real-estate, jewelry, car, and human-resources negotiations) showed that increasing the precision of an opening offer had positive linear effects for amateurs but inverted-U-shaped effects for experts. Anchor precision backfired because experts saw too much precision as reflecting a lack of competence. This negative effect held unless first movers gave rationales that boosted experts' perception of their competence. Statistical mediation and experimental moderation established the critical role of competence attributions. This research disentangles competing theoretical accounts (attribution of competence vs. scale granularity) and qualifies two putative truisms: that anchors affect experts and amateurs equally, and that more precise prices are linearly more potent anchors. The results refine current theoretical understanding of anchoring and have significant implications for everyday life.

  17. Toward precision medicine in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Christiane

    2016-03-01

    In Western societies, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and the sixth leading cause of death. In recent years, the concept of precision medicine, an approach for disease prevention and treatment that is personalized to an individual's specific pattern of genetic variability, environment and lifestyle factors, has emerged. While for some diseases, in particular select cancers and a few monogenetic disorders such as cystic fibrosis, significant advances in precision medicine have been made over the past years, for most other diseases precision medicine is only in its beginning. To advance the application of precision medicine to a wider spectrum of disorders, governments around the world are starting to launch Precision Medicine Initiatives, major efforts to generate the extensive scientific knowledge needed to integrate the model of precision medicine into every day clinical practice. In this article we summarize the state of precision medicine in AD, review major obstacles in its development, and discuss its benefits in this highly prevalent, clinically and pathologically complex disease.

  18. Strapdown Homing Guidance System Design for Some Ammunition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The strapdown homing guidance system for some ammunition was mainly studied. A strong tracking Kalman filter was designed for the strapdown homing guidance system using the information measured by the strapdown homing seeker to estimate relative movement variables between the ammunition and target. Then the optimal proportional law, which using the estimated information, guided the ammunition. Simulation results show that the designed strapdown homing guidance system with strong tracking Kalman filter can attack the maneuvering target effectively, and satisfy the performance index for the guided ammunition system.

  19. Guidance on Dependence Assessment in SPAR-H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley

    2012-06-01

    As part of the effort to develop the SPAR-H user guidance, particular attention was paid to the assessment of dependence in order to address user questions about proper application of dependence. This paper presents a discussion of dependence from a psychological perspective and provides guidance on applying this information during the qualitative analysis of dependence to ensure more realistic and appropriate dependence assessments with the SPAR-H method. While this guidance was developed with SPAR-H in mind, it may be informative to other human reliability analysis methods that also use a THERP-based dependence approach, particularly if applied at the human failure event level.

  20. Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, R J

    1999-03-01

    The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.

  1. Design of highwall mining equipment electronic guidance package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenden, B.B.; Morgen, G.P.; Shorpik, J.R.; Farrar, R.

    1981-11-01

    This report provides design specifics and guidance software for a guidance system intended for use in guiding an auger type highwall mining head through thin coal seams to depths of up to 600 ft. A small desk top computer is used at the operator's station to send and receive signals in serialized bit streams to a downhole microprocessor. The guidance system accepts signals from a variety of sensors and uses these signals to plot and control the course of the auger head automatically using computer algorithms designed to keep the auger head in the coal seam and maintain a specified stump thickness.

  2. Guidance law based on piecewise constant control for hypersonic gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, David G.; Seguin, Jean-Marie

    A midcourse guidance law is developed for the descent of a hypersonic glider to a fixed target on the ground. It is based on an optimal piecewise constant control (N intervals) obtained from an approximate physical model (flat earth, exponential atmosphere, parabolic drag polar, etc). The resulting optimal control equations can be integrated either analytically or by quadrature, and the guidance algorithm requires the solution of 2N+1 nonlinear algebraic equations. The guidance law is implemented in a realistic glider simulation, the intercept is achieved, and final velocities within 14 percent of the true values are obtained for the downrange and crossranges considered.

  3. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  4. Significant Guidance Issued by the Office of the Secretary of Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  5. OAST Space Theme Workshop. Volume 3: Working group summary. 1: Navigation, guidance, control (E-1) A. Statement. B. Technology needs (form 1). C. Priority assessment (form 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The six themes identified by the Workshop have many common navigation guidance and control needs. All the earth orbit themes have a strong requirement for attitude, figure and stabilization control of large space structures, a requirement not currently being supported. All but the space transportation theme have need for precision pointing of spacecraft and instruments. In addition all the themes have requirements for increasing autonomous operations for such activities as spacecraft and experiment operations, onboard mission modification, rendezvous and docking, spacecraft assembly and maintenance, navigation and guidance, and self-checkout, test and repair. Major new efforts are required to conceptualize new approaches to large space antennas and arrays that are lightweight, readily deployable, and capable of precise attitude and figure control. Conventional approaches offer little hope of meeting these requirements. Functions that can benefit from increasing automation or autonomous operations are listed.

  6. Precision measurement for particle physics and cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Axions and other light particles are strongly motivated. For example, the axion is the crucial element in the recently proposed solution to the hierarchy problem using dynamical relaxation in the early universe. However, such particles are challenging to search for experimentally. Precision measurement technologies such as atom interferometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, high precision magnetometry, and torsion balances allow novel, highly sensitive experiments for direct detection of such light dark matter and of gravitational waves. Thus precision measurement technologies open new avenues for probing the origin and composition of the universe.

  7. Precision gauge unification in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raby, Stuart, E-mail: raby@pacific.mps.ohio-state.ed [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, 191 W. Woodruff Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: mratz@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai, E-mail: kai.schmidt-hoberg@ph.tum.d [Physik-Department T30, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, James-Franck-Strasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-04-19

    We discuss the issue of precision gauge unification in the MSSM. We find that a comparably light gluino, as it emerges in certain patterns of soft supersymmetry breaking, can be a key ingredient for ensuring precision gauge unification without relying on the presence of extra particles around the scale of grand unification. In particular, the so-called mirage pattern for gaugino masses can naturally lead to precision gauge unification. There is also an interesting correlation with reduced fine-tuning, due to rather light gluinos.

  8. Precision spectroscopy of the helium atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shui-ming HU; Zheng-Tian LU; Zong-Chao YAN

    2009-01-01

    Persistent efforts in both theory and experiment have yielded increasingly precise understanding of the helium atom. Because of its simplicity, the helium atom has long been a testing ground for relativistic and quantum electrodynamic effects in few-body atomic systems theoretically and experimentally.Comparison between theory and experiment of the helium spectroscopy in ls2p3pJ can potentially extract a very precise value of the fine structure constant a. The helium atom can also be used to explore exotic nuclear structures. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the recent advances in precision calculations and measurements of the helium atom.

  9. Mixed-Precision Spectral Deferred Correction: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grout, Ray W. S.

    2015-09-02

    Convergence of spectral deferred correction (SDC), where low-order time integration methods are used to construct higher-order methods through iterative refinement, can be accelerated in terms of computational effort by using mixed-precision methods. Using ideas from multi-level SDC (in turn based on FAS multigrid ideas), some of the SDC correction sweeps can use function values computed in reduced precision without adversely impacting the accuracy of the final solution. This is particularly beneficial for the performance of combustion solvers such as S3D [6] which require double precision accuracy but are performance limited by the cost of data motion.

  10. The forthcoming era of precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamulin, Stjepan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this essay is to present the definition and principles of personalized or precision medicine, the perspective and barriers to its development and clinical application. The implementation of precision medicine in health care requires the coordinated efforts of all health care stakeholders (the biomedical community, government, regulatory bodies, patients' groups). Particularly, translational research with the integration of genomic and comprehensive data from all levels of the organism ("big data"), development of bioinformatics platforms enabling network analysis of disease etiopathogenesis, development of a legislative framework for handling personal data, and new paradigms of medical education are necessary for successful application of the concept of precision medicine in health care.

  11. Precision medicine in patients with allergic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muraro, Antonella; Lemanske, Robert F; Hellings, Peter W

    2016-01-01

    of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology aiming to harmonize the European and American approaches to best allergy practice and science. Precision medicine is of broad relevance for the management of asthma, rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the context of a better selection of treatment responders, risk prediction...... their translation into pathway-specific diagnostic tests. Wide consensus between academia, governmental regulators, and industry for further development and application of precision medicine in management of allergic diseases is of utmost importance. Improved knowledge of disease pathogenesis together with defining...... validated and qualified biomarkers are key approaches to precision medicine....

  12. Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, S; Kluth, S; Schieck, J; Stewart, I W; Aoki, S; Beneke, M; Blumlein, J; Brambilla, N; Brodsky, S; Descotes-Genon, S; Erler, J; Forte, S; Gehrmann, T; Golterman, M; Hashimoto, S; Kronfeld, A; Kuhn, J; Lepage, P; Martin, A; Mateu, V; Menke, S; Nomura, Y; Pahl, C; Petriello, F; Pich, A; Rabbertz, K; Salam, G; Schulz, H; Sommer, R; Steinhauser, M; Webber, B; Yuan, CP; Zanderighi, G

    2011-01-01

    These are the proceedings of the "Workshop on Precision Measurements of alphas" held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of alphas(mZ) in the MS-bar scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, tau-decays, electroweak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  13. Lifelong guidance: How guidance and counselling support lifelong learning in the contrasting contexts of China and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin

    2016-10-01

    Due to the effects of globalisation and rapid technological development, traditional linear life course patterns of the past are gradually disappearing, and this affects education and learning systems as well as labour markets. Individuals are forced to develop lifestyles and survival strategies to manage job insecurity and make their skills and interests meet labour market needs. In modern attempts to develop and implement institutional provision for lifelong learning, guidance and counselling play an important role. The current Danish guidance system is well-organised, highly structured and professionalised. By contrast, Chinese guidance is still fragmented and "sectorisational". This paper explores whether elements of the highly structured and professionalised Danish guidance system and practice might be applicable to the Chinese context. The author begins by outlining international and national factors which are affecting citizens' life and career planning. She then presents and discusses the evolution of guidance and the different elements of provision in each of the two countries. Next, She compares the concepts and goals of "lifelong guidance" in Denmark and China, pointing out their similarities and differences and their respective strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the further development of guidance in China.

  14. Lifelong guidance: How guidance and counselling support lifelong learning in the contrasting contexts of China and Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the effects of globalisation and rapid technological development, traditional linear life course patterns of the past are gradually disappearing, and this affects education and learning systems as well as labour markets. Individuals are forced to develop lifestyles and survival strategies to manage job insecurity and make their skills and interests meet labour market needs. In modern attempts to develop and implement institutional provision for lifelong learning, guidance and counselling play an important role. The current Danish guidance system is well-organised, highly structured and professionalised. By contrast, Chinese guidance is still fragmented and "sectorisational". This paper explores whether elements of the highly structured and professionalised Danish guidance system and practice might be applicable to the Chinese context. The author begins by outlining international and national factors which are affecting citizens' life and career planning. She then presents and discusses the evolution of guidance and the different elements of provision in each of the two countries. Next, She compares the concepts and goals of "lifelong guidance" in Denmark and China, pointing out their similarities and differences and their respective strengths and weaknesses. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the further development of guidance in China.

  15. Precision mechatronics based on high-precision measuring and positioning systems and machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Gerd; Manske, Eberhard; Hausotte, Tino; Mastylo, Rostyslav; Dorozhovets, Natalja; Hofmann, Norbert

    2007-06-01

    Precision mechatronics is defined in the paper as the science and engineering of a new generation of high precision systems and machines. Nanomeasuring and nanopositioning engineering represents important fields of precision mechatronics. The nanometrology is described as the today's limit of the precision engineering. The problem, how to design nanopositioning machines with uncertainties as small as possible will be discussed. The integration of several optical and tactile nanoprobes makes the 3D-nanopositioning machine suitable for various tasks, such as long range scanning probe microscopy, mask and wafer inspection, nanotribology, nanoindentation, free form surface measurement as well as measurement of microoptics, precision molds, microgears, ring gauges and small holes.

  16. The Hubble Space Telescope fine guidance system operating in the coarse track pointing control mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Fine Guidance System has set new standards in pointing control capability for earth orbiting spacecraft. Two precision pointing control modes are implemented in the Fine Guidance System; one being a Coarse Track Mode which employs a pseudo-quadrature detector approach and the second being a Fine Mode which uses a two axis interferometer implementation. The Coarse Track Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to within 20 milli-arc seconds (rms) when guiding on a 14.5 Mv star. The Fine Mode was designed to maintain FGS pointing error to less than 3 milli-arc seconds (rms). This paper addresses the HST FGS operating in the Coarse Track Mode. An overview of the implementation, the operation, and both the predicted and observed on orbit performance is presented. The discussion includes a review of the Fine Guidance System hardware which uses two beam steering Star Selector servos, four photon counting photomultiplier tube detectors, as well as a 24 bit microprocessor, which executes the control system firmware. Unanticipated spacecraft operational characteristics are discussed as they impact pointing performance. These include the influence of spherically aberrated star images as well as the mechanical shocks induced in the spacecraft during and following orbital day/night terminator crossings. Computer modeling of the Coarse Track Mode verifies the observed on orbit performance trends in the presence of these optical and mechanical disturbances. It is concluded that the coarse track pointing control function is performing as designed and is providing a robust pointing control capability for the Hubble Space Telescope.

  17. Polymeric Nerve Conduits with Contact Guidance Cues Used in Nerve Repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G DAI; X NIU; J YIN

    2016-01-01

    In the modern life, the nerve injury frequently happens due to mechanical, chemical or thermal accidents. In the trivial injuries, the peripheral nerves can regenerate on their own; however, in most of the cases the clinical treatments are required, where relatively large nerve injury gaps are formed. Currently, the nerve repair can be accomplished by direct suture when the injury gap is not too large;while the autologous nerve graft working as the gold standard of peripheral nerve injury treatment for nerve injuries with larger gaps. However, the direct suture is limited by heavy tension at the suture sites, and the autologous nerve graft also has the drawbacks of donor site morbidity and insufifcient donor tissue. Recently, artiifcial nerve conduits have been developed as an alternative for clinical nerve repair to overcome the limitations associated with the above treatments. In order to further improve the efifciency of nerve conduits, various guidance cues are incorporated, including physical cues, biochemical signals, as well as support cells. First, this paper reviewed the contact guidance cues applied in nerve conduits, such as lumen ifllers, multi-channels and micro-patterns on the inner surface. Then, the paper focused on the polymeric nerve conduits with micro inner grooves. The polymeric nerve conduits were fabricated using the phase inversion-based ifber spinning techniques. The smart spinneret with grooved die was designed in the spinning platform, while different spinning conditions, including flow rates, air-gap distances, and polymer concentrations, were adjusted to investigate the inlfuence of fabrication conditions on the geometry of nerve conduits. The inner groove size in the nerve conduits can be precisely controlled in our hollow ifber spinning process, which can work as the efifcient contact guidance cue for nerve regeneration.

  18. A computational intelligence approach to the Mars Precision Landing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birge, Brian Kent, III

    Various proposed Mars missions, such as the Mars Sample Return Mission (MRSR) and the Mars Smart Lander (MSL), require precise re-entry terminal position and velocity states. This is to achieve mission objectives including rendezvous with a previous landed mission, or reaching a particular geographic landmark. The current state of the art footprint is in the magnitude of kilometers. For this research a Mars Precision Landing is achieved with a landed footprint of no more than 100 meters, for a set of initial entry conditions representing worst guess dispersions. Obstacles to reducing the landed footprint include trajectory dispersions due to initial atmospheric entry conditions (entry angle, parachute deployment height, etc.), environment (wind, atmospheric density, etc.), parachute deployment dynamics, unavoidable injection error (propagated error from launch on), etc. Weather and atmospheric models have been developed. Three descent scenarios have been examined. First, terminal re-entry is achieved via a ballistic parachute with concurrent thrusting events while on the parachute, followed by a gravity turn. Second, terminal re-entry is achieved via a ballistic parachute followed by gravity turn to hover and then thrust vector to desired location. Third, a guided parafoil approach followed by vectored thrusting to reach terminal velocity is examined. The guided parafoil is determined to be the best architecture. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of using a computational intelligence strategy to facilitate precision planetary re-entry, specifically to take an approach that is somewhat more intuitive and less rigid, and see where it leads. The test problems used for all research are variations on proposed Mars landing mission scenarios developed by NASA. A relatively recent method of evolutionary computation is Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which can be considered to be in the same general class as Genetic Algorithms. An improvement over

  19. Asteroseismology of the Transiting Exoplanet Host HD 17156 with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilliland, Ronald L.; McCullough, Peter R.; Nelan, Edmund P.;

    2011-01-01

    Observations conducted with the Fine Guidance Sensor on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) providing high cadence and precision time-series photometry were obtained over 10 consecutive days in 2008 December on the host star of the transiting exoplanet HD 17156b. During this time, 1.0 × 1012 photons...... light curve. Using the density constraint from asteroseismology, and stellar evolution modeling results in M * = 1.285 ± 0.026 M sun, R * = 1.507 ± 0.012 R sun, and a stellar age of 3.2 ± 0.3 Gyr. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science...

  20. Astrometry with Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensors—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Nelan, Edmund P.; Harrison, Thomas E.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, Hubble Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor interferometric astrometry has produced precise and accurate parallaxes of astrophysical interesting stars and mass estimates for stellar companions. We review parallax results, and binary star and exoplanet mass determinations, and compare a subset of these parallaxes with preliminary {Gaia} results. The approach to single-field relative astrometry described herein may continue to have value for targets fainter than the {Gaia} limit in the coming era of 20-30 m telescopes. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  1. The application of emulation techniques in the analysis of highly reliable, guidance and control computer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migneault, Gerard E.

    1987-01-01

    Emulation techniques can be a solution to a difficulty that arises in the analysis of the reliability of guidance and control computer systems for future commercial aircraft. Described here is the difficulty, the lack of credibility of reliability estimates obtained by analytical modeling techniques. The difficulty is an unavoidable consequence of the following: (1) a reliability requirement so demanding as to make system evaluation by use testing infeasible; (2) a complex system design technique, fault tolerance; (3) system reliability dominated by errors due to flaws in the system definition; and (4) elaborate analytical modeling techniques whose precision outputs are quite sensitive to errors of approximation in their input data. Use of emulation techniques for pseudo-testing systems to evaluate bounds on the parameter values needed for the analytical techniques is then discussed. Finally several examples of the application of emulation techniques are described.

  2. Unc5B associates with LARG to mediate the action of repulsive guidance molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Katsuhiko; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Inagaki, Shinobu; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2009-03-09

    Neuronal axons are guided by attractive and repulsive cues in their local environment. Because the repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) was originally identified as an axon repellent in the visual system, diverse functions in the developing and adult central nervous system have been ascribed to it. RGMa binding to its receptor neogenin induces RhoA activation, leading to inhibitory/repulsive behavior and collapse of the neuronal growth cone. However, the precise mechanisms that regulate RhoA activation are poorly understood. In this study, we show that Unc5B, a member of the netrin receptor family, interacts with neogenin as a coreceptor for RGMa. Moreover, leukemia-associated guanine nucleotide exchange factor (LARG) associates with Unc5B to transduce the RhoA signal. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is involved in RGMa-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of LARG as well as RhoA activation. These findings uncover the molecular basis for diverse functions mediated by RGMa.

  3. Guidance of longitudinally projecting axons in the developing central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi eSakai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The directed and stereotypical growth of axons to their synaptic targets is a crucial phase of neural circuit formation. Many axons in the developing vertebrate and invertebrate central nervous systems (CNS, including those that remain on their own (ipsilateral, and those that cross over to the opposite (commissural, side of the midline project over long distances along the anterior-posterior body axis within precisely-positioned longitudinally-oriented tracts to facilitate the transmission of information between CNS regions. Despite the widespread distribution and functional importance of these longitudinal tracts, the mechanisms that regulate their formation and projection to poorly characterized synaptic targets remain largely unknown. Nevertheless, recent studies carried out in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate model systems have begun to elucidate the molecular logic that controls longitudinal axon guidance.

  4. Open-Loop Flight Testing of COBALT GN&C Technologies for Precise Soft Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, John M., III; Amzajerdian, Farzin; Seubert, Carl R.; Restrepo, Carolina I.

    2017-01-01

    A terrestrial, open-loop (OL) flight test campaign of the NASA COBALT (CoOperative Blending of Autonomous Landing Technologies) platform was conducted onboard the Masten Xodiac suborbital rocket testbed, with support through the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems (AES), Game Changing Development (GCD), and Flight Opportunities (FO) Programs. The COBALT platform integrates NASA Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) sensing technologies for autonomous, precise soft landing, including the Navigation Doppler Lidar (NDL) velocity and range sensor and the Lander Vision System (LVS) Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN) system. A specialized navigation filter running onboard COBALT fuzes the NDL and LVS data in real time to produce a precise navigation solution that is independent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and suitable for future, autonomous planetary landing systems. The OL campaign tested COBALT as a passive payload, with COBALT data collection and filter execution, but with the Xodiac vehicle Guidance and Control (G&C) loops closed on a Masten GPS-based navigation solution. The OL test was performed as a risk reduction activity in preparation for an upcoming 2017 closed-loop (CL) flight campaign in which Xodiac G&C will act on the COBALT navigation solution and the GPS-based navigation will serve only as a backup monitor.

  5. An interventional multispectral photoacoustic imaging platform for the guidance of minimally invasive procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon J.; Ourselin, Sebastien; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2015-07-01

    Precise and efficient guidance of medical devices is of paramount importance for many minimally invasive procedures. These procedures include fetal interventions, tumor biopsies and treatments, central venous catheterisations and peripheral nerve blocks. Ultrasound imaging is commonly used for guidance, but it often provides insufficient contrast with which to identify soft tissue structures such as vessels, tumors, and nerves. In this study, a hybrid interventional imaging system that combines ultrasound imaging and multispectral photoacoustic imaging for guiding minimally invasive procedures was developed and characterized. The system provides both structural information from ultrasound imaging and molecular information from multispectral photoacoustic imaging. It uses a commercial linear-array ultrasound imaging probe as the ultrasound receiver, with a multimode optical fiber embedded in a needle to deliver pulsed excitation light to tissue. Co-registration of ultrasound and photoacoustic images is achieved with the use of the same ultrasound receiver for both modalities. Using tissue ex vivo, the system successfully discriminated deep-located fat tissue from the surrounding muscle tissue. The measured photoacoustic spectrum of the fat tissue had good agreement with the lipid spectrum in literature.

  6. MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression in open MRI: an initial clinical investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streitparth, Florian; Walter, Thula; Bucourt, Maximilian de; Freyhardt, Patrick; Maurer, Martin; Renz, Diane; Gebauer, Bernhard; Hamm, Bernd; Teichgraeber, Ulf K.M. [Charite, Humboldt-University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Hartwig, Tony; Putzier, Michael; Strube, Patrick [Charite, Humboldt-University, Center for Musculoskeletal Surgery, Berlin (Germany); Bretschneider, Tina [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology, Magdeburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    To assess the feasibility, safety and efficacy of real-time MR guidance and thermometry of percutaneous laser disc decompression (PLDD). Twenty-four discs in 22 patients with chronic low-back and radicular pain were treated by PLDD using open 1.0-T magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). A fluoroscopic proton-density-weighted turbo spin-echo (PDw TSE) sequence was used to position the laser fibre. Non-spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) sequences were employed for real-time thermal monitoring based on proton resonance frequency (PRF). Radicular pain was assessed over 6 months with a numerical rating scale (NRS). PLDD was technically successful in all cases, with adequate image quality for laser positioning. The PRF-based real-time temperature monitoring was found to be feasible in practice. After 6 months, 21 % reported complete remission of radicular pain, 63 % at least great pain relief and 74 % at least mild relief. We found a significant decrease in the NRS score between the pre-intervention and the 6-month follow-up assessment (P < 0.001). No major complications occurred; the single adverse event recorded, moderate motor impairment, resolved. Real-time MR guidance and PRF-based thermometry of PLDD in the lumbar spine under open 1.0-T MRI appears feasible, safe and effective and may pave the way to more precise operating procedures. (orig.)

  7. Laparoscopic-assisted resection of giant sigmoid lipoma under colonoscopic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladurner, R; Mussack, T; Hohenbleicher, F; Folwaczny, C; Siebeck, M; Hallfeld, K

    2003-01-01

    Colonic lipomata are rare and mostly asymptomatic lesions; but as they become larger they may produce abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and intussusception. We report the case of a 75-year-old man who suffered from nonspecific recurrent abdominal pain in the left upper and lower quadrants and had variable episodes of diarrhea and constipation of 4 weeks' duration. During colonoscopy, a giant intraluminal polyp was diagnosed at 35 cm. Abdominal helical computed tomography (CT) revealed a constipating colonic tumor with a diameter of >or=50 mm and density values equal to fat. During laparoscopic surgery in the lithotomy position, the sigmoid and the descending colon were mobilized using a Harmonic scalpel. The origin of the polyp was localized precisely under colonoscopic guidance. The former 12-mm incision in the left lower quadrant was expanded to approximately 70 mm for extracorporal tumor resection. The left and sigmoid colon resections were carried out, and the polyp was removed by full-wall excision. After closure with a single-layer suture, the colon was pushed back into the peritoneal cavity. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged 10 days postoperatively. Histology confirmed a benign lipoma of the descending colon. Laparoscopic-assisted resection under endoscopic guidance proved to be suitable for the removal of large colonic polyps without complications.

  8. Optical flow based guidance system design for semi-strapdown image homing guided missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Lan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses mainly on semi-strapdown image homing guided (SSIHG system design based on optical flow for a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF axial-symmetric skid-to-turn missile. Three optical flow algorithms suitable for large displacements are introduced and compared. The influence of different displacements on computational accuracy of the three algorithms is analyzed statistically. The total optical flow of the SSIHG missile is obtained using the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT algorithm, which is the best among the three for large displacements. After removing the rotational optical flow caused by rotation of the gimbal and missile body from the total optical flow, the remaining translational optical flow is smoothed via Kalman filtering. The circular navigation guidance (CNG law with impact angle constraint is then obtained utilizing the smoothed translational optical flow and position of the target image. Simulations are carried out under both disturbed and undisturbed conditions, and results indicate the proposed guidance strategy for SSIHG missiles can result in a precise target hit with a desired impact angle without the need for the time-to-go parameter.

  9. High Precision Measurements Using High Frequency Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Aohan; Sakurai, Atsunori; Liu, Liang; Edman, Fredrik; Öwall, Viktor; Pullerits, Tonu; Karki, Khadga J

    2014-01-01

    Generalized lock-in amplifiers use digital cavities with Q-factors as high as 5X10^8. In this letter, we show that generalized lock-in amplifiers can be used to analyze microwave (giga-hertz) signals with a precision of few tens of hertz. We propose that the physical changes in the medium of propagation can be measured precisely by the ultra-high precision measurement of the signal. We provide evidence to our proposition by verifying the Newton's law of cooling by measuring the effect of change in temperature on the phase and amplitude of the signals propagating through two calibrated cables. The technique could be used to precisely measure different physical properties of the propagation medium, for example length, resistance, etc. Real time implementation of the technique can open up new methodologies of in-situ virtual metrology in material design.

  10. Courseware Review: Vernier Software: Precision Timer II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, John C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews "Vernier Software: Precision Timer II" for high school through college mechanics. Introduces 14 different modes including pulse time, pendulum timer, bouncer timer, gate timer, collision timers, and stroke calibration. Provides two typical displays and ratings of the software. (YP)

  11. Precise subtyping for synchronous multiparty sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangiola Dezani-Ciancaglini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The notion of subtyping has gained an important role both in theoretical and applicative domains: in lambda and concurrent calculi as well as in programming languages. The soundness and the completeness, together referred to as the preciseness of subtyping, can be considered from two different points of view: operational and denotational. The former preciseness has been recently developed with respect to type safety, i.e. the safe replacement of a term of a smaller type when a term of a bigger type is expected. The latter preciseness is based on the denotation of a type which is a mathematical object that describes the meaning of the type in accordance with the denotations of other expressions from the language. The result of this paper is the operational and denotational preciseness of the subtyping for a synchronous multiparty session calculus. The novelty of this paper is the introduction of characteristic global types to prove the operational completeness.

  12. Mechanics and Physics of Precise Vacuum Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Deulin, E. A; Panfilov, Yu V; Nevshupa, R. A

    2010-01-01

    In this book the Russian expertise in the field of the design of precise vacuum mechanics is summarized. A wide range of physical applications of mechanism design in electronic, optical-electronic, chemical, and aerospace industries is presented in a comprehensible way. Topics treated include the method of microparticles flow regulation and its determination in vacuum equipment and mechanisms of electronics; precise mechanisms of nanoscale precision based on magnetic and electric rheology; precise harmonic rotary and not-coaxial nut-screw linear motion vacuum feedthroughs with technical parameters considered the best in the world; elastically deformed vacuum motion feedthroughs without friction couples usage; the computer system of vacuum mechanisms failure predicting. This English edition incorporates a number of features which should improve its usefulness as a textbook without changing the basic organization or the general philosophy of presentation of the subject matter of the original Russian work. Exper...

  13. Prospects for Precision Neutrino Cross Section Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Deborah A. [Fermilab

    2016-01-28

    The need for precision cross section measurements is more urgent now than ever before, given the central role neutrino oscillation measurements play in the field of particle physics. The definition of precision is something worth considering, however. In order to build the best model for an oscillation experiment, cross section measurements should span a broad range of energies, neutrino interaction channels, and target nuclei. Precision might better be defined not in the final uncertainty associated with any one measurement but rather with the breadth of measurements that are available to constrain models. Current experience shows that models are better constrained by 10 measurements across different processes and energies with 10% uncertainties than by one measurement of one process on one nucleus with a 1% uncertainty. This article describes the current status of and future prospects for the field of precision cross section measurements considering the metric of how many processes, energies, and nuclei have been studied.

  14. Precision Munition Electro-Sciences Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility allows the characterization of the electro-magnetic environment produced by a precision weapon in free flight. It can measure the radiofrequency (RF)...

  15. United Nations Environment Program - Sustainable Purchasing Guidance Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help you find the resource that is right for your organization, EPA conducted a scan of the landscape and developed summary profiles of some of the leading sources of sustainable purchasing guidance around the globe.

  16. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  17. FDA Offers Guidance on Fish Intake for Kids, Pregnant Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163113.html FDA Offers Guidance on Fish Intake for Kids, Pregnant ... is far less than the recommended amount, the FDA said. Fish offers nutritional benefits important for growth ...

  18. Haptic guidance improves the visuo-manual tracking of trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Bluteau, Jérémy; Payan, Yohan; Gentaz, Edouard

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Learning to perform new movements is usually achieved by following visual demonstrations. Haptic guidance by a force feedback device is a recent and original technology which provides additional proprioceptive cues during visuo-motor learning tasks. The effects of two types of haptic guidances-control in position (HGP) or in force (HGF)-on visuo-manual tracking ("following") of trajectories are still under debate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPALS FINDINGS: Three training techniques of haptic guidance (HGP, HGF or control condition, NHG, without haptic guidance) were evaluated in two experiments. Movements produced by adults were assessed in terms of shapes (dynamic time warping) and kinematics criteria (number of velocity peaks and mean velocity) before and after the training sessions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that the addition of haptic information, probably encoded in force coordinates, play a crucial role on the visuo-manual tracking of new trajectories.

  19. 77 FR 19417 - Proposed Guidance on Leveraged Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... documenting enterprise value, risk management expectations for credits awaiting distribution, stress testing expectations and portfolio management, and risk management expectations. This proposed guidance would apply to... monitor underwritten credit risks, to understand the effect of changes in borrowers' enterprise...

  20. 78 FR 29159 - Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Electric Power Research Institute; Seismic Evaluation Guidance AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... issuing an endorsement letter of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report, ``Seismic...

  1. GNSS TECHNOLOGY DETERMINATION OF FLYING MACHINE GUIDANCE PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Konin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 An algorithm of calculating the guidance parameters for GNSS aircraft landing technology was considered. The simulation and evaluation of calculation parameters error were performed as well

  2. Re-Entry Guidance Using an Energy-State Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Akio; Shimada, Yuzo; Uchiyama, Kenji

    This paper presents a new guidance and control system for a re-entry vehicle. In the conventional drag acceleration control system employed for the present space shuttles, the velocity is an unobservable state variable and the associated pole tends to be unstable. Therefore, in this study, a condition which allows all the states to be observable is introduced using a state-space linearization method. It is also shown that energy and its rate are appropriate for the state variables. A guidance law is analytically derived on the basis of the obtained state equation with respect to the energy by solving a two-point boundary-value problem. Furthermore, a tracking control system is designed to make the position, velocity, and flight path angle of the vehicle track the reference states generated in the guidance system. Finally, numerical simulation is performed to verify the validity of the obtained plant expression, and the effectiveness of the proposed guidance and control system.

  3. An analysis of Educational Guidance in Training of civil Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibette Alfonso Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The work shows an analysis of educational guidance realized by the first year of Civil Engineeringcareer in Cujae. The authors expose basics ideas in relation with the study of literature related to thistopic, for establish specific ideas of university educational guidance. Besides, this work presents theanalysis of educational guidance received by two groups of students of first year during a course2010-2011. It´s employed reflective and open techniques since an interpretive perspective andpredominantly qualitative methodological framework. We have concluded that not enough educationalguidance realized by students during training process, because it´s essential to increase the quantityof actions for guidance and to get these ones integrate the substantive university processes. In thismanner, the teachers can guide the student in your satisfactory transit for the university.

  4. United States Federal Guidance on Witness Protection in Human Trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Management , The International Labour Organization, and Walk Free Foundation. Additional sources include articles and literature by subject matter experts...19 Case Management ...Comparison of Witness Protection Guidance ............................................................... 47 Protection System Comparison: Case Management

  5. A presentation of ATR processing chain validation procedure of IR terminal guidance version of the AASM modular air-to-ground weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, D.; Quinquis, N.; Broda, G.; Galmiche, F.; Oudyi, F.; Coulon, N.; Cordier, D.; Sonier, C.

    2009-05-01

    Developed by Sagem (SAFRAN Group), the AASM is a modular Air-To-Ground "Fire and Forget" weapon designed to be able to neutralise a large range of targets under all conditions. The AASM is composed of guidance and range enhancement kits that give bombs, already in service, new operational capabilities. AASM Guidance kit exists in two different versions. The IMU/GPS guidance version is able to achieve "ten-meter class" accuracy on target in all weather conditions. The IMU/GPS/IR guidance version is able to achieve "meter class" accuracy on target with poor precision geographic designation or in GPS-denied flight context, thanks to a IR sensor and a complex image processing chain. In this night/day IMU/GPS/IR version, the terminal guidance phase adjusts the missile navigation to the true target by matching the image viewed through the infrared sensor with a target model stored in the missile memory. This model will already have been drawn up on the ground using a mission planning system and, for example, a satellite image. This paper will present the main steps of the procedure applied to qualify the complete image processing chain of the AASM IMU/GPS/IR version, including open-loop validation of ATR algorithms on real and synthetic images, and closed-loop validation using AASM simulation reference model.

  6. A path to precision in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslove, David M; Lamontagne, Francois; Marshall, John C; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-04-03

    Precision medicine is increasingly touted as a groundbreaking new paradigm in biomedicine. In the ICU, the complexity and ambiguity of critical illness syndromes have been identified as fundamental justifications for the adoption of a precision approach to research and practice. Inherently protean diseases states such as sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome have manifestations that are physiologically and anatomically diffuse, and that fluctuate over short periods of time. This leads to considerable heterogeneity among patients, and conditions in which a "one size fits all" approach to therapy can lead to widely divergent results. Current ICU therapy can thus be seen as imprecise, with the potential to realize substantial gains from the adoption of precision medicine approaches. A number of challenges still face the development and adoption of precision critical care, a transition that may occur incrementally rather than wholesale. This article describes a few concrete approaches to addressing these challenges.First, novel clinical trial designs, including registry randomized controlled trials and platform trials, suggest ways in which conventional trials can be adapted to better accommodate the physiologic heterogeneity of critical illness. Second, beyond the "omics" technologies already synonymous with precision medicine, the data-rich environment of the ICU can generate complex physiologic signatures that could fuel precision-minded research and practice. Third, the role of computing infrastructure and modern informatics methods will be central to the pursuit of precision medicine in the ICU, necessitating close collaboration with data scientists. As work toward precision critical care continues, small proof-of-concept studies may prove useful in highlighting the potential of this approach.

  7. Precision Constraints on Extra Fermion Generations

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past there has been renewed interest in the possibility of additional fermion generations. At the same time there have been significant changes in the relevant electroweak (EW) precision constraints, in particular in the interpretation of several of the low energy experiments. We summarize the various motivations for the increased activity regarding extra families and analyze them in view of the latest EW precision data.

  8. Electroweak Precision Data and New Gauge Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2009-01-01

    I review constraints on the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson from high energy electroweak (EW) precision data. The same data set also strongly limits various mixing effects of hypothetical extra neutral gauge bosons (Z') with the ordinary Z. I also discuss low energy precision measurements which are sensitive to other aspects of Z' physics, such as the direct exchange amplitude and the flavor or CP violating sectors.

  9. Saudi dental students’ perceptions of pediatric behavior guidance techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Jobair, Asma M; Al-Mutairi, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental students receive theoretical and clinical training in pediatric behavioral guidance techniques at university. Therefore, the content of the educational course and the degree of training in behavioral techniques may have an impact on the students’ perceptions and practice of such techniques. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Saudi dental students’ perceptions of behavior guidance techniques used in pediatric dentistry, and to assess the changes in their perceptions af...

  10. Health and thermal comfort : from WHO guidance to housing strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ormandy, David; Ezratty, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    There are many references to the WHO guidance on thermal comfort in housing, but not to the original source material. Based on archive material, this paper gives the evidential basis for the WHO guidance. It then reports on evidence that some groups may be more susceptible to high or low indoor temperatures than others. It examines different methods for measuring thermal comfort, such as air temperature measurement, assessing residents' perception, and predicting satisfaction. Resident's perc...

  11. Career guidance for Social Justice in Neo-Liberal Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie; Skovhus, Randi Boelskifte; Sultana, Ronald;

    SIMPOSIO 16. Career guidance for Social Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (English) Ronald Sultana (Coord.), Tristram Hooley (Coord.), Rie Thomsen, Peter Plant, Roger Kjærgård, Marcelo Afonso Ribeiro, Randi Boelskifte Skovhus and Tron Inglar......SIMPOSIO 16. Career guidance for Social Justice in Neo-Liberal Times (English) Ronald Sultana (Coord.), Tristram Hooley (Coord.), Rie Thomsen, Peter Plant, Roger Kjærgård, Marcelo Afonso Ribeiro, Randi Boelskifte Skovhus and Tron Inglar...

  12. Health information literacy required for teachers in health guidance

    OpenAIRE

    古田, 真司

    2012-01-01

    In order to perform scientific health guidance in school, teachers need to have “health information literacy.”Teachers with health information literacy can collect and analyze health information, examine the information critically, and apply useful findings from the information to health guidance. The most important word for understanding health information literacy is “Evidence,” and the method of the study guarantees the scientific rationality of “Evidence” in the study. In classifying evid...

  13. An intelligent guidance and control system for ship obstacle avoidance

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, C J; Hong, X.; Wilson, P. A.

    1999-01-01

    An intelligent guidance and control system using a neurofuzzy network multistep ahead predictor model is introduced and applied to ship obstacle avoidance, which uses only observed input/output data generated by on board and external sensors, and a data fusion algorithm to generate the desired waypoints. A simple and effective waypoint guidance scheme based on line-of-sight is derived for a data based ship model. A neurofuzzy network predictor, based on using rudder deflection angle for the c...

  14. Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries Published

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Approved by the State Council on December 24, 2011, National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Commerce promulgated the Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (Amended in 2011), which will be implemented on January 30, 2012. Meanwhile, the Catalogue for the Guidance of Foreign Investment Industries (Amended in 2007) promulgated by National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Commerce on October 31, 2007 was abolished.

  15. Optimal sliding guidance algorithm for Mars powered descent phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibben, Daniel R.; Furfaro, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Landing on large planetary bodies (e.g. Mars) with pinpoint accuracy presents a set of new challenges that must be addressed. One such challenge is the development of new guidance algorithms that exhibit a higher degree of robustness and flexibility. In this paper, the Zero-Effort-Miss/Zero-Effort-Velocity (ZEM/ZEV) optimal sliding guidance (OSG) scheme is applied to the Mars powered descent phase. This guidance algorithm has been specifically designed to combine techniques from both optimal and sliding control theories to generate an acceleration command based purely on the current estimated spacecraft state and desired final target state. Consequently, OSG yields closed-loop trajectories that do not need a reference trajectory. The guidance algorithm has its roots in the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance and its mathematical equations are naturally derived by defining a non-linear sliding surface as a function of the terms Zero-Effort-Miss and Zero-Effort-Velocity. With the addition of the sliding mode and using Lyapunov theory for non-autonomous systems, one can formally prove that the developed OSG law is globally finite-time stable to unknown but bounded perturbations. Here, the focus is on comparing the generalized ZEM/ZEV feedback guidance with the OSG law to explicitly demonstrate the benefits of the sliding mode augmentation. Results show that the sliding guidance provides a more robust solution in off-nominal scenarios while providing similar fuel consumption when compared to the non-sliding guidance command. Further, a Monte Carlo analysis is performed to examine the performance of the OSG law under perturbed conditions.

  16. CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-30

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6040--14-9480 CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document April 30, 2014 Approved...NUMBER (include area code) b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT CT-Analyst GIS Data Processing Guidance Document Adam...Information File 7 3) Gathering GIS Data 8 1. Explanation 8 2. Coordinate Systems 8 3. Typical File Types 9 1

  17. Precision validation of MIPAS-Envisat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Piccolo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the variation and validation of the precision, or estimated random error, associated with the ESA Level 2 products from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This quantity represents the propagation of the radiometric noise from the spectra through the retrieval process into the Level 2 profile values. The noise itself varies with time, steadily rising between ice decontamination events, but the Level 2 precision has a greater variation due to the atmospheric temperature which controls the total radiance received. Hence, for all species, the precision varies latitudinally/seasonally with temperature, with a small superimposed temporal structure determined by the degree of ice contamination on the detectors. The precision validation involves comparing two MIPAS retrievals at the intersections of ascending/descending orbits. For 5 days per month of full resolution MIPAS operation, the standard deviation of the matching profile pairs is computed and compared with the precision given in the MIPAS Level 2 data, except for NO2 since it has a large diurnal variation between ascending/descending intersections. Even taking into account the propagation of the pressure-temperature retrieval errors into the VMR retrieval, the standard deviation of the matching pairs is usually a factor 1–2 larger than the precision. This is thought to be due to effects such as horizontal inhomogeneity of the atmosphere and instability of the retrieval.

  18. Precision oncology: origins, optimism, and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay; Fojo, Tito; Brada, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Imatinib, the first and arguably the best targeted therapy, became the springboard for developing drugs aimed at molecular targets deemed crucial to tumours. As this development unfolded, a revolution in the speed and cost of genetic sequencing occurred. The result--an armamentarium of drugs and an array of molecular targets--set the stage for precision oncology, a hypothesis that cancer treatment could be markedly improved if therapies were guided by a tumour's genomic alterations. Drawing lessons from the biological basis of cancer and recent empirical investigations, we take a more measured view of precision oncology's promise. Ultimately, the promise is not our concern, but the threshold at which we declare success. We review reports of precision oncology alongside those of precision diagnostics and novel radiotherapy approaches. Although confirmatory evidence is scarce, these interventions have been widely endorsed. We conclude that the current path will probably not be successful or, at a minimum, will have to undergo substantive adjustments before it can be successful. For the sake of patients with cancer, we hope one form of precision oncology will deliver on its promise. However, until confirmatory studies are completed, precision oncology remains unproven, and as such, a hypothesis in need of rigorous testing.

  19. The Paradox of Abstraction: Precision Versus Concreteness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliev, Rumen; Axelrod, Robert

    2016-11-22

    We introduce a novel measure of abstractness based on the amount of information of a concept computed from its position in a semantic taxonomy. We refer to this measure as precision. We propose two alternative ways to measure precision, one based on the path length from a concept to the root of the taxonomic tree, and another one based on the number of direct and indirect descendants. Since more information implies greater processing load, we hypothesize that nouns higher in precision will have a processing disadvantage in a lexical decision task. We contrast precision to concreteness, a common measure of abstractness based on the proportion of sensory-based information associated with a concept. Since concreteness facilitates cognitive processing, we predict that while both concreteness and precision are measures of abstractness, they will have opposite effects on performance. In two studies we found empirical support for our hypothesis. Precision and concreteness had opposite effects on latency and accuracy in a lexical decision task, and these opposite effects were observable while controlling for word length, word frequency, affective content and semantic diversity. Our results support the view that concepts organization includes amodal semantic structures which are independent of sensory information. They also suggest that we should distinguish between sensory-based and amount-of-information-based abstractness.

  20. Precision diabetes: learning from monogenic diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattersley, Andrew T; Patel, Kashyap A

    2017-05-01

    The precision medicine approach of tailoring treatment to the individual characteristics of each patient or subgroup has been a great success in monogenic diabetes subtypes, MODY and neonatal diabetes. This review examines what has led to the success of a precision medicine approach in monogenic diabetes (precision diabetes) and outlines possible implications for type 2 diabetes. For monogenic diabetes, the molecular genetics can define discrete aetiological subtypes that have profound implications on diabetes treatment and can predict future development of associated clinical features, allowing early preventative or supportive treatment. In contrast, type 2 diabetes has overlapping polygenic susceptibility and underlying aetiologies, making it difficult to define discrete clinical subtypes with a dramatic implication for treatment. The implementation of precision medicine in neonatal diabetes was simple and rapid as it was based on single clinical criteria (diagnosed precision diabetes approach in type 2 diabetes will require simple, quick, easily accessible stratification that is based on a combination of routine clinical data, rather than relying on newer technologies. Analysing existing clinical data from routine clinical practice and trials may provide early success for precision medicine in type 2 diabetes.

  1. Toward precision medicine in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lu-Lu; Yang, Ke; Xiong, Wei-Xi; Liu, Feng-Tao; Anderson, Boyd; Wang, Ye; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine refers to an innovative approach selected for disease prevention and health promotion according to the individual characteristics of each patient. The goal of precision medicine is to formulate prevention and treatment strategies based on each individual with novel physiological and pathological insights into a certain disease. A multidimensional data-driven approach is about to upgrade "precision medicine" to a higher level of greater individualization in healthcare, a shift towards the treatment of individual patients rather than treating a certain disease including Parkinson's disease (PD). As one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, PD is a lifelong chronic disease with clinical and pathophysiologic complexity, currently it is treatable but neither preventable nor curable. At its advanced stage, PD is associated with devastating chronic complications including both motor dysfunction and non-motor symptoms which impose an immense burden on the life quality of patients. Advances in computational approaches provide opportunity to establish the patient's personalized disease data at the multidimensional levels, which finally meeting the need for the current concept of precision medicine via achieving the minimal side effects and maximal benefits individually. Hence, in this review, we focus on highlighting the perspectives of precision medicine in PD based on multi-dimensional information about OMICS, molecular imaging, deep brain stimulation (DBS) and wearable sensors. Precision medicine in PD is expected to integrate the best evidence-based knowledge to individualize optimal management in future health care for those with PD.

  2. Platform Precision Autopilot Overview and Mission Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strovers, Brian K.; Lee, James A.

    2009-01-01

    The Platform Precision Autopilot is an instrument landing system-interfaced autopilot system, developed to enable an aircraft to repeatedly fly nearly the same trajectory hours, days, or weeks later. The Platform Precision Autopilot uses a novel design to interface with a NASA Gulfstream III jet by imitating the output of an instrument landing system approach. This technique minimizes, as much as possible, modifications to the baseline Gulfstream III jet and retains the safety features of the aircraft autopilot. The Platform Precision Autopilot requirement is to fly within a 5-m (16.4-ft) radius tube for distances to 200 km (108 nmi) in the presence of light turbulence for at least 90 percent of the time. This capability allows precise repeat-pass interferometry for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar program, whose primary objective is to develop a miniaturized, polarimetric, L-band synthetic aperture radar. Precise navigation is achieved using an accurate differential global positioning system developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Flight-testing has demonstrated the ability of the Platform Precision Autopilot to control the aircraft within the specified tolerance greater than 90 percent of the time in the presence of aircraft system noise and nonlinearities, constant pilot throttle adjustments, and light turbulence.

  3. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored to field robots in precision agriculture will significantly decrease development time and resources required to perform experiments due to efficient reuse of existing work across projects and robot platforms. In this work we present the FroboMind software platform and evaluate the performance when applied to precision agriculture tasks.

  4. A microfluidics-based turning assay reveals complex growth cone responses to integrated gradients of substrate-bound ECM molecules and diffusible guidance cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Wang, C; Li, Xiong; Lin, Benjamin; Shim, Sangwoo; Ming, Guo-Li; Levchenko, Andre

    2008-02-01

    Neuronal growth cones contain sophisticated molecular machinery precisely regulating their migration in response to complex combinatorial gradients of diverse external cues. The details of this regulation are still largely unknown, in part due to limitations of the currently available experimental techniques. Microfluidic devices have been shown to be capable of generating complex, stable and precisely controlled chemical gradients, but their use in studying growth cone migration has been limited in part due to the effects of shear stress. Here we describe a microfluidics-based turning-assay chip designed to overcome this issue. In addition to generating precise gradients of soluble guidance cues, the chip can also fabricate complex composite gradients of diffusible and surface-bound guidance cues that mimic the conditions the growth cones realistically counter in vivo. Applying this assay to Xenopus embryonic spinal neurons, we demonstrate that the presence of a surface-bound laminin gradient can finely tune the polarity of growth cone responses (repulsion or attraction) to gradients of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), with the guidance outcome dependent on the mean BDNF concentration. The flexibility inherent in this assay holds significant potential for refinement of our understanding of nervous system development and regeneration, and can be extended to elucidate other cellular processes involving chemotaxis of shear sensitive cells.

  5. Trajectory reshaping based guidance with impact time and angle constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yao; Sheng Yongzhi; Liu Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a novel impact time and angle constrained guidance law for homing missiles. The guidance law is first developed with the prior-assumption of a stationary target, which is followed by the practical extension to a maneuvering target scenario. To derive the closed-form guidance law, the trajectory reshaping technique is utilized and it results in defining a specific poly-nomial function with two unknown coefficients. These coefficients are determined to satisfy the impact time and angle constraints as well as the zero miss distance. Furthermore, the proposed guidance law has three additional guidance gains as design parameters which make it possible to adjust the guided trajectory according to the operational conditions and missile’s capability. Numerical simulations are presented to validate the effectiveness of the proposed guidance law. © 2016 Chinese Society of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  6. Precision Analysis of Three Dimension Free Curves Nanofabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three dimension free curves find wide applications in engineering. There is no problem to express them exactly mathematically, but th e reportage has not been done on the investigation of precision analysis of thre e-dimension free curves nanofabrication. Nanofabrication Precision includes the geometrical precision and the precision of driving system (below simply cal led the system precision). This paper submits the precision analysis method of c urve normal vector to analyze geometrical precision. ...

  7. Motor cortical function and the precision grip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geevasinga, Nimeshan; Menon, Parvathi; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2014-12-01

    While task-dependent changes in motor cortical outputs have been previously reported, the issue of whether such changes are specific for complex hand tasks remains unresolved. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cortical inhibitory tone and cortical output were greater during precision grip and power grip. Motor cortex excitability was undertaken by using the transcranial magnetic stimulation threshold tracking technique in 15 healthy subjects. The motor-evoked potential (MEP) responses were recorded over the abductor pollicis brevis (APB), with the hand in the following positions: (1) rest, (2) precision grip and (3) power grip. The MEP amplitude (MEP amplitude REST 23.6 ± 3.3%; MEP amplitude PRECISION GRIP 35.2 ± 5.6%; MEP amplitude POWER GRIP 19.6 ± 3.4%, F = 2.4, P < 0.001) and stimulus-response gradient (SLOPEREST 0.06 ± 0.01; SLOPEPRCISION GRIP 0.15 ± 0.04; SLOPE POWER GRIP 0.07 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) were significantly increased during precision grip. Short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced during the precision grip (SICI REST 15.0 ± 2.3%; SICI PRECISION GRIP 9.7 ± 1.5%, SICI POWER GRIP 15.9 ± 2.7%, F = 2.6, P < 0.05). The present study suggests that changes in motor cortex excitability are specific for precision grip, with functional coupling of descending corticospinal pathways controlling thumb and finger movements potentially forming the basis of these cortical changes.

  8. Principles and techniques for designing precision machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L C

    1999-02-01

    This thesis is written to advance the reader's knowledge of precision-engineering principles and their application to designing machines that achieve both sufficient precision and minimum cost. It provides the concepts and tools necessary for the engineer to create new precision machine designs. Four case studies demonstrate the principles and showcase approaches and solutions to specific problems that generally have wider applications. These come from projects at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in which the author participated: the Large Optics Diamond Turning Machine, Accuracy Enhancement of High- Productivity Machine Tools, the National Ignition Facility, and Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography. Although broad in scope, the topics go into sufficient depth to be useful to practicing precision engineers and often fulfill more academic ambitions. The thesis begins with a chapter that presents significant principles and fundamental knowledge from the Precision Engineering literature. Following this is a chapter that presents engineering design techniques that are general and not specific to precision machines. All subsequent chapters cover specific aspects of precision machine design. The first of these is Structural Design, guidelines and analysis techniques for achieving independently stiff machine structures. The next chapter addresses dynamic stiffness by presenting several techniques for Deterministic Damping, damping designs that can be analyzed and optimized with predictive results. Several chapters present a main thrust of the thesis, Exact-Constraint Design. A main contribution is a generalized modeling approach developed through the course of creating several unique designs. The final chapter is the primary case study of the thesis, the Conceptual Design of a Horizontal Machining Center.

  9. 76 FR 55390 - Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent, Draft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent, Draft AGENCY: Office for Human... the availability of a draft guidance entitled, ``Guidance on Exculpatory Language in Informed Consent.'' The draft guidance, when finalized, will represent OHRP's and FDA's current thinking on this topic...

  10. Results-Based Guidance: A Systems Approach to Student Support Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon; Johnson, Clarence D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes results-based guidance, a systems approach to student support programs. Outlines factors that have contributed to the changes in the duties and responsibilities of guidance counselors and the basis of the competency-based approach in guidance counseling. Details elements of the results-based guidance program. (GCP)

  11. 78 FR 68101 - Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Environmental Issues Associated With New Reactors and Specific Environmental Guidance for Integral..., ``Interim Staff Guidance on Environmental Issues Associated with New Reactors'' and draft ISG ESP/ COL-ISG-027, ``Interim Staff Guidance on Specific Environmental Guidance for iPWR Reviews.'' The purpose...

  12. 75 FR 70254 - PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... the EPA has posted its guidance titled, ``PSD and Title V Permitting Guidance for Greenhouse Gases... for Greenhouse Gases.'' This document has been determined to be an EPA Significant Guidance...

  13. 75 FR 24718 - Guidance for Industry on Documenting Statistical Analysis Programs and Data Files; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry on Documenting Statistical Analysis... guidance entitled ``Draft Guidance for Industry on Documenting Statistical Analysis Programs and Data Files...: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a guidance for industry...

  14. Hybrid Guidance Control for a Hypervelocity Small Size Asteroid Interceptor Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebenay, Melak M.; Lyzhoft, Joshua R.; Barbee, Brent W.

    2017-01-01

    Near-Earth Objects (NEOs) are comets and/or asteroids that have orbits in proximity with Earth's own orbit. NEOs have collided with the Earth in the past, which can be seen at such places as Chicxulub crater, Barringer crater, and Manson crater, and will continue in the future with potentially significant and devastating results. Fortunately such NEO collisions with Earth are infrequent, but can happen at any time. Therefore it is necessary to develop and validate techniques as well as technologies necessary to prevent them. One approach to mitigate future NEO impacts is the concept of high-speed interceptor. This concept is to alter the NEO's trajectory via momentum exchange by using kinetic impactors as well as nuclear penetration devices. The interceptor has to hit a target NEO at relative velocity which imparts a sufficient change in NEO velocity. NASA's Deep Impact mission has demonstrated this scenario by intercepting Comet Temple 1, 5 km in diameter, with an impact relative speed of approximately 10 km/s. This paper focuses on the development of hybrid guidance navigation and control (GNC) algorithms for precision hypervelocity intercept of small sized NEOs. The spacecraft's hypervelocity and the NEO's small size are critical challenges for a successful mission as the NEO will not fill the field of view until a few seconds before intercept. The investigation needs to consider the error sources modeled in the navigation simulation such as spacecraft initial state uncertainties in position and velocity. Furthermore, the paper presents three selected spacecraft guidance algorithms for asteroid intercept and rendezvous missions. The selected algorithms are classical Proportional Navigation (PN) based guidance that use a first order difference to compute the derivatives, Three Plane Proportional Navigation (TPPN), and the Kinematic Impulse (KI). A manipulated Bennu orbit that has been changed to impact Earth will be used as a demonstrative example to compare the

  15. Toward Precision Healthcare: Context and Mathematical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colijn, Caroline; Jones, Nick; Johnston, Iain G.; Yaliraki, Sophia; Barahona, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Precision medicine refers to the idea of delivering the right treatment to the right patient at the right time, usually with a focus on a data-centered approach to this task. In this perspective piece, we use the term “precision healthcare” to describe the development of precision approaches that bridge from the individual to the population, taking advantage of individual-level data, but also taking the social context into account. These problems give rise to a broad spectrum of technical, scientific, policy, ethical and social challenges, and new mathematical techniques will be required to meet them. To ensure that the science underpinning “precision” is robust, interpretable and well-suited to meet the policy, ethical and social questions that such approaches raise, the mathematical methods for data analysis should be transparent, robust, and able to adapt to errors and uncertainties. In particular, precision methodologies should capture the complexity of data, yet produce tractable descriptions at the relevant resolution while preserving intelligibility and traceability, so that they can be used by practitioners to aid decision-making. Through several case studies in this domain of precision healthcare, we argue that this vision requires the development of new mathematical frameworks, both in modeling and in data analysis and interpretation.

  16. Research on tracking precision of the heliostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Wenfeng [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou (China); CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering; Wang, Zhifeng [CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The tracking precision and manufacture cost of the heliostats is obviously crucial to the system efficiency and its investment scale in a tower power plant. An open loop control system according to astronomic formula of high precision was proposed in this paper. The astronomical formulae to calculate the solar zenith and azimuth angles with uncertainties of {+-}0.005 mrad (milli-radian). This System was built in 2005 at De Zhou China. The structure of this control system is 'PC-PLC-PLC'. Taking account of the inevitable error occurred during the heliostat's installation, a mathematic model was established in this paper. The tracking control precision of this system is 0.17 mrad. Total error stack-ups for tracking and beam quality in calm winds is about 3 mrad. Drive systems with large gear ratios were designed to give sufficiently rapid movement in high wind condition with sufficient precision to meet the focusing requirement which minimizing motor power and manufacturing costs. After the analysis on the gear down ratio of the drive system in a heliostat unit, it came to the conclusion that having one inverter connected to two common motors with time-sharing control can not only meet the tracking precision requirement but achieve low cost. (orig.)

  17. Stability precision dynamic testing system on artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunyan; Li, Bo

    2014-12-01

    Dynamic feature of Weapon equipments is one of important performance index for evaluating the performance of the whole weapon system. The construction of target range in our country in fire control dynamic testing is relatively backward; therefore, it has greatly influenced the evaluation on the fire control system. In order to solve this problem, it's urgent to develop a new testing instrument so as to adjust to the armament research process and promote weapon system working more efficiently and thereby meeting the needs of modernization in national defense. This paper proposes a new measure which is used to test the stability precision of the fire control system, and it is installed on the moving base. Using the method, we develop a testing system which can test the stability precision of the fire control system and achieve a high precision results after testing. The innovation of the system is we can receive the image not only by CCD, but our eyes. It also adopts digital image-forming and image processing technique for real-time measurement and storing of the target information; it simultaneously adopts the method adjusting the platform and the corresponding fixture mounted on a sample to measure the stable precision and the precision of corner of stabilizator. In this paper, we make a description on the construction of the system and the idea of the designing of the optical system. Finally, we introduce the actual application of the system and testing results.

  18. Apparatus for precision micromachining with lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.; Dragon, E.P.; Warner, B.E.

    1998-04-28

    A new material processing apparatus using a short-pulsed, high-repetition-rate visible laser for precision micromachining utilizes a near diffraction limited laser, a high-speed precision two-axis tilt-mirror for steering the laser beam, an optical system for either focusing or imaging the laser beam on the part, and a part holder that may consist of a cover plate and a back plate. The system is generally useful for precision drilling, cutting, milling and polishing of metals and ceramics, and has broad application in manufacturing precision components. Precision machining has been demonstrated through percussion drilling and trepanning using this system. With a 30 W copper vapor laser running at multi-kHz pulse repetition frequency, straight parallel holes with size varying from 500 microns to less than 25 microns and with aspect ratios up to 1:40 have been consistently drilled with good surface finish on a variety of metals. Micromilling and microdrilling on ceramics using a 250 W copper vapor laser have also been demonstrated with good results. Materialographic sections of machined parts show little (submicron scale) recast layer and heat affected zone. 1 fig.

  19. Shh goes multidirectional in axon guidance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Paola Bovolenta; Luisa Sanchez-Arrones

    2012-01-01

    Shh and Wnts,secreted by the floor and roof plate of the spinal cord,direct longitudinal growth of the axons from the adjacent ventral funiculus and cortico-spinal tract.Whether these midline cues influencethe directionality of axons elongating in more lateral positions of the spinal cord is unexplored.Song and colleagues investigate this possibility and demonstrate that the location of descending raphe-spinal tract in the ventrolateral spinal cord is dictated by the simultaneous repellent activity of Shh gradients in both the anteriorto-posterior (A-P) and medial-tolateral (M-L) axis. The spinal cord is the main pathway for exchange of information between the brain and the rest of the body.Sensory information collected in the body periphery is conveyed to the brain by axonal tracts that ascend along the spinal cord whereas motor information travels from the brain to the periphery in descending tracts.Precise spatial organization of these fiber tracts is thus essential for animal behavior and survival.

  20. Environmental guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is issuing this document, entitled Guidance on Public Participation for US Department of Energy Environmental Restoration Activities, to summarize policy and provide guidance for public participation in environmental restoration activities at DOE Headquarters, Field Offices, facilities, and laboratories. While the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) has environmental restoration responsibility for the majority of DOE sites and facilities, other DOE Project Offices have similar responsibilities at their sites and facilities. This guidance is applicable to all environment restoration activities conducted by or for DOE under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA); the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) as amended by the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA) (corrective actions only); and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). This guidance also is applicable to CERCLA remedial action programs under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 and the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, where DOE is the designated lead. The primary objectives of this guidance document are as follows: acclimate DOE staff to a changing culture that emphasizes the importance of public participation activities; provide direction on implementing these public participation activities; and, provide consistent guidance for all DOE Field Offices and facilities. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance on conducting effective public participation activities for environmental restoration activities under CERCLA; RCRA corrective actions under sections 3004(u), 3004(v), and 3008(h); and NEPA public participation activities.