WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse side effects

  1. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. PMID:26152872

  2. The dark side of the light: Phototherapy adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valejo Coelho, Margarida Moura; Apetato, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Phototherapy is a valuable therapeutic tool in Dermatology, but there may be drawbacks. Acute and long-term adverse effects, of variable severity, include skin erythema, xerosis, pruritus, blistering, altered pigmentation, photoaging, and photocarcinogenesis. Despite concerns over the carcinogenic potential of ultraviolet radiation, most studies have not found an increased risk of non-melanoma or melanoma skin cancer in patients treated with ultraviolet B (broadband and narrowband) and ultraviolet A1 phototherapy. These are therefore considered reasonably safe treatment modalities concerning the development of skin neoplasms, although caution and further investigation are warranted. Photoprotective measures, such as avoidance of concurrent sunlight exposure and covering skin areas not afflicted with disease, or more modern strategies, including phytochemical antioxidants and exogenous DNA repair enzymes, can minimize the hazards of phototherapy. Patients submitted to phototherapeutic regimens should undergo complete, careful dermatologic examination regularly and lifelong. PMID:27638433

  3. [Analysis of the cardiac side effects of antipsychotics: Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Takashi; Okumara, Yasuyuki; Kugiyama, Kiyotaka; Ito, Hiroto

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed the cases of side effects due to antipsychotics reported to Japan's Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) from Jan. 2004 to Dec. 2012. We used the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report Database (JADER) and analyzed 136 of 216,945 cases using the defined terms. We also checked the cardiac adverse effects listed in the package inserts of the antipsychotics involved. We found cases of Ikr blockade resulting in sudden death (49 cases), electrocardiogram QT prolonged (29 cases), torsade de pointes (TdP, 19 cases), ventricular fibrillation (VF, 10 cases). M2 receptor blockade was observed in tachycardia (8 cases) and sinus tachycardia (3 cases). Calmodulin blockade was involved in reported cardiomyopathy (3 cases) and myocarditis (1 case). Multiple adverse events were reported simultaneously in 14 cases. Our search of package inserts revealed warnings regarding electrocardiogram QT prolongation (24 drugs), tachycardia (23), sudden death (18), TdP (14), VF (3), myocarditis (1) and cardiomyopathy (1). We suggest that when an antipsychotic is prescribed, the patient should be monitored regularly with ECG, blood tests, and/or biochemical tests to avoid adverse cardiac effects. PMID:25069255

  4. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. PMID:26936802

  5. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Blaszczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51% of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61% patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%, and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP.

  6. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  7. The flip side of “Spice”: The adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoids as discussed on a Swedish Internet forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Synthetic cannabinoids in smoking mixtures (such as Spice or as raw powder are sold for recreational use as an alternative to herbal cannabis (hashish and marijuana. Although clinical case studies have documented an array of side effects, there is also information available at Internet based drug discussion forums. AIM - Our study investigates experiences of side effects from use of synthetic cannabinoids, as described and anonymously shared on Swedish online discussion forums. METHODS - A systematic search yielded 254 unique and publicly available self-reports from the Swedish forum flashback.org. These texts were analysed thematically, which resulted in 32 sub-themes, which were combined into three overarching themes. RESULTS & CONCLUSION - The experiences of negative side effects were described as (1 Adverse reactions during acute intoxication; (2 Hangover the day after intoxication; (3 Dependency and withdrawal after long-term use. The first theme was characterized by an array of fierce and unpredictable side effects as tachycardia, anxiety, fear and nausea. The acute intoxication reactions were congruent with the side effects published in clinical case studies. The day after intoxication included residual effects of dullness, apathy, nausea and headache. Long-term use resulted in dependency and experiences of being emotionally numb and disconnected. Furthermore, withdrawal was described as sweating, shaking, loss of appetite and insomnia. Both the hangover and the long-term effects have previously been given little scientific attention and need to be investigated further. Drug related Internet discussion forums constitute an overlooked source of information which can aid in the identification of previously unknown risks and effects

  8. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giorgio, M; Busto, E; Mairal, L; Menendez, P; Roth, B; Sardi, M; Taja, M R; Vallerga, M B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro...

  9. The flip side of “Spice”: The adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoids as discussed on a Swedish Internet forum

    OpenAIRE

    Soussan Christophe; Kjellgren Anette

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Synthetic cannabinoids in smoking mixtures (such as Spice) or as raw powder are sold for recreational use as an alternative to herbal cannabis (hashish and marijuana). Although clinical case studies have documented an array of side effects, there is also information available at Internet based drug discussion forums. AIM - Our study investigates experiences of side effects from use of synthetic cannabinoids, as described and anonymously shared on Swedish online discussion forums....

  10. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro gel electrophoresis (comet) assays could be suitable approaches to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. The MN assay is an established cytogenetic technique to evaluate intrinsic cell radiosensitivity in tumor cells and lymphocytes; comet assay is a sensitive and rapid method for measuring DNA damage and repair in individual cells. The aims of this study were: 1) To assess the in vitro radiosensitivity of peripheral blood lymphocytes from two groups of cancer patients (retrospectively and prospectively studied), using MN and comet assays, in comparison with the observed clinical response; and 2) To test the predictive potential of both techniques. Materials and methods: 38 cancer patients receiving radiation therapy were enrolled in this study. The tumor sites were: head and neck (n 25) and cervix (n = 13). Nineteen patients were evaluated about 6-18 month after radiotherapy (retrospective group) and 19 patients were evaluated prior, mid-way and on

  11. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  12. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  13. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Men Living with Prostate Cancer Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction Erectile Dysfunction ... Side Effects of Hormone Therapy Side Effects of Chemotherapy Side Effects: When to Seek Help PSA Rising ...

  14. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  15. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  16. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  17. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Gudex

    1990-01-01

    The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly’ and tolerance to the drug effects. Although th...

  18. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  19. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  20. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  1. Adverse Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Arumugham, Shyam Sundar; Thirthalli, Jagadisha

    2016-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment commonly used for depression and other major psychiatric disorders. We discuss potential adverse effects (AEs) associated with ECT and strategies for their prevention and management. Common acute AEs include headache, nausea, myalgia, and confusion; these are self-limiting and are managed symptomatically. Serious but uncommon AEs include cardiovascular, pulmonary, and cerebrovascular events; these may be minimized with screening for risk factors and by physiologic monitoring. Although most cognitive AEs of ECT are short-lasting, troublesome retrograde amnesia may rarely persist. Modifications of and improvements in treatment techniques minimize cognitive and other AEs. PMID:27514303

  2. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  3. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  4. Adverse effects of antioxidative vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Maciej; Grzegorczyk, Krzysztof

    2012-06-01

    High doses of synthetic antioxidative vitamins: A, E, C and β-carotene are often used on long-term basis in numerous preventive and therapeutic medical applications. Instead of expected health effects, the use of those vitamins may however lead to cases of hypervitaminosis and even to intoxication. The article points out main principles of safety which are to be observed during supplementation with antioxidative vitamins. Toxic effects resulting from erroneous administration of high doses of those substances on organs and systems of the organism are also discussed. Attention is drawn to interactions of antioxidative vitamins with concomitantly used drugs, as well as intensification of adverse effects caused by various exogenous chemical factors. Moreover, the article presents the evaluation of supplementation with these vitamins, which was performed in large studies. PMID:22528540

  5. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  6. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  7. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    OpenAIRE

    Upadya Gatha; Ruxana K

    2009-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis....

  8. Adverse effects of general anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthoud, M C; Reilly, C S

    1992-01-01

    This review deals with the adverse reactions associated with general anaesthetic agents in current use. These reactions fall into 2 categories; those which are more common, predictable and often closely related, and those which are rare, unpredictable and carry a high mortality. Both inhalational and intravenous anaesthetic agents affect the central nervous and cardio-respiratory systems in a dose-related manner. Neuronal inhibition results in decreasing levels of consciousness and depression of the medullary vital centres which can lead to cardiorespiratory failure. Both groups of agents have some depressant effect on the myocardium and vascular smooth muscle leading to a fall in cardiac output and hypotension. Centrally-mediated respiratory depression is common to both groups and the inhalational agents have a direct effect on lung physiology. The most important idiosyncratic reactions to the volatile agents are malignant hyperpyrexia and 'halothane hepatitis'. Malignant hyperpyrexia has an incidence of 1:12,000 with a mortality of about 24%. It is triggered most often by halothane together with suxamethonium. Post halothane hepatic necrosis is rare. Evidence points to 2 distinct syndromes; direct toxicity from the products of reductive metabolism, and a more serious illness, immunologically mediated via haptens formed by liver proteins and the products of oxidative metabolism. Prolonged nitrous oxide exposure can cause bone marrow depression and life-threatening pressure effects by expansion of air-filled spaces within the body. The idiosyncratic reactions to the intravenous agents include anaphylactoid reactions (which are rare) and triggering of acute porphyria. Etomidate is immunologically 'clean', but it inhibits cortisol synthesis. PMID:1418699

  9. Cutaneous Adverse Effects of Neurologic Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Eman; Nunneley, Chloe E; Hsu, Sylvia; Kass, Joseph S

    2016-03-01

    Life-threatening and benign drug reactions occur frequently in the skin, affecting 8 % of the general population and 2-3 % of all hospitalized patients, emphasizing the need for physicians to effectively recognize and manage patients with drug-induced eruptions. Neurologic medications represent a vast array of drug classes with cutaneous side effects. Approximately 7 % of the United States (US) adult population is affected by adult-onset neurological disorders, reflecting a large number of patients on neurologic drug therapies. This review elucidates the cutaneous reactions associated with medications approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat the following neurologic pathologies: Alzheimer disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, Huntington disease, migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and pseudobulbar affect. A search of the literature was performed using the specific FDA-approved drug or drug classes in combination with the terms 'dermatologic,' 'cutaneous,' 'skin,' or 'rash.' Both PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were utilized, with side effects ranging from those cited in randomized controlled trials to case reports. It behooves neurologists, dermatologists, and primary care physicians to be aware of the recorded cutaneous adverse reactions and their severity for proper management and potential need to withdraw the offending medication. PMID:26914914

  10. Side Effects in Steering Fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Wortel, Lars

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I will give a formal definition of side effects. I will do so by modifying a system for modelling program instructions and program states, Quantified Dynamic Logic, to a system called DLAf (for Dynamic Logic with Assignments as Formulas), which in contrast to QDL allows assignments in formulas and makes use of short-circuit evaluation. I will show the underlying logic in those formulas to be a variant of short-circuit logic called repetition-proof short-circuit logic. Using DLAf I will define the actual and the expected evaluation of a single instruction. The side effects are then defined to be the difference between the two. I will give rules for composing those side effects in single instructions, thus scaling up our definition of side effects to a definition of side effects in deterministic \\dlaf-programs. Using this definition I will give a classification of side effects, introducing as most important class that of marginal side effects. Finally, I will show how to use our system for calcul...

  11. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica;

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  12. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I;

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  13. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  14. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  15. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  16. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of our knowledge this has not been previously reported in the formal medical literature. We briefly describe the most common classes of nootropics, including their postulated or proven methods of actions, their desired effects, and their adverse side effects, and provide a brief discussion of the cases. Our objective is to raise awareness among physicians in general and psychiatrists and addiction specialists in particular of the potentially dangerous phenomenon of unsupervised nootropic use among young adults who may be especially vulnerable to nootropics’ negative effects. PMID:27222762

  17. Nonprescription ibuprofen: side effect profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, S A; Waksman, J A; Dash, B H

    1992-01-01

    Single doses of nonprescription analgesics are commonly used to treat self-diagnosed conditions. To evaluate the safety of single doses of nonprescription-strength ibuprofen, we examined reported side effects from 15 double-blind, randomized, controlled trials we conducted of the drug to treat various common painful conditions (e.g., headache, sore throat). All studies included placebo and another nonprescription analgesic, acetaminophen. A total of 878 subjects received ibuprofen 200 or 400 mg, 849 acetaminophen 650 or 1000 mg, and 852 placebo. The overall frequency of side effects was comparable: ibuprofen 2.4%, acetaminophen 3.2%, and placebo 2.1%. The frequency of central nervous system symptoms was 0.8%, 2.1%, and 0.9%, respectively. Upper gastro-intestinal upset ranged from 0.8-0.9% of subjects in all groups. We conclude that single doses of nonprescription ibuprofen are well tolerated and demonstrate a side effect profile indistinguishable from that of acetaminophen and placebo. PMID:1437701

  18. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  19. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  20. Ocular and systemic adverse effects of ophthalmic and non ophthalmic medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izazola-Conde, C; Zamora-de la Cruz, D; Tenorio-Guajardo, G

    2011-01-01

    Information related to adverse drug effects caused by ocular medications and ocular adverse effects of systemically administered drugs has increased over the last several decades. Here we review the medical literature over the last four decades to both quantitatively and qualitatively determine the adverse effects of ocular drugs and ocular toxicity of non-ocular drugs. A systematic bibliographic review of the literature was performed with the following terms: "drug treatment", "drug therapy", "ocular adverse effects", "ocular side effects", "ocular toxicity", "systemic side effects", "systemic adverse effects", "systemic toxicity", "ocular drug" and "ophthalmic drug" using the Boolean operators or, and, not. Searches focused on: (1) Ocular side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs; (2) Ocular side/adverse effects of systemic drugs; (3) Systemic side/adverse effects of ophthalmic drugs. PubMed was used to perform searches. Limits included: species, human and field tag, abstract/title, dates from 01/01/1971 to 31/12/2010. A sub-selection of references was made by discarding articles that were irrelevant for the topics listed above. Adverse effects of alpha2-adrenergic agonists, beta-adrenergic antagonists, quinine derivatives and antituberculosis agents appear in the literature throughout the period of the review. Adverse effects of newer drugs such as amiodarone, phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, antiepileptics, tamoxifen, and its interactions have been published principally in the last two decades. It is imperative for patient safety that knowledge of the adverse effects of drugs on the eye whether topically or systemically administered, and the possible systemic effects of drugs given as ophthalmic medications be emphasized to clinicians. PMID:22423585

  1. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings. PMID:25270293

  2. Optimising the retrieval of information on adverse drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical interventions have brought about many benefits to health, improving the population's well-being and life expectancy. However, these interventions are not without potential harmful side-effects and yet searching for the evidence on adverse effects is challenging. This article summarises a PhD whose main aim was to develop a better understanding of the implications of using different sources and approaches to identifying relevant data on adverse effects. The author is Su Golder, who has recently completed her PhD at the University of York and who has already published several articles on specific aspects of her research, including this journal. This article is the first in the Dissertations into Practice series to report on a PhD study, and it summarises her research in a way which emphasises the implications for practice.

  3. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Åsa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2015-01-01

    ), and vitality (VT) in the mefloquine group compared to matched controls. CONCLUSION: The most frequent acute psychiatric problems were anxiety, depression, and psychotic symptoms. Data indicated that subjects experiencing acute mefloquine adverse side effects may develop long-term mental health problems...... with a decreased sense of global quality of life with lack of energy, nervousness, and depression....

  4. On the dark side of therapies with immunoglobulin concentrates. The adverse events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Spaeth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract to the dark side of therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentratesTherapy by human immunoglobulin G (IgG concentrates is a success story ongoing for decades with an ever increasing demand for this plasma product. The success of IgG concentrates on a clinical level is documented by the slowly increasing number of registered indication and the more rapid increase of the off-label uses, a topic dealt with in another contribution to this special issue of Frontiers in Immunology. A part of the success is the adverse event (AE profile of IgG concentrates which, even at life-long need for therapy, is excellent. Transmission of pathogens in the last decade could be entirely controlled through the antecedent introduction by authorities of a regulatory network and installing quality standards by the plasma fractionation industry. The cornerstone of the regulatory network is current Good Manufacturing practice. Non-infectious AEs occur rarely and mainly are mild to moderate. However, in recent times the increase in frequency of hemolytic and thrombotic AEs raised worrying questions on the possible background for these AEs. Below we review elements of non-infectious AEs , and particularly focus on hemolysis and thrombosis. We discuss how the introduction of plasma fractionation by ion-exchange chromatography and polishing by immunoaffinity chromatographic steps might alter repertoire of specificities and influence AE profiles and efficacy of IgG concentrates.

  5. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia: A rare adverse effect of intravenous ondansetron

    OpenAIRE

    Md Shahnawaz Moazzam; Farah Nasreen; Shahjahan Bano; Syed Hussain Amir

    2011-01-01

    Ondansetron is a serotonin receptor antagonist which has been used frequently to reduce the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic surgery. It has become very popular drug for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting due to its superiority in-terms of efficacy as well as lack of side effects and drug interactions. Although cardiovascular adverse effects of this drug are rare, we found a case of symptomatic sinus bradycardia in a 43-year-old female patient,...

  6. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemo)therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-01-01

    Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB) is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are ...

  7. [Non-steroidal antirheumatics: side-effects and interactions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, M

    1982-08-28

    Side effects of non-steroidal antirheumatic drugs (NSAD) may occur in any organ system, since the prostaglandins, the synthesis of which is inhibited by NSAD, play a role in numerous adverse cellular processes throughout the body. Besides these physiologic regulations there are adverse effects of NSAD, such as bone marrow aplasia, of unexplained etiology. The interactions of NSAD are of clinical relevance in drug types such as the salicylates, pyrazolons and fenamic acids (e.g. interactions with cumarin derivatives). The clinically relevant interactions of NSAD are discussed in detail. PMID:6982512

  8. Managing the adverse effects of radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkey, Franklin J

    2010-08-15

    Nearly two thirds of patients with cancer will undergo radiation therapy as part of their treatment plan. Given the increased use of radiation therapy and the growing number of cancer survivors, family physicians will increasingly care for patients experiencing adverse effects of radiation. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve symptoms of depression in patients undergoing chemotherapy, although they have little effect on cancer-related fatigue. Radiation dermatitis is treated with topical steroids and emollient creams. Skin washing with a mild, unscented soap is acceptable. Cardiovascular disease is a well-established adverse effect in patients receiving radiation therapy, although there are no consensus recommendations for cardiovascular screening in this population. Radiation pneumonitis is treated with oral prednisone and pentoxifylline. Radiation esophagitis is treated with dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, promotility agents, and viscous lidocaine. Radiation-induced emesis is ameliorated with 5-hydroxytryptamine3 receptor antagonists and steroids. Symptomatic treatments for chronic radiation cystitis include anticholinergic agents and phenazopyridine. Sexual dysfunction from radiation therapy includes erectile dysfunction and vaginal stenosis, which are treated with phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors and vaginal dilators, respectively. PMID:20704169

  9. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  10. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  11. The NAS Perchlorate Review: Adverse Effects?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Richard B.; Corley, Richard; Cowan, Linda; Utiger, Robert D.

    2005-11-01

    To the editor: Drs. Ginsberg and Rice argue that the reference dose for perchlorate of 0.0007 mg/kg per day recommended by the National Academies’ Committee to Assess the Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion is not adequately protective. As members of the committee, we disagree. Ginsberg and Rice base their conclusion on three points. The first involves the designation of the point of departure as a NOEL (no-observed-effect level) versus a LOAEL (lowest-observed-adverse- effect level). The committee chose as its point of departure a dose of perchlorate (0.007 mg/kg per day) that when given for 14 days to 7 normal subjects did not cause a significant decrease in the group mean thyroid iodide uptake (Greer et al. 2002). Accordingly, the committee considered it a NOEL. Ginsberg and Rice focus on the fact that only 7 subjects were given that dose, and they 1seem to say that attention should be paid only to the results in those subjects in whom there was a 1fall in thyroid iodide uptake, and that the results in those in whom there was no fall or an increase should be ignored. They consider the dose to be a LOAEL because of the fall in uptake in those few subjects. It is important to note that a statistically significant decrease of, for example, 5% or even 10%, would not be biologically important and, more important, would not be sustained. For example, in another study (Braverman et al. 2004), administration of 0.04 mg/kg per day to normal subjects for 6 months had no effect on thyroid iodide uptake when measured at 3 and 6 months, and no effect on serum thyroid hormone or thyrotropin concentrations measured monthly (inspection of Figure 5A in the paper by Greer et al. suggests that this dose would inhibit thyroid iodide uptake by about 25% if measured at 2 weeks). The second issue involves database uncertainty. In clinical studies, perchlorate has been administered prospectively to 68 normal subjects for 2 weeks to 6 months. In one study (Brabant et al. 1992

  12. 10 CFR 1017.10 - Adverse effect test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Adverse effect test. 1017.10 Section 1017.10 Energy... Adverse effect test. In order for information to be identified as UCNI, it must be determined that the... significant adverse effect on the health and safety of the public or the common defense and security...

  13. Metabolic Network Prediction of Drug Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaked, Itay; Oberhardt, Matthew A; Atias, Nir; Sharan, Roded; Ruppin, Eytan

    2016-03-23

    Drug side effects levy a massive cost on society through drug failures, morbidity, and mortality cases every year, and their early detection is critically important. Here, we describe the array of model-based phenotype predictors (AMPP), an approach that leverages medical informatics resources and a human genome-scale metabolic model (GSMM) to predict drug side effects. AMPP is substantially predictive (AUC > 0.7) for >70 drug side effects, including very serious ones such as interstitial nephritis and extrapyramidal disorders. We evaluate AMPP's predictive signal through cross-validation, comparison across multiple versions of a side effects database, and co-occurrence analysis of drug side effect associations in scientific abstracts (hypergeometric p value = 2.2e-40). AMPP outperforms a previous biochemical structure-based method in predicting metabolically based side effects (aggregate AUC = 0.65 versus 0.59). Importantly, AMPP enables the identification of key metabolic reactions and biomarkers that are predictive of specific side effects. Taken together, this work lays a foundation for future detection of metabolically grounded side effects during early stages of drug development. PMID:27135366

  14. [Adverse or toxic effects of drugs in medical practice: a one-year follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, J C

    1990-01-01

    In order to analyse the response of pharmaceutical companies to adverse drug reaction reports, 37 suspected side effects were sent by mail to the 30 companies concerned. The time period involved was 1 year and corresponded to a total of 3341 consultations in general practice. Companies answered in 29 cases (78.3%), sent 21 reply forms and returned 3 evaluations of adverse drugs reactions to the reporting doctor. The high percentage of adverse drug reactions (1.07 per one hundred consultations), the doctor's work-load and poor feed-back lead one to reflect on the usefulness of systematic adverse drug reaction reporting by general practitioners. PMID:2399517

  15. Symptomatic sinus bradycardia: A rare adverse effect of intravenous ondansetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahnawaz Moazzam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ondansetron is a serotonin receptor antagonist which has been used frequently to reduce the incidence of post-operative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic surgery. It has become very popular drug for the prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting due to its superiority in-terms of efficacy as well as lack of side effects and drug interactions. Although cardiovascular adverse effects of this drug are rare, we found a case of symptomatic sinus bradycardia in a 43-year-old female patient, going for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, who developed the same after she was given intravenous ondansetron in operation theater during premedication. Hence, we report this case, as the rare possibility of encountering bradycardia effect after intravenous administration of ondansetron should be born in mind.

  16. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  17. European side markers effect on traffic safety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfsema, A.; Theeuwes, J.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M

    1999-01-01

    In 1993 new European legislation regarding side-markers for passenger cars became effective. Volvo requested the TNO-Human Factors Research Institute (HFRI) to investigate the possible safety benefit of this European side-markers configuration. A test panel at TNO- HFRI was used to determine the dif

  18. Adverse effects of IgG therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    IgG is widely used for patients with immune deficiencies and in a broad range of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Up to 40% of intravenous infusions of IgG may be associated with adverse effects (AEs), which are mostly uncomfortable or unpleasant but often are not serious. The most common infusion-related AE is headache. More serious reactions, including true anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions, occur less frequently. Most reactions are related to the rate of infusion and can be prevented or treated just by slowing the infusion rate. Medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, antihistamines, or corticosteroids also may be helpful in preventing or treating these common AEs. IgA deficiency with the potential of IgG or IgE antibodies against IgA increases the risk of some AEs but should not be viewed as a contraindication if IgG therapy is needed. Potentially serious AEs include renal dysfunction and/or failure, thromboembolic events, and acute hemolysis. These events usually are multifactorial, related to combinations of constituents in the IgG product as well as risk factors for the recipient. Awareness of these factors should allow minimization of the risks and consequences of these AEs. Subcutaneous IgG is absorbed more slowly into the circulation and has a lower incidence of AEs, but awareness and diligence are necessary whenever IgG is administered. PMID:24565701

  19. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  1. Radiation Therapy: Preventing and Managing Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... yourself during radiation therapy Radiation therapy can damage healthy body tissues in or near the area being treated, which can cause side effects. Many people worry about this part of their cancer treatment. Before ...

  2. Triptans and CNS side-effects: pharmacokinetic and metabolic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodick, D W; Martin, V

    2004-06-01

    Triptans are the treatment of choice for acute migraine. While seemingly a homogenous group of drugs, results from a meta-analysis reveal significant differences in efficacy and tolerability among oral triptans. The incidence of drug-related central nervous system (CNS) side-effects with some triptans is as high as 15% and may be associated with functional impairment and reduced productivity. The occurrence of adverse events associated with triptans in general, and CNS side-effects in particular, may lead to a delay in initiating or even avoidance of an otherwise effective treatment. Potential explanations for differences among triptans in the incidence of CNS side-effects may relate to pharmacological and pharmacokinetic differences, including receptor binding, lipophilicity, and the presence of active metabolites. Of the triptans reviewed, at clinically relevant doses, almotriptan 12.5 mg, naratriptan 2.5 mg and sumatriptan 50 mg had the lowest incidence of CNS side-effects, while eletriptan 40 and 80 mg, rizatriptan 10 mg and zolmitriptan 2.5 and 5 mg had the highest incidence. The most likely explanations for the differences in CNS side-effects among triptans are the presence of active metabolites and high lipophilicity of the parent compound and active metabolites. Eletriptan, rizatriptan and zolmitriptan have active metabolites, while lipophilicity is lowest for almotriptan and sumatriptan. If CNS side-effects are a clinically relevant concern in the individual patient, use of a triptan with a low incidence of CNS side-effects may offer the potential for earlier initiation of treatment and more effective outcomes. PMID:15154851

  3. Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the adverse effects of trichlormethiazide, focusing on serum electrolyte and uric acid levels. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010, to identify cohorts of new trichlormethiazide users (n = 99 for 1 mg, n = 61 for 2 mg daily dosage and an equal number of non-users (control. We used propensity-score matching to adjust for differences between users and control for each dosage, and compared serum chemical data including serum sodium, potassium, uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of trichlormethiazide of 1 mg and 2 mg users was 58 days and 64 days, respectively. Results The mean age was 66 years, and 55% of trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose were female. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the mean age was 68 years, and 43% of users were female. There were no statistically significant differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, past drugs, and current antihypertensive drugs between trichlormethiazide users and controls for both doses. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the reduction of serum potassium level and the elevation of serum uric acid level were significant compared with control, whereas changes of mean serum sodium, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were not significant. In trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose, all tests showed no statistically significant change from baseline to during the exposure period in

  4. Perception of Side Effects of Chemotherapy among Cancer Patients in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital Bharatpur, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Sharmila Gurung; Radha Acharya Pandey

    2016-01-01

    jdjBackground & Objectives: These side effects of chemotherapy affect the patients’ daily life and quality of life adversely. It affects the different body system resulting in physical and non physical (psychosocial) side effects. Cancer patients demand information to understand chemotherapy-related adverse effects and actions to be taken. The aim of the study is to find out the perception of side effects of chemotherapy among cancer patients.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sec...

  5. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  6. Adverse effects of human immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-07-01

    Human immunoglobulin (IG) is used for IgG replacement therapy in primary and secondary immunodeficiency, for prevention and treatment of certain infections, and as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. IG has a wide spectrum of antibodies to microbial and human antigens. Several high-titered IGs are also available enriched in antibodies to specific viruses or bacterial toxins. IG can be given intravenously (IGIV), intramuscularly (IGIM) or by subcutaneous infusions (SCIG). Local adverse reactions such as persistent pain, bruising, swelling and erythema are rare with IGIV infusions but common (75%) with SCIG infusions. By contrast, adverse systemic reactions are rare with SCIG infusions but common with IGIV infusions, occurring as often as 20% to 50% of patients and 5% to 15% of all IGIV infusions. Systemic adverse reactions can be immediate (60% of reactions) occurring within 6 hours of an infusion, delayed (40% of reactions) occurring 6 hours-1 week after an infusion, and late (less than 1% of reactions), occurring weeks and months after an infusion. Immediate systemic reactions such as head and body aches, chills and fever are usually mild and readily treatable. Immediate anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions are uncommon. The most common delayed systemic reaction is persistent headache. Less common but more serious delayed reactions include aseptic meningitis, renal failure, thromboembolism, and hemolytic reactions. Late reactions are uncommon but often severe, and include lung disease, enteritis, dermatologic disorders and infectious diseases. The types, incidence, causes, prevention, and management of these reactions are discussed. PMID:23835249

  7. [Selected aspects of oral contraception side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolski, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    The first hormonal pill was approved in the 60s of the twentieth century Since that time, oral contraception has been used worldwide by dozens of women due to its high availability as well as relative ease and safety of taking. The main side effects of oral contraception include elevated risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Estrogens increase the probability of VTE development, depending on the dose in medication, and third-generation progestins increase the risk of VTE development more than older-generation progestins. Also, the coexistence of hereditary thrombophilia increases the risk of VTE development in women using oral contraceptives. Other side effects include changes in the carbohydrate and lipid economy Progestins in oral contraceptives decrease HDL cholesterol levels but increase LDL cholesterol and total cholesterol levels. Additionally estrogens are a recognized mitogenic factor for the epithelium of the mammary gland, acting proliferative on the glandular tissue and in the same way influence on the increased risk of breast cancer development. Patients sometimes complain about some subjective side symptoms such as headache, mood changes, nausea, back pain, breast pain and swelling, as well as decreased libido. Some patients discontinue oral contraception due to fear of side effects or temporary ailments before con- sulting their doctor what may result in unintended pregnancy The aim of the following paper was to present most frequent side effects of oral contraception, ways of their moni- toring and diagnosis. PMID:25669065

  8. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  9. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  10. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva; Maria Irene de Andrade Gomes Silva; Luciana Tavares Toscano; Klébya Hellen Dantas de Oliveira; Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda; Alexandre Sérgio Silva

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about...

  11. Multiple adverse effects of pyridium: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Charles; Dewar, James C

    2006-01-01

    Pyridium (phenazopyridine hydrochloride) is often prescribed as an analgesic in patients following trauma, surgery, or infections of the urinary tract. Pyridium toxicity has been previously reported, however, most cases result in a single adverse effect. Herein the authors describe an elderly patient who presented with simultaneous multiple adverse effects, including a previously undocumented myelosuppressive pancytopenia. PMID:16466130

  12. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  13. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  14. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  15. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  16. Probable Nootropicinduced Psychiatric Adverse Effects: A Series of Four Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Talih, Farid; Ajaltouni, Jean

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of nootropics—any substance that may alter, improve, or augment cognitive performance, mainly through the stimulation or inhibition of certain neurotransmitters—may potentially be dangerous and deleterious to the human brain, and certain individuals with a history of mental or substance use disorders might be particularly vulnerable to their adverse effects. We describe four cases of probable nootropic-induced psychiatric adverse effects to illustrate this theory. To the best of ou...

  17. Chemical Hair Relaxers Have Adverse Effects a Myth or Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Shetty, Vinma H; Shetty, Narendra J; Nair, Dhanya Gopinath

    2013-01-01

    Context: Hair plays an important role in one's personality and builds confidence. Now-a-days, chemical hair relaxers are used very commonly in the society. We document the adverse effects reported by the sample that have used any one of the professional chemical hair relaxers. Aim: To study the adverse effects reported by the sample who underwent repeated chemical hair relaxing. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire based study done on a sample taken from a medical college and ho...

  18. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects. PMID:23472485

  19. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  20. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  1. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  2. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants' meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods.

  3. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  4. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal. PMID:2686171

  5. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-01-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde-...

  6. Improving Patient Safety by Identifying Side Effects from Introducing Bar Coding in Medication Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Emily S.; Cook, Richard I.; Marta L. Render

    2002-01-01

    Objective. In addition to providing new capabilities, the introduction of technology in complex, sociotechnical systems, such as health care and aviation, can have unanticipated side effects on technical, social, and organizational dimensions. To identify potential accidents in the making, the authors looked for side effects from a natural experiment, the implementation of bar code medication administration (BCMA), a technology designed to reduce adverse drug events (ADEs).

  7. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E.M., Bruzell; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.;

    2013-01-01

    -office = 39.3% [n = 28]; p >0.05; 95% CI [OR]: 0.198‑1.102) whereas prevalence of gingival irritation was higher after in-office treatment (at-home = 14.0%; in-office = 35.7%; p ... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  8. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  9. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  10. [Prevention of neuro- and cardiotoxic side effects of tuberculosis chemotherapy with noopept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordyk, A V; Lysov, A V; Kondria, A V; Gol'dzon, M A; Khlebova, N V

    2009-01-01

    The study evaluated clinical efficiency of noopept used to prevent adverse side effects of antituberculous agents. It included 60 patients with newly diagnosed respiratory tuberculosis. Those in group 1 (n = 30) received 10 mg of noopept twice daily during the first month. The treatment promoted functional normalization of vegetative nervous system and antioxidative systems, reduced manifestations of anxiety, decreased frequency of adverse neuro- and cardiotoxic responses to antituberculous drugs. PMID:19565831

  11. Supplementation prevalence and adverse effects in physical exercise practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walkiria Valeriano da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of nutritional supplements is prevalent among physical exercise practitioners and some adverse effects have been reported, however not sufficiently substantial, because they originate from isolated cases. Objectives: Investigate nutritional supplements consumption prevalence and adverse effects of the use of such products. Methods: An epidemiological, representative and transversal study, with 180 physical exercise practitioners in gyms, who answered questionnaires about sports supplementation, associated factors and self-perceived adverse effects. In a subsample of 86 individuals, blood pressure was measured and blood was collected for the evaluation of lipid profile markers, hepatic and renal function. Results: The supplementation prevalence level was 58.3%, whereas the physicians and nutritionists indicated only 21.9%. The reported adverse effects were observed only by supplement users (acne, insomnia, aggressiveness, headaches and tachycardia. Systolic blood pressure was higher in the supplemented group when compared to the control group (p = 0.04, as in the subgroup of thermogenic users (p < 0.0001 and among those who had consumed any type of supplementation for over 2 years (p = 0.005. Serum creatinine levels were higher only in the subgroup of carbohydrates when compared to the control group (p = 0.03. Diastolic blood pressure, lipid profile and hepatic function did not present differences between groups. Conclusions: The use of nutritional supplements without specialized orientation was elevated among physical exercise practitioners, being associated to adverse effects both by the users themselves and by clinical diagnosis.

  12. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored. PMID:24093069

  13. Adverse effects and treatment on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects on palliative radiotherapy for bone metastases are generally mild. Acute and late adverse effects are similar between 8 Gy single fraction and multi-fraction radiotherapy (e.g. 30 Gy in 10 fractions). Both external beam radiotherapy and radiopharmaceutical therapy with strontium-89 may cause pain flare. A randomized controlled trial is currently performed to confirm the effectiveness of dexamethasone for the prevention of pain flare. Reirradiation for the same site is widely used. However, its safeness has not been confirmed enough. Radiation myelitis is an unrecoverable severe adverse effect. However, the tolerated accumulated dose for the spinal cord is not fully understood. Stereotactic body radiotherapy may be considered to deliver reirradiation for spinal metastases without exposing too much dose for the spinal cord. Another solution to prevent radiation myelitis after reirradiation may use dose fractionations of 8 Gy single or 20 Gy in 5 fractions instead of 30 Gy in 10 fractions. (author)

  14. Effect of knee joint angle on side-to-side strength ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chandramouli; Williams, Glenn N

    2014-10-01

    Isometric knee extensor and flexor strength are typically tested at different joint angles due to the differences in length-tension relationships of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. The efficiency of strength testing can be improved if the same angle can be used to test both the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal angle for isometric knee strength testing by examining the effect of knee angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios. Eighteen active young people (9 males and 9 females) participated in this study. Knee extensor and knee flexor strength were tested on both sides at 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion. The effect of knee flexion angle on side-to-side peak torque ratios, raw torque values, and side-to-side flexor-to-extensor torque ratios were assessed. Side-to-side knee extensor peak torque ratios and knee flexor-to-extensor torque ratios differed significantly by knee flexion angle (p = 0.024 and p = 0.011, respectively), but side-to-side knee flexor peak torque ratios did not differ significantly (p = 0.311). When considering both side-to-side peak torque ratios and flexor-to-extensor torque ratios, the values were more symmetrical (i.e., closer to 100%) only at 60° of knee flexion. Our results indicate that both the knee flexors and the knee extensors can be tested clinically at 60° of knee flexion. Our results also indicate that the hamstrings can be tested at any of the 3 angles if the examiner is interested in side-to-side ratios rather than raw torque values. These results may facilitate more efficient and flexible clinical knee strength testing.

  15. Mechanisms of Hexachlorobenzene-induced Adverse Immune Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Janine

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an environmental pollutant that can induce adverse immune effects in humans and rats. Brown Norway rats (BN) appeared to be very susceptible to HCB-induced immune effects. Oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes (LN) and ele

  16. Cardiovascular side effects of psychopharmacologic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro

    2016-09-15

    WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209

  17. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  18. Adverse effects including sexual problems associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a tertiary care center of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawesh Koirala

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Adverse effect (irrespective of severity was commonly seen with SSRI use. Common adverse effects seen among remitted subjects were weight gain, dryness of mouth, headache, dizziness, paresthesia, etc. SD was other important side effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 651-656

  19. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  20. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  1. Side effects of mercury in dental amalgam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titiek Berniyanti

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Dental amalgam is an alloy composed of mixture of approximately equal parts of elemental liquid mercury and an alloy powder. The popularity of amalgam arises from excellent long term performance, ease of use and low cost. Despite the popularity of dental amalgam as restorative material, there have been concerns regarding the potential adverse health and environmental effects arising from exposure to mercury in amalgam. They have long been believed to be of little significance as contributors to the overall body burden of mercury, because the elemental form of mercury is rapidly consumed in the setting reaction of the restoration. In 1997, 80% of dentist in Indonesia still using amalgam as an alternative material, and 60% of them treat the rest of unused amalgam carelessly. In recent years, the possible environmental and health impact caused by certain routines in dental practice has attracted attention among regulators. As part of point source reduction strategies, the discharge of mercury/amalgam-contaminated wastes has been regulated in a number of countries, even though it has been documented that by adopting appropriate mercury hygiene measures, the impact of amalgam use in dentistry is minimal. The purpose of this paper is to examine on studies that relate mercury levels in human to the presence of dental amalgams. It is concluded that even though mercury used in filling is hazardous, if normal occupational recommendations for proper mercury hygiene routines and source of reduction strategies are followed, no occupational health risk can be assumed.

  2. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side Effects of Montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Alkhuja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient’s symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient’s mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient’s symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  3. Effects of Video Games on the Adverse Corollaries of Chemotherapy in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Rickard-Figueroa, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of video games on adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in three pediatric oncology patients. Results indicated that access to video games resulted in reduction in the number of anticipatory symptoms experienced and observed, as well as a diminution in the aversiveness of chemotherapy side effects. (Author/NRB)

  4. The acute side effects of bright light therapy: a placebo-controlled investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Botanov

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of numerous clinical and non-clinical applications of bright light therapy (LT in recent decades, the prevalence and severity of LT side effects have not yet been fully explicated. A few adverse LT effects-headache, eye strain, irritability, and nausea-have been consistently reported among depressed individuals and other psychiatric cohorts, but there exists little published evidence regarding LT side effects in non-clinical populations, who often undergo LT treatment of considerably briefer duration. Accordingly, in the present study we examined, in a randomized sample of healthy young adults, the acute side effects of exposure to a single 30-minute session of bright white light (10,000 lux versus dim red light (< 500 lux. Across a broad range of potential side effects, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no significant group-by-time (Pre, Post interactions. In other words, bright light exposure was not associated with a significantly higher incidence of any reported side effect than was the placebo control condition. Nevertheless, small but statistically significant increases in both eye strain and blurred vision were observed among both the LT and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that the relatively common occurrence of adverse side effects observed in the extant LT literature may not fully extend to non-clinical populations, especially for healthy young adults undergoing LT for a brief duration.

  5. Hyperprolactinaemia - a risperidone side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ruzić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavesić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta

    2010-03-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening. After commencing the antipsychotic treatment, the symptoms started to weaken and a steady remission was obtained. Two years after a regular risperidone administration (in combination with fluoxetine, alprazolam and flurazepam) the patient reported some "bleeding" in October 2006. Hormonal blood tests were performed and high prolactin values were registered (2567.0 mIJ/L),due to which a gradual risperidone retractement was indicated. Medicamentous hyperprolactinaemia is a well known side effect of risperidone. A gradual risperidone retractement lead to a lowered and normal prolactin level within a month. PMID:20305606

  6. Antimicrobial Active Clothes Display No Adverse Effects on the Ecological Balance of the Healthy Human Skin Microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Hoefer; Timo R. Hammer

    2011-01-01

    The progressive public use of antimicrobial clothes has raised issues concerning skin health. A placebo-controlled side-to-side study was run with antimicrobial clothes versus fabrics of similar structure but minus the antimicrobial activity, to evaluate possible adverse effects on the healthy skin microflora. Sixty volunteers were enrolled. Each participant received a set of form-fitting T-shirts constructed in 2 halves: an antibacterial half, displaying activities of 3–5 log-step reductions...

  7. Perception of Side Effects of Chemotherapy among Cancer Patients in B.P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital Bharatpur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Gurung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available jdjBackground & Objectives: These side effects of chemotherapy affect the patients’ daily life and quality of life adversely. It affects the different body system resulting in physical and non physical (psychosocial side effects. Cancer patients demand information to understand chemotherapy-related adverse effects and actions to be taken. The aim of the study is to find out the perception of side effects of chemotherapy among cancer patients.Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 cancer patients, using purposive sampling technique and data was collected via face to face interview. Descriptive as well as inferential statistics (T-test was used to see the significant difference between dependent and independent variables.Results: The overall perceived side effects of chemotherapy include: affects work and home duties (non physical side effect, followed by anxiety, loss of appetite, affects family, affect partner, feel constantly tired (fatigue, affects social activities, feel irritable, nausea and constipation respectively. There is significant difference between perception of side effects of chemotherapy and gender of respondents.Conclusion: The perceptions of side effects of chemotherapy are different from individual to individual. Patient’s perception of side effects of chemotherapy is concerned with non physical side effects rather than physical side effects.Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, Vol.11(4 2015: 14-19

  8. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  9. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  10. Psychological adverse effects of cannabis smoking: a tentative classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigrete, J C

    1973-01-20

    This paper stresses the need for an early definition and description of the "deviant" cannabis smoker in North America. Attention is called to the fact that on this continent heavy smokers have not yet been separated as "problem" users from other smokers.A comprehensive review of possible psychological adverse effects of the drug is made. The following classification is suggested: a) Severe intoxications, b) Pathological intoxications, c) Acute cannabis psychoses, d) Subacute and chronic cannabis psychoses and e) Residual conditions. PMID:4569453

  11. Methylmercury Exposure and Adverse Cardiovascular Effects in Faroese Whaling Men

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Anna Lai; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.; Jukka T Salonen; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Askham, Jórun; Grandjean, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30–70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from consumption of pilot whale meat. Methods: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 yea...

  12. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B;

    2011-01-01

    reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported......Glucocorticoids are commonly used in treatment of paediatric diseases, but evidence of associated adverse cerebral effects is accumulating. The various pharmacokinetic profiles of the exogenous glucocorticoids and the changes in pharmacodynamics during childhood, result in different exposure...... of nervous tissue to exogenous glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids activate two types of intracellular receptors, the mineralocorticoid receptor and the glucocorticoid receptor. The two receptors differ in cerebral distribution, affinity and effects. Exogenous glucocorticoids favor activation...

  13. Effects of number of side dumps and side dump angles on outlet parameters in a side-dump combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedpoor, M.; Doustdar, M. M.; Soltani, H.; Chegini, M.

    2012-11-01

    A numerical study on the effect of side-dump number on fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been investigated in present paper. The mass of fuel vapor inside the flammability limit is named as the effective mass fraction. In the first step we have considered a side-dump combustor with two dumps and dump angle of 0o (plumb to cylinder) and by increasing the entrance airflow velocity from 20 to 30, 40 and 50 (m/s) respectively, the mean diameter of fuel droplets sizing and effective mass fraction have been studied. After this step, we have changed the number of dumps from two to four and we have repeated last examination again. To fulfill the calculations a modified version of KIVA-3V code which is a transient, three-dimensional, multiphase, multicomponent code for the analysis of chemically reacting flows with sprays, is used.

  14. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms. PMID:26373946

  15. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  16. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo eTieri

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events of (novel therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we generated RA-related protein-protein interaction (PPI networks (interactomes based on experimental PPI data. Pharmacological treatment simulation, topological and functional analyses were further run to gain insight into the proteins most affected by therapy and by multi-omic modelling.Results: Simulation on the administration of MTX results in the activation of expected (apoptosis and adverse (nitrogenous metabolism alteration effects. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (GRB2 and Interleukin-1 Receptor Associated Kinase-4 (IRAK4, already an RA target emerge as relevant nodes. The former controls the activation of inflammatory, proliferative and degenerative pathways in host and pathogens. The latter controls immune alterations and blocks innate response to pathogens.Conclusions: This multi-omic map properly recollects in a single analytical picture known, yet complex, information like the adverse/side effects of MTX, and provides a reliable platform for in silico hypothesis testing or recommendation on novel therapies. These results can support the development of RA translational research in the design of validation experiments and clinical trials, as such we identify GRB2 as a robust potential new target for RA for its ability to control both synovial degeneracy and dysbiosis, and, conversely, warn on the usage of IRAK4-inhibitors recently promoted, as this involves potential adverse effects in the form of impaired innate response to pathogens.

  17. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...

  18. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... side effects. Using pharynx cancer as an example, the purpose of this article is to summarize the possibilities and limitations of different methods for measurement of radiotherapy-induced side effects. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-17......Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...

  19. Macrophages are involved in hexachlorobenzene-induced adverse immune effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a persistent environmental pollutant that causes adverse immune effects in man and rat. The Brown Norway (BN) rat is very susceptible to HCB-induced immunopathology and oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, splenomegaly, lymph node (LN) enlargement, and increased serum levels of IgE and anti-ssDNA IgM. T cells play an important role but do not account for all adverse effects induced by HCB. Macrophages are probably also important and the relationship between macrophages and T cells was further investigated. To eliminate macrophages clodronate-liposomes were used. Furthermore, a kinetic study was performed to obtain insight in the early phase of the HCB-induced immune response. Also, experiments were performed to detect specific memory T cells. Therefore, an adoptive transfer study was performed. Our results indicate that macrophages are indeed involved in HCB-induced skin lesions, lung eosinophilia, and elevation of IgM against ssDNA. Kinetics showed that both skin and lung lesions appeared early after exposure. Moreover, immune effects could not be adaptively transferred. Thus, both macrophages and T cells are involved in HCB-induced immune effects but HCB exposure does not lead to specific T cell sensitization. Presumably, HCB exposure induces macrophage activation, thereby generating adjuvant signals that polyclonally stimulate T cells. Together, these events may lead to the observed immunopathology in BN rats

  20. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1 Eduard B Mikulik,1 Anees M Dauki,2 Chandrama Murkherjee,1 Jasmine A Luzum3 1Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes, statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways, and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. Keywords: cholesterol, myopathy, lipids, muscle toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics

  1. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  2. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  3. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  4. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  5. Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I, sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  6. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    -related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily......Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment...... identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects. The...

  8. Building the process-drug–side effect network to discover the relationship between biological Processes and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Min

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Side effects are unwanted responses to drug treatment and are important resources for human phenotype information. The recent development of a database on side effects, the side effect resource (SIDER, is a first step in documenting the relationship between drugs and their side effects. It is, however, insufficient to simply find the association of drugs with biological processes; that relationship is crucial because drugs that influence biological processes can have an impact on phenotype. Therefore, knowing which processes respond to drugs that influence the phenotype will enable more effective and systematic study of the effect of drugs on phenotype. To the best of our knowledge, the relationship between biological processes and side effects of drugs has not yet been systematically researched. Methods We propose 3 steps for systematically searching relationships between drugs and biological processes: enrichment scores (ES calculations, t-score calculation, and threshold-based filtering. Subsequently, the side effect-related biological processes are found by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. Evaluation is conducted in 2 ways: first, by discerning the number of biological processes discovered by our method that co-occur with Gene Ontology (GO terms in relation to effects extracted from PubMed records using a text-mining technique and second, determining whether there is improvement in performance by limiting response processes by drugs sharing the same side effect to frequent ones alone. Results The multi-level network (the process-drug-side effect network was built by merging the drug-biological process network and the drug-side effect network. We generated a network of 74 drugs-168 side effects-2209 biological process relation resources. The preliminary results showed that the process-drug-side effect network was able to find meaningful relationships between biological processes

  9. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  10. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  11. Adverse effects associated with arginine alpha-ketoglutarate containing supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, J M; Majlesi, N; Chan, G M; Olsen, D; Hoffman, R S; Nelson, L S

    2009-05-01

    The athletic performance supplement industry is a multibillion-dollar business and one popular category claims to increase nitric oxide (NO) production. We report three patients presenting to the emergency department with adverse effects. A 33-year-old man presented with palpitations, dizziness, vomiting, and syncope, after the use of NO(2) platinum. His examination and electrocardiogram (ECG) were normal. The dizziness persisted, requiring admission overnight. A 21-year-old man with palpitations and near syncope had used a "nitric oxide" supplement. He was tachycardic to 115 bpm with otherwise normal examination. Laboratory values including methemoglobin, and ECG were unremarkable. He was treated with 1 L of saline with no change in heart rate. He was admitted for observation. A 24-year-old man presented after taking NO-Xplode with palpitations and a headache. His examination, laboratory values, and ECG were normal. He was discharged. The purported active ingredient in these products is arginine alpha-ketoglutarate (AAKG), which is claimed to increase NO production by supplying the precursor L-arginine. The symptoms could be due to vasodilation from increased levels of NO, though other etiologies cannot be excluded. AAKG containing supplements may be associated with adverse effects requiring hospital admission. PMID:19755457

  12. Pharmacovigilance, risks and adverse effects of self-medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Abadie, Delphine; Lacroix, Isabelle; Berreni, Aurélia; Pugnet, Grégory; Durrieu, Geneviève; Sailler, Laurent; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, François

    2016-04-01

    Self-medication means resorting to one or more drugs in order to treat oneself without the help of a doctor. This phenomenon is developing fast. In this review, we will discuss the main definitions of self-medication; we will then present a few important characteristics of this therapeutic practice: prevalence, reasons, populations involved and drugs used. Whilst the theoretical risks of self-medication have been abundantly discussed in the literature (adverse effects, interactions, product, dosage or treatment duration errors, difficulty in self-diagnosis, risk of addiction or abuse…), there is in fact very little detailed pharmacovigilance data concerning the characteristics and the consequences of this usage in real life. This study therefore describes the all too rare data that is available: patients, clinical characteristics, "seriousness" and drugs involved in the adverse effects of self-medication. It also discusses leads to be followed in order to minimize medication risks, which are obviously not well known and clearly not sufficiently notified.

  13. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lian-Fang; Huang, Jin-Wen; Shan, Si-Yang; Ding, Jia-Hong; Lai, Jian-Bo; Xu, Yi; Hu, Shao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. PMID:27226717

  14. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab ,Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  15. Clinical outcomes and adverse effect monitoring in allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper, Elizabeth F; Ståhl, Elisabeth; Doty, Richard L; Simons, F Estelle R; Allen, David B; Howarth, Peter H

    2005-03-01

    The subjective recording in diary cards of symptoms of itch, sneeze, nose running, and blockage, with the use of a rating scale to indicate the level of severity, is usual for clinical trials in allergic rhinitis. The primary outcome measure is usually a composite score that enables a single total symptoms score endpoint. It is appreciated, however, that rhinitis has a greater effect on the individual than is reflected purely by the recording of anterior nasal symptoms. Nasal obstruction is troublesome and may lead to sleep disturbance in addition to impaired daytime concentration and daytime sleepiness. These impairments affect school and work performance. Individuals with rhinitis find it socially embarrassing to be seen sneezing, sniffing, or blowing their nose. To capture these and other aspects of the disease-specific health-related quality of life, questionnaires such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire have been developed and validated for clinical trial use. The adoption of health-related quality of life questionnaires into clinical trials broadens the information obtained regarding the effect of the therapeutic intervention and helps focus on issues relevant to the individual patient. It must be appreciated that it is not only the disease that may adversely affect health-related quality of life; administered therapy, although intended to be beneficial, may also cause health impairment. Adverse-event monitoring is thus essential in clinical trials. The first-generation H 1 -histamines, because of their effect on central H 1 -receptors, are classically associated with central nervous system (CNS) effects such as sedation. Although this is not always perceived by the patient, it is clearly evident with objective performance testing, and positron emission tomography scanning has directly demonstrated the central H 1 -receptor occupancy. The second-generation H 1 -antihistamines have reduced central H 1 -receptor occupancy and considerably

  16. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  17. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  18. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex. PMID:26986231

  19. Methylmercury exposure and adverse cardiovascular effects in Faroese whalingmen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. OBJECTIVE: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30-70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from...... consumption of pilot whale meat. METHODS: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 years previously. Outcome measures included heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), common carotid...... intima-media thickness (IMT), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). We carried out multiple regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses to determine the confounder-adjusted effect of mercury exposure. Taking into account correlations among related measures, we categorized exposure...

  20. ADVERSE EFFECT PROFILE OF TENOFOVIR DISOPROXIL FUMARATE IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS - A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andis C

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, a disease of the human immune system caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a major health problem in many parts of the world. The prognosis was dramatically altered with the introduction of antiretroviral drugs in 1987 and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART in 1996. Despite the absence of a cure, the natural history of the disease was radically changed since then. This study aimed at documenting and analysing the adverse effect profile of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-based Antiretroviral Therapy (ART in HIV positive patients attending Antiretroviral Therapy Centre, Government Medical College, Thrissur. METHODOLOGY HIV positive patients on Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate-based antiretroviral treatment attending Antiretroviral Therapy Centre, Government Medical College, Thrissur, were enrolled in the prospective cohort study conducted over 18 months from Jan 2013- June 2014. The patients were followed up for 12 months pattern of adverse drug reactions. RESULTS A total of 178 Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs were identified, out of which 86 (48.31% were in male and 92 (51.68% were in female patients. Out of 178 suspected ADRs, 172 (96.6% ADRs were reported from outpatient departments. Six patients (3.3% required hospital admission. The most commonly identified adverse drug reactions were nausea and vomiting in 54 (30.3% patients, headache and fatigue in 30 (16.85%, heartburn and diarrhoea in 17 (9.5% cases, lab abnormalities like dyslipidaemia in 12 (6.74%, hyperphosphatemia in 10 (5.6%, hypocalcemia in 5 (2.85% patients. Out of 178 ADRs, 4 (2.2% were of acute renal failure seen. One among the four died even after discontinuation of the drug, 2 were changed to non-Tenofovir based regimen who improved later within 2 months. CONCLUSION In this study of Tenofovir based regimen, the side effects which necessitated regimen change were very few. Majority of the side effects were GI related

  1. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  2. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T.; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W. A.; Rossi, C.; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U. F.

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicu...

  3. Side effects of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C currently represents a global health problem, which is expected to be reduced by pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy. Material and Methods. We examined 88 patients with chronic hepatitis C, divided into three groups according to their comorbidity: the patients without comorbidity were in group I, group II included the patients on dialysis, and group III included the patients with hemophilia. Results. A significant difference was found in the percentage of achieved sustained virological response between the patients on dialysis and other patients, p<0.05. Having analyzed the therapy adverse effects, we observed a significantly higher decrease of erythrocytes count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in dialysis patients compared to others (p<0.01. The patients on hemodialysis predominantly had anemia and leukopenia, while thrombocytopenia was equally present in all groups. The dominant clinical side effect was flu-like syndrome, present in more than a half of patients. Discussion. The therapy positive effect is usually accompanied with adverse effects. The lowest therapeutic response was recorded in group II, due to the virus genotype 1. A significant decrease in hematological parameters was determined in all patients. The most common clinical adverse effect was flu-like syndrome, later manifestations included: weight loss, alopecia, insomnia and irritability. Side effects like psychosis, thyroid gland dysfunction or psoriasis were not recorded. Conclusion. A significant decrease in the value of all these hematological parameters was found in all groups of patients. Clinical side effects were present in 60% of patients. Side effects did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, but only to modification of drug doses.

  4. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica;

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations.......Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that...... cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...

  5. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  6. Adverse effects of sucrose-rich diets on uraemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouari, D; Kleinknecht, C; Burtin, M; Hinglais, N; Lacour, B; Landais, P; Broyer, M

    1990-01-01

    The nature of carbohydrate may affect the tolerance and progression of uraemia. The effects of three diets differing only in their carbohydrate source: namely corn starch (C), glucose (G) or sucrose (S) were examined. Study 1 examined the effects of the three carbohydrate diets on unilaterally nephrectomised control rats and severely uraemic rats. The three carbohydrates produced similar nutritional effects in uninephrectomised rats, whereas sucrose rapidly induced anorexia, stunting and slightly accelerated renal damage in uraemia. Study 2 examined the long-term effects of the three carbohydrates in moderate uraemia under conditions of high and identical carbohydrate intakes. Hyperphagic Zucker uraemic rats (F rats) received a daily allotment of each diet plus pure carbohydrate. Lean uraemic rats (L rats) received the same dietary allotment without the carbohydrate supplement. The F rats fed sucrose showed greater morbidity and mortality but little renal deterioration. Their plasma triglycerides increased dramatically. The L rats fed sucrose had the greatest urinary protein, the least creatinine clearance and the most severe renal damage. Thus, sucrose-rich but not glucose-rich diets have two adverse effects in uraemia: a deterioration in nutritional status, perhaps related to abnormal fructose utilisation, and a long-term effect on the kidney, resulting in accelerated renal deterioration.

  7. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  8. Understanding Side Effects of Drug Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vomiting that may be effective for some patients. Therapeutic massage may be effective in reducing cancer treatment- ... Neutrophils and monocytes are the two main microbe-eating and infection-fighting ... describing disorders of platelets, such as thrombocytopenia (too few) or ...

  9. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma. PMID:23499979

  10. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  11. The Side Effects of Insecticide Efficient Biocidals to Beneficial Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...

  12. Adverse effects of thalidomide administration in patients with neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Vagelis

    2004-10-01

    Thalidomide, a glutamic acid derivative, was withdrawn from clinical use in 1962 due to its severe teratogenic effects. Its recent reinstitution in clinical practice was related to its benefits in leprosy and multiple myeloma. Moreover, the antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory properties of thalidomide have led to its evaluation in several malignant diseases, including myelofibrosis, renal cell cancer, prostate cancer, and Kaposi sarcoma. However, thalidomide use is associated with several side effects: somnolence and constipation are the most common, while deep vein thrombosis and peripheral neuropathy are the most serious. A combination of thalidomide with steroids or chemotherapy is being evaluated in several phase 2 studies. While it is not yet clear whether these combinations will enhance efficacy, they appear to increase the toxicity of thalidomide, and thalidomide analogs are being developed to minimize this toxicity. Ongoing studies will clarify the potential advantages of these agents in the treatment of neoplastic diseases.

  13. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  14. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  15. HYPERPROLACTINAEMIA – A RISPERIDONE SIDE-EFFECT

    OpenAIRE

    Grahovac, Tanja; Ružić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Pavešić-Radonja, Aristea; Dadić-Hero, Eizabeta

    2010-01-01

    A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently – risperid...

  16. Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159602.html Arthritis Possible Side Effect of Certain Cancer Drugs: Study ... increase risk for joint and tissue disease, including arthritis, new research suggests. "We keep having referrals coming ...

  17. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  18. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  19. Parenteral Lipid Tolerance and Adverse Effects: Fat Chance for Trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanten, Geert J A

    2015-09-01

    Lipid emulsions (LEs) are indispensable sources of fuel calories and (essential) fatty acids (FAs) in modern parenteral nutrition formulations. The use of LE, however, also remains associated with the development of adverse effects. Intolerance for LE mostly becomes apparent upon the development of patient complaints or disturbed blood function tests, mainly of the liver. These issues may be associated with the composition, stability, or the infusion rate of the emulsion. Also, altered balances of (anti)oxidants or the presence or absence of protective or toxic bioactive agents such as phytosterols and tocopherol in LE may lead to complications, especially in already vulnerable patients with an inflammatory condition. While the oldest available LEs are based on pure soybean oil (SO-LE), rich in the proinflammatory ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid, more recent next-generation LEs where alternative FA sources such as olive and fish oil (partially) replace soybean oil to lower the content of linoleic acid seem safe and effective. Especially LEs containing fish oil (FO-LE) have less proinflammatory characteristics that promise to convey beneficial effects on immune system and organ functions, although much of the available evidence awaits more robust clinical validation. PMID:26177663

  20. Core Concepts Involving Adverse Psychotropic Drug Effects: Assessment, Implications, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joseph F; Ernst, Carrie L

    2016-09-01

    Adverse effects from psychiatric drugs can profoundly influence treatment adherence and outcomes. Good care involves addressing adverse effects no differently than any other component of treatment. Knowledge about adverse effect assessment and management fosters a proper context that helps clinicians not sacrifice a drug's potential therapeutic benefits because of greater concerns about its tolerability. This article provides an overview of basic concepts related to the assessment and management of suspected adverse effects from psychotropic drugs. Key points are discussed regarding clinical, pharmacogenetic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic risk factors for treatment-emergent adverse effects, alongside recommendations for their systematic assessment. PMID:27514295

  1. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis: An unusual side effect of meropenem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalel Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A male patient was hospitalized as a case of pneumonia. He was diabetic, hypertensive and post Hepatitis "C" "H-C". He reported skin eruption following administration of meropenem. Skin biopsy revealed acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis. To elucidate this side effect, we conducted a literature search - this is the second case induced by meropenem. The diagnosis was made after excluding all other possible causes. Dermatologists and clinicians must be aware of this an unusual side effect.

  2. Side effects of anti-TNFa therapy in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Valcamonica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: To report adverse events registered in our population affected by JIA and treated with anti-TNFa blockers. Methods: Ninety-five patients were enrolled to be treated with Etanercept, median age 14 years (range 4-34; median duration of therapy 12 months (range1-40. 19 patients were als treated with MTX (median dose 12.5 mg/week. Fifty-six patients were enrolled to be treated with Infliximab associated with MTX (median dose of MTX 8.8mg/week, median age 23.2 years (range 7.8-34.9; median duration of therapy 20.1 months (range 1.4-60.4. All adverse events were divided in definitely, probably and possibly related to the biologic agent. Results: Side effects definitely related to Infliximab were the reactions to infusions and the Anti-dsDNA positivity. Side effects definitely related to Etanercept were severe headache and thrombocytopenia. Side effects probably correlated to both the biological agents were behavioural modifications and pain amplification syndrome. Probably correlated to the treatment with Etanercept was the onset of Crohn’s disease in 3 patients. Possibly correlated to the biological agents were the new onset or flare-up of Chronic Iridocyclitis and single cases of thyroideal cancer, hypoglossal nerve paralysis and a severe Cytomegalovirus pulmonary infection. No case of tuberculosis infection was registered during this study. Conclusions: Treatment with a TNFa antagonist seems to be associated with various adverse events. Some of them, like onset of Crohn’s disease, behavioural modifications are unusual and others, like pain amplification syndrome were never described before. Children and young adults affected by JIA should be monitored very carefully so as to limit as much as possible the risk of serious side effects on anti-TNFa therapy.

  3. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-05-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed) with a conventional fractionation of 2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic. PMID:22949908

  4. Neurological AdverseEffects after Radiation Therapyfor Stage II Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Ebbeskov Lauritsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT. They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed with a conventional fractionation of2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic.

  5. Adverse Effects and Safety of 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors (Finasteride, Dutasteride): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshburg, Jason M.; Kelsey, Petra A.; Therrien, Chelsea A.; Gavino, A. Carlo; Reichenberg, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride, both 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are considered first-line treatment for androgenetic hair loss in men and used increasingly in women. In each case, patients are expected to take the medications indefinitely despite the lack of research regarding long-term adverse effects. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of these medications has led the United States National Institutes of Health to add a link for post-finasteride syndrome to its Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center. Herein, the authors report the results of a literature search reviewing adverse events of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as they relate to prostate cancer, psychological effects, sexual health, and use in women. Several large studies found no increase in incidence of prostate cancer, a possible increase of high-grade cancer when detected, and no change in survival rate with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use. Currently, there is no direct link between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use and depression; however, several small studies have led to depression being listed as a side effect on the medication packaging. Sexual effects including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido and ejaculate were reported in as many as 3.4 to 15.8 percent of men. To date, there are very few studies evaluating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use in women. Risks include birth defects in male fetuses if used in pregnancy, decreased libido, headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, and isolated reports of changes in menstruation, acne, and dizziness. Overall, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were well-tolerated in both men and women, but not without risk, highlighting the importance of patient education prior to treatment. PMID:27672412

  6. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages. PMID:7448666

  7. Enzymes approved for human therapy: indications, mechanisms and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Research and drug developments fostered under orphan drug product development programs have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of rare disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of 20 different recombinant enzymes has enabled, often for the first time, effective enzyme-replacement therapy for some lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher (imiglucerase, taliglucerase, and velaglucerase), Fabry (agalsidase alfa and beta), and Pompe (alglucosidase alfa) diseases and mucopolysaccharidoses I (laronidase), II (idursulfase), IVA (elosulfase), and VI (galsulfase). Approved recombinant enzymes are also now used as therapy for myocardial infarction (alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase), cystic fibrosis (dornase alfa), chronic gout (pegloticase), tumor lysis syndrome (rasburicase), leukemia (L-asparaginase), some collagen-based disorders such as Dupuytren's contracture (collagenase), severe combined immunodeficiency disease (pegademase bovine), detoxification of methotrexate (glucarpidase), and vitreomacular adhesion (ocriplasmin). The development of these efficacious and safe enzyme-based therapies has occurred hand in hand with some remarkable advances in the preparation of the often specifically designed recombinant enzymes; the manufacturing expertise necessary for commercial production; our understanding of underlying mechanisms operative in the different diseases; and the mechanisms of action of the relevant recombinant enzymes. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety findings recorded so far on the various adverse events and problems of immunogenicity of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are presented.

  8. Evaluation of adverse effects in tamoxifen exposed healthy female dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti Guilherme AO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumors are among the most frequent neoplasms in female dogs, but the strategies employed in animal treatment are limited. In human medicine, hormone manipulation is used in cancer therapy. Tamoxifen citrate is a selective inhibitor of oestrogen receptors and exerts a potent anti-oestrogen effect on the mammary gland. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse effects when exposing healthy female dogs to tamoxifen. Methods Tamoxifen was administered for 120 days at a dose of 0.5 or 0.8 mg/kg/day to either intact or spayed female dogs. The effects were assessed through clinical examination, haematology, serum biochemistry, ophthalmology and bone marrow aspirate examination. Ovariohysterectomy was performed and the uterus examined by histopathology. Results Vulva oedema and purulent vaginal discharge developed with 10 days of tamoxifen exposure in all groups. Pyometra was diagnosed after around 90 days of exposure in intact females with frequencies increasing during the following 30 days of exposure. Up to 50% of dogs within the groups developed retinitis but none of the dogs had signs of reduced visual acuity. The prevalence of retinitis in each group was similar after 120 days of exposure. Haematological, biochemical and bone marrow changes were not observed. Due to the high risk of developing pyometra after prolonged exposure to tamoxifen, only spayed animals should be given this medication. Conclusions A dose of 0.8 mg tamoxifen/kg body weight/day is recommended when treating tamoxifen-responsive canine mammary tumors. Due to the high risk of developing pyometra, ovariohysterectomy is recommended.

  9. Ziconotide: new drug. Limited analgesic efficacy, too many adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    (1) When oral morphine does not relieve severe pain and when there is no specific treatment for the underlying cause, the first option is to try subcutaneous or intravenous administration. If this standard treatment fails or is poorly tolerated, intrathecal injection is usually preferred as the direct route to the central nervous system. However, one-quarter to one-half of patients still do not achieve adequate pain relief, and adverse effects are relatively frequent; (2) Ziconotide is not an opiate and is not related to the usual classes of drugs that interfere with nervous transmission in the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Marketing authorization has been granted for "severe, chronic pain in patients who require intrathecal analgesia". The Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) recommends continuous infusion via an intrathecal catheter connected to a pump; (3) Clinical evaluation of ziconotide does not include any trials versus morphine in patients with nociceptive pain, or any trials versus tricyclic or antiepileptic drugs in patients with neurogenic pain; (4) In a trial in 220 patients in whom systemic morphine had failed, the mean pain score on a 100-mm visual analogue scale was 69.8 mm after three weeks on ziconotide, compared to 75.8 mm with placebo. This difference, although statistically significant, is clinically irrelevant. The proportion of "responders" (reduction of at least 30% in the initial pain score) was respectively 16.1% and 12.0% (no statistically significant difference); (5) The two other placebo-controlled trials included 112 patients with pain linked to cancer or HIV infection, and 257 patients with non-cancer pain. After a titration phase lasting 5 to 6 days, a combined analysis of the two trials showed that the mean pain score was 48.8 mm with ziconotide and 68.4 mm with placebo (statistically significant difference). However, many patients did not complete the titration phase. Efficacy also appeared to differ according to the type

  10. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  11. Neuropsychologic side-effects of tacrolimus in pediatric renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Markus J; Spartà, Giuseppina; Laube, Guido F; Miozzari, Marco; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2003-04-01

    Calcineurin inhibition with tacrolimus has been used after renal transplantation (RTPL) as rescue therapy for insufficient immunological control or if cyclosporin A (CSA) toxicity occurred. Neurologic side-effects occur but are rare in children, usually presenting as tremor; however, serious complications, e.g. the posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome are also documented. Twenty children (10 girls) were switched to tacrolimus: 11 (55%) for immunological reasons (n = 9: steroid-resistant rejection; n = 2: recurrent rejections) and nine for CSA side-effects. Tacrolimus was started at a median of 8 wk (range 10 d to 8.7 yr) after RTPL and was continued for a median of 2.5 yr (range 5 wk to 4.6 yr). Renal function significantly improved over a period of 12 months following conversion to tacrolimus (glomerular filtration rate 56 +/- 19 vs. 66 +/- 16 mL/min/1.73 m2; p side-effects were neuropsychological and behavioral symptoms in three children, ranging from anorexia nervosa-like symptoms with weight loss, amenorrhea, depression and school problems to severe insomnia and to aggressive and anxious behavior in one child. Only the latter child was exposed to toxic tacrolimus blood levels. All side-effects were fully reversible after discontinuation of tacrolimus. In conclusion, tacrolimus had a beneficial effect on renal function and was well tolerated in the majority of pediatric patients. However, neuropsychologic and behavioral side-effects are important and maybe underrecognized in children. PMID:12709079

  12. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. PMID:27001402

  13. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lian-fang Wang,1 Jin-wen Huang,1 Si-yang Shan,2 Jia-hong Ding,3 Jian-bo Lai,1,2 Yi Xu,1,4 Shao-hua Hu1,4 1Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Health Disorders, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. Keywords: adolescents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sertraline, extrapyramidal symptoms

  14. [Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, C

    2007-09-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. PMID:17768601

  15. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  16. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  17. Analysis of Kirk effect of an innovated high side Side-Isolated N-LDMOS device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Ciou Jhong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ESOA of LDMOS device is very critical for power device performance. Kirk effect is the one of the major problem which leads to poor ESOA performance. The cause of the problem mainly due to the high beta value of parasitic NPN transistor in the p-body. In this study, we proposed a new 3D high side Side–Isolated N-Channel LDMOS which we have obtained not only benchmark Ron and breakdown performance, but also better ESOA without Kirk effect. We have compared the analysis of Kirk effect between the new device and the conventional N–LDMOS structure with LATID technique for the formation of the p–body of both device structures.

  18. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  19. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Gleiss, Andreas [Section of Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, Martin, E-mail: martin.zehetmayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  20. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  1. Adverse effects of 5α-reductase inhibitors: What do we know, don't know, and need to know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Bortolato, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis M; Zitzmann, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Steroids are important physiological orchestrators of endocrine as well as peripheral and central nervous system functions. One of the key processes for regulation of these molecules lies in their enzymatic processing by a family of 5α-reductase (5α-Rs) isozymes. By catalyzing a key rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, this family of enzymes exerts a crucial role not only in the physiological control but also in pathological events. Indeed, both 5α-R inhibition and supplementation of 5α-reduced metabolites are currently used or have been proposed as therapeutic strategies for a wide array of pathological conditions. In particular, the potent 5α-R inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride are used in the treatments of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), as well as in male pattern hair loss (MPHL) known as androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Recent preclinical and clinical findings indicate that 5α-R inhibitors evoke not only beneficial, but also adverse effects. Future studies should investigate the biochemical and physiological mechanisms that underlie the persistence of the adverse sexual side effects to determine why a subset of patients is afflicted with such persistence or irreversible adverse effects. Also a better focus of clinical research is urgently needed to better define those subjects who are likely to be adversely affected by such agents. Furthermore, research on the non-sexual adverse effects such as diabetes, psychosis, depression, and cognitive function are needed to better understand the broad spectrum of the effects these drugs may elicit during their use in treatment of AGA or BPH. In this review, we will summarize the state of art on this topic, overview the key unresolved questions that have emerged on the pharmacological targeting of these enzymes and their products, and highlight the need for further studies to ascertain the severity and duration of the adverse effects of 5α-R inhibitors, as well as their biological underpinnings. PMID

  2. Adverse reactions to acetylcysteine and effects of overdose.

    OpenAIRE

    Mant, T. G.; Tempowski, J H; Volans, G N; Talbot, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Since the introduction in 1979 of intravenous acetylcysteine (Parvolex) as an antidote for overdosage of paracetamol the National Poisons Information Service and the manufacturer have been notified of 38 adverse reactions that were anaphylactoid in nature and 19 accidental overdoses. The most common feature of the anaphylactoid reaction to normal dosage was rash; other features reported included angioedema, hypotension, and bronchospasm; all the patients recovered. The features associated wit...

  3. Side effects of bone-targeted therapies in advanced breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domschke, Christoph; Schuetz, Florian

    2014-10-01

    In up to 75% of cases, advanced breast cancer patients eventually develop bone metastases with often debilitating skeletal-related events (SREs). Osteoclast inhibitors are commonly used as therapeutic mainstay with clinical studies showing superiority of denosumab over bisphosphonates (e.g., zoledronate) for the prevention of SREs. The present review discusses the adverse event profile of these agents, and addresses the prevention and management of untoward side effects. Adverse events associated with osteoclast inhibitors comprise osteonecrosis of the jaw and hypocalcemia. Hypocalcemia is more common with denosumab, particularly in severe renal dysfunction. During therapy, the appropriate prevention of these adverse events includes close attention to dental health, avoidance of invasive dental procedures, supplementation with calcium and vitamin D unless patients are hypercalcemic, and regular monitoring of relevant serum values. Relating to the risk of nephrotoxicity, bisphosphonates but not denosumab have been incriminated. Therefore, serum creatinine levels should be checked prior to each dose of zoledronate, and in severe renal dysfunction (creatinine clearance < 30 ml/min) zoledronate is contraindicated anyway. Acute-phase reactions are particularly linked to bisphosphonates. Consequently, if these adverse events predominate, switching to denosumab is recommended. PMID:25759613

  4. Are hand preference and sexual orientation possible predicting factors for finasteride adverse effects in male androgenic alopecia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Paunica, Stana

    2016-07-01

    Sexual side effects of finasteride seem to be redoubtable, being encountered not only during therapy but also after treatment cessation. Consequently, any possible clinical/paraclinical elements that might predict these adverse effects would be useful in the selection of a therapeutic strategy for male androgenic alopecia. Previous published studies show that some compounds that interfere with sexual hormones can decrease sexual activation and response, according to hand preference (as reported for finasteride and tamoxifen) and according to sexual orientation (as noted for bicalutamide). Our preliminary published data and the arguments presented here suggest that these two individual parameters might be used by dermatologists in the therapeutic approach of male androgenic alopecia, so as to alert specific subsets of men, prior to treatment, of the potential increased risk for developing adverse effects to finasteride. PMID:26990657

  5. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  6. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 1/7/2016; last reviewed 1/7/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated area of ... requires immediate medical attention. Why do people with HIV develop rash? A rash is an irritated area ...

  7. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  8. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  9. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  10. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects. PMID:22129319

  11. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete;

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Several studies have reported antidepressant effects of anti-inflammatory treatment; however, the results have been conflicting and detrimental adverse effects may contraindicate the use of anti-inflammatory agents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antidepressant and possible......) and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Depression scores after treatment and adverse effects. RESULTS: Ten publications reporting on 14 trials (6262 participants) were included: 10 trials evaluated the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (n=4,258) and 4...... properties of the selective cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor celecoxib (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.49 to -0.08; I2=73%) on remission (OR, 7.89; 95% CI, 2.94 to 21.17; I2=0%) and response (OR, 6.59; 95% CI, 2.24 to 19.42; I2=0%). Among the 6 studies reporting on adverse effects, we found no evidence of an increased...

  12. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  13. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  14. Effects of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of side-by-side rising bubbles in a viscous liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadidi, Amin; Jalali-Vahid, Davood [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Effects of uniform magnetic fields on the interaction and coalescence of side-by-side rising bubbles of dielectric fluids were not studied; so in the present research, effects of different strengths of uniform magnetic field on the interaction of two bubbles rising side by side in a viscous and initially stagnant liquid are studied, numerically. For numerical modeling of the problem, a full computer code was developed to solve the governing equations which are continuity, Navier-Stokes, magnetic field and interface capturing equations which are level set and re-initialization equations. The finite volume method is used for the discretization of the hydrodynamic equations where the finite difference method is used to discretization of the magnetic field equations. The results are compared with available numerical and experimental results which show a good agreement. It is found that the uniform magnetic field can be used for contactless control of side-by-side coalescence of bubbles.

  15. Finasteride Side Effects and Post-Finasteride Syndrome in Male Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Mirela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is in present a relatively frequent prescribed drug for male androgenic alopecia. The adverse effects reported by some patients seem to be notable, consisting of various (physical, mental/ neurological, sexual, etc. manifestations which are encountered both during Finasteride administration and after treatment cessation (in the form of `post-Finasteride syndrome`. The pharmacological action and the corresponding adverse effects related to Finasteride administration were investigated and published in literature through several and successive studies. In respect to psychiatric disorders, the most notable concern is related to depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among former users of finasteride with persistent adverse effects. Regarding genito-urinary symptoms, these are usually represented by gynecomastia, decreased interest in sexual intercourse/ low level of sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. Finally, we viewed Finasteride side effects and post-Finasteride syndrome as distinct physiopathologic entities, thus requiring possible distinct therapeutic approaches. Additional studies will be necessary, in order to further investigate the cerebral neuromodulation of the two relational (cognitive and sexual functions, both of which may be interfered by administration of hormones or by the corresponding compounds such as Finasteride.

  16. Ibuprofen-Induced Hypokalemia and Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis: A Patient’s Perceptions of Over-the-Counter Medications and Their Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Salter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We highlight a case of distal renal tubular acidosis secondary to ibuprofen and codeine use. Of particular interest in this case are the patient’s perception of over-the-counter (OTC medication use, her own OTC use prior to admission, and her knowledge of adverse reactions or side effects of these medications prior to taking them.

  17. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Piasek; Agnieszka Bartoszek; Jacek Namieśnik

    2009-01-01

    Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together...

  18. A Generalist's Guide to Treating Patients With Depression With an Emphasis on Using Side Effects to Tailor Antidepressant Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a guide to the primary care physician for diagnosing and managing depression. To identify relevant articles, a PubMed search (ending date parameter, October 15, 2009) was conducted using the keywords depression, antidepressants, side effects, adverse effects, weight gain, sexual dysfunction, and sleep disturbance, and the reference lists of relevant articles were hand searched. This review explores the challenges in diagnosing depression that will and will not respond to ...

  19. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective.

  20. Differential renal adverse effects of ibuprofen and indomethacin in preterm infants: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacifici GM

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Maria Pacifici Medical School, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Section of Pharmacology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of renal adverse effects caused by ibuprofen or indomethacin in order to choose the safer drug to administer to preterm infants. Methods: The following three parameters of renal function were taken into consideration: 1 the urine output; 2 the serum creatinine concentration; and 3 the frequency of oliguria. The bibliographic search was performed using PubMed and Embase databases as search engines. Results: Urine output ranged from 3.5±1.2 to 4.0±1.4 mL/kg/h after ibuprofen treatment, and from 2.8±1.1 to 3.6±1.4 mL/kg/h after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 higher than those for indomethacin. The serum creatinine concentrations ranged from 0.98±0.24 to 1.48±0.2 mg/dL after ibuprofen treatment, and from 1.06±0.24 and 2.03±2.10 mg/dL after indomethacin treatment. The values for ibuprofen are significantly (P<0.05 lower than those for indomethacin. The frequency of oliguria ranged from 1.0% to 9.6% (ibuprofen and from 14.8% to 40.0% (indomethacin, and was significantly lower following ibuprofen than indomethacin administration. In infants with body weight lower than 1,000 g, oliguria appeared in 5% (ibuprofen and 40% (indomethacin; P=0.02. Conclusion: Indomethacin is associated with more severe renal adverse effects than ibuprofen. Ibuprofen is less nephrotoxic than indomethacin and should be used to treat patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants. Immaturity increases the frequency of adverse effects of indomethacin. Keywords: ibuprofen, indomethacin, patent-ductus-arteriosus, renal-side-effects

  1. Cutaneous Side Effects of BRAF Inhibitors in Advanced Melanoma: Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgen Gençler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma has recently been increasing. BRAF mutations have been found in 40–60% of melanomas. The increased activity of BRAF V600E leads to the activation of downstream signaling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway, which plays a key role as a regulator of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. The use of BRAF inhibitors in metastatic melanoma with BRAF mutation ensures clinical improvement of the disease. Vemurafenib and dabrafenib are two selective BRAF inhibitors approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA. Both drugs are well tolerated and successfully used in clinical practice. However, some adverse reactions have been reported in patients in the course of treatment. Cutaneous side effects are the most common adverse events among them with a broad spectrum. Both the case reports and several original clinical trials reported cutaneous reactions during the treatment with BRAF inhibitors. In this review, the common cutaneous side effects of BRAF inhibitors in the treatment of metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation were reviewed.

  2. Treatment Modifications and Treatment-Limiting Toxicities or Side Effects: Risk Factors and Temporal Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantazis, Nikos; Psichogiou, Mina; Paparizos, Vassilios; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Chini, Maria; Protopapas, Konstantinos; Sipsas, Nikolaos V; Panos, George; Chrysos, George; Sambatakou, Helen; Katsarou, Olga; Touloumi, Giota

    2015-07-01

    Combined antiretroviral treatment (cART) modifications are often required due to treatment failure or side effects. We investigate cART regimens' durability, frequency of treatment-limiting adverse events, and potential risk factors and temporal trends. Data were derived from the Athens Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (AMACS). Statistical analyses were based on survival techniques, allowing for multiple contributions per individual. Overall, 2,756 individuals, aged >15 years, initiated cART. cART regimens were grouped by their initiation date into four calendar periods (1995-1998, 1999-2002, 2003-2006, and 2007+). Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] time to first treatment modification was 2.11 (1.95-2.33) years; cumulative probabilities at 1 year were 31.6%, 29.0%, 33.1%, and 29.6% for the four periods, respectively. cART modifications were less frequent in more recent years (adjusted HR=0.96 per year; pnonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens or triple nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-based cART regimens. Treatment modifications have become less frequent in more recent years. This could be partly attributed to the lower risk for side effects of NNRTI-based cART regimens and mainly to the improved efficacy of newer drugs. However, the rate of drugs substitutions due to adverse events remains substantially high. PMID:25950848

  3. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  4. Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiff, Cara J; Cortes, Rebecca; Lengua, Lilana; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex

    2012-06-01

    Effects of Timing of Adversity on Adolescent and Young Adult Adjustment Abstract Exposure to adversity during childhood and adolescence predicts adjustment across development. Further, adolescent adjustment problems persist into young adulthood. This study examined relations of contextual adversity with concurrent adolescent adjustment and prospective mental health and health outcomes in young adulthood. A longitudinal sample (N = 808) was followed from age 10 through 27. Perceptions of neighborhood in childhood predicted depression, alcohol use disorders, and HIV risk in young adulthood. Further, the timing of adversity was important in determining the type of problem experienced in adulthood. Youth adjustment predicted adult outcomes, and in some cases, mediated the relation between adversity and outcomes. These findings support the importance of adversity in predicting adjustment and elucidate factors that affect outcomes into young adulthood. PMID:22754271

  5. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude;

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  6. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All......INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  7. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB)

  8. Psychological side effects of immune therapies: symptoms and pathomechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, David; Kovacs, Peter; Eszlari, Nora; Gonda, Xenia; Juhasz, Gabriella

    2016-08-01

    Immunotherapies revolutionised the treatment of several disorders but show specific side-effect profiles which frequently involve psychological symptoms. Long term interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) therapy can cause wide-ranging psychiatric side-effects from fatigue, insomnia, anxiety to full-blown depression. This treatment-emergent depression shares several symptoms with major depressive disorder (MDD) with a predominance of somatic/neurovegetative symptoms, and can be treated with antidepressants. However, this experience directed research to inflammatory mechanisms in MDD. MDD has been confirmed as a heterogeneous disorder with a subgroup of patients suffering from low-grade chronic inflammation and frequently resistant to traditional antidepressant treatment. Thus future research should develop strategies to identify those MDD patients who could benefit from drugs acting through inflammatory pathways. PMID:27456240

  9. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Leonid S. Khodasevich; Tat'yana V. Voskoboinikova

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be ef...

  10. [New side effects of proton pump inhibitors; time for reflection?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, N J; Numans, M E

    2016-01-01

    Large population studies published recently have revealed additional risks of chronic use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Dementia and renal failure were reported as long-term follow-up side effects of chronic use, in addition to the previously known increased risk for various infections, osteoporosis and metabolic disturbances. In the light of ongoing over-prescription of PPIs, this should lead to reconsideration of individual indications. PMID:27334088

  11. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    AKSAY, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  12. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty MD; Fraser SG; Phelan PS

    2011-01-01

    MD Doherty, SG Fraser, PS PhelanSunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UKBackground: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically t...

  13. Beta-blocker therapy: identification and management of side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, K E; Froman, D; Morrison, A S; Holmes, K D; Howes, D G

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale designed to identify and quantify the impact that the side effects of beta-blocker therapy have on people's lives, and the self-management practices people use to mediate their influence. Instruments included the 20-item beta-Blocker Visual Analog Scale and the Profile of Mood States. Subjects had hypertension; 51 men were involved in a larger study involving antihypertensive medications and exercise, and 19 men and women were receiving beta-blocker therapy as first-line drug of choice. Estimates of internal consistency reliability, content validity, and concurrent and discriminant validity were moderately strong. The most problematic side effects were related to lack of sleep, vivid or active dreams, lack of energy and pep, diminished interest in sexual activity, and changes in vision. Among self-management practices used to mediate side effects were planning rest and activity periods, thinking carefully before reacting, and seeking out others for support. PMID:1680114

  14. Genetic Predictors of Adverse Radiotherapy Effects: the Gene-PARE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Alice Y.; Atencio, David P.; Peters, Sheila;

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The development of adverse effects resulting from the radiotherapy of cancer limits the use of this treatment modality. The validation of a test capable of predicting which patients would be most likely to develop adverse responses to radiation treatment, based on the possession of speci...

  15. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  16. 40 CFR 158.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse effects to the results of the... exceeds criteria. I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 158.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Flagging of studies for...

  17. Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Roland, R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes bec

  18. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  19. Multi-omic landscape of Rheumatoid Arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo eTieri; XiaoYuan eZhou; Lisha eZhu; Christine eNardini

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events) of (novel) therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome.Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic) biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we genera...

  20. Multi-omic landscape of rheumatoid arthritis: re-evaluation of drug adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Tieri, Paolo; Zhou, Xiaoyuan; Zhu, Lisha; Nardini, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To provide a frame to estimate the systemic impact (side/adverse events) of (novel) therapeutic targets by taking into consideration drugs potential on the numerous districts involved in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the inflammatory and immune response to the gut-intestinal (GI) microbiome. Methods: We curated the collection of molecules from high-throughput screens of diverse (multi-omic) biochemical origin, experimentally associated to RA. Starting from such collection we ge...

  1. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE ADVERSE EFFECT OF WIND ON THE HEAT TRANSFER PERFORMANCE OF TWO NATURAL DRAFT COOLING TOWERS IN TANDEM ARRANGEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符松; 翟志强

    2001-01-01

    This article reports the findings on the adverse effect of the crosswind on the performance of natural draft cooling towers through numerical computation with the k-ε eddy-viscosity turbulence model. It is observed here that the cause of the adverse effect of the crosswind on the cooling towers can be attributed to the around flow effect which destroys the radial inflow into the cooling towers when the wind is absent. Hence, a significant deterioration in the heat transfer from the heat exchangers at lateral sides occurs.

  2. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brinks Aaltien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue corticosteroid injection. Methods A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case reports were included, as were prospective and retrospective studies that reported adverse events of corticosteroid injection. All clinical trials which used extra-articular corticosteroid injections were examined. We divided the reported adverse events into major (defined as those needing intervention or not disappearing and minor ones (transient, not requiring intervention. Results The search yielded 87 relevant studies:44 case reports, 37 prospective studies and 6 retrospective studies. The major adverse events included osteomyelitis and protothecosis; one fatal necrotizing fasciitis; cellulitis and ecchymosis; tendon ruptures; atrophy of the plantar fat was described after injecting a neuroma; and local skin effects appeared as atrophy, hypopigmentation or as skin defect. The minor adverse events effects ranged from skin rash to flushing and disturbed menstrual pattern. Increased pain or steroid flare after injection was reported in 19 studies. After extra-articular injection, the incidence of major adverse events ranged from 0-5.8% and that of minor adverse events from 0-81%. It was not feasible to pool the risk for adverse effects due to heterogeneity of study populations and difference in interventions and variance in reporting. Conclusion In this literature review it was difficult to accurately quantify the incidence of adverse effects after extra-articular corticosteroid injection. The reported adverse events were relatively mild, although one fatal reaction was reported.

  3. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  4. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  5. Side Effects Exhibited by Athletes Using Anabolic Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid S. Khodasevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the general problems of the use of anabolic steroids by athletes. The main reason they are banned in sports is because they artificially increase human performance by stimulating various metabolisms, as well as stimulating the constructive and energetic metabolism processes. The prohibited anabolic steroids are not only harmful to the athletes’ health but they also pose a very real threat to their life. Information regarding the side effects of anabolic steroids can be effectively used while working with athletes, their parents, the coaching staff and sports doctors to keep athletes healthy and to promote the goal of “winning without doping”.

  6. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  7. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Meriggi Fausto; Rota Luigina; Braun Claudia; Mosconi Paola; Rizzi Anna; Andreis Federica; Mazzocchi Maria; Zaniboni Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin si...

  8. Multidisciplinary approach to identification and remedial intervention for adverse late effects of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of advances in surgical technique, radiation therapy, and combined chemotherapy regimens, there has been a dramatic improvement in the survival of children with pediatric malignancies. All treatment modalities are associated with adverse effects that may be manifested months to years after therapy. This article has provided an overview of the physiologic and psychologic adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy and described the multidisciplinary approach used by one institution to identify and initiate appropriate remedial intervention. Nurses can learn to assist in the identification of adverse late effects, provide support to the family, and facilitate appropriate intervention

  9. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  10. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  11. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system (CNS) often accelerate the opioid’s adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects. PMID:24829664

  12. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  13. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.;

    2015-01-01

    deep-sea trades. Even though the amounts of SOx produced by ships are substantially lower than CO2, SOx emissions are highly undesirable as they cause acid rain and undesirable health effects in humans and animals. To mitigate these adverse environmental effects, the international shipping community...... has taken substantial policy measures. With the introduction of new limits for the content of sulphur in marine fuels in Northern European and North American sea areas, short-sea companies operating in these areas will face substantial additional cost. As of 1/1/2015, international regulations...... stipulate, among other things, a 0.1%limit in the sulphur content of marine fuels, or equivalent measures limiting the percent of SOx emissions to the same amount. As low-sulphur fuel is substantially more expensive than HFO, there is little or no room within these companies current margins to absorb...

  14. Side Effects Related to 5 α-Reductase Inhibitor Treatment of Hair Loss in Women: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Lauren R; Eglini, Ariana N; McMichael, Amy J

    2016-04-01

    5 α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride have been studied for the treatment of hair loss in men, with finasteride being the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment. Increasingly, in recent years, off-label use of these drugs has been employed in the treatment of female pattern hair loss (FPHL) and frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) in women. Side effects with 5 α-reductase inhibitors can include changes in sexual function, and recent publications have characterized an increasing prevalence of these in men. A review of 20 peer-reviewed articles found that very few side effects, or adverse events, related to sexual function have been reported in studies in which dutasteride or finasteride has been used to treat hair loss in women. Future publications should investigate not only the efficacy of these drugs in treating FPHL and FFA, but the side effect profile in patients as well. PMID:27050696

  15. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  16. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park

    2013-12-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  17. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Kurubaran Ganasegeran; Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi Al-Shagga; Hematram Yadav; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  18. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making. PMID:27354959

  19. [THE ADVERSE EFFECTS OF SMOKING ON THE HANDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyfuss, Daniel; Calif, Edward; Stahl, Shalom

    2015-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a multitude of harmful effects throughout the body. There are only a few accounts in the literature of these effects as related to the hands. This is a review of the literature, demonstrating the collected knowledge of decreased hand vascularity due to tobacco use and assessing the evidence connecting smoking and supposed resultant maladies, including Raynaud's phenomenon, hand-arm vibration syndrome, Buerger's disease, Dupuytren's contracture, carpal tunnel syndrome, effects on skin and fingernails, decreased skin and bone healing, complications of digit replantation and complex regional pain syndrome. Also presented is the possible increased risk of congenital hand malformations as related to maternal smoking. PMID:26168646

  20. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza

    2012-01-01

    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  1. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  2. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  3. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  4. The problems of anticholinergic adverse effects in older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, M

    1993-01-01

    The old saying 'red as a beet, dry as a bone, blind as a bat, hot as a hare, mad as a hatter' is often quoted when describing the autonomic effects of drugs that block the muscarinic cholinergic system. These effects may be subtle or dramatic, yet can be overlooked or discounted as a natural consequence of old age. Elderly patients can be particularly sensitive to the anticholinergic action of drugs because of physiological and pathophysiological changes that often accompany the aging process. The use of multiple drugs, a common finding in older patients, may result in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic drug interactions that heighten anticholinergic effects. While the classic anticholinergic problems of decreased secretions, slowed gastrointestinal motility, blurred vision, increased heart rate, heat intolerance, sedation and possibly mild confusion, may be uncomfortable for a younger patient in relatively good health, these effects can be disastrous for older patients. Even the most common peripheral anticholinergic complaint of dry mouth can reduce the ability to communicate, predispose to malnutrition, promote mucosal damage, denture misfit or dental caries, and increase the risk of serious respiratory infection secondary to loss of antimicrobial activity of saliva. Mydriasis and the inability to accommodate will impair near vision and may precipitate narrow angle glaucoma in predisposed patients, but less obviously could lead to an increased risk of accidents, including falls. Somatic complaints of constipation and urinary hesitancy, could, in the presence of anticholinergic challenge, result in faecal impaction or urinary retention. Cardiac effects may be poorly tolerated. Increases in heart rate may precipitate or worsen angina. Finally, thermoregulatory impairment induced by anticholinergics, which block the ability to sweat, may lead to life threatening hyperthermia. Central anticholinergic effects range from sedation, mild confusion and inability to

  5. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  6. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  7. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. Mulder; E.C. van Dalen; M. van den Hof; D. Bresters; B.G.P. Koot; S.M. Castellino; Y. Loke; E. Leclercq; P.N. Post; H.N. Caron; A. Postma; L.C.M. Kremer

    2011-01-01

    Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood cancer. Howev

  8. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Omolara Ojo

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is used as an antibiotic in animal husbandry. Its implication in cancer therapy has recently been proposed. Present study evaluated the toxic effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice. Doses of 1, 3 or 5 mg/kg of Salinomycin were administered daily for 28 days. Half of the mice were sacrificed after 24 h of the last treatment and other half were sacrificed 28 days after withdrawal of treatment. Effects of SAL on body and reproductive organ weights were studied. Histoarchitecture of testis and epididymis was evaluated along with ultrastructural changes in Leydig cells. Serum and testicular testosterone and luteinizing hormones were estimated. Superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, catalase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were measured. Spermatozoa count, morphology, motility and fertility were evaluated. Expression patterns of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage proteins (CYP11A1 were assessed by Western blotting. Salinomycin treatment was lethal to few mice and retarded body growth in others with decreased weight of testes and seminal vesicles in a dose dependent manner. Seminiferous tubules in testes were disrupted and the epithelium of epididymis showed frequent occurrence of vacuolization and necrosis. Leydig cells showed hypertrophied cytoplasm with shrunken nuclei, condensed mitochondria, proliferated endoplasmic reticulum and increased number of lipid droplets. Salinomycin decreased motility and spermatozoa count with increased number of abnormal spermatozoa leading to infertility. The testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels were decreased in testis but increased in serum at higher doses. Depletion of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione with increased lipid peroxidation in both testis and epididymis indicated generation of oxidative stress. Suppressed expression of StAR and CYP11A1 proteins indicates inhibition of

  9. Adverse effects of poor micronutrient status during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Umesh; Bhavna, A

    2002-05-01

    Despite India's substantial progress in human development since its independence in 1947, 5-7% of its children have vitamin A deficiency disorders in selected geographic areas, 53% have iron deficiency anemia, and 9% have goiter. Three micronutrients--vitamin A, iron, and iodine--are among the most important of all the nutrients needed by the body because they are vital for developing normal learning and cognitive functions, immunity, work capacity, and reproductive health. The body cannot synthesize them, so they must be made available through the diet. Deficiencies of these three micronutrients are known to have devastating effects on health. PMID:12035866

  10. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doherty MD

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available MD Doherty, SG Fraser, PS PhelanSunderland Eye Infirmary, Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, UKBackground: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation.Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically to effects on daily life, blurring of vision, stinging, irritation, and acceptability compared with any drops previously used. Respondents were asked to grade their answers to these questions using a numerical scale from 0 to 10.Results: Seventy-six patients (100% responded, comprising 58 females and 18 males, aged 68–95 years, treated for 3–7 months. Quality of life was not significantly affected, with the majority of patients recording a response between 0 and 2. Visual blurring was a more prominent feature, with the most common scores being 3 and 4. Stinging did not appear to be a prominent feature, with 0 as the most common response. Similarly, irritation was not a common finding, with most respondents scoring 0 and 1. Finally, the brinzolamide-timolol suspension compared favorably with previously used drops, with the vast majority of patients expressing a preference for this suspension over other topical medications.Conclusion: Brinzolamide-timolol suspension appears to be a well tolerated and acceptable medication, with minimal effect on patient quality of life.Keywords: intraocular pressure, glaucoma, quality of life, side effects

  11. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  12. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  13. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  14. Adversity, cannabis use and psychotic experiences: evidence of cumulative and synergistic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Reichenberg, Abraham; Frissa, Souci; ,; Hotopf, Matthew; Hatch, Stephani L

    2014-01-01

    Background There is robust evidence that childhood adversity is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. There is, however, little research on intervening factors that might increase or decrease risk following childhood adversity. Aims To investigate main effects of, and synergy between, childhood abuse and life events and cannabis use on odds of psychotic experiences. Method Data on psychotic experiences and childhood abuse, life events and cannabis use were collected from 1680 indivi...

  15. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  16. Adverse effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpho Bosupeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the effects of the automotive industry on carbon dioxide emissions for the period from 1997 to 2010 for diverse economies, as well as the relationships between carbon dioxide discharges and output. The study applies cointegration and causality tests to validate these associations. The results of the Johansen cointegration test depict long-run associations between the quantity of passenger cars and carbon dioxide emissions in France, Sweden, Spain, Hungary and Japan. In addition, significant relations were observed between output and carbon dioxide discharges in Spain, Canada, India and Japan. Changes in output had substantial impact on emissions in Germany, Canada and India. The results also show that the number of passenger cars influences the magnitude of emissions in multiple economies. In conclusion, the automotive industry has to be considered in policies that aim to reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  17. Adversity in preschool-aged children: Effects on salivary interleukin-1β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R; Parade, Stephanie H; Valentine, Thomas R; Eslinger, Nicole M; Seifer, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to early life adversity is linked to impaired affective, cognitive, and behavioral functioning and increases risk for various psychiatric and medical conditions. Stress-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines may be a biological mechanism of these effects. Few studies have examined cytokine levels in children experiencing early life adversity, and very little research has investigated cytokines or other markers of inflammation in saliva. In the present study, we examined salivary interleukin (IL)-1β and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in relation to stress exposure in 40 children aged 3 to 5 years who were enrolled in a larger study of early life adversity. Childhood maltreatment status was assessed via review of child welfare records. Contextual stress exposure, traumatic life event history, and symptoms of psychopathology were assessed via caregiver interviews at a home visit. In a subsequent visit, salivary IL-1β and CRP were obtained before and after participation in four emotion-eliciting tasks. The number of past-month contextual stressors, lifetime contextual stressors, and traumatic life events each demonstrated a significant main effect on IL-1β. Baseline IL-1β was positively associated with each of the significant main-effect adversities. Postchallenge IL-1β displayed positive associations with each adversity variable, but these were not significant. CRP was not significantly associated with any of the adversity variables. Given the evidence suggesting the involvement of IL-1β in the neuropathology of psychiatric conditions, these results may have important implications for developmental outcomes. PMID:25997772

  18. Remembering Statins: Do Statins Have Adverse Cognitive Effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitzur, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    The issue of statin-associated cognitive impairment has been a hot topic among both patients and health care providers, especially since the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a statement regarding rare postmarketing reports of ill-defined cognitive impairment associated with statin use. This statement was based on case reports, and no objective measures of cognitive function were used. Nevertheless, many patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease have expressed concerns about possible cognitive decline and may have opted to forgo statin therapy. In this overview, the evidence leading to the statement by the FDA is reviewed. Potential mechanisms of the effect of LDL cholesterol reduction and statin therapy on cognition are discussed. Evidence from observational and prospective randomized trials is summarized, leading to the conclusion that as for now, there is no good evidence that statins cause cognitive impairment to a significant degree. Reported cases seem to be rare, and a causal relationship has not been established. PMID:27440840

  19. Adverse effects of advanced glycation end products on embryonal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu,Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, which are known to accumulate in patients with diabetes, autoimmune diseases, or those who smoke, on embryonal development. Pronuclear (PN embryos were obtained by flushing the fallopian tubes of rats after superovulation and mating. The cleavage rate and blastocyst yield were evaluated at 24, 72, 96, and 120 h of culture. Glyoxal, an AGE-forming aldehyde, suppressed embryonal development at every stage from PN to blastocyst in a concentration-dependent manner. The cleavage rate of the embryo was also signifi cantly decreased by treatment with glyoxal at concentrations of 1 mM or higher. The blastocyst yield was significantly decreased by treatment with glyoxal at concentrations of 0.5 mM or higher. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC at 1 mM significantly suppressed the glyoxal-induced embryonal toxicity. BSA-AGEs at 5 microg/ml or higher concentration signifi cantly reduced the cleavage rate and blastocyst yield compared to those for BSA-treated embryos. L-NAC at 1 mM significantly suppressed BSAAGE-induced embryonal toxicity. Because AGEs are embryo-toxic, AGE contamination may influence the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. AGEs, which are increased in women under pathological conditions, may also be involved in their infertility.

  20. Long-term antidepressant use: patient perspectives of benefits and adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Claire; Gibson, Kerry; Read, John; Cowan, Ondria; Dehar, Tamsin

    2016-01-01

    Long-term antidepressant treatment has increased and there is evidence of adverse effects; however, little is known about patients’ experiences and views of this form of treatment. This study used mixed methods to examine patients’ views and experiences of long-term antidepressant treatment, including benefits and concerns. Data from 180 patients, who were long-term users of antidepressants (3–15 years), were extracted from an anonymous online survey of patients’ experiences of antidepressants in New Zealand. Participants had completed rating scales about the effectiveness of antidepressants, levels of depression before and during antidepressant use, quality of life, and perceived adverse effects. Two open-ended questions allowed participants to comment on personal experiences. The majority (89.4%) reported that antidepressants had improved their depression although 30% reported moderate-to-severe depression on antidepressants. Common adverse effects included withdrawal effects (73.5%), sexual problems (71.8%), and weight gain (65.3%). Adverse emotional effects, such as feeling emotionally numb (64.5%) and addicted (43%), were also common. While the majority of patients were pleased with the benefits of antidepressant treatment, many were concerned about these adverse effects. Some expressed a need for more information about long-term risks and increased information and support to discontinue. PMID:27528803

  1. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    2013-01-01

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In t

  2. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  3. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  4. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  5. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  6. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Maximilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to

  7. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  8. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Paunica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression, physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency. An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent adverse affects three months or more after finasteride cessation or new adverse effects including but not limited at the skin level or oral cavity (marginal periodontium. We intend to present in this study several oral adverse effects encountered during finasteride administration, represented by mild and moderate signs which generally responded to topical procedures without to require the stop of the drug administration. New studies on large samples will further document the existing relation between the described oral adverse effects and the implied pathophysiological mechanisms. For this moment, we are taking into account as possible mechanisms- a direct action of finasteride administration, possible indirect consequences due to hormonal interferences, or coexisting factors with finasteride administration that were not detected.

  9. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  10. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  11. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; Deras, Diana C.; Reyes, Francianella

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  12. Data mining in pharmacovigilance – to reduce Adverse Drug Effects(ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miral Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry provides the medicines in different formats. It can be tablets, capsules, liquid or injectables. Every drug in any form may cause adverse effect varies from person to person. Before putting any drug in the market, the drugs are being tested for adverse effects on large scale. Pharacovigilance is a science which is purely related with discovery, understanding and anticipation of the Adverse Drug Effect (ADEs. Pharmaceutical experts and industries much rely on data mining algorithms or techniques to understand the huge data collected from healthcare professionals and patients and make the use of that data for further research and development of new drug. In this paper, author has tried to implement Bayesian Classification method of data mining to assist the research person in decision making

  13. The Role of Evidence Based Nursing in Prevention of Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pouresmail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, due to the broad spectrum of pediatric cancers are treated by the chemotherapy drugs, but these drugs have side effects and gastrointestinal toxicity is the most prevalent. One of the main roles of nurses is to better health through patient education and care for him. Evidence-based nursing is a process during which the nurse can use the available research evidence, their clinical expertise and the patient has to take appropriate decisions. This study reviews the role of evidence-based nursing in the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy in children with cancer was conducted.   Materials and Methods: Seeking information was performing through databases PubMed, SID, Since Direct, magiran, Ovid and etc. Within the years 2014-2002, the key issues in terms of evidence-based nursing, gastrointestinal side effect, chemotherapy was performed and 20 were studied English equivalents.   Results: The most common gastrointestinal side effects in children undergoing chemotherapy are oral ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia. Different strategies for prevention studies suggest that these effects need to perform their roles in teaching and nursing care. Nurses can use the results of studies such as music, ginger, semi sitting positions during chemotherapy, use of ice and etc. To prevent vomiting, the use of  Persica for oral wound healing, hygiene perform especially hand washing for preventing diarrhea. The most important roles of nursing are recommended, Education on prevention of chemotherapy complications, adverse effects of proper nutrition and etc.   Conclusion: Nurses can play an effective role in the education and care to relieve symptoms and prevent progression of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy.   Key words: Evidence-based nursing, Gastrointestinal side effects, Chemotherapy, Cancer  

  14. ANOREXIA NERVOSA AS AN ADVERSE EFFECT OF MEDICATION IN A CASE OF CHRONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A 24 year old male patient presented to our department with anorexia nervosa in a long standing case of schizophrenia on treatment with resperidone and sodium valproate . The excessive weight gain due to side effect of medications resulted in development of anorexia nervosa in the patient. RESULT & CONCLUSION: We present this interesting case for its rarity and also to demonstrate how the use of the side effect of another medication can prove beneficial for therapeutic purpose.

  15. The College Student and Marijuana: Research Findings Concerning Adverse Biological and Psychological Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholi, Armand M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    This paper focuses on current knowledge about adverse biological and psychological affects of marijuana use, with special reference to risks for college students. Short-term effects on intellectual functioning and perceptual-motor coordination and long-term effects on reproduction and motivation are highlighted. (PP)

  16. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aghamohammadi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG infusion is an effective treatment for children with humoral immunodeficiencies, already be complicated by systemic ad¬verse effects. In order to determine the adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin inpatients with antibody deficiency, 45 immunodeficientpatients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin were studied during a 36-month period at Children's Medical Center. The investigated group included 25 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 14 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and 6 patients with IgG subclass defi¬ciency. A total of fifty adverse effects occurred through 955 infusions (5.2%. The most frequent immediate adverse effects were mild (40 infusions out of 955 in 22 cases, including: chills, flushing, fever, nausea and headache. Three patients experienced mod¬erate effects (10 infusions out of 955 such as rash, severe headache, joint pain and chest tightness. None of the effects was anaphylactic type. It can be concluded that intravenous immunoglobulin is generally a well-tolerated medical agent for patients with antibody deficiency, but all patients should be monitored by a physician who is familiar with its indications, risks, adverse effects and their appropriate management.

  17. Sacroiliitis after use of oral isotretinoin - association with acne fulminans or adverse effect?*

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Ariane Silva Bastos; Alagia, Roberta Ferreira Nazareth

    2013-01-01

    Acne fulminans is a rare and severe form of acne that may evolve from acne vulgaris, especially in male adolescents, or occur as an adverse effect of oral isotretinoin. Arthritis is a serious clinical manifestation when the musculoskeletal system is compromised by AF and has been reported as a rare adverse effect of isotretinoin. Involvement of the sacroiliac joints occurs in 21% of acne fulminans cases. We present the case of a 18-year-old male patient in whom acne fulminans evolved from acn...

  18. Iohexol and iopamidol myelography in the dog: a clinical trial comparing adverse effects and myelographic quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a blind clinical trial, adverse effects after iohexol and iopamidol myelography were evaluated in 151 dogs. Eighty-one dogs were given iohexol (240 mgI/ml) and 70 dogs were given iopamidol (200 mgI/ml) by pre-determined assignment. Each dog was evaluated postmyelographically for seizures, hyperthermia, prolonged recovery from anesthesia and intensification of pre-existing neural signs. Myelographic quality was evaluated with a subjective scoring method. In comparing iohexol and iopamidol groups, there was not a statistically significant difference in the incidence of adverse effects or in myelographic quality. Iopamidol and iohexol appeared to be equally efficacious for routine canine myelography

  19. Pretreatment Predictors of Adverse Radiation Effects After Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify vascular and dosimetric predictors of symptomatic T2 signal change and adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformation, in order to define and validate preexisting risk models. Methods and Materials: A total of 125 patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVM) were treated at our institution between 2005 and 2009. Eighty-five patients have at least 12 months of clinical and radiological follow-up. Any new-onset headaches, new or worsening seizures, or neurological deficit were considered adverse events. Follow-up magnetic resonance images were assessed for new onset T2 signal change and the volume calculated. Pretreatment characteristics and dosimetric variables were analyzed to identify predictors of adverse radiation effects. Results: There were 19 children and 66 adults in the study cohort, with a mean age of 34 (range 6–74). Twenty-three (27%) patients suffered adverse radiation effects (ARE), 9 patients with permanent neurological deficit (10.6%). Of these, 5 developed fixed visual field deficits. Target volume and 12 Gy volume were the most significant predictors of adverse radiation effects on univariate analysis (p 3, above which the rate of ARE increased dramatically. Multivariate analysis target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage are the only significant predictors of ARE. The volume of T2 signal change correlates to ARE, but only target volume is predictive of a higher volume of T2 signal change. Conclusions: Target volume and the absence of prior hemorrhage is the most accurate predictor of adverse radiation effects and complications after radiosurgery for AVMs. A high percentage of permanent visual field defects in this series suggest the optic radiation is a critical radiosensitive structure.

  20. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriggi Fausto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male, with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78 were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43, followed by emotional (mean 30, and functioning (mean 26 scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales.

  1. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  2. Massive proteinuria: a possible side effect of pyrantel pamoate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrara, Pietro; Bersani, Iliana; Bottaro, Giorgia; Vitelli, Ottavio; Liberatore, Pio; Gatto, Antonio; del Bufalo, Francesca; Romano, Valerio; Stabile, Achille

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced renal injury represents a frequent clinical entity. The most common drugs associated with acute tubular necrosis are aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, radiocontrast agents, and cyclosporine, but no data exist about the potential renal toxicity due to anthelmintics administration. Anthelmintics are commonly considered quite safe agents, and side effects such as gastrointestinal, neurologic, hematologic, or hepatic injury have been only rarely described. We report a 4-year-old boy with persistent massive proteinuria without any other symptoms/signs suggesting nephrotic syndrome (NS). The only relevant anamnestic data was the administration of pyrantel pamoate due to oxyuriasis 7 days before the proteinuria development. The patient was affected by NS diagnosed 6 months before and treated with a 12-week course of corticosteroids. During follow-up, carried out at 3 and 6 months after discharge, he did not show further episodes of proteinuria, and no clinical symptoms/signs suggesting a relapse of NS were ever detected. Considering that the proteinuria observed in our patient spontaneously disappeared after 10 days without any treatment, apart from the interruption of the anthelmintic therapy, we would like to alert pediatricians about the possible occurrence of anthelmintics-related renal complications especially among predisposed patients and to perform a watchful waiting not considering the presence of even massive proteinuria as a certain sign of NS relapse. PMID:21500989

  3. Effect of dacryocystorhinostomy on systemic adverse effects of topical timolol maleate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakoli Roy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate whether transformation of the naso-lacrimal passage as happens after dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR operation has any effect on the systemic adverse effects of topically administered timolol maleate. Materials and Methods: Fifty otherwise healthy adult patients without any prior history of cardiac or pulmonary problems scheduled for elective DCR surgery received a drop of timolol maleate 0.5% on the healthy eye. This eye served as a control. Six weeks after successful DCR surgery, the operated eye received the same medication. Parameters compared included intraocular pressure (IOP, pulse rate, blood pressure and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 findings. Observations: Post DCR patients showed an increased incidence of reduced pulse rate and FEV1. Conclusion: Timolol maleate ophthalmic preparation should be used with caution in post-DCR patients.

  4. Oromandibular dystonia: A serious side effect of capecitabine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.M. van Pelt-Sprangers (Melanie J.M.); E.C.T. Geijteman (Eric); J. Alsma (Jelmer); I.A. Boere (Ingrid); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); S.C.E. Schuit (Stephanie)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Capecitabine has activity against several types of cancer. In 10-15% of patients treated with capecitabine, treatment is discontinued because of serious adverse reactions, mostly within the first weeks of treatment. Case presentation: A 56 year-old female patient presented at

  5. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  6. Adverse effects of perioperative paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O; Wetterslev, Jørn; Kontinen, V K;

    2014-01-01

    with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects......Post-operative pain affects millions of patients worldwide and the post-operative period has high rates of morbidity and mortality. Some of this morbidity may be related to analgesics. The aim of this review was to provide an update of current knowledge of adverse events (AE) associated....... Gabapentinoid treatment was associated with increased sedation, dizziness and visual disturbances, but the clinical relevance needs clarification. Importantly, data on AEs of combinations of the above analgesics are sparse and inconclusive. Despite the potential adverse events associated with the most commonly...

  7. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  8. Adverse reactions, psychological factors, and their effect on donor retention in men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuizen, I.; Atsma, F.; Dongen, A. van; Kort, W. de

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effect of a vasovagal reaction (VVR) or needle reaction (NR) on the risk of stopping as a blood donor, taking into account variables from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Is stopping risk solely related to the adverse reaction itself, or do the TPB variab

  9. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.C. Volkers (Aloysius); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case re

  10. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  11. Caregiver Acceptance of Adverse Effects and Use of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremus, Mark; Wolfson, Christina; Vandal, Alain C.; Bergman, Howard; Xie, Qihao

    2007-01-01

    Caregivers play a determining role in choosing treatments for persons with Alzheimer's disease. The objective of this study was to examine caregivers' willingness to have persons with Alzheimer's disease continue taking cholinesterase inhibitors in the event that any 1 of 11 adverse effects was to occur. Data were gathered via postal questionnaire…

  12. Adverse renal effects of hydrochlorothiazide in rats with myocardial infarction treated with an ACE inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Bart; Hamming, Inge; Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    2009-01-01

    Diuretics, when added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) treatment, can augment the response to ACE inhibitors, but may have adverse effects on renal function, which negatively affect prognosis. While in heart failure rats combined therapy initially improved cardiac functio

  13. Is enough attention being given to the adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hougardy, DMC; Peterson, GM; Bleasel, MD; Randall, CTC

    2000-01-01

    Background: Although the corticosteroids are valuable anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, they also possess many potential adverse effects, especially with continued use. In particular, long-term corticosteroid exposure carries a significant risk of osteoporosis. Aim: To review the use o

  14. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months follo

  15. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...

  16. Impact of censoring on estimates of adverse drug effects: A simulation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenwold, Rolf H.; Van Staa, Tjeerd P.; De Boer, Anthonius; Klungel, Olaf H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The results from studies on adverse drug effects in electronic health care databases may vary due to multiple reasons, one of them being differences in (left and right) censoring mechanisms between databases. Such censoring mechanisms can be features of the database and are therefore har

  17. Systematic review of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced adverse effects in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Steagall, B P; Steagall, P V M; Lascelles, B D X

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to identify, assess, and critically evaluate the quality of evidence of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced adverse effects in dogs. Original prospective studies published in peer-reviewed journals in English (1990-2012) that reported data on the safety of NSAIDs administration in dogs were searched. For each study, design type (I, II, III, or IV) and assessment of quality (+, Ø, -) were rated. For each drug, quantity and consistency rating (***, **, *) and strength of evidence (high, moderate, low, or extremely low) were identified and evaluated. The strength of evidence was defined in terms of how applicable and relevant the conclusions were to the target population. Sixty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-five (55%) research studies and 29 (45%) clinical trials were identified. A high strength of evidence existed for carprofen, firocoxib, and meloxicam; moderate for deracoxib, ketoprofen, and robenacoxib; and low for etodolac. Quality and consistency rating were as follows: carprofen (***/***), deracoxib (**/***), etodolac (*/unable to rate), firocoxib (***/**), ketoprofen (**/***), meloxicam (***/***), and robenacoxib (**/**), respectively. Adverse effects were detected in 35 studies (55%) and commonly included vomiting, diarrhea, and anorexia. Three studies (5%) reported a power analysis related to adverse effects of ≥80%. In randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded studies (n = 25, 39%), the incidence of adverse effects was not statistically different between treated and control dogs. Finally, most studies were not appropriately designed to determine the safety of NSAIDs, and involved a healthy nongeriatric population of research dogs. PMID:23782347

  18. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  19. Potassium fertilization mitigates the adverse effects of drought on selected Zea mays cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, the role of potassium (K) in mitigating the adverse effects of drought stress (DS) on 2 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, ‘Shaandan 9’ (S9; drought-tolerant) and ‘Shaandan 911’ (S911; drought-sensitive), was assessed. K application increased dry matter (DM) across all growth stage...

  20. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  1. Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports: the relationship between antidepressants and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Robert D; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K; Bhaumik, Dulal K; Brown, C Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J John

    2008-05-20

    A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Administration (FDA)'s Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) on the relationship between antidepressants and suicide. We obtain point estimates and 95 per cent confidence (posterior) intervals for the rate multiplier for each drug (e.g. antidepressants), which can be used to determine whether a particular drug has an increased risk of association with a particular AE (e.g. suicide). Confidence (posterior) intervals that do not include 1.0 provide evidence for either significant protective or harmful associations of the drug and the adverse effect. We also examine EB, parametric Bayes, and semiparametric Bayes estimators of the rate multipliers and associated confidence (posterior) intervals. Results of our analysis of the FDA AERS data revealed that newer antidepressants are associated with lower rates of suicide adverse event reports compared with older antidepressants. We recommend improvements to the existing AERS system, which are likely to improve its public health value as an early warning system. PMID:18404622

  2. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  3. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  4. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-15

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  5. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies. PMID:23574283

  6. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  7. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world.

  8. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H and N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H and N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H and N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF. (paper)

  9. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  10. Mixed-effects Poisson regression analysis of adverse event reports: The relationship between antidepressants and suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Gibbons, Robert D.; Segawa, Eisuke; Karabatsos, George; Amatya, Anup K.; Bhaumik, Dulal K.; Brown, C Hendricks; Kapur, Kush; Marcus, Sue M.; Hur, Kwan; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical methodology is developed for the analysis of spontaneous adverse event (AE) reports from post-marketing drug surveillance data. The method involves both empirical Bayes (EB) and fully Bayes estimation of rate multipliers for each drug within a class of drugs, for a particular AE, based on a mixed-effects Poisson regression model. Both parametric and semiparametric models for the random-effect distribution are examined. The method is applied to data from Food and Drug Adminis...

  11. Stem Cell Therapies for the Treatment of Radiation-Induced Normal Tissue Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benderitter, Marc; Caviggioli, Fabio; Chapel, Alain; Coppes, Robert P.; Guha, Chandan; Klinger, Marco; Malard, Olivier; Stewart, Fiona; Tamarat, Radia; Van Luijk, Peter; Limoli, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Targeted irradiation is an effective cancer therapy but damage inflicted to normal tissues surrounding the tumor may cause severe complications. While certain pharmacologic strategies can temper the adverse effects of irradiation, stem cell therapies provide unique opportunities for re

  12. Functional correlates of the therapeutic and adverse effects evoked by thalamic stimulation for essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William S.; Jo, Hang Joon; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Felmlee, Joel P.; Welker, Kirk M.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an established neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders including essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. While typically highly effective, deep brain stimulation can sometimes yield suboptimal therapeutic benefit and can cause adverse effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to detect deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity that would correlate with the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation. Ten patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the ventralis intermedius thalamic nucleus for essential tremor underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation applied at a series of stimulation localizations, followed by evaluation of deep brain stimulation-evoked therapeutic and adverse effects. Correlations between the therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (3 months postoperatively) and deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity were assessed using region of interest-based correlation analysis and dynamic causal modelling, respectively. Further, we investigated whether brain regions might exist in which activation resulting from deep brain stimulation might correlate with the presence of paraesthesias, the most common deep brain stimulation-evoked adverse effect. Thalamic deep brain stimulation resulted in activation within established nodes of the tremor circuit: sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, contralateral cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei (FDR q < 0.05). Stimulation-evoked activation in all these regions of interest, as well as activation within the supplementary motor area, brainstem, and inferior frontal gyrus, exhibited significant correlations with the long-term therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (P < 0.05), with the strongest correlation (P < 0.001) observed within the contralateral cerebellum. Dynamic causal

  13. General and specific effects of early-life psychosocial adversities on adolescent grey matter volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Walsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to childhood adversities (CA is associated with subsequent alterations in regional brain grey matter volume (GMV. Prior studies have focused mainly on severe neglect and maltreatment. The aim of this study was to determine in currently healthy adolescents if exposure to more common forms of CA results in reduced GMV. Effects on brain structure were investigated using voxel-based morphometry in a cross-sectional study of youth recruited from a population-based longitudinal cohort. 58 participants (mean age = 18.4 with (n = 27 or without (n = 31 CA exposure measured retrospectively from maternal interview were included in the study. Measures of recent negative life events (RNLE recorded at 14 and 17 years, current depressive symptoms, gender, participant/parental psychiatric history, current family functioning perception and 5-HTTLPR genotype were covariates in analyses. A multivariate analysis of adversities demonstrated a general association with a widespread distributed neural network consisting of cortical midline, lateral frontal, temporal, limbic, and cerebellar regions. Univariate analyses showed more specific associations between adversity measures and regional GMV: CA specifically demonstrated reduced vermis GMV and past psychiatric history with reduced medial temporal lobe volume. In contrast RNLE aged 14 was associated with increased lateral cerebellar and anterior cingulate GMV. We conclude that exposure to moderate levels of childhood adversities occurring during childhood and early adolescence exerts effects on the developing adolescent brain. Reducing exposure to adverse social environments during early life may optimize typical brain development and reduce subsequent mental health risks in adult life.

  14. The role of ADHD in academic adversity: disentangling ADHD effects from other personal and contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J

    2014-12-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates. Responses from 136 students with ADHD and 3,779 non-ADHD peers from 9 high schools were analyzed using logistic regression. Dependent measures included academic failure, grade repetition, school refusal, changing classes and school, school exclusion, and schoolwork noncompletion. Covariates comprised personal (e.g., sociodemographics, personality, prior achievement, specific learning disabilities, motivation) and contextual (e.g., school size, school socioeconomic status, school average achievement) factors. Findings indicated that, after accounting for personal and contextual covariates, ADHD explained significant variance in numerous adversities (schoolwork noncompletion, school suspension, school expulsion, changing schools, grade repetition). Thus, beyond the effects of numerous personal and contextual covariates, ADHD has a distinct presence in students' academic adversity. Also interesting, after accounting for other personal and contextual factors, was academic adversity with which ADHD was not associated. Findings provide direction for educational intervention targeting ADHD and associated factors found to be significant in the study. PMID:24820011

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  16. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  17. Literature systematic review on the ophthalmological side effects of interferons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.

  18. Willingness to pay to avoid metastatic breast cancer treatment side effects: results from a conjoint analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lalla, Deepa; Carlton, Rashad; Santos, Eduardo; Bramley, Thomas; D’Souza, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients are treated with a variety of regimens with differing side effects that can reduce the patients’ quality of life. This study assessed the willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid side effects related to MBC treatment using conjoint analysis. Methods An online, self-administered conjoint analysis survey of US adult female MBC patients was conducted to elicit preferences for MBC treatment side effects. Attributes included in the analysis were hair loss, ...

  19. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    OpenAIRE

    Poirier P

    2013-01-01

    Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lea...

  20. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Chand; Zubair Ahmed Memon; Abdul Qadir

    2011-01-01

    Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to d...

  1. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  2. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  3. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  4. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-09

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  5. Development of STI/AOT optimization methodology and an application to the AFWPs with adverse effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adverse effects caused by the surveillance test for the components of nuclear power plant involve plant transients, unnecessary wear, burden on licensee's time, and the radiation exposure to personnel along with the characteristics of each component. The optimization methodology of STI and AOT has been developed and applied to AFWPs of a reference plant. The approach proposed in this paper consists of the results in minimal mean unavailability of the two-out-of-four system with adverse effects are analytically calculated for the example system. The surveillance testing strategy are given by the sequential test, the staggered test and the train staggered test, which is a mixed test scheme. In the system level, the sensitivity analyses for the STI and AOT, are performed for the measure of the system unavailability of the top event in the fault tree developed for the example system. This methodology may contribute to establishing the basis for the risk-based regulations. (author)

  6. Evaluation of the adverse effects of oral firocoxib in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steagall, P V M; Mantovani, F B; Ferreira, T H; Salcedo, E S; Moutinho, F Q; Luna, S P L

    2007-06-01

    This study evaluated the adverse effects of oral firocoxib in dogs. Six dogs (20.2+/-6.3 kg) were studied. Values for complete blood count (CBC), serum urea, creatinine, alanine transaminase, alanine phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, occult blood in feces, platelet aggregation, and buccal mucosal bleeding time were measured before and 7, 14, 21, and 29 days after SID treatment with firocoxib 5.3+/-0.34 mg/kg (FG) or lactose 1 mg/kg (LG) for 28 days, in a randomized crossover study. Gastrointestinal (GI) tract endoscopy was performed before treatment began and at 29 days. Lesions were scored from grade 0 to 6. Data were analyzed using anova and paired t-tests (Pfirocoxib did not cause any adverse effects on GI, or hematological or serum biochemical variables and appears to have been well tolerated by dogs. PMID:17472653

  7. Metabolic disturbances, side effect profile and effectiveness of clozapine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS, and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13 patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward 46.2% (6/13 had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100% followed by sedation (69%. Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population.

  8. Overcoming the adverse effects of substrate on the waveguiding properties of plasmonic nanoparticle chains

    OpenAIRE

    Rasskazov,, Ilia,; Karpov,, Sergey; Panasyuk,, George,; Markel, Vadim

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We have studied numerically the propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in linear periodic chains of plasmonic nanoparticles of different shapes. The chains are deposited on top of a thick dielectric substrate. While in many commonly considered cases the substrate tends to suppress the SPP propagation, we have found that this adverse effect is practically absent in the case when the nanoparticles have the shape of oblate spheroids with sufficiently small aspec...

  9. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima Sumiko; Kisa Kengo; Terashita Takayoshi; Kawabata Hidenobu; Maezawa Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured foc...

  10. Effects of early life adverse experiences on the brain: implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Mayumi eNishi; Noriko eHorii-Hayashi; Takayo eSasagawa

    2014-01-01

    During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not ...

  11. Topiramate-induced somnambulism in a migraineur: a probable idiosyncratic adverse effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Thomas; Sarma, G R K; Nadig, Raghunandan; Varghese, Raji

    2012-04-15

    Somnambulism (sleepwalking) is a disorder of arousal that falls under "parasomnia" group and is more common in children. These phenomena occur as primary sleep events or secondary to systemic disease or can be drug induced. Medications that can cause sleepwalking include neuroleptics, hypnotics, lithium, amitriptyline, and β-blockers. This report presents an unusual adverse effect of topiramate on sleep in a patient with migraine. PMID:22505867

  12. Pseudoceramide-Containing Physiological Lipid Mixture Reduces Adverse Effects of Topical Steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Park, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jae Nam; Jeong, Se Kyoo; Ahn, Sung Ku; Lee, Seung Hun

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Various therapeutic approaches have been suggested for preventing or reducing the adverse effects of topical glucocorticoids, including skin barrier impairment. Previously, we have shown that impairment of skin barrier function by the highest potency topical glucocorticoid, clobetasol 17-propinate (CP), can be partially prevented by co-application of a physiological lipid mixture containing pseudoceramide, free fatty acids, and cholesterol (multi-lamellar emulsion [MLE]). Skin atrophi...

  13. Prostate Cancer Survivorship: Prevention and Treatment of the Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Saylor, Philip J.; Keating, Nancy Lynn; Smith, Matthew Raymond

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND More than one-third of the estimated 2 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This population of mostly older men is medically vulnerable to a variety of treatment-associated adverse effects. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) causes loss of libido, vasomotor flushing, anemia, and fatigue. More recently, ADT has been shown to accelerate bone loss, increase fat mass, increase cholesterol an...

  14. Vaginal douching (vd practice and adverse health effects of 15-49 years married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ege

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTİVE: The purpose of the study is to explore the vaginal douching practice and adverse health effects of the 15-49 age, married women in Konya. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The population of this descriptive- cross-sectional study is 15-49 age, married women who recruited in the number 15 health-center region. The sample consisted of 183 women who were selected with systematic sampling method. A questionnaire designed with researcher based on literature which was 30 questions include fertility characteristics, VD practice and adverse health effects was used to collect data. The data were collected by the researcher with home visiting between April-May 2005. Descriptive statistics and X² test were used to analysis data. RESULTS: The mean age of women in the study group is 33.5±7.86, 87. 4 % has primary school education, 68.3 % middle income, 54.6 % practice VD. The mean year of VD practice is 12.9±8.8 and 65.1 % douche at least once a week. The reasons of the women’s VD practices are religious practice (45.4 %, cleaning (41.5% and preventing pregnancy(13.1% and, 68.9 % of women don’t know harmfull efects of VD. There was no difference between history of sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency and VD in the X² test. There was a difference between contraceptive method used and VD. CONCLUSION: Sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency were not related to VD. We suggest that the women have been educated about adverse health effects of VD and analytic researches may be planned for causal relationship between adverse health effects and VD.

  15. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  16. What does culture do to our brains? The Theuth effect: cultural adversity and cultural felicity

    OpenAIRE

    Candau, Joël

    2016-01-01

    My aim in this article is to present a new field of research, namely the Developmental Valence of Cultural Matrices (DVoCM) studies. The topic is what in cultural matrices limits (cultural adversity) or extends (cultural felicity) the optimal development of human cognitive abilities – a phenomenon termed Theuth effect. Cognitive abilities are broadly defined as information processing, whatever the information processing mode: by sensation and perception (including sensorimotor aptitudes), by ...

  17. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  18. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    OpenAIRE

    Stana Paunica; Marina Giurgiu; Andrei Vasilache; Ioana Paunica; Ion Motofei; Adriana Vasilache; Horia Traian Dumitriu; Anca Silvia Dumitriu

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression), physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass) and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency). An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent ad...

  19. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIVE INCIDENCE OF ADVERSE EFFECTS LEADING TO TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION OF RECOMMENDED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Sani Ibn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the incidence of adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs within the same therapeutic class. Individual medical records were searched to identify those hypertensive patients who had been commenced on antihypertensive therapy during a 24-month period and who had subsequently for a reason(s discontinued the therapy. The results showed variation in discontinuation rates for drugs within same class, and that might be related to the relative frequency of specific adverse effects. Cough was the reason cited for discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, with linosopril appearing to be better tolerated than captopril (39% vs 48% ; peripheral oedema with calcium channel blockers, with amlodipine appearing to be better tolerated than nifedipine (29% vs 38% and bradycardia with beta adrenergic receptor blockers, with propranolol better tolerated than atenolol (0% vs 48%. Diuretics showed the lowest discontinuation rate (3.3% mainly due to hypokalemia, with thiazide better tolerated than frusemide (11% vs 43%. Prescribers should verify their use of antihypertensive drugs to ensure that they prescribe drugs with lower adverse effect rates, in order that patients with hypertension continue using the medication in the long term, thereby reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular complications associated with uncontrolled blood pressure.

  20. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  1. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

  2. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  3. Presentation and management of docetaxel-related adverse effects in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Y Ho, John R MackeyDivision of Medical Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: The taxane chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel has been utilized in the management of breast cancer in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic setting. Although well tolerated by the majority of patients, docetaxel toxicity may limit the dose which can be administered. Adverse events include infusion reactions, febrile neutropenia, fatigue, fluid retention, pneumonitis, cutaneous and nail toxicity, epiphora and lacrimal duct stenosis, gastrointestinal complications, and neuropathies. In this review, we explore these complications and how they can be effectively managed to improve patient quality of life during and following docetaxel therapy.Keywords: toxicity, chemotherapy, adverse events

  4. Parent Report of Antidepressant, Anxiolytic, and Antipsychotic Medication Use in Individuals with Williams Syndrome: Effectiveness and Adverse Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; Chowdhury, Monali; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder characterized in part by anxiety and behavioral difficulties. We examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of antidepressant, anxiolytic, and antipsychotic medications in individuals with WS. A total of 513 parents/caregivers completed a survey of psychotropic medication usage…

  5. Finasteride Side Effects and Post-Finasteride Syndrome in Male Androgenic Alopecia

    OpenAIRE

    Manea Mirela; Paunica Ioana; Puiu Gabriela Maria; Manea Costin Mihnea

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride is in present a relatively frequent prescribed drug for male androgenic alopecia. The adverse effects reported by some patients seem to be notable, consisting of various (physical, mental/ neurological, sexual, etc.) manifestations which are encountered both during Finasteride administration and after treatment cessation (in the form of `post-Finasteride syndrome`). The pharmacological action and the corresponding adverse effects related to Finasteride administration were in...

  6. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  7. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee: Recommended ("Best") Practices for Determining, Communicating, and Using Adverse Effect Data from Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Roy; Bolon, Brad; Burkhardt, John; Francke, Sabine; Greaves, Peter; Meador, Vince; Popp, James

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations (best practices) are provided by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Adversity Working Group for making consistent interpretations of test article-related effects as "adverse" and assigning a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) in nonclinical toxicity studies. Adverse is a term indicating "harm" to the test animal, while nonadverse indicates lack of harm. Adverse findings in the study reports should be defined in relation to effects on the test species used and within the context of the given study. Test article-related effects should be described on their own merits, and decisions to consider them as adverse or nonadverse should be justified. Related effects may be discussed together; in particular, markers of toxicity that are not in and of themselves adverse ideally should be discussed in conjunction with the causal toxicity to determine adversity. Adverse findings should be identified in subreports (clinical data, pathology data, etc.) if sufficient information is available, and/or in the final study report as individual or grouped findings, but study NOAELs should be established at the level of the overall study report. Interpretations such as "not biologically relevant" or "not toxicologically important" should be avoided unless defined and supported by scientific rationale. Decisions defining adverse findings and the NOAEL in final study reports should combine the expertise of all contributing scientific disciplines. Where possible, use of NOAELs in data tables should be linked to explanatory text that places them in context. Ideally, in nonclinical summary documents, NOAELs from multiple studies are considered together in defining the most important adverse responses in the most sensitive species. These responses are then considered along with an understanding of their likely mechanisms, as well as other information such as variability in species sensitivity, comparative pathology, reversibility and progression, kinetics, and

  9. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  10. Nanocarriers for optimizing the balance between interfollicular permeation and follicular uptake of topically applied clobetasol to minimize adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, C; Melero, A; Conrad, P; Vogt, T; Rigo, L; Selzer, D; Prado, W A; De Rossi, C; Garrigues, T M; Hansen, S; Guterres, S S; Pohlmann, A R; Beck, R C R; Lehr, C-M; Schaefer, U F

    2016-02-10

    The treatment of various hair disorders has become a central focus of good dermatologic patient care as it affects men and women all over the world. For many inflammatory-based scalp diseases, glucocorticoids are an essential part of treatment, even though they are known to cause systemic as well as local adverse effects when applied topically. Therefore, efficient targeting and avoidance of these side effects are of utmost importance. Optimizing the balance between drug release, interfollicular permeation, and follicular uptake may allow minimizing these adverse events and simultaneously improve drug delivery, given that one succeeds in targeting a sustained release formulation to the hair follicle. To test this hypothesis, three types of polymeric nanocarriers (nanospheres, nanocapsules, lipid-core nanocapsules) for the potent glucocorticoid clobetasol propionate (CP) were prepared. They all exhibited a sustained release of drug, as was desired. The particles were formulated as a dispersion and hydrogel and (partially) labeled with Rhodamin B for quantification purposes. Follicular uptake was investigated using the Differential Stripping method and was found highest for nanocapsules in dispersion after application of massage. Moreover, the active ingredient (CP) as well as the nanocarrier (Rhodamin B labeled polymer) recovered in the hair follicle were measured simultaneously, revealing an equivalent uptake of both. In contrast, only negligible amounts of CP could be detected in the hair follicle when applied as free drug in solution or hydrogel, regardless of any massage. Skin permeation experiments using heat-separated human epidermis mounted in Franz Diffusion cells revealed equivalent reduced transdermal permeability for all nanocarriers in comparison to application of the free drug. Combining these results, nanocapsules formulated as an aqueous dispersion and applied by massage appeare to be a good candidate to maximize follicular targeting and minimize drug

  11. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe;

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass...... existing cardiovascular disease. In this initial phase of ADT, metabolic changes are also most prominent. In addition, ADT increases the rate of bone loss and fracture risk. Currently available evidence supports the use of exercise interventions to improve physical function and mitigate ADT-induced fatigue...... mellitus and cardiovascular disease are still warranted. Furthermore, studies investigating safety and effects of physical activity in men with bone metastases are lacking....

  12. Psychiatric adverse effects induced by recombinant interferon alfa in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nešić Zorica I.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Hepatitis C virus infection is a slowly progressive chronic disease and the most common cause of chronic liver disease. Presently, interferon alfa based therapies, with or without ribavirin, are standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. The most troublesome psychiatric side effects of interferon therapy in our patients are: insomnia, irritability, anxiety, mood changes, short temper, emotional and affective lability, impaired cognitive function, apathy, loss of motivation and the most serious depression with or without suicidal ideas. Material and methods In our study we treated 82 patients chronically infected with HCV divided into 3 groups: the first group of 31 patients (20 male and 11 female received IFN-alfa in standard doses of 3 MU three times a week (t.i.w during 24 weeks; the second group of 36 patients (25 male and 11 female received IFN-alfa, 3 MU t.i.w plus ribavirin 1000-1200 mg per day during 24 weeks; the third group of 15 patients (11 male and 4 female received IFN-alfa, 3 MU t.i.w plus ribavirin 1000-1200 mg per day during 48 weeks. The follow-up period after therapy in all groups lasted 24 weeks. Results During treatment, we observed at least one psychiatric side effect in 21 (26% patients: insomnia in 11 (13%, emotional and affective lability in 9 (11%, anxiety, irritability and short temper in 8 (10%, impaired cognitive function in 7 (8% apathia and loss of motivation in 6 (7% treated patients. Depression, the most serious side effect, was established in 8 (10% patients. All of these side effects were observed during later stages of treatment (between 5th and 22nd weeks of treatment. The incidence of all psychiatric side effects was significantly higher in women than in men (p < 0,01. We observed higher prevalence of depression among patients with history of alcohol and drug abuse. Treatment was temporarily discontinued (from 2 to 4 weeks in all patients with depression, but it was not

  13. In-hospital gastric protection with proton pump inhibitors: adverse effects beyond (overutilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Montanari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have provided important benefits in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, peptic ulcer disease and in the prevention of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and aspirin-related ulcer complications. PPIs are also the most commonly used medications for stress ulcer prophylaxis, despite little evidence to support their use in non-intensive care unit. Discussion: Considering the widespread use of PPIs, these agents’ overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, there is growing evidence that PPIs use may be associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, pneumonia, hip fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency. Overall, until now, none of these adverse effects have discouraged the PPIs treatment. Recently attention has been placed on a more important potential adverse effect of PPIs, their interaction with clopidogrel to which they are associated for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Preliminary results of laboratory tests suggest that omeprazole reduces clopidogrel’s antiplatelet effect. The interaction seems to involve the competitive inhibition of the CYP2C19 isoenzyme. The effect appears to be clinically important, as some retrospective studies have shown an increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes when PPIs and clopidogrel are used concomitantly. Some studies indicate that pantoprazole and esomeprazole are not associated with impaired response to clopidogrel. However, the available data for PPIs other than omeprazole do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn about whether is a class effect. Conclusions: Specifically designed and randomized clinical studies are needed to define the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel. Moreover, alternative treatment strategies with histamine- 2 receptor antagonists that are not dependent on cytochrome p450 2C19 should be tested in future studies.

  14. Review of long-term adverse effects associated with the use of chemically-modified animal and nonanimal source hyaluronic acid dermal fillers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Paul C Edwards1, John E Fantasia21Associate Professor (Clinical, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, Pathology and Oncology, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor MI, USA; 2Chief, Division of Oral Pathology, Department of Dental Medicine, Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: Although only recently introduced, chemically-modified hyaluronic acid dermal fillers have gained widespread acceptance as “redefining” dermal fillers in the fields of dermatology and cosmetic facial surgery. Although hyaluronic acid-based dermal fillers have a low overall incidence of long term side effects, occasional adverse outcomes, ranging from chronic lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory reactions to classic foreign body-type granulomatous reactions have been documented. These long-term adverse events are reviewed.Keywords: hyaluronic acid, Restylane®, Hylaform®, injectable dermal filler, foreign body reaction, granuloma

  15. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  16. Location of injected polymethylmethacrylate microspheres influences the onset of late adverse effects: an experimental and histopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus LH

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Henrique de Jesus, Laura de Campos Hildebrand, Manoela Domingues Martins, Francinne Miranda da Rosa, Chris Krebs Danilevicz, Manoel Sant'Ana Filho Department of Oral Pathology, School of Dentistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil Abstract: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has been widely used in the correction of wrinkles because of its long-lasting cosmetic improvements. However, side effects and complications may occur, and its clinical appearance on the oral mucosa can be similar to that of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. The aim of this research was to compare the clinical and histopathologic responses to PMMA injected by two different methods. Twenty-two rats received an injection of PMMA using the tunneling technique (gold standard, with subcutaneous deposition of the filler in the face, or a variation of the technique with transcutaneous submucosal deposition of the filler in the cheek. The tissue reaction was analyzed clinically every 24 hours during the first week, then once a week for the following 3 months. Histologic evaluation was based on the local inflammatory response to the filler. No clinical changes were observed during the initial evaluation period (0–14 days. After 14 days, only the submucosal group showed extra-oral enlargement (n=4, 18.2%. Histopathologic analysis revealed nodule formation in four animals (18.2% in the submucosal group, with no nodules observed in the subcutaneous group. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that the technique used to deliver the filler may influence the risk of adverse reactions. Keywords: dermal filler, polymethylmethacrylate, adverse reactions

  17. Transplacental exposure to AZT induces adverse neurochemical and behavioral effects in a mouse model: protection by L-acetylcarnitine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rita Zuena

    Full Text Available Maternal-fetal HIV-1 transmission can be prevented by administration of AZT, alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs to pregnant HIV-1-infected women and their newborns. In spite of the benefits deriving from this life-saving prophylactic therapy, there is still considerable uncertainty on the potential long-term adverse effects of antiretroviral drugs on exposed children. Clinical and experimental studies have consistently shown the occurrence of mitochondrial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress following prenatal treatment with antiretroviral drugs, and clinical evidence suggests that the developing brain is one of the targets of the toxic action of these compounds possibly resulting in behavioral problems. We intended to verify the effects on brain and behavior of mice exposed during gestation to AZT, the backbone of antiretroviral therapy during human pregnancy. We hypothesized that glutamate, a neurotransmitter involved in excitotoxicity and behavioral plasticity, could be one of the major actors in AZT-induced neurochemical and behavioral alterations. We also assessed the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of L-acetylcarnitine, a compound that improves mitochondrial function and is successfully used to treat antiretroviral-induced polyneuropathy in HIV-1 patients. We found that transplacental exposure to AZT given per os to pregnant mice from day 10 of pregnancy to delivery impaired in the adult offspring spatial learning and memory, enhanced corticosterone release in response to acute stress, increased brain oxidative stress also at birth and markedly reduced expression of mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes and GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in the hippocampus. Notably, administration during the entire pregnancy of L-acetylcarnitine was effective in preventing/ameliorating the neurochemical, neuroendocrine and behavioral adverse effects induced by AZT in the offspring. The present preclinical findings provide a

  18. Effects of Moving Side Walls on Confined Granular Packings

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    Ram Chand

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Granular materials have numerous industrial and geophysical applications. However, many phenomenon exhibited by granular media are not yet fully explained. Nowadays simulation has emerged as an important tool to investigate the complex properties exhibited by granular media. The influence of side walls movement of a granular column is investigated by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The evolution of stress profile and deflection of vertical stresses is due to different bead sizes, coefficient of friction between grains and confining wall is investigated by using large-scale discrete element MD simulations in 3D. In such a configuration, it is found that apparent mass systemically increases with the increase in diameter of granules. As soon as the wall stops moving, the column attains equilibrium. The stress profiles are in good agreement with the Janssen form for high friction coefficient, while some deviations remain for smaller values of friction coefficient. The wall movement augments the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. The results indicate the variation in shielding of vertical stresses in granular column; it can be attributed to the fiction between the beads and the confining walls of the container.

  19. Delayed immune mediated adverse effects to hyaluronic acid fillers: report of five cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ora Bitterman-Deutsch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronic acid (HA fillers in cosmetic medicine have been considered relatively safe, though fillers used in European countries and throughout the world are not necessarily approved by the Food and Drug Administration. As their use continues to expand worldwide, physicians in a wide range of medical specialties are authorized to perform HA injections, including general medicine practitioners and even dentists. An increasing number of reports have appeared regarding side effects to these products. It is now known that reactions to Hyaluronic acid are related not only to technical faults of the injections, but also to immune responses, including delayed hypersensitivity and granulomatous reactions. Herein, we describe five cases treated by a variety of treatment modalities, all with delayed reactions to different brands of hyaluronic acid fillers. As there is currently no standardization of treatment options of adverse effects, these cases accentuate the debate regarding the approach to the individual patient and the possible need for pre-testing in patients with an atopic tendency.

  20. Side effects in Internet-based interventions for Social Anxiety Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Boettcher

    2014-03-01

    Results suggest that a small proportion of participants in Internet-based interventions experiences negative effects during treatment. Information about potential side effects should be integrated in patient education in the practice of Internet-based treatments.

  1. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  2. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  3. Diesel exhaust: current knowledge of adverse effects and underlying cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Sandro; Bisig, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2016-07-01

    Diesel engine emissions are among the most prevalent anthropogenic pollutants worldwide, and with the growing popularity of diesel-fueled engines in the private transportation sector, they are becoming increasingly widespread in densely populated urban regions. However, a large number of toxicological studies clearly show that diesel engine emissions profoundly affect human health. Thus the interest in the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying these effects is large, especially concerning the nature of the components of diesel exhaust responsible for the effects and how they could be eliminated from the exhaust. This review describes the fundamental properties of diesel exhaust as well as the human respiratory tract and concludes that adverse health effects of diesel exhaust not only emerge from its chemical composition, but also from the interplay between its physical properties, the physiological and cellular properties, and function of the human respiratory tract. Furthermore, the primary molecular and cellular mechanisms triggered by diesel exhaust exposure, as well as the fundamentals of the methods for toxicological testing of diesel exhaust toxicity, are described. The key aspects of adverse effects induced by diesel exhaust exposure described herein will be important for regulators to support or ban certain technologies or to legitimate incentives for the development of promising new technologies such as catalytic diesel particle filters. PMID:27165416

  4. Epigenetics and transcriptomics to detect adverse drug effects in model systems of human development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Nina V; Leist, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    Prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals or drugs has been associated with functional or structural deficits and the development of diseases in later life. For example, developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) is triggered by lead, and this compound may predispose to neurodegenerative diseases in later life. The molecular memory for such late consequences of early exposure is not known, but epigenetic mechanisms (modification of the chromatin structure) could take this role. Examples and underlying mechanisms have been compiled here for the field of DNT. Moreover, we addressed the question as to what readout is suitable for addressing drug memory effects. We summarize how complex developmental processes can be modelled in vitro by using the differentiation of human stem cells. Although cellular models can never replicate the final human DNT phenotype, they can model the adverse effect that a chemical has on key biological processes essential for organ formation and function. Highly information-rich transcriptomics data may inform on these changes and form the bridge from in vitro models to human prediction. We compiled data showing that transcriptome analysis can indicate toxicity patterns of drugs. A crucial question to be answered in our systems is when and how transcriptome changes indicate adversity (as opposed to transient adaptive responses), and how drug-induced changes are perpetuated over time even after washout of the drug. We present evidence for the hypothesis that changes in the histone methylation pattern could represent the persistence detector of an early insult that is transformed to an adverse effect at later time-points in life. PMID:24476462

  5. CONTRAST ADVERSE EFFECT STUDY OF ASPIRIN AND CLOPIDOGREL IN STROKE PATIENTS USING COMBINATION AND INDIVIDUAL MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Giri Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hemorrhage are the conditions which may lead to stroke. As stroke is a medical emergency, treated with medications such as aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole. In the present study the combination and individual adverse effects of aspirin and clopidogrel medication were studied. The study during was around nine months in one of the private hospital at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Adverse effects evaluation was based on WHO guide lines and Naranjo’s Algorithm. Total 69 stroke patients were taken in to studies. 46 (66.66% were males and 23 (33.33% were females. The number of ischemic stroke patients was 39(56.5% and hemorrhage stroke was 30(43.4%. Among 41 patients, 19 patients was on Aspirin (46.34%, 10 patients was on clopidogral (24.34% and 12 patients was on combinations medication (29.26%. Adverse effects reported among the antiplatelate users were 6 patients. Among these 6 patients 4 patients were observed with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI the overall percentage was 66.66% and 2 patients were observed with Vomiting, the overall percentage was 33.33%. In this study, the relative risk reduction for secondary stroke prevention was 37% with use of a combination of extended- release dipyridamole and aspirin. Importantly, the risk of major bleeding attributable to the combination therapy was no greater than that seen with aspirin alone. The benefit of clopidogrel over aspirin for the prevention of vascular events was a relative risk reduction of 8.7%.In addition, there was less major bleeding in the clopidogrel group, yielding a relative net benefit of about 10%. This study revels clopidogrel is the safe drug when compared with Aspirin and as well as combination therapy.

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis as an adverse effect of long-term methotrexate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Ksouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is one of the most commonly used medicines in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. The drug can produce steatosis and cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare and serious adverse effect. We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed autoimmune hepatitis after a long-term use of MTX for psoriatic arthritis. Hepatitis was completely resolved 4 months after stopping this drug. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of a drug-induced autoimmunity are unclear and complex. This report confirms the need to monitor liver enzymes carefully in patients using long-term treatment with MTX for psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis.

  7. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues. PMID:26691365

  8. Adverse Effects in the Pharmacologic Management of Bipolar Disorder During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Charlotte S; Freeman, Marlene P

    2016-09-01

    Management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy often involves medications with potential adverse effects, including risks to the mother and fetus. Although some specifics are known, many medications continue to have incompletely characterized reproductive safety profiles. Women with bipolar disorder who are planning pregnancy face challenging decisions about their treatment; careful risk-benefit discussions are necessary. With the goal of further informing these discussions, this article reviews the data currently available regarding medication safety in the management of bipolar disorder during pregnancy, with specific attention to lithium, valproic acid, lamotrigine, carbamazepine, and antipsychotic medications. PMID:27514299

  9. Germline glutathione S-transferase variants in breast cancer: Relation to diagnosis and cutaneous long-term adverse effects after two fractionation patterns of radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To explore whether certain glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer or the level of radiation-induced adverse effects after two fractionation patterns of adjuvant radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The prevalence of germline polymorphic variants in GSTM1, GSTP1, and GSTT1 was determined in 272 breast cancer patients and compared with that in a control group of 270 women from the general population with no known history of breast cancer. The genetic variants were determined using multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction enzyme fragment analysis. In 253 of the patients surveyed for radiotherapy-induced side effects after a median observation time of 13.7 years (range, 7-22.8 years), the genotypes were related to the long-term effects observed after two fractionation patterns (treatment A, 4.3 Gy in 10 fractions for 156 patients; and treatment B, 2.5 Gy in 20 fractions for 97; both administered within a 5-week period). Results: None of the GST polymorphisms conferred an increased risk of breast cancer, either alone or in combination. Compared with treatment B, treatment A was followed by an increased level of moderate to severe radiation-induced side effects for all the endpoints studied (i.e., degree of telangiectasia, subcutaneous fibrosis and atrophy, lung fibrosis, costal fractures, and pleural thickening; p <0.001 for all endpoints). A significant association was found between the level of pleural thickening and the GSTP1 Ile105Val variant. Conclusion: The results of this study have illustrated the impact of hypofractionation on the level of adverse effects and indicated that the specific alleles of GSTP1, M1, and T1 studied here may be significant in determining the level of adverse effects after radiotherapy

  10. A longitudinal study of the interactive effects of perinatal complications and early family adversity on cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, W R; McGee, R O; Silva, P A

    1989-06-01

    The effects of high, medium and low levels of perinatal complications and family adversity on intelligence quotient (IQ) scores were examined in a large sample of Dunedin children tested every second year in the age group 3-13 years. The aim was to test the hypothesis that favourable environmental circumstances attenuate the effects of perinatal complications on later cognitive ability. The results did not support this hypothesis but rather suggested that perinatal complications and family adversity have independent adverse effects on the development of children's cognitive ability. PMID:2764834

  11. The effect of irradiating adaxial or abaxial side on photosynthesis of rose leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paradiso, R.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In many cropping systems most of the light irradiates the adaxial side of leaves. However, in cropping systems with intra canopy lighting a reasonable fraction of light may irradiate even the abaxial side of the leaves. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiating the

  12. Prices and network effects in two-sided markets: the Belgian newspaper industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Van Cayseele; S. Vanormelingen

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the two-sided nature of the newspaper industry. We explicitly take into account cross network effects that exist between advertisers and newspaper readers. On one side, advertisers' demand for publicity space depends on the number of newspaper readers and their characteristic

  13. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper. PMID:26601963

  14. Adverse effects of topical corticosteroids in paediatric eczema: Australasian consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Emma; Rademaker, Marius; Dailey, Rebecca; Daniel, Ben S; Drummond, Catherine; Fischer, Gayle; Foster, Rachael; Grills, Claire; Halbert, Anne; Hill, Sarah; King, Emma; Leins, Elizabeth; Morgan, Vanessa; Phillips, Roderic J; Relic, John; Rodrigues, Michelle; Scardamaglia, Laura; Smith, Saxon; Su, John; Wargon, Orli; Orchard, David

    2015-11-01

    Atopic eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting about 30% of Australian and New Zealand children. Severe eczema costs over AUD 6000/year per child in direct medical, hospital and treatment costs as well as time off work for caregivers and untold distress for the family unit. In addition, it has a negative impact on a child's sleep, education, development and self-esteem. The treatment of atopic eczema is complex and multifaceted but a core component of therapy is to manage the inflammation with topical corticosteroids (TCS). Despite this, TCS are often underutilised by many parents due to corticosteroid phobia and unfounded concerns about their adverse effects. This has led to extended and unnecessary exacerbations of eczema for children. Contrary to popular perceptions, (TCS) use in paediatric eczema does not cause atrophy, hypopigmentation, hypertrichosis, osteoporosis, purpura or telangiectasia when used appropriately as per guidelines. In rare cases, prolonged and excessive use of potent TCS has contributed to striae, short-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alteration and ophthalmological disease. TCS use can also exacerbate periorificial rosacea. TCS are very effective treatments for eczema. When they are used to treat active eczema and stopped once the active inflammation has resolved, adverse effects are minimal. TCS should be the cornerstone treatment of atopic eczema in children. PMID:25752907

  15. Longitudinal in vivo tracking of adverse effects following topical steroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Andrew J; Arp, Zane; Zhao, Youbo; Li, Joanne; Chaney, Eric J; Marjanovic, Marina; Hughes-Earle, Angela; Boppart, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Topical steroids are known for their anti-inflammatory properties and are commonly prescribed to treat many adverse skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. While these treatments are known to be effective, adverse effects including skin atrophy are common. In this study, the progression of these effects is investigated in an in vivo mouse model using multimodal optical microscopy. Utilizing a system capable of performing two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEF) of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) to visualize the epidermal cell layers and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to identify collagen in the dermis, these processes can be studied at the cellular level. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is also utilized to image intracellular NADH levels to obtain molecular information regarding metabolic activity following steroid treatment. In this study, fluticasone propionate (FP)-treated, mometasone furoate (MF)-treated and untreated animals were imaged longitudinally using a custom-built multimodal optical microscope. Prolonged steroid treatment over the course of 21 days is shown to result in a significant increase in mean fluorescence lifetime of NADH, suggesting a faster rate of maturation of epidermal keratinocytes. Alterations to collagen organization and the structural microenvironment are also observed. These results give insight into the structural and biochemical processes of skin atrophy associated with prolonged steroid treatment. PMID:26739196

  16. ADVERSE EFFECT VERSUS QUALITY CONTROL OF THE FUENZALIDA-PALACIOS ANTIRABIES VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOGUEIRA Yeda L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the components of the Fuenzalida-Palacios antirabies vaccine, which is till used in most developing countries in human immunization for treatment and prophylaxis. This vaccine is prepared from newborn mouse brains at 1% concentration. Even though the vaccine is considered to have a low myelin content, it is not fully free of myelin or of other undesirable components that might trigger adverse effects after vaccination. The most severe effect is a post-vaccination neuroparalytic accident associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how the vaccines produced and distributed by different laboratories show different component patterns with different degrees of impurity and with varying protein concentrations, indicating that production processes can vary from one laboratory to another. These differences, which could be resolved using a better quality control process, may affect and impair immunization, with consequent risks and adverse effects after vaccination. We used crossed immunoelectrophoresis to evaluate and demonstrate the possibility of quality control in vaccine production, reducing the risk factors possibly involved in these immunizing products.

  17. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  18. Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaugai, Sandip; Sherpa, Lhamo Yanchang; Sepehry, Amir A.; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrillation significantly increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects. Application of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers for prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse clinical outcomes in subjects with atrial fibrillation is a theoretically appealing concept. However, results of clinical trials evaluating the effect of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation remain inconclusive. A pooled study of 6 randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on subjects with atrial fibrillation was performed. A total of 6 randomized controlled trials enrolled a total of 53,510 patients followed for 1 to 5 years. RAAS blockade therapy was associated with 14% reduction in the incidence of heart failure (OR: 0.86, [95%CI: 0.76– 0.97], P=0.018) and 17% reduction in the incidence of CVE (OR: 0.83, [95%CI: 0.70–0.99], P = 0.038). The corresponding decline in absolute risk against heart failure (ARR: 1.4%, [95%CI: 0.2–2.6%], P = 0.018) and CVE (ARR: 3.5%, [95%CI: 0.0–6.9%], P = 0.045) in the AF group was much higher than the non-AF group for heart failure (ARR: 0.4%, [95%CI: 0.0–0.7%], P = 0.057) and CVE (ARR: 1.6%, [95%CI: –0.1% to 3.3%], P = 0.071). No significant effect was noted on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. This study suggests that RAAS blockade offers protection against heart failure and cardiovascular events in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27368043

  19. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  20. Location of injected polymethylmethacrylate microspheres influences the onset of late adverse effects: an experimental and histopathologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus, Luciano Henrique; de Campos Hildebrand, Laura; Martins, Manoela Domingues; da Rosa, Francinne Miranda; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Sant’Ana Filho, Manoel

    2015-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has been widely used in the correction of wrinkles because of its long-lasting cosmetic improvements. However, side effects and complications may occur, and its clinical appearance on the oral mucosa can be similar to that of inflammatory or neoplastic disease. The aim of this research was to compare the clinical and histopathologic responses to PMMA injected by two different methods. Twenty-two rats received an injection of PMMA using the tunneling technique (gold standard), with subcutaneous deposition of the filler in the face, or a variation of the technique with transcutaneous submucosal deposition of the filler in the cheek. The tissue reaction was analyzed clinically every 24 hours during the first week, then once a week for the following 3 months. Histologic evaluation was based on the local inflammatory response to the filler. No clinical changes were observed during the initial evaluation period (0–14 days). After 14 days, only the submucosal group showed extra-oral enlargement (n=4, 18.2%). Histopathologic analysis revealed nodule formation in four animals (18.2%) in the submucosal group, with no nodules observed in the subcutaneous group. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that the technique used to deliver the filler may influence the risk of adverse reactions. PMID:26346665

  1. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be wi...

  2. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  3. Gratitude buffers the adverse effect of viewing the thin ideal on body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Sedlak, Brittany L; Boyd, Elizabeth A

    2014-06-01

    Gratitude has robust associations with multiple aspects of well-being. However, little research has explored whether the psychological benefits of gratitude extend to body image. We used a repeated measures experimental design to test whether a brief period of grateful reflection would buffer the adverse effect of exposure to thin-ideal media. Female undergraduates (N=67) completed three sessions one week apart. The conditions were specifically designed to isolate (a) the effects of viewing thin models on body dissatisfaction and (b) the moderating effect of grateful contemplation. Results showed that body dissatisfaction scores were lower for women who engaged in a brief period of grateful contemplation before viewing photographs of thin models than for women who reflected upon life hassles before viewing the same photographs. The magnitude of this decrease depended on BMI. Gratitude offers an innovative direction for future research directed toward helping women to accept their bodies. PMID:24958659

  4. Effects of roughness and adverse pressure gradient on the turbulence structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Adverse pressure gradient diminished the size of the hairpin packet over the smooth wall. • Adverse pressure gradient produced more intense ejection, sweep and interaction motions over smooth and rough walls. • The turbulence structure over the k-type rough wall is larger compared to the smooth wall. -- Abstract: The manuscript presents an experimental study of turbulent flows over smooth and rough walls in a channel that consists of an upstream parallel section to produce a fully developed channel flow and a diverging section to produce an adverse pressure gradient (APG) flow. The roughness element consists of two-dimensional transverse square ribs of nominal height, k = 3 mm that were spaced to produce pitch-to-height ratio of p/k = 2 and 8, corresponding to d-type and k-type rough walls. A particle image velocimetry system was used to conduct detailed velocity measurements over the smooth and rough walls in both the parallel and diverging sections. The mean defect velocity and Reynolds stresses as well as Galilean decomposition, quadrant decomposition, two-point velocity correlation and linear stochastic estimation were used to document the salient effects of APG and wall roughness on the flows. The results indicated that APG significantly augments turbulence level compared to the flows in the parallel section. The flow fields were populated with vortex cores that formed hairpin vortex packets. The packets were inclined at shallow angles relative to the wall as revealed by the two-point velocity correlation. The quadrant analysis revealed that the ejections, sweeps, and inward and outward interaction motions associated with the structures were influenced by roughness and APG. The existence of structures was further supported by linear stochastic estimates conditioned on the prograde vortices

  5. An unusual side effect of isotretinoin: retinoid dermatitis affecting external urethral meatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alli, Nuran; Yorulmaz, Ahu

    2015-01-01

    Isotretinoin (Iso) is the most effective drug against severe nodulocystic acne. As a synthetic oral retinoid, Iso exerts its actions by modulating cell growth and differentiation. Targeting all the pathophysiologic processes in acne development, Iso has been considered to be an unique drug, however it has several side effects. While chelitis, xerosis, ocular sicca, arthralgia, myalgia, headache, hyperlipidemia are the most common side effects, teratogenicity and depressive symptoms are the most concerning ones. In addition, Iso has unusual side effects which have been described for the first time in the literature. Here, we report a remarkable side effect of Iso in a 23-years-old male patient with retinoid dermatitis affecting the external uretral meatus. To our knowledge, only few cases of retinoid dermatitis in the urethral mucosa due to Iso have been reported in the literature so far. PMID:24964168

  6. Effect of Overlaid Material on Optical Transmission of Side-Polished Fiber Made by Wheel Side Polishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhe Chen; Chun-He Bai

    2008-01-01

    The performance of optical power transmission through a side-polished fiber on which materials of different refractive indices were overlaid is investigated. The experiments show that the transmitted optical power through the side-polished fiber varies with the refractive index of the overlaid material. The result of our experiments fits well the theoretical calculation.Side-polished fiber manufactured by wheel polishing method can be used not only to control optical power transmission through the fiber core but also as a refractive index sensor.

  7. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors.In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  8. Reduction of adverse effects from intravenous acetylcysteine treatment for paracetamol poisoning: a randomised controlled trial:a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, D Nicholas; Dear, James W; Thanacoody, H K Ruben; Thomas, Simon H L; Eddleston, Michael; Sandilands, Euan A; Coyle, Judy; Cooper, Jamie G.; Rodriguez, Aryelly; Butcher, Isabella; Lewis, Steff C.; Vliegenthart, A D Bastiaan; Veiraiah, Aravindan; Webb, David J.; Gray, Alasdair

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Paracetamol poisoning is common worldwide. It is treated with intravenous acetylcysteine, but the standard regimen is complex and associated with frequent adverse effects related to concentration, which can cause treatment interruption. We aimed to ascertain whether adverse effects could be reduced with either a shorter modified acetylcysteine schedule, antiemetic pretreatment, or both. METHODS: We undertook a double-blind, randomised factorial study at three UK hospitals, between...

  9. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busse, Reinhard

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97 accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors in cancer treatment. Toxic effects are also one of the factors affecting health related quality of life (HRQOL during chemotherapy. Mistletoe extracts belong to the group of so called „unconventional methods“ and are used in Germany as complementary cancer treatments. It has been postulated that the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes could help reduce chemotherapy-induced toxicity and enhance treatment tolerability. The German social health insurance covers the prescription of ML I standardized mistletoe extracts when those are prescribed as palliative cancer treatments with the aim of improving HRQOL. Research questions: * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes reduce their toxicity? * Does the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes contribute to improve quality of life? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on survival? * Has the addition of mistletoe to chemotherapeutical regimes any effects on tumor-remission? Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in following databases: The Cochrane Library, DIMDI Superbase and Dissertation Abstracts. We included systematic reviews and randomized controlled trials (RCT. Appraisal of literature was done by two authors independently. Checklists were used to guide literature appraisal. The Jadad-Score was used to score quality of RCT. Evidence was summarized in tables and in narrative form. Results and discussion: The

  10. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  11. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  12. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT. PMID:27644905

  13. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available EExposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation.

  14. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Goodson, Jamie M; Zhang, Bo; Chin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation.

  15. Exercise in the heat: strategies to minimize the adverse effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Maughan, R J

    1995-01-01

    Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.

  16. Oculocutaneous albinism in sub-Saharan Africa: adverse sun-associated health effects and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Norval, Mary; Hertle, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as 1 in 1000 in some tribes. This article considers the characteristics and prevalence of OCA in sub-Saharan African countries. Sun-induced adverse health effects in the skin and eyes of OCA individuals are reviewed. Sun exposure behavior and the use of photoprotection for the skin and eyes are discussed to highlight the major challenges experienced by these at-risk individuals and how these might be best resolved.

  17. Could cancer and infection be adverse effects ofmesenchymal stromal cell therapy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martha L Arango-Rodriguez; Fernando Ezquer; Marcelo Ezquer; Paulette Conget

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also referred toas mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are a heterogeneoussubset of stromal cells. They can be isolated from bonemarrow and many other types of tissue. MSCs arecurrently being tested for therapeutic purposes (i.e.,improving hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, managinginflammatory diseases and regenerating damagedorgans). Their tropism for tumors and inflamed sites andtheir context-dependent potential for producing trophicand immunomodulatory factors raises the question asto whether MSCs promote cancer and/or infection. Thisarticle reviews the effect of MSCs on tumor establishment,growth and metastasis and also susceptibility to infectionand its progression. Data published to date shows aparadoxical effect regarding MSCs, which seems todepend on isolation and expansion, cells source anddose and the route and timing of administration. Cancerand infection may thus be adverse or therapeutic effectsarising form MSC administration.

  18. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nein Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  19. Evaluation of a procedure to assess the adverse effects of illicit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Amsterdam, J G C; Best, W; Opperhuizen, A; de Wolff, F A

    2004-02-01

    The assessment procedure of new synthetic illicit drugs that are not documented in the UN treaty on psychotropic drugs was evaluated using a modified Electre model. Drugs were evaluated by an expert panel via the open Delphi approach, where the written score was discussed on 16 items, covering medical, health, legal, and criminalistic issues of the drugs. After this face-to-face discussion the drugs were scored again. Taking the assessment of ketamine as an example, it appeared that each expert used its own scale to score, and that policymakers do not score deviant from experts trained in the medical-biological field. Of the five drugs evaluated by the panel, p-methoxy-metamphetamine (PMMA), gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and 4-methylthio-amphetamine (MTA) were assessed as more adverse than ketamine and psilocine and psilocybine-containing mushrooms. Whereas some experts slightly adjusted during the assessment procedure their opinion on ketamine and PMMA, the opinion on mushrooms was not affected by the discussion held between the two scoring rounds. All experts rank the five drugs in a similar way on the adverse effect scale i.e., concordance scale of the Electre model, indicating unanimity in the expert panel with respect to the risk classification of these abused drugs. PMID:14746774

  20. Adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment at a tertiary care hospital in India: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta V. Vaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to antiretroviral (ARV use in public health practice are few indicating the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART safety surveillance in clinical care. Methods: 143 patients on ART were studied prospectively over a period of two years. All patients were asked to visit the clinic if they developed any symptoms or on a monthly basis. They were screened clinically and investigated suitably for any ADRs. Results: 143 HIV positive patients were analyzed. At least one ADR was seen in 87 (60.83% subjects. The most common ADR observed was peripheral neuropathy in 54 (37.76% patients, followed by lipodystrophy (13.98%, anemia (10.48% and hyperlipidemia (6.29%. Patients with peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy were mainly on stavudine based regimes, while patient with anemia and hyperlipidemia were on zidovudine based regimes. Conclusions: In spite of high ADRs, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is the only answer to HIV/AIDS. To optimize adherence and thus, efficacy of ART, clinicians must focus on preventing adverse effects whenever possible, and distinguish those that are self-limited from those that are potentially serious. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 230-232

  1. A fatal adverse effect of cefazolin administration: severe brain edema in a patient with multiple meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribuddharat S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirirat Tribuddharat,1 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee,1 Amnat Kitkhuandee,2 Sunchai Theerapongpakdee,1 Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup,1 Sarinya Chanthawong,11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment. This was followed by unexplained metabolic acidosis. The patient then developed severe brain edema 100 minutes later. The patient had facial edema when her face was exposed for the next 30 minutes. A computed tomography scan revealed global brain edema with herniation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for symptomatic treatment and died 10 days after surgery from multiorgan failure. The serum IgE level was very high (734 IU/mL. Single-dose administration of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis may lead to rare, fatal adverse reaction. The warning signs are sudden, unexplained metabolic acidosis, hypertensive crisis, tachycardia, and facial angioedema predominating with or without cutaneous symptoms like urticaria. Keywords: cefazolin, adverse effect, drug hypersensitivity, brain edema, hypertension

  2. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Lidewij T; van den Akker, Erica L T; Aarsen, Femke K; Bierings, Marc B; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J E; Sassen, Sebastiaan D T; Veening, Margreet A; Zwaan, Christian M; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M

    2016-10-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied whether we could predict the occurrence of these side effects using the very low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST) or by measuring trough levels of dexamethasone. Fifty pediatric patients (3-16 years of age) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were initially included during the maintenance phase (with dexamethasone) of the Dutch ALL treatment protocol. As a marker of glucocorticoid sensitivity, the salivary very low-dose DST was used. A post-dexamethasone cortisol level predictive values of the DST for psychosocial problems and sleeping problems were 50% and 30%, respectively. Dexamethasone levels were not associated with neurobehavioral side effects. We conclude that neither the very low-dose DST nor measuring dexamethasone trough levels can accurately predict dexamethasone-induced neurobehavioral side effects. However, patients with glucocorticoid hypersensitivity experienced significantly more symptoms associated with dexamethasone-induced depression. Future studies should elucidate further the mechanisms by which neurobehavioral side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity. PMID:27448086

  3. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families. PMID:26962239

  4. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families.

  5. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  6. Mistletoe treatments for minimising side effects of anticancer chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Reinhard; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Lange-Lindberg, Anna-Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background: More than 200,000 persons died in 2002 in Germany as a consequence of cancer diseases. Cancer (ICD-9: 140-208, ICD-10: C00-C97) accounted for 28% of all male deaths and for 22% of all female deaths. Cancer treatment consists on surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. During chemotherapy patients may experience a wide variety of toxic effects (including life-threatening toxicity) which require treatment. The type and the intensity of chemotherapy toxicity are one of the limiting factors ...

  7. Metoclopramide neurological side effects screening; a pharmacovigilence study in Romanian community pharmacies

    OpenAIRE

    Emil Ștefănescu; Mihaela Pleșu; Corina Scutari; Adrian Junghină; Horațiu Mireșan

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metoclopramide is a pharmacological agent frequently used in therapy against nausea and vomiting that can occur in indigestion, motion sickness, gastric ulcer, pyloric spasm and after surgery as a side effect of some anesthetics. Knowing the frequency and intensity of metoclopramide neurological side effects is essential for an efficient management of the dysfunctions it addresses. Material and method. Based on a standard questionnaire containing questions regarding metoclopra...

  8. Cisternography via computerised tomography: Technique and pathophysiology as causes of the side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article reports on experiences collected with intrathecal contrast amplification in computerized tomographie, using the nonionic contrast media metrizamideand iopamidol in a total of 80 examinations. The side effects are caused by the examination technique - which is discussed in detail -, the pathophysiology of CSF dynamics of the contrast media, but such side effects can be kept low if the relevant principles are observed. This makes the method both feasible and valuable. (orig./MG)

  9. ANTIPSYCHOTIC SIDE-EFFECT – POTENTIAL RISK OF PATIENTS REJECTING THEIR TREATMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dadić-Hero, Elizabeta; Ružić, Klementina; Medved, Paola; Tatalović-Vorkapić, Sanja; Graovac, Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotics side-effects pose an enormous problem in psychiatric treatment. The choice of antipsychotics is a crucial issue in the treatment as both patients' cooperation and compliance often depend upon it. Severe side-effects might sometimes cause the treatment interruption, to which each patient is entitled. Schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) features include social and interpersonal deficits, discomfort with close relationships, as well as cognitive and perceptual distorti...

  10. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27339142

  11. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  12. Elevated eating disorder symptoms in women with a history of oral contraceptive side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jessica L; Oinonen, Kirsten A

    2011-08-01

    Previous research suggests a link between gonadal hormones and eating disorder symptomatology. This study examined the role of gonadal hormones and hormonal sensitivity in eating disorder (ED) symptoms by using oral contraceptive (OC) side effect history as an indicator of hormonal sensitivity. A questionnaire containing two scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 and an OC side effect scale was completed by 174 healthy women who had used OCs. Histories of emotional and physical OC side effects were evaluated as predictors of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. Women with a history of negative OC side effects had higher levels of ED symptoms. After controlling for body mass index (BMI) and depression scores, OC side effect history remained a significant predictor of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness. The experience of OC side effects may indicate a greater risk for increased eating disorder symptoms. The findings provide further support for a hormonal link to ED symptoms, as women who are more "sensitive" to exogenous gonadal hormones also experience more ED symptoms. PMID:21725835

  13. Switching effect of the side chain on quantum walks on triple graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi-Mu; Lu, Li-Hua; Li, You-Quan

    2015-07-01

    We consider a continuous-time quantum walk on a triple graph and investigate the influence of the side chain on propagation in the main chain. Calculating the interchange of the probabilities between the two parts of the main chain, we find that a switching effect appears if there is an odd number of points in the side chain when concrete conditions between the length of the main chain and the position of the side chain are satisfied. However, such an effect does not occur if there is an even number of points in the side chain. We also suggest two proposals for experiments to demonstrate this effect, which may be employed to design a new type of switching device.

  14. Comparing the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Tramadol and Sodum Diclofenac with pethedine in the Treatment of Renal Colic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rajaei

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: One of the choice treatments for pain relief in acute renal colic is administration of narcotics, but always the need for low-dose effects are felt difficulties. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of sodium diclofenac and pethedine hydrochloride with Tramadol to reduce the pain of acute renal colic. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 150 patients (15-65 years with acute renal colic referred to Kashani hospital in Shahrekord were selected. The patients were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group received 50mg tramadol intramuscular, the second group received 75mg D sodum iclofenac intramuscular and the third group (the evidence group received 50 mg pethidin intramuscular. The pain severity was assessed before and then at 15, 30,60minutes after drug administration based on the McGill questionnaire. Data were analyzed with chi-square tests, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The pain severity of all parties on arrival to emergency ward and prior to the drug administration, and then 15, 30 and 60 min after the start of treatment were measured using a modified McGill questionnaire. Results: After drug administration (30.15 and 60 min, pain severity were decreased in all three groups. Minimum pain was seen in control where as the maximum pain was seen in tramadol group. Diclofenac have less side effects than pethedine (P<0.05. Conclusion: The finding showed that intramuscular Na Diclofenac due to its less adverse effects and more efficacy than tramadol is a suitable alternative to pethedine in treatment of acute renal colic. Key words: Pethedine, Tramadol, Diclofenac Na, Renal Colic

  15. Side effects of oxysterols: cytotoxicity, oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vejux

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are 27-carbon atom molecules resulting from autoxidation or enzymatic oxidation of cholesterol. They are present in numerous foodstuffs and have been demonstrated to be present at increased levels in the plasma of patients with cardiovascular diseases and in atherosclerotic lesions. Thus, their role in lipid disorders is widely suspected, and they might also be involved in important degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, and age-related macular degeneration. Since atherosclerosis is associated with the presence of apoptotic cells and with oxidative and inflammatory processes, the ability of some oxysterols, especially 7-ketocholesterol and 7β-hydroxycholesterol, to trigger cell death, activate inflammation, and modulate lipid homeostasis is being extensively studied, especially in vitro. Thus, since there are a number of essential considerations regarding the physiological/pathophysiological functions and activities of the different oxysterols, it is important to determine their biological activities and identify their signaling pathways, when they are used either alone or as mixtures. Oxysterols may have cytotoxic, oxidative, and/or inflammatory effects, or none whatsoever. Moreover, a substantial accumulation of polar lipids in cytoplasmic multilamellar structures has been observed with cytotoxic oxysterols, suggesting that cytotoxic oxysterols are potent inducers of phospholipidosis. This basic knowledge about oxysterols contributes to a better understanding of the associated pathologies and may lead to new treatments and new drugs. Since oxysterols have a number of biological activities, and as oxysterol-induced cell death is assumed to take part in degenerative pathologies, the present review will focus on the cytotoxic activities of these compounds, the corresponding cell death signaling pathways, and associated events (oxidation, inflammation, and phospholipidosis.

  16. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  17. Risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects of dabigatran compared with warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staerk, Laila; Gislason, Gunnar H; Lip, Gregory Y H;

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the risk of gastrointestinal adverse effects associated with dabigatran use compared with warfarin among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with AF and no history of gastrointestinal diseases initiating dabigatran or warfarin were identified from......, gastritis, gastric, and duodenal ulcer) and gastrointestinal bleeding requiring hospitalization, gastroscopy, and discontinuation of dabigatran and warfarin was examined by cumulative incidence rates and multivariable adjusted Cox regression models. We identified five groups: OAC-naive warfarin (n = 4534......); OAC-naive dabigatran 110 mg b.i.d. (dabigatran 110) (n = 1168); OAC-naive dabigatran 150 mg b.i.d. (dabigatran 150) (n = 1844); OAC-experienced dabigatran 110 (n = 1143); and OAC-experienced dabigatran 150 (n = 1748). Compared with OAC-naive warfarin, the rate of initiating PPIs was significantly...

  18. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    tested this hypothesis by investigating whether experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Design: Observational data were used in the present study......Background and Objectives: Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study....... Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Methods: Participants were 5,309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Ageing and Midlife Biobank. SEC included socio...

  19. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  20. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  1. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  2. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  3. Complete heart block in a neutropenic patient with aspergillosis: An unusual adverse effect of caspofungins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complete heart block (CHB in a 58-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with no past history of cardiac disease, who received caspofungin in the treatment of disseminated fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CHB associated with caspofungins. Subsequent to induction chemotherapy the patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with sudden tachypnea, dyspnoea, fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory insufficiency consequent to neutropenia with ANC<500. During the first dose of antifungal therapy with caspofungins, she developed complete atrioventricular block and cardiac arrest. Complete heart block is an unusual adverse effect of caspofungins which has not been reported previously. Caspofungins release histamine in peripheral blood cells, so possible histamine-mediated symptoms ranging from severe fatal anaphylaxis can occur. These data suggest that infusion-related reactions associated with caspofungin may be mediated by histamine release secondary to caspofungin therapy.

  4. Adverse Effects of Synthetic Cannabinoids: Management of Acute Toxicity and Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Ziva D

    2016-05-01

    Although several chemical structural classes of synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) were recently classified as Schedule I substances, rates of use and cases of serious toxic effects remain high. While case reports and media bring attention to severe SC toxicity, daily SC use resulting in dependence and withdrawal is a significant concern that is often overlooked when discussing the risks of these drugs. There is a rich literature on evidence-based approaches to treating substance use disorders associated with most abused drugs, yet little has been published regarding how to best treat symptoms related to SC dependence given its recency as an emerging clinically significant issue. This review provides a background of the pharmacology of SCs, recent findings of adverse effects associated with both acute intoxication and withdrawal as a consequence of daily use, and treatment approaches that have been implemented to address these issues, with an emphasis on pharmacotherapies for managing detoxification. In order to determine prevalence of use in cannabis smokers, a population at high risk for SC use, we obtained data on demographics of SC users, frequency of use, and adverse effects over a 3.5-year period (2012-2015) in the New York City metropolitan area, a region with a recent history of high SC use. While controlled studies on the physiological and behavioral effects of SCs are lacking, it is clear that risks associated with using these drugs pertain not only to the unpredictable and severe nature of acute intoxication but also to the effects of long-term, chronic use. Recent reports in the literature parallel findings from our survey, indicating that there is a subset of people who use SCs daily. Although withdrawal has not been systematically characterized and effective treatments have yet to be elucidated, some symptom relief has been reported with benzodiazepines and the atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine. Given the continued use and abuse of SCs, empirical studies

  5. Short-term side-effects of brain MR examination at 7 T: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosottini, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Frosini, D. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neurology, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, L.; Tosetti, M. [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Pesaresi, I. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neuroradiology, Pisa (Italy); Costagli, M.; Tiberi, G. [IMAGO7 Research Foundation, Pisa (Italy); Symms, M. [General Electric ASL Scientist (EMEA), Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    To study patient tolerability of brain imaging that employs an ultrahigh field (7 T) MR system We examined 180 subjects that underwent brain MR examination at 7 T. A tolerability test consisting of two parts (during patient table motion and during the examination) was administered to all subjects in order to monitor their discomfort. The scores range from 0 to 5 for the first part, and from 0 to 10 for the second part, the total score of each subject therefore ranging from 0 (no side effects reported) to 15 (lowest tolerability) A total of 51 % of subjects reported at least one side effect but all were mild in intensity and did not require examination interruption. No serious adverse event was reported. The total score (mean ± standard deviation) was 1.1 ± 1.5 out of 15 (mean score 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 5 during patient table motion and 0.7 ± 1.1 out of 10 during MR). Patient discomfort was not related to gender or health status, but it was reduced with time after system installation with increasing operator experience in performing UHF MR examinations. Ultrahigh field MRI is well tolerated without excessive discomfort to subjects. (orig.)

  6. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  7. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  8. Serious adverse effects of gamma knife radiosurgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) has been proposed as an alternative to surgical resection. We report serious adverse effects of the treatment after follow-up periods over 9 years in 11 patients treated with GKRS between 1997 and 2000. The target volume of the entorhinoamygdalohippocampectomy area was 4.8-17.1 ml. Marginal dose of 20-25 Gy to the 50% isodose was delivered. One patient was drowned after suffering seizure 7 months after GKRS. Two patients did not show any reduction in seizure frequency over 9 and 18 months. Both patients requested open surgery and became seizure-free postoperatively. Four of the other eight patients were classified as Engel's class I within 4 years after GKRS. One of the four patients experienced symptomatic radiation-induced cerebral edema transiently, one developed radiation necrosis and required surgery 5 years after GKRS, and one developed cognitive impairment with hemiparesis 10 years after GKRS. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed a large cyst in the irradiated temporal lobe. This patient recovered fully after the cyst excision. Only one patient became seizure-free and antiepileptic drug-free without symptomatic radiation-induced complications. However, MR imaging revealed abnormal enhancement, cyst formation, and diffuse white matter change in the irradiated temporal lobe 9 years after GKRS. GKRS for MTLE causes adverse effects of delayed seizure remission and symptomatic radiation-induced complications. Therefore, GKRS cannot be considered as an ideal alternative to surgery for MTLE. Long-term follow-up studies including MR imaging with contrast medium are required for the patients even after successful control of seizures. (author)

  9. Adverse effects of testosterone replacement therapy: an update on the evidence and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Anthony; Breck, John; Heidelbaugh, Joel

    2014-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been used in millions of men worldwide to treat diminished libido and erectile dysfunction, and to improve strength and physical function. The estimated likelihood of adverse effects of long-term TRT is still essentially unknown, as overall high-quality evidence based upon prospective randomized trials to recommend for or against its use in most men with testosterone deficiency (TD) is lacking. Evidence to suggest that TRT increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality risks is poor, as results vary across study populations and their baseline comorbidities. While TRT may increase serum prostate-specific antigen levels in some men, it often remains within clinically acceptable ranges, and has not been shown to increase the risk of prostate cancer. Current literature supports that TRT does not substantially worsen lower urinary tract symptoms, and may actually improve symptoms in some men. Limited evidence suggests that TRT may initially worsen obstructive sleep apnea in some men, but that this is not a longstanding effect. TRT may result in erythrocytosis in some men, however long-term studies have not reported significant adverse events (e.g. cerebrovascular accident, vascular occlusive events, venous thromboembolisms). Future research will require dedicated focus on evaluation of large, multiethnic cohorts of men through prospective trials to better elucidate both risk and hazard ratios of TRT as it relates to cardiovascular disease, prostate cancer, lower urinary tract symptoms, obstructive sleep apnea, erythrocytosis, and other to-be-determined theoretical risks in men both with and without cardiovascular risk equivalents. PMID:25360240

  10. Mitigating Adverse Effects of a Human Mission on Possible Martian Indigenous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-07-01

    Although human beings are, by most standards, the most capable agents to search for and detect extraterrestrial life, we are also potentially the most harmful. While there has been substantial work regarding forward contamination with respect to robotic missions, the issue of potential adverse effects on possible indigenous Martian ecosystems, such as biological contamination, due to a human mission has remained relatively unexplored and may require our attention now as this presentation will try to demonstrate by exploring some of the relevant scientific questions, mission planning challenges, and policy issues. An informal, high-level mission planning decision tree will be discussed and is included as the next page of this abstract. Some of the questions to be considered are: (1) To what extent could contamination due to a human presence compromise possible indigenous life forms? (2) To what extent can we control contamination? For example, will it be local or global? (3) What are the criteria for assessing the biological status of Mars, both regionally and globally? For example, can we adequately extrapolate from a few strategic missions such as sample return missions? (4) What should our policies be regarding our mission planning and possible interaction with what are likely to be microbial forms of extraterrestrial life? (5) Central to the science and mission planning issues is the role and applicability of terrestrial analogs, such as Lake Vostok for assessing drilling issues, and modeling techniques. Central to many of the policy aspects are scientific value, international law, public concern, and ethics. Exploring this overall issue responsibly requires an examination of all these aspects and how they interrelate. A chart is included, titled 'Mission Planning Decision Tree for Mitigating Adverse Effects to Possible Indigenous Martian Ecosystems due to a Human Mission'. It outlines what questions scientists should ask and answer before sending humans to Mars.

  11. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J.; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect, parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes “maximum drinks in a day” (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variabl...

  12. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1 bone mineral density; 2 cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3 body composition (lean mass and fat mass; 4 blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5 lipids and glycemic control; and 6 quality of life and psychological distress. Methods/Design Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1 resistance/impact loading exercise, (2 resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3 usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention. Discussion The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of

  13. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is accompanied by a number of adverse side effects including reduced bone mass and increased risk for fracture, reduced lean mass and muscle strength, mood disturbance and increased fat mass compromising physical functioning, independence, and quality of life. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the effects of long term exercise on reversing musculoskeletal-related side effects, and cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors in men receiving androgen deprivation for their prostate cancer. Specifically, we aim to investigate the effects of a 12-month exercise program designed to load the musculoskeletal system and reduce cardiovascular and diabetes disease progression on the following primary endpoints: 1) bone mineral density; 2) cardiorespiratory function and maximal oxygen capacity; 3) body composition (lean mass and fat mass); 4) blood pressure and cardiovascular function; 5) lipids and glycemic control; and 6) quality of life and psychological distress. Multi-site randomized controlled trial of 195 men (65 subjects per arm) undergoing treatment for prostate cancer involving ADT in the cities of Perth and Brisbane in Australia. Participants will be randomized to (1) resistance/impact loading exercise, (2) resistance/cardiovascular exercise groups and (3) usual care/delayed exercise. Participants will then undergo progressive training for 12 months. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months (end of the intervention). The principal outcome of this project will be the determination of the strength of effect of exercise on the well established musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and insulin metabolism side effects of androgen deprivation in prostate cancer patients. As this project is much longer term than previous investigations in the area of exercise and cancer, we will gain knowledge as to the continuing effects of exercise in this patient population specifically

  14. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Regarding the Adverse Effects of Medicines in an Omani Population; Cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Jose

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the knowledge, beliefs and behaviours of an Omani population with regards to the adverse effects of medicines. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted between February and June 2012. A 17-item questionnaire was designed to assess three aspects: knowledge, beliefs and behaviours related to medicine safety. A total of 740 questionnaires were distributed in three representative governorates of Oman. Median total scores for the three sections were estimated. Associations with participants’ demographic variables and medication histories were also assessed. Results: A total of 618 participants completed the survey (response rate: 83.5%. Many participants (46.4% believed that side-effects occurred only with high doses of medication and over 30% believed that they did not occur at all with traditional and over-the-counter medicines. The median total score was 19 (interquartile range: 6 out of a maximum of 30. Inadequate knowledge, incorrect beliefs and good behaviours were observed among the participants. There was a significant association between certain demographic parameters (age, educational qualification, history of chronic use of medicines and employment status and median total scores. Participants reported obtaining additional information on medication safety from various sources, with doctors as the most widely used source. Conclusion: Inadequate knowledge and incorrect beliefs among this Omani population indicate a need for interventions to improve public knowledge and address misconceptions regarding medication safety. These interventions could be initiated on both an individual and public scale, with patient interactions by healthcare professionals and mass education activities targeting the larger population.

  15. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  16. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  17. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  18. Comparison of Efficiency and Adverse Effects of Etanercept, Infliximab and Adalimumab in Patients with Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Pekdemir Şen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effects, side effects, and onset and duration of action of etanercept, infliximab and adalimumab on patients followed in our psoriasis outpatient clinic. Material and Method: Data was collected retrospectively from patient medical records. The study group was divided into three groups as follows: group 1 (n: 48 - patients on etanercept treatment, group 2 (n: 49 - on infliximab treatment and group 3 (n: 18 - on adalimumab treatment. Age, gender, duration of disease, PASI values at 0 (baseline, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 52 weeks and side effects were evaluated. Results: 55.7% (n=64 of patients were male, 44.3% (n=51 were female. The median age of study group was 44.53±12.91 (13-79 years, the median duration of the disease was 17.02±10.24 (1-60 years, and the median initial PASI value was 15.31±8.45. The treatment was discontinued because of side effects: One of four patients had elevated liver enzymes, 1 - herpes zoster besides increased liver enzymes, 1 - congestive heart failure, and 1 patient had pneumonia, in group 1, two of three patients developed severe infusion reaction, 1 had severe nausea and fatigue, in group 2. Isoniazid intolerance was established in 1 patient in group 1, group 2 and group 3. PASI 75 values at 6th week in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 27.27%,49.99%,46.66%; at 12th week 75.75%, 85.28%, 66.66%; at 24th week 93.54%, 86.66%, 83.33%; and at 52nd week 92.3%, 84%, 81.81%, respectively. Conclusion: Our data showed that all three biologic agents were effective in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis patients. Although not statistically significant, infliximab and adalimumab were more successful in terms of rapid control, whereas etanercept was more promising for continuous and high efficiency in chronic plaque psoriasis.

  19. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro H. Gobira; Jivago Ropke; Aguiar, Daniele C; Jose A.S. Crippa; Moreira, Fabricio A.

    2013-01-01

    The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side ...

  20. Novel biopesticide based on a spider venom peptide shows no adverse effects on honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Williamson, Sally M; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine C; Gatehouse, John A; Wright, Geraldine A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-07-22

    Evidence is accumulating that commonly used pesticides are linked to decline of pollinator populations; adverse effects of three neonicotinoids on bees have led to bans on their use across the European Union. Developing insecticides that pose negligible risks to beneficial organisms such as honeybees is desirable and timely. One strategy is to use recombinant fusion proteins containing neuroactive peptides/proteins linked to a 'carrier' protein that confers oral toxicity. Hv1a/GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin), containing an insect-specific spider venom calcium channel blocker (ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a) linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) as a 'carrier', is an effective oral biopesticide towards various insect pests. Effects of Hv1a/GNA towards a non-target species, Apis mellifera, were assessed through a thorough early-tier risk assessment. Following feeding, honeybees internalized Hv1a/GNA, which reached the brain within 1 h after exposure. However, survival was only slightly affected by ingestion (LD50>100 µg bee(-1)) or injection of fusion protein. Bees fed acute (100 µg bee(-1)) or chronic (0.35 mg ml(-1)) doses of Hv1a/GNA and trained in an olfactory learning task had similar rates of learning and memory to no-pesticide controls. Larvae were unaffected, being able to degrade Hv1a/GNA. These tests suggest that Hv1a/GNA is unlikely to cause detrimental effects on honeybees, indicating that atracotoxins targeting calcium channels are potential alternatives to conventional pesticides.

  1. Wogonin potentiates the antitumor action of etoposide and ameliorates its adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Riyo; Koshiba, Chika; Suzuki, Chie; Lee, Eibai

    2011-05-01

    Wogonin, a flavone in the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis, reduced etoposide-induced apoptotic cell death in normal cells, such as bone marrow cells and thymocytes. On the other hand, wogonin potentiated the proapoptotic or cytotoxic action of etoposide in tumor cells, such as Jurkat, HL-60, A549, and NCI-H226. These contradictory actions of wogonin on apoptosis are distinguished by normal or cancer cell types. Wogonin had no effect on apoptosis induced by other anticancer agents in the tumor cells. Thus, the potentiation effect of wogonin was observed only in etoposide-induced apoptosis in tumor cells. In a functional assay for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), wogonin suppressed excretion of calcein, a substrate for P-gp, in these tumor cells. Moreover, wogonin decreased the excretion of radiolabeled etoposide and accordingly increased intracellular content of this agent in the cells. P-gp inhibitors showed a similar potentiation effect on etoposide-induced apoptosis in these tumor cells. Thus, wogonin is likely to potentiate the anticancer action of etoposide due to P-gp inhibition and accumulation of this agent. These findings suggest that wogonin may be a useful chemotherapeutic adjuvant to potentiate the pharmacological action of etoposide and ameliorate its adverse effects. PMID:20658136

  2. Adverse effects of fullerenes (nC{sub 60}) spiked to sediments on Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, K., E-mail: kukka.tervonen@uef.fi [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Petersen, E.J. [Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Leppaenen, M.T.; Akkanen, J.; Kukkonen, J.V.K. [Department of Biology, University of Eastern Finland, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)

    2011-12-15

    Effects of fullerene-spiked sediment on a benthic organism, Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta), were investigated. Survival, growth, reproduction, and feeding rates were measured to assess possible adverse effects of fullerene agglomerates produced by water stirring and then spiked to a natural sediment. L. variegatus were exposed to 10 and 50 mg fullerenes/kg sediment dry mass for 28 d. These concentrations did not impact worm survival or reproduction compared to the control. Feeding activities were slightly decreased for both concentrations indicating fullerenes' disruptive effect on feeding. Depuration efficiency decreased in the high concentration only. Electron and light microscopy and extraction of the worm fecal pellets revealed fullerene agglomerates in the gut tract but not absorption into gut epithelial cells. Micrographs also indicated that 16% of the epidermal cuticle fibers of the worms were not present in the 50 mg/kg exposures, which may make worms susceptible to other contaminants. - Highlights: > Effects of fullerene-spiked sediment on black worms were investigated. > Survival, growth, reproduction, and feeding rates were measured. > Exposure did not impact worm survival or reproduction. > Feeding rates and depuration efficiency were decreased. > Worms transferred fullerenes from the sediment to the sediment surface. - Exposure to fullerene-spiked sediment decreased black worms' feeding and depuration efficiency, but fullerenes did not appear to be absorbed into the microvilli.

  3. Reduced adverse effects on Si thin film solar cells caused by growth chamber air exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Lin; Zheng, Yi; Schimitt, Francimar; Tso, Alan; Li, Lipan; Tsuei, Lun; Yuan, Zheng; Shieh, Brian [Thin Film Solar Products Division, Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The cost of photovoltaic (PV) energy is reduced by increasing solar cell power conversion efficiency and decreasing manufacture cost. An effective way of lowering the cost of Si thin film solar cells (TFSC) is to grow panels on large-area substrates. In this paper we study the effect of air residual to Si TFSC grown on 5.7 m{sup 2} glass in plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) chambers. Structural and chemical analysis show that oxygen incorporated into the Si films behaved as impurity dopant in the hydrogenated microcrystalline Si ({mu}c-Si) layers and reduced the efficiency of amorphous Si (a-Si)/{mu}c-Si tandem junction solar cells when the film had oxygen concentration >2 x 10{sup 19} atoms/cm{sup 3}. Higher oxygen content further suppressed the {mu}c-Si crystallization. We found that hydrogen plasma treatment of process chamber before Si film deposition effectively reduced the adverse effects of air exposure and improved both film quality and solar cell performance. The hydrogen-treated chamber produced contamination-free, solar cells with consistent, initial efficiency >10%. (author)

  4. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  5. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  6. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  7. 40 CFR 161.34 - Flagging of studies for potential adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... signature: (1) “I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 161.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse... criteria.” (2) “I have applied the criteria of 40 CFR 161.34 for flagging studies for potential adverse... types and the criteria to be applied to each. Column 1 lists the study types by name. Column 2 lists...

  8. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  9. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved.

  10. Honeybees Produce Millimolar Concentrations of Non-Neuronal Acetylcholine for Breeding: Possible Adverse Effects of Neonicotinoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessler, Ignaz; Gärtner, Hedwig-Annabel; Michel-Schmidt, Rosmarie; Brochhausen, Christoph; Schmitz, Luise; Anspach, Laura; Grünewald, Bernd; Kirkpatrick, Charles James

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide use of neonicotinoid pesticides has caused concern on account of their involvement in the decline of bee populations, which are key pollinators in most ecosystems. Here we describe a role of non-neuronal acetylcholine (ACh) for breeding of Apis mellifera carnica and a so far unknown effect of neonicotinoids on non-target insects. Royal jelly or larval food are produced by the hypopharyngeal gland of nursing bees and contain unusually high ACh concentrations (4–8 mM). ACh is extremely well conserved in royal jelly or brood food because of the acidic pH of 4.0. This condition protects ACh from degradation thus ensuring delivery of intact ACh to larvae. Raising the pH to ≥5.5 and applying cholinesterase reduced the content of ACh substantially (by 75–90%) in larval food. When this manipulated brood was tested in artificial larval breeding experiments, the survival rate was higher with food supplemented by 100% with ACh (6 mM) than with food not supplemented with ACh. ACh release from the hypopharyngeal gland and its content in brood food declined by 80%, when honeybee colonies were exposed for 4 weeks to high concentrations of the neonicotinoids clothianidin (100 parts per billion [ppb]) or thiacloprid (8,800 ppb). Under these conditions the secretory cells of the gland were markedly damaged and brood development was severely compromised. Even field-relevant low concentrations of thiacloprid (200 ppb) or clothianidin (1 and 10 ppb) reduced ACh level in the brood food and showed initial adverse effects on brood development. Our findings indicate a hitherto unknown target of neonicotinoids to induce adverse effects on non-neuronal ACh which should be considered when re-assessing the environmental risks of these compounds. To our knowledge this is a new biological mechanism, and we suggest that, in addition to their well documented neurotoxic effects, neonicotinoids may contribute to honeybee colony losses consecutive to a reduction of the ACh content

  11. Adverse effect of agroecosystem pond water on biological endpoints of common toad (Rhinella arenarum) tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, María Selene; Bionda, Clarisa de Lourdes; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2016-08-01

    Chemical prroducts used in farming and wastes from livestock can contaminate pond water in agroecosystems due to runoff. Amphibians using these ponds for breeding are probably exposed to pollutants, and serious consequences might be observed afterward at the population level. Assessment biological endpoints of anuran to water quality give a realistic estimate of the probability of occurrence of adverse effects and provide an early warning signal. In this study, the ecotoxicity of agroecosystem ponds from the south of Córdoba province, Argentina, was investigated. Ponds in four sites with different degrees of human disturbance were selected: three agroecosystems (A1, A2, A3) and a site without crops or livestock (SM). The effect of pond water quality on the biological endpoint of Rhinella arenarum tadpoles was examined using microcosms with pond water from sites. Biological endpoints assessed were as follows: mortality, growth, development, morphological abnormalities (in body shape, gut, and labial tooth row formula), behavior, and blood cell parameters (micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities). Results indicated that water from agroecosystems has adverse effect on early life stage of R. arenarum. High mortality and fewer metamorphs were recorded in the A1 and A3 treatments. Tadpoles and metamorphs from A1 and A2 treatments had lower body condition. Tadpoles from A1 and A3 showed the highest prevalence of morphological abnormalities. The lowest amount of tadpoles feeding and the highest percentage of tadpoles swimming on the surface were observed in treatments with agroecosystem pond water. The higher frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities were recorded in tadpoles from A1, A2, and A3 treatments. We check the sensitivity of the biological endpoints of R. arenarum tadpoles like early warning indicators of water quality. We found that the poor water quality of agroecosystem ponds has impact on the health of the tadpoles, and this could affect the

  12. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  13. Mycorrhiza Reduces Adverse Effects of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) on Growth of Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. – Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and

  14. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE on growth of conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM. Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce, mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts

  15. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology. PMID:27547751

  16. The Potential Benefits and Adverse Effects of Phytic Acid Supplement in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. O. Omoruyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P<0.05 increased by phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1β level was significantly (P<0.05 elevated in the diabetic control and supplement treated groups. The liver lipogenic enzyme activities were not significantly altered among the groups. These results suggest that phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  17. Identification of Herbal Compound lmperatorin with Adverse Effects on ANO1 and CFTR Chloride Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Feng; YI Fei; ZHANG Di; NING Yan; SU Wei-heng; FENG Xue-chao; YANG Hong; MA Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels(CaCCs) are the crucial regulators of transepithelial fluid secretion,smooth muscle contraction and sensory transduction. Recently, compelling evidence has indicated that TMEM 16A(ANO 1 or anoctamin-i ) is a bona fide calcium-acvtivated chloride channel. A few small molecule CaCCs regulators are available for functional and therapeutic studies. We screened 126 natural compounds from Chinese herbs. Screening was performed with an iodide influx assay in Fischer rat thyroid epithelial cells to coexpress ANOI and an iodide-sensitive fluorescent indicator(EYFP-HI48Q/I152L). lmperatorin, a coumarin compound, was identifled to inhibit ANOl-mediated chloride transport activated by multiple calcium-elevating agonists. The inhibitory effect is dose-dependent with IC50 ~14.63 μmol/L. Interestingly, imperatorin activated CFTR chloride channel with EC50 ~35.52 μmol/L. The adverse effects of imperatorin on CaCC and CFTR chloride channels will make it useful in pharmacological dissection of chloride transport in airway and intestinal epithelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic effects of imperatorin on hypertension, asthma and certain tumors.

  18. Herbal products and the liver: a review of adverse effects and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeff, Leonard B; Bonkovsky, Herbert L; Navarro, Victor J; Wang, Guqi

    2015-03-01

    Herbal products have been used for centuries among indigenous people to treat symptoms and illnesses. Recently, their use in Western countries has grown significantly, rivaling that of prescription medications. Currently, herbal products are used mainly for weight loss and bodybuilding purposes but also to improve well-being and symptoms of chronic diseases. Many people believe that because they are natural, they must be effective and safe; however, these beliefs are erroneous. Few herbal products have been studied in well-designed controlled trials of patients with liver or other diseases, despite testimony to the contrary. Moreover, current highly effective antiviral drugs make efforts to treat hepatitis C with herbal products redundant. Herbal products are no safer than conventional drugs and have caused liver injury severe enough to require transplantation or cause death. Furthermore, their efficacy, safety, and claims are not assessed by regulatory agencies, and there is uncertainty about their reported and unreported contents. We review the history of commonly used herbal products, as well as their purported efficacies and mechanisms and their adverse effects. PMID:25500423

  19. Pharmacology, toxicology, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of calcium polycarbophil, an enteral hydrosorptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhof, I E

    1982-01-01

    Calcium polycarbophil is the calcium salt of polyacrylic acid crosslinked with divinyl glycol. It is chemically and physiologically inert. In dilute alkali it possesses marked hydrophilic capacity (60 to 100 times its weight), which is the basis for its therapeutic use. In daily dosages of 4 to 5 g in adults, it appears to be quite safe, is non-toxic, does not interfere with digestion or absorption, and does not cause gastrointestinal irritation. It appears to be effective in the treatment of both constipation and diarrhea due to functional or organic causes. Several days of continuous use are necessary before effectiveness becomes apparent. Clinical studies, of which there are relatively few, range from uncontrolled, unblinded evaluations of an almost anecdotal nature to well controlled, double-blind, crossover studies. Additional carefully controlled studies on dietary influences, exercise, and patient compliance would be helpful. Adverse effects, which are minimal, include epigastric fullness or heaviness, abdominal distention and bloating, and flatulence. As with all bulk-forming agents, calcium polycarbophil should not be used by persons who have stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  1. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  2. Effects of rotational side preferences on immobile behavior of normal mice in the forced swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that side preferences in spontaneous rotational behavior are determinant of differences in vulnerability to the effects of the learned helplessness paradigm. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of side preferences of rotational behavior in another animal model of depression, the forced swimming test. Immobility was also investigated upon repeated testing sessions and in interaction with sex. Swiss mice (69 males and 73 females) were submitted to three sessions (test time = 5 min) of forced swimming. Immobile and turning behaviors were measured for each session and within each testing session. Consistency of laterality was defined considering the persistence of the same side turning preference in the three sessions. In general, there was an increase in immobility as test progressed and upon repeated testing sessions. Marked interindividual differences in mice immobile behavior were observed when consistency of laterality was considered. Consistent-right-turners presented greater immobility in the first session and better test-retest reliability, indicating that for this group, the adoption of immobile behavior was faster and more reliable over time. Immobility was higher for side-consistent males than for side-consistent females in the first session. This difference became even greater when consistent-right-turner males were compared to consistent-left-turner females. These results reinforce the idea that side preferences of spontaneous rotational behavior may account for interindividual differences in animal models of depression. PMID:11853109

  3. Metoclopramide neurological side effects screening; a pharmacovigilence study in Romanian community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Ștefănescu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Metoclopramide is a pharmacological agent frequently used in therapy against nausea and vomiting that can occur in indigestion, motion sickness, gastric ulcer, pyloric spasm and after surgery as a side effect of some anesthetics. Knowing the frequency and intensity of metoclopramide neurological side effects is essential for an efficient management of the dysfunctions it addresses. Material and method. Based on a standard questionnaire containing questions regarding metoclopramide therapy, we analyzed the answers given by 1000 patients or patient tutors in 20 open circuit pharmacies situated all over Bucharest. All subjects freely consented to participate in this study that was coordinated only by pharmacists. Results. Our study highlights the fact that in certain situations having to do with the age of patients, with the use of multiple drugs or with the tendency to self medicate, the neurological side effects of metoclopramide can reach dangerous levels. In some cases it might even be necessary to immediately interrupt metoclopramide therapy, despite its positive benefit/ risk ratio. Conclusions. Respecting the physician’s recommendations, avoiding self medication and reporting side effects as quickly as possible, are essential elements for minimizing the consequences of metoclopramide side effects.

  4. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  5. Prednisolone-appended alpha-cyclodextrin: alleviation of systemic adverse effect of prednisolone after intracolonic administration in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced colitis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, H; Hirayama, F; Arima, H; Uekama, K

    2001-12-01

    The titled compound is a cyclodextrin derivative in which prednisolone 21-succinate (PDsuc) is covalently bound to one of the secondary hydroxyl groups of alpha-cyclodextrin (alpha-CyD) via an ester linkage. In this study, the PDsuc-appended alpha-CyD ester conjugate (PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate) was intracolonically administered to rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzensulfonic acid-induced colitis, and its antiinflammatory and systemic adverse effects were compared with those of prednisolone (PD) alone and the PD/2-hydroxypropyl-beta-CyD complex (PD/HP-beta-CyD complex), which is a noncovalent inclusion complex. Colonic damage score, ratio of distal colon wet weight to body weight, and myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated as measures of the therapeutic effect of PD, whereas the ratio of thymus wet weight to body weight was evaluated as a measure of the side effect of PD. The local antiinflammatory activity increased in the order of PD alone approximately PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate keeps the local concentration in the colon at a low but constant level. The results suggest that the PDsuc/alpha-CyD conjugate can alleviate the systemic adverse effect of PD while maintaining the therapeutic activity of PD. This kind of knowledge will be useful in the rational design of steroid prodrugs for the colon-specific drug delivery system. PMID:11745769

  6. Dose Tracker Application for Monitoring Crew Medication Usage, Symptoms, and Adverse Effects During Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotring, Virginia; Smith, LaRona

    2015-01-01

    Medication usage records can be used as a relatively nonintrusive means of monitoring health. This has been attempted previously through crew medical records, but these records are incomplete from the perspective of a research pharmacologist. During the shuttle era, NASA operations did not include routine questioning of crewmembers about their medication use until after missions were complete. The (long!) questionnaire was on paper. Asking crewmembers to recall medication use from weeks before questioning made getting complete and accurate information virtually impossible. This study will document medication usage of crewmembers before and during their missions. It will capture previously unrecorded data regarding medication use during spaceflight, including side effect qualities, frequencies and severities. The research-oriented data will be collected for research purposes, separate from medical records. Dose Tracker employs an iOS application (app) for fast & easy collection of medication usage data from crewmember participants during their missions.

  7. Systemic effects of periodontitis: lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanou, Panos N

    2015-12-01

    Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focussed on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial aetiology that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteraemias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and that bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiological studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD/APOs, independently of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarises key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation.

  8. The adverse effect of spasticity on 3-month poststroke outcome using a population-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagaje, S R; Lindsell, C; Moomaw, C J; Alwell, K; Flaherty, M L; Woo, D; Dunning, K; Khatri, P; Adeoye, O; Kleindorfer, D; Broderick, J; Kissela, B

    2014-01-01

    Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity's impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS) as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question "Did you have spasticity following your stroke?" on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n = 30) or did not have spasticity data available (n = 102) were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β = 0.420, 95 CI = 0.194 to 0.645) after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model's R (2) changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors. PMID:25147752

  9. The Adverse Effect of Spasticity on 3-Month Poststroke Outcome Using a Population-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Belagaje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several devices and medications have been used to address poststroke spasticity. Yet, spasticity’s impact on outcomes remains controversial. Using data from a cohort of 460 ischemic stroke patients, we previously published a validated multivariable regression model for predicting 3-month modified Rankin Score (mRS as an indicator of functional outcome. Here, we tested whether including spasticity improved model fit and estimated the effect spasticity had on the outcome. Spasticity was defined by a positive response to the question “Did you have spasticity following your stroke?” on direct interview at 3 months from stroke onset. Patients who had expired by 90 days (n=30 or did not have spasticity data available (n=102 were excluded. Spasticity affected the 3-month functional status (β=0.420, 95 CI=0.194 to 0.645 after accounting for age, diabetes, leukoaraiosis, and retrospective NIHSS. Using spasticity as a covariable, the model’s R2 changed from 0.599 to 0.622. In our model, the presence of spasticity in the cohort was associated with a worsened 3-month mRS by an average of 0.4 after adjusting for known covariables. This significant adverse effect on functional outcomes adds predictive value beyond previously established factors.

  10. Potential adverse effects of applying phosphate amendments to immobilize soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majs, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Seven-day batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to measure the efficacy of four phosphate amendments (trisodium trimetaphosphate [TP3], dodecasodium phytate [Na-IP6], precipitated calcium phytate [Ca-IP6], and hydroxyapatite [HA]) for immobilizing Ni and U in organic-rich sediment. Using the eight-step modified Miller's sequential extraction procedure and the USEPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, the effect of these amendments on the distribution of Ni and U was assessed. Relative to unamended controls, equilibrium aqueous-phase U concentrations were lower following HA and Ca-IP6 additions but higher following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments, whereas aqueous Ni concentrations were not decreased only in the Na-IP6 amended treatment relative to the control. The poor rates of contaminant immobilization following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments correlate with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids, which probably contain sorbed U and Ni. While all amendments shifted the U distribution toward more recalcitrant soil fractions, Ni was redistributed to more labile soil fractions. This study cautions that the addition of orthophosphates and organophosphates as contaminant immobilizing amendments may in fact have adverse effects, especially in high-organic soils. Particular attention is warranted at sites with mixed contaminants with varying geochemical behaviors. PMID:21712583

  11. Potential adverse effects of applying phosphate amendments to immobilize soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majs, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Seven-day batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to measure the efficacy of four phosphate amendments (trisodium trimetaphosphate [TP3], dodecasodium phytate [Na-IP6], precipitated calcium phytate [Ca-IP6], and hydroxyapatite [HA]) for immobilizing Ni and U in organic-rich sediment. Using the eight-step modified Miller's sequential extraction procedure and the USEPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, the effect of these amendments on the distribution of Ni and U was assessed. Relative to unamended controls, equilibrium aqueous-phase U concentrations were lower following HA and Ca-IP6 additions but higher following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments, whereas aqueous Ni concentrations were not decreased only in the Na-IP6 amended treatment relative to the control. The poor rates of contaminant immobilization following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments correlate with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids, which probably contain sorbed U and Ni. While all amendments shifted the U distribution toward more recalcitrant soil fractions, Ni was redistributed to more labile soil fractions. This study cautions that the addition of orthophosphates and organophosphates as contaminant immobilizing amendments may in fact have adverse effects, especially in high-organic soils. Particular attention is warranted at sites with mixed contaminants with varying geochemical behaviors.

  12. Irrigation with isoproterenol during ureterorenoscopy causes no systemic side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Jakobsen, Joern S; Frimodt-Moeller, Poul C;

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side-effects o......Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side......-effects of isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy in humans. Material and methods. Seven patients undergoing ureterorenoscopy due to renal stone disease were included. A 5-Fr catheter was retrogradely placed in the renal pelvis for pressure measurements. Prior to irrigation with isoproterenol (0.1 microg...... isoproterenol irrigation during ureterorenoscopy causes no cardiovascular side-effects and the drug may reduce renal pelvic pressure....

  13. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  14. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  15. Neurocognitive Adverse Effects of Anesthesia in Adults and Children: Gaps in Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Christopher G; Eckenhoff, Roderic G

    2016-07-01

    Numerous preclinical and clinical studies investigating the neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive effects of exposure to anesthesia and the combination of anesthesia and surgery have demonstrated histopathological and both temporary and long-term cognitive and behavioral effects at the extremes of the human age spectrum. Increasing coverage in the lay press for both our youngest and oldest patient populations has led to heightened concerns regarding the potential harmful side effects of almost all commonly used anesthetic drug regimens. Although the majority of information regarding anesthetic risks in the developing brain derives from preclinical work in rodents, research involving the aged brain has identified a well-defined postoperative cognitive phenotype in humans. While preclinical and clinical data appear to support some association between anesthesia and surgery and the development of detrimental cognitive changes in both the developing and the aged brain, correlation between anesthesia and surgery and poor neurological outcomes does not imply causation. Given this information, no single anesthetic or group of anesthetics can be recommended over any other in terms of causing or preventing negative neurocognitive outcomes in either population. This review summarizes the growing body of preclinical and clinical literature dedicated to the detrimental effects of anesthesia on both the developing and the aging brain. PMID:27098249

  16. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup;

    2016-01-01

    , we found effects on weight, histology and gene expression in the liver, as well as changes to the blood plasma metabolome in all exposure groups, including low-dose. Additional adverse effects were observed in the higher dosed groups, including enlarged kidneys and alterations to the metabolome...

  17. Knowledge of Psychiatric Nurses About the Potentially Lethal Side-Effects of Clozapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Hert, Marc; De Beugher, Annelien; Sweers, Kim; Wampers, Martien; Correll, Christoph U; Cohen, Dan

    2016-02-01

    Clozapine is an antipsychotic with superior efficacy in treatment refractory patients, and has unique anti-suicidal properties and a low propensity to cause extrapyramidal side-effects. Despite these advantages, clozapine utilization is low. This can in part be explained by a number of potentially lethal side effects of clozapine. Next to psychiatrists nurses play a crucial role in the long-term management of patients with schizophrenia. It is therefore important that nurses know, inform and monitor patients about the specific side-effects of clozapine. A recent study of psychiatrists published in 2011 has shown that there was a gap in the knowledge about side-effects of clozapine. The knowledge about side-effects of clozapine in nurses has never been studied. This cross-sectional study evaluated the knowledge base regarding the safety of clozapine, and its potential mediators, of psychiatric nurses in 3 psychiatric hospitals in Belgium with a specifically developed questionnaire based on the literature and expert opinion (3 clozapine experts). A total of 85 nurses completed the questionnaire. The mean total score was 6.1 of a potential maximum score of 18. Only 3 of the 18 multiple choice knowledge questions were answered correctly by more than 50% of nurses. Only 24.9% of participants passed the test (>50% correct answers). Nurses working on psychosis units were more likely to pass the test (xx.y% vs yy.z%, p=0.0124). There was a trend that nurses with a lower nursing diploma were more likely to fail the test (p=0.0561). Our study clearly identifies a large gap in the basic knowledge of psychiatric nurses about clozapine and its side-effects. Knowledge could be increased by more emphasis on the topic in nurse's training curricula as well as targeted onsite training. Only 23.5% of participants indicate that there was sufficient information in their basic nursing training. PMID:26804506

  18. The Effects of Pharmaceutical Marketing and Promotion on Adverse Drug Events and Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Guy David; Sara Markowitz; Seth Richards

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between postmarketing promotional activity and reporting of adverse drug events by modeling the interaction between a welfare maximizing regulator (the FDA) and a profit maximizing firm. In our analysis demand is sensitive to both promotion and regulatory interventions. Promotion-driven market expansions enhance profitability yet may involve the risk that the drug would be prescribed inappropriately, leading to adverse regulatory actions against the firm. ...

  19. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  20. Side effects and complications following application of X-ray contrast media - risk reduction and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.K.; Kukulies, R.; Schmitt, W.G.H.; Schulze, B.

    1987-12-01

    The development of nonionic low-osmolar contrast media resulted in a clear reduction of side-effect rate. Premedication involving H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockers will further reduce the side-effect rate in the application of both nonionic and ionic contrast agents under specific conditions. The article suggests a targeted and purposeful application of H/sub 1/ and H/sub 2/ receptor blockers espec. if financial reasons require continuous administration of ionic contrast media in certain indications. By contrast, application of nonionic contrast agents in obligatory in all intra-arterial surgeries and in the examination of children. (orig.)

  1. A study on the side effects of adoption of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Pyeong; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Cheong, Wun Gwan; Song, Jong Sun; Na, Man Gyun; Paek, Won Phil; Yeom, Yu Seon; Hwang, Jeong Rae; Oh, Su Jin [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the side effects of adoption of Risk Informed Regulation. To do so, critical issues of RIR are derived, and develop reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations, and study the side effects, i.e, safety aspects, economical aspects, safety regulation system aspects, and public acceptance aspects of adopting the RIR system. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed.

  2. Severe adverse effects of 5-fluorouracil in S-1 were lessened by haemodialysis due to elimination of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazunori; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Omori, Hiroki; Kimura, Tomonori; Tomida, Kodo; Furumatsu, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Enyu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2009-04-01

    S-1 and cisplatin are used as one of the first-line chemotherapies for gastric cancer in Japan. The plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is increased in patients with renal dysfunction because gimeracil in S-1 inhibits the degradation of 5-FU and about 50% of gimeracil is excreted in the urine. We describe a 35-year-old man with acute kidney injury while taking S-1 and cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer and who presented severe adverse effects of 5-FU. This case report describes the evolution of the plasma concentrations of 5-FU with haemodialysis along with a decrease in the adverse drug effects.

  3. Comparative evaluation of adverse effects in the use of powder trivalent antivenom and liquid antivenoms in Bothrops snake bites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iran Mendonça da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Snake bite, a problem in public health, generally occurs where there is no electric power. METHODS: A comparative clinical study was conducted with 102 victims of Bothrops snake bite, from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; 58 victims were treated with liofilizated trivalent antivenom serum (SATL and 44 victims treated with liquid bivalent and monovalent antivenom serum (SAMBL. RESULTS: 17% (10/58 of patients presented adverse effects with the SATL and 25% (11/44 with the SAMBL. CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistic difference in number of adverse effects between the two types of snake bite antivenom.

  4. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients...... completed assessments for all 6 weeks of the intervention. In order to obtain a continuous record of side-effects, a diary was developed for the patients' use throughout the intervention. The patients scored their symptoms/side-effects on a scale from 0 to 4, using the Common Toxicity Criteria and reported...... these scores in questionnaires. Twelve possible symptoms/side-effects were registered daily: lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paraesthesia, constipation, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, treatment-related fatigue, muscle pain, arthralgia and other pain. During the intervention a decrease...

  5. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  6. Proanthocyanidin as a cytogenetic protective agent against adverse effects of plant growth regulators supplementation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract (containing proanthocyandin) against the adverse effects of plant growth regulators (GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indoleacetic acid)). The present data showed that the administration of either GA3 and IAA caused undesirable changes in both hepatic and testicular structure. This was evidenced by a disturbed hepatic strands, pyknotic nuclei, central vein with collapsed endothelium, dilatation in bile sinusoids, congested blood vessel, binucleatd hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolation, giant hepatic cells, increased Kupffer cells and karyoryxis. Additionally, it was shown that degenerative changes in the testis, spermatogenic arrest, moderate tubular necrosis, Leydig cell degeneration and reduction in the number and size of the seminiferous tubules with some spermatogonia detached from the basement membrane. Concerning flow cytometric study of the liver a significant decrease in G0/1 % and a significant increase in S phase %, G2/M  %, P(53) % and apoptosis % (sub G1) were detected. However, in testis the data recorded a significant decrease in the percentage of mature sperm (percentage of haploid cells) and a significant increase in the percentage of spermatide, diploid cells, P(53) and of apoptotic cells. On the other hand, a distinct recovery of the mentioned hepatic and testicular histopathological and cytogenetic disorders was observed when proanthocyanidin was supplemented to rats administered either of the plant growth hormones (GA3 and IAA).

  7. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

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    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  8. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet

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    Andersson Neil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. Methods The balance sheet listed: 1 major health conditions associated with measles; 2 the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3 the risk among the vaccinated; 4 the risk difference between vaccinated and unvaccinated; and 5 the likely net gain from vaccination for each condition. Results Two models revealed very different projections of net gain from measles vaccine. A Lasbela-specific combination of low period prevalence of measles among the unvaccinated, medium vaccination coverage and low vaccine efficacy rate, as revealed by the baseline survey, resulted in less-than-expected gains attributable to vaccination. Modelled on estimates where the vaccine had greater efficacy, the gains from vaccination would be more substantial. Conclusion Specific local conditions probably explain the low rates among the unvaccinated while the high vaccine failure rate is likely due to weaknesses in the vaccination delivery system. Community perception of these realities may have had some role in household decisions about whether to vaccinate, although the major discouraging factor was inadequate access. The balance sheet may be useful as a communication tool in other circumstances, applied to up-to-date local evidence.

  9. Reading from a Head-Fixed Display during Walking: Adverse Effects of Gaze Stabilization Mechanisms.

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    Olivier Borg

    Full Text Available Reading performance during standing and walking was assessed for information presented on earth-fixed and head-fixed displays by determining the minimal duration during which a numerical time stimulus needed to be presented for 50% correct naming answers. Reading from the earth-fixed display was comparable during standing and walking, with optimal performance being attained for visual character sizes in the range of 0.2° to 1°. Reading from the head-fixed display was impaired for small (0.2-0.3° and large (5° visual character sizes, especially during walking. Analysis of head and eye movements demonstrated that retinal slip was larger during walking than during standing, but remained within the functional acuity range when reading from the earth-fixed display. The detrimental effects on performance of reading from the head-fixed display during walking could be attributed to loss of acuity resulting from large retinal slip. Because walking activated the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, the resulting compensatory eye movements acted to stabilize gaze on the information presented on the earth-fixed display but destabilized gaze from the information presented on the head-fixed display. We conclude that the gaze stabilization mechanisms that normally allow visual performance to be maintained during physical activity adversely affect reading performance when the information is presented on a display attached to the head.

  10. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

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    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  11. Efectos adversos del tratamiento del cáncer oral Adverse effects of oral cancer treatment

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    F.J. Silvestre-Donat

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se hace una revisión de los efectos adversos más frecuentes por la cirugía de tumores de cabeza y cuello, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia, pues no es infrecuente que el odontólogo general encuentre en su consulta complicaciones como mucositis, xerostomía, necrosis óseas, alteraciones gustativas y otras lesiones que causarán molestias considerables al paciente, disminuyendo su calidad de vida. El papel del odontólogo en el tratamiento multidisciplinario constituye un pilar importante en la prevención, el tratamiento de dichas complicaciones y la disminución de sus secuelas.In this article a revision of most frequent adverse effects of head and neck surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is maid, because frequently general dentists deal with complications at their practises like mucositis, xerostomia, osteonecrosis, taste alterations and other pathologies which will cause disturbances to the patients, affecting their quality of live. The role of the dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment is an important element in the prevention, treatment of the complications and in the reduction of its consequences.

  12. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

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    Celet Ozden Burcu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Methods Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy. The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. Results A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Conclusions Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  13. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Ana Katherine; Cobucci, Ricardo Ney; Rodrigues, Hugo Marcus; de Melo, Amanda Gosson; Giraldo, Paulo César

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccines have been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium) and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ). We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR) of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00-3.60), swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79-3.53) and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17-2.68). For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42-3.43) and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0-3.44). Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  14. Safety, tolerability and side effects of human papillomavirus vaccines: a systematic quantitative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Katherine Gonçalves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have evaluated HPV vaccine safety and adverse effects. Two vaccine shave been recently evaluated in randomized controlled trials: the bivalent vaccine for HPV 16 and 18 (Cervarix, GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium and the quadrivalent vaccine for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 (Gardasil, Merck and Co., Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ. We have performed a systematic review of all randomized controlled trials in which HPV vaccines were compared with placebo regarding safety, tolerability and adverse effects. Studies were searched up to March 2013 in the databases: Pubmed, Embase, Scielo and Cancerlit. Odds Ratios (OR of most incident adverse effects were obtained. Twelve reports, involving 29,540 subjects, were included. In the HPV 16/18 group, the most frequently reported events related to the vaccine were pain (OR 3.29; 95% CI: 3.00–3.60, swelling (OR 3.14; 95% CI: 2.79–3.53 and redness (OR 2.41; 95% CI: 2.17–2.68. For the HPV 6/11/16/18 group the events were pain (OR 2.88; 95% CI: 2.42–3.43 and swelling (OR 2.65; 95% CI: 2.0–3.44. Concerning the HPV 16/18 vaccine, pain was the most common outcome detected. These effects can be due to a possible VLP-related inflammation process. Fatigue was the most relevant general effect observed followed by fever, gastrointestinal symptoms, and headache. In the HPV 6/11/16/18 group, only general symptoms, pain and swelling were observed. Pain and swelling were the most frequent. Comparing HPV 16/18 to HPV 6/11/16/18 vaccines, the former presented more adverse effects, perhaps because there are many more trials evaluating the bivalent vaccine. Other studies are needed to clarify this issue.

  15. Long-term therapy in COPD: any evidence of adverse effect on bone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulf Langhammer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arnulf Langhammer1, Siri Forsmo2, Unni Syversen3,41HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Verdal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and General Practice, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Endocrinology, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayAbstract: Patients with COPD have high risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Hip and vertebral fractures might impair mobility, and vertebral fractures further reduce lung function. This review discusses the evidence of bone loss due to medical treatment opposed to disease severity and risk factors for COPD, and therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in these patients. A review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE database until June 2009. Currently used bronchodilators probably lack adverse effect on bone. Oral corticosteroids (OCS increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation in a dose response relationship, but the fracture risk is increased more than reflected by bone densitometry. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS have been associated with both increased bone loss and fracture risk. This might be a result of confounding by disease severity, but high doses of ICS have similar effects as equipotent doses of OCS. The life-style factors should be modified, use of regular OCS avoided and use of ICS restricted to those with evidenced effect and probably kept at moderate doses. The health care should actively reveal risk factors, include bone densitometry in fracture risk evaluation, and give adequate prevention and treatment for osteoporosis.Keywords: COPD, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, bone mineral density, osteoporosis, fractures

  16. Curcumin Inhibits The Adverse Effects of Sodium Arsenite in Mouse Epididymal Sperm

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    Momeni Hamid Reza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of curcumin on epididy- mal sperm parameters in adult male Navel Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice ex- posed to sodium arsenite. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, we divided the animals into four groups: control, sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg, curcumin (100 mg/kg and curcumin+sodium arsenite. Exposures were performed by intraperitoneal injections for a 5-week period. After the exposure period, we recorded the animals’ body and left testes weights. The left caudal epididymis was used to count the sperm number and analyze motility, viability, morphological abnormalities, acrosome reaction, DNA integrity, and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by the Tukey’s test was used to assess the statistical significance of the data with SPSS 16.0. P<0.05 was considered significant. Results Mice exposed to sodium arsenite showed a significant decrease in the num- ber, motility, viability, normal sperm morphology and acrosome integrity of spermato- zoa compared to the control group. In the curcumin+sodium arsenite group, curcumin significantly reversed these adverse effects to the point where they approximated the control. In addition, the application of curcumin alone had no significant difference in these parameters compared to the control and curcumin+sodium arsenite groups. However, we observed no significant differences in the body and the testis weight as well as the DNA integrity and histone-protamine replacement in the spermatozoa of the four groups. Conclusion Curcumin compensated for the toxic effects of sodium arsenite on a number of sperm parameters in adult mice.

  17. Low Root Zone Temperature Limits Nutrient Effects on Cucumber Seedling Growth and Induces Adversity Physiological Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiu-yan; DUAN Zeng-qiang; MAO Jing-dong; LI Xun; DONG Fei

    2013-01-01

    Effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) (12°C-RZT and 20°C-RZT) and different N, P, and K nutrient regimes on the growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant enzyme in cucumber seedlings were investigated in hydroponics. Strong interactions were observed between RZT and nutrient on the dry weight (P=0.001), root length (P=0.001) and leaf area (P=0.05). Plant dry weights were suppressed at low RZT of 12°C, while higher biomass and growth of cucumber seedlings were produced at elevated RZT of 20°C under each nutrient treatment. Growth indexes (plant height, internode length, root length, and leaf area) at 12°C-RZT had less difference among nutrient treatments, but greater response was obtained for different nutrients at high RZT. RZT had larger effects (P=0.001) on cucumber seedling growth than nutrients. In addition, N was more effective nutrients to plant growth than P and K under low root temperature to plant growth. Higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar (SS) contents in leaves were observed at 12°C-RZT in all nutrient treatments than those at 20°C-RZT, indicating the chilling adversity damaged to plant growth. In general, antioxidant enzyme had larger response under low root-zone temperature. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher in both leaves and roots while peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) showed large different action in leaves and roots at both the two root-zone temperature.

  18. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  19. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

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    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  20. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems