WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse mental symptoms

  1. Increased Serum PAI-1 Levels in Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome and Long-Term Adverse Mental Symptoms: A Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huotari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, an inhibitor of tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators, are associated with MetS. To clarify the role of PAI-1 in subjects with long-term adverse mental symptomatology (LMS; including depression and MetS, we measured circulating PAI-1 levels in controls (n=111, in subjects with MetS and free of mental symptoms (n=42, and in subjects with both MetS and long-term mental symptoms (n=70. PAI-1 increased linearly across the three groups in men. In logistic regression analysis, men with PAI-1 levels above the median had a 3.4-fold increased likelihood of suffering from the comorbidity of long-term adverse mental symptoms and MetS, while no such associations were detected in women. In conclusion, our results suggest that in men high PAI-1 levels are independently associated with long-term mental symptomatology.

  2. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  3. Rikkunshi-to attenuates adverse gastrointestinal symptoms induced by fluvoxamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodama Naoki

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal (GI symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are common adverse events associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, and may result in discontinuation of drug therapy in patients with depressive disorder. Rikkunshi-to (formulation TJ-43, a traditional herbal medicine, has been reported to improve upper GI symptoms and comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia. The aim of the present study was to determine if TJ-43 reduces GI symptoms and potentiates an antidepressant effect in a randomized controlled study of depressed patients treated with fluvoxamine (FLV. Methods Fifty patients with depressive disorder (19–78 years, mean age 40.2 years were treated with FLV (n = 25 or FLV in combination with TJ-43 (FLV+TJ-43 (n = 25 for eight weeks. The following parameters of the two groups were compared: The number of patients who complained of adverse events and their symptoms; GI symptoms quality of life (QOL score, assessed by the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS, Japanese edition, before and two weeks after beginning treatment; and depressive symptoms assessed by the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS, before and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after beginning treatment. Results The number of patients who complained of adverse events in the FLV+TJ-43 group (n = 6 was significantly lower than the number complaining in the FLV group (n = 13 (P P Conclusion This study suggests that Rikkunshi-to reduces FLV-induced adverse events, especially nausea, and improves QOL related to GI symptoms without affecting the antidepressant effect of FLV.

  4. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer Across Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Gouttebarge, Frank J.G. Backx, Haruhito Aoki, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, – typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD – is lacking in European professional football (soccer. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players’ unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden, 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway, 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain, 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland, and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway. In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team.

  5. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  6. Prevalence of symptoms associated with mental illness in Salvadorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gutiérrez

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study arises the purpose of describing and explaining some behaviors considered abnormal, that with Salvadorans present, which in many occasions are the result of greater conflicts; for example, social violence, familiar violence, delinquency, homicides, depression and anxiety, among others. The specific objectives that were considered at the beginning of the project were to identify the incidence of symptoms of mental upheavals; to establish the difference of symptoms in relation to the sex of the population; to determine if sex affects the mental upheavals; and to establish the prevalence of symptoms of the mental upheavals in each geographic zone of the country. In the methodology of the study, the following strategies were used: It was determined that it was a descriptive study, the design of investigation was transactional descriptive; the random sampling by conglomerates was used; the technique used was the survey directed to 1.668 people distributed in the 31 more important cities of El Salvador; the instrument used was the Illustrated Questionnaire of Symptoms (designed by the PAHO/WHO that measures the presence of symptoms of ten mental upheavals and behavior. The results can be synthesized in percentages of prevalence of symptoms and some of these are the following: 50% of the interviewed people presented symptoms of compulsive obsessive upheaval, 47,7% presented anxiety symptoms and distresses, 36,8% presented somatization characteristics. Also, 29,1% presented some symptoms of depression; 33,2% of the evaluated population declared to have symptoms of the convulsive Syndrome. 35,8% demonstrated some suspicions of symptoms of an organic cerebral Syndrome. The final part of the study contains the conclusions and a set of solution strategies.

  7. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  8. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chi-yi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. Aims To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disord

  9. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  10. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study conducted at four Danish hospital pediatric departments, the parents of 472 consecutive children were informed of this project to determine the incidence of intolerance of food additives among children referred to an allergy clinic with symptoms of asthma, atopic dermatitis......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic...

  11. The hermeneutics of mental symptoms in the Cambridge School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Aragona

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Current Psychiatry is in crisis. Decades of neuroscientific research have not yet delivered adequate explanations or treatments. One reason for this failure may be the wrongness of its central assumption, namely that mental symptoms and disorders are natural kinds. The Cambridge School has proposed that a new Epistemology must be constructed for Psychiatry, and that this should start with the development of a new model of mental symptom-formation. ‘Mental symptoms’ should be considered as hermeneutic co-constructions occurring in a intersubjective space created by the dialogue between sufferer and healer. Subjective experiences (caused either by neurobiological or psychosocial upheaval penetrate the awareness of sufferers causing perplexity and/or distress. To understand, handle and communicate these experiences, sufferers proceed to configure them by means of templates borrowed from their own culture. Importantly, however, the same neurobiological information can be configured into different symptoms; and different neurobiological information into the same symptom. Therefore, ‘mental symptoms’ are dissimilar hybrid combinations of neurobiological and cultural information. To be ethical, therapeutic interventions must take into account such dissimilarities. Blind manipulation of the brain in all cases should be considered as counterproductive.

  12. Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M

    2015-08-01

    Within a longitudinal study of 1,005 adolescents, we investigated how exposure to childhood psychosocial adversities was associated with the emergence of depressive symptoms between 14 and 17 years of age. The cohort was classified into four empirically determined adversity subtypes for two age periods in childhood (0-5 and 6-11 years). One subtype reflects normative/optimal family environments (n = 692, 69%), while the other three subtypes reflect differential suboptimal family environments (aberrant parenting: n = 71, 7%; discordant: n = 185, 18%; and hazardous: n = 57, 6%). Parent-rated child temperament at 14 years and adolescent self-reported recent negative life events in early and late adolescence were included in models implementing path analysis. There were gender-differentiated associations between childhood adversity subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms. The discordant and hazardous subtypes were associated with elevated depressive symptoms in both genders but the aberrant parenting subtype only so in girls. Across adolescence the associations between early childhood adversity and depressive symptoms diminished for boys but remained for girls. Emotional temperament was also associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, while proximal negative life events related to depressive symptoms in girls only. There may be neurodevelopmental factors that emerge in adolescence that reduce depressogenic symptoms in boys but increase such formation in girls.

  13. Are Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Related to Mental Health Service Use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2016-01-01

    the Danish registers. RESULTS: The prevalence of PTSD symptoms increased over time, and almost 10% of the sample reported high levels of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years postdeployment. Overall, 37% of the soldiers utilized mental health services; 6% utilized psychiatric services, and 12.4% redeemed a prescription...... of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in soldiers before and after deployment to Afghanistan. METHODS: Prospectively, 703 Danish soldiers who deployed from January 2009 to August 2009 were followed up with 6 assessments from predeployment to 2.5 years postdeployment in 2012. At assessments, the soldiers...... responded to a comprehensive questionnaire including a measure of PTSD symptoms (the PTSD Checklist-Civilian version). These self-reported data were combined with individual-level records of receiving psychotherapy from the Military Psychological Division at the Danish Defense and psychiatric treatment from...

  14. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  15. Symptoms of cardiovascular diseases in the course of mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ostachowska

    2016-05-01

    Disscussion: It is worth to remember, that for high proportion of patients with mental disorders somatic syndrome is the only symptom they report to physicians. Emotion regulation theory, alexithymia theory and desomatization and resomatization theory find it as the effect of unsolved problems with emotions. Moreover, functional neuroimaging studies seem to reveal coherent findings. Based on it, the neurophysilogical model of emotion regulation and the mechanism of cognitive-emotional executive control were described. Accordingly, literature shows that in heart disease patients the incorporation of psychological interventions in healing process significantly reduces mortality and relapse.

  16. Mental and Behavioral Symptoms of Person's with Asperger's Syndrome: Relationships with Social Isolation and Handicaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Masayuki; Kanai, Chieko; Ota, Haruhisa; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Hiromi; Yokoi, Hideki; Takayama, Yuko; Ono, Taisei; Hashimoto, Ryuichiro; Kato, Nobumasa; Iwanami, Akira

    2012-01-01

    People with Asperger's syndrome (AS) experience mental comorbidities, and behavioral symptoms that can deepen social isolation and handicaps. We compared the frequency of mental and behavioral symptoms, motor abnormality, and life history between adults with AS and those with no mental disorders but with disturbance of social functions and…

  17. Mental stress-induced left ventricular dysfunction and adverse outcome in ischemic heart disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Julia L; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Babyak, Michael A; Wilson, Jennifer L; Kuhn, Cynthia; Becker, Richard C; Ortel, Thomas L; Williams, Redford B; Rogers, Joseph G; O'Connor, Christopher M; Velazquez, Eric J; Jiang, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Aims Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) occurs in up to 70% of patients with clinically stable ischemic heart disease and is associated with increased risk of adverse prognosis. We aimed to examine the prognostic value of indices of MSIMI and exercise stress-induced myocardial ischemia (ESIMI) in a population of ischemic heart disease patients that was not confined by having a recent positive physical stress test. Methods and results The Responses of Mental Stress Induced Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) study enrolled 310 subjects who underwent mental and exercise stress testing and were followed annually for a median of four years. Study endpoints included time to first and total rate of major adverse cardiovascular events, defined as all-cause mortality and hospitalizations for cardiovascular causes. Cox and negative binomial regression adjusting for age, sex, resting left ventricular ejection fraction, and heart failure status were used to examine associations of indices of MSIMI and ESIMI with study endpoints. The continuous variable of mental stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change was significantly associated with both endpoints (all p values mental stress, patients had a 5% increase in the probability of a major adverse cardiovascular event at the median follow-up time and a 20% increase in the number of major adverse cardiovascular events endured over the follow-up period of six years. Indices of ESIMI did not predict endpoints ( ps > 0.05). Conclusion In patients with stable ischemic heart disease, mental, but not exercise, stress-induced left ventricular ejection fraction change significantly predicts risk of future adverse cardiovascular events.

  18. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  19. Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may explain poor mental health in patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Loren L; Whipple, Mary O; Vincent, Ann

    2015-10-20

    Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder are common in fibromyalgia patients. This study compared post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls and determined whether patient-control differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms mediated differences in mental health. In all, 30 patients and 30 healthy controls completed questionnaires assessing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health. Fibromyalgia patients had greater symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and mental health than controls. Patient-control differences in mental health symptoms were fully or partially mediated by differences in post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Healthcare providers should understand the role of trauma as management of trauma symptoms may be one strategy for improving mental health.

  20. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  1. Joint Symptoms, Aromatase Inhibitor-Related Adverse Reactions, Are Indirectly Associated with Decreased Serum Estradiol

    OpenAIRE

    Junko Honda; Miyuki Kanematsu; Misako Nakagawa; Masako Takahashi; Taeko Nagao; Akira Tangoku; Mitsunori Sasa

    2011-01-01

    Background. Joint symptoms (JSs) are problematic adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Involvement of decreased serum estradiol (SE) has been suggested. Patients and Methods. 104 postmenopausal breast cancer patients administered an AI were prospectively investigated regarding various clinical parameters, JS and hot flashes as ADRs, and the SE level. Results. JS manifested in 31.7% of patients and hot flashes in 18.3%. Chi-square testing showed a significantly hig...

  2. Pattern of Energy Drink Consumption and Associated Adverse Symptoms among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Orimoloye, Adeyinka; Hurlock, Lisa; Trevor S Ferguson; Lee, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study estimated the prevalence of energy drink consumption among students at the University of the West Indies (UWI), and describes the frequency of consumption and associated adverse symptoms. Study Design: A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a sex-stratified random sample of students residing in the halls of residence at the UWI, in Jamaica. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Mona campus of UWI, between October 2011 and January 2012. Methodology:...

  3. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  4. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    adverse effects of anti-inflammatory interventions. DATA SOURCES: Trials published prior to December, 31, 2013, were identified searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized placebo......-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD......IMPORTANCE: Several studies have reported antidepressant effects of anti-inflammatory treatment; however, the results have been conflicting and detrimental adverse effects may contraindicate the use of anti-inflammatory agents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antidepressant and possible...

  5. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-09-01

    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  6. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  7. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  8. Renal function and symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Lundström, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal impairment and the risk of toxicity caused by accumulation of opioids and/or active metabolites is an under-investigated issue. This study aimed at analysing if symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer were associated with renal function. METHODS: Cross...... and cognitive dysfunction were assessed (EORTC QLQ-C30). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI Creatinine) equations. RESULTS: Mild to severe low GFR was observed...

  9. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05, as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05. No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority.

  10. Are Level of Education and Employment Related to Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Current and Retired Professional Footballers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Verhagen, Evert; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental disorders have become a topic of increasing interest in research due to their serious consequences for quality of life and functioning. Objectives The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of level of education, employment status and working hours with symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutritional behaviour) among current and retired professional footballers. Materials and Methods Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among current and retired professional footballers. Based on validated scales, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries across three continents. Results A total of 607 current professional footballers (mean age of 27 years) and 219 retired professional footballers (mean age of 35 years) were involved in the study. Among retired professional footballers, statistically significant negative correlations were found between employment status and symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression (P < 0.05), as well as between number of working hours and symptoms of anxiety/depression (P < 0.05). No other statistically significant associations were found among retired players. Among current professional footballers, level of education was not associated with symptoms of common mental disorders. Conclusions Among retired professional footballers, employment status as well as a higher number of working hours was weakly correlated to symptoms of distress and anxiety/depression. Combining a football career with sustainable attention for educational and career planning might be important and of high priority. PMID:27625749

  11. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  12. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, K; Lowey, H; Quigg, Z; Bellis, MA

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Individuals' childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. METHODS: A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Men...

  13. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  14. Clustering of symptoms of mental disorder in the medium-term following conflict: an epidemiological study in Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Ivancic, Lorraine; Rees, Susan; Bateman-Steel, Catherine; Steel, Zachary

    2014-10-30

    It is important to define subpopulations with mental health and psychosocial reactions in the medium-term following conflict to ensure that an appropriate array of services are provided to meet the diversity of needs. We conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) on epidemiological data drawn from an urban and rural sample of 1221 adults (581 men and 640 women, response 82%) in post-conflict Timor Leste 4 years after the cessation of violence. The prevalence of PTSD was 4.9%; severe distress 4.8%; anger attacks 38.3%; and paranoid-like symptoms 10.9%. The best fitting LCA yielded three classes comprising those with no or minimal symptoms (86%), a class with anger-paranoia (13%) and a comorbid mental disorder class (1.5%) characterized by PTSD (100%) and severe distress (98%). The comorbid mental disorder class had an over-representation of men, the unemployed, residents in the urban area and persons with the greatest exposure to human rights trauma, murder and health stress. The anger-paranoia class experienced moderate levels of trauma and had an over-representation of urban dwellers, women, and those with higher levels of education. The analysis assists in clarifying the populations with mental disorder and adverse psychosocial reactions in need of intervention in the medium-term following conflict.

  15. Adverse working conditions and mental illness in poultry slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Simon Hutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is one of the reasons for the great number of absences from work due to incapacity in Brazil. Recently, mental disorders were included in the list of occupational diseases of the International Labour Office. In spite of the difficulty in attributing a causal link between an inappropriate work environment and mental illness, studies have shown that workers exposed to high levels of stress are more likely to present psychopathological symptoms. The present study investigated the relationship between working conditions and the Neuroticism personality factor. Participants were 951 workers from southern Brazilian poultry slaughterhouses, who work in positions with varied levels of risk and stress. The neuroticism scores of such employees were compared with those of other samples. A scale which measures the Neuroticism factor in the model of the Big Five Personality Factor validated for use in Brazil was employed. The results showed that workers of the sectors in which the working conditions are highly stressful presented higher levels in all sub-factors of neuroticism than workers in other sectors and groups. These sectors also showed higher indexes of mental disorders.

  16. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found...... for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found...

  17. Differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between volunteer and career firefighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Ian H; Boffa, Joseph W; Hom, Melanie A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about differences in psychiatric symptoms between volunteer and career firefighters. This study aimed to (1) describe differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between U.S. firefighters in volunteer-only and career-only departments; and (2) determine if greater self-reported structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources) explain the differences in psychiatric symptom levels. Overall, 525 current U.S. firefighters participated. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate group differences between volunteer (n=204) and career (n=321) firefighters, adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics. Volunteer firefighters reported significantly elevated levels of depression, posttraumatic stress, and suicidal symptoms compared to career firefighters. Career firefighters reported relatively elevated levels of problematic alcohol use. Volunteer firefighters additionally reported greater structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources), and these barriers accounted for the differences in mental health variables between volunteer and career firefighters. Findings suggest that volunteer firefighters report elevated psychiatric symptoms compared to career firefighters and greater structural barriers to mental health treatment may explain this link. Increased efforts are needed to develop firefighter-specific interventions and bolster mental health service utilization.

  18. ASTHMA AND MENTAL HEALTH SYMPTOMS AMONG ADULT ARAB AMERICANS IN THE DETROIT AREA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The burden of managing chronic health problems such as asthma is often compounded by psychological distress and debilitating mental health problems associated with these conditions. In this study we assessed the relationship between asthma and self-reported mental health symptom...

  19. SYMPTOMS OF PUPILS’ MENTAL STATE IN PERCEPTION OF MONOCOLORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshat Tavkilevna Shavalieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of mental states, depending on the color shade or monocolors proposed for the perception. The dependence of mental states on the specific exposures and the role of color characteristics (monocolors identified on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the manifestations of mental states was clarified.Purpose: To study the features of mental states of "school age" children in the perception monocolors and in combinations of them.Method or the methodology of the work: Studies were conducted on the basis of a systematic methodology and activity theory developed by Vygotsky, Leontiev, Luria and subject approach of A.V. Brushlinsky, S.L. Rubinstein and also theoretical principles and provisions of the concept of individual mental states (A.O.Prohorov and concepts of color (Goethe, P.V. Yanshin etc.. Research material istheoretical analysis of general and specialized literature on color perception.Results: Our studies suggest that mental states are in a constant depending on the perceived hue (monocolors, or combinations of them, and its impact on the human condition occur at a more subtle level, i.e. depending on the palette Tinted monocolors.Practical implications:: The results of our study can be applied in the course of the educational process, the organization of practice, creativity of younger schoolchildren, adolescents and children adolescence. The study can also be continued, complicating exposure studying manifestations of mental states in mental activity of respondents.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-3-7

  20. [Development and Validation of Estimate Equations for Adverse Drug Reactions Using Risk Factors and Subjective Symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ryohei; Ohtsu, Fumiko; Goto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

      The purpose of this study was to develop and validate estimate equations for preventing adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We conducted five case-control studies to identify individual risk factors and subjective symptoms associated with the following five ADRs: drug-induced ischemic heart disease; renal damage; muscle disorder; interstitial pneumonia; and leucopenia. We performed logistic regression analysis and obtained eight regression equations for each ADR. We converted these to ADR estimate equations for predicting the likelihood of ADRs. We randomly selected 50 cases with non-individual ADRs from the Case Reports of Adverse Drug Reactions and Poisoning Information System (CARPIS) database of over 65000 case reports of ADRs, and assigned these cases to a validation case group. We then calculated the predictive probability for 50 cases using the eight estimate equations for each ADR. The highest probability for each ADR was set as the probability of each ADR. If the probability was over 50%, the case was interpreted as ADR-positive. We calculated and evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio of this system. Sensitivity of the estimate equations for muscle disorder and interstitial pneumonia were ≥90%. Specificity and positive likelihood ratios of estimate equations for renal damage, interstitial pneumonia and leucopenia were ≥80% and ≥5, respectively. Our estimate equations thus showed high validity, and are therefore helpful for the prevention or early detection of ADRs.

  1. Mental health symptoms identify workers at risk of long-term sickness absence due to mental disorders : prospective cohort study with 2-year follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoffen, Marieke F. A.; Joling, Catelijne I.; Heymans, Martijn W.; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Roelen, Corne A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are a leading cause of long-term sickness absence (LTSA). Workers at risk of mental LTSA should preferably be identified before they report sick. The objective of this study was to examine mental health symptoms as predictors of future mental LTSA in non-sicklisted

  2. Life course adversity in the lives of formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness: context and meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Deborah K; Smith, Bikki Tran; Henwood, Benjamin F; Tiderington, Emmy

    2012-07-01

    This qualitative study assessed the frequency and subjective meaning of adverse experiences using case study analyses of interviews with 38 formerly homeless adults with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI) and substance abuse histories. Adverse life events were inventoried using an adaptation of Lloyd and Turner's (2008) 41-item checklist. Participants averaged 8.8 adverse events, with approximately one-third having experienced incarceration (37%), suicidality (32%), abandonment by one or both parents (30%), and death of their mother (34%). Cross-case analyses yielded 3 themes: social losses because of death and estrangement; the significance of chronic stressors as well as acute events; and the cumulative lifetime nature of adversity. Findings suggest that life course experiences of trauma and loss have a cumulative influence in the lives of this population in addition and in relation to SMI, substance abuse, and homelessness. In this context, the mental health recovery movement should address prior adverse experiences beyond comorbid diagnoses in this population.

  3. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their characterisations of…

  4. Internalizing Symptoms and Safe Sex Intentions among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment: Personal Factors as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Meredith C.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Hadley, Wendy; Dattadeen, Jodi-Ann; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about why some adolescents with internalizing symptoms engage in sexual behaviors that increase their risk for HIV. This study tested a mediation model of internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among adolescents receiving mental health treatment. Self-efficacy for HIV prevention, HIV knowledge, and worry about HIV were hypothesized to mediate associations between internalizing symptoms and safe sex intentions among sexually active and non-active adolescents receiving mental health treatment (N = 893, M age = 14.9). Significant indirect effects from internalizing symptoms to safe sex intentions varied according sexual experience: for sexually non-active adolescents, HIV worry and knowledge mediated this link, whereas for sexually active adolescents, HIV self-efficacy was the significant mediator. Increasing both HIV knowledge and self-efficacy for HIV prevention are important targets for HIV prevention with adolescents with internalizing symptoms, and careful attention should be paid towards targeting these interventions to sexually experienced and inexperienced youth. PMID:25284921

  5. Recognizing the Symptoms of Mental Illness following Concussions in the Sports Community: A Need for Improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Topolovec-Vranic

    Full Text Available To evaluate the awareness of concussion-related symptoms amongst members of the sports community in Canada.A cross-sectional national electronic survey was conducted. Youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals across Canada were recruited through mailing lists from sports-related opt-in marketing databases. Participants were asked to identify, from a list of options, the symptoms of a concussion. The proportion of identified symptoms (categorized as physical, cognitive, mental health-related and overall as well as participant factors associated with symptom recognition were analyzed.The survey elicited 6,937 responses. Most of the respondents (92.1% completed the English language survey, were male (57.7%, 35-54 years of age (61.7%, with post-secondary education (58.2%, or high reported yearly household income (>$80,000; 53.0%. There were respondents from all provinces and territories with the majority of respondents from Ontario (35.2% or British Columbia (19.1%. While participants identified most of the physical (mean = 84.2% of symptoms and cognitive (mean = 91.2% of symptoms, they on average only identified 53.5% of the mental health-related symptoms of concussions. Respondents who were older, with higher education and household income, or resided in the Northwest Territories or Alberta identified significantly more of the mental health-related symptoms listed.While Canadian youth athletes, parents, coaches and medical professionals are able to identify most of the physical and cognitive symptoms associated with concussion, identification of mental health-related symptoms of concussion is still lagging.

  6. Bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdalotomy for mental retardation with psychiatric symptoms and aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Li, Peng; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Mental retardation (MR) is a chronic condition that often has no readily identifiable cause or treatment. Aggression and psychiatric symptoms are prevalent in children with MR. Surgical treatment of aggression and psychiatric symptoms of MR is seldom investigated and studies are limited. Patient concerns: We encountered a 19-year-old female who had MR with aggression and psychiatric symptoms. Diagnoses: She was diagnosed with mild MR with aggressiveness and psychiatric symptoms. Interventions: Because the patient was refractory to conservative treatment, bilateral anterior capsulotomy and amygdaloid neurosurgery were performed for her psychiatric symptoms and aggression. The benefits and side effects of the surgery were analyzed. Outcomes: After surgery, the patient showed significant alleviation of her psychiatric symptoms and aggression with no observed side effects. Lessons: Bilateral anterior capsulotomy in combination with amygdaloid neurosurgery may resolve both psychiatric and aggressive symptoms. Future investigations of control studies with large patient cohorts are needed. PMID:28072743

  7. Cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms in a community sample of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundermann, Jane M; Chu, Ann T; DePrince, Anne P

    2013-01-01

    Women exposed to more types of violence (e.g., emotional, physical, or sexual violence)--referred to here as cumulative violence exposure--are at risk for more severe mental health symptoms compared to women who are exposed to a single type of violence or no violence. Women exposed to violence may also experience greater emotional nonacceptance compared to women with no exposure to violence. Emotional nonacceptance refers to an unwillingness to experience emotional states, including cognitive and behavioral attempts to avoid experiences of emotion. Given the links between cumulative violence exposure, emotional nonacceptance, and mental health symptoms among female victims of violence, the current study tested victims' emotional nonacceptance as a partial mediator between cumulative violence exposure and the severity of 3 types of symptoms central to complex trauma responses: depression, dissociation, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. A non-treatment-seeking community sample of women (N = 89; M age = 30.70 years) completed self-report questionnaires and interviews. Bootstrap procedures were then used to test 3 mediation models for the separate predictions of depression, dissociation, and PTSD symptoms. Results supported our hypotheses that emotional nonacceptance would mediate the relationship between women's cumulative violence exposure and severity for all symptom types. The current findings highlight the role that emotional nonacceptance may play in the development of mental health symptoms for chronically victimized women and point to the need for longitudinal research in such populations.

  8. Mental Strain and Chronic Stress among University Students with Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco D. Gulewitsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the degree of mental strain and chronic stress in a German community sample of students with IBS-like symptoms. Methods and Materials. Following an internet-based survey about stress, this study recruited 176 German university students (23.45±2.48 years; 48.3% males with IBS-like symptoms according to Rome III and 181 students without IBS (23.55±2.82 years; 50.3% males and compared them regarding current mental strain (SCL-90-R and the extend of chronic stress. Beyond this, IBS subtypes, IBS severity, and health care utilization were assessed. Results. Students fulfilling IBS criteria showed significantly elevated values of mental strain and chronic stress. Nearly 40% of the IBS group (versus 20% of the controls reached a clinically relevant value on the SCL-90-R global severity scale. IBS subtypes did not differ in terms of mental distress or chronic stress. Somatization, anxiety, and the chronic stressors “work overload,” “social tension,” and “dissatisfaction with job” were most closely connected to IBS symptom severity. Regarding health care utilization, our results show that consulting a physician frequently was not associated significantly with elevated mental strain or chronic stress but with IBS symptom severity. Conclusion. Our data contribute additional evidence to the distinct association between psychological stress and IBS in community samples.

  9. Symptoms of mental impairment among elderly adults and their effects on family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, G T; Bass, D M

    1986-11-01

    Research that has examined the relationship between caregiving stress and elders' symptoms of mental impairment has focused primarily on cognitive incapacity. This research expands the symptoms of mental impairment to include caregivers' reports of problems in elders' social functioning and the presence of disruptive behavior, in addition to the traditional measure of cognitive incapacity. Results from a study of 614 families living with and caring for an impaired elder show cognitive incapacity to have a less important direct effect on caregiving stress than disruptive behavior and impaired social functioning. Cognitive incapacity does have an important indirect effect through its influence on disruptive behavior and social functioning.

  10. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  11. The influence of psychological symptoms on mental health literacy of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin E; Saw, Anne; Zane, Nolan

    2015-11-01

    Psychological problems, such as depression and anxiety, are common among college students, but few receive treatment for it. Mental health literacy may partially account for low rates of mental health treatment utilization. We report 2 studies that investigated mental health literacy among individuals with varying degrees of psychological symptoms, using cross-sectional online survey methodology. Study 1 involved 332 college students, of which 32% were categorized as high depressed using an established measure of depression, and mental health literacy for depression was assessed using a vignette. Logistic regression results showed that high depressed individuals were less likely to recognize depression compared to low depressed individuals, and depression recognition was associated with recommendations to seek help. Study 2 replicated and extended findings of Study 1 using a separate sample of 1,321 college students with varying degrees of psychological distress (32% no/mild distress, 55% moderate distress, and 13% serious distress) and examining mental health literacy for anxiety in addition to depression. Results indicated that compared to those with no/mild distress, those with moderate distress had lower recognition of depression, and those with moderate and serious distress were less likely to recommend help-seeking. In contrast, there were no differences in mental health literacy for anxiety, which was low across all participants. These findings suggest that psychological symptoms can impact certain aspects of mental health literacy, and these results have implications for targeting mental health literacy to increase mental health services utilization among individuals in need of help. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Psychiatric Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease: Mental Status Examination versus Caregiver Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Benjamin; Buswell, Arthur

    1994-01-01

    To examine possible reasons for conflicting prevalence data on psychiatric features of Alzheimer's disease, compared results of mental status examination by physician with questionnaire completed by caregivers in eliciting 12 different psychiatric symptoms. Found agreement only on categories suggesting agitation. Formal examination showed more…

  13. Mental Health Symptoms among Student Service Members/Veterans and Civilian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Sandi D.; Branscum, Adam J.; Bovbjerg, Viktor E.; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate if and to what extent student service members/veterans differ from civilian college students in the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of poor mental health. Participants: The Fall 2011 implementation of the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment included 27,774…

  14. Prevalence of Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptoms in European School-Aged Children and its Relationship with Childhood Adversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... conducted to investigate: (a) the contribution of the number and (b) the specific types of experienced adversities on the occurrence of PES. 45.7% of the children experienced at least one PES, with low emotional well-being during the last week being most frequently reported (38.2%). No sex differences were...

  15. Mental and somatic symptoms related to suicidal ideation in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouichi Yoshimasu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Kouichi Yoshimasu1, Tetsuya Kondo2,4, Shoji Tokunaga3, Yoshio Kanemitsu2, Hideyo Sugahara2, Mariko Akamine2, Kanichiro Fujisawa2, Kazuhisa Miyashita1, Chiharu Kubo21Department of Hygiene, School of Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan; 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Graduate school of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; 3Department of Medical Informatics, Kyushu University Hospital, Fukuoka, Japan; 4Department of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Kansai University of Health Sciences, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Patients with suicidal ideation (SI have various mental or somatic symptoms. A questionnaire-based interview elicited details concerning mental and somatic symptoms in patients visiting a psychosomatic clinic in Japan. Univariate logistic regression analyses followed by multiple regression models using a stepwise method were selected for identifying the candidate symptoms. Overall, symptoms related to depression were associated with SI in both sexes. Although women showed more various somatic symptoms associated with SI than men, many of those associations were diminished once severity of the depression was controlled. The current results suggest that a variety of self-reported symptoms, mainly related to depression, might reveal suicidal risk in outpatients with an urban hospital clinical setting.Keywords: suicidal ideation, psychosomatic clinic, subjective symptoms

  16. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  17. Shared versus distinct genetic contributions of mental wellbeing with depression and anxiety symptoms in healthy twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Kylie M; Burton, Karen L O; Williams, Leanne M; Harris, Anthony; Schofield, Peter R; Clark, C Richard; Gatt, Justine M

    2016-10-30

    Mental wellbeing and mental illness symptoms are typically conceptualized as opposite ends of a continuum, despite only sharing about a quarter in common variance. We investigated the normative variation in measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety in 1486 twins who did not meet clinical criteria for an overt diagnosis. We quantified the shared versus distinct genetic and environmental variance between wellbeing and depression and anxiety symptoms. The majority of participants (93%) reported levels of depression and anxiety symptoms within the healthy range, yet only 23% reported a wellbeing score within the "flourishing" range: the remainder were within the ranges of "moderate" (67%) or "languishing" (10%). In twin models, measures of wellbeing and of depression and anxiety shared 50.09% of variance due to genetic factors and 18.27% due to environmental factors; the rest of the variance was due to unique variation impacting wellbeing or depression and anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that an absence of clinically-significant symptoms of depression and anxiety does not necessarily indicate that an individual is flourishing. Both unique and shared genetic and environmental factors may determine why some individuals flourish in the absence of symptoms while others do not.

  18. The effects of mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences among at-risk adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Miles, Jeremy N. V.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Ewing, Brett A; Hunter, Sarah B.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2014-01-01

    Based on expectancy theory, adolescents at risk for mental health symptoms, such as those involved in the juvenile court system, may use marijuana due to the belief that use will attenuate anxiety and depressive symptoms. In a diverse sample of youth involved in the Santa Barbara Teen Court system (N = 193), we examined the association between mental health symptoms and marijuana expectancies on marijuana use and consequences. In general, stronger positive expectancies and weaker negative exp...

  19. Reactions and attitudes to postpartal mental symptoms in a rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kähärä, Kirsti; Tulisalo, Ulla; Grönlund, Juhani; Mattila, Kari J

    2014-10-01

    We examined the reactions of population, social and health care professionals and local politicians in the context of a narrative case of a newborn and her mother evincing postpartal mental symptoms. The results of this postal questionnaire study indicated that in assessing the urgent need for support, a significant positive association prevailed in the resident cohort with female gender, age over 50 years or being a parent. Professionals and politicians estimated that appropriate care and access to care would be obtained in the maternity and child health clinic in the local health centre. Residents would contact relatives rather than social and health care professionals. A future challenge is to promote the knowledge and sensitivity of the general population in recognizing mental symptoms in mothers with small children. Adequate information is also called for regarding local services and means of access to care.

  20. Trauma-focused treatment in PTSD patients with psychosis : symptom exacerbation, adverse events, and revictimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, D.P.G.; de Bont, P.A.J.M.; van der Vleugel, B.M.; de Roos, C.; de Jongh, A.; van Minnen, A.; van der Gaag, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Most clinicians refrain from trauma treatment for patients with psychosis because they fear symptom exacerbation and relapse. This study examined the negative side effects of trauma-focused (TF) treatment in patients with psychosis and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Methods: Analy

  1. Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder With High- or Low-Level Depressive Symptoms: A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Cardiovascular Reactivity to Laboratory-Induced Mental Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chiu, Chen-Huan; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Su, Chien-Tien; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2016-03-01

    Depression increases the risk of adverse cardiac events. Cardiovascular reactivity is defined as the pattern of cardiovascular responses to mental stress. An altered pattern of cardiovascular reactivity is an indicator of subsequent cardiovascular disease. Because depression and adverse cardiac events may have a dose-dependent association, this study examined the differences in cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress between patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with high depression levels and those with low depression levels. Moreover, autonomic nervous system regulation is a highly plausible biological mechanism for the pattern of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress. The association between cardiovascular reactivity and parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), an index for quantifying autonomic nervous system activity modulation, was thus examined. This study included 88 patients with MDD. HRV was measured before stress induction. The Stroop Color and Word Test and mirror star-tracing task were used to induce mental stress. We observed no significant association between depressive symptom level and any of the cardiovascular reactivity parameters. Cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress was comparable between patients with MDD with high-level depressive symptoms and those with low-level depressive symptoms. After adjusting for confounding variables, the high-frequency domain of HRV was found to be an independent predictor of the magnitude of heart rate reactivity (β = -.33, p = .002). In conclusion, the magnitude of cardiovascular reactivity may be independent of depression severity in patients with MDD. The autonomic regulation of cardiovascular responses to mental stress primarily influences heart rate reactivity in patients with MDD.

  2. Triumph and adversity: Exploring the complexities of consumer storytelling in mental health nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Bennetts, Wanda

    2016-12-01

    Consumer participation in the education of health professionals is increasing, particularly in mental health nursing education and storytelling remains the most frequent approach to consumer involvement. The use of story has tended to be accepted as a legitimate educational tool with limited critique or consideration of its potential consequences presented within the academic literature. A qualitative exploratory research study was undertaken with mental health nurse academics (n = 34) and consumer educators and academics (n = 12), to investigate the perceptions and experiences of mental health nurses and consumers regarding the involvement of consumers in mental health nursing education. Data were analysed thematically. Story was a major theme to emerge from consumer participants and received some attention from nurse academics. Consumers and nurses both referred to the power of story to convey the human experience of mental illness diagnosis and service use; and the vulnerability that can result from storytelling. Consumers also described: story as expectation; preparation and support; and the politics of story. All participants supported the value of storytelling in mental health nursing education. Consumers had considered the complexities in far greater detail. The ongoing value of story as an educational technique requires further research. Equally important is considering a broader range of educational roles for mental health consumers.

  3. An international comparison of occupational health guidelines for the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Brouwers, Evelien P. M.; van Beurden, Karlijn M.; Terluin, Berend; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Kyeong-Sook; Eguchi, Hisashi; Moriguchi, Jiro; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Weeghel, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared available guidelines on the management of mental disorders and stress-related psychological symptoms in an occupational healthcare setting and determined their development and reporting quality. Methods To identify eligible guidelines, we systematically searched National Guide

  4. The mental health of prisoners: a review of prevalence, adverse outcomes and interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Hayes, Adrian J; Bartellas, Katrina; Clerici, Massimo; Trestman, Robert

    2016-01-01

    There are more than 10 million prisoners worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher than general population comparisons. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, there is considerable evidence of low rates of identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimization, and research has outlined some modifiable risk factors. High quality treatment trials for psychiatric disorders in prisoners have been limited. Despite this, it has been shown in trials that opiate substitution treatments reduce substance misuse relapse and possibly reoffending. The mental health needs of women and older adults in prison are distinct, and national policies should be developed to meet these. Clinical, research, and policy recommendations to improve prison mental healthcare are presented. National attempts to meet these recommendations should be annually surveyed. PMID:27426440

  5. Palatable cafeteria diet ameliorates anxiety and depression-like symptoms following an adverse early environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Morris, Margaret J

    2010-06-01

    Early trauma contributes to psychosocial disorders later in life. An adverse early environment induced by maternal separation (MS) is known to alter behavioural and stress responses in rats. Palatable food dampens stress responses. We investigated the influence of palatable cafeteria high-fat diet (HFD) on behavioural responses following MS or non-handling (NH), versus 15min brief separation. After littering, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to short separation, S15 (15min), prolonged separation, S180 (180min) daily from postnatal days 2 to 14 or were non-handled. Pups were assigned to HFD or chow at weaning. We assessed depression and anxiety-like behaviour with sucrose preference test (SPT) and elevated plus maze (EPM) respectively, and measured hypothalamic CRH and hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. S180 rats showed increased anxiety-and depression-like behaviours, with increased plasma corticosterone, hypothalamic CRH, and reduced hippocampal GR expression versus S15 rats. Similar effects were observed across gender. These were normalized by provision of HFD, with greater beneficial effects in males. S15 showed no benefit of HFD. NH female rats had less adverse impacts; HFD had beneficial impact on behaviour in NH males. Thus behavioural deficits and gene expression changes induced by early life stress were ameliorated by HFD. These results highlight the important place of palatable food in reducing central stress responses supporting the therapeutic value of 'comfort food'.

  6. Livestock/animal assets buffer the impact of conflict-related traumatic events on mental health symptoms for rural women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Glass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the context of multiple adversities, women are demonstrating resilience in rebuilding their futures, through participation in microfinance programs. In addition to the economic benefits of microfinance, there is evidence to suggest that it is an effective vehicle for improving health. METHODS: The parent study is a community-based trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a livestock microfinance intervention, Pigs for Peace (PFP, on health and economic outcomes with households in 10 villages in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. The analysis for this manuscript includes only baseline data from female participants enrolled in the ongoing parent study. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine if livestock/animal asset value moderates the relationship between conflict-related traumatic events and current mental health symptoms. FINDINGS: The majority of women are 25 years or older, married, have on average 4 children in the home and have never attended school. Nearly 50% of women report having at least one livestock/animal asset at baseline. Over the past 10 years, women report on average more than 4 (M = 4.31, SD 3·64 traumatic events (range 0-18. Women reported symptoms consistent with PTSD with a mean score of ·2.30 (SD = 0·66 range 0-4 and depression with a mean score of 1.86 (SD = 0·49, range 0-3.47. The livestock/animal asset value by conflict-related traumatic events interaction was significant for both the PTSD (p = 0·021 and depression (p = 0·002 symptom models. INTERPRETATION: The study provides evidence of the moderating affect of livestock/animal assets on mental health symptoms for women who have experienced conflict. The findings supports evidence about the importance of livestock/animal assets to economics in rural households but expands on previous research by demonstrating the psychosocial effects of these assets on women's health. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov NCT02008708.

  7. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So Young; Cho, Yoonsu; Lee, Kyong Won; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation) and quality of life (QOL) among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years) using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013). Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs) for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83) and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92) than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans. PMID:27999277

  8. Lifetime Traumatic Events and High-Risk Behaviors as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms in People with Severe Mental Illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Thomas; Sherrer, Margaret V.

    2009-01-01

    Research is limited regarding the role of high-risk behaviors, trauma, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in people with severe mental illnesses (SMI). The current survey of 276 community mental health clients diagnosed with either a schizophrenia spectrum disorder or a major mood disorder examined the mediating role of lifetime…

  9. Sex and Race Differences in Mental Health Symptoms in Juvenile Justice: The MAYSI-2 National Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Gina M.; Grisso, Thomas; Terry, Anna; Banks, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The study uses the MAYSI-2 gathered data from multiple US juvenile justice systems to examine whether mental health symptoms were connected to consistent sex and ethnicity/race-related differences. Results concluded a greater proportion of girls having serious mental health problems and though whites had problems with alcohol and drugs, they were…

  10. Relations of Personality to Substance Use Problems and Mental Health Disorder Symptoms in Two Clinical Samples of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Susan R.; Pencer, Alissa; McGonnell, Melissa; Durdle, Heather; Stewart, Sherry H.

    2013-01-01

    There is a high overlap between substance misuse and mental health disorders in adolescents. Certain personality traits (i.e., sensation seeking, impulsivity, hopelessness, and anxiety sensitivity) may be related to increased risk for mental health symptoms and/or substance misuse. The current study examined the relationships between personality…

  11. Substance dependence among those without symptoms of substance abuse in the World Mental Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Luise; Glantz, Meyer D; Kessler, Ronald C; Sampson, Nancy A; Al-Hamzawi, Ali; Florescu, Silvia; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Murphy, Sam; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Torres de Galvis, Yolanda; Viana, Maria Carmen; Xavier, Miguel; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2017-02-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys. Lifetime dependence without symptoms of abuse was low in the second set of surveys (0.3% alcohol, 0.2% drugs). Regression-based imputation models were built in random half-samples of the new surveys and validated in the other half. There were minimal differences for imputed and actual reported cases in the validation dataset for age, gender and quantity; more mental disorders and days out of role were found in the imputed cases. Concordance between imputed and observed dependence cases in the full sample was high for alcohol [sensitivity 88.0%, specificity 99.8%, total classification accuracy (TCA) 99.5%, area under the curve (AUC) 0.94] and drug dependence (sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 99.8%, TCA 99.8%, AUC 1.00). This provides cross-national evidence of the small degree to which lifetime dependence occurs without symptoms of abuse. Imputation of substance dependence in the earlier WMH surveys improved estimates of dependence.

  12. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  13. Community Support as a Moderator of Postdisaster Mental Health Symptoms in Urban and Nonurban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jenny S.; Price, Matthew; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between disaster exposure, community support, and mental health outcomes in urban and nonurban participants of Galveston and Chambers counties after Hurricane Ike. The moderating effect of community support was evaluated as a protective factor relative to postdisaster mental health. Methods A representative population-based sample of 157 urban and 714 nonurban adults were interviewed 12 to 17 months after the hurricane about their mental health functioning, disaster exposure, and perceptions of community support. A series of multiple regressions demonstrated that disaster exposure was associated with mental health outcomes for both groups. The strength of the association varied across population samples. Results Community support moderated the association between interpersonal effects of the disaster and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression outcomes in nonurban participants and the association between property damage and PTSD in urban participants. Conclusions Community support played a larger role in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms associated with the interpersonal effects of a disaster in the nonurban sample only. Communities may play a more beneficial role in the recovery process in nonurban areas that have elevated levels of injury or death attributed to a disaster. PMID:24274123

  14. Personality Traits and Mental Symptoms are Associated with Impact of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Patients' Daily Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Marie; Vestbo, Jørgen; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that personality traits are associated with self-reported health status in the general population. COPD Assessment Test (CAT) is increasingly used to assess health status such as the impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on patients' daily life, but knowledge about the influence of personality traits on CAT score is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of Big Five personality traits on CAT score and the relation between personality traits and mental symptoms with respect to their influence on CAT score. A sample of 168 patients diagnosed with COPD was consecutively recruited in a secondary care outpatient clinic. All participants completed CAT, NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and Hospital Depression and Anxiety Scale. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the association between personality traits and CAT scores and how this association was influenced by mental symptoms. The personality traits neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness; and the mental symptoms depression and anxiety showed significant influence on CAT score when analysed in separate regression models. Identical R-square (R = 0.24) was found for personality traits and mental symptoms, but combining personality traits and mental symptoms in one regression model showed substantially reduced effect estimates of neuroticism, conscientiousness and anxiety, reflecting the strong correlations between personality traits and mental symptoms. We found that the impact of COPD on daily life measured by CAT was related to personality and mental symptoms, which illustrates the necessity of taking individual differences in personality and mental status into account in the management of COPD.

  15. Mutual Partner Violence: Mental Health Symptoms among Female and Male Victims in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises; Kim, Miseong

    2009-01-01

    This study examines racial/ethnic and sex differences in the prevalence of mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) and mental health symptoms. The authors asked 676 university students in heterosexual relationships if they had experienced IPV, coercive victimization, and/or perpetration as well as symptoms of depression, anxiety, hostility, and…

  16. Mental Symptoms in Huntington's Disease and a Possible Primary Aminergic Neuron Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J. John; Stanley, Michael; Gershon, Samuel; Rossor, M.

    1980-12-01

    Monoamine oxidase activity was higher in the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia of patients dying from Huntington's disease than in controls. Enzyme kinetics and multiple substrate studies indicated that the increased activity was due to elevated concentrations of monoamine oxidase type B. Concentrations of homovanillic acid were increased in the cerebral cortex but not in the basal ganglia of brains of patients with Huntington's disease. These changes may represent a primary aminergic lesion that could underlie some of the mental symptoms of this disease.

  17. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  18. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J

    2013-11-01

    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted.

  19. Explanations of mental health symptoms by the Bedouin-Arabs of the Negev.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Krenawi, A

    1999-01-01

    Sixty Bedouin-Arab patients (36 females, 24 males) referred to the psychiatric clinic of the Soroka Medical Centre in the Negev, Israel were interviewed before they met with the psychiatrists and again two weeks later. An open-ended questionnaire was administered during three month period, to examine the patients' explanations of their mental health symptoms. Findings revealed that all patients, male and female alike, perceived and explained their symptoms as being caused by supernatural powers. There were gender differences, however, regarding the perceived nature of, and behaviour of, these supernatural powers. Males explained their symptoms as caused by God's will, whether directly through Him, or indirectly through evil-spirits. In both instances, human behaviour was not a primary concern. In contrast, 97% of the female patients explained their symptoms as a result of sorcery, a phenomenon which integrates human behaviour with supernatural powers. Cultural and language differences between the patients and psychiatrists were also found to cause miscommunications and inappropriate treatment, with the result that 50% of the sample terminated psychiatric treatment after two sessions.

  20. Differences in Parents' and Teachers' Ratings of ADHD Symptoms and Other Mental Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaya Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems appear early in life and proper treatment is essential for a positive long-term outcome. The present study examines the level of agreement, and potential gender differences, between parents' and teachers' reports of ADHD symptoms and other mental health problems in 305 Greek children aged between 6-9 years. Methods: Parents and teachers of 147 boys and 158 girls attending the first three grades of 10 primary schools in the wider area of Northern Greece completed the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ- Goodman, 1997 and the Child Attention Profile (CAP- Barkley, 1990. Results: The level of agreement between parents' and teachers' reports was low to moderate for the SDQ (0.16-0.34 and satisfactory for the CAP (0.60-0.66. Parents reported more hyperactivity, emotional, and conduct problems than teachers according to SDQ and more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP. Gender differences in ratings were found as well, since boys were reported as being more hyperactive according to SDQ and as having more overactivity and attention-deficit with hyperactivity according to CAP than girls. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of using multiple informants to gather data on disruptive behaviour through rating scales.

  1. The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine

    2016-01-01

    -reported irritability. The ACE total score predicted depressive disorders, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Irritability was positively related to depressive disorders, suicidality, disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), substance use disorder (SUD), and attention deficit...... and SUD, the training of emotion regulation techniques appears most promising. Approaches focusing on both, ACEs and emotion-focused contents may be implemented in the treatment of depressive disorders and suicidality.......BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both...

  2. Frequent Mental Distress, Chronic Conditions, and Adverse Health Behaviors in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Al-Nsour, MD, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidence indicates that chronic diseases and mental illness are associated. In the Middle Eastern country of Jordan, chronic diseases and frequent mental distress (FMD are increasing; however, the capacity for mental health care is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the association between FMD, chronic conditions, and adverse health behaviors in Jordan. Methods The third cycle of the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (2007 served as the data source for this study. The sample consisted of 3,612 noninstitutionalized Jordanian adults aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios for the association between chronic conditions, health behaviors, and FMD adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Results In the adjusted models, people with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.7, high cholesterol (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.2, diabetes (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4, and asthma (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.1 and smokers (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0 were more likely to have FMD than people without each of these conditions. Adults who reported vigorous physical activity were less likely to have FMD (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9 than their less active counterparts. Conclusions In Jordan, FMD was associated with several chronic conditions. As a result, we suggest additional research to examine the complex relationship between FMD and chronic conditions. More doctors in the primary health care system should be trained in mental health.

  3. Perceived connections between information and communication technology use and mental symptoms among young adults - a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagberg Mats

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective associations have been found between high use of information and communication technology (ICT and reported mental symptoms among young adult university students, but the causal mechanisms are unclear. Our aim was to explore possible explanations for associations between high ICT use and symptoms of depression, sleep disorders, and stress among young adults in order to propose a model of possible pathways to mental health effects that can be tested epidemiologically. Methods We conducted a qualitative interview study with 16 women and 16 men (21-28 years, recruited from a cohort of university students on the basis of reporting high computer (n = 28 or mobile phone (n = 20 use at baseline and reporting mental symptoms at the one-year follow-up. Semi-structured interviews were performed, with open-ended questions about possible connections between the use of computers and mobile phones, and stress, depression, and sleep disturbances. The interview data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and summarized in a model. Results Central factors appearing to explain high quantitative ICT use were personal dependency, and demands for achievement and availability originating from the domains of work, study, social life, and individual aspirations. Consequences included mental overload, neglect of other activities and personal needs, time pressure, role conflicts, guilt feelings, social isolation, physical symptoms, worry about electromagnetic radiation, and economic problems. Qualitative aspects (destructive communication and information were also reported, with consequences including vulnerability, misunderstandings, altered values, and feelings of inadequacy. User problems were a source of frustration. Altered ICT use as an effect of mental symptoms was reported, as well as possible positive effects of ICT on mental health. Conclusions The concepts and ideas of the young adults with high ICT use and mental

  4. Comorbid Mental Health Symptoms and Heart Diseases: Can Health Care and Mental Health Care Professionals Collaboratively Improve the Assessment and Management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Rollman, Bruce L.; Berger, Candyce S.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of current epidemiological and clinical research, this article describes how mental health symptoms are associated with heart disease, a major chronic condition that occurs primarily in middle and late life. The article describes the culturally and historically important link between heart and mind. It then describes depression and…

  5. A cross-cultural longitudinal examination of the effect of cumulative adversity on the mental and physical health of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit

    2016-03-01

    Self-oriented adversity refers to traumatic events that primarily inflict the self, whereas other-oriented adversity refers to events that affect the self by primarily targeting others. The present study aimed to examine whether cultural background moderates the effects of self-oriented and other-oriented adversity on mental and physical health of older adults. Using longitudinal data from the Israeli component of the Survey of Health and Retirement, we focused on 370 Jews and 239 Arabs who reported their exposure to various adversities across the life span, and completed questionnaires regarding mental and physical health. Results showed that the effect of self-oriented adversity on health did not differ among Jews and Arabs. However, other-oriented adversity showed a stronger effect on Arabs' mental and physical health than on Jews' health. Our findings suggest that the accumulation of adverse events that affect the self by primarily targeting others may have a stronger impact in collectivist cultures than in individualist cultures.

  6. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory h...

  7. Childhood ADHD Symptoms: Association with Parental Social Networks and Mental Health Service Use during Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Bussing

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study examines the associations of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD risk status with subsequent parental social network characteristics and caregiver strain in adolescence; and examines predictors of adolescent mental health service use. Methods: Baseline ADHD screening identified children at high risk (n = 207 and low risk (n = 167 for ADHD. At eight-year follow-up, parents reported their social network characteristics, caregiver strain, adolescents’ psychopathology and mental health service utilization, whereas adolescents self-reported their emotional status and ADHD stigma perceptions. Analyses were conducted using ANOVAs and nested logistic regression modeling. Results: Parents of youth with childhood ADHD reported support networks consisting of fewer spouses but more healthcare professionals, and lower levels of support than control parents. Caregiver strain increased with adolescent age and psychopathology. Increased parental network support, youth ADHD symptoms, and caregiver strain, but lower youth stigma perceptions were independently associated with increased service use. Conclusions: Raising children with ADHD appears to significantly impact parental social network experiences. Reduced spousal support and overall lower network support levels may contribute to high caregiver strain commonly reported among parents of ADHD youth. Parental social network experiences influence adolescent ADHD service use. With advances in social networking technology, further research is needed to elucidate ways to enhance caregiver support during ADHD care.

  8. [Mental health of children, adolescents and young adults--part 1: prevalence, illness persistence, adversities, service use, treatment delay and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, M; Bock, T; Naber, D; Löwe, B; Schulte-Markwort, M; Schäfer, I; Gumz, A; Degkwitz, P; Schulte, B; König, H H; Konnopka, A; Bauer, M; Bechdolf, A; Correll, C; Juckel, G; Klosterkötter, J; Leopold, K; Pfennig, A; Karow, A

    2013-11-01

    Numerous birth-control studies, epidemiological studies, and observational studies have investigated mental health and health care in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, treatment delay and course of illness. Moreover, the impact of the burden of illness, of deficits of present health care systems, and the efficacy and effectiveness of early intervention services on mental health were evaluated. According to these data, most mental disorders start during childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Many children, adolescents and young adults are exposed to single or multiple adversities, which increase the risk for (early) manifestations of mental diseases as well as for their chronicity. Early-onset mental disorders often persist into adulthood. Service use by children, adolescents and young adults is low, even lower than for adult patients. Moreover, there is often a long delay between onset of illness and first adequate treatment with a variety of linked consequences for a poorer psychosocial prognosis. This leads to a large burden of illness with respect to disability and costs. As a consequence several countries have implemented so-called "early intervention services" at the interface of child and adolescent and adult psychiatry. Emerging studies show that these health-care structures are effective and efficient. Part 1 of the present review summarises the current state of mental health in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood, including prevalence, age at onset, adversities, illness persistence, service use, and treatment delay with consequences.

  9. The impact of mental health symptoms on heavy goods vehicle drivers' performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael F; Staddon, Zoe; Sheridan, Judith; Whiteford, Harvey A

    2009-05-01

    High levels of psychological distress in fulltime employees are prevalent (4.5% per month). Symptoms of impaired mental health include difficulties with attention, concentration, motivation, decision-making, visuo-motor control, and psychomotor reaction times. There is limited research on the impact these symptoms have on heavy goods vehicle (HGV) drivers' performance. In this study 1324 HGV drivers were surveyed using the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS) and the Health and Performance at Work Questionnaire (HPQ). Depression, anxiety and stress had little effect on driver absenteeism rates or self-rated driving performance. However, severe (1.5% of drivers) and very severe (1.8% of drivers) depression was associated with an increased odds ratio (OR=4.5 and 5.0, respectively) for being involved in an accident or near miss in the past 28 days. This odd ratio is akin to driving with a blood alcohol content of about 0.08%. Given the number of HGV vehicles and the prevalence of depression this equates to 10,950 HGV drivers with an increased statistical risk of an accident or near miss. As the impact of HGV accidents is potentially large, including loss of life, it would be sensible to extend the research findings here into an action plan.

  10. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Adverse Mental Health Indicators and Lower Quality of Life among Koreans: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Kyung Chung

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is an ongoing public health issue and contributes to mental health status. We investigated whether food insecurity is associated with inadequate nutrient intake and whether it affects mental health indicators (perceived stress/experience of depressive symptom/suicidal ideation and quality of life (QOL among Koreans (n = 5862, 20–64 years using data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2012–2013. Household food security status was categorized as “food-secure household”, “food-insecure household without hunger”, and “food-insecure household with hunger”. Data on food insecurity, sociodemographic factors, nutrient intake, mental health indicators, and QOL were used. A logistic regression model was conducted to determine odds ratios (ORs for psychological health. A greater proportion of food-insecure participants were nutritionally deficient compared with expectations of the 2015 Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. These deficiencies were generally higher in both “food-insecure household” groups. Both “food-insecure household” groups, particularly the “food-insecure household with hunger” group showed significantly adverse mental health status (ORs: 1.52–3.83 and lower QOL (ORs: 1.49–3.92 than did the “food-secure household” group before and after adjusting for sex, age, education, household income, smoking/alcohol consumption, physical activity, marital status, and receiving food assistance. In conclusion, food insecurity may be significantly associated with adverse mental health indicators and decreased QOL in young/middle-aged Koreans.

  11. Comparing cognitive and somatic symptoms of depression in myocardial infarction patients and depressed patients in primary and mental health care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nynke A Groenewold

    Full Text Available Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in myocardial infarction patients. We hypothesized that myocardial infarction patients with first depression onset at a late age would experience fewer cognitive/affective symptoms than depressed patients without cardiovascular disease. Combined data from two large multicenter depression studies resulted in a sample of 734 depressed individuals (194 myocardial infarction, 214 primary care, and 326 mental health care patients. A structured clinical interview provided information about depression diagnosis. Summed cognitive/affective and somatic symptom levels were compared between groups using analysis of covariance, with and without adjusting for the effects of recurrence and age of onset. Depressed myocardial infarction and primary care patients reported significantly lower cognitive/affective symptom levels than mental health care patients (F (2,682 = 6.043, p = 0.003. Additional analyses showed that the difference between myocardial infarction and mental health care patients disappeared after adjusting for age of onset but not recurrence of depression. These group differences were also supported by data-driven latent class analyses. There were no significant group differences in somatic symptom levels. Depression after myocardial infarction appears to have a different phenomenology than depression observed in mental health care. Future studies should investigate the etiological factors predictive of symptom dimensions in myocardial infarction and late-onset depression patients.

  12. Student and Nonstudent National Guard Service Members/Veterans and Their Use of Services for Mental Health Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonar, Erin E.; Bohnert, Kipling M.; Walters, Heather M.; Ganoczy, Dara; Valenstein, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To compare mental health symptoms and service utilization among returning student and nonstudent service members/veterans (SM/Vs). Participants: SM/Vs (N = 1,439) were predominately white (83%) men (92%), half were over age 30 (48%), and 24% were students. Methods: SM/Vs completed surveys 6 months post deployment (October 2011-July…

  13. Role of Perinatal Adversities on Tic Severity and Symptoms of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents With a Tic Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-Veneman, Netty G. P.; Kuin, Anne; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of perinatal adversities with regard to tic severity and comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with a tic disorder. Methods: In 75 children and adolescents with a tic disorder, we retrospectively assessed presence of pregnanc

  14. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Ford, Derek; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Merrick, Melissa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ports, Katie A; MacMillan, Harriet L; Holden, George W; Taylor, Catherine A; Lee, Shawna J; Peters Bennett, Robbyn

    2017-01-23

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance. Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use. Data were from the CDC-Kaiser ACE study (N=8316, response rate=65%). Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. Additionally, spanking was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=1.02 to1.86), moderate to heavy drinking (AOR)=1.23; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.41), and the use of street drugs (AOR)=1.32; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.52) in adulthood over and above experiencing physical and emotional abuse. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems. Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence.

  15. The A-Test: a symptom validity indicator embedded within a mental status examination for Social Security Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafetz, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    During the Psychological Consultative Examination (PCE) for Social Security Disability evaluations, there is a need for symptom validity measures to validate the findings for claims of disability (Chafetz, 2010 ). The "A" Random Letter Test of Auditory Vigilance (A-Test) is a simple auditory continuous performance test utilized as part of a comprehensive mental status examination (Strub & Black, 1993 ). The present study validates the use of the A-Test as a symptom validity measure easily administered as part of the PCE for Social Security Disability evaluations. This study shows that the A-Test is well correlated with other symptom validity measures, discriminates multiple symptom validity failure from nonmultiple failure, and has good classification accuracy statistics in two different studies of these claimants. The A-Test can thus easily be used as a symptom validity measure in professional psychological examinations of Social Security claimants without additional cost or much added time to the evaluation.

  16. Género, Adversidad Familiar y Síntomas Emocionales en Preadolescentes Gender, Family Adversity and Emotional Symptoms in Preadolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Cova

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la existencia de diferencias de género en preadolescentes en la presencia de problemas emocionales, así como la existencia de una vulnerabilidad diferencial de las niñas a presentar estos síntomas en condiciones de adversidad familiar. Se tomó una muestra de 133 niños y niñas de 11 a 13 años, elegidos al azar de 6 escuelas de alta vulnerabilidad social de la comuna de Concepción, Chile. Los problemas emocionales fueron valorados a través de cuestionarios aplicados a la madre (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL y al profesor (Teacher Report Forms, TRF y a través de tres instrumentos de autoinforme (Youth Self Report, YRS; Cuestionario de Depresión Infantil, CDI; cuestionario de Ansiedad-Rasgo, STAIC/R. La presencia de indicadores de adversidad familiar fue evaluada a través de una entrevista semiestructurada desarrollada por la OMS, aplicada a la madre. Al considerar los autoinformes, se observó que las niñas informan experimentar más malestar emocional y sintomatología depresiva que los niños. Asimismo, se observó que las niñas expuestas a condiciones de adversidad familiar incrementan significativamente más que los niños expuestos a condiciones similares, su reporte de comportamientos internalizados, lo que indica la existencia de una mayor vulnerabilidad de las niñas a expresar sintomatología emocional en condiciones familiares negativas.This research evaluated both the existence of pre-teenager gender differences under emotional problems and the existence of a differential vulnerability in girls showing these symptoms in an adverse family environment. A sample of 133 boys and girls, aged 11 to 13, was randomly selected from high social risk schools from Concepción, Chile. The emotional disorders were evaluated by means of surveys to the mother (Child Behavior Checklist, CBCL and to the teacher (Teacher Report Forms, TRF and also taking into account three self-report instruments (Youth Self Report, YRS

  17. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Low Nancy CP

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life events/difficulties (i.e., romantic breakups, family disruption, interpersonal difficulties, and personal stress (health, weight, school work, symptoms of depression, conduct disorder symptoms, and substance use were collected from 1025 grade 7 students (mean age 12.9 years; 45% male. The association between each source of stress and each mental health and substance use indicator was modeled in separate logistic regression analyses. Results The proportion of adolescents reporting worry or stress ranged from 7% for new family to 53% for schoolwork. Romantic breakup stress was statistically significantly associated with all the mental health and substance use indicators except illicit drug use. Family disruption was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms, marijuana use, and cigarette use. Interpersonal difficulties stress was statistically significantly associated with depression symptoms. All sources of personal stress were statistically significantly related to depression symptoms. In addition, health-related stress was inversely related to binge drinking. Conclusion Young adolescents may benefit from learning positive coping skills to manage worry or stress about common stressors and in particular, worry or stress related to romantic breakups. Appropriate management of mental health symptoms and substance use related to common stressful life events and difficulties may help reduce emerging psychopathology.

  18. Basic symptoms and psychotic symptoms: their relationships in the at risk mental states, first episode and multi-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparelli, Anna; De Carolis, Antonella; Emili, Emanuele; Rigucci, Silvia; Falcone, Ilaria; Corigliano, Valentina; Curto, Martina; Trovini, Giada; Dehning, Julia; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Girardi, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    In the field of the early psychosis two main approaches attempt to develop rating tools, one investigating the basic symptoms domain, and the other the attenuated psychotic symptoms. To explore the relationship between basic symptoms (BSs) and other symptom domains in different phases of the psychotic illness 32 at ultra-high risk (UHR), 49 first episode schizophrenia (FES), 42 multiple episode schizophrenia (MES), and 28 generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients were enrolled. Participants were assessed using the SIPS/SOPS and the FCQ scales. Analyses of covariance taking into account socio-demographic and clinical variables significantly different between groups were applied to compare FCQ and SOPS scores. Finally FCQ and SOPS principal component analysis was carried out in the schizophrenia spectrum group. SOPS scores were higher in the UHR, FES and MES groups compared to the GAD control group. Concordantly, FES and MES groups had a higher number of basic symptoms in comparison with the GAD group, whereas UHR did not differ from the control group. The largest number of correlations between BSs and psychotic symptoms was found in the GAD group. According to the principal component analysis (PCA) five factors were extracted, with the BSs loading on a unique factor. Our findings imply that the boundary between psychotic and non-psychotic conditions cannot be outlined on the basis of the presence/absence of basic and psychotic symptoms.

  19. Externalizing symptoms moderate associations among interpersonal skills, parenting, and depressive symptoms in adolescents seeking mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erin M; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin; Wilson, Helen W; Javdani, Shabnam

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents' interpersonal skills are associated with fewer teen depressive symptoms and more positive parenting, but little is known about how teens' externalizing problems moderate these relationships. This study examines links among teens' interpersonal skills, parenting, and withdrawn-depressed symptoms in adolescents seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment with elevated or non-elevated externalizing problems. Adolescents (N = 346; 42 % female; 61 % African-American) ages 12-19 years old (M = 14.9; SD = 1.8) and parents completed assessments at baseline and 6 months. At baseline parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed and externalizing symptoms, and were observed interacting to assess teen interpersonal skills. At 6 months adolescents reported on parenting, and parents and teens reported on teen withdrawn-depressed symptoms. Structural equation modeling tested two models (one with teen reported symptoms and one with parent reported symptoms). Model fit was better for youth with elevated externalizing problems regardless of reporter. For youth with elevated externalizing problems, baseline teen positive interpersonal skills were not directly associated with 6-month withdrawn-depressed symptoms, but more positive parenting was associated with fewer withdrawn-depressed symptoms. In the teen report model, more positive teen interpersonal skills were associated with more positive parenting, and there was a trend for parenting to indirectly account for the relationship between interpersonal skills and withdrawn-depressed symptoms. The findings extend research on the role of externalizing problems in teens' depression risk. Interventions for depression that target interpersonal skills may be particularly effective in youth with elevated externalizing problems.

  20. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project.

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, R. G.; Patel, R.(Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, USA); Jayatilleke, N.; Kolliakou, A; Ball, M; Gorrell, G.; Roberts, A; Dobson, R. J.; Stewart, R.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. DESIGN: Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of ...

  1. The association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakash, Ora; Nagar, Maayan; Shoshani, Anat; Lurie, Ido

    2015-07-01

    Past research has documented the role acculturation plays in the process of adjustment to new cultures among migrants. Yet little attention has been paid thus far to the role of acculturation in the context of forced migration. In this study we examined the association between acculturation patterns and mental health symptoms among a convenience sample of Eritrean and Sudanese asylum seekers (n = 118) who accessed health services at the Physicians for Human Rights Open-Clinic in Israel. Participants completed measures on sociodemographic information as well as detention history, mental health symptoms, exposure to traumatic events, and acculturation pattern, in their native language upon accessing services. Consistent with our predictions, findings showed that acculturation predicted depressive symptoms among asylum seekers beyond the effect of history of detention and reports of experiences of traumatic events. Assimilated compared with integrated asylum seekers reported higher depressive symptoms. Findings draw attention to the paradox of assimilation, and the mental health risks it poses among those wishing to integrate into the new culture at the expanse of their original culture. Asylum seekers may be particularly vulnerable to the risks of assimilation in the restrictive policies that characterize many industrial countries in recent years.

  2. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  3. BDNF Val 66 Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype moderate the impact of early psychosocial adversity on plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and depressive symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Arlette F; Hellweg, Rainer; Rietschel, Marcella; Treutlein, Jens; Witt, Stephanie H; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Schmidt, Martin H; Esser, Günter; Banaschewski, Tobias; Laucht, Manfred; Deuschle, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have emphasized an important role for neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), in regulating the plasticity of neural circuits involved in the pathophysiology of stress-related diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay of the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the serotonin transporter promoter (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms in moderating the impact of early-life adversity on BDNF plasma concentration and depressive symptoms. Participants were taken from an epidemiological cohort study following the long-term outcome of early risk factors from birth into young adulthood. In 259 individuals (119 males, 140 females), genotyped for the BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms, plasma BDNF was assessed at the age of 19 years. In addition, participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Early adversity was determined according to a family adversity index assessed at 3 months of age. Results indicated that individuals homozygous for both the BDNF Val and the 5-HTTLPR L allele showed significantly reduced BDNF levels following exposure to high adversity. In contrast, BDNF levels appeared to be unaffected by early psychosocial adversity in carriers of the BDNF Met or the 5-HTTLPR S allele. While the former group appeared to be most susceptible to depressive symptoms, the impact of early adversity was less pronounced in the latter group. This is the first preliminary evidence indicating that early-life adverse experiences may have lasting sequelae for plasma BDNF levels in humans, highlighting that the susceptibility to this effect is moderated by BDNF Val⁶⁶Met and 5-HTTLPR genotype.

  4. Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jan; Fisker, Annette; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group. METHODS: Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n......=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index......PURPOSE: Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population...

  5. Identification of Adverse Drug Events from Free Text Electronic Patient Records and Information in a Large Mental Health Case Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Electronic healthcare records (EHRs are a rich source of information, with huge potential for secondary research use. The aim of this study was to develop an application to identify instances of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs from free text psychiatric EHRs.We used the GATE Natural Language Processing (NLP software to mine instances of ADEs from free text content within the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS system, a de-identified psychiatric case register developed at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK. The tool was built around a set of four movement disorders (extrapyramidal side effects [EPSEs] related to antipsychotic therapy and rules were then generalised such that the tool could be applied to additional ADEs. We report the frequencies of recorded EPSEs in patients diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI and then report performance in identifying eight other unrelated ADEs.The tool identified EPSEs with >0.85 precision and >0.86 recall during testing. Akathisia was found to be the most prevalent EPSE overall and occurred in the Asian ethnic group with a frequency of 8.13%. The tool performed well when applied to most of the non-EPSEs but least well when applied to rare conditions such as myocarditis, a condition that appears frequently in the text as a side effect warning to patients.The developed tool allows us to accurately identify instances of a potential ADE from psychiatric EHRs. As such, we were able to study the prevalence of ADEs within subgroups of patients stratified by SMI diagnosis, gender, age and ethnicity. In addition we demonstrated the generalisability of the application to other ADE types by producing a high precision rate on a non-EPSE related set of ADE containing documents.The application can be found at http://git.brc.iop.kcl.ac.uk/rmallah/dystoniaml.

  6. Neighborhood adversity, ethnic diversity, and weak social cohesion and social networks predict high rates of maternal depressive symptoms: a critical realist ecological study in South Western Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, John Graeme; Kemp, Lynn Ann; Jalaludin, Bin Badrudin; Phung, Hai Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study reported here is to explore ecological covariate and latent variable associations with perinatal depressive symptoms in South Western Sydney for the purpose of informing subsequent theory generation of perinatal context, depression, and the developmental origins of health and disease. Mothers (n = 15,389) delivering in 2002 and 2003 were assessed at two to three weeks after delivery for risk factors for depressive symptoms. The binary outcome variables were Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)> 9 and > 12. Aggregated EPDS > 9 was analyzed for 101 suburbs. Suburb-level variables were drawn from the 2001 Australian Census, New South Wales Crime Statistics, and aggregated individual-level risk factors. Analysis included exploratory factor analysis, univariate and multivariate likelihood, and Bayesian linear regression with conditional autoregressive components. The exploratory factor analysis identified six factors: neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, health behaviors, housing quality, social services, and support networks. Variables associated with neighborhood adversity, social cohesion, social networks, and ethnic diversity were consistently associated with aggregated depressive symptoms. The findings support the theoretical proposition that neighborhood adversity causes maternal psychological distress and depression within the context of social buffers including social networks, social cohesion, and social services.

  7. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert

    2016-07-01

    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  8. Common mental disorder symptoms among patients with malaria attending primary care in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markos Tesfaye

    Full Text Available Common Mental Disorders (CMDs are frequent among patients attending primary care. In Africa, CMDs are often misdiagnosed as physical illnesses because many of the patients complain of somatic symptoms of mental distress. We explored whether there was difference in the levels of CMD symptoms between patients with thick film confirmed and clinical cases of malaria with negative thick film in primary care.A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 300 adults with a clinical diagnosis of malaria in primary care centres in Jimma, Ethiopia. Patients were recruited consecutively until 100 cases of 'malaria' with a negative thick film and 200 cases of malaria with a positive thick film consented to participate. The 20-item Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 was used to measure CMD. The non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to explore the association between thick film result and CMD.Participants had a mean age of 28.2 (S.D = 10.9 years and the majority (57.3% were women. The prevalence of high CMD symptoms (six or more symptoms on the SRQ-20 was 24.5%. Suicidal ideation was reported by 13.8% of the participants. CMD symptoms were significantly higher in patients who had taken medication prior to visiting the primary care (p = 0.012 and in those whose symptoms had been present for seven days or more (p = 0.041. There was no statistically significant association between level of CMD symptoms and having a negative thick film result (OR 0.98; 95%CI 0.92, 1.04 or objective presence of fever (OR 1.04; 95%CI 0.93, 1.15.CMD symptoms among cases of malaria did not appear to be associated with a negative thick film result. The high levels of CMD symptoms, including suicidal ideation, calls for further studies to investigate the persistence and progression of these symptoms following resolution of the acute malarial episode.

  9. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Joe

    2011-07-01

    adversity, for many this negative family environment persists over the first 15 years of life. Different profiles of family risk may be associated with specific mental disorders in young people. Sex differences in psychopathologies may be most pronounced in those exposed to low levels of family adversities.

  10. 医学生心理健康状况与儿童期不良经历的关系探讨%Study on the relationship between adult mental health status and adverse childhood experiences among medical college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤; 戴江红; 茹建国; 刘维; 刘继文

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the status of mental health and explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental health status among medical college students. Methods 475 medical college students were chosen by stratified cluster sampling and investigated by Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90) and adverse childhood experiences ( ACEs) questionnaires. Results The prevalence rate of mental problem among the medical college students was 35. 58%. There were no statistical significant differences in the prevalence rates of mental problem under different background variables. Single factor analysis showed that the risk were adult mental problems in medical college students with physical abuse, emotional abuse and sex abuse in childhood were respectively 2.42 (95%CI:1.38-4.23) , 2.65(95%CI: 1.79-3.92) and 1. 66(95%CI:1. 07-2. 58)times than the ones without such experiences; The risk of adult mental problems in medical college students whose family had domestic violence or who had families with substance abuse experience in childhood were respectively 1. 97 ( 95% CI; 1. 31-2. 96) and 1. 69 (95%CI:1. 13-2. 54)times than the ones without such experiences. Logistic regression analysis showed that adverse childhood experiences increased risk for adult mental problems, with adjusted odds ratios from 1. 89 to 6. 97. Conclusions Different adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems. Adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems and they should not be ignored in preventing from psychological disorders and keeping mental health of them.%目的 了解医学生的心理健康状况及其人口学特征,探讨其与儿童期不良经历之间的关系,为进一步研究并开展有效的预防和治疗心理状况问题提供依据.方法 采用症状自评量表(symptom checklist90,SCL-90)和儿童期不良经历(adverse childhood experiences,ACEs)量表,使用分层整群抽样的方法,对475

  11. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; Bonow, Clarice Alves; da Silva, Mara Regina Santos

    2015-09-07

    This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61%) participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%). The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand), total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.

  12. Mental and Physical Symptoms of Female Rural Workers: Relation between Household and Rural Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Cezar-Vaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relations among mental disorders, physical discomfort, household work and farm work among women. We conducted a cross-sectional study based on the administration of a structured questionnaire to 182 female farm workers. The data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression, where the significance level was set to 5%. Results indicated that 111 (61% participants reported work-related mental disorders and physical discomfort was reported by 160 (87.9%. The participants with mental disorders and at least moderate levels of physical discomfort reported significantly higher levels of physical demand, time working (temporal demand, total effort and frustration with regard to farm work, in addition to significantly higher levels of frustration with regard to housework. Women with moderate or greater levels of both physical discomfort and frustration with farm work increased the chances of mental disorders. The results illustrate the complex challenge for health professionals in caring for women with mental disorders and physical discomforts related to their farm work, in the context of both the farm and domestic work demands these workers experience.

  13. Mental health problems during puberty: Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    OpenAIRE

    Albertine J Oldehinkel; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental health was assessed by the Youth Self-Report, pubertal (Tanner) stage by parent-rated drawings of secondary sex characteristics. Overall, higher Tanner stages were related t...

  14. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages.

  15. Mental health problems during puberty : Tanner stage-related differences in specific symptoms. The TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 +/- 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 +/- 0.5

  16. 孕期体操运动对不良症状改善的效果%Effect of pregnancy gymnastic exercises on improving adverse symptoms during pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游川; 刘军; 杨兴华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究孕期体操运动对不良症状的改善作用,为开展孕期体操提供理论依据。方法选择北京市5个孕妇学校的孕25~34周孕妇为研究对象,采用专家研发的孕期体操,观察孕期不良症状的改善效果。结果孕妇通过体操干预,便秘症状改善率为81.2%,失眠改善率为82.8%,腿抽筋症状改善率为89.3%,浮肿症状改善率为53.3%,腰背疼痛感改善率为72.5%,血糖控制改善率为50%,髋关节打开程度改善率为90.6%。结论孕期体操运动能够有效改善孕期便秘、失眠、腿抽筋、浮肿、腰背疼痛等不良症状,孕妇养生保健体操是安全有效,值得进一步研究和推广的。%Objective To study the effect of pregnancy gymnastic exercises on improving adverse symptoms during pregnancy , so as to provide theoretical basis for research and development of pregnancy gymnastic exercises .Methods Pregnant women with gestational age of 25-34 weeks in 5 pregnant schools in Beijing were selected for the study , and pregnancy gymnastic exercises developed by experts were adopted to observe the improving effect on adverse symptoms .Results Through the intervention of gymnastic exercises , the improving rate of constipation symptoms, insomnia, leg cramps, swelling, lower back pain, blood sugar control and hip joint open degree was 81.2%, 82.8%, 89.3%, 53.3%, 72.5%, 50% and 90.6%, respectively.Conclusion The pregnancy gymnastic exercises can effectively improve pregnancy constipation , insomnia, leg cramps, swelling, back pain and other adverse symptoms .They deserve further study and spread because of safety and effect .

  17. Mental health symptoms in relation to socio-economic conditions and lifestyle factors – a population-based study in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Carina

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor mental health has large social and economic consequences both for the individual and society. In Sweden, the prevalence of mental health symptoms has increased since the beginning of the 1990s. There is a need for a better understanding of the area for planning preventive activities and health care. Methods The study is based on a postal survey questionnaire sent to a random sample of men and women aged 18–84 years in 2004. The overall response rate was 64%. The area investigated covers 55 municipalities with about one million inhabitants in central part of Sweden. The study population includes 42,448 respondents. Mental health was measured with self-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression (EQ-5D, 5th question. The association between socio-economic conditions, lifestyle factors and mental health symptoms was investigated using multivariate multinomial logistic regression models. Results About 40% of women and 30% of men reported that they were moderately or extremely anxious or depressed. Younger subjects reported poorer mental health than older subjects, the best mental health was found at ages 65–74 years. Factors that were strongly and independently related to mental health symptoms were poor social support, experiences of being belittled, employment status (receiving a disability pension and unemployment, economic hardship, critical life events, and functional disability. A strong association was also found between how burdensome domestic work was experienced and anxiety/depression. This was true for both men and women. Educational level was not associated with mental health symptoms. Of lifestyle factors, physical inactivity, underweight and risk consumption of alcohol were independently associated with mental health symptoms. Conclusion Our results support the notion that a ground for good mental health includes balance in social relations, in domestic work and in employment as well as in personal economy both

  18. Mental Health Problems during Puberty: Tanner Stage-Related Differences in Specific Symptoms. The TRAILS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Ormel, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate associations between specific mental health problems and pubertal stage in (pre)adolescents participating in the Dutch prospective cohort study TRAILS (first assessment: N = 2230, age 11.09 [plus or minus] 0.56, 50.8% girls; second assessment: N = 2149, age 13.56 [plus or minus] 0.53, 51.0% girls). Mental…

  19. Mania Symptoms and HIV-Risk Behavior among Adolescents in Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Angela J.; Theodore-Oklota, Christina; Hadley, Wendy; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether adolescents with elevated symptoms of mania (ESM+) engage in more HIV risk behaviors than those with other psychiatric disorders and examined factors associated with HIV risk behavior among ESM+ adolescents. Eight hundred forty adolescents (56% female, 58% African American, "M" age = 14.9 years) who received mental…

  20. [Gonadal disorder as a result of adverse reaction to antineoplastic drugs--diagnosis, symptoms, prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, A

    The past three decades have shown the increasing success of chemotherapy as the treatment of malignancies. This therapeutic success has focused attention on the associated gonadal toxicity. Cytotoxic agents may induce infertility and endocrine disfunction. Data for analysis were provided by studies on gonadal function after chemotherapy for: Hodgkin's disease, acute lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, breast cancer; renal disease, bone-marrow transplantation. The likelihood of developing chemotherapy-induced damage depended on the chemotherapeutic regimen and prescribed dose, illness, sex and degree of gonadal activity at the time of treatment. Despite of the high frequency of chemotherapy-induced gonadal damage its prevention has received a little attention. LH-RHA and oral contraceptive therapy and testosterone have been tested to a limited extent of gonadal toxicity. Usually in male endocrine disfunction of testis does not need to be treated because it is moderate and does not cause any clinical symptoms. In female hormonal substitution seems to be necessary to decrease unpleasant feelings connected with menopause induced by chemotherapy. Further investigations should considered use of new cytotoxic agents without gonadal toxicity or use of new drugs which can better protect gonadal function.

  1. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned int...

  2. Natural language processing to extract symptoms of severe mental illness from clinical text: the Clinical Record Interactive Search Comprehensive Data Extraction (CRIS-CODE) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilleke, Nishamali; Kolliakou, Anna; Ball, Michael; Gorrell, Genevieve; Roberts, Angus; Stewart, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Objectives We sought to use natural language processing to develop a suite of language models to capture key symptoms of severe mental illness (SMI) from clinical text, to facilitate the secondary use of mental healthcare data in research. Design Development and validation of information extraction applications for ascertaining symptoms of SMI in routine mental health records using the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS) data resource; description of their distribution in a corpus of discharge summaries. Setting Electronic records from a large mental healthcare provider serving a geographic catchment of 1.2 million residents in four boroughs of south London, UK. Participants The distribution of derived symptoms was described in 23 128 discharge summaries from 7962 patients who had received an SMI diagnosis, and 13 496 discharge summaries from 7575 patients who had received a non-SMI diagnosis. Outcome measures Fifty SMI symptoms were identified by a team of psychiatrists for extraction based on salience and linguistic consistency in records, broadly categorised under positive, negative, disorganisation, manic and catatonic subgroups. Text models for each symptom were generated using the TextHunter tool and the CRIS database. Results We extracted data for 46 symptoms with a median F1 score of 0.88. Four symptom models performed poorly and were excluded. From the corpus of discharge summaries, it was possible to extract symptomatology in 87% of patients with SMI and 60% of patients with non-SMI diagnosis. Conclusions This work demonstrates the possibility of automatically extracting a broad range of SMI symptoms from English text discharge summaries for patients with an SMI diagnosis. Descriptive data also indicated that most symptoms cut across diagnoses, rather than being restricted to particular groups. PMID:28096249

  3. Methylphenidate-induced mania-like symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustav Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic dose of methylphenidate is known to cause adverse effects (psychosis or mania, albeit in a small number of cases. Signs and symptoms of adverse effects usually disappear on stopping the medicine. Data regarding the safety of methylphenidate in comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD and mental retardation are nonexistent. We describe a case of an 11-year-old girl with ADHD and mental retardation treated with methylphenidate, who developed mania like symptoms requiring inpatient treatment. The index case required psychopharmacological intervention with sodium valproate and olanzapine as the symptoms did not subside even after 3 days. This case highlights the fact that one has to exercise caution while prescribing methylphenidate in patients with comorbid ADHD and mental retardation.

  4. Stress buffering effects of social support on depressive symptoms in middle age: reciprocity and community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Tohru; Kondo, Tsuyoshi; Sakihara, Seizou; Ariizumi, Makoto; Watanabe, Naoki; Oyama, Hirofumi

    2006-12-01

    Little is known about the association between depression and the buffering effects of social support in mid-life crisis. The aim of this study is to determine the buffering effects of social support on depression concerning middle-aged individuals, while also taking reciprocity and gender differences into careful consideration. A cross-sectional survey of all middle-aged individuals (40-69 years of age) using a large sample (n = 4558) from a community-living population, who resided in Rokunohe town, Aomori prefecture in northern Japan (response rate = 69.8%), was undertaken. This town recently had a lot of suicides. Two-way anova was used to analyze the effects of stressor and social support on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale scores. The authors found a stress buffering effect of social support on the depressive symptoms occurring in middle age, however, a significant difference in the stress buffer effect was only observed in male subjects. Moreover, when the authors take reciprocity into account, the effect of the buffer on depression was found not only in males receiving support but in males providing support as well. In conclusion, pertaining to males, social support reduces depressive symptoms under stressful circumstances in middle age, not only when they receive such support but also when they provide it. Therefore, these findings suggest that reciprocal social support is important for males in relation to community mental health.

  5. Influence of sleep disorders on somatic symptoms, mental health, and quality of life in patients with chronic constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ya; Tang, Yu-Rong; Xie, Chen; Yu, Ting; Xiong, Wen-Jie; Lin, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Sleep disturbance is a common symptom in CC patients, and it is positively related to greater somatic and psychiatric symptoms. Methods: The participants were 126 adult outpatients with CC. The measures were: constipation—Constipation Scoring System (CSS) and Patient Assessment of Constipation-Symptoms (PAC-SYM); sleep—Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI); anxiety—General Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7); depression—Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); and QOL—Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL) and SF-36. Patients were divided into sleep-disorder and normal-sleep groups by their PSQI scores. Results: The sleep-disorder group had significantly higher rates of incomplete defecation and blockage and higher CSS scores, PAC-SYM total scores, and PAC-SYM rectal-item scores than the normal-sleep group. GAD-7 and PHQ-9 scores were significantly higher in patients with poor sleep. Furthermore, sleep disorders, depression, and anxiety were all positively correlated with constipation severity. “Worry/anxiety” score of PAC-QOL scale was significantly higher and scores for seven SF-36 subscales were significantly lower in patients with poor sleep. In addition, correlation analyses showed significant negative relations between QOL and constipation, sleep disturbance, anxiety as well as depression. However, multiple regression revealed that PAC-QOL was positively associated with severe constipation and SF-36 was negatively associated with anxiety and depression. But sleep disturbance was not the independent risk factor for QOL of CC patients. Conclusion: Sleep disorders may worsen the physical- and mental health of CC patients. Sleep disturbance may lower CC patients’ QOL indirectly through the combined effects of anxiety, depression, and constipation. PMID:28207519

  6. Diagnostic overshadowing and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of patients with mental illness who present in emergency departments with physical symptoms--a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Shefer

    Full Text Available We conducted a qualitative study in the Emergency Departments (EDs of four hospitals in order to investigate the perceived scope and causes of 'diagnostic overshadowing'--the misattribution of physical symptoms to mental illness--and other challenges involved in the diagnostic process of people with mental illness who present in EDs with physical symptoms. Eighteen doctors and twenty-one nurses working in EDs and psychiatric liaisons teams in four general hospitals in the UK were interviewed. Interviewees were asked about cases in which mental illness interfered with diagnosis of physical problems and about other aspects of the diagnostic process. Interviews were transcribed and analysed thematically. Interviewees reported various scenarios in which mental illness or factors related to it led to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment with various degrees of seriousness. Direct factors which may lead to misattribution in this regard are complex presentations or aspects related to poor communication or challenging behaviour of the patient. Background factors are the crowded nature of the ED environment, time pressures and targets and stigmatising attitudes held by a minority of staff. The existence of psychiatric liaison team covering the ED twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, can help reduce the risk of misdiagnosis of people with mental illness who present with physical symptoms. However, procedures used by emergency and psychiatric liaison staff require fuller operationalization to reduce disagreement over where responsibilities lie.

  7. Detection of Symptoms of Prevalent Mental Health Disorders of Childhood with the Parent Form of the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Erin; Kamphaus, Randy W.; Abdou, Annmary S.; Twyford, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the criterion-related validity of score inferences from the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Parent Form" (BESS Parent) for the detection of symptoms of prevalent mental health disorders of childhood. The BESS Parent was administered to 99 parents of first- through fifth-grade students, along with the…

  8. The association between attachment and mental health symptoms among school-going adolescents in northern Uganda: the moderating role of war-related trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Okello

    Full Text Available The association between attachment and mental health symptoms in adolescents in a post-conflict low resource setting has not been documented.We investigated the relationship between parent and peer attachment and posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms in a sample of 551 adolescents aged 13-21 years old. Attachment quality was assessed using the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA. Post-traumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms were assessed using the Impact of Events Scale Revised (IESR and Hopkins Symptom Checklist for Adolescents (HSCL-37A respectively. Gender differences in attachment relationships were determined using independent t-tests. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess whether attachment relationships were independently associated with posttraumatic stress, depression and anxiety symptoms. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to explore the moderating role of war-related trauma.Our analyses revealed gender differences in attachment to parents, with males reporting stronger attachment than females. Parental attachment was protective against depression and anxiety symptoms but not posttraumatic stress symptoms after adjusting for potential confounders. Alienation by parents was independently associated with an increase in these mental health symptoms while peer attachment was not associated with any of these symptoms. However, in situations of severe trauma, our analyses showed that peer attachment was significantly protective against post-traumatic stress symptoms.Secure parental attachment is associated with better psychosocial adjustment in adolescents affected by war. Further, adolescents with secure peer attachment relationships in situations of severe war trauma may be less likely to develop posttraumatic stress symptoms. Interventions to enhance peer support in this post conflict setting would benefit this vulnerable population.

  9. Patient communication self-efficacy, self-reported illness symptoms, physician communication style and mental health and illness in hospital outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Vincenza

    2016-07-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we investigated the associations between patient communication self-efficacy and self-reported symptoms in doctor-patient communication, as perceived by patients, and the mental health and illness of hospital outpatients. Using data from a sample of 74 outpatients (mean age = 37.58 years, standard deviation = 12.54), a structural equation model was calculated. The results showed that communication self-efficacy and respectful behaviour were associated with mental health and illness. Furthermore, self-reported symptoms were correlated with mental illness. Gender and educational differences also occurred. The findings suggest that enhancing patients' communication skills could benefit outpatients in general, but female and less educated patients in particular.

  10. Perceived mental stress in women associated with psychosomatic symptoms, but not mortality: observations from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hange D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Hange,1 Kirsten Mehlig,2 Lauren Lissner,2 Xinxin Guo,3 Calle Bengtsson,1,† Ingmar Skoog,3 Cecilia Björkelund1 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Public Health Epidemiology, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden †Calle Bengtsson passed away on 23rd March 2013 Purpose: To investigate possible association between mental stress and psychosomatic symptoms, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, as well as incident mortality in a middle-aged female population followed over 37 years. Methods: A prospective observational study initiated in 1968–1969, including 1462 women aged 60, 54, 50, 46, and 38 years, with follow-ups in 1974–1975, 1980–1981, and 2000–2001, was performed. Measures included self-reported mental stress as well as psychosomatic symptoms and smoking, physical activity, total cholesterol, S-triglycerides, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, blood pressure, socioeconomic status and mortality. Results: Smoking, not being single, and not working outside home were strongly associated with reported mental stress at baseline. Women who reported high mental stress in 1968–1969 were more likely to report presence of abdominal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.46, headache/migraine (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53–2.72, frequent infections (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70, and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30–2.23 than women who did not report mental stress. Women without these symptoms at baseline 1968–1969, but with perceived mental stress were more likely to subsequently report incident abdominal symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.39–3.34, headache/migraine (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.48–3.48 and frequent infections (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.12

  11. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Symptoms Intensity, Quality of Life, and Mental Health in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrollah Ebrahimi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder with chronic abdominal pain, bowel habit variations, and lack of structural causes. Symptom intensity has a statistical relation with patients' quality of life (QOL and mental health. The first objective of the present study was to develop and provide a therapeutic plan based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT for IBS that was operated for the very first time in Iran. The second objective was to determine the effectiveness of these treatments on IBS symptoms intensity, health-related QOL, and psychological health among patients with IBS. Methods: The participants were 15 women with IBS. The participants were diagnosed on the basis of ROME-III diagnosis criteria. The data collection tools consisted of IBS Symptom Severity Scale (IBS-SSS, the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R used to evaluate mental health. Data were collected during the weeks of 0, 4, 12, and 24, during the treatment process. The extracted data was examined statistically via repeated measures MANOVA in SPSS software. Results: CBT has a significant effect on IBS symptoms reduction, QOL improvement, and mental health promotion of the patients. The effect of the therapeutic plan persisted until the follow-up stage. Conclusion: According to the results, applied CBT can be specifically implemented as an effective treatment for IBS. Therefore, the use of this treatment is advised.

  12. Mental and physical symptoms associated with lower social support for patients with hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julie A Blasiole; Laura Shinkunas; Douglas R LaBrecque; Robert M Arnold; Susan L Zickmund

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To systematically examine the impact of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnosis on patients' level of social support in a large-scale study.METHODS: Patients evaluated and treated for HCV in a tertiary referral center were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Demographic data, functional and emotional status as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) and the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), severity of liver disease, mode of acquisition, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities were collected from patients or abstracted from the medical record. All participants completed a semi-structured interview, addressing questions of social support.RESULTS: A total of 342 patients (mean age 45.2 years;37% women) were enrolled. Ninety-two (27%) patients described lower levels of support by family and friends.Nearly half of the participants (45%) noted the loss of at least one relationship due to the disease. Fears related to transmitting the disease (25%) were common and often associated with ignorance or even discrimination by others (19%). Nearly one fifth of the patients did not share information about their disease with others to avoid being stigmatized. Lower levels of social support were significantly associated with living alone, being unemployed, being excluded from antiviral therapy, having psychiatric comorbidities, contracting HCV through intravenous drug use, having high levels of anxiety and depression as measured by the HAD and negative mood state as measured by the SIP. Patients reporting lower levels of social support also noted more physical symptoms as measured by the SIP.CONCLUSION: Patients with hepatitis C often face significant social problems, ranging from social isolation to familial stress. The most common concerns reflect a limited insight of patients and their relatives and friends about the disease, the risk factors for its spread, and about potential consequences. Our data suggest that educational interventions targeting

  13. Therapeutic value of Ginkgo biloba in reducing symptoms of decline in mental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis-Prior, P; Vere, D; Fray, P

    1999-05-01

    The Chinese tree Ginkgo biloba or "maiden hair tree" is extensively cultivated for the exploitation of the medicinal properties of its leaves. From these, a well-defined extract designated "EGb 761" has been developed, which was commercialized initially as Tanakan, Tebonin and Rokin; a similar product, Kaveri (LI 3170), also exists. The major therapeutic applications for these products are "cerebral insufficiency", other cerebral disorders, neurosensory problems and peripheral circulatory disturbances. Four primary concepts of action have been proposed to explain the pharmacotherapeutic benefits of EGb761; these are: vasoregulatory, cognition-enhancing, stress-alleviating, and gene-regulatory. These actions are believed to be realized through the principal active ingredients, flavonoids and the terpenoids ginkgolides and bilobalide acting simultaneously in concert, combination and synergy, so-called polyvalent action. It has been proposed that EGb761 may improve the memory of healthy volunteers, and in an assessment of [corrected] forty clinical studies, it was reported that Ginkgo was able to improve the twelve different symptoms comprising 'cerebral insufficiency', all of which are manifest in the elderly. These were supported in a second major study, using LI1370. However, in both instances, the evidence was largely based upon the results of self-assessment questionnaires. Latterly, in a large double blind study of men and women with the diagnosis of uncomplicated dementia who were administered Ginkgo for a year, a further positive outcome was claimed. In this study, patients were tested using ADAS-cog, GERRI and CGIC. It is suggested that whilst these different outcomes are compatible with (but do not affirm) a clinical benefit resulting from the use of Ginkgo, the application of a more objective system of assessment would be able to provide firm proof. It is proposed, therefore, that an objective, computer-based testing system for assessment of clinical

  14. Cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor presenting stroke mimic symptoms: a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Satomi; Nishiwaki, Satoshi; Koyama, Daisuke; Okuno, Shingo; Harada, Yasuhiko; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Yoshihara, Hisatake; Iwasaki, Toshihiro; Sugiura, Isamu

    2015-06-01

    Peripheral blood stem cell apheresis from a healthy donor is indispensable for allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Here, we report a rare adverse event following peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. A female sibling donor, aged 61 years with an unremarkable medical history, complained of pain in the left neck and shoulder and numbness in the left upper limb 1 h after the end of peripheral blood stem cell apheresis. Paralysis of the left upper and lower limbs appeared consecutively. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed no abnormalities. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated according to the standard treatment of atherothrombotic brain infarction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the cervical cord on the following day revealed a cervical epidural hematoma. An emergency C4-C5 laminectomy was performed, and the paralysis was improved immediately after surgery. This report is the first case of cervical epidural hematoma in a healthy donor who underwent peripheral blood stem cell apheresis and presented symptoms confusingly similar to those of brain infarction.

  15. Mental symptoms and comorbid behaviours among Inuit in Greenland: the role of household crowding and household social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riva, Mylène; Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Bjerregaard, Peter

    on 3108 Inuit aged 18 years and older are from the Inuit Health in Transition Survey. Dependent variables considered were: feelings of depression and of anxiety; binge drinking; harmful drinking; and use of marijuana. Household crowding was measured by the number of people in the house, and the social...... with higher risk of reporting feeling anxious (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.00-1.09) or depressed (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.09), but with lower risks of heavy drinking (OR: 0.89; 95%CI: 0.82-0.98), use of marijuana (OR: 0.85; 95%CI: 0.77-0.94), and marginally (p... marijuana (OR: 1.34; 95%CI: 0.98-1.81), but not of harmful drinking, were significantly higher in households composed only of adults. Although similar patterns of associations are observed, household crowding and the social structure of the household appear to influence women’s mental symptoms and comorbid...

  16. Effect of Taking Soybean Supplement and Regular Aerobic Exercise in Water on Mental and Physical Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome among Female Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masume Nazemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of taking soybean supplement and regular aerobic exercise in water on mental and physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS among female students. Methods: This study was a single blind quasi-experimental trial that was conducted on female students living in dormitories of Shahroud University. In this study of 67 female students suffering from severe PMS that were eligible for inclusion, 40 persons voluntarily by completing a consent form were willing to work with us until the end of the study. After performing the pre-test and completing the questionnaire (PMS, subjects were divided into 4 groups: Aerobic training, taking soybean supplement, soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise and placebo. Aerobic exercises include activities in water for 8 weeks, with three sessions per week, and intensity of 55 to 65 percent of maximum heart rate. The supplement contains a capsule of 500 mg of soybean, taken once daily and the placebo contains starch, flour and oleaster powder that was similar to soybean capsule, taken once daily. At the end of eight weeks in the post-test stage, participants again completed the PMS questionnaire accurately. Given the normality of data, two-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the data using SPSS18 software. Results: The results showed that aerobic training in water for eight weeks had a significantly effect on general, physical and mental PMS symptoms in training group. Moreover, taking soybean for eight weeks had a significant effect on general and mental symptoms in supplement group, but no significant effect was observed in physical symptoms. In addition, 8 weeks of taking soybean supplement along with aerobic exercise in the water reduce the symptoms, but this difference was not significant. Conclusion: According to the results of this research, Soybean supplement or aerobic exercise in water can be used to treat or reduce PMS symptoms.

  17. 无痛人流患者的心理护理%The effect of adverse effect about mental intervention to painless induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨心理护理干预对无痛人流术不良反应的影响。方法:将200例无痛人流术患者随机分为对照组100例,干预组100例。对照组采用常规护理,干预组在此基础上接受心理护理干预。结果:与术前相比麻醉后两组患者均出现程度不同的血压、心率、血氧饱和度下降,但差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);对照组术中呼吸抑制、躁动、术后不良情绪发生率高于干预组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);the rates of respiratory depression, restlessness during operation, dysthymia at postoperation is higher than intervention group. The differences are significant(p<0.05). Conclusion Mental intervention is able to degrade adverse effect of cases about painless induced abortion and prevent accident to take place.

  18. Psychotic symptoms are associated with physical health problems independently of a mental disorder diagnosis: results from the WHO World Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Carmen; Nuevo, Roberto; Chatterji, Somnath; Verdes, Emese; Arango, Celso; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    This study explored whether physical health problems are related to psychotic symptoms independently of a mental disorder diagnosis. A total of 224,254 subjects recruited for the World Health Organization World Health Survey were subdivided into those with both a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis and at least one psychotic symptom in the 12 months prior to the evaluation, those with at least one psychotic symptom in the past 12 months but no lifetime diagnosis of psychosis, and those without psychotic symptoms in the past 12 months and without a lifetime diagnosis of psychosis. The three groups were compared for the presence of medical conditions, health problems, and access to health care. Medical conditions and health problems (angina, asthma, arthritis, tuberculosis, vision or hearing problems, mouth/teeth problems, alcohol consumption, smoking, and accidents), medication consumption, and hospital admissions (but not regular health care visits) were more frequent in individuals with psychotic symptoms but no psychosis diagnosis, compared to those with no symptoms and no diagnosis. The number of medical conditions increased with the number of psychotic symptoms. Given the sample analyzed, this trend seems to be independent from the socio-economic development of the country or the specific health care system.

  19. The effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Hasani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders comorbid with with substance use disorder. This research was aimed to evaluate the effect of brief behavioral activation treatment on the symptoms of depression, mental health and quality of life among the patients with opioid use disorders. Methods: In a quasi-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design, 24 patients taking opiates were selected through convenience sampling method and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated for two months. BDI-II, GHQ-28, WHOQOL-BREF were given to both groups before and after treatment and in the 2-month followup period. The results were analyzed using mixed analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that brief behavioral activation treatment significantly reduced the symptoms of depression (P0.05. Conclusion: brief behavioral activation treatment is capable of reducing the severity of symptoms of depression and improving the mental health of patients with substance use disorders.

  20. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  1. A COMPARISON MENTAL HEALTH, PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS, ANXIETY AND SLEEPING DISORDERS AND DISORDERS IN SOCIAL FUNCTION AMONG MALE AND FEMALE ATHLETES AND NONATHLETES STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nili Ahmadabady

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to comparison mental health, Physical symptoms, Anxiety and sleeping disorders and Disorders in social function among male and female athletes and non-athletes students. Methods: The target population consisted entirely male of female athletes and non-athletes students in University of Guilan. After translate of standard General Health Questionnaires (GHQ, and adjust of some question, questionnaires were evaluated by professors of faculty of physical education and sport sciences. The reliability guided Cronbach Alpha value of (0.83. Among them 90 male athlete and 90 male non-athlete with mean. The collected data was analyzed by t-test, one-way ANOVA. Result: There were significant difference mean scores between in four mental health scales, physical symptoms, anxiety and sleep disorders and impaired social functioning athlete and non-athlete in both groups. Conclusion: Therefore, with fewer psychological problems in an athlete, physical activity can be purpose strategies as appropriate, easy and inexpensive to improve mental health among male and female non- athlete students.

  2. Self-reported wrist and finger symptoms associated with other physical/mental symptoms and use of computers/mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2017-01-26

    Recently, computer, mobile phone, and Internet use has increased. This study aimed to determine the possible relation between self-reported wrist and finger symptoms (aches, pain, or numbness) and using computers/mobile phones, and analyze how the symptoms are specifically associated with utilizing desktop computers, portable computers or mini-computers, and mobile phones. A questionnaire was sent to 15,000 working-age Finns (between the ages of 18-65). Via a questionnaire, 723 persons reported wrist and finger symptoms often or more. Over 80% use mobile phones daily and less than 30% use desktop computers or the Internet daily at leisure. For example, over 89.8% had quite often or often experienced pain, numbness, or aches in the neck, and 61.3% had aches in hips and the lower back. Only 33.7% connected their symptoms to computer use. In the future, the development of new devices and Internet services should incorporate the ergonomics of the hands and wrists.

  3. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  4. Disentangling the directions of associations between structural social capital and mental health: Longitudinal analyses of gender, civic engagement and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Almquist, Ylva B; Eriksson, Malin; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-08-01

    The present paper analysed the directions of associations between individual-level structural social capital, in the form of civic engagement, and depressive symptoms across time from age 16-42 years in Swedish men and women. More specifically, we asked whether civic engagement was related to changes in depressive symptoms, if it was the other way around, or whether the association was bi-directional. This longitudinal study used data from a 26-year prospective cohort material of 1001 individuals in Northern Sweden (482 women and 519 men). Civic engagement was measured by a single-item question reflecting the level of engagement in clubs/organisations. Depressive symptoms were assessed by a composite index. Directions of associations were analysed by means of gender-separate cross-lagged structural equation models. Models were adjusted for parental social class, parental unemployment, parental health, and family type at baseline (age 16). Levels of both civic engagement and depressive symptoms were relatively stable across time. The model with the best fit to data showed that, in men, youth civic engagement was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood, thus supporting the hypothesis that involvement in social networks promotes health, most likely through provision of social and psychological support, perceived influence, and sense of belonging. Accordingly, interventions to promote civic engagement in young men could be a way to prevent poor mental health for men later on in life. No cross-lagged effects were found among women. We discuss this gender difference in terms of gendered experiences of civic engagement which in turn generate different meanings and consequences for men and women, such as civic engagement not being as positive for women's mental health as for that of men. We conclude that theories on structural social capital and interventions to facilitate civic engagement for health promoting purposes need to acknowledge gendered life

  5. PROBLEMATIC ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS AND THERAPY OF NON-PSYCHOTIC MENTAL DISORDERS IN FEMALE PATIENTS OF CLIMACTERIC AGE WITH HYSTERICAL SYMPTOM COMPLEX (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V. Lukiyanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, problematic questions of diagnostics and therapy of non-psychotic mental disorders (NPMD in female patients of climacteric age with hysterical symptom complex are considered. Efficacy of psychotherapy (PT in NPMD, hypnopsychotherapy in hysterical states: hysterical neurosis, neurasthenia and obsessive-compulsive neurosis is indicated. In treatment of NPMD, PT by creative selfexpression is successfully used. It is highlighted that PT forms conscious-critical attitude of patients toward themselves. Combination of PT with physiotherapy in hysterical conversional symptoms has been described. In hysterical manifestations neuroleptics are recommended, in neurotic depressions – antidepressants of mild action. In severe hysterical state, psychopharmacotherapy (PPhT with tranquilizers and neuroleptics is applied on long-term basis. Stable recovery in dissociative and hysterical disorders has been shown. In vegetovascular disorders in structure of climacteric syndrome (CS vinpocetine, in psychoemotional manifestations phenibut was administered. In therapy of hysterical neurosis, “minor neuroleptics”, hypnosuggestive therapy, social rehabilitation were applied. Effective group PT of psychogenically conditioned disorders in asthenicand anxiety-depressive symptoms is effective. Complex therapy of NPMD in hysterical and asthenic neurosis, obsessive-compulsive neurosis has been suggested. Organization of specialized preventive examinations for early revealing of persons with personality pathology is based. Efficacy of a number of medications in periand post-menopause – SSRIs and gabapentin, during menopause paroxetine, in depressions of non-psychotic level – pyrazidol, coaxil, in neurotic hypochondriasis sulpiride and quetiapine, diazepam, in climacteric vegetative and mental disorders hormone replacement therapy (HRT, hormonal therapy, PPhT and PT, in neurovegetative symptoms of CS – antidepressants, in psychovegetative syndromes

  6. Low socio-economic status, smoking, mental stress and obesity predict obstructive symptoms in women, but only smoking also predicts subsequent experience of poor health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted among female subjects to assess the possible association between selected risk factors and lung function as well as airway symptoms in a 32-year perspective. The Prospective Population Study of Women was initiated in 1968-1969 in Göteborg, Sweden (population about 450 000 with follow-ups in 1974-1975, 1980-1981, 1992-1993 and 2000-2001. Women born in 1930, representative of women of the same age in the general population in 1968, were selected. Initially, 372 participants were included in the cohort. In 2000-2001, 231 of these women (73%, now 70 years old, underwent lung function tests. The main outcome measures were lung function values, airway symptoms and health outcome in 2000-2001 in relation to self-reported exposures in 1968-1969 including smoking status. Smoking in 1968-1969 was associated with self-reported chronic bronchitis, obstructive symptoms and poor health 32 years later as well as lower lung function values, compared to non-smokers. Obesity, low socio-economic status and self-reported mental stress in 1968-1969 were associated with obstructive symptoms 32 years later. There are only a few longitudinal studies concerning women's health problems in this field and epidemiological studies of lung function impairment in women and risk factors in a long-term perspective are scarce. The results of the study suggest that life-style factors such as mental stress, obesity and smoking among women are related to airway symptoms and also quality of life many years later.

  7. Comparing Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms of Depression in Myocardial Infarction Patients and Depressed Patients in Primary and Mental Health Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Nynke A.; Doornbos, Bennard; Zuidersma, Marij; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Aleman, Andre; de Jonge, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Depression in myocardial infarction patients is often a first episode with a late age of onset. Two studies that compared depressed myocardial infarction patients to psychiatric patients found similar levels of somatic symptoms, and one study reported lower levels of cognitive/affective symptoms in

  8. The Correlation between Personality and Mental Symptoms in Neurotic Disorders%神经症患者人格与心理症状相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永新

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To explore the correlation between personality and mental symptoms in neurosis. Methods: Eighty Patients with neurotic disorder were assessed with the Symptom Check List 90(SCL-90) and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Results: By stepwise regression analysis, the N score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and factor scores on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.277~0.508. The P score of EPQ was positively correlated with the mean score and the scores of depression, hostility, paranoid idea on SCL-90, and their standard regression coefficients were 0.245~0.362. The E score of EPQ was negatively correlated with the scores of interpersonal sensitivity , depression on SCL-90 and their standard regression coefficients were-0.209 and -0.229. Conclusion: Personality played significant role in neurotic disorders.

  9. Symptoms, the nature of fibromyalgia, and diagnostic and statistical manual 5 (DSM-5 defined mental illness in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wolfe

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5 criteria for somatic symptom disorder. METHODS: We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15, a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5, 10, and 15 represent low, medium, and high somatic symptom severity cut-points. A likely somatization syndrome was diagnosed when PHQ-15 score was ≥10. The intensity of fibromyalgia diagnostic symptoms was measured by the polysymptomatic distress (PSD scale. RESULTS: 26.4% of RA patients and 88.9% with fibromyalgia had PHQ-15 scores ≥10 compared with 9.3% in the general population. With each step-wise increase in PHQ-15 category, more abnormal mental and physical health status scores were observed. RA patients satisfying fibromyalgia criteria increased from 1.2% in the PHQ-15 low category to 88.9% in the high category. The sensitivity and specificity of PHQ-15≥10 for fibromyalgia diagnosis was 80.9% and 80.0% (correctly classified = 80.3% compared with 84.3% and 93.7% (correctly classified = 91.7% for the PSD scale. 51.4% of fibromyalgia patients and 14.8% with RA had fatigue, sleep or cognitive problems that were severe, continuous, and life-disturbing; and almost all fibromyalgia patients had severe impairments of function and quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: All patients with fibromyalgia will satisfy the DSM-5 "A" criterion for distressing somatic symptoms, and most would seem to satisfy DSM-5 "B" criterion because symptom impact is life-disturbing or associated with substantial impairment of function and quality of life. But the "B" designation requires special knowledge that symptoms are "disproportionate" or "excessive," something that is

  10. Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases, childhood adversities and familial aggregation are independently associated with the risk for mental disorders: Results from a large Swiss epidemiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Ajdacic-Gross, V.; A. Aleksandrowicz; Rodgers, S; Mutsch, M.; Tesic, A.; Müller, M.; Kawohl, W.; Rössler, W.; Seifritz, E; CASTELAO, E.; Strippoli, M.F.; Vandeleur, C.; von Känel, R.; Paolicelli, R.; Landolt, M A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METhODS: We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjust...

  11. Association between self-reported general and mental health and adverse outcomes: a retrospective cohort study of 19,625 Scottish adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zia Ul-Haq

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Self-reported general health and mental health are independent predictors of all-cause mortality. This study examines whether they are also independent predictors of incident cancer, coronary heart disease and psychiatric hospitalisation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, population cohort study by linking the 19 625 Scottish adults who participated in the Scottish Health Surveys 1995-2003, to hospital admissions, cancer registration and death certificate records. We conducted Cox proportional hazard models adjusting for potential confounders including age, sex, socioeconomic status, alcohol, smoking status, body mass index, hypertension and diabetes. RESULTS: Poor general health was reported by 1215 (6.2% participants and was associated with cancer registrations (adjusted Hazard Ratio [HR] 1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.55, coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 2.30, 95% CI 1.86, 2.84 and psychiatric hospitalisations (adjusted HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.65, 3.56. There was evidence of dose relationships and the associations remained significant after adjustment for mental health. 3172 (16% participants had poor mental health (GHQ ≥ 4. After adjustment for general health, the associations between poor mental health and coronary heart disease events (adjusted HR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13, 1.63 and all-cause death (adjusted HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.23, 1.55 became non-significant, but mental health remained associated with psychiatric hospitalisations (fully adjusted HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.48, 2.75. CONCLUSION: Self-reported general health is a significant predictor of a range of clinical outcomes independent of mental health. The association between mental health and non-psychiatric outcomes is mediated by general health but it is an independent predictor of psychiatric outcome. Individuals with poor general health or mental health warrant close attention.

  12. Latino adolescents' mental health: exploring the interrelations among discrimination, ethnic identity, cultural orientation, self-esteem, and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2007-08-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group comparison approach, path analyses indicated that higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and resolution significantly predicted higher levels of self-esteem for both boys and girls. Furthermore, self-esteem partially mediated the relation between perceived discrimination and adolescents' depressive symptoms. Additional analyses revealed that boys' cultural orientations moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and both self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Taken together, findings indicated that various aspects of the self (i.e. self-esteem, ethnic identity, cultural orientations) can protect and/or enhance the risks associated with discrimination.

  13. Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES, childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs, social support and behavioural factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n=12,981 of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress to social support and behavioural factors in adulthood ; (ii the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioural factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10, health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS in adulthood; (iii the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv the mediating role of adult social support and behavioural factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%, health (7.01%, and well-being (9.09%, as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%, health (10.60%, and well-being (20.60%, as compared to mother’s and father’s education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  14. Common stressful life events and difficulties are associated with mental health symptoms and substance use in young adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Low Nancy CP; Dugas Erika; O’Loughlin Erin; Rodriguez Daniel; Contreras Gisele; Chaiton Michael; O’Loughlin Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stressful life events are associated with mood disorders in adults in clinical settings. Less described in the literature is the association between common life stressors and a wide range of psychopathology in young adolescents. This study uses a large non-clinical sample of young adolescents to describe the associations among worry or stress about common life events/difficulties, mental health and substance use. Methods Data on lifetime stress or worry about common life e...

  15. Validation of cross-cultural child mental health and psychosocial research instruments: adapting the Depression Self-Rating Scale and Child PTSD Symptom Scale in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tol Wietse A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lack of culturally adapted and validated instruments for child mental health and psychosocial support in low and middle-income countries is a barrier to assessing prevalence of mental health problems, evaluating interventions, and determining program cost-effectiveness. Alternative procedures are needed to validate instruments in these settings. Methods Six criteria are proposed to evaluate cross-cultural validity of child mental health instruments: (i purpose of instrument, (ii construct measured, (iii contents of construct, (iv local idioms employed, (v structure of response sets, and (vi comparison with other measurable phenomena. These criteria are applied to transcultural translation and alternative validation for the Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS and Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS in Nepal, which recently suffered a decade of war including conscription of child soldiers and widespread displacement of youth. Transcultural translation was conducted with Nepali mental health professionals and six focus groups with children (n = 64 aged 11-15 years old. Because of the lack of child mental health professionals in Nepal, a psychosocial counselor performed an alternative validation procedure using psychosocial functioning as a criterion for intervention. The validation sample was 162 children (11-14 years old. The Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS and Global Assessment of Psychosocial Disability (GAPD were used to derive indication for treatment as the external criterion. Results The instruments displayed moderate to good psychometric properties: DSRS (area under the curve (AUC = 0.82, sensitivity = 0.71, specificity = 0.81, cutoff score ≥ 14; CPSS (AUC = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.68, specificity = 0.73, cutoff score ≥ 20. The DSRS items with significant discriminant validity were "having energy to complete daily activities" (DSRS.7, "feeling that life is not worth living" (DSRS.10, and

  16. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progovac, Ana M.; Chen, Pei; Mullin, Brian; Hou, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12). Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being) and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4) were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible. PMID:27752278

  17. Novel Use of Natural Language Processing (NLP to Predict Suicidal Ideation and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Text-Based Mental Health Intervention in Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Cook

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural language processing (NLP and machine learning were used to predict suicidal ideation and heightened psychiatric symptoms among adults recently discharged from psychiatric inpatient or emergency room settings in Madrid, Spain. Participants responded to structured mental and physical health instruments at multiple follow-up points. Outcome variables of interest were suicidal ideation and psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12. Predictor variables included structured items (e.g., relating to sleep and well-being and responses to one unstructured question, “how do you feel today?” We compared NLP-based models using the unstructured question with logistic regression prediction models using structured data. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of suicidal ideation were 0.61, 0.56, and 0.57, respectively, compared to 0.73, 0.76, and 0.62 of structured data-based models. The PPV, sensitivity, and specificity for NLP-based models of heightened psychiatric symptoms (GHQ-12 ≥ 4 were 0.56, 0.59, and 0.60, respectively, compared to 0.79, 0.79, and 0.85 in structured models. NLP-based models were able to generate relatively high predictive values based solely on responses to a simple general mood question. These models have promise for rapidly identifying persons at risk of suicide or psychological distress and could provide a low-cost screening alternative in settings where lengthy structured item surveys are not feasible.

  18. Influence of Combat Blast-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Acute Symptoms on Mental Health and Service Discharge Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    injury medical records. The associations between acute symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), postconcussion syndrome (PCS), and type of...1391 postdeployment screening including PTSD and postconcussion syndrome (PCS).8,11,12 Civilian studies have highlighted the vo cational outcomes... postconcussion syndrome; SD, standard deviation; ISS, Injury Severity Score; IED, improvised explosive device; RPG, rocket propelled grenade. mTBI

  19. Deployment, PTSD Symptoms, and Co-morbid Mental Health Conditions in the Active Force and Reserve Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    E. J. (1998). A confirmatory factor analysis of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 1091–1099. Byrne, B. M...drinking any amount of beer, wine , or liquor. Responses were coded as a dichotomous variable classifying persons into those who did and did not drive after

  20. Latino Adolescents' Mental Health: Exploring the Interrelations among Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Guided by a risk and resilience framework, the current study used cross-sectional data to examine the degree to which Latino adolescents' (N=274; M age=16.3; 47.1% female) self-esteem, ethnic identity, and cultural orientations mediated or moderated the relation between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms. Utilizing a multiple group…

  1. Eating disorder symptoms do not just disappear: the implications of adolescent eating-disordered behaviour for body weight and mental health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Dempfle, Astrid; Konrad, Kerstin; Klasen, Fionna; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

    2015-06-01

    This study reports the outcomes of childhood and adolescent eating-disordered behaviour on the development of body mass index (BMI) and psychological functioning in young adulthood in a population-based sample in Germany (the BELLA study). Information at baseline and follow-up was obtained through a telephone interview and mailed self-report questionnaires. At both measurement points, BMI, eating disorder symptoms (SCOFF questionnaire), and symptoms of depression and anxiety were assessed in the same cohort of 771 participants (n = 420 females, n = 351 males). The age range at baseline was 11-17 years, and the age range at follow-up was 17-23 years. High scores for eating-disordered behaviour in childhood or adolescence significantly predicted eating-disordered behaviour in young adulthood (multiplicative effect estimate: 1.31; 95 % CI: 1.2-1.42, p < 0.0001), although there was a decline in prevalence (from 19.3 to 13.8 %, p = 0.002) and severity (mean decrease in SCOFF 0.07, 95 % CI: -0.01-0.14, p = 0.06). After accounting for potentially confounding variables at baseline (SES, probands' BMI, parental BMI, depressive symptoms), participants with more eating disorder symptoms at baseline had a higher risk of developing overweight (odds ratio (OR): 1.58; 95 % CI: 1.19-2.09, p = 0.001), obesity (OR = 1.67; 95 % CI: 1.03-2.66, p = 0.03), and depressive symptoms at follow-up (additive effect estimate: 0.45; 95 %CI: 0.19-0.7, p = 0.0006). Early symptoms of depression showed a significant relationship with extreme underweight in young adulthood (OR = 1.13; 95 %CI: 1.01-1.25, p = 0.02). The high stability of eating disorder symptoms and the significant association with overweight and worse mental health in adulthood underscore the need for early detection and intervention during childhood and adolescence. Youth with depression should be monitored for the development of restrictive eating disorders.

  2. Predeployment Sleep Duration and Insomnia Symptoms as Risk Factors for New-Onset Mental Health Disorders Following Military Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    SLEEP, Vol. 36, No. 7, 2013 1011 Effects of Predeployment Sleep on Mental Health—Gehrman et al ployed, and the physical abuse item has the most...1998;155: 929 -33. 49. Chen MC, Burley HW, Gotlib IH. Reduced sleep quality in healthy girls at risk for depression. J Sleep Res 2012;21:68-72. 50. Gangwisch...Insomnia with ob- jective short sleep duration and incident hypertension: The Penn State Cohort. Hypertension 2012;60: 929 -35. 53. Vgontzas AN, Liao D

  3. Nonmotor symptoms in a malaysian Parkinson's disease population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Shahrul; Khairul Anuar, Abdul Manaf; Tan, Hui Jan; Nafisah, Wan Yahya; Raymond, Azman Ali; Hanita, Othman; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Norlinah, Mohamed Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of Parkinson's disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  4. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.

  5. Duplication of the MECP2 region is a frequent cause of severe mental retardation and progressive neurological symptoms in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Esch, Hilde; Bauters, Marijke; Ignatius, Jaakko; Jansen, Mieke; Raynaud, Martine; Hollanders, Karen; Lugtenberg, Dorien; Bienvenu, Thierry; Jensen, Lars Riff; Gecz, Jozef; Moraine, Claude; Marynen, Peter; Fryns, Jean-Pierre; Froyen, Guy

    2005-09-01

    Loss-of-function mutations of the MECP2 gene at Xq28 are associated with Rett syndrome in females and with syndromic and nonsyndromic forms of mental retardation (MR) in males. By array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), we identified a small duplication at Xq28 in a large family with a severe form of MR associated with progressive spasticity. Screening by real-time quantitation of 17 additional patients with MR who have similar phenotypes revealed three more duplications. The duplications in the four patients vary in size from 0.4 to 0.8 Mb and harbor several genes, which, for each duplication, include the MR-related L1CAM and MECP2 genes. The proximal breakpoints are located within a 250-kb region centromeric of L1CAM, whereas the distal breakpoints are located in a 300-kb interval telomeric of MECP2. The precise size and location of each duplication is different in the four patients. The duplications segregate with the disease in the families, and asymptomatic carrier females show complete skewing of X inactivation. Comparison of the clinical features in these patients and in a previously reported patient enables refinement of the genotype-phenotype correlation and strongly suggests that increased dosage of MECP2 results in the MR phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, not only impaired or abolished gene function but also increased MeCP2 dosage causes a distinct phenotype. Moreover, duplication of the MECP2 region occurs frequently in male patients with a severe form of MR, which justifies quantitative screening of MECP2 in this group of patients.

  6. Adverse event and related factors analysis of modiifed electro-convulsive therapy in the treatment of mental disorder%MECT治疗精神障碍的不良反应及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翔春; 王雅萍; 江文庆; 吴彦

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨无抽搐电休克治疗(modiifed electroconvulsive therapy,MECT)术后不良反应及其相关因素。方法:对2014年到2015年期间,在上海市嘉定区精神卫生中心住院期间接受MECT治疗的964例精神障碍患者进行MECT术后不良事件的记录和比较。结果:共报告不良事件119例(12.34%);女性报告不良事件的发生率显著高于男性(χ2=13.964,P=0.000)。不同精神疾病的不良事件报告率存在显著差异(χ2=9.736,P=0.004),其中情感性障碍的不良事件报告率最高。丙泊酚麻醉后导致近记忆减退的发生率显著高于依托咪酯(χ2=8.111,P=0.005);而依托咪酯麻醉后导致急性谵妄的发生率显著高于丙泊酚(χ2=9.201,P=0.003)。结论:MECT在治疗上总体安全,但也应注意其不良反应并及时处理,特别是发生意识不清(急性谵妄)时,应密切观察。%Objective:To explore the adverse event and related factors of modiifed electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) on patients with mental disorder.Methods:The data of post-operative adverse events in the patients who received MECT during hospitalization from 2014 to 2015 in Jiading Mental Health Center, Shanghai were retrospectively analyzed.Results:The adverse events were seen in 119 cases of patients(12.34%) and the incidence of adverse events was signiifcant higher in female than male (χ2=13.964,P=0.000). There existed some obvious differences in the reported incidence of adverse events in different kinds of mental disorders (χ2=9.736,P=0.004), in which the highest occurred in the patients with affective disorder. The incidence of recency memory decline caused by propofol anesthesia was obviously higher than that by etomidate(χ2=8.111,P=0.005)while the incidence of acute delirium caused by etomidate was higher than that by propofol(χ2=9.201,P=0.003).Conclusion: MECT is a safe and effective treatment method in clinic, but the adverse

  7. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Christopher; Andreae, Andreas; Koemeda, Margit; Schulthess, Peter; Tschuschke, Volker; von Wyl, Agnes

    2016-01-01

    Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N = 5711) and one outpatient sample (N = 239) were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index) and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires. PMID:27699166

  8. The Brief Symptom Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire-45 in the Assessment of the Outcome Quality of Mental Health Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano Crameri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-report questionnaires are economical instruments for routine outcome assessment. In this study, the performance of the German version of the Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45 and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI was evaluated when applied in analysis of the outcome quality of psychiatric and psychotherapeutic interventions. Pre-post data from two inpatient samples (N=5711 and one outpatient sample (N=239 were analyzed. Critical differences (reliable change index and cut-off points between functional and dysfunctional populations were calculated using the Jacobson and Truax method of calculating clinical significance. Overall, the results indicated that the BSI was more accurate than the OQ-45 in correctly classifying patients as clinical subjects. Nonetheless, even with the BSI, about 25% of inpatients with schizophrenia attained a score at admission below the clinical cut-off. Both questionnaires exhibited the highest sensitivity to psychopathology with patients with personality disorders. When considering the differences in the prescores, both questionnaires showed the same sensitivity to change. The advantage of using these self-report measures is observed primarily in assessing outpatient psychotherapy outcome. In an inpatient setting two main problems—namely, the low response rate and the scarce sensitivity to psychopathology with severely ill patients—limit the usability of self-report questionnaires.

  9. Psychiatric symptoms as pathogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hout, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Disorders are typically seen as the causes of their symptoms. This makes sense in many fields of medicine, but not in psychiatry where symptoms constitute disorders: the notion that mental disorders cause symptoms is a tautology. Biological psychiatry tries to circumvent this logical fallacy by tryi

  10. Children’s mental representations with respect to caregivers and post-traumatic symptomatology in Somatic Symptom Disorders and Disruptive Behaviour Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola eBizzi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In line with literature, the quality of adult-infant interactions and mental representations of the caregivers play an essential role in influencing the children’s well-being. Many studies focused the attention on the role of attachment for a better evaluation of child psychopathological outcomes. The flexibility of the child’s attachment model gives the opportunity to parents to be helped in modifying their own caregiving quality, encouraging the reflection on the children’s state of mind with respect to attachment. The aims of this study were to evaluate: 1 the attachment models in young patients diagnosed with Disruptive Behaviour Disorders (DBD and Somatic Symptoms Disorders (SSD; 2 the levels of post-traumatic symptomatology; 3 the association between the attachment models and post-traumatic symptomatology. Methods. 40 Italian patients, aged from 8 to 15, recruited at Gaslini Paediatric Hospital of Genoa, previously diagnosed with SSD (N=20 and DBD (N=20 were assessed using the Child Attachment Interview (CAI, the Separation Anxiety Test (SAT, the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children (TSCC-A. Socio-demographic data were collected. Results. In both the clinical samples, the findings on the distribution of attachment models showed a significant presence of insecure attachment with respect to both parents in more than a half of the patients and high levels of disorganized attachment. No significant differences between DBD and SSD samples were found on post-traumatic symptomatology (Post-Traumatic Stress and Dissociation. Significant differences were found on Depression, Anxiety and Fantasy subscales. Discussion. This study can provide a detection of dysfunctional aspects in clinical populations. The findings suggest that the quality of the attachment to parents may be a fundamental element to better assess SSD and DBD in children and adolescents. Clinical implications of this study aimed at improving parental caregiving

  11. Poverty and mental health in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, Gindo; Hanandita, Wulung

    2014-04-01

    Community and facility studies in developing countries have generally demonstrated an inverse relationship between poverty and mental health. However, recent population-based studies contradict this. In India and Indonesia the poor and non-poor show no difference in mental health. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using a validated measure of depressive symptoms (CES-D) and a new national sample from Indonesia - a country where widespread poverty and deep inequality meet with a neglected mental health service sector. Results from three-level overdispersed Poisson models show that a 1% decrease in per capita household expenditure was associated with a 0.05% increase in CES-D score (depressive symptoms), while using a different indicator (living on less than $2 a day) it was estimated that the poor had a 5% higher CES-D score than the better off. Individual social capital and religiosity were found to be positively associated with mental health while adverse events were negatively associated. These findings provide support for the established view regarding the deleterious association between poverty and mental health in developed and developing countries.

  12. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Vogel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. METHODS: A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS: About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.

  13. Symptom,sign and syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    950416 A clinicopathological study on mental andnervous symptoms in uremia.CUI Xiaoying(崔晓英),et al.Dept Intern Med,202nd Hosp,PLA,Shenyang110003.Chin J Neurol & Psychiat 1995;28(1):26-28.Mental and nervous symptoms,brainstem auditoryevoked potential(BAEP),brain computed tomography(CT) scans and pathological changes were studied in34 uremic patients.It was shown that mental depres-sion was the most common symptom.The latency of

  14. 孤独症患儿父母的精神症状与应付方式%Mental symptoms and coping styles of autistic children's parents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张轶杰; 杨丽; 雷杰鹏; 马润娟

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨孤独症患儿父母的精神症状与应对方式的相关性.方法:研究对象是72例符合国际疾病和相关健康问题分类第十版诊断标准的孤独症儿童的父母和72名与孤独症儿童同年龄、同性别正常儿童的父母(对照组).采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)、焦虑自评量表(SAS)、抑郁自评量表(SDS)评估精神症状,应付方式问卷(WCSQ)评估应对方式.结果:孤独症儿童的父母组SCL-90总分及各因子分,SAS评分,SDS评分和WCSQ的求助、合理化、解决问题因子分均高于对照组[如,SCL-90总分(150.6±14.2)vs.(124.4±13.0),均P<0.05];而WCSQ的退避、自责因子分低于对照组[(0.3±0.1) vs.(0.4±0.1),(0.1±0.1)vs.(0.2±0.1),均P<0.05].孤独症儿童的父母组WCSQ的退避、幻想、求助、合理化因子分与SCL-90各因子分均呈正相关(r=0.65 ~0.92,均P<0.05),而WCSQ的自责与SCL-90各因子呈负相关(r=-0.67~-0.89,均P<0.05);WCSQ的解决问题与躯体化、强迫症状、焦虑、恐怖呈负相关(r=-0.26、-0.26、-0.24,均P<0.05).结论:孤独症儿童父母有较明显的焦虑和抑郁症状,但孤独症患儿父母多采用积极的应付方式,这可能有助于减轻精神症状的影响.%Objective: To explore the relevance between mental symptoms and coping styles of autistic children's parents. Method: Totally 72 parents whose children with autism met the diagnostic criteria of the 10th Edition of International Classification of Disease and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) 72 normal children's parents were recruited in this study. The symptoms were assessed with the Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and coping styles with the Ways of Coping Styles Questionnaire (WCSQ). Result: In autism children' s parents, the total scores and factor scores of SCL-90, SAS score, SDS score, and WCSQ factor scores of seeking help, rationalization, problem

  15. Brucellosis with Mental Disorder as Initial Symptom:A Clinical Analysis of 2 cases%以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病两例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜彩霞; 刘杰; 张东威

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病的临床特点,减少误诊,提高临床医生的诊疗水平.方法 对本院过去两年中收治的2例以精神异常为首发症状的布氏杆菌病患者的临床资料及治疗方法、预后等加以分析.结果 2例患者均以精神症状为首发表现,血清凝集试验均为阳性,经过系统治疗后预后好.结论 布氏杆菌病临床表现以精神症状为首发者少见,极易误诊,在临床上早期发现,及时正规治疗对本病预后有重大意义.%Objective To evaluate the clinical characteristic that brucellosis patients with mental disorders as the primary symptom, to reduce the misdiagnosis and improve the level of diagnosis and treatment. Methods The clinical data and treatment methods and prognosis of the 2 brucellosis patients with mental disorder as initial symptom treated in our hospital in the past 2 years were analyzed. Results The two patients presented with mental disorder as initial symptom, and the brucella serum agglutinin test was positive for both patients. And they both have a better prognosis through comprehensive treatment. Conclusion Brucellosis with mental disorder as initial symptom is rare and it is easy to be misdiagnosed. Clinically, an early diagnosis and timely and regular treatment is of great significance in prognosis.

  16. A Preliminary Path Analysis: Effect of Psychopathological Symptoms, Mental and Physical Dysfunctions Related to Quality of Life and Body Mass Index on Fatigue Severity of Iranian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Salehpoor

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a neurological disease with fatigue as most prevalent symptom. Psychopathological symptoms, physical and mental dysfunctions and body mass abnormalities potentially could deteriorate fatigue. Thus, in this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of these factors on fatigue severity of MS patients.Methods: In this cross‐sectional study, 162 patients with mean age of 34.1 ± 9.4 (16-58 years were recruited by consecutive sampling. All the patients, after completing demographic information were evaluated using Persian versions of Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS, depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21, and short form Health Survey Questionnaire (SF-36.Results: Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between fatigue severity and depression, anxiety, stress, physical component summary (PCS and mental component summary (MCS (P < 0.01. Findings of path analysis demonstrated that PCS is the only variable which has a direct effect on fatigue severity(β = -0.278, P < 0.05. Moreover, the strongest standard coefficient (β belonged to cause and effect relationship between MCS and depression (β = -0.691, P < 0.0001.Conclusion: Present study made the role of psychopathological symptoms and physical and mental dysfunctions prominent in exacerbation of fatigue severity. Moreover, we can refer to more sensible effect of physical dysfunction related to life on fatigue

  17. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  18. The mental health of preschoolers in a Norwegian population-based study when their parents have symptoms of borderline, antisocial, and narcissistic personality disorders: at the mercy of unpredictability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg-Nielsen Turid

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies have shown that children of parents with mental health problems are most likely to develop psychiatric problems themselves when their parents have a Personality Disorder characterized by hostility. The Personality Disorders that appear most associated with hostility, with the potential to affect children, are Borderline Personality Disorder, Antisocial Personality Disorder and Narcissistic Personality Disorder. The question addressed in this study is whether the risk to children’s mental health extends to the normal population of parents who have subclinical symptomlevels of these disorders. Methods This inquiry used data from a Trondheim, Norway community sample of 922 preschoolers and one parent for each child. The mean age of the children was 53 months (SD 2.1. Parents reported symptoms of Borderline, Antisocial and Narcissistic Personality Disorders on the DSM-IV ICD-10 Personality Questionnaire, and the children’s symptoms of DSM-IV behavioral and emotional diagnoses were measured with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment, a comprehensive interview. Multigroup Structural Equation Modeling was used to assess the effect of parents’ symptoms on their preschoolers’ behavioral and emotional problems. Results The analyses yielded strongly significant values for the effect of parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms on child problems, explaining 13.2% of the variance of the children’s behavioral symptoms and 2.9% of the variance of internalizing symptoms. Biological parents’ cohabitation status, i.e., whether they were living together, emerged as a strong moderator on the associations between parental variables and child emotional symptoms; when parents were not cohabiting, the variance of the children’s emotional problems explained by the parents’ Personality Disorder symptoms increased from 2.9% to 19.1%. Conclusions For the first time, it is documented that parents’ self

  19. Symptoms, the Nature of Fibromyalgia, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual 5 (DSM-5) Defined Mental Illness in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Fibromyalgia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate somatic symptoms in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and fibromyalgia, determine the relation between somatization syndromes and fibromyalgia, and evaluate symptom data in light of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) criteria for somatic symptom disorder. METHODS: We administered the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), a measure of somatic symptom severity to 6,233 persons with fibromyalgia, RA, and osteoarthritis. PHQ-15 scores of 5,...

  20. Mental vulnerability as a risk factor for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Ditte; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold;

    2012-01-01

    Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression.......Mental vulnerability (i.e. a tendency to experience psychosomatic symptoms, mental symptoms or interpersonal problems) is associated with various diseases. This study investigated whether mental vulnerability is associated with hospitalization for depression....

  1. It is possible for people suffering from mental illness to change their lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Krogh, Jesper; Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    2013-01-01

    A significant share of the excess mortality among people suffering from mental illness is due to unhealthy lifestyles. Obesity, smoking, unhealthy diets and sedentary behaviour is twice as frequent among people with mental illness, but the willingness to improve lifestyle is as high as in healthy...... people. Based on a review of the literature we conclude that it is possible for people with mental illness to change their lifestyle, but they encounter a number of barriers to lifestyle changes, including their symptoms, adverse drug effects and their life situations....

  2. Common mental health problems and antiretroviral therapy adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Adriaan; Kagee, Ashraf

    2011-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature on various mental health problems and their impact on adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Depression, anxiety disorders, and disorders related to substance abuse were identified as key role-players influencing adherence. The severity of symptoms related to these disorders was found to be inversely related to ART adherence, with the possible exception of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD was found to have both positive and negative implications for adherence, with severity of symptoms ranging from health-protective concern to disabling distress. Possible solutions aimed at addressing the adverse effects of mental health problems on adherence are discussed. Routine screening in ART settings is suggested in settings where follow-up of positive screen scores are possible, along with the necessary interventions to resolve the disorder of concern. Suggested interventions include utilising psychotherapeutic treatment, both in isolation and in conjunction with medication, to address mental health problems. Furthermore, finding effective ways of marshalling social support is recommended for ensuring optimal adherence, and possibly mitigating the adverse effects of mental health problems. Further research is needed to find feasible ways of identifying, assessing and treating patients with mental health problems in resource-constrained settings where HIV prevalence is highest.

  3. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith

    2015-04-01

    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  4. Freshman year mental health symptoms and level of adaptation as predictors of Internet addiction: a retrospective nested case-control study of male Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bin; Han, Wei; Zeng, Lingxia; Guo, Xiong

    2013-12-15

    A retrospective nested case-control study was designed to explore whether freshman year mental health status and level of adaptation are predictors of Internet addiction. The study cohort was 977 college students at a university in northwest China. In the first college year, the students' mental health status and adaptation level were assessed using the Chinese College Student Mental Health Scale (CCSMHS) and the Chinese College Student Adjustment Scale (CCSAS). In the following 1-3 years, 62 Internet-addicted subjects were identified using Young's 8-item diagnostic questionnaire. Controls were matched for demographic characteristics. Using logistic regression analysis, freshman year mental health status, including factors such as somatization, anxiety, depression and self-contempt, and freshman year adaptive problems were found to be causal factors and predictors of Internet addiction. Freshman with features of depression, learning maladaptation and dissatisfaction could be an important target-intervention population for reducing Internet addiction.

  5. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson’s Disease Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrul Azmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson’s disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of <21/30. Prevalence of nonmotor symptoms was determined using the NMSQuest. The severity of nonmotor symptoms and the quality of life were assessed using validated disease-specific questionnaires (PDQ-39 and NMSS. Results. A total of 113 patients consisting of 60 males and 53 females were recruited. The median duration of illness was 5.0 (2.0–8.0 years. The prevalence rate of nonmotor symptoms in our cohort was 97.3%. The most common reported nonmotor symptom in our cohort was gastrointestinal (76.1%. We found that the severity of the nonmotor symptoms was associated with poorer quality of life scores (rs: 0.727, P<0.001. Conclusions. Nonmotor symptoms were highly prevalent in our patients with Parkinson’s disease and adversely affected the quality of life of our patients. In contrast to western studies, the most common nonmotor symptom is gastrointestinal. The possibility of an Asian diet playing a role in this observation requires further study.

  6. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Keiko; Matsudaira, Ko; Tanaka, Eizaburo; Oka, Hiroyuki; Katsuhira, Junji; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Background Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1) chronic pain prevalence, 2) multisite pain (≥3 sites) prevalence, and 3) multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms) among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01) in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01) in women. Among women with chronic pain, early-life adversity was associated with multisite pain and multiple somatic symptoms; multivariable ORs were 1.78 (1.22–2.60, p<0.01) for multisite pain and 1.89 (1.27–2.83, p<0.01) for ≥3 somatic symptoms. No associations were observed between early-life adversity and chronic multisite pain or multiple somatic symptoms among men with chronic pain. Conclusion Early-life adversity may be linked to a higher prevalence of chronic pain among both sexes and to multisite pain and somatizing tendency among women with chronic pain. PMID:28243147

  7. Optimal Contracting under Adverse Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenells, Jonatan; Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    We study a model of adverse selection, hard and soft information, and mentalizing ability--the human capacity to represent others' intentions, knowledge, and beliefs. By allowing for a continuous range of different information types, as well as for different means of acquiring information, we dev...... of that information. This strategy affects the properties of the optimal contract, which grows closer to the first best. This research provides insights into the implications of mentalizing for agency theory....... develop a model that captures how principals differentially obtain information on agents. We show that principals that combine conventional data collection techniques with mentalizing benefit from a synergistic effect that impacts both the amount of information that is accessed and the overall cost...

  8. Gender Differences in Symptoms, Health-Related Quality of Life, Sleep Quality, Mental Health, Cognitive Performance, Pain-Cognition, and Positive Health in Spanish Fibromyalgia Individuals: The Al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Estévez-López, Fernando; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Aparicio, Virginia A

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To test the gender differences in tenderness, impact of fibromyalgia, health-related quality of life, fatigue, sleep quality, mental health, cognitive performance, pain-cognition, and positive health in Spanish fibromyalgia patients and in age-matched nonfibromyalgia individuals from the same region. To test the optimal cut-off score of the different tender points for women and men. Methods. A total of 405 (384 women) fibromyalgia versus 247 (195 women) nonfibromyalgia control participants from southern Spain (Andalusia) took part in this cross-sectional study. The outcomes studied were assessed by means of several tests. Results. In the fibromyalgia group, men showed better working memory than women (all, P fibromyalgia-related symptoms. However, it seems that detriment of some symptoms (especially pain) in fibromyalgia men compared with their nonfibromyalgia counterparts is greater than those of fibromyalgia women compared with their nonfibromyalgia peers.

  9. Assessing the connection between organophosphate pesticide poisoning and mental health: A comparison of neuropsychological symptoms from clinical observations, animal models and epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallones, Lorann; Beseler, Cheryl L

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatry and psychology are beginning to recognize the importance of lead, mercury and heavy metals as causal partners in the development of mental disorders. Further, mental health researchers and clinicians are embracing the idea that the combined effects of genetics and environmental exposures can result in perturbations in brain neurochemistry leading to psychiatric disorders. The purpose of this review is to examine the biological foundations for the epidemiological observations previously identified by reviewing the toxicology literature and relating it to epidemiological studies addressing the role of poisoning with organophosphate pesticides (OPs) in neurobehavioral and neuropsychological disorders. The goal of this review is to raise awareness in the mental health community about the possibility that affective disorders might be the result of contributions from environmental and occupational pesticide poisoning.

  10. Video game violence use among "vulnerable" populations: the impact of violent games on delinquency and bullying among children with clinically elevated depression or attention deficit symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Olson, Cheryl K

    2014-01-01

    The issue of children's exposure to violent video games has been a source of considerable debate for several decades. Questions persist whether children with pre-existing mental health problems may be influenced adversely by exposure to violent games, even if other children are not. We explored this issue with 377 children (62 % female, mixed ethnicity, mean age = 12.93) displaying clinically elevated attention deficit or depressive symptoms on the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Results from our study found no evidence for increased bullying or delinquent behaviors among youth with clinically elevated mental health symptoms who also played violent video games. Our results did not support the hypothesis that children with elevated mental health symptoms constitute a "vulnerable" population for video game violence effects. Implications and suggestions for further research are provided.

  11. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  12. Effects of deployment on mental health in modern military forces: A review of longitudinal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nasveld

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Earlier studies presenting evidence that operational deployment negatively affects mental health outcomes among military personnel and veterans generally have lacked conclusiveness, largely because of cross-sectional or retrospective design. Purpose. To review longitudinal studies investigating mental health outcomes of military personnel deployed in recent conflicts. Methods. MEDLINE database was searched using relevant keywords and MESH terms. The US Millennium Cohort study website was used to obtain the list of relevant publications. Only prospective longitudinal cohort studies investigating mental health outcomes in deployed post Vietnam era military or veteran populations of developed countries were included. Results. Eighteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Adverse effects included the increased incidence of post-deployment PTSD and depression. Individuals with the lowest functional scores and those exposed to previous traumatic assault were particularly vulnerable to a new onset of PTSD after combat exposure. Factors influencing the incidence of post-deployment PTSD included depression symptoms present during deployment, the presence of stress reaction during combat exposure and reception of associated frontline treatment, and the number of negative life events experienced after the traumatic event. More mental health problems were reported in soldiers returning from Iraq on the second screening conducted several months after their return, compared with the first screening immediately upon their return. Some mental health symptoms (anxiety and depression improved between deployments, while others (PTSD and panic attacks did not improve. CONCLUSION. The results indicate that combat exposure, not deployment in general , had an adverse effect on mental health.

  13. 不同精神残疾程度的精神分裂症患者精神症状比较分析%Comparison of Psychiatric Symptoms of Schizophrenia Patients at Different Levels of Mental Disability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郗玲燕; 黄秀芹; 朱凤英; 高兴; 贾海玲; 崔利军

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare psychiatric symptoms of schizophrenia patients at different levels of mental disability and to investigate the relationship between the level of mental disability and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Methods We enrolled 119 schizophrenia outpatients from Hengshui Mental Hospital in January to April 2012. The scale of WHO-DASⅡ was administered to assess the level of mental disability and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale ( PANSS ) was used to assess the severity of psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric symptoms scores were compared among schizophrenia patents with different levels of mental disability. Results The total scores of PANSS were ( 82. 28 ± 8. 87 ), (78. 54 ±9. 24)and(76. 32 ±9. 08)for severe,moderate,and mild mental disability,with the differences significant(F=7. 148,P=0. 000). Significant difference existed among three levels in the total scores of positive syndrome scale and negative syndrome scale(P﹤0. 05). Patients at different levels of mental disability were significantly different in score of delusions, grandiosity,suspiciousness/persecution,hostility in positive syndrome scale,difficulty in abstract thinking in negative syndrome scale,and anxiety, guilt feelings and poor impulse control in general psychopathology scale ( P ﹤0. 05 ) . Conclusion Schizophrenia patients at different levels of mental disability have different scores in psychiatric symptoms. Positive and negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia are associated with the mental disability level, especially delusions, grandiosity, suspiciousness/persecution,hostility,difficulty in abstract thinking,anxiety,guilt feelings and poor impulse control.%目的:比较不同精神残疾程度的精神分裂症患者的精神症状,探讨精神分裂症患者精神残疾水平与精神症状的关系。方法选取2012年1—4月在衡水市精神病医院门诊就诊的精神分裂症患者119例为研究对象。采用世界卫

  14. 妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与产妇不良症状发生率关系的研究%Gestational Diabetes HBA1c level in Maternal blood and Maternal Research of Relationship Between the Incidence of Adverse Symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国杰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与产妇不良症状发生率的关系。方法选取该院2012年3月-2013年3月收治的妊娠期糖尿病产妇18例为观察组,另选取同期18例健康产妇为对照组,测定产妇的HBAlc水平,记录其不良症状发生率,以此分析产妇血液HBA1c水平与不良症状发生率的关系。结果观察组产妇妊娠28周和妊娠末期血液HBA1c水平均高于对照组产妇,且妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平呈正相关(P<0.05)。结论妊娠期糖尿病产妇的血液HBA1c水平与不良症状发生率呈正相关,对HBA1c水平进行控制可降低妊娠期糖尿病产妇的不良症状。%Objective To study the gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood relationship with the incidence of maternal adverse symptoms. Methods From March 2012 to March 2012 were 18 cases of gestational diabetes women as the observation group, the other 18 cases of healthy women during the same period as control group, determination of maternal HBAlc level, record the prevalence of adverse symptoms and to analyze the relationship between maternal blood HBA1c levels and the incidence of adverse symptoms. Results Observation group 28 weeks of gestation and late gestation maternal maternal blood HBA1c levels were higher than control group, and gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood was positively correlated (P<0.05). Conclusion The gestational diabetes HBA1c level in maternal blood was positively correlated with the incidence of adverse symptoms, to control HBA1c level can reduce the adverse symptoms of gestational diabetes women.

  15. Cannabis use and mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental he

  16. 地震灾害后不同受灾人群身心应激症状影响度分析%The Physical and Mental Stress Symptoms Effect of Population with Different Affect After the Earthquake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵来军; 程晶晶; 陈誉承

    2011-01-01

    found that the biggest impact is on the earthquake victims of female, the middle-and-old age, and people in worst-hit region. Facing with the same disaster, the same type of people exhibits different physical symptoms, cognitive symptoms, emotional symptoms, and behavioral symptoms. The catastrophe progression method for the physical and psychological stress symptoms model is adopted to analyze the physical and mental stress symptoms of earthquake victims, its results are in consistent with previous related research conclusion. It is indicated that the model is reliable and effective for such problems, thus the model provides a new method for the post-disaster relief work.

  17. Early adversity, neural development, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jessica J; Taylor, Shelley E; Bower, Julienne E

    2015-12-01

    Early adversity is a risk factor for poor mental and physical health. Although altered neural development is believed to be one pathway linking early adversity to psychopathology, it has rarely been considered a pathway linking early adversity to poor physical health. However, this is a viable pathway because the central nervous system is known to interact with the immune system via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic nervous system (ANS). In support of this pathway, early adversity has been linked to changes in neural development (particularly of the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex), HPA axis and ANS dysregulation, and higher levels of inflammation. Inflammation, in turn, can be detrimental to physical health when prolonged. In this review, we present these studies and consider how altered neural development may be a pathway by which early adversity increases inflammation and thus risk for adverse physical health outcomes.

  18. Mental Health and Hmong Americans: A comparison of two generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa Der Vang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early studies of Hmong refugees in the U.S. indicated high rates of mental distress related to post-migration stressors such as grief and loss, poverty, and social adversity. This study explores the mental health status of two generations of Hmong Americans 38 years after their first migration. The relationship between acculturation and mental health of 191 1st and 2nd generation Hmong are reported. Results indicated relatively low reports of depressive symptoms and medium to high rates of acculturation to American society. The results are unrelated to demographic factors indicating resilience and adaptation to Western society despite age and generational status and maintenance of culture of origin

  19. The Moderating Effects of Mother-Adolescent Relations on the Longitudinal Association between Father and Offspring Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb, Ben T.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2011-01-01

    Little theoretical or empirical attention has been given to factors associated with better or worse outcomes in offspring of depressed fathers. Drawing from interpersonal models of intergenerational depression transmission in children of depressed mothers, the present investigation of adolescents and their families (N = 424) examined maternal warmth and hostility as moderators of the longitudinal association between paternal and adolescent depressive symptoms. Controlling for family demographic variables, previous adolescent depressive symptoms, and maternal depressive symptoms, fathers’ depressive symptoms predicted offspring depressive symptoms among adolescents experiencing low maternal warmth or high maternal hostility. Adolescent girls reporting adversity in their relationships with their mothers were the most vulnerable to risk associated with paternal depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the implications of fathers’ mental health for adolescent psychological well-being and add to the growing evidence that family relationships play a crucial role in the transmission of depression from one generation to the next. PMID:22140605

  20. 压力管理训练对新上岗护士心理症状的影响%Influence of Stress Management Training on Mental Symptoms of New Nurses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪小香; 陈秀云; 林玉霜; 郑爱君

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the influence of stress management training on mental symptoms of new nurses. Methods A test was conducted among 112 new nurses by Symptom Checklist-90 and nurses with an average positive symptom score more than 1.5 in the test, were randomly divided into observation group (n = 19) and control group (n=19). Stress management training was carried out in observation group and three months after training, SCL-90 was applied again. RGSultS The total score of SCL-90, average positive symptom score and scores oi all factors except hostility were lower and numbers of positive symptoms decreased as well after training in observation group (P<0.01). The scores of obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation were significant lower after training in control group (P<0.05). The difference in total score, average positive symptom score, the number of positive symptoms and the scores of eight factors (except hostility and phobic anxiety) indicated statistic significance between two groups (P< 0.05). Conclusion Stress management training is effective for the improvement of mental symptoms of new nurses and eventually benefits their improvement of psychological health.%目的 探讨压力管理训练对新上岗护士心理症状的影响.方法 采用症状自评量表,对112名新上岗护士进行测评,将阳性项目均分>1.5分的护士,随机分为观察组和对照组各19名.对观察组实施压力管理训练,干预3个月后再次采用症状自评量表测评,并进行比较分析.结果 干预后,观察组的症状自评量表总分、阳性项目均分、阳性项目数,除敌对因子外其余9个因子得分比干预前明显改善(P<0.01).对照组干预后的强迫症状、人际关系及偏执因子得分也比干预前明显改善(P<0.05);干预后两组间的总分、阳性项目均分、阳性项目数及8个因子(除外敌对、恐怖)得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),观

  1. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, Katie A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  2. 以精神障碍就诊的甲亢危象1例%In 1 Patients with Mental Disorder Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism Crisis Patients Reported

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚云飞

    2015-01-01

    精神科临床面临很多风险如用药的风险,管理风险,合并躯体疾病的风险,和少见的躯体疾病所致精神障碍误诊的风险。本病例通过1例夜急诊个案,提醒我们夜急诊相关情况不明时进行处理的医疗风险,警惕内分泌疾病所致的精神障碍,在做精神科检查时要注意体格方面的检查,注意医疗安全,规避医疗风险。%The psychiatric clinical faces many risks, such as drug risk, management risk, combined body disease risk, and rare body disease, mental disorders caused by the risk of misdiagnosis. Through one night emergency case in this case reminds us that night emergency related to the unknown when the processing of medical risks, alert to mental disorders caused by endocrine disease, should pay at ention to when doing psychiatric examination, physical examination, pay at ention to the medical safety, avoid medical risk.

  3. Mother’s perceptions of child mental health problems and services: A cross sectional study from Lahore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Nazish; Ashraf, Sania; Shoukat, Rabia; Pervez, Muhammad Ijaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perceptions of mothers regarding child mental health problems, its causes, preferred treatment options, and to determine whom they would consult, if their child had a psychiatric illness. Methods: Following informed consent, a questionnaire covering perceptions regarding various aspects of child mental illness was used for data collection from mothers. They were asked to identify the symptoms and behaviours they considered psychopathological in children, which treatments they would prefer, where they would turn for help with a mentally ill child, and their understanding of the causes of child psychiatric disorders in addition to ways to increase awareness of child psychiatric issues in the society. Results: Ninety one mothers participated in the study. They equally perceived emotional, behavioural and cognitive symptoms as suggestive of mental ill health in childhood. Mothers perceived multiple causes of child mental health problems, including family problems, economic difficulties, social adversity and possession by evil spirits. A substantial proportion preferred medication, recitation of Holy Quran and psychotherapy as the preferred treatment options. Overall, mothers preferred consulting health professionals than religious scholars and faith healers. They were keen for steps to increase mental health awareness within their society. Conclusion: Despite different cultural perspective, mothers exhibit good understanding of symptoms of child mental health issues and appear open to various services and treatment options. Understanding parental perceptions and expectations from child psychiatric services are crucial in increasing families’ engagement in treatment. PMID:27375732

  4. Correlative analysis of the personality and psycho symptoms in undergraduates with mental disorder%心理障碍大学生人格特征与心理症状的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄万琪; 吴汉荣; 周敦金

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality and psycho symptoms of patiens with mental disorder are closely related. There were reports about this type of researches. However, there is very few report applying statistical methods of partial correlation analysis and typical correlation analysis into the correlative analysis between these two factors.OBJECTIVE: To provide a scientific gist for the intervention in undergraduate with mental disorder through the comprehension of the relationship between personality and psycho symptoms of undergraduates with mental disorder.DESIGN: A stratified randomised cluister-sampling investigation.SETTING: Children Health Institute of Tongji Medical College of HuazhongUniversity of Science and Technology.PARTICIPANTS: A stratified randomised cluster-sampling method was used to investigate part of the undergraduates of Wuhan Industry College with Symptoms Checklist-90(SCL-90) . Totally 138 undergraduates scored 2.3 point in more than three items were selected as subjects with mental disorder (obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, phobia, and neurasthenia).INTERVENTIONS: SCL-90 and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)tests were conducted in the undergraduates with mental disorder. The questionnaires were completed by the testees independently and taken back on the spot.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: EPQ scores of extraversion and introversion, nervousness, psychosis and conceal, SCL-90 total average score, and the partial and typical correlation analysis of the scores in 9 items of somatization disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sensitive haman interrelationship, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobia, crankiness and lunacy.RESULTS: The total average score of SCL-90 and score of each factor were positively correlated with the score of nervousness( r =0. 225-0. 417, P < 0.05 ) . Scores of hostility, crankiness and lunacy were positively correlated with score of nervousness( r = 0. 213 - 0. 223, P < 0.05). The total average score of SCL-90 and the

  5. Follow-up study on mental symptoms of SARS patients%严重急性呼吸道综合征患者心理症状追踪研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇; 张克让; 杨红; 刘中国; 崔晓红; 任燕; 李忻蓉

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate mental symptoms of SARS patients and its related factors for three period-admission, discharge and three months after SARS crisis and to carry out mental intervention and effect evaluation.Methods The mental problems of SARS patients in three periods of admission, discharger and three months after discharger were continuously investigated.114 SARS patients came from seven designated hospitals in Taiyuan of Shanxi. The participants were assessed by self- compiled stressor Questionnaire, PSSS, SCSQ, SES, SCL-90 and EPQ.Results 1.Change tendency of factor score: The SCL-90 total and factors scores including obsessive-compulsion, phobic anxiety went up during discharge compared with admission. After that,these factors scores went down. The factors scores of somatization and depression descended continuously for three period. 2.Change tendency of the incidence:The incidence on factors of obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, phobic anxiety ascended during discharge compared with admission. Then,these factors scores descended. The other factors went down continually for three periods.3. The self-esteem was influencing factor on mental symptoms of SARS patients for three periods.Conscientious condition severity was influencing factor in admission and discharge.Negative coping was influencing factor in discharge and three months after SARS crisis. Education was influencing factor in three months after SARS crisis.4.After intervention ,the most mental symptoms of 35 SARS patients had mental problems were improved. Dissimilarly, a part of mental symptoms got severity.Conclusions 1.SARS patients exist severe mood disorders and have different influencing factors for three periods. They should be evaluated continuously and be intervened in time.2.The effect of mental intervention by telephone is not uncertainty.%目的追踪研究严重急性呼吸道综合征(SARS)患者入院、出院及出院后3个月三个阶段心理状况及影响因

  6. Síntomas, percepción y demanda de atención en salud mental en niños y adolescentes de la Ciudad de México Mental symptoms perceptions of healthcare needs, and health care seeking behaviors, among children and adolescents in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Javier Caraveo-Anduaga

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Estimar la prevalencia de síntomas emocionales y conductuales en niños y adolescentes. Identificar las manifestaciones que son percibidas por los padres como necesidades potenciales de atención para sus hijos, y estimar la búsqueda de servicios de salud mental. Material y métodos. Los datos proceden de una encuesta efectuada de julio a noviembre de 1995 en hogares y fue representativa de las personas entre 18 y 65 años de edad del Distrito Federal, México. Se investigó la presencia de 27 síntomas en todos y cada uno de los hijos de entre 4 a 16 años de edad que vivían con el adulto entrevistado, así como de la percepción y búsqueda de ayuda para los menores sintomáticos. En el análisis se utilizó la regresión logística. Resultados. Se obtuvo información acerca de 1 685 menores. La mitad de la población resultó sintomática. La necesidad de atención fue solamente considerada para 25%, y la búsqueda de atención para 13%. Los síntomas de internalización fueron percibidos más frecuentemente y llevados a la consulta por los padres. Conclusiones. Los resultados sugieren un retraso en la atención. Los datos del estudio serán de utilidad para los clínicos y para la planeación de las políticas y programas de salud mental en los servicios de atención primaria.Objectives. To estimate the prevalence of behavioral and emotional symptoms in children and adolescents; to identify parents' perception of their children's healthcare needs; and to estimate the frequency of seeking mental healthcare services. Material and Methods. A household survey was carried out between July and November 1995 in Mexico City. The survey was representative of persons aged 18 to 65 years. Study subjects were 1685 children 4 to 16 years of age and living in the same household as their parents. Informant parents provided data on their children regarding the presence of 27 symptoms, their perceptions of healthcare needs of symptomatic

  7. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos

    2017-01-01

    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  8. And justice for all: Examining corruption as a contextual source of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurzen, Ioana

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, I focus on the relationship between corruption and mental health as measured by the level of depressive symptoms. I use data collected by the European Social Survey in 2006, 2012 and 2014 from 99,159 individuals that lived in 24 European countries. I employ two types of analyses: static analyses, i.e., multilevel models estimated in each wave, and dynamic analyses, i.e., fixed effects models for pseudo-panel data. Both static and dynamic analyses suggested that corruption had a detrimental effect on mental health. However, the results were not robust in models where the country's wealth was accounted for. Furthermore, this study presents evidence that the level of societal corruption is detrimental especially for the mental health of religious persons and individuals that experience material adversity. Regarding a potentially different effect of corruption on mental health between western and eastern European countries, no significant differences were found.

  9. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  10. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Paunica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression, physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency. An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent adverse affects three months or more after finasteride cessation or new adverse effects including but not limited at the skin level or oral cavity (marginal periodontium. We intend to present in this study several oral adverse effects encountered during finasteride administration, represented by mild and moderate signs which generally responded to topical procedures without to require the stop of the drug administration. New studies on large samples will further document the existing relation between the described oral adverse effects and the implied pathophysiological mechanisms. For this moment, we are taking into account as possible mechanisms- a direct action of finasteride administration, possible indirect consequences due to hormonal interferences, or coexisting factors with finasteride administration that were not detected.

  11. Recognizing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bowel habits. Learn More About Pain in IBS Symptoms Won’t Stop Everyone suffers from bowel changes ... They can be constant or keep coming back. Symptoms Change Some or all of IBS symptoms can ...

  12. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  13. Friendships and Family Support Reduce Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in At-Risk Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laura van Harmelen

    Full Text Available Early life stress (ELS consists of child family adversities (CFA: negative experiences that happened within the family environment and/or peer bullying. ELS plays an important role in the development of adolescent depressive symptoms and clinical disorders. Identifying factors that may reduce depressive symptoms in adolescents with ELS may have important public mental health implications.We used structural equation modelling and examined the impact of adolescent friendships and/or family support at age 14 on depressive symptoms at age 17 in adolescents exposed to ELS before age 11. To this end, we used structural equation modelling in a community sample of 771 adolescents (322 boys and 477 girls from a 3 year longitudinal study. Significant paths in the model were followed-up to test whether social support mediated or moderated the association between ELS and depressive symptoms at age 17.We found that adolescent social support in adolescence is negatively associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in boys and girls exposed to ELS. Specifically, we found evidence for two mediational pathways: In the first pathway family support mediated the link between CFA and depressive symptoms at age 17. Specifically, CFA was negatively associated with adolescent family support at age 14, which in turn was negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In the second pathway we found that adolescent friendships mediated the path between peer bullying and depressive symptoms. Specifically, relational bullying was negatively associated with adolescent friendships at age 14, which in turn were negatively associated with depressive symptoms at age 17. In contrast, we did not find a moderating effect of friendships and family support on the association between CFA and depressive symptoms.Friendships and/or family support in adolescence mediate the relationship between ELS and late adolescent depressive symptoms in boys and girls. Therefore

  14. Diagnostic Analysis of Rare Mental and Neurological Symptoms Caused by Pathoglycemia%血糖异常出现神经精神系少见症状的诊断分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游红; 卢伟; 张金囡; 雷强

    2013-01-01

    目的 提高以少见精神、神经症状为主要表现的血糖异常的诊治水平.方法 对我院收治的以少见精神、神经症状为主要表现的血糖异常9例的临床资料进行回顾性分析,并结合文献探讨发病机制、治疗及预后.结果 本组3例为低血糖所致精神、神经症状,表现为精神行为异常2例,局限性肢体抽搐1例;6例为高血糖所致精神、神经症状,表现为局限性肢体抽搐及一侧肢体不自主运动各2例,步态不稳伴排尿障碍及双小腿疼痛伴肌肉萎缩各1例.本组确诊为2型糖尿病7例(伴偏侧舞蹈症和抽搐各2例、伴脊髓损害和骨骼肌病变各1例)、原发性肝癌和胰岛素瘤各1例.经严格控制血糖及对症支持治疗后,7例预后良好,2例因原发疾病为肿瘤预后较差.结论 血糖异常所致少见精神、神经症状易误诊为神经科疾病,临床上对于血糖异常患者需仔细查明病因,以排除其他潜在疾病.%Objective To improve diagnosis and treatment of glucose abnormalities expressed as rare mental and neurological symptoms. Methods Clinical data of 9 patients with neurological and psychological symptoms as main manifestations of abnormal glucose level in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed, and the pathogenesis, treatment and prognosis were explored with related literatures. Results Among the 9 patients, neurological and psychiatric symptoms in 3 patients caused by hypoglycemia, and 2 patients suffered mental behavior disorder, 1 patient had localized limbs tics; neurological and psychiatric symptoms in 6 patients were caused by high blood glucose, 2 patients with partial limbs tics, 2 patients with one side limb involuntary movement, one with instability of gait and urination disorders, and one with pains in both legs and muscle atrophy. The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was confirmed in 7 patients (2 patients with hemichorea, 2 with tics, 1 with spinal cord lesion, 1 with skeletal muscle

  15. [Muscle-related adverse effects of statins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola-Sintonen, Sinikka; Julkunen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects on muscles occur in approximately 5 to 10% of patients taking statins. Drug interactions, associated diseases, agedness, low body weight, high statin dose and hereditary factors increase the risk of adverse effects. In most cases the muscle effects are mild and disappear upon discontinuation of the medication. Rhabdomyolysis is a severe though rare complication that can possibly result in renal damage. A totally different muscle-related adverse effect, necrotizing myopathy, has recently been linked to the use of statins. Its characteristic feature is progression of the symptoms in spite of discontinuation of the statin.

  16. Nature-based stress management course for individuals at risk of adverse health effects from work-related stress-effects on stress related symptoms, workability and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Matuszczyk, Josefa Vega; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-06-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management context. This study aimed to explore effects on burnout, work ability, stress-related health symptoms, and sick leave for 33 women participating in a 12-weeks nature based stress management course and to investigate how the nature/garden activities were experienced. A mixed method approach was used. Measures were taken at course start and three follow-ups. Results showed decreased burnout-scores and long-term sick leaves, and increased work ability; furthermore less stress-related symptoms were reported. Tools and strategies to better handle stress were achieved and were widely at use at all follow-ups. The garden and nature content played an important role for stress relief and for tools and strategies to develop. The results from this study points to beneficial effects of using garden activities and natural environments in a stress management intervention.

  17. Impact of cognitive emotion regulation on mental symptom level of medical students%医学生认知情绪调节对心理症状水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋文; 傅文青

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of cognitive emotion regulation on mental symptom level of medical students. Methods Medical students of Soochow university were asked to complete Symptom Checklist 90( SCL-90 )and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionaire- Chinese Version( CERQ-C). Results ①The medical students who scored greater than 160 on SCL-90 adopted more self-blame,rumination,and catastrophizing,while less putting-into-perspective.②Maladaptive strategy showed significant positive correlation with each factor marks and total mean marks of SCL-90(P﹤0. 01),meanwhile,rumination and catastrophizing positively re-lated to each factor marks and total mean marks remarkably,while the positive correlation of self-blame with obsessive-compulsive , interpersonal sensitivity,depression,anxiety,psychoticism and total mean marks was very significant,with somati-zation and hostility was significant(P﹤0. 05). ③The combination of Catastrophizing,self-blame and Rumination was able to predict 15. 9% of the variation of mental health. Conclusion When facing negative events,the more maladap-tive regulation strategies medical students adopt,the higher mental symptom level they have.%目的:研究医学生认知情绪调节策略对心理症状水平的影响。方法运用症状自评量表( SCL-90)与认知情绪调节问卷中文版( CERQ-C)对江苏某大学医学部586名本科生进行调查,按SCL-90界值分组后进行认知情绪调节策略比较,并对两个工具各因子间的相关性进行分析。结果医学生阳性组( SCL-90总评分﹥160分)较多运用责难自己、沉思、灾难化策略,而较少运用理性分析策略;②不适应性调节策略与SCL-90各因子分及总均分呈正相关(P﹤0.01),其中,沉思和灾难化与各因子分及总均分正相关;责难自己与强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁、焦虑、精神病性及总均分正相关(P﹤0.01),与躯体

  18. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  19. 首发、复发和双相抑郁患者精神症状的比较%Comparison of the mental symptoms in patients with first episode depression, recurrent depression and bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任志斌; 马永春; 金卫东; 王鹤秋; 王乃信

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨首发、复发及双相抑郁患者精神症状的差异. 方法:对首次抑郁发作患者(首发组,24例)、复发性抑郁症患者(复发组,57例)及双相抑郁患者(双相组,25例)进行汉密尔顿抑郁评定量表(HAMD)、汉密尔顿焦虑评定量表(HAMA)、杨氏躁狂评定量表(YMRS)以及阳性和阴性症状评定量表(PANSS)评定和比较. 结果:HAMD、HAMA评分在3组间差异无统计学意义;YMRS评分3组间差异有统计学意义(F=5.2,P=0.007);双相组(6.6±9.0)显著高于首发组(2.8±3.4)和复发组(2.2±3.2)(q =3.86,g =4.40;P均<0.05).双相组HAMD中的躯体焦虑因子分、体重因子分均显著低于复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01);双相组精神病理学症状评分如意志活动、愤怒、幻觉、易激惹、激越、思维联想加快、破坏或攻击行为、活动增加显著高于首发组及复发组(P<0.05或P<0.01). 结论:双相障碍患者抑郁发作时可出现与躁狂相关精神症状.%Objective:To explore the difference in mental symptoms among depressive patients with first episode,recurrent and bipolar episode.Method:The evaluations of Hamilton depression scale (HAMD),Hamilton anxiety scale(HAMA),Young mania rating scale (YMRS) and positive and negative symptoms rating scale (PANSS) were preformed in 24 patients with first episode (first episode group),57 patients with recurrence depression (recurrence group) and 24 patients with bipolar depression (bipolar group).The results were compared among the three groups.Results:The scores of HAMD,HAMA among the three groups were no significant difference,but score of YMRS among the three groups were significantly different (F =5.2,P =0.007).The score of YMRS in bipolar group (6.6 ± 9.0) was significantly higher than first episode group (2.8 ± 3.4) and recurrence group (2.2 ± 3.2) (q =3.86,q =4.40 ; all P < 0.05).The scors of somatic anxiety factor and weight factor of HAMD in bipolar group were significantly lower than those in

  20. Sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain: a large population-based study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Keiko Yamada,1,2 Ko Matsudaira,3,4 Eizaburo Tanaka,1,5 Hiroyuki Oka,3 Junji Katsuhira,3,6 Hiroyasu Iso1 1Public Health, Department of Social Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Center for Pain Management, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, 3Department of Medical Research and Management for Musculoskeletal Pain, 22nd Century Medical and Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Japan Labour Health & Welfare Organization, Tokyo, 5Hyogo Institute for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, 6Department of Prosthetics & Orthotics and Assistive Technology, Faculty of Medical Technology, Niigata University of Health and Welfare, Niigata, Japan Background: Responses to early-life adversity may differ by sex. We investigated the ­sex-specific impact of early-life adversity on chronic pain, chronic multisite pain, and somatizing tendency with chronic pain. Methods: We examined 4229 respondents aged 20–79 years who participated in the Pain Associated Cross-Sectional Epidemiological Survey in Japan. Outcomes were: 1 chronic pain prevalence, 2 multisite pain (≥3 sites prevalence, and 3 multiple somatic symptoms (≥3 symptoms among respondents with chronic pain related to the presence or absence of early-life adversity. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs were calculated with 95% confidence intervals using a logistic regression model including age, smoking status, exercise routine, sleep time, body mass index, household expenditure, and the full distribution of scores on the Mental Health Inventory-5. We further adjusted for pain intensity when we analyzed the data for respondents with chronic pain. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain was higher among respondents reporting the presence of early-life adversity compared with those reporting its absence, with multivariable ORs of 1.62 (1.22–2.15, p<0.01 in men and 1.47 (1.13–1.90, p<0.01 in women. Among women with chronic pain, early

  1. [Mental disorders in digestive system diseases - internist's and psychiatrist's insight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Urszula; Łabuzek, Krzysztof; Chronowska, Justyna; Krzystanek, Marek; Okopień, BogusŁaw

    2015-05-01

    Mental disorders accompanying digestive system diseases constitute interdisciplinary yet scarcely acknowledged both diagnostic and therapeutic problem. One of the mostly recognized examples is coeliac disease where patients endure the large spectrum of psychopathological symptoms, starting with attention deficit all the way down to the intellectual disability in extreme cases. It has not been fully explained how the pathomechanism of digestive system diseases affects patient's mental health, however one of the hypothesis suggests that it is due to serotonergic or opioid neurotransmission imbalance caused by gluten and gluten metabolites effect on central nervous system. Behavioral changes can also be invoked by liver or pancreatic diseases, which causes life-threatening abnormalities within a brain. It occurs that these abnormalities reflexively exacerbate the symptoms of primary somatic disease and aggravate its course, which worsens prognosis. The dominant mental disease mentioned in this article is depression which because of its effect on a hypothalamuspituitary- adrenal axis and on an autonomic nervous system, not only aggravates the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases but may accelerate their onset in genetically predisposed patients. Depression is known to negatively affects patients' ability to function in a society and a quality of their lives. Moreover, as far as children are concerned, the occurrence of digestive system diseases accompanied by mental disorders, may adversely affect their further physical and psychological development, which merely results in worse school performance. All those aspects of mental disorders indicate the desirability of the psychological care for patients with recognized digestive system disease. The psychological assistance should be provided immediately after diagnosis of a primary disease and be continued throughout the whole course of treatment.

  2. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  3. Mechanisms in adverse reactions to food. The nose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    Rhinitis is a common symptom in food allergic patients, but rhinitis is rarely the only symptom. Rhinitis due to adverse reactions to preservatives and colorants is very rare. In anaphylactic systemic reactions to foods the rhinitis symptoms are caused by inflammatory mediators transported...... by the circulation. In non-anaphylactic reactions, the nasal inflammation and symptoms are probably induced by interaction with food allergens transported to the nasal mucosa via the blood circulation....

  4. Somali Refugees' Perceptions of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettmann, Joanna E; Penney, Deb; Clarkson Freeman, Pamela; Lecy, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 13% of the U.S. population is comprised of foreign-born individuals, with Somalis constituting one of the largest resettled groups. Research suggests that, among Somali refugees, rates of mental illness are high. Yet research shows Somalis underutilize mental health services. Understanding their perceptions of mental illness and its cures may help practitioners to design more effective treatments for this population. Thus, this pilot study investigated Somali refugees' perceptions of mental illness and its treatments. Using purposive sampling, this qualitative study interviewed 20 Somali refugees using a semi-structured interview guide. Qualitative analysis yielded participants' perceptions of mental illness through their descriptions of physical symptoms accompanying mental illness, the stigma of mental illness, causes of mental illness, medical and non-medical treatments for mental illness, spirit possession causing mental illness, and the Qur'an as treatment for mental illness. Such information may help practitioners in the United States approach Somali clients in the most culturally coherent manner.

  5. Anthrax: Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EID Journal Articles Anthrax-Related MMWRs Medscape Commentaries Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cause severe illness and even death. Cutaneous anthrax symptoms can include: A group of small blisters or ...

  6. Mental Symptoms and Coping Styles of Cerebral Palsy Children’s Parents%脑瘫患儿父母的心理状况与应付方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴文献; 张建; 施学文; 吴雪红; 陈向前; 曹青; 邵雷

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨脑瘫患儿父母的心理状况与应付方式的相关性。方法:采用症状自评量表(SCL-90)和应付方式问卷(WCSQ ),对60例脑瘫患儿父母和60名与脑瘫患儿同年龄、同性别正常儿童父母(对照组)心理状况和应付方式进行评估。结果:脑瘫患儿父母组SCL-90总分152±13.5及各因子分均高于对照组122±13.1,P均<0.01;脑瘫患儿父母组WCSQ中的求助、合理化、解决问题因子分为0.7±0.1、0.6±0.1、0.8±0.2均高于对照组0.5±0.2、0.4±0.1、0.7±0.1,P均<0.01;而WCSQ 的退避、幻想、自责因子分为0.2±0.1、0.1±0.1、0.3±0.2均低于对照组0.3±0.1、0.3±0.2、0.4±0.1,P均<0.01;脑瘫患儿父母组WCSQ的退避、幻想、自责、求助、合理化因子与SCL-90各项因子呈正相关(r=0.55~0.91,P均<0.01);WCSQ的解决问题与躯体化、强迫症状、抑郁、焦虑、恐怖呈负相关( r=-0.27、-0.26、-0.26、-0.24、-0.25,P均<0.05)。结论:脑瘫患儿父母有较明显的心理健康问题,但其多能采用积极的应付方式,这可能有助于减轻心理问题的影响。%Objective :To explore the relevance between mental symptoms and coping styles of cerebral palsy children’s parents .Methods :Totally 60 cerebral palsy children’s parents and 60 normal children’s parents were recruited in this study .The symptoms were assessed with the symptom checklist 90(SCL-90) ,and coping styles with the ways of coping styles questionnaire(WCSQ) .Results :In cerebral palsy children’s parents ,the total scores and factor scores of SCL-90 , and WCSQ factor scores of seeking help ,rationlization ,problem-solving were higher (P< 0 .01) ,while WCSQ factor scores of avoidance ,fancy ,self-blame were lower than that in normal children’s parents(P<0 .01) .In cerebral palsy children’s parents ,there were positive

  7. 乳腺癌患者影响心身症状与生活质量的相关分析%Analysis of the Physical Mental Symptoms and the Life Quality of Breast Cancer Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖兰; 孙宁

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨乳腺癌患者身心身症状与生活质量的相关因素,并进行统计分析。方法:对85例符合入组标准的乳腺癌患者进行调查,应用病人健康问卷抑郁量表( PHQ~9)及癌症患者生命质量测定量表( QLQ-C30)对患者进行调查问卷,并对有效数据进行了分析。结果:乳腺癌患者躯体症状的严重程度与抑郁、焦虑均呈正相关;在躯体症状较重的患者中,有41.3%的患者发现有抑郁症状,而焦虑症状的检出率也达到了51%;生存期5年以上的乳腺癌患者只有焦虑分数低于5年以内的患者( P<0.01),而在躯体症状、抑郁和生活质量方面两组并没有统计学差异。结论:乳腺癌患者抑郁、焦虑的心理症状与其躯体症状和总体健康状况相关,生存期5年以上的患者焦虑水平低于5年以内的患者,但躯体症状、抑郁以及生活质量与生存期的延长未见相关。%Objective:To investigate and analyse the related factors of the physical and mental symp-toms affected the quality of life in the breast cancer patients.Method:PHQ~9 and QLQ-C30 were used in the 85 breast cancer patients.And the valid data was analyzed.Result: It was a positive correlation in the patients between severity of somatic symptoms and anxiety.41.3%of patients were depression and 51%pa-tients were anxiety.The anxiety scores of the patients who were survival over 5 years were lower than that sur-vival less than 5 years ( P <0.01) .There were no statistical differences in the other factors.Conclusion:There's relationship between the depression and psychological symptoms and anxiety and somatic symptoms. The anxiety level of the patients who were survival over 5 years are lower than that survival less than 5 years. But there are no statistical differences of the patients in body symptoms, depression, quality of life and life time.

  8. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-04-30

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels of negative symptoms had poorer metacognitive abilities. Those with high positive and low negative symptoms did not have poorer metacognitive abilities than those with low positive and negative symptoms. None of the other predictors differed between the groups. The FEP group had poorer metacognitive abilities than the control group. Inclusion of metacognition in psychosis models may improve our understanding of negative symptoms, while previous findings of a relation with positive symptoms may have been confounded. Implications for current interventions are discussed.

  9. Maternal stress and internalizing symptoms in preschoolers: the moderating role of narrative coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadelmann, Stephanie; Otto, Yvonne; Andreas, Anna; von Klitzing, Kai; Klein, Annette Maria

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we examined whether maternal psychosocial stress and children's coherence in story-stem narratives are associated with preschool children's internalizing symptoms and disorders, and whether narrative coherence moderates the association between maternal stress and children's internalizing symptoms and disorders. The sample consists of 236 preschool children (129 girls, 107 boys; Mage = 5.15 years) and their mothers. Mothers completed questionnaires on their psychosocial stress burden and on child symptoms. A diagnostic interview (the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment; Egger & Angold, 2004) was conducted with one of the parents to assess children's psychiatric diagnoses. Children completed 8 story stems of the MacArthur Story Stem Battery (Bretherton & Oppenheim, 2003). Story-stem narratives were coded for narrative coherence. Multivariate analyses were controlled for children's age, gender, verbal performance, and externalizing symptoms. Results showed that maternal psychosocial stress was significantly associated with child internalizing symptoms and disorders. Neither maternal stress nor children's internalizing symptoms or disorders were associated with narrative coherence. However, narrative coherence moderated the association between maternal stress and child internalizing symptoms. For children with more incoherent narratives, the association between maternal psychosocial stress and children's internalizing symptoms was significantly stronger than for children with more coherent narratives. The moderation effect of narrative coherence concerning children's internalizing disorders was found not to be significant. Our findings indicate that preschool children's cognitive-emotional organization in dealing with relational conflict themes seems to buffer their mental health when exposed to adverse circumstances in their everyday family life.

  10. Somatic Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Marie; Kreiner, Svend; Ebstrup, Jeanette F

    2016-01-01

    ) the associations between the symptoms, and 3) the associations between the somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health accounting for the co-occurrence of symptoms. Information on 19 somatic symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health was achieved from...... a population-based questionnaire survey of 36,163 randomly selected adults in the Capital Region of Denmark in 2006/07. Chain graph models were used to transparently identify and describe the associations between symptoms, self-perceived health and limitations due to physical health. In total, 94...... all strongly directly associated with both of the outcomes (γ>0.30). Chest pain was strongly associated with self-perceived health, and other musculoskeletal symptoms and urinary retention were strongly associated with limitations due to physical health. Other symptoms were either moderate...

  11. Metacognition in first-episode psychosis and its association with positive and negative symptom profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Gumley, Andrew; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metacognitive abilities which include the ability to synthesize knowledge regarding mental states in self and others and use this ability to solve problems are impaired in non-affective psychosis and associated with positive and negative symptom severity. We sought...... to (a) investigate the severity of metacognitive impairments in first-episode psychosis (FEP) compared to non-clinical controls and (b) explore associations with positive and negative symptom profiles. Ninety-seven people with FEP were compared to 101 control persons. Metacognition was assessed...... with interviews and the Metacognitive assessment scale-abbreviated. Four groups based on positive and negative symptoms were identified by cluster analysis and compared on metacognition, childhood adversities, duration of untreated psychosis and premorbid social and academic adjustment. Those with high levels...

  12. Approach to risk identification in undifferentiated mental disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, José; Rockman, Patricia; Fulford, Casey; Hunter, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide primary care physicians with a novel approach to risk identification and related clinical decision making in the management of undifferentiated mental disorders. Sources of information We conducted a review of the literature in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar using the search terms diagnostic uncertainty, diagnosis, risk identification, risk assessment/methods, risk, risk factors, risk management/methods, cognitive biases and psychiatry, decision making, mental disorders/diagnosis, clinical competence, evidence-based medicine, interviews as topic, psychiatry/education, psychiatry/methods, documentation/methods, forensic psychiatry/education, forensic psychiatry/methods, mental disorders/classification, mental disorders/psychology, violence/prevention and control, and violence/psychology. Main message Mental disorders are a large component of practice in primary care and often present in an undifferentiated manner, remaining so for prolonged periods. The challenging search for a diagnosis can divert attention from risk identification, as diagnosis is commonly presumed to be necessary before treatment can begin. This might inadvertently contribute to preventable adverse events. Focusing on salient aspects of the patient presentation related to risk should be prioritized. This article presents a novel approach to organizing patient information to assist risk identification and decision making in the management of patients with undifferentiated mental disorders. Conclusion A structured approach can help physicians to manage the clinical uncertainty common to risk identification in patients with mental disorders and cope with the common anxiety and cognitive biases that affect priorities in risk-related decision making. By focusing on risk, functional impairments, and related symptoms using a novel framework, physicians can meet their patients’ immediate needs while continuing the search for diagnostic clarity and long

  13. Investigation and Analysis of Mental Health Problem of Freshmen from Higher Vocational Colleges based on Symptom Check List-90%基于SCL-90的高等职业院校新生心理健康问题调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴松; 秦素粉

    2011-01-01

    采用《SCL-90症状自评量表》对重庆市6所高职院校的2010级新生进行心理健康调查,结果显示:因子大于或等于2.5的心理问题检出率为32.2%,主要表现为强迫症状、人际关系敏感、抑郁和敌对.分别从个体自我认知、学校教育环境、家庭和社会的影响等因素进行了深入分析,提出改进高职新生心理健康状况的对策.%The mental health survey on 2010 freshmen from six Chongqing higher vocational colleges has been conducted with Symptom Check List-90. The result shows that factor greater than or equal to 2. 5 of the mental health problems arrives 32. 2%. These students suffer from such symptoms as obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, oppression and hostility. Based on the basic survey data, the internal and external factors that affect the mental health of freshmen have been deeply analyzed from the aspects of individual self-awareness, education environment, family and society influence so that to present measures to improve the mental health condition of freshmen of vocational colleges.

  14. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  15. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes.

  16. Children's Mental Health Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children’s Mental Health Surveillance What are childhood mental disorders? The term childhood mental disorder means all mental disorders that can ... is the impact of mental disorders in children? Mental health is important to overall health. Mental disorders are ...

  17. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel and act as ... stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  18. Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mental disorders include a wide range of problems, including Anxiety disorders, including panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post- ... disorders, including schizophrenia There are many causes of mental disorders. Your genes and family history may play a ...

  19. Neuroticism's prospective association with mental disorders halves after adjustment for baseline symptoms and psychiatric history, but the adjusted association hardly decays with time : a meta-analysis on 59 longitudinal/prospective studies with 443 313 participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeronimus, B. F.; Kotov, R.; Riese, H.; Ormel, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background This meta-analysis seeks to quantify the prospective association between neuroticism and the common mental disorders (CMDs, including anxiety, depression, and substance abuse) as well as thought disorders (psychosis/schizophrenia) and non-specific mental distress. Data on the degree of co

  20. Sleep moderates and mediates the relationship between acculturation and depressive symptoms in pregnant Mexican-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Anna-Hernandez, Kimberly L.; Garcia, Esmeralda; Coussons-Read, Mary; Laudenslager, Mark L.; Ross, Randal G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Greater acculturation is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes in Mexican-American women, but the mechanisms by which acculturation influences perinatal outcomes are unclear. Pregnant acculturated Mexican-American women are more likely to engage in unhealthy prenatal behaviors relative to those less acculturated, including poor sleep. As sleep disruptions are associated with acculturation and negative perinatal outcomes, particularly maternal depression, alterations in sleep may adversely affect pregnant Mexican-American women. Methods Sixty pregnant women of Mexican descent completed surveys about sleep, acculturation, depressive symptoms and potential protective factor of social support. Results Acculturation, but not social support, significantly predicted increased sleep disruptions as well as overall feeling less refreshed upon waking across pregnancy. Moderation analysis indicated that more acculturated women who took longer to fall asleep reported increased depressive symptoms. Feeling refreshed upon waking also mediated the relationship between increased acculturation and elevated maternal depressive symptoms. Conclusions Acculturation and altered sleep contribute to greater risk in Mexican-American women for maternal depressive symptoms in the perinatal period. These findings have implications for prevention and treatment of maternal mental health disorders, which may adversely affect perinatal outcomes in the vulnerable Mexican-American population. PMID:26728897

  1. A Controlled Study on Treatment of Mental Depression by Acupuncture plus TCM Medication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of acupuncture plus TCM medication for treatment of mental depression. Method: 61 cases of mental depression were randomly divided into a treatment group of 30 cases and a control group of 31 cases. The former group was treated by acupuncture plus TCM medication, and the latter with TCM medication alone. The Hamilton Mental Depression (HAMD) scoring system was adopted to evaluate the therapeutic effects, and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) was used to evaluate the adverse reactions. Results: The treatment group was superior to the control group in the total effective effect (P<0.05), with a significant difference in the HAMD score before and after treatment between the 2 groups (P<0.01). There were marked differences in the reducing rate of HAMD score at the end of the second and sixth week of the treatment between the 2 groups (P<0.05) and the difference was very obvious at the end of the fourth week (P<0.01). No remarkable difference was found in adverse reactions between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture plus TCM medication may show satisfactory results for mental depression, indicating that a synergic action may exist between acupuncture and TCM medication.

  2. Adverse outcomes after colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP. It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify any potential reduction in women's quality of life following a colposcopy procedure. More specifically, the degree of female sexual dysfunction and the excess risk of adverse events in those undergoing colposcopy will be explored. If such risks are identified, these can be communicated to women before undergoing colposcopy. It will also assist in identifying whether there are particular sub-groups at greater risk and if so, this may lead to a re-evaluation of current recommendations concerning colposcopically directed treatments. Methods/design Cohort study using postal surveys to assess sexual function and quality of life in women who have attended for colposcopy (cases, compared with those who have not attended colposcopy (controls. The prevalence and excess risk of female sexual dysfunction will be determined. Logistic regression will identify the predictors of adverse outcomes. Discussion There are more than 400,000 colposcopy appointments each year in England, of which 134,000 are new referrals. There is some evidence that there may be long-term implications for women treated under colposcopy with respect to adverse obstetric outcomes, persisting anxiety, increased rates of sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Reliably establishing whether such adverse outcomes exist and the excess risk of adverse events will facilitate informed decision-making and patient choice.

  3. Mild chronic kidney disease independently predicts adverse outcomes in women with symptoms and signs of ischemia%中度肾功能不全是女性冠心病患者不良预后独立预测因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 王松涛; 刘月红

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate mild chronic kidney disease( CKD)independently predicts adverse outcomes in women with symptoms and signs of ischemia. Methods:To categorize 269 women referred for clinically indicated coronary angi-ography according to estimated glomerular filtration rate(eGFR). Time to death from all - cause and cardiovascular causes and major adverse outcomes were assessed by multivariate regression adjusted for baseline covariates. Results:Obstructive coronary artery disease(CAD)was present only in few patients(41% ). Even after adjusting for CAD severity,renal function remained a strong independent predictor of all - cause and cardiac mortality(P ﹤ 0. 001). Every 10 - unit decrease in eGFR was associ-ated with a 13% increased risk of all - cause mortality,17% increased risk of cardiovascular mortality,and 8% increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Conclusion:Even mild CKD is a strong independent predictor of all - cause and cardiac mor-tality in women with symptoms/ signs of ischemia.%目的:探讨中度慢性肾病(CKD)作为有心肌缺血症状女性患者不良预后的独立预测因素的可行性。方法:连续选择269例住院接受冠脉造影的女性患者,根据其肾小球滤过率(eGFR)进行分组。采用调整基线变量的多变量回归分析研究入组患者全因病死率、心血管疾病病死率及主要不良事件的发生率。结果:阻塞性冠状动脉疾病( CAD)患者仅占41%。在调整了CAD严重程度评分后,肾功能仍是对全因及心血管病死率的可靠独立预测因素(P ﹤0.001)。评估肾小球滤过率(eGFR),eGFR 每降低10 U,全因病死率增加13%,心血管疾病病死率增加17%,不良心血管事件的发生增加8%。结论:仅中等程度的 CKD 可作为有或无心肌缺血症状的女性患者全因及因心血管疾病死亡的独立预测因素。

  4. Sociodemographic risk, developmental competence, and PTSD symptoms in young children exposed to interpersonal trauma in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Blood, Emily; Egeland, Byron

    2013-12-01

    Young children are disproportionately exposed to interpersonal trauma (maltreatment, witnessing intimate partner violence [IPV]) and appear particularly susceptible to negative sequelae. Little is known about the factors influencing vulnerability to traumatic stress responses and other negative outcomes in early life. This study examined associations among interpersonal trauma exposure, sociodemographic risk, developmental competence, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 200 children assessed from birth to first grade via standardized observations, record reviews, and maternal and teacher interviews. More severe PTSD symptoms were predicted by greater trauma exposure (r = .43), greater sociodemographic risk (r = .22), and lower developmental competence (rs=−.31 and −.54 for preschool and school-age developmental competence, respectively). Developmental competence partially mediated the association between trauma exposure and symptoms. Trauma exposure fully mediated the association between sociodemographic risk and symptoms. Neither sociodemographic risk nor developmental competence moderated trauma exposure effects on symptoms. The findings suggest that (a)exposure to maltreatment and IPV has additive effects on posttraumatic stress risk in early life, (b) associations between sociodemographic adversity and poor mental health may be attributable to increased trauma exposure in disadvantaged populations, and (c) early exposures have a negative cascade effect on developmental competence and mental health.

  5. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  6. Psychosocial risk at work and mental illness in hospital workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Ansoleaga M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence on the association between exposure to psychosocial risk at work and adverse health outcomes. Objective: to describe and analyze the presence of psychosocial risks at work and mental health symptoms in non-clinical workers from a public hospital. Methods: a crosssectional study was conducted at a public hospital in Santiago (Chile. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to assess exposure to psychosocial risks (demand-control and effort-reward imbalance models. The outcome variables were depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and psychotropic drug consumption. The analysis was descriptive and associative (Fisher’s exact test Results: 47% of the workers showed high psychological demands, 46% low autonomy, 61% low social support and 75% imbalance between effort expended and rewards received. The prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms in the total sample was 10% and 30% respectively, while 25% reported having used psychotropic drugs. The consumption of psychotropic drugs was significantly higher (p < 0.05 among those with low social support and effort-reward imbalance. Discussion: the consumption of psychotropic drugs was associated with low social support and imbalance between efforts expended and rewards received. This might have implications in the workers’ health and performance; therefore, further research is required, particularly on this kind of population, to understand this relationship and thus develop prevention programs in this regard.

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  8. 无锡市80例不孕症妇女心理症状调查及干预效果研究%Survey on Mental Symptoms of 80 Cases of Women with Barrenness in Wuxi City and Research on Intervention Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王倩倩

    2016-01-01

    目的:为有效对不孕症女性患者进行有效治疗,临床探究通过了解患者心理症状并采取相应心理干预,观察患者疾病治疗效果。方法选取该市2013年4月-2014年5月期间80例经诊断为不孕症女性患者为治疗组,同时随机选取入院进行孕前检查心理正常孕妇80例为对照组。对比两组患者心理状态,对治疗组孕妇心理症状进行评估,同时收集所有不孕症女性一般资料,对可能导致抑郁、焦虑的影响因素进行分析。结果该调查所有不孕症患者有1576例出现抑郁、焦虑心理症状,其发生几率为64.0%,患者抑郁、焦虑与年收入、年龄、文化程度、不孕时间、治疗周期有关(P<0.05)。结论对于临床不孕症女性患者,要及时了解患者心理症状,对其进行心理干预治疗,消除心理障碍、树立信心,提高受孕几率。%Objective To know the mental symptoms of patients, adopt the corresponding mental intervention and observe the disease treatment effect of patients in order to effectively treat the female patients with barrenness. Methods 80 cases of female women with barrenness in our city from April 2013 to May 2014 were selected as the treatment group, and 80 cases of delivery women with normal psychology through examination before pregnancy after admission were selected as the con-trol group, and the mental state of the two groups was compared, and the mental symptoms in the treatment group was eval-uated, and the general female data of barrenness were collected and the potential influence factors of depression and anxiety were analyzed. Results In this survey, the mental symptoms of depression and anxiety occurred to 1576 cases, and the oc-currence probability was 64.0%, and the single-factor showed that the depression and anxiety were related to the income, age, educational degree, infertility time and treatment cycle(P<0.05). Conclusion For female patients with clinical barren

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Pharmacological Treatment of Psychotic Patients Attending the Mental Health Services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sabina Roméu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the mental health services of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos receive all patients in the province that need to be hospitalized. Among them, children and adolescents functioning at the psychotic level are of great clinical and social importance. Objective: to describe the clinical characteristics and pharmacological treatment of psychotic patients treated in the mental health services. Methods: a case series study of 35 psychotic patients admitted to the mental health unit of the Pediatric Hospital of Cienfuegos was conducted between 2008 and 2012. Demographic variables, in addition to variables related to clinical data and pharmacotherapeutic aspects were analyzed. Results: sixty five point seven percent of patients were adolescents and 77.1% were of urban origin. The most common diagnoses were acute and transient psychotic disorder and schizophrenia. Sixty three percent had a family history of psychiatric disorder. Forty percent were treated with trifluoperazine and an equal percent took haloperidol. Psychotic symptoms were controlled in 58% of patients during the first weeks. Conclusion: white adolescent patients from urban areas with a family history of psychiatric illness predominated. They received regular psychiatric attention and experienced the symptoms for a short time before being treated. The most frequently prescribed medications were typical antipsychotic drugs, which caused adverse reactions in a third of the patients. In the first few weeks, psychotic symptoms were controlled in most patients, although half of them experienced a recurrence of symptoms, which evolved into conditions with worse prognosis.

  10. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  11. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  12. Relação entre tensão neural adversa e estudos de condução nervosa em pacientes com sintomas da sídrome do túnel do carpo Relationship between adverse neural tension and nerve conduction studies in patients with symptoms of the carpal tunnel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Ahmad Ismail Mahmud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O propósito deste estudo foi avaliar, através de uma série de casos, a relação entre tensão neural adversa do nervo mediano (TNAm e o parâmetro eletrofisiológico em 38 pacientes com sintomas da síndrome do túnel do carpo (STC, submetidos a estudos de condução nervosa (ECN. As principais medidas foram a TNAm obtida no teste de provocação de tensão neural (TPTN e parâmetros dos ECN, dividindo-se os braços avaliados em três grupos: normal, com alteração eletrofisiológica sem gravidade e com alteração eletrofisiológica grave. Correlação significante entre TNAm e parâmetros dos ECN foram encontrados (pThe purpose of this study was to evaluate, through a series of cases, the relationship between the adverse neural tension of median nerve (ANTm and the electrophysiological involvement in 38 patients with symptoms of the carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS, submitted to nerve conduction studies (NCS. The main measures had been ANTm (in degrees obtained through the test of neural tension provocation (TNTP and parameters of the NCS, divided into three groups: normal, without severe electrophysiological alteration and with severe electrophysiological alteration. Significant correlations were found between ANTm and parameters of the NCS (p<0.05, as well as between ANTm and the three groups defined by the electrophysiologic alteration (r s=+0.437, p=0.002. The TNAm values were significantly higher in the arms with electrophysiologic diagnoses (p=0.007. It is suggested that the ANTm does have a participation in the physiopathology of the CTS, and the useof therapeutical procedures that diminish the development of neural tension.

  13. Do children with mental disorders have higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mini; Cheng, Keith; Rope, Robert; Martin, Elizabeth; Jetmalani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate vitamin D level is associated with various adverse medical outcomes. There is a growing concern that insufficient vitamin D may play a role in the development of psychiatric symptoms. This study aims to answer the question: do children with mental disorders have a higher prevalence of hypovitaminosis D? A retrospective chart review examined 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in youth ages 7 to 17 (n=67) at two Oregon psychiatric residential facilities. Vitamin D deficiency is defined as hypovitaminosis D than the general pediatric population. Although a causal relationship between hypovitaminosis D and psychiatric disorders cannot be derived based on the study design, our study provides initial descriptive data on the prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in children with psychiatric disorders, which has not been previously reported to our knowledge. Prospective studies with a larger sample size and controlled variables would allow more precise analysis of the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and childhood mental disorders.

  14. Moderate antenatal anxiety symptoms and birth outcomes of boys and girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitz, Marsha; Mankuta, David; Rokem, Ann Marie; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-12-01

    Women's antenatal anxiety, especially if paired with significant life stressors or comorbid physical or mental health disorders, can predict adverse birth outcomes, defined in terms of birth weight, gestational age at birth and obstetric complications. Here, we tested for an impact of moderate anxiety symptoms on these outcomes because many women experience these kinds of symptoms during pregnancy, and even subtle differences in birth outcomes can have significant effects on children's development. We also tested for moderation of anxiety effects by infant gender. The sample comprised 219 women with anxiety symptoms ranging from none to moderate levels on the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate models estimated main effects of Group (no/minimal versus moderate symptoms) and interactions between Group and infant Gender. Results indicate that moderate anxiety predicted more obstetric complications, particularly among mothers of daughters. Results also demonstrate a Group × Gender interaction on BW, indicating that sons of anxious mothers weighed more than sons of controls; whereas, daughters of anxious mothers weighed less than daughters of controls. These findings show that moderate anxiety symptoms may affect some birth outcomes, and differently for males and females.

  15. The Effects of Nutritional Juice Supplementation on the Extent of Climacteric Symptoms: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie I. Siebler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47–67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment. Results. Treatment with the supplement resulted in a reduction of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms. The overall MRS score showed an average improvement of 44.01%. Most benefits were observed for the psychological symptoms irritability (60.55% and physical and mental exhaustion (49.08%; modest effects were observed for hot flashes (44.86% and sleeping problems (35.56%. There was a minor improvement in sexual problems; 6 women reported an increased libido. No statistically significant effect was found in vaginal dryness and proliferation behaviour of vaginal mucosa. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusion. Dietary nutritional supplement may constitute an effective alternative therapy to conventional alternative medicine for somatic, psychological, and sexual symptoms.

  16. The effect of psychiatric symptoms on the internet addiction disorder in Isfahan′s University students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction disorder is an interdisciplinary phenomenon and it has been studied from different viewpoints in terms of various sciences such as medicine, computer, sociology, law, ethics, and psychology. The aim of this study was to determine the association of psychiatric symptoms with Internet addiction while controlling for the effects of age, gender, marital status, and educational levels. It is hypothesized, that high levels of Internet addiction are associated with psychiatric symptoms and are specially correlated with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total number of 250 students from Isfahan′s universities were randomly selected. Subjects completed the demographic questionnaire, the Young Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revision (SCL-90-R. Data was analyzed using the multiple logistic regression method. Results: There was an association between psychiatric symptoms such as somatization, sensitivity, depression, anxiety, aggression, phobias, and psychosis with exception of paranoia; and diagnosis of Internet addiction controlling for age, sex, education level, marital status, and type of universities. Conclusions: A great percentage of youths in the population suffer from the adverse effects of Internet addiction. It is necessary for psychiatrists and psychologists to be aware of the mental problems caused by Internet addiction.

  17. The Personality and Psychological Stress Predict Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Five Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jinling; Zhang, Danyang; Yin, Yue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Li, Jifu; Liu, Dexiang; Pan, Fang; Chen, Wenqiang

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the effects of personality type and psychological stress on the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) at 5 years in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Two hundred twenty patients with stable angina (SA) or non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) treated with PCI completed type A behavioral questionnaire, type D personality questionnaire, Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ), and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) at 3 days after PCI operation. Meanwhile, biomedical markers (cTnI, CK-MB, LDH, LDH1) were assayed. MACEs were monitored over a 5-year follow-up. NSTE-ACS group had higher ratio of type A behavior, type A/D behavior, and higher single factor scores of type A personality and type D personality than control group and SAP group. NSTE-ACS patients had more anxiety, depression, lower level of mental health (P Type D patients were at a cumulative increased risk of adverse outcome compared with non-type D patients (P type A and type D personality and this tendency was associated with myocardial injury. They also had obvious anxiety, depression emotion, and lower level of mental health, which were related to personality and coping style. Type D personality was an independent predictor of adverse events.

  18. Resolving mental illness stigma: should we seek normalcy or solidarity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigan, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Two approaches have emerged to deal with the stigma of mental illness: normalcy, where people with mental illness are framed as 'just like everyone else'; and solidarity, where the public agrees to stand with those with mental illness regardless of their symptoms. Pros and cons of each approach are considered.

  19. Managing nonteratogenic adverse reactions to isotretinoin treatment for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Bridget K; Ritsema, Tamara S

    2015-07-01

    Isotretinoin is the strongest, most effective oral treatment for patients with severe acne vulgaris, with remission rates of 89% and higher. Because of its potency, isotretinoin causes many adverse reactions. This article reviews common and severe adverse reactions to isotretinoin and how providers can best manage these reactions. Because of inconclusive research on the correlation between isotretinoin and depression and irritable bowel syndrome, providers should ask patients about symptoms monthly. Prescribing micronized isotretinoin and starting at the lowest dose with gradual upward titration also can help reduce the incidence of adverse reactions.

  20. No negative symptoms in healthy volunteers after single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Park, Tae-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Lee, Keon-Hak; Huang, Guang-Biao; Tong, Zhao; Park, Myung-Sook; Chung, Young-Chul

    2012-03-01

    Noncompliance and poor outcome in patients with schizophrenia are closely related to the negative symptoms secondary to antipsychotics. No controlled study has evaluated whether amisulpride and aripiprazole induce negative symptoms. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of single doses of amisulpride, aripiprazole, haloperidol, and risperidone in healthy volunteers. Seventy-eight young volunteers took part in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study of four antipsychotics: 400 mg amisulpride, 10 mg aripiprazole, 3 mg haloperidol, and 2 mg risperidone. Assessments of negative symptoms were done 4 h after administration using both subjective rating scales (Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and Subjective Deficit Syndrome Scale) and an objective rating scale (Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms). Risperidone only produced significant increases on the avolition score of the Neuroleptic Induced Deficit Syndrome Scale and blunted affect and alogia scores of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms compared with placebo. The effect on blunted affect persisted after controlling for mental sedation. Amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol did not induce negative symptoms. Aripiprazole and risperidone induced mild extrapyramidal symptoms. The most common adverse events were somnolence and cognitive slowing. These data indicate that a single risperidone dose induces negative symptoms in normal volunteers, whereas amisulpride, aripiprazole, and haloperidol do not. These characteristics of antipsychotics should be considered when choosing optimal drugs for patients with psychosis.

  1. Mental Illness in the Peripartum Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Women are particularly vulnerable in the peripartum period for either developing a mental illness or suffering symptom exacerbation. These illnesses are often experienced covertly, however, and women may not seek out professional help, even though their symptoms may be seriously affecting their well-being and parenting. This article provides an…

  2. Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Viral Suppression Doctor, Clinical & Dental Visits Treatment Adherence Mental Health Substance Abuse Issues Sexual Health Nutrition & Food Safety Exercise Immunizations Aging with HIV/AIDS Women’s Health Housing ...

  3. Mental effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschner, Paul A.; Kirschner, Femke

    2013-01-01

    Kirschner, P. A., & Kirschner, F. (2012). Mental effort. In N. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the sciences of learning, Volume 5 (pp. 2182-2184). New York, NY: Springer. doi:10.1007/978-1-4419-1428-6_226

  4. GEJALA GANGGUAN MENTAL EMOSIONAL PADA ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Isfandari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Priority of Indonesian health policy is maternal and child physical health. It is undeniable that physical health is very important in developing productive human beings. However, ignorance on child mental health can have an undesirable impact for both the child and the family. Early detection and appropriate treatment for the mentally vulnerable kid is then needed to help the child have a better future. The Household Health Survey (HHS 1995 included a Report Questionnaire for Children (RQC to detect the presence of mental emotional disturbance symptom. Analysis revealed that symptoms of mental disturbance for age 5-14 years was quite high: 102 in 1000 children. According to socio-demographic condition, the results showed no significant difference of mental disturbance symptoms between: rural vs. urban (98 vs. 108; household density <= 5 vs. > 5 (107 vs. 109; Java Bali vs. outer Java Bali (93 vs. 110 girls vs boys (95 vs. 109. Slight differences of mental disturbance symptoms was found between pre-puberty vs. puberty (88 vs. 116; low economic vs. high economic (119 vs. 87.It is expected that the results can provide inputs for developing a health policy to improve child health which includes mental health. 

  5. Effect of Posture Improvement Thyroid Operation on Patients with Postoperative Adverse Symptoms and Psychological Status%改良甲状腺手术体位对患者术后不良症状及心理状况的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦露

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究改良甲状腺手术体位对患者术后不良症状及心理状况的影响,并为手术室护理积累经验。方法:选取我院手术室于2010年4月~2012年9月收治的58例甲状腺腺瘤患者,利用随机数字表法进行分组,分别设为研究组和对照组,每组各29例。其中对照组开展常规手术体位护理,而研究组则开展改良手术体位护理。比较两组患者术后第1d、第2d头痛及呕吐发生率,并在手术前1d及术后第2d向两组发放SAS量表和SAS量表,了解其精神心理状况。结果:研究组术后第1d和第2d头痛及呕吐的发生率均低于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P0.05);术后第2d,研究组SAS评分和SDS评分均低于对照组,且差异有统计学意义(P0.05); after the 2D, research group SAS score and SDS score were lower than the control group, and the difference is statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion:The modified operation posture for thyroid operation patients, not only can reduce the postoperative headache and vomiting symptoms, can improve the postoperative mental state, a better effect, worthy of further promotion.

  6. Juvenile justice mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christopher R; Penn, Joseph V

    2002-10-01

    As the second century of partnership begins, child psychiatry and juvenile justice face continuing challenges in meeting the mental health needs of delinquents. The modern juvenile justice system is marked by a significantly higher volume of cases, with increasingly complicated multiproblem youths and families with comorbid medical, psychiatric, substance abuse disorders, multiple family and psychosocial adversities, and shrinking community resources and alternatives to confinement. The family court is faced with shrinking financial resources to support court-ordered placement and treatment programs in efforts to treat and rehabilitate youths. The recognition of high rates of mental disorders for incarcerated youth has prompted several recommendations for improvement and calls for reform [56,57]. In their 2000 annual report, the Coalition for Juvenile Justice advocated increased access to mental health services that provide a continuum of care tailored to the specific problems of incarcerated youth [58]. The specific recommendations of the report for mental health providers include the need for wraparound services, improved planning and coordination between agencies, and further research. The Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has set three priorities in dealing with the mental health needs of delinquents: further research on the prevalence of mental illness among juvenile offenders, development of mental health screening assessment protocols, and improved mental health services [59]. Other programs have called for earlier detection and diversion of troubled youth from juvenile justice to mental health systems [31,56]. Most recently, many juvenile and family courts have developed innovative programs to address specific problems such as truancy or substance use and diversionary or alternative sentencing programs to deal with first-time or nonviolent delinquents. All youths who come in contact with the juvenile justice system

  7. Correlates of depressive symptoms among North Korean refugees adapting to South Korean society: the moderating role of perceived discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Mee Young; Chi, Iris; Kim, Hee Jin; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Kim, Jae Yop

    2015-04-01

    Although the prevalence of depressive disorders among North Korean (NK) refugees living in South Korea has been reported to be twice the rate of their South Korean counterparts, little is known about the correlates of depressive symptoms among this population. Despite their escape from a politically and economically repressive setting, NK refugees continue to face multidimensional hardships during their adaptation process in South Korea, which can adversely affect their mental health. However, to our knowledge, no empirical research exists to date on depressive symptoms in the context of adaptation or perceived discrimination among NK refugees. To fill this gap, this study used a sample of 261 NK refugees in South Korea from the 2010 National Survey on Family Violence to examine associations between sociocultural adaptation, perceived discrimination, and depressive symptoms, as well as the moderation effect of discrimination on adaptation to depressive symptoms. We found that poor sociocultural adaptation and perception of discrimination were associated with increased levels of depressive symptoms. Perception of discrimination attenuated the association between better adaptation and fewer depressive symptoms, when compared to no perception of discrimination. These findings highlight the need to improve NK refugees' adaptation and integration as well as their psychological well-being in a culturally sensitive and comprehensive manner. They also underscore the importance of educating South Koreans to become accepting hosts who value diversity, yet in a homogeneous society.

  8. Applicability of the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Katie; Dowdy, Erin; Jones, Camille; Furlong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the utility of a dual-factor model of mental health in which the concepts of mental illness and mental wellness are integrated. Life satisfaction, emotional symptoms, personal adjustment, and clinical symptoms were assessed with a sample of 240 college students. Participants were organized into four groups based on levels of…

  9. Anger in the UK Armed Forces: strong association with mental health, childhood antisocial behavior, and combat role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rona, Roberto J; Jones, Margaret; Hull, Lisa; MacManus, Deirdre; Fear, Nicola T; Wessely, Simon

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the strength of the association of several mental health problems, childhood difficulties, and combat role with anger, as well as the contribution of these factors to explain anger assessed by population attributable fraction (PAF). A total of 9885 UK service personnel, some of them deployed to Iraq and Afghanistan, participated in the study. There was a strong or intermediate association between cases and subthreshold cases of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, multiple physical symptoms and alcohol misuse, having a combat role, childhood adversity, and childhood antisocial behavior with anger. The PAF for any mental health problem and combat role and childhood difficulties was 0.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56-0.70) and increased to 0.77 (95% CI, 0.69-0.83) if subthreshold cases were included. Anger is a frequent component of mental disorders; health care professionals need to be aware of the interference of anger in the management of mental illness and that anger infrequently presents as an isolated phenomenon.

  10. Insomnia and mental health in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Gardner, Christie E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Williams, Jacob M; Roane, Brandy M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is strongly associated with certain mental health problems in the general population. However, there is little research examining this relation in young adults-an age group where many mental health problems first present. This study examined relations between insomnia and mental health symptoms in a college population (N = 373; 60.9% women; mean age of 21 years). Insomnia was assessed via self-report and sleep diaries, and mental health was assessed via the Symptom Check List-90. Analyses revealed insomnia was prevalent (9.4%), and these young adults had significantly more mental health problems than those without insomnia, although some significant results were lost after controlling for comorbid health problems.

  11. Intervention of Collective Exercise on the Mental Health of Elderly Hypertensive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, Wenxin; LI, Menglong; YAO, Jiwei

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anxiety, depression, and other adverse psychological reactions are often observed in elderly hypertensive patients. Appropriate exercise is a safe form of adjuvant therapy without causing side effects among these patients, with consistent effects on patients’ mental health. In this study, a collective exercise intervention experiment was conducted to evaluate the mental health of elderly hypertensive patients and to verify the effect of the psychological intervention of collective exercise. Method: A total of 115 elderly hypertensive patients aged 60–70 years old were selected as study subjects from May 2012 to January 2015 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 57 patients were included in the control group and 58 patients were assigned in the experimental group. Patients in the experimental group participated in a 12 weeks exercise intervention, while patients in the control group didn’t participate in any regular physical exercise. Results: After intervention, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90), total score, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoia scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The positive coping style score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05); by contrast, the negative coping style score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The mental health level and coping ability of elderly hypertensive patients can be effectively improved with the proposed treatment. PMID:27141493

  12. Children's Exposure to Violence and Distress Symptoms: Influence of Caretakers' Psychological Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Louise; Bellinger, David C.; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies linking violence exposure to adverse child behavior have typically relied on parental report of child symptoms without accounting for the informant's mental well-being, despite evidence that parental-mental health can influence children's mental health and the parent's report of distress symptoms. Purpose We assess the influence of maternal depression on the violence exposure and child distress association in a subset of the Maternal Infant Smoking Study of East Boston, a prospective birth cohort. Methods Mothers reported on their children's violence exposure using the Survey of Children's Exposure to Community Violence (ETV) and completed the Checklist of Child Distress Symptoms (CCDS). The children also completed the ETV survey and the self-report version of the CCDS. Linear regression was used to assess the influence of violence exposure on distress symptoms adjusting for potential confounders, first using parent's report of exposure and outcome and a second time using the child's self-report. The mediating effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was also tested. Results Among the 162 children ages 7 to 11, 51% were boys and 43% self-identified as Hispanic. When using child self-report, increased violence exposure was significantly associated with a broader range of distress symptoms (numbness, arousal, intrusion, avoidance subscales) compared to parent reported findings, which were only significantly related to the intrusion and avoidance subscales. Moreover, a significant mediation effect of maternal depression on the violence and distress association was noted only when mother's report of exposure and outcome was used. Conclusion Considering both parent and child self-report of violence is necessary to obtain a complete picture of violence exposure because parents and children may be offering different, although equally valid information. The influence of maternal depressive symptoms on preadolescent

  13. Good Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trying to conceive, pregnancy, and mental health Menstruation, menopause, and mental health Women veterans and mental health When you need help Good mental ... in Spanish ( en español ) Good mental health Nutrition and mental health Exercise and mental health Sleep ...

  14. Mental Byomdannelse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tina Vestermann; Boye, Anne Mette; Borchmann, Inger Haarup;

    Formålet med publikationen er at præsentere metoden "Mental byomdannelse". Metoden viser, hvordan man via midlertidig brug af grunde kan undersøge et steds potentialer, tage et område i brug tidligt i en byomdannelsesproces og derved bidrage til at opbygge en ny identitet for området. Mental...... byomdannelse går ud på at skabe bevidsthed om et byudviklingsområde overfor byens borgere, kommende beboere og fremtidige brugere af området allerede mens den fysiske omdannelse er i gang. I publikationen præsenteres en værktøjskasse, som giver redskaber og ideer til, hvordan man kan sætte en mental...... byomdannelsesproces i gang i byens rum. Publikationen udgør en afrapportering fra et støttet forsøgsprojekt hvor metoden ”Mental byomdannelse” er udviklet ved at afprøve ideerne om mental byomdannelse i to cases i Ålborg Kommune, hhv. i Østre Havn og Nibe by. Formålet med at anvende metoden i de to cases har været...

  15. Extranasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis are difficult to treat and affect quality of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeravich Jaruvongvanich

    2016-04-01

    Conclusions: Extranasal symptom scores correlated well with physical health and mental health in allergic rhinitis patients. Assessment of extranasal symptoms should be included to evaluate disease severity and assess therapeutic outcomes. Clinical trial NCT02000648, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  16. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Borovska, Stefana

    2010-12-01

    Perinatal depression is common and primary care holds a crucial role for detecting, treating or, if necessary, providing referrals to mental health care for affected women. Family doctors should be aware of risk factors for peripartum depression, including previous history of depression, life events and interpersonal conflict. Perinatal depression has been associated with many poor outcomes, including maternal, child and family unit challenges. Infants and young children of perinatally depressed mothers are more likely to have a difficult temperament, as well as cognitive and emotional delays. The primary care setting is uniquely poised to be the screening and treatment site for perinatal depression; however, several obstacles, both at patient and systems level, have been identified that interfere with women's treatment engagement. Current published treatment guidelines favour psychotherapy above medicines as first line treatment for mild to moderate perinatal depression, while pharmacotherapy is first choice for severe depression, often in combination with psychosocial or integrative approaches. Among mothers who decide to stop taking their antidepressants despite ongoing depression during the perinatal period, the majority suffer from relapsing symptoms. If depression continues post-partum, there is an increased risk of poor mother-infant attachment, delayed cognitive and linguistic skills in the infant, impaired emotional development and risk for behavioural problems in later life. Complex, comprehensive and multilevel algorithms are warranted to treat perinatal depression. Primary care doctors are best suited to initiate, carry out and evaluate the effectiveness of such interventions designed to prevent adverse outcomes of maternal perinatal depression on mother and child wellbeing.

  17. 双歧三联活菌片联合蒙脱石散对腹泻患儿临床症状、免疫指标及不良反应的影响%Probiotics combined with montmorillonite for treatment of diarrhea in children:Effect on clinical symptoms,immune function, and adverse reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金娅; 应露; 施丽

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of probiotics combined with montmorillonite on clinical symptoms,immune function,and adverse reactions in children with diarrhea,in order to provide reference for clinical treatment of this disease in children.METHODS One hundred and twenty-four children with diarrhea treated at our hospital from September 2014 to August 2015 were randomly divided into either an observation group or a control group.The control group received conventional treatments including cooling,rehydration,and correction of electrolyte balance,and the observation group patients were treated with montmorillonite powder combined with probiotics.Time to clinical remission,indicators of immune functions,and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups.RESULTS The total effective rate was significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (93.6% vs 79.1%,P < 0.05).Times to stool character recovery,fever remission,vomiting disappearance,abdominal pain relief,and fecal routine indicator recovery were significantly short in the observation than in the control group (2.1 d ± 1.0 d vs 4.7 d ± 2.0 d;1.3 d ± 0.6 d vs 2.7 d.± 0.8 d;1.2 d ± 0.4 d vs 2.5 d ± 0.9 d;1.2 d ± 0.4 d vs 2.3 d ± 0.8 d,2.5 d ± 1.0 d vs 4.5 d ± 1.3 d,P < 0.05).After treatment,immune function indexes were improved in both groups (P < 0.05),and IgA,IgG,and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly higher in the observation group than in the control group (1.76 g/L ± 0.39 g/L vs 1.31 g/L ± 0.52 g/L;15.72 g/L ± 0.63 g/L vs 10.95 g/L ± 0.64 g/L,1.73 ± 0.25 vs 1.38 ± 0.25,P < 0.05).There were no significant adverse reactions observed in the treatment.CONCLUSION Montmorillonite powder combined with probiotics in the treatment of diarrhea in children can improve the therapeutic effect,shorten the time to disappearance of clinical symptoms,and improve immune function.%目的 分析小儿腹泻患儿采用蒙脱石联合双歧三联活菌片治疗效果,并分析

  18. Domestic violence and perinatal mental disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise M Howard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Domestic violence in the perinatal period is associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, but evidence is limited on its association with perinatal mental disorders. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with antenatal and postnatal mental disorders (depression and anxiety disorders including post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], eating disorders, and psychoses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO reference CRD42012002048. Data sources included searches of electronic databases (to 15 February 2013, hand searches, citation tracking, update of a review on victimisation and mental disorder, and expert recommendations. Included studies were peer-reviewed experimental or observational studies that reported on women aged 16 y or older, that assessed the prevalence and/or odds of having experienced domestic violence, and that assessed symptoms of perinatal mental disorder using a validated instrument. Two reviewers screened 1,125 full-text papers, extracted data, and independently appraised study quality. Odds ratios were pooled using meta-analysis. Sixty-seven papers were included. Pooled estimates from longitudinal studies suggest a 3-fold increase in the odds of high levels of depressive symptoms in the postnatal period after having experienced partner violence during pregnancy (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI 2.7-3.6. Increased odds of having experienced domestic violence among women with high levels of depressive, anxiety, and PTSD symptoms in the antenatal and postnatal periods were consistently reported in cross-sectional studies. No studies were identified on eating disorders or puerperal psychosis. Analyses were limited because of study heterogeneity and lack of data on baseline symptoms, preventing clear findings on causal directionality. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of symptoms of perinatal depression, anxiety, and PTSD are significantly

  19. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: Bone pain or bone ...

  20. General IC Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IC Symptoms of IC General IC Symptoms General IC Symptoms Symptoms of interstitial cystitis (IC) differ from ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  1. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Each heading slides to reveal more information. Early Symptoms Early Symptoms Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making diagnosis ...

  2. Copenhagen infant mental health project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems......Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  3. Copenhagen infant mental health project:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Væver, Mette Skovgaard; Smith-Nielsen, Johanne; Lange, Theis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infant mental health is a significant public health issue as early adversity and exposure to early childhood stress are significant risk factors that may have detrimental long-term developmental consequences for the affected children. Negative outcomes are seen on a range of areas...... such as physical and mental health, educational and labor market success, social network and establishing of family. Secure attachment is associated with optimal outcomes in all developmental domains in childhood, and both insecure and disorganized attachment are associated with a range of later problems...... in the City of Copenhagen, Denmark. During the project a general population of an estimated 17.600 families with an infant aged 2–12 months are screened for two known infant mental health risks, maternal postnatal depression and infant social withdrawal. Eligible families (N = 314), who agree to participate...

  4. Failure to treat tobacco use in mental health and addiction treatment settings: a form of harm reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J

    2010-08-01

    In mental health and addiction treatment settings, failure to treat tobacco dependence has been rationalized by some as a clinical approach to harm reduction. That is, tobacco use is viewed as a less harmful alternative to alcohol or illicit drug use and/or other self-harm behaviors. This paper examines the impact of providers' failure to treat tobacco use on patients' alcohol and illicit drug use and associated high-risk behaviors. The weight of the evidence in the literature indicates: (1) tobacco use is a leading cause of death in patients with psychiatric illness or addictive disorders; (2) tobacco use is associated with worsened substance abuse treatment outcomes, whereas treatment of tobacco dependence supports long-term sobriety; (3) tobacco use is associated with increased (not decreased) depressive symptoms and suicidal risk behavior; (4) tobacco use adversely impacts psychiatric treatment; (5) tobacco use is a lethal and ineffective long-term coping strategy for managing stress, and (6) treatment of tobacco use does not harm mental health recovery. Failure to treat tobacco dependence in mental health and addiction treatment settings is not consistent with a harm reduction model. In contrast, emerging evidence indicates treatment of tobacco dependence may even improve addiction treatment and mental health outcomes. Providers in mental health and addiction treatment settings have an ethical duty to intervene on patients' tobacco use and provide available evidence-based treatments.

  5. Linking community, parenting, and depressive symptom trajectories: testing resilience models of adolescent agency based on race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amanda L; Merten, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    Family stress models illustrate how communities affect youth outcomes through effects on parents and studies consistently show the enduring effects of early community context. The present study takes a different approach identifying human agency during adolescence as a potentially significant promotive factor mediating the relationship between community, parenting, and mental health. While agency is an important part of resilience, its longitudinal effects are unknown, particularly based on gender and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this research was to model the long-term effects of community structural adversity and social resources as predictors of adolescent depressive symptom trajectories via indirect effects of parental happiness, parent-child relationships, and human agency. Latent growth analyses were conducted with 1,796 participants (53% female; 56% White) across four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health spanning adolescence (Wave 1) through adulthood (Wave 4). The results identified agency as an important promotive factor during adolescence with long-term mental health benefits, but only for White and male participants. For these individuals, community social resources and the quality of the parent-child relationship were related to higher levels of agency and more positive mental health trajectories. Although community social resources similarly benefitted parenting and agency among females and non-White participants, there were no significant links between agency and depressive symptoms for these youth. The results suggest that agency remains an important, but poorly understood concept and additional work is necessary to continue unpacking its meaning for diverse groups of youth.

  6. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  7. Study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Velthorst, Eva; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Levine, Stephen Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The Jerusalem study of resilience and environmental adversity in midlife health (STREAM) was established to examine the prevalence of common mental and physical health issues in mid-adulthood in the inner city of Jerusalem, and to examine their association with lifespan psychosocial factors of vulnerability and resilience. Method Participants were 811 randomly selected individuals from 7000 individuals who were born and grew up in inner-Jerusalem. Participants were 34–44 years old dur...

  8. Anorexia Nervosa: Its Symptoms and Possible Cures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingaman, David E.

    This document presents a definition and description of anorexia nervosa as a disorder that occurs predominantly in girls and that can affect 1 out of every 250 girls between the ages of 12 and 18 years. The existence of a distorted mental body image among anorexics is discussed and symptoms of the disorder are described, including amenorrhea…

  9. Does Early Adolescent Sex Cause Depressive Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    A recent study by the Heritage Foundation (Rector, Johnson, & Noyes, 2003) found evidence of a positive relationship between early sexual intercourse and depressive symptoms. This finding has been used to bolster support for funding abstinence only sex education. However, promoting abstinence will only yield mental health benefits if there is…

  10. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukavong, Mick; Kim, Jungmee; Park, Kyounghoon; Yang, Bo Ram; Lee, Joongyub; Jin, Xue Mei; Park, Byung Joo

    2016-09-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability.

  11. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  12. Cadec: A corpus of adverse drug event annotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Sarvnaz; Metke-Jimenez, Alejandro; Kemp, Madonna; Wang, Chen

    2015-06-01

    CSIRO Adverse Drug Event Corpus (Cadec) is a new rich annotated corpus of medical forum posts on patient-reported Adverse Drug Events (ADEs). The corpus is sourced from posts on social media, and contains text that is largely written in colloquial language and often deviates from formal English grammar and punctuation rules. Annotations contain mentions of concepts such as drugs, adverse effects, symptoms, and diseases linked to their corresponding concepts in controlled vocabularies, i.e., SNOMED Clinical Terms and MedDRA. The quality of the annotations is ensured by annotation guidelines, multi-stage annotations, measuring inter-annotator agreement, and final review of the annotations by a clinical terminologist. This corpus is useful for studies in the area of information extraction, or more generally text mining, from social media to detect possible adverse drug reactions from direct patient reports. The corpus is publicly available at https://data.csiro.au.(1).

  13. FDI report on adverse reactions to resin-based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, P L; Meyer, D M

    2007-02-01

    Resin-based restorative materials are considered safe for the vast majority of dental patients. Although constituent chemicals such as monomers, accelerators and initiators can potentially leach out of cured resin-based materials after placement, adverse reactions to these chemicals are rare and reaction symptoms commonly subside after removal of the materials. Dentists should be aware of the rare possibility that patients could have adverse reactions to constituents of resin-based materials and be vigilant in observing any adverse reactions after restoration placement. Dentists should also be cognisant of patient complaints about adverse reactions that may result from components of resin-based materials. To minimise monomer leaching and any potential risk of dermatological reactions, resin-based materials should be adequately cured. Dental health care workers should avoid direct skin contact with uncured resin-based materials. Latex and vinyl gloves do not provide adequate barrier protection to the monomers in resin-based materials.

  14. Depressive Symptoms, Health Behaviors, and Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whooley, Mary A.; de Jonge, Peter; Vittinghoff, Eric; Otte, Christian; Moos, Rudolf; Carney, Robert M.; Ali, Sadia; Dowray, Sunaina; Na, Beeya; Feldman, Mitchell D.; Schiller, Nelson B.; Browner, Warren S.

    2008-01-01

    Context Depressive symptoms predict adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease, but the mechanisms responsible for this association are unknown. Objective To determine why depressive symptoms are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Design and Part

  15. Debt trajectories and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojman, Daniel A; Miranda, Álvaro; Ruiz-Tagle, Jaime

    2016-10-01

    In the last few decades, there was a marked increase in consumer debt in the United States, Latin America and other emerging countries, spurring a debate about the real costs and benefits of household credit. Using a unique longitudinal dataset with detailed health and balance sheet information from a large sample of 10,900 Chilean households we study the relationship between debt trajectories in a three-year time window and mental health. We find that depressive symptoms are higher for those who have been persistently over-indebted, followed by those who transit from moderate to high debt levels. We also find that those who transition from over-indebtedness to moderate debt levels have no additional depressive symptoms compared to those with trajectories of moderate debt throughout (never over-indebted). This suggests that the debt-related contribution to depressive symptoms vanishes as debt levels fall. The association between debt and depressive symptoms seems to be driven by non-mortgage debt -primarily consumer credit- or late mortgage payments; secured debt (secured by collateral) per se is not associated with depressive symptoms. Policy interventions to reduce the negative association of over-indebtedness on mental health are discussed.

  16. Factors associated with help-seeking behaviors in Mexican elderly individuals with depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Arango-Lopera, Victoria Eugenia; Wagner, Fernando A.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Sánchez-García, Sergio; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; García-Peña, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Depression in the elderly is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, such as high health service utilization rates, low pharmacological compliance, and synergistic interactions with other comorbidities. Moreover, the help seeking process, which usually starts with the feeling “that something is wrong” and ends with appropriate medical care, is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the pathway of help seeking among older adults with depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional study of 60-year or older of community dwelling elderly belonging to the largest health and social security system in Mexico was done. A standardized interview explored the process of seeking health care in four dimensions: depressive symptoms, help seeking, help acquisition and specialized mental health. Results A total of 2,322 individuals were studied; from these, 67.14% (n=1,559) were women, and the mean age was 73.18 years (SD=7.02) 57.9% had symptoms of depression, 337 (25.1%) participants sought help, and 271 (80.4%) received help and 103 (38%) received specialized mental health care. In the stepwise model for not seeking help (χ2=81.66, p<0.0001), significant variables were female gender (OR=0.07 95% CI 0.511–0.958 p=0.026), health care use (OR 3.26 CI 95% 1.64–6.488, p=0.001). Number of years in school, difficulty in activities, SAST score and depression as a disease belief were also significant. Conclusions Appropriate mental health care is rather complex and is influenced by several factors. The main factors associated with help seeking were gender, education level, recent health service use, and the belief that depression is not a disease. Detection of subjects with these characteristics could improve care of elderly with depressive symptoms. PMID:23585359

  17. Mental Retardation and Parenting Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Siamaga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround: The presence, upbringing and looking after of a mentally retarded child in the family, can become a threat to the mental health of its parents and is the main predisposing factor of stress for the parents.Aim: The purpose of this systematic review is (a to document the contemporary research bibliography related to the stress of parents with mentally retarded children, (b to aggregate the factors and secondary parameters based on the contemporary research related to the influence of the (child’s mental retardation on the parents and (c to show an intercultural aspect regarding the presence of stress to parents with mentally retarded children.Methods: Systematic review of research articles published in scientific journals included in the international academic databases HEAL-LING, SAGE, ELSEVIER, WILSON, SCIENCEDIRECT, MEDLINE, PUBMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane, EMBASE, SCIRUS and CINAHL having as search criteria and key words the terms («parental stress and mental retardation» [MeSH], «parenting stress and persons with special needs» [MeSH], «mental retardation and family problems» [MeSH], «stress and parents» [MeSH], «parenting and stress» [MeSH], «mental delay and parents» [MeSH], «developmental disabilities and family stress» [MeSH], «intellectual handicap and parenting» [MeSH], «maternal stress and child with disabilities» [MeSH].Discussion: The review has proven that all forms of mental retardation have an important -from a statistic point of viewimpacton the parents’ mental health. Anxiety, stress and depression are common symptoms mentioned by the parents.Additionally, there are individual variables such as the husband-wife relationship, the parents’ approach to their child’s disability, the parental strategies used in order to cope with the daily life of the child’s disability and the behavioural problems of their child, all of which contribute to the increase of the level of parental stress

  18. Innate Immune Signalling Genetics of Pain, Cognitive Dysfunction and Sickness Symptoms in Cancer Pain Patients Treated with Transdermal Fentanyl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Barratt

    Full Text Available Common adverse symptoms of cancer and chemotherapy are a major health burden; chief among these is pain, with opioids including transdermal fentanyl the mainstay of treatment. Innate immune activation has been implicated generally in pain, opioid analgesia, cognitive dysfunction, and sickness type symptoms reported by cancer patients. We aimed to determine if genetic polymorphisms in neuroimmune activation pathways alter the serum fentanyl concentration-response relationships for pain control, cognitive dysfunction, and other adverse symptoms, in cancer pain patients. Cancer pain patients (468 receiving transdermal fentanyl were genotyped for 31 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 19 genes: CASP1, BDNF, CRP, LY96, IL6, IL1B, TGFB1, TNF, IL10, IL2, TLR2, TLR4, MYD88, IL6R, OPRM1, ARRB2, COMT, STAT6 and ABCB1. Lasso and backward stepwise generalised linear regression were used to identify non-genetic and genetic predictors, respectively, of pain control (average Brief Pain Inventory < 4, cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 23, sickness response and opioid adverse event complaint. Serum fentanyl concentrations did not predict between-patient variability in these outcomes, nor did genetic factors predict pain control, sickness response or opioid adverse event complaint. Carriers of the MYD88 rs6853 variant were half as likely to have cognitive dysfunction (11/111 than wild-type patients (69/325, with a relative risk of 0.45 (95% CI: 0.27 to 0.76 when accounting for major non-genetic predictors (age, Karnofsky functional score. This supports the involvement of innate immune signalling in cognitive dysfunction, and identifies MyD88 signalling pathways as a potential focus for predicting and reducing the burden of cognitive dysfunction in cancer pain patients.

  19. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field.

  20. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victimschild advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  1. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  2. The Impact of Economic Stress on Community Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Brian J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Warns that community mental health services are threatened by reductions in federal support and increased numbers of clients. Reviews literature on the effect of adverse economic events on mental health. Identifies issues and answers for managing this dilemma including planning, financial diversification, and inter-agency cooperation. (Author/JAC)

  3. Intracranial Tumor Postoperative Mental Symptoms of Clinical Observation and Nursing%颅内肿瘤术后精神症状的临床观察与护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚钰

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨颅内肿瘤术后精神症状的原因的护理方法.方法:回顾性分析我院2008年1月至2010年6月收治的45例颅内肿瘤患者术后出现精神症状的临床资料,均采用芬太尼联合咪达唑仑静脉滴注治疗,期间加强安全护理,总结其出现精神症状的原因及患者的护理效果.结果:患者护理后的平均动脉压(MAP)、心率显著低于护理前,P0.05.且患者护理后的镇静程度显著优于护理前,P0.05. Nursing of the patients after and degree of sedation is significantly better than before treatment,P<0.05.Conclusion:The psychiatric symptoms in patients with intracranial tumors are common postoperative symptoms, fentanyl combined with midazolam treatment and effective nursing care, can reduce accidents.

  4. Adverse drug reaction profile of oseltamivir in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant S Dalvi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To monitor and evaluate the pattern of ADRs to oseltamivir in pediatric population suffering from H1N1 influenza at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Children offered oseltamivir for treatment and chemoprophylaxis were monitored for adverse events by direct questioning for symptoms and clinical examination on day 5 and day 10. Assessment of neurological events was done by asking the parents or guardians regarding development of specific symptoms. Adverse events obtained were analyzed for severity, causality and age-group wise. Results: Out of 191 children (median age, 3 years, 69 (36.1% developed ADRs. Most common symptoms were vomiting (16.2% followed by diarrhea (12.0%, ear disorders (8.9%, and insomnia (6.8%. The incidence of neuropsychiatric symptoms was 12.6% which were mild-to-moderate on severity scale. There was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events between children less than 1 year and other age groups. Conclusion: Oseltamivir is well tolerated in Indian children with suspected or confirmed H1N1 influenza. Our study also indicates safety of oseltamivir in infants.

  5. Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Roland, R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes bec

  6. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea in severe mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szaulińska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA is estimated to be 3–7.5% in men and 2–3% in women. In mentally ill population it is even higher, as these patients are a high risk OSA group. The aim of the paper was a review of literature about the prevalence of sleep apnoea in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and recurrent depressive disorder.The available data show that OSA is present in 15–48% of patients with schizophrenia, 21–43% of patients with bipolar disorder and 11–18% of patients with recurrent depressive disorder. The lack of diagnosis of OSA in people with mental illnesses has multiple negative consequences. The symptoms of sleep apnoea might imitate the symptoms of mental illnesses such as negative symptoms of schizophrenia and symptoms of depression, they might as well aggravate the cognitive impairment. A number of the drugs used in mental disorders may aggravate the symptoms of OSA. OSA is as well the risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases which are a serious clinical problem in mentally ill people and contribute to shortening of their expected lifespan. From the point of view of the physicians treating OSA it is important to pay attention to the fact that co-existing depression is the most common reason for resistant daytime sleepiness in OSA patients treated effectively with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP. CPAP therapy leads to significant improvement of mood. However, in schizophrenia and bipolar patients it may rarely lead to acute worsening of mental state, exacerbation of psychotic symptoms or phase shift from depression to mania.

  8. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  9. Adverse events after hepatitis A B combination vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Emily Jane; Miller, Nancy B; Ball, Robert

    2006-03-24

    In May 2001, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Hepatitis A Inactivated and Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine (HEPAB) for immunization of adults. From May 2001 to September 2003, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) received 305 reports of adverse events after HEPAB. Many events were similar to those reported after the monovalent hepatitis A and B vaccines. Non-serious events included constitutional symptoms and local reactions. Serious events included neurologic, hepatobiliary, and dermatologic conditions, and detailed medical and epidemiological review did not suggest a clear pattern of evidence supporting a causal relationship with the vaccine, except for injection site reactions and some allergic reactions.

  10. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

    2008-01-21

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who

  11. Nutritional therapies for mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Karen F

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD, addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such

  12. Intervention of Collective Exercise on the Mental Health of El¬derly Hypertensive Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxin XU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety, depression, and other adverse psychological reactions are often observed in elderly hypertensive patients. Appropriate exercise is a safe form of adjuvant therapy without causing side effects among these patients, with consistent effects on patients’ mental health. In this study, a collective exercise intervention experiment was conducted to evaluate the mental health of elderly hypertensive patients and to verify the effect of the psychological intervention of collective exercise.Method: A total of 115 elderly hypertensive patients aged 60–70 years old were selected as study subjects from May 2012 to January 2015 in Fuzhou City, Fujian Province, China. A total of 57 patients were included in the control group and 58 patients were assigned in the experimental group. Patients in the experimental group participated in a 12 weeks exercise intervention, while patients in the control group didn’t participate in any regular physical exercise.Results: After intervention, the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90, total score, somatization, obsessive-compulsive symptom, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, and paranoia scores of the experimental group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05. The positive coping style score of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05; by contrast, the negative coping style score of the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05.Conclusion: The mental health level and coping ability of elderly hypertensive patients can be effectively improved with the proposed treatment. Keywords: Collective exercise, Hypertension, Mental health, Elderly people

  13. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  14. Evaluating the Mental Health Training Needs of Community-based Organizations Serving Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Simmelink

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.

  15. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Symptoms, Treatment and Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... without any pain. Photo courtesy of NEI Glaucoma Symptoms At first, open-angle glaucoma has no symptoms. ...

  16. Symptoms and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Differential Disorders Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Downloadable Publications Symptoms and Diagnosis If you are new to dystonia, it can ... be accounted for: ► The age at which the symptoms started. The age at which symptoms begin is ...

  17. Functional bowel symptoms and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, P R; Barrett, J S; Muir, J G

    2013-10-01

    It is well recognised that ingestion of food is a trigger for functional bowel symptoms, particularly those associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Patients often use manipulation of diet as a means of controlling symptoms. Despite description of multiple dietary methods, few have scientific backing or quality evidence of efficacy. One approach is to define how specific food components influence the pathophysiology of IBS and then rationally design dietary approaches. For example, short-chain poorly absorbed carbohydrates (fermentable oligo-, di- and mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP)) cause luminal distension, which is a major stimulus for the development of symptoms in patients with visceral hypersensitivity. By determining food content of FODMAP, a diet in which foods low in FODMAP are favoured over those high in FODMAP can be designed. Observational, comparative and randomised controlled treatment and rechallenge studies have shown that such an approach is efficacious in the majority of patients with IBS. The low FODMAP diet is now the primary dietary therapy for such patients. Similar approaches can be applied to other food components, including proteins (such as gluten), fats and natural bioactive food chemicals. Such approaches have suggestions of efficacy, but the evidence base remains underdeveloped. An additional and important consideration for any dietary therapy is its nutritional adequacy and potential adverse health effects. Dietary manipulation is now a key management strategy in patients with functional bowel symptoms. Future well-designed interventional studies will lead to refinement of dietary approaches taken and to a better understanding of their long-term safety.

  18. Mental Illness And Brain Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrick, Jeffrey D

    2014-01-01

    It has become common to say psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases. This reflects a conception of the mental as being biologically based, though it is also thought that thinking of psychiatric illness this way will reduce the stigma attached to psychiatric illness. If psychiatric illnesses are brain diseases, however, it is not clear why psychiatry should not collapse into neurology, and some argue for this course. Others try to maintain a distinction by saying that neurology deals with abnormalities of neural structure while psychiatry deals with specific abnormalities of neural functioning. It is not clear that neurologists would accept this division, nor that they should. I argue that if we take seriously the notion that psychiatric illnesses are mental illnesses we can draw a more defensible boundary between psychiatry and neurology. As mental illnesses, psychiatric illnesses must have symptoms that affect our mental capacities and that the sufferer is capable of being aware of, even if they are not always self-consciously aware of them. Neurological illnesses, such as stroke or multiple sclerosis, may be diagnosed even if they are silent, just as the person may not be aware of having high blood pressure or may suffer a silent myocardial infarction. It does not make sense to speak of panic disorder if the person has never had a panic attack, however, or of bipolar disorder in the absence of mood swings. This does not mean psychiatric illnesses are not biologically based. Mental illnesses are illnesses of persons, whereas other illnesses are illnesses of biological individuals.

  19. Serum tryptase levels in adverse drug reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoqui, E; Zubeldia, J M; Aranzábal, A; Rubio, M; Herrero, T; Tornero, P; Rodríguez, V M; Prieto, A; Baeza, M L

    1997-11-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of individual tryptase levels and variations after adverse drug reactions in 64 patients. Our aim was to find a tool for the diagnosis of drug allergy. Thirty-seven subjects were confirmed to have drug allergy, 12 had nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) reactions, five had negative controlled drug challenges (NAAR), and 10 had symptoms after placebo intake (PLA). Serum tryptase levels greatly increased after anaphylactic shocks (2242%) and anaphylaxis (710.5%). Patients with allergic urticaria and those with idiosyncratic responses to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) exhibited a small increase in serum tryptase (49.5% and 38.2%, respectively). In the other two groups (NAAR and PLA), no variation in this serum protease was observed. The time of appearance of the serum tryptase peak differed considerably among patients with similar clinical reactions (from 30 min to 6 h) and was independent of the latent period, severity of symptoms, or the amount of tryptase released. We conclude that serum tryptase determinations are helpful in the diagnosis of anaphylactic shock and anaphylaxis, but serial measurements may be needed to confirm mast-cell participation in milder reactions.

  20. Mental disorder prevention and physical activity in Iranian elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyede Salehe Mortazavi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Physical activity significantly prevents mental disorder in older adults. Although it has effects on anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression, the greatest influence is on improving the somatization symptoms.

  1. Associations between mental disorders and subsequent onset of hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, Dan J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alonso, Jordi; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Jonge, Peter; Liu, Zharoui; Caldas-de-Almeida, Jose Miguel; O'Neill, Siobhan; Viana, Maria Carmen; Al-Hamzawi, Ali Obaid; Angermeyer, Mattias C.; Benjet, Corina; de Graaf, Ron; Ferry, Finola; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Levinson, Daphna; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Florescu, Silvia; Hu, Chiyi; Kawakami, Norito; Haro, Josep Maria; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Xavier, Miguel; Lim, Carmen C. W.; Kessler, Ronald C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous work has suggested significant associations between various psychological symptoms (e. g., depression, anxiety, anger, alcohol abuse) and hypertension. However, the presence and extent of associations between common mental disorders and subsequent adult onset of hypertension rem

  2. Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz participated in the study. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, Wechsler Memory Scale-III test was performed. Results: Twenty to 39% of the radar workers reported different problems such as needing a good tonic, feeling run down and out of sorts, headache, tightness or pressure in the head, insomnia, getting edgy and bad-tempered. Furthermore, 47% of the radar workers reported feeling under strain. In response to this question that if they have been able to enjoy their normal day-to-day activities, 31% responded "less than usual". It was also shown that work experience had significant relationships with reaction time and short-term memory indices i.e., forward digit span, reverse digit span, word recognition and paired words. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Altogether these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some adverse health effects.

  3. Effect of Preventive Interventions in Mentally Ill Parents on the Mental Health of the Offspring: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Eliane; Munder, Thomas; Egger, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Mental illness in parents affects the mental health of their children. A systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent mental disorders or psychological symptoms in the offspring were performed. Method: The Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases were searched for randomized controlled…

  4. Adversity as opportunity: living with schizophrenia and developing a resilient self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanellos, Rene

    2005-03-01

    Approximately 1% of the population is diagnosed with schizophrenia, and despite longstanding critiques of the (bio)medical model, understanding of the disorder still arises primarily through (bio)medical explanations. In turn, causation, symptoms and treatments are increasingly sophisticated and well known while understanding of other aspects of the disorder, especially the intersubjective experience of people living with schizophrenia, remains fragmented. For this reason, the present study sought to understand how people experience schizophrenia. To do this, the stories of 19 people diagnosed with the disorder were hermeneutically interpreted. These stories appeared in The Schizophrenia Bulletin--a journal which publishes 'first person accounts', sometimes anonymously, of people's experience of mental illness. Within the study context, the findings indicate that facing the adversity of schizophrenia means living: (i) wisely--understanding the nature of self-with-schizophrenia and of life-with-schizophrenia; (ii) mindfully--keeping understandings in conscious thought; and (iii) purposefully--acting deliberately. Doing this results in a stable and meaningful life and in a different, more resilient self.

  5. Safely Using TCM Herbs: Adverse Reaction and Precautions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈楷; AngelaBerscheid

    2004-01-01

    Adverse reactions and toxicity: Amygdalin is the main toxic constituent, which can be decomposed to hydrocyanic acid. Toxicity is dose related; 55--60 pieces of Xing ren, containing approximately 1.8 g of amygdalin, is often the fatal dose in adults. Two hours after administration, the first symptoms often appear, such as a bitter taste in mouth accompanied with oversalivation, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, headache, dizziness, palpitations, dyspnea, cyanosis, which may lead to coma and death due to respiratory arrest .

  6. Mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology across child and adolescent development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett Heyes, S; Lau, J Y F; Holmes, E A

    2013-07-01

    Mental imagery-based interventions are receiving increasing interest for the treatment of psychological disorders in adults. This is based on evidence that mental imagery potently influences the experience of emotion in non-clinical samples, and that a number of psychological disorders are marked by syndrome-specific, distressing abnormalities in mental imagery. During childhood and adolescence, neurocognitive development impacting mental imagery processes may moderate its relationship with clinically-relevant emotional symptoms at a number of potential loci. Crucially, these changes could impact vulnerability to distressing mental imagery and the efficacy of mental imagery-based clinical interventions. This review synthesises evidence pertaining to developmental changes in the role and content of mental imagery, and in the cognitive sub-processes required to generate and sustain mental images. Subsequently, we discuss implications for understanding the developmental relationship between mental imagery, emotion and psychopathology. Translational cognitive neuroscience research investigating the content, emotional impact and neurocognitive substrates of mental imagery across development may reveal insights into trajectories of vulnerability to symptoms of a number of psychological disorders. If proper consideration is given to developmental factors, techniques based on mental imagery may be valuable as part of a treatment armoury for child and adolescent clinical populations and those at risk of emotional disorders.

  7. Multi-Tier Mental Health Program for Refugee Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, B. Heidi; Miller, Alisa B.; Abdi, Saida; Barrett, Colleen; Blood, Emily A.; Betancourt, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We sought to establish that refugee youths who receive a multi-tiered approach to services, Project SHIFA, would show high levels of engagement in treatment appropriate to their level of mental health distress, improvements in mental health symptoms, and a decrease in resource hardships. Method: Study participants were 30 Somali and…

  8. Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160284.html Mental Illness May Make Teens Vulnerable to Drugs, Alcohol Brazilian study found half of those who smoked, drank, did pot had symptoms of psychological ... -- Teens who are struggling with mental health disorders are more likely to smoke cigarettes, ...

  9. The effect of military deployment on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann; W. Jepsen, Peter

    In this paper we estimate the causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health. To handle the selection bias problem, we use longitudinal data for deployed and non-deployed eligible men in a difference-in-differences setting. Using pair-wise matching, we impute deployment dates...... for important variables like intelligence tests and family background. We find significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use. Highlights: - Causal effect of military deployment on soldiers’ use of mental health service - Using a difference-in-differences approach...... - First evidence relying on administrative records of measures of mental health service use - Significant adverse effects of military deployment on soldiers’ mental health service use....

  10. Socioeconomic status and mental health in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bøe, Tormod

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic disadvantage in childhood is related to both immediate and persisting impairments in mental health and well-being. Findings from epidemiological studies suggest that children who grow up in families with a lower socioeconomic status (SES) have more symptoms of mental health problems, compared to those raised in more affluent families. The overall aim of the current thesis was to expand the knowledge of the socioeconomic distribution of childhood mental health problems by co...

  11. Geneitc ifndings are challenging the symptom-based diagnositc classiifcaiton system of mental disorders%遗传学研究结果对以症状为基础的精神障碍诊断分类系统的挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨

    2016-01-01

    Summary:The present diagnositc classiifcaiton of mental illnesses is primarily based on symptomatology. A recent cross-disorder genome-wide association study revealed that there were genetic similarities between multiple clinically defined diagnoses (including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, atteniton deifcit hyperacitvity disorder, and auitsm spectrum disorder) on regions of chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24 and single-nucleoitde polymorphisms (SNPs) within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits ofCACNA1C andCACNB2. These ifndings suggest that the pathogenesis of these ifve independent disorders are related. Such cross-disorder geneitc studies challenge the current symptom-based diagnositc classiifcaiton of mental disorders. Researchers need to idenitfy creaitve ways to bridge the gap between these two approaches to understanding and labelling mental disorders.%概述:现有的精神疾病诊断系统主要是依据症状学来分类的。最近一项跨病种全基因组关联分析研究显示,在临床诊断为精神分裂症、双相障碍、抑郁症、注意缺陷多动障碍以及孤独症谱系障碍等疾病的患者中,染色体3p21和10q24区域内的基因具有相似性,两条L-型电压门控钙离子通道亚基基因CACNA1C和CACNB2的单核苷酸多态性也相似。这些研究结果表明这五种看似独立的疾病其病理机制存在着某种关联。这种跨病种研究对现有以症状为基础的精神疾病诊断分类系统提出了挑战。研究人员需要找出创造性方法,消除这两种不同方法对精神障碍理解、分类间的差异。

  12. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  13. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  14. Teen Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worthless could be warning signs of a mental health problem. Mental health problems are real, painful, and sometimes severe. You ... things that could harm you or others Mental health problems can be treated. To find help, talk ...

  15. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  16. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  17. Treatment of Children with Mental Illness: Frequently Asked Questions about the Treatment of Mental Illness in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 2009

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that half of all lifetime cases of mental illness begin by age 14. Scientists are discovering that changes in the body leading to mental illness may start much earlier, before any symptoms appear. Through greater understanding of when and how fast specific areas of children's brains develop, we are learning more about the early…

  18. Exposure to Childhood Poverty and Mental Health Symptomatology in Adolescence: A Role of Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Neuendorf, Cynthia; Bianco, Hannah; Evans, Gary W

    2016-12-01

    Childhood poverty is associated with stress dysregulation which contributes to psychological illness in later ages. The adverse effects of childhood poverty on stress regulation may be mediated in part by the use of disengaging strategies to cope with stress. However, the relations among childhood poverty, coping strategies and psychopathology throughout childhood to adolescence have not been explored. This prospective, longitudinal study included 185 low- and middle-income adolescents at age 17. Chronic exposure to poverty from birth to early adolescence (age 13) was prospectively associated with increases in the use of disengagement versus engagement coping four years later. Increased use of disengagement coping between the ages of 13 and 17 explained the indirect link between poverty exposure since birth and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms at age 17. The findings provide evidence for a coping pathway underlying the link between prolonged exposure to childhood poverty and mental health sequelae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  20. Analysis of suspected adverse reactions following immunization against pandemic influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization was aimed at recording all adverse events possibly related with vaccines. During the implementation of immunization strategy against pandemic influenza A(H1N1 in 2009, the post-marketing comprehensive surveillance was suggested to be conducted due to limited clinical experience in applying this particular vaccine and because of the fact that some vaccines had been licensed only on the basis of the data regarding their quality. Material and Methods. The passive surveillance on adverse events following immunization was conducted simultaneously with immunization campaign against pandemic influenza in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina. Reporting of adverse events was conducted by health care service through a specially designed questionnaire Results. In the period from December 17th 2009 to February 7th 2010, of the total number of 55720 people who were vaccinated, 50433 received one dose and 5287 received two doses of vaccine. The total number of doses administered was 61007. During the observed period, some adverse reactions were recorded in 37 people, the rate of occurrence of adverse reactions being 6.6 per 10.000 vaccinated. Since the majority of patients had several symptoms and signs, the number of recorded clinical manifestations was much higher (140 than the number of patients with reactions. The dominant symptoms and signs were fever (51.4%, weakness/fatigue (48.6%, headache (40.5% and myalgia (31.5%. The reactions in the majority of patients were mild and transient. Only two patients sought medical care and one was hospitalized. Since the immunization coverage was very small, it was not possible to record rare adverse events, whose expected incidence is, anyway, very low. Conclusion. Surveillance on adverse reaction following immunization represents an important component of immunization program, especially when new vaccines are introduced. Therefore, this form

  1. The Mental Vulnerability Questionnaire: a psychometric evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eplov, Lene Falgaard; Petersen, Janne; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    0.30 for the 12 and the 22 item scales. All five Mental Vulnerability scales had positively skewed score distributions which were associated significantly with both SCL-90-R symptom scores and NEO-PI-R personality scales (primarily Neuroticism and Extraversion). Coefficient alpha was highest...

  2. Mental Illness in Children: Know the Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autism spectrum disorder: Signs and symptoms. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/signs.html. Accessed Dec. 8, 2014. Feb. 11, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/childrens-health/in-depth/mental-illness-in-children/ ...

  3. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald eYoung

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; American Psychiatric Association, 2013. However, network approaches to symptom interaction (i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., McNally, Robinaugh, Wu, Wang, Deserno, & Borsboom, 2014, for PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth nonlinear dynamical systems theory (NLDST. The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (Young, 2011 to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning and universal (e.g., causal processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments.

  4. Causality in Psychiatry: A Hybrid Symptom Network Construct Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Causality or etiology in psychiatry is marked by standard biomedical, reductionistic models (symptoms reflect the construct involved) that inform approaches to nosology, or classification, such as in the DSM-5 [Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition; (1)]. However, network approaches to symptom interaction [i.e., symptoms are formative of the construct; e.g., (2), for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] are being developed that speak to bottom-up processes in mental disorder, in contrast to the typical top-down psychological construct approach. The present article presents a hybrid top-down, bottom-up model of the relationship between symptoms and mental disorder, viewing symptom expression and their causal complex as a reciprocally dynamic system with multiple levels, from lower-order symptoms in interaction to higher-order constructs affecting them. The hybrid model hinges on good understanding of systems theory in which it is embedded, so that the article reviews in depth non-linear dynamical systems theory (NLDST). The article applies the concept of emergent circular causality (3) to symptom development, as well. Conclusions consider that symptoms vary over several dimensions, including: subjectivity; objectivity; conscious motivation effort; and unconscious influences, and the degree to which individual (e.g., meaning) and universal (e.g., causal) processes are involved. The opposition between science and skepticism is a complex one that the article addresses in final comments. PMID:26635639

  5. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, pfamily-level poverty and violence in the family. PMID:27764155

  6. Comparitive analysis on the symptoms, social function and family financial burden in 43 locked patients with severe mental illness before and after unlocked treatment%43例被关锁重性精神疾病患者解锁治疗前后对照分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 杨淑恩; 田梅; 栗克清

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate changes in symptoms, social function and family financial after unlock treatment of severe mental illness patient. Methods Forty- three cases were included. They were pre-treated in lock-off wards due to the severity of their mental illnesses (schizophrenia and bipolar disorder) then treated unlocked for six months after recruitment. The clinical effect of lock and unclock treatment were evaluated with positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) or the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Volume Table (BRMS). Patients' social function was assessed using Social Disability Scale (SDSS). “Table of patient information to unlock” and “the economic indicators of household survey”were used to compare the patient's family financial status. Results PANSS total scores, BRMS total scores, SDSS scale scores, family economic indicators differed in before unlocking from unlock treatment for 6 months. The differences were significant (P < 0.01). Conclusions Unlock therapy significantly improves the symptoms and social function of patients with severe mental illness, reduces the financial burden of patient families, and improves the quality of life of patients and their families.%目的 比较被关锁的重性精神疾病患者解锁前后的症状、社会功能及其家庭经济负担的变化.方法 对43例被关锁的重性精神疾病患者(精神分裂症和双相障碍)于解锁前、解锁后6个月分别采用阳性与阴性症状量表(PANSS)或Bech-Rafaelsen躁狂量表(BRMS)评定临床效果,采用社会功能缺陷量表(SDSS)评定社会功能,采用<解锁患者信息采集表>和<解锁患者家庭经济学指标调查表>进行患者家庭经济学指标比较.结果 解锁前、解锁治疗6个月时PANSS总分、BRMS总分、SDSS总分、家庭经济学指标评定结果比较,差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 解锁治疗显著改善了被关锁重性精神疾病患者的精神症状和社会功能,减轻了患者家庭的经济

  7. The real mental illnesses: Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013) in memoriam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Martin E P

    2014-02-01

    Susan Nolen-Hoeksema's life work concerned rumination, gender differences in depression, and the "transdiagnostic" processes in mental illness. The articles in this special section expand on these themes. Her work on transdiagnostic processes leads us to consider that the real mental illnesses are not the congeries of symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, but these processes themselves.

  8. 基于SCL-90量表下高职院校新生主要心理问题成因及干预对策的实效性研究--以湖南汽车工程职业学院为例%An Effective Study on the Causes and Countermeasures of Mental Health Problem of Freshmen from Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Symptom Check List-90--A case study of Hunan vocational college of automotive engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朝晖

    2016-01-01

    本研究采用《SCL-90症状自评量表》对所选取的高职院校大学新生进行心理健康状况测查,结果显示:高职新生中强迫症状、人际关系敏感、敌对、焦虑这4项发生率高,抑郁、偏执、恐怖等方面心理问题发生率相对较高,躯体化、精神病性的发生率也不少。本文研究探讨了针对高职新生主要心理问题的成因和干预对策。%The mental health survey on freshmen from selecting vocational colleges has been conducted with Symptom Check List-90. Results showed that the freshmen in vocational colleges suffer in greater incidence rate from obsession, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, anxiety. And the incidence rate of symptom as depression, paranoia, terror is relatively high, and incidence of psychological problems and the incidence of psychotic are not less. The survey has also discussed about the causes and countermeasures of mental health problems of the freshmen from higher vocational colleges and has given some countermeasures.

  9. Mental health and poverty in developing countries: revisiting the relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jishnu; Do, Quy-Toan; Friedman, Jed; McKenzie, David; Scott, Kinnon

    2007-08-01

    The relationship between poverty and mental health has received considerable attention in the recent literature. However, the associations presented in existing studies typically rely on limited samples of individuals and on proxy indicators for poverty such as education, the lack of tap water, or being unemployed. We revisit the relationship between poverty and mental health using data from nationally representative household surveys in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Indonesia and Mexico, along with special surveys from India and Tonga. As in previous studies, we find that individuals who are older, female, widowed, and in poor health are more likely to report worse mental health outcomes. Individuals living with others with poor mental health are significantly more likely to report worse mental health themselves. The size of the coefficients and their significance are comparable across the five countries. In contrast to previous studies, the relationship between higher education and better mental health is weak or non-existent. Furthermore, there is no consistent association between consumption poverty and mental health - in two countries mental health measures are marginally worse for the poor; in two countries there is no association; and in one country mental health measures are better for the poor compared to the non-poor. Moreover, the sizes of the coefficients for both education and consumption poverty are small compared to other factors considered here. While the lack of an association between consumption poverty and mental health implies that poor mental health is not a "disease of affluence", neither is it a disease of poverty. Changes in life circumstances brought on, for instance, by illness may have a greater impact on mental health than levels of poverty. Effective public health policy for mental health should focus on protecting individuals and households from adverse events and on targeted interventions following such adverse changes.

  10. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  11. Associations between obesity and mental distress in late midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Cathrine Lawaetz; Lund, Rikke; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Ageing and Midlife Biobank (CAMB) with complete information on measured BMI, severity of mental symptoms assessed by the Symptom Check-List' (SCL-90), and socio-demographic factors including sex, age, occupational social class, and educational duration. Linear and logistic regression were used...

  12. Narcissistic Symptoms in German School Shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondü, Rebecca; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2015-12-01

    School shooters are often described as narcissistic, but empirical evidence is scant. To provide more reliable and detailed information, we conducted an exploratory study, analyzing police investigation files on seven school shootings in Germany, looking for symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) in witnesses' and offenders' reports and expert psychological evaluations. Three out of four offenders who had been treated for mental disorders prior to the offenses displayed detached symptoms of narcissism, but none was diagnosed with narcissistic personality disorder. Of the other three, two displayed narcissistic traits. In one case, the number of symptoms would have justified a diagnosis of narcissistic personality disorder. Offenders showed low and high self-esteem and a range of other mental disorders. Thus, narcissism is not a common characteristic of school shooters, but possibly more frequent than in the general population. This should be considered in developing adequate preventive and intervention measures.

  13. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  14. e mental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Viviani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the history of Educational Biology (1933-1970 taking into account the development of this discipline in the Normal Schools in São Paulo (Brazil. The investigation is based on several kinds of documents, mainly teaching plans, programs, schoolbooks and testimonies from former teachers. It considers the projects for schools renovation developed since the 1920’s, as they produced certain kind of needs for the teacher education. It examines three periods of that history: the insertion of the discipline in the curriculum, its stability and decline. The focus is on the organization of the school subjects built by the pair heritage-environment. The conclusion is that the organization of this Educational Biology was based in the idea that the educators should act in a double productive way: in one side, to direct the students for the best physical and mental efficiency; in the other, to build ideal outlines for shape the children, women and teachers’s social behavior.

  15. Improving Perinatal Mental Health Care for Women Veterans: Description of a Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katon, Jodie G; Lewis, Lacey; Hercinovic, Selma; McNab, Amanda; Fortney, John; Rose, Susan M

    2017-02-06

    Purpose We describe results from a quality improvement project undertaken to address perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans. Description This quality improvement project was conducted in a single VA healthcare system between 2012 and 2015 and included screening for depressive symptoms with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) three times during the perinatal period, a dedicated maternity care coordinator (MCC), an on-site clinical social worker, and an on-site obstetrician/gynecologist (Ob/gyn). Information on prior mental health diagnosis was collected by the MCC or Ob/gyn. The prevalence of perinatal depressive symptoms and receipt of mental healthcare among those with such symptoms are reported by presence of a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Assessment Of the 199 women who used VA maternity benefits between 2012 and 2015, 56% (n = 111) had at least one pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis. Compared to those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis, those with such a diagnosis were more likely to be screened for perinatal depressive symptoms at least once (61.5% vs. 46.8%, p = 0.04). Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 46.7% among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and 19.2% among those without. Among those with a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 35), 88% received outpatient mental healthcare and 77% met with the clinical social worker. Among those without a pre-pregnancy mental health diagnosis and depressive symptoms (n = 8), none received outpatient mental healthcare, but 77.8% met with the clinical social worker. Conclusion Improving perinatal mental healthcare for women veterans requires a multidisciplinary approach, including on-site integrated mental healthcare.

  16. [Outreach services to clients with severe mental illness in the Okayama Prefectural Mental Health and Welfare Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Moriya, Akira; Fujita, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    The community mental health system in Japan is being adversely affected by diminishing public mental health services, including those provided by public healthcare centers and the mental health divisions of municipal governments. It seems reasonable to expect that this will lead to the inadequate detection, assessment, and treatment of the population with mental health problems, and thus to the flooding of psychiatric hospitals with excessive numbers of severely mentally ill patients. In this article, the author suggests the utility of a 'network-based outreach team' as a possible remedy for the current situation. The Okayama Prefectural Mental Health & Welfare Center is running a network-based outreach team on a trial basis to work with individuals with serious mental illness who are disengaged from mental health services. The team is composed of members from the Mental Health & Welfare Center, public mental health services, and human service agencies. The main aims of this team are two-fold: to enhance support for clients with severe mental illness who are overwhelmed with multiple complex problems, through collaborative intervention within the framework of a network-based outreach team; and to develop the qualities and skills of public mental health service and human agency personnel in order that they better assist people with severe mental illness, by providing joint training with mental health specialists of the Mental Health & Welfare Center in community settings. The author suggests that the team structure of the network-based outreach team will benefit public mental health services by reintegrating currently fragmented services into coordinated ones.

  17. Immigrant and refugee health: mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Karl T; Clarke, S Lindsey; Gossa, Weyinshet; Savin, Daniel

    2014-08-01

    Immigrants leave their homes for unfamiliar destinations in search of better lives for themselves and their families. Many immigrants experience profound loss and emotional distress as they adjust to life in different societies. Despite these challenges, the prevalence of mental health conditions among immigrants is low, whereas children of immigrants have rates equal to those of native populations. The prevalence of mental health conditions is high among refugees, who comprise a specific subgroup of immigrants who have been displaced forcibly and often have experienced severe trauma. Cultural factors, such as stigma and somatization of emotional symptoms, make it less likely that immigrants and refugees from certain groups will ever present to mental health subspecialists. Strong therapeutic relationships, cultural sensitivity, involvement of family members, judicious use of medications, and knowledge of available community resources are important tools that can aid clinicians who treat immigrants and refugees with mental health conditions.

  18. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Support Guides Why no symptoms? Because prostate cancer hardly ever starts in the most convenient part of the prostate for symptoms to occur, near the urethra (the tube that carries urine through the prostate ...

  19. Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Detecting and Treating Gout Gout: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treament Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents ... Gout may be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms can be vague and could be from other ...

  20. Pertussis Signs & Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Kids with Infectious Diseases (PKIDs) Signs and Symptoms Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... not for as long as 3 weeks. Early Symptoms In those who have been vaccinated: In most ...

  1. PTSD: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature PTSD Symptoms, Diagnosis , Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Symptoms As with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), PTSD ...

  2. Study of the correlation of clinical symptoms,mental health and plasma cortisol level of post-traumatic stress disorder%创伤后应激障碍患者临床症状、心理健康与血浆皮质醇水平的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段妮; 张心华; 于建华

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To study the correlation of clinical symptoms,mental health and plasma cortisol levels of post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD).Methods According to diagnostic and statistic manual of mental disorders,4th ed(DSM-Ⅳ)criteria,all subjects were divided into PTSD group and non-PTSD group.PTSD symptoms were investigated and subjects were assessed with Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90)and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire(EPQ).Radio-immunity technique was used to test plasma cortisol concentration.Results The most common of PTSD symptoms were markedly diminished interest or participation in significant activities (94.29%),irritability or outbursts of anger(94.29%)and difficulty falling or staying asleep(91.43%)respectively.There were different in PTSD symptoms,but recurrent and intrusive distressing recollections of the events,recurrent illusions and hallucinations and selective forgetting,between PTSD group and non-PTSD group(P<0.05).Plasma cortisol concentrations in patients with PTSD((281.57±123.93)ng/ml)and those without PTSD ((243.39±125.60)ng/ml)were all lower than that in normal controls((344.21±86.76)ng/ml,P=0.037,P=0.009).In Pearson correlation model,plasma cortisol was significantly positive correlated with interpersonal sensitivity(r=0.446,P=0.008),depression(r=0.428,P=0.019)of SCL-90 and neuroticism(r=0.380,P=0.026)of EPQ.Conclusions People with traumatic events have some PTSD symptoms.Plasma cortisol concentrations in patients with PTSD axe lower than those in normal controls.And plasma cortisol are significantly positive correlated with interpersonal sensitivity,depression and neurotieism.%目的 研究创伤后应激障碍(post-traumatic stress disorder,PTSD)患者的临床症状、心身健康状况与血浆皮质醇水平的关系.方法 以遭遇创伤事件的个体为研究对象,采用美国第四版(DSM-Ⅳ)为诊断标准.将研究对象分为PTSD组(35例)和非PTSD组(28例),分别进行PTSD症状调查,

  3. Resilience and Stuttering: Factors that Protect People from the Adversity of Chronic Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Blumgart, Elaine; Tran, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic disorder can impose a significant negative mental health burden. This research was conducted to explore factors that may protect people from the adversity of chronic stuttering. Method: The study employed a population group cohort design. Participants included 200 adults who have stuttered since childhood, and the sample was…

  4. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events of Varenicline A Systematic Review of Published Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, Amir I. A.; Ali, Abdullah N. A.; Kramers, Cees; Harmark, Linda V. D.; Burger, David M.; Verhoeven, Willem M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Over the past years, the impact of varenicline in patients with mental illness has been debated as serious neuropsychiatric adverse events (AEs) have been reported with varenicline use. Aim: To identify and summarize published case reports of neuropsychiatric AEs ascribed to vareniclin

  5. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  6. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  7. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  8. Poor Pre-Pregnancy and Antepartum Mental Health Predicts Postpartum Mental Health Problems among US Women: A Nationally Representative Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Whitney P.; Wisk, Lauren E.; Cheng, Erika R.; Hampton, John M.; Creswell, Paul; Hagen, Erika W.; Spear, Hilary A.; Maddox, Torsheika; DeLeire, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mental health problems disproportionately affect women, particularly during childbearing years. However, there is a paucity of research on the determinants of postpartum mental health problems using representative US populations. Taking a life course perspective, we determined the potential risk factors for postpartum mental health problems, with a particular focus on the role of mental health before and during pregnancy. Methods We examined data on 1,863 mothers from eleven panels of the 1996-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). Poor postpartum mental health was defined using self-reports of mental health conditions, symptoms of mental health conditions, or global mental health ratings of “fair” or “poor.” Results 9.5% of women reported experiencing postpartum mental health problems, with over half of these women reporting a history of poor mental health. Poor pre-pregnancy mental health and poor antepartum mental health both independently increased the odds of having postpartum mental health problems. Staged multivariate analyses revealed that poor antepartum mental health attenuated the relationship between pre-pregnancy and postpartum mental health problems. Additionally, significant disparities exist in women's report of postpartum mental health status. Conclusions While poor antepartum mental health is the strongest predictor of postpartum mental health problems, pre-pregnancy mental health is also important. Accordingly, health care providers should identify, treat, and follow women with a history of poor mental health, as they are particularly susceptible to postpartum mental health problems. This will ensure that women and their children are in the best possible health and mental health during the postpartum period and beyond. PMID:21349740

  9. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lian-fang Wang,1 Jin-wen Huang,1 Si-yang Shan,2 Jia-hong Ding,3 Jian-bo Lai,1,2 Yi Xu,1,4 Shao-hua Hu1,4 1Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Health Disorders, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. Keywords: adolescents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sertraline, extrapyramidal symptoms

  10. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  11. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Informed Cancer Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Gynecologic cancer symptoms diaries Ovarian cancer may cause the following signs and symptoms— Vaginal ...

  12. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research In Your Community Advocate Get Involved Donate Symptoms and Diagnosis En español Symptoms The initial symptoms of ALS can be quite ... the eyes and bladder are generally not affected. Diagnosis ALS is a difficult disease to diagnose. There ...

  13. The influence of physical and mental health on life satisfaction is mediated by self-rated health: A study with Brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Juliana Martins; Fontaine, Anne Marie; Neri, Anita Liberalesso

    2016-01-01

    Chronic diseases, signals and symptoms of health problems and objective losses in functionality are seen as strongly related to low levels of life satisfaction in old age. Among seniors, self-rated health is associated with both quality of health and life satisfaction, but its relationships with objective health measures are controversial. This study aimed at identifying the influence of self-rated health as a mediator of the relationships between objectives indicators of physical and mental health and the elderly's life satisfaction. Self-reporting and physical performance measures were derived from the data basis of the FIBRA Study, which investigated frailty and associated variables in a cross-sectional sample of 2164 subjects aged 65 and above, randomly selected in seven Brazilian cities. A model considering satisfaction as a dependent variable, the number of diseases, frailty, cognitive status and depressive symptoms as predictors and self-rated health as a mediating variable was tested through path analysis. The model fit the data well and explained 19% of life satisfaction's variance. According to the bootstrapping method, indirect effects were significant for all trajectories, suggesting that self-rated health is a mediator variable between physical and mental health and elderlýs life satisfaction. In conclusion, adverse conditions of physical and mental health can influence the elderlýs life satisfaction, mostly when they determine a decrease in their levels of self-rated health.

  14. Positive mental health and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Heather

    2014-09-01

    Based on the Mental Health Continuum Short Form administered in the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey - Mental Health (CCHS-MH), the percentages of Canadians aged 15 or older classified as having flourishing, moderate or languishing mental health were 76.9%, 21.6% and 1.5%, respectively. Compared with estimates for other countries, a higher percentage of Canadians were flourishing. In accordance with the complete mental health model, mental health was also assessed in combination with the presence or absence of mental illness (depression; bipolar disorder; generalized anxiety disorder; alcohol, cannabis or other drug abuse or dependence). An estimated 72.5% of Canadians (19.8 million) were classified as having complete mental health; that is they were flourishing and did not meet the criteria for any of the six past 12-month mental or substance use disorders included in the CCHS-MH. Age, marital status, socio-economic status, spirituality and physical health were associated with complete mental health. Men and women were equally likely to be in complete mental health.

  15. Diagnostic validity of basic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterkötter, J; Ebel, H; Schultze-Lutter, F; Steinmeyer, E M

    1996-01-01

    Although the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic Symptoms (BSABS) [13] has come into use in several European countries, its diagnostic validity has not yet been sufficiently examined. That is why we have assessed BSABS items on a sample of 243 consecutive admissions to the Department of Psychiatry at the RWTH University, Aachen, and 79 psychologically healthy persons. Then, a cluster analysis was calculated to identify the empirical item-grouping. Five well-interpretable BSABS subsyndromes were found. In addition, uni- and multivariate analyses were computed to evaluate the diagnostic validity of these subsyndromes. We were able to show that every BSABS subsyndrome separates at least schizophrenic, organic mental and affective disorders from personality, neurotic and substance-induced disorders, as well as from psychological health. Furthermore, the subsyndrome "information processing disturbances" differentiates between schizophrenic and organic mental disorders, on the one hand, and affective disorders, on the other, and additionally, the subsyndrome "interpersonal irritation" between schizophrenics and all other persons examined.

  16. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  17. Longitudinal course of physical and psychological symptoms after a natural disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wahlström

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: After disaster, physical symptoms are common although seldom recognized due to lack of knowledge of the course of symptoms and relation to more studied psychological symptoms. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the change in the reporting of different physical symptoms after a disaster, including possible factors for change, and whether psychological symptoms predict physical symptoms reporting at a later point in time. Method: A longitudinal study of citizens of Stockholm who survived the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. A total of 1,101 participants completed questionnaires on somatic symptoms, general distress, posttraumatic stress, exposure, and demographic details 14 months and 3 years after the disaster. Physical symptoms occurring daily or weekly during the last year were investigated in four symptom indices: neurological, cardiorespiratory, gastrointestinal, and musculoskeletal. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE analysis to determine odds ratios for a change in symptoms, and pathway analysis to predict the influence of psychological symptoms on physical symptoms. Results: There was a general decrease of reporting in all physical symptom indices except the musculoskeletal symptom index. The change in the neurological symptom index showed the strongest association with exposure, and for women. General distress and posttraumatic stress at 14 months postdisaster predicted physical symptoms at 3 years. Conclusion: Physical symptoms were predicted by psychological symptoms at an earlier time point, but in a considerable proportion of respondents, physical symptoms existed independently from psychological symptoms. Physicians should be observant on the possible connection of particular pseudoneurological symptoms with prior adversities.

  18. Adverse responses to local anaesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M M; Graham, R

    1984-11-01

    Progressive challenge was used to investigate twenty-seven patients with a history of an adverse response to local anaesthesia. True allergy was detected in only one patient. The method does not exclude reactions to additives and preservatives in local anaesthetics. If preservative-free local anaesthetics are used for subsequent exposure in patients with no response to progressive challenge, subsequent exposure is safe. The possibility that some of these patients may be reacting to preservatives in the solutions cannot be excluded by such testing. Where possible preservative-free local anaesthetic preparations should be used for subsequent anaesthesia.

  19. Family skills for overcoming adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Patricia Ardila Hernández

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This section draws on research four families in displacement in Tunja Boyacá step of this research is to present the problem of displacement from another different look that has embargoed regarding this topic. Critical reflection was raised from resilient approach Parsons theory in order to understand families immersed in this conflict as change agents capable of adapting to a new system and overcome adversity. Within this scheme is used to obtain qualitative research of the following categories : adaptation to the new social context risk factors present in families and protective factors.

  20. Depressive symptoms and cognitive performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Makizako, Hyuma; Doi, Takehiko; Lee, Sangyoon; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Many longitudinal studies have found that older adults with depressive symptoms or depression have increased risk of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationships between depressive symptoms or depression, cognitive function, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and volumetric MRI measurements in older adults. A total of 4352 individuals aged 65 years or older (mean age 72 years) participated in the study. We investigated medical history and geriatric depression scale-15 (GDS-15) items to determine depression and depressive symptoms. Cognitive tests included the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), story memory, word list memory, trail-making tests, and the symbol digit substitution task. Of the 4352 participants, 570 (13%) fulfilled the criteria for depressive symptoms (GDS-15: 6 + points) and 87 (2%) were diagnosed with depression. All cognitive tests showed significant differences between the 'no depressive symptoms', 'depressive symptoms', and 'depression' groups. The 'depressive symptoms' and 'depression' groups showed lower serum BDNF (p depressive symptoms' group. The 'depressive symptoms' group exhibited greater atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe than did the 'no depressive symptoms' group (p = 0.023). These results suggest that memory, executive function, and processing speed examinations are useful to identify cognitive decline in older adults who have depressive symptoms and depression. Serum BDNF concentration and atrophy of the right medial temporal lobe may in part mediate the relationships between depressive symptoms and cognitive decline.

  1. PTSD Trajectory, Co-morbidity, and Utilization of Mental Health Services among National Guard Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    focus not only on documenting the prevalence and correlates of PTSD and other mental illness and health service utilization among these forces, but...experiences as determinants of mental health in this group. We focus not only on documenting the prevalence and correlates of PTSD and other mental illness ...prevalence of sexual violence and mental health symptoms among National Guard and Reserve soldiers, this research found that lifetime sexual violence

  2. War and bereavement: consequences for mental and physical distress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nexhmedin Morina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term impact of the killing of a parent in childhood or adolescence during war on distress and disability in young adulthood. This study assessed current prevalence rates of mental disorders and levels of dysfunction among young adults who had lost their father due to war-related violence in childhood or adolescence. METHODS: 179 bereaved young adults and 175 non-bereaved young adults were interviewed a decade after experiencing the war in Kosovo. Prevalence rates of Major Depressive Episode (MDE, anxiety, and substance use disorders, and current suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. The syndrome of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD was assessed with the Prolonged Grief Disorder Interview (PG-13. Somatic symptoms were measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire. General health distress was assessed with the General Health Questionnaire. FINDINGS: Bereaved participants were significantly more likely to suffer from either MDE or any anxiety disorder than non-bereaved participants (58.7% vs. 40%. Among bereaved participants, 39.7% met criteria for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, 34.6% for PGD, and 22.3% for MDE. Bereaved participants with PGD were more likely to suffer from MDE, any anxiety disorder, or current suicide risk than bereaved participants without PGD. Furthermore, these participants reported significantly greater physical distress than bereaved participants without PGD. CONCLUSION: War-related loss during middle childhood and adolescence presents significant risk for adverse mental health and dysfunction in young adulthood in addition to exposure to other war-related traumatic events. Furthermore, the syndrome of PGD can help to identify those with the greatest degree of distress and dysfunction.

  3. Symptom Endorsement and Sociodemographic Correlates of Postnatal Distress in Three Low Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda J. Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Maternal mental illness has been implicated in adverse child development outcomes. Factors such as context and culture may influence experiences of maternal distress and explain differences in outcomes across settings. Methods. We analyzed baseline data from 5,647 mothers in Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh, and Vietnam participating in an ongoing cohort study (Young Lives to compare symptom endorsement and sociodemographic correlates of distress. Maternal distress was assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20 Items (cutoff: ≥8. Logistic regressions were stratified by sample to identify correlates of distress. Results. Symptom endorsement was similar among distressed women, particularly with regard to feeling unhappy (76%, 80%, and 79%. Notable differences were observed in three items assessing Depressive Thoughts, which were most highly endorsed in Ethiopia (49%–56%. Having a child experiencing a life-threatening event was correlated with distress in all three samples. A variety of correlates were unique to only one sample. Conclusions. There were multiple similarities but also notable differences across sites in the expression and correlates of maternal distress. Feeling unhappy appears to be a hallmark feature of distress. Correlates highlight the relationship between distress and indicators of poverty, child wellbeing, and economic shocks. Differences demonstrate the value of further exploration of cross-cultural differences.

  4. Antipsychotics for behavioural and psychological problems in elderly people with dementia : a systematic review of adverse events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iersel, Marianne B; Zuidema, Sytse U; Koopmans, Raymond T C M; Verhey, Frans R J; Olde Rikkert, Marcel G M

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although antipsychotics are important in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), they have moderate efficacy and often cause adverse events. Recent safety warnings about increased frequency of cerebrovascular adverse events in elderly patients who use a

  5. Antipsychotics for behavioural and psychological problems in elderly people with dementia: a systematic review of adverse events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iersel, M.B. van; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although antipsychotics are important in the treatment of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), they have moderate efficacy and often cause adverse events. Recent safety warnings about increased frequency of cerebrovascular adverse events in elderly patients who use a

  6. Effect of a cognitive behavioral self-help intervention on depressive symptoms and mental health status of ifrst-episode depression outpatients%基于认知行为疗法的自助干预对门诊首发抑郁症患者心理健康水平影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 杨敏; 陈琼妮

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of self-help intervention based on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on depressive symptoms and mental health status of ifrst-episode depression outpatients. Methods: We randomly divided 126 ifrst-episode depression outpatients from two tertiary hospitals in Changsha into the no-guided experimental group (n=42) ,the guided experimental group (n=42) and the control group (n=42). During and after the intervention, 25 subjects were lost to follow-up, Finally, there were 39 subjects in the no-guided experimental group, 32 in the guided experimental group and 30 in the control group. An antidepressant skills workbook was provided for each patient in the non-guided experimental group, besides, one telephone guidence every two weeks was provided for each patient in the guided experimental group, while no speciifc training was supplied to the control group. We evaluated all subjects with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and 10-item Kessler Scale (K10) before the self-help intervention and 2 months after the intervention. Results: After the intervention, the scores of both BDI and K10 in three groups decreased signiifcantly (P0.05). Conclusions: The cognitive behavioral self-help intervention by self-help manual could not effectively improve depressive symptoms and mental health status of ifrst-episode depression outpatients. We suggest that intensity of intervention should be strengthened in future study.%目的:评价基于认知行为疗法的自助干预对改善门诊首发抑郁症患者抑郁症状与心理健康水平的效果。方法:将126名门诊首发抑郁症患者随机分成无指导的干预组(n=42)、有指导的干预组(n=42)和对照组(n=42),干预中及干预结束后共失访25人,最终入组的无指导的干预组39人,有指导的干预组32人,对照组30人。无指导的干预组接受自助手册形式的自助干预,有指导的干预组接受自助手册加上电话形式的自助干预,对照

  7. Depression, anxiety, and symptom profiles among female and male victims of sexual violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Smith, Merideth; Bossarte, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Sexual violence is a serious public health problem that has been associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes. Few existing studies have examined the prevalence and patterns of adverse mental health among victims of sexual violence using data from nationally representative samples of U.S. adults. The main objectives of this study were to identify patterns in the associations between sexual violence victimization and depression and anxiety (DA) symptoms using data from the sexual violence and DA Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) modules. Stratified multivariate logistic regression models were conducted to test the associations between sexual violence victimization and DA controlling for demographic characteristics. Multiple stratified MANOVA models were used to detect the effect of sexual violence victimization on DA symptoms while controlling for key demographic characteristics. Among all 61,187 participants, more than 5% (n = 3,240) were victims of sexual violence, out of which 18.82% reported being diagnosed with depression, 8.37% reported an anxiety disorder, and 28.28% reported being diagnosed with DA disorder. Victims of sexual violence reported significantly higher number of days when they had trouble concentrating, sleep difficulties, poor appetite, little interest or pleasure in activities, blamed themselves for personal failure, felt depressed, and had little energy. The present study highlights the importance of collecting nationally representative data from victims of sexual violence and extends previous findings from clinically based studies. This study also serves as an example of an analytic approach that addresses a public health priority area by drawing on data from multiple topic-specific BRFSS modules.

  8. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eCatani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in individuals with ID. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of intellectual disability who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in individuals with ID. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs of children

  9. Changes of post-stroke mental symptom group and interventional effect ofChinese medicinal in rat model%脑卒中后大鼠模型精神症状组群的改变及中药的干预作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅; 唐启盛; 李小黎; 王戈; 冯光达

    2011-01-01

    目的 从脑卒中后大鼠精神症状组群的改变探讨脑卒中后精神症状的演变趋势及益肾调气方药——颐脑解郁方对其早期干预作用.方法 选择雄性 Wistar大鼠,经Open-Field行为学评分后,随机分为正常组、假手术组、多发脑梗(MCI)组、中药组、西药组、卒中后抑郁(PSD)组及血管性痴呆(VD)组.正常组常规饲养.假手术组经颈外动脉推注0.3mL生理盐水,并灌胃蒸馏水.其余各组均采用同种系微栓子体外注入法,由颈外动脉推注同等剂量的同种异体血栓栓子;中药组及西药组在模型制备后,予颐脑解郁方、尼莫地平干预给药4周;PSD组术后7d予21 d慢性不可预知的温和应激(CUMS)加孤养复制PSD模型;VD组术后28 d 经水迷宫筛选后进入实验.模型复制成功后,于第4周进行表征观察包括动态观察大鼠毛发、眼部变化,平均进食量及大鼠体重;同时进行行为学测试:蔗糖水消耗实验、Open-Field行为测定、穿梭箱主动回避反应实验.结果 表征观察发现3个模型组大鼠平均进食量下降,尤以PSD组及VD组下降显著,与体重变化趋势相一致.行为学测定发现3个模型组大鼠存在兴趣及记忆能力明显下降;蔗糖水消耗量、Open-Field实验提示PSD组以兴趣下降为主;穿梭箱主动回避反应实验结果提示VD组记忆及学习能力下降更为明显.而中药能减缓表征、学习和兴趣能力的下降趋势.结论 脑血管病后大鼠存在精神症状组群的改变,并有向PSD及VD演变趋势.颐脑解郁方能减慢此过程的进展.%Objective To probe into the development trends of post-stroke mental symptoms based on the changes of post-stroke mental symptom group in rats and the interventional effect of Yi Nao Jie Yu Fang with the actions of replenishing kidney and regulating qi. Methods Male Wistar rats, after open-field ethology scoring, were randomly divided into the normal group, sham

  10. Transient Neurological Symptoms after Spinal Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Hatipoglu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lidocaine has been used for more than 50 years for spinal anesthesia and has a remarkable safety record. In 1993, a new adverse effect, transient neurologic toxicity was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine. Transient neurological symptoms have been defined as pain in the lower extremities (buttocks, thighs and legs after an uncomplicated spinal anesthesia and after an initial full recovery during the immediate postoperative period (less than 24 h. The incidence of transient neurological symptoms reported in prospective, randomized trials varies from 4% to 37%. The etiology of transient neurological symptoms remains unkonwn. Despite the transient nature of this syndrome, it has proven to be difficult to treat effectively. Drug or some interventional therapy may be necessary. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(1.000: 33-44

  11. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  12. "Adversative Conjunction": The Poetics of Linguistic Opposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallerstein, Nicholas

    1992-01-01

    The general use of adversative conjunction in (primarily) English and U.S. poetry is outlined. The contention is that the adversative is not merely a grammatical convenience but sometimes a highly functional tool of rhetorical strategy. (36 references) (LB)

  13. iADRs: towards online adverse drug reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Yang; Li, He-Yi; Du, Jhih-Wei; Feng, Wen-Yu; Lo, Chiao-Feng; Soo, Von-Wun

    2012-12-01

    Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is one of the most important issues in the assessment of drug safety. In fact, many adverse drug reactions are not discovered during limited pre-marketing clinical trials; instead, they are only observed after long term post-marketing surveillance of drug usage. In light of this, the detection of adverse drug reactions, as early as possible, is an important topic of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Recently, large numbers of adverse events and the development of data mining technology have motivated the development of statistical and data mining methods for the detection of ADRs. These stand-alone methods, with no integration into knowledge discovery systems, are tedious and inconvenient for users and the processes for exploration are time-consuming. This paper proposes an interactive system platform for the detection of ADRs. By integrating an ADR data warehouse and innovative data mining techniques, the proposed system not only supports OLAP style multidimensional analysis of ADRs, but also allows the interactive discovery of associations between drugs and symptoms, called a drug-ADR association rule, which can be further developed using other factors of interest to the user, such as demographic information. The experiments indicate that interesting and valuable drug-ADR association rules can be efficiently mined.

  14. Nonmotor Symptoms in a Malaysian Parkinson's Disease Population

    OpenAIRE

    Shahrul Azmin; Abdul Manaf Khairul Anuar; Hui Jan Tan; Wan Yahya Nafisah; Azman Ali Raymond; Othman Hanita; Shamsul Azhar Shah; Mohamed Ibrahim Norlinah

    2014-01-01

    Background. The nonmotor symptoms are important determinants of health and quality of life in Parkinson's disease but are not well recognized and addressed in clinical practice. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of nonmotor symptoms and their impact on quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Exclusion criteria were a Mini Mental State Examination score of

  15. Defining and measuring pilot mental workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantowitz, Barry H.

    1988-01-01

    A theory is sought that is general enough to help the researcher deal with a wide range of situations involving pilot mental stress. A limited capacity theory of attention forms the basis for the theory. Mental workload is then defined as an intervening variable, similar to attention, that modulates or indexes the tuning between the demands of the environment and the capacity of the organism. Two methods for measuring pilot mental workload are endorsed: (1) objective measures based on secondary tasks; and (2) psychophysiological measures, which have not yet been perfected but which will become more useful as theoretical models are refined. Secondary-task research is illustrated by simulator studies in which flying performance has been shown not to be adversely affected by adding a complex choice-reaction secondary task.

  16. Chronic adolescent marijuana use as a risk factor for physical and mental health problems in young adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Jordan; Simpson, Theresa; White, Helene R; Pardini, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Some evidence suggests that youth who use marijuana heavily during adolescence may be particularly prone to health problems in later adulthood (e.g., respiratory illnesses, psychotic symptoms). However, relatively few longitudinal studies have prospectively examined the long-term physical and mental health consequences associated with chronic adolescent marijuana use. The present study used data from a longitudinal sample of Black and White young men to determine whether different developmental patterns of marijuana use, assessed annually from early adolescence to the mid-20s, were associated with adverse physical (e.g., asthma, high blood pressure) and mental (e.g., psychosis, anxiety disorders) health outcomes in the mid-30s. Analyses also examined whether chronic marijuana use was more strongly associated with later health problems in Black men relative to White men. Findings from latent class growth curve analysis identified 4 distinct subgroups of marijuana users: early onset chronic users, late increasing users, adolescence-limited users, and low/nonusers. Results indicated that the 4 marijuana use trajectory groups were not significantly different in terms of their physical and mental health problems assessed in the mid-30s. The associations between marijuana group membership and later health problems did not vary significantly by race. Findings are discussed in the context of a larger body of work investigating the potential long-term health consequences of early onset chronic marijuana use, as well as the complications inherent in studying the possible link between marijuana use and health effects.

  17. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  18. Race and mental health: there is more to race than racism

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Swaran P; Burns, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Some minority ethnic groups in England and Wales have higher rates of admission for mental\\ud illness and more adverse pathways to care. Are the resulting accusations of institutional racism\\ud within psychiatry justified?

  19. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Tibubos, Ana N.; Klein, Eva M.; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14–92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities. PMID:28296938

  20. Stress and mental health among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Backović Dušan V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Medical studies bring many stressful activities to students. Prolonged stress can make adverse effects to mental health and lead to further professional burnout. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the association of stress impact and adverse effects of medical studies with psychological distress among medical students. Methods. The cross sectional study was conducted on 367 fourth­year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine in Belgrade, by means of the anonymous questionnaire, containing: socio­demographic data, self­reported health status and stressful influences of studying activities. Mental health status was estimated by General Health Questionnaire (GHQ­12. Results. More than 50% of students perceive frequent feeling of psychic tension, and one third has problems with insomnia. Nearly one­half of students assessed their general stress level as moderate or high. Exams were estimated as high stressor in 63.1% of all students. Stressful effects of communication with teaching staff were reported by one quarter of the examinees. The scores of GHQ­12 were above the threshold in 55.6 % of all students. Mental health problems among students were most significantly associated with stressful experience during exams and contacts with teaching staff. Conclusion. Academic stress makes great influence on mental health of medical students. Reduction of stress effects should be directed to optimization of the examination process and improvement of communication skills. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI 175078

  1. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. METHOD: Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. RESULTS: 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. CONCLUSION: We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  2. Fellow travellers: Working memory and mental time travel in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, Ekrem; Dere, Dorothea; de Souza Silva, Maria Angelica; Huston, Joseph P; Zlomuzica, Armin

    2017-03-19

    The impairment of mental time travel is a severe cognitive symptom in patients with brain lesions and a number of neuropsychiatric disorders. Whether animals are also able to mentally travel in time both forward and backward is still a matter of debate. In this regard, we have proposed a continuum of mental time travel abilities across different animal species, with humans being the species with the ability to perform most sophisticated forms of mental time travel. In this review and perspective article, we delineate a novel approach to understand the evolution, characteristics and function of human and animal mental time travel. Furthermore, we propose a novel approach to measure mental time travel in rodents in a comprehensive manner using a test battery composed of well-validated and easy applicable tests.

  3. Psychosis in patients with narcolepsy as an adverse effect of sodium oxybate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi eSarkanen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are characteristic symptoms of narcolepsy, as are excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy patients may also experience daytime hallucinations unrelated to sleep-wake transitions. The effect of medication on hallucinations is of interest since treatment of narcolepsy may provoke psychotic symptoms. We aim to analyze the relation between sodium oxybate (SXB treatment and psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy patients. Furthermore, we analyze the characteristics of hallucinations to determine their nature as mainly psychotic or hypnagogic and raise a discussion about whether SXB causes psychosis or if psychosis occurs as an endogenous complication in narcolepsy.Method: We present altogether four patients with narcolepsy who experienced psychotic symptoms during treatment with SXB. In addition, we searched the literature for descriptions of hallucinations in narcolepsy and similarities and differences with psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia.Results: Three out of four patients had hallucinations typical for psychosis and one had symptoms that resembled aggravated hypnagogic hallucinations. Two patients also had delusional symptoms primarily associated with mental disorders. Tapering down SXB was tried and helped in two out of four cases. Adding antipsychotic treatment (risperidone alleviated psychotic symptoms in two cases. Conclusion: Psychotic symptoms in narcolepsy may appear during SXB treatment. Hallucinations resemble those seen in schizophrenia however the insight that symptoms are delusional is usually preserved. In case of SXB-induced psychotic symptoms or hallucinations, reducing SXB dose or adding antipsychotic medication can be tried.

  4. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  5. Musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunting, K L; Welch, L S; Cuccherini, B A; Seiger, L A

    1994-02-01

    This study ascertained the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms among electricians, in order to evaluate the prevalence of cumulative trauma disorders (CTD) in this population. We adapted the CTD surveillance questionnaire used by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to assess the prevalence of neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrist, back, and knee symptoms in the year prior to the survey. Questionnaires were completed by 308 apprentices and journeymen enrolled in training classes at the local union hall. The participants were relatively young individuals, and 86% of the participants were currently working as electricians. Participants reported a high prevalence of symptoms which occurred more than three times during the past year or which lasted more than 1 week. Back symptoms and hand/wrist symptoms were experienced most frequently, by about half the population, while elbow symptoms were reported by only 15% of participants. Symptom prevalence was lower, but still notable, when defined as symptoms which had occurred at least once a month or lasted more than a week in the past year. Eighty-two percent of participants reported at least one musculoskeletal symptom using the most inclusive definition, while 57% reported two or more symptoms. This survey highlights that: 1) low back discomfort is common in young construction workers, and resulted in medical care, missed work, or light duty for almost 35% of the participants; 2) neck discomfort is also very common and required doctor visits or work modification for almost one quarter of the participants; 3) these construction workers continued to work with symptoms that are classifiable as a CTD; and 4) history of injury is correlated with the subsequent prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms.

  6. Inhibition: Mental Control Process or Mental Resource?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im-Bolter, Nancie; Johnson, Janice; Ling, Daphne; Pascual-Leone, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The current study tested 2 models of inhibition in 45 children with language impairment and 45 children with normally developing language; children were aged 7 to 12 years. Of interest was whether a model of inhibition as a mental-control process (i.e., executive function) or as a mental resource would more accurately reflect the relations among…

  7. [Perioperative disorders of mental functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonković, Dinko; Adam, Visnja Nesek; Kovacević, Marko; Bogović, Tajana Zah; Drvar, Zeljko; Baronica, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Mental disorders are characterized by disturbances of thought, perception, affect and behavior, which occur as a result of brain damage. Recognizing and treating these conditions is necessary not only for psychiatrists but for all physicians. Disorder of mental function is one of the most common associated conditions in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, disturbances of mental function often remain unrecognized. In ICU patients, different types of mental function disorders may develop. They range from sleep disorders, severe depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to cognitive disorders including delirium. The causes of mental dysfunction in ICU patients can be divided into environmental and medical. Cognitive disorders are related to mental processes such as learning ability, memory, perception and problem solving. Cognitive disorders are usually not prominent in the early postoperative period and in many cases are discovered after hospital discharge because of difficulties in performing everyday activities at home or at work. The etiology of postoperative cognitive impairment is unclear. Older age, previous presence of cognitive dysfunction, severity of disease, and polypharmacy with more than four drugs are some of the risk factors identified. Delirium is a multifactorial disorder. It is an acute confusional state characterized by alteration of consciousness with reduced ability to focus, sustain, or shift attention. It is considered as the most common form of mental distress in ICU patients. Nearly 30% of all hospitalized patients pass through deliriant phase during their hospital stay. Delirium can last for several days to several weeks. Almost always it ends with complete withdrawal of psychopathological symptoms. Sometimes it can evolve into a chronic brain syndrome (dementia). The causes are often multifactorial and require a number of measures to ease the symptoms. Delirious patient is at risk of complications of immobility and

  8. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms in newly-diagnosed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macey, Paul M; Woo, Mary A; Kumar, Rajesh; Cross, Rebecca L; Harper, Ronald M

    2010-04-16

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI), and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI), as well as sex and body mass index (BMI). AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.

  9. Relationship between obstructive sleep apnea severity and sleep, depression and anxiety symptoms in newly-diagnosed patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in at least 10% of the population, and leads to higher morbidity and mortality; however, relationships between OSA severity and sleep or psychological symptoms are unclear. Existing studies include samples with wide-ranging comorbidities, so we assessed relationships between severity of OSA and common sleep and psychological disturbances in recently diagnosed OSA patients with minimal co-morbidities. We studied 49 newly diagnosed, untreated OSA patients without major co-morbidities such as mental illness, cardiovascular disease, or stroke; subjects were not using psychoactive medications or tobacco (mean +/- std age: 46.8+/-9.1 years; apnea/hyponea index [AHI]: 32.1+/-20.5 events/hour; female/male: 12/37; weight <125 kg. We evaluated relationships between the AHI and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale; ESS, sleep quality (Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index; PSQI, depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory-II; BDI, and anxiety symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI, as well as sex and body mass index (BMI. AHI was similar in females and males. Mean levels of all symptoms were above normal thresholds, but AHI was not correlated with age, ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI; only BMI was correlated with OSA severity. No differences in mean AHI appeared when subjects were grouped by normal versus elevated values of ESS, PSQI, BDI, or BAI. Consistent with other studies, a strong link between OSA severity and psychological symptoms did not appear in these newly diagnosed patients, suggesting that mechanisms additional to the number and frequency of hypoxic events and arousals occurring with apneas contribute to adverse health effects in OSA. OSA patients presenting with mild or moderate severity, and no major co-morbidities will not necessarily have low levels of sleep or psychological disturbances.

  10. Adverse reaction to mefloquine associated with ethanol ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittes, R C; Saginur, R

    1995-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with no history of neuropsychiatric illness was taking one 250-mg tablet of mefloquine (MFQ) weekly for malaria prophylaxis while in Tanzania. He experienced no adverse reaction in association with his first two doses. Concurrently with both his third and his fourth dose he consumed about half a litre of whisky. On both occasions he experienced hallucinations, paranoid delusions and suicidal ideation. Thereafter he continued taking the MFQ, abstained completely from ethanol ingestion and had no recurrence of psychiatric symptoms. It is hypothesized that the combination of MFQ and ethanol caused the two episodes of severe psychiatric disturbance. PMID:7859199

  11. Mental health literacy in an educational elite – an online survey among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritschi Nadja

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health literacy is a prerequisite for early recognition and intervention in mental disorders. The aims of this paper are to determine whether a sample of university students recognise different symptoms of depression and schizophrenia and to reveal factors influencing correct recognition. Methods Bivariate and correspondence analyses of the results from an online survey among university students (n = 225. Results Most participants recognised the specific symptoms of depression. The symptoms of schizophrenia were acknowledged to a lower extent. Delusions of control and hallucinations of taste were not identified as symptoms of schizophrenia. Repeated revival of a trauma for depression and split personality for schizophrenia were frequently mistaken as symptoms of the respective disorders. Bivariate analyses demonstrated that previous interest in and a side job related to mental disorders, as well as previous personal treatment experience had a positive influence on symptom recognition. The correspondence analysis showed that male students of natural science, economics and philosophy are illiterate in recognising the symptoms depression and schizophrenia. Conclusion Among the educational elite, a wide variability in mental health literacy was found. Therefore, it's important for public mental health interventions to focus on the different recognition rates in depression and schizophrenia. Possibilities for contact must be arranged according to interest and activity (e.g., at work. In order to improve mental health literacy, finally, education and/or internship should be integrated in high school or apprenticeship curricula. Special emphasis must be given towards the effects of gender and stereotypes held about mental illnesses.

  12. The Impact of Neighborhood Environment, Social Support and Avoidance Coping on Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Templin, Thomas; Engeland, Christopher G.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang; Kavanaugh, Karen; Dieber, William; Misra, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    in the second trimester were related to higher levels of depressive symptoms in the third trimester. If these results are replicable in prospective studies with larger sample sizes, intervention strategies could be implemented at the individual level to support pregnant women in their ability to cope with adverse neighborhood conditions and ultimately improve their mental health. PMID:25840930

  13. Management of somatic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Andreas; Dimsdale, Joel

    2014-01-01

    on the recognition and effective management of patients with excessive and disabling somatic symptoms. The clinical presentation of somatic symptoms is categorized into three groups of patients: those with multiple somatic symptoms, those with health anxiety, and those with conversion disorder. The chapter provides...... information to assist with making a diagnosis and differential diagnosis. Management includes ways to improve the physician–patient interaction that will benefit the patient, a step-care model based on illness severity and complexity, and psychological and pharmacologic treatment. The chapter is enhanced...... by figures and tables that summarize health anxiety, symptoms, differential diagnoses, and management strategies, as well as by case studies and examples....

  14. Frames of mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies: implications for orthodox mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Olayiwola, Funmilayo

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the modes of framing mental illness in the Yoruba genre of Nigerian movies. All Yoruba films on display in a convenient sample of movie rental shops in Ibadan (Nigeria) were sampled for content. Of the 103 films studied, 27 (26.2%) contained scenes depicting mental illness. Psychotic symptoms were the most commonly depicted, while effective treatments were mostly depicted as taking place in unorthodox settings. The most commonly depicted aetiology of mental illness was sorcery and enchantment by witches and wizards, as well as other supernatural forces. Scenes of mental illness are common in Nigerian movies and these depictions-though reflecting the popular explanatory models of Yoruba-speaking Nigerians about mental illness- may impede utilization of mental health care services and ongoing efforts to reduce psychiatry stigma in this region. Efforts to reduce stigma and improve service utilization should engage the film industry.

  15. Mental Health Screening Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression This screening form was developed from ...

  16. Chronic Illness & Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is present. For More Information Share Chronic Illness & Mental Health Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... For more information, see the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) booklet on Depression at http://www.nimh. ...

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC.gov . Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Symptoms On this Page Primary Symptoms Other Symptoms What's ... a doctor distinguish CFS from other illnesses. Primary Symptoms As the name chronic fatigue syndrome suggests , fatigue ...

  18. Some adverse effects of antipsychotics: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, M

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication causes a wide range of adverse effects, which can be serious and may further imperil both the physical and psychological health of schizophrenic patients. The range of side effects patients commonly encounter includes weight gain, endocrine disturbances, sedation, anticholinergic effects, hypotension, seizures, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Less common and unpredictable reactions are blood dyscrasias, cardiotoxicity, sudden death, and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic drugs differ significantly regarding their propensity to cause these reactions. Patients should undergo comprehensive health checks before an antipsychotic is prescribed, and drug therapy should be individualized to take account of any preexisting symptoms. Side effects and the wider implications of drug treatment, such as effects on occupational and social functioning, should be discussed with the patient before initiating therapy. Patients should be regularly monitored for side effects during treatment and switched to alternative therapy if side effects are serious and/or persistent.

  19. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  20. Skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Tomoko; Sato, Natsuyo; Awaji, Hiroyo; Sakamoto, Hiroko; Nakata, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we conducted a questionnaire survey to examine the relationship between dietary habits and menstrual disorders in young women. Subjects were recruited from 315 college students and were classified as: Group I, eating breakfast; Group II, skipping breakfast; Group III, not eating fast foods; Group IV, eating fast foods; Group V, not eating processed foods; and Group VI, eating processed foods. The intensity of dysmenorrhea was scored using three grades. All participants were further divided into groups based on having regular or irregular menstruation, having premenstrual symptoms or not, and self-perception of good or poor general health. General health was poor in Groups II and VI, and dysmenorrhea scores were high in Groups II, IV and VI. The incidence of irregular menses was also high in Group II. However, there was no apparent relation between premenstrual symptoms and dietary habits. These findings suggest that skipping breakfast adversely affects menstrual disorders in young college students.

  1. Stroke Symptoms With Absence of Recognized Stroke Are Associated With Cognitive Impairment and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults With Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passler, Jesse S; Clay, Olivio J; Wadley, Virginia G; Ovalle, Fernando; Crowe, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Self-reported stroke symptoms may represent unrecognized cerebrovascular events leading to poorer cognitive and mental health. We examined relationships between stroke symptoms, cognitive impairment, and depressive symptoms in a high-risk sample: 247 adults aged ≥65 with diabetes. Stroke symptoms were assessed using the Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke-free Status, cognitive impairment was measured with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, and depressive symptoms were measured using the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. In 206 participants without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, 27.7% reported stroke symptoms, with sudden loss of comprehension most frequently reported (11.7%). Having >1 versus 0 stroke symptoms was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment (odds ratio = 3.04, 95% confidence interval 1.15-8.05) and more depressive symptoms (b= 2.60,P< .001) while controlling for age, race, gender, education, diabetes duration, diabetes severity, and cardiovascular comorbidities. Better recognition and treatment of cerebrovascular problems in older adults with diabetes may lead to improved cognition and mental health.

  2. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  3. Low health-related quality of life is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with chronic nonischemic heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakliczyński, Michał; Owczarek, Aleksander; Partyka, Robert; Mościński, Mateusz; Pudlo, Robert; Kaczmarczyk, Marcin; Zembala, Marian; Poloński, Lech

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The need to indentify patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) at a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) has become increasingly important; therefore, new parameters, such as health-related quality of life (HRQoL), are gaining ground. The aim of this study The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for MACEs, with a special emphasis on HRQoL in chronic non-ischemic heart failure (NIHF) patients. Material and methods This prospective study enrolled 271 hospitalized patients with heart failure symptoms (NYHA II and III), without neoplastic disease, diabetes, hepatic cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease, who had been receiving optimal medical treatment. In all the patients, laboratory examinations, electrocardiography, echocardiography, a 6-minute walking test, invasive right heart pressure measurements and coronary angiography were performed. HRQoL assessment was conducted with the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). Clinical observation commenced on admission to the hospital and lasted 3 years. Data concerning MACE incidence (death, transplantation, circulatory support, hospitalization) were obtained during outpatient visits. Results The final analysis enrolled 202 patients, while 17 patients were lost to follow up. The MACE incidence was 42.1%. Major adverse cardiovascular events risk factors in multiple factor analysis were: alkaline phosphatase (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.01; p < 0.05); right ventricular end-diastolic diameter (HR = 1.08; p < 0.001); hsCRP (HR = 1.04; p < 0.05); and the following HRQoL indices: Bodily Pain (HR = 0.98; p < 0.05) and Mental Health (HR = 0.97; p < 0.01). Conclusions Low values for HRQoL parameters (Bodily Pain and Mental Health), right ventricular end-diastolic diameter, serum concentration of hsCRP and alkaline phosphatase are prognostic factors in NIHF patients. PMID:26336436

  4. Rural Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or mental health Peer mentoring School-based mental health services Crisis response Postvention See SAMHSA's Preventing Suicide: A Toolkit ... suicide and promote behavioral health. Offering a Mental ... are in a crisis. To review guidelines for school-based suicide prevention ...

  5. What Is Mental Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recovery is Possible What Is Mental Health? Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. It affects how we think, feel, and act. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make choices. Mental health is important at every stage of life, from ...

  6. Conversational conduct and the symptoms of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, R C

    1996-11-01

    In an attempt to refine further the argument that certain patients with schizophrenia have problems understanding the mental states of other people, appreciation of the Gricean maxims of quantity, quality, and relation, and the more contextually specific need to be polite was examined amongst patients differing in their current symptom profiles. Five sets of five stories were given to the subjects who had to choose the likely final piece of speech of one of the characters. Subjects chose from two alternatives, one adhered to the rule under question whereas the other flouted that rule. Patients with negative symptoms were inclined to flout all maxims with the exception of the maxim of relation which was adhered to by all groups. It is argued that these patients have a severe ''theory of mind'' deficit that encompasses knowledge of conversational rules. The performance of patients with paranoid delusions was more selective in that they often failed to respond in a polite fashion when this was indicated by the context but performed at a level with controls on the stories involving the original Gricean maxims. These effects were largely independent of current intellectual level. The results suggest that although patients with negative behavioural signs suffer a ''theory of mind'' deficit similar to that seen in autism, those with paranoid symptoms have a more specific ''online'' mentalising deficit which becomes evident only when the skill is challenged by situations where context-dependent behaviour is determined by an appreciation of another's mental state.

  7. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Groups (4 items) Men’s Mental Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 ... Groups (4 items) Men’s Mental Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 items) Military Service Members (1 ...

  8. Symptoms and Treatment of Depression

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) Men’s Mental Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 ... 26 items) Diversity and Ethnic Groups (4 items) Men’s Mental Health (11 items) Women’s Mental Health (2 ...

  9. [Histamine intolerance - are the criteria of an adverse reaction met?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Imke

    2016-06-01

    Searching the internet for an explaination of recurring symptoms, many people come across the so-called histamine intolerance disorder. Also many practitioners like to diagnose this disorder without making sure that reproducibility, a prerequisite for an adverse reaction, is present. Consequently, presumably affected persons are often advised to follow a low-histamine diet. Depending on the source of information, these diets often avoid a huge variety of foods containing more or less histamine, which has a considerable impact on patient quality of life. While most persons benefit from such a diet in the beginning - this might be due to the change in dietary habits or the expectation of symptom improvement by dieting - in the long run the expected loss of symptoms will not happen. Underlying a diminished capacity for histamine degradation, the lack of partial or complete symptom improvement might be due to the fact that endogenous histamine release is responsible for reactions. The role of ingested histamine is discussed controversially. However, it is more than obvious that the histamine content of a certain food alone is not enough to predict its tolerance.If histamine intolerance is suspected, an individual diagnostic and therapeutic procedure is mandatory in order to minimize avoidance and to preserve a high quality of life. Ideally this is done in a close cooperation between allergologists and nutritionists/dieticians.

  10. Physical symptoms that are frequently unexplained among survivors of the Enschede fireworks disaster

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, B. van den

    2007-01-01

    Most studies after disasters have focused on mental health problems such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety among survivors. Besides mental health problems, survivors may develop physical health symptoms that are frequently unexplained such as headache, fatigue and stom

  11. Testing Structural Models of DSM-IV Symptoms of Common Forms of Child and Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Van Hulle, Carol; Urbano, Richard C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Applegate, Brooks; Garriock, Holly A.; Chapman, Derek A.; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted of "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders", Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) symptoms of common mental disorders derived from structured interviews of a representative sample of 4,049 twin children and adolescents and their adult caretakers. A dimensional model based on the assignment of symptoms…

  12. Caregiver Life Satisfaction: Relationship to Youth Symptom Severity through Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, M. Michele

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized the Satisfaction with Life Scale to investigate the life satisfaction of caregivers for youth receiving mental health services (N = 383). Specifically, this study assessed how caregiver life satisfaction relates to youth symptom severity throughout treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling with a time-varying covariate was used…

  13. Screening for Psychopathology Symptoms in Mexican Psychiatry Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Francisco Javier Mesa; Munoz, Maria Del Carmen Lara

    2011-01-01

    Background: Various rates of alcoholism, drug abuse, mental illness, and suicide among physician have been reported, generally higher than those in the general population. Psychiatry residents, as other specializing physicians, seem to be prone to suffering them. The prevalence of psychological symptoms among psychiatry residents has not been…

  14. Trauma Symptoms among Infants Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogat, G. Anne; DeJonghe, Erika; Levendosky, Alytia A.; Davidson, William S.; von Eye, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether infants have a traumatic response to intimate partner violence (male violence toward their female partner; IPV) experienced by their mothers, two questions were explored: (1) Is the number of infant trauma symptoms related to the infant's temperament and the mother's mental health? (2) Does severity of violence…

  15. The diagnostic status of first-rank symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, Sidse Marie; Handest, P.; Parnas, J.

    2008-01-01

    In the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision(ICD-10) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Third and Fourth Edition(DSM-III-IV), the presence of one of Schneider "first-rank symptoms" (FRS) is symptomatically sufficient for the schizophrenia...

  16. Effects of mental fatigue on biomechanics of slips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew, Fui Ling; Qu, Xingda

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mental fatigue on biomechanics of slips. A total of 44 healthy young participants were evenly categorised into two groups: no fatigue and mental fatigue. Mental fatigue was induced by performing an AX-continuous performance test. The participants in both groups were instructed to walk on a linear walkway, and slips were induced unexpectedly during walking. We found that mental fatigue has adverse effects in all the three phases of slips. In particular, it leads to increased likelihood of slip initiation, poorer slip detection and a more insufficient reactive recovery response to slips. Based on the findings from the present study, we can conclude that mental fatigue is a risk factor for slips and falls. In order to prevent slip-induced falls, interventions, such as providing frequent rest breaks, could be applied in the workplace to avoid prolonged exposures to cognitively demanding activities.

  17. Online social networking and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantic, Igor

    2014-10-01

    During the past decade, online social networking has caused profound changes in the way people communicate and interact. It is unclear, however, whether some of these changes may affect certain normal aspects of human behavior and cause psychiatric disorders. Several studies have indicated that the prolonged use of social networking sites (SNS), such as Facebook, may be related to signs and symptoms of depression. In addition, some authors have indicated that certain SNS activities might be associated with low self-esteem, especially in children and adolescents. Other studies have presented opposite results in terms of positive impact of social networking on self-esteem. The relationship between SNS use and mental problems to this day remains controversial, and research on this issue is faced with numerous challenges. This concise review focuses on the recent findings regarding the suggested connection between SNS and mental health issues such as depressive symptoms, changes in self-esteem, and Internet addiction.

  18. ADVERSE REACTION TO LATEX CONTAINING MATERIALS IN HEALTH CARE WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Pouryaghoub

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Latex allergy has become an occupational hazard among healthcare workers. Atopy, intensity and duration of exposure have been recognized as predisposing factors for latex sensitization. Frequency of sensitization varies among countries. So we decided to investigate the prevalence of latex sensitization and potential risk factors among healthcare workers in a general hospital. In a cross sectional study by distributing a questionnaire among 876 employees of a general hospital, we investigated the prevalence of latex allergy and the potential risk factors for latex sensitization. We collected information about occupational history, including specific tasks performed, time of first exposure to latex, number of pairs of gloves used, and duration of weekly exposure. We also investigated the interval between first exposure and onset of symptoms. We asked about pre-existing rhinoconjuctivitis, asthma, atopic and contact dermatitis, hay fever, autoimmune diseases, and food allergies. This survey documented a high prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials (52.5%. 37.7% of responder had adverse reaction to latex gloves. The highest prevalence of adverse reaction to all latex containing materials was found in the surgical operating room, followed by emergency unit and internal medicine wards. According to this study, frequency of adverse reaction to latex was high among health care workers. This may be due to relatively low response rate, low quality of latex products in Iran, and the method of measurement. Whenever, the need for implementing prevention program, using latex-free methods and training of employees to reduce adverse reaction to latex is apparent.

  19. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  20. Self-reported symptoms in patients on hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism receiving combined therapy with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertow, Glenn M; Lu, Z John; Xu, Xiao; Knight, Tyler G; Goodman, William G; Bushinsky, David A; Block, Geoffrey A

    2012-04-01

    Patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism experience a variety of clinical symptoms which may adversely affect physical and mental function. As part of a multicenter, open-label clinical trial, subjects completed a questionnaire that included the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 and 14 kidney disease-related symptoms at multiple time points during the study. Out of the 567 subjects who received at least one dose of cinacalcet, 528 to 535 (93.8-94.4%) completed all or portions of the questionnaire at baseline. The median bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) was 294 pg/mL (10%, 90% range, 172-655 pg/mL). Following treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols, subjects reported significant improvement in the frequency of pain in muscles, joints and bones, stiff joints, dry skin, itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory. At end of the efficacy assessment phase (Weeks 16 to 22), the magnitude of improvement was the greatest in joint pain, bone pain, dry skin, and excessive thirst (>5 on a 0-100 scale; P clinically or statistically significant changes in any of the Short Form-36 subscales or in the physical or mental health composite scores. Among patients on hemodialysis with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism, treatment with cinacalcet and low-dose vitamin D sterols results in significant improvement in pain in the muscles, joints and bones, joint stiffness, dry and itchy skin, excessive thirst, and trouble with memory.

  1. Salubridad Chicana: Su Preservacion Y Mantenimiento -- The Chicano Plan for Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Ruben, Ed.; And Others

    In devising the mental health plan for Chicanos, the social, economic, and political forces that adversely affect their emotional well-being must be considered. While defining mental health needs and proposing ways to meet those needs, the cultural background of the Chicano people must seriously be considered. The plan should stress the importance…

  2. Mental Health Disorders Associated with Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Declan J; Robertson, Lucy J

    2016-11-01

    Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded. Despite this, it is generally accepted that there are several psychiatric disorders of unknown etiology that may be associated with microbial pathogens. Depression, autism, hypochondriasis and anxiety, schizophrenia, and Tourette syndrome probably have multiple contributing causes, among which foodborne pathogens may play a decisive or contributory role, possibly sharing pathophysiological pathways with other environmental triggers. This review focuses on foodborne parasites and bacterial pathogens. Some foodborne parasites, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Toxoplasma gondii , may affect mental health by directly infecting the brain. In contrast, bacterial infections and other parasitic infections may contribute to mental illness via the immune system and/or by influencing neurotransmission pathways. Thus, cytokines, for example, have been associated with depression and schizophrenia. However, infectious disease models for psychiatry require a more complete understanding of the relationship between psychiatric disorders and microbial triggers. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on the role of foodborne parasitic and bacterial pathogens in mental illness and identifies some of the gaps that should be addressed to improve diagnosis and treatment of mental health issues that are

  3. Mental toughness in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diment, Gregory Michael

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade mental toughness has been discussed as a significant factor in performance in elite sport. Few studies have explored mental toughness from a behavioral perspective, and no comprehensive lists of mental toughness behaviors have been developed. The aim of the study was to produce...... a systematic observation checklist of mental toughness behavior in professional soccer. Consistent with existing studies, the results created a systematic observation instrument containing 15 mental toughness behaviors. Practical implications include goal-setting, game analysis and self-modeling interventions...... where the created checklist could be a practical tool for both coaches and sport psychologists....

  4. The built environment and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W

    2003-12-01

    The built environment has direct and indirect effects on mental health. High-rise housing is inimical to the psychological well-being of women with young children. Poor-quality housing appears to increase psychological distress, but methodological issues make it difficult to draw clear conclusions. Mental health of psychiatric patients has been linked to design elements that affect their ability to regulate social interaction (e.g., furniture configuration, privacy). Alzheimer's patients adjust better to small-scale, homier facilities that also have lower levels of stimulation. They are also better adjusted in buildings that accommodate physical wandering. Residential crowding (number of people per room) and loud exterior noise sources (e.g., airports) elevate psychological distress but do not produce serious mental illness. Malodorous air pollutants heighten negative affect, and some toxins (e.g., lead, solvents) cause behavioral disturbances (e.g., self-regulatory ability, aggression). Insufficient daylight is reliably associated with increased depressive symptoms. Indirectly, the physical environment may influence mental health by altering psychosocial processes with known mental health sequelae. Personal control, socially supportive relationships, and restoration from stress and fatigue are all affected by properties of the built environment. More prospective, longitudinal studies and, where feasible, randomized experiments are needed to examine the potential role of the physical environment in mental health. Even more challenging is the task of developing underlying models of how the built environment can affect mental health. It is also likely that some individuals may be more vulnerable to mental health impacts of the built environment. Because exposure to poor environmental conditions is not randomly distributed and tends to concentrate among the poor and ethnic minorities, we also need to focus more attention on the health implications of multiple

  5. Afghan refugees in California: mental health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, J G

    1993-01-01

    Refugees are a particularly vulnerable population that is at risk for mental health problems for a variety of reasons: traumatic experiences in and escapes from their countries of origin, difficult camp or transit experiences, culture conflict and adjustment problems in the country of resettlement, and multiple losses--family members, country, and way of life. Afghan refugees comprise the largest refugee population in the world, at its peak numbering more than 6 million, living mainly in Pakistan and Iran. Based on an ethnographic study of Afghan refugees in Northern California, this article describes common antecedents to and examples of mental health problems in this population, such as depression, somatic symptoms, and posttraumatic stress disorder. It reviews some of the literature on traumatized refugees and makes some suggestions to mental health providers.

  6. Visual mental imagery in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüter, Thomas; Grüter, Martina; Bell, Vaughan; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2009-04-10

    Congenital prosopagnosia (cPA) is a selective impairment in the visual learning and recognition of faces without detectable brain damage or malformation. There is evidence that it can be inherited in an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. We assessed the capacity for visual mental imagery in 53 people with cPA using an adapted Marks' VVIQ (Vividness of Visual Imaging Questionnaire). The mean score of the prosopagnosic group showed the lowest mental imagery scores ever published for a non-brain damaged group. In a subsample of 12 people with cPA, we demonstrated that the cPA is a deficit of configural face processing. We suggest that the 'VVIQ-PA' (VVIQ-Prosopagnosia) questionnaire can help to confirm the diagnosis of cPA. Poor mental imagery, a configural face processing impairment and clinical prosopagnosia should be considered as symptoms of a yet poorly understood hereditary cerebral dysfunction.

  7. Health condition of women with mental disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Cristiane Lappann Botti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to evaluate the reproductive, gynecological, sexual and clinical aspects of women with mental disorders. This is an exploratory research with quantitative approach performed in a Psychosocial Care Center, Type III, in Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, with 39 women with mental disorders. Data collection took place from October to December 2012, through used semi-structured interviews and checked blood pressure, blood glucose, weight and height. The results revealed normal levels of blood pressure and postprandial blood glucose, change in body mass index, presence of menstrual flow, nulliparity, first sexual intercourse in adolescence, early menarche, and lack of climacteric symptoms and history of abortion. Comprehensive health care for women involves more than the demands and needs of the mental health field.

  8. The frontoparietal control system: A central role in mental health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael W.; Repovs, Grega; Anticevic, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the existence of a frontoparietal control system consisting of ‘flexible hubs’ that regulate distributed systems (e.g., visual, limbic, motor) according to current task goals. A growing number of studies are reporting alterations of this control system across a striking range of mental diseases. We suggest this may reflect a critical role for the control system in promoting and maintaining mental health. Specifically, we propose that this system implements feedback control to regulate symptoms as they arise (e.g., excessive anxiety reduced via regulation of amygdala), such that an intact control system is protective against a variety of mental illnesses. Consistent with this possibility, recent results indicate that several major mental illnesses involve altered brain-wide connectivity of the control system, likely altering its ability to regulate symptoms. These results suggest that this ‘immune system of the mind’ may be an especially important target for future basic and clinical research. PMID:24622818

  9. Overactive bladder symptom score to evaluate efficacy of solifenacin for the treatment of overactive bladder symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Ming; Wang Jianye; Yang Yong; An Ruihua; Wen Jianguo; Guan Zhichen; Zheng Shaobin

    2014-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) is a series of symptoms with high prevalence in elderly people.This study was conducted using the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) to evaluate the efficacy of solifenacin succinate for the treatment of OAB.Methods This was a prospective,multicenter,single-arm,12-week study that enrolled 241 OAB patients.The patients received 5-10 mg/day solifenacin.Changes in OABSS,symptoms from voiding diary,perception of bladder condition (PPBC) score,international prostate symptom score (IPSS) and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated at weeks 0,4,and 12.The relationship between OABSS and PPBC score or parameters of voiding diary was also evaluated.Results At baseline,the mean OABSS for all patients was 9.41±2.40,and was reduced significantly at week 12 (-3.76 points; 61.21%,P <0.0001).The OABSS subscore,PPBC score,IPSS,and QOL were also significantly reduced during the study (P <0.0001).The overall incidence of adverse events was 19.91% (44 cases).The gastrointestinal system was the most commonly affected (11.31%).Around 5.88% of the cases had adverse events related to the genitourinary system.There was a strong correlation between OABSS and urinary symptoms that was recorded in the 3-day voiding dairy.Conclusions We showed that solifenacin was clinically effective for relieving OAB symptoms,considering the balance between efficacy,patients' well-being,and tolerability.OABSS integrates four OAB symptoms into a single score and can be a useful tool for research and clinical practice.

  10. The Flip Side of the Boomerang Generation: The Role of Childhood Adversity and Social Support on Housing Stress and Independent Living of Millennials in Young Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. There currently is a growing understanding of the physical and mental health consequences of childhood adversity, yet much less is known about how childhood adversity relates to adult housing outcomes. Some social supports present in the transition to adulthood may buffer young people from housing challenges. This study examines the relationship between childhood adversity, social support in the transition to adulthood, and housing stress and living arrangements in adulth...

  11. Developmentally Sensitive Diagnostic Criteria for Mental Health Disorders in Early Childhood: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, the Research Diagnostic Criteria-Preschool Age, and the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Helen L.; Emde, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    As the infant mental health field has turned its focus to the presentation, course, and treatment of clinically significant mental health disorders, the need for reliable and valid criteria for identifying and assessing mental health symptoms and disorders in early childhood has become urgent. In this article we offer a critical perspective on…

  12. Trauma history in African-American women living with HIV: effects on psychiatric symptom severity and religious coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, Julie R; Fallot, Roger D; Wolfson Berley, Rebecca; Himelhoch, Seth S

    2015-01-01

    Women living with HIV (WLHIV) have rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) up to 5 times higher than the general population. Individuals living with HIV and a concurrent diagnosis of PTSD have poorer HIV-related outcomes; however, the prevalence and impact of PTSD on African-American WLHIV seeking mental health treatment is unknown. The aim of this study is to examine the associations between PTSD symptoms with psychiatric symptom severity and psychological/religious coping strategies in African-American WLHIV who are seeking mental health treatment. This is a cross-sectional study of 235 African-American WLHIV attending an urban community mental health clinic. Bivariate analyses were conducted to evaluate associations between a PTSD symptoms scale (PSS≥21 versus PSSAmerican WLHIV attending an outpatient mental health clinic had symptoms associated with PTSD. These symptoms were associated with worse mental health symptoms and utilization of dysfunctional religious and nonreligious coping strategies. Untreated PTSD in WLHIV predicts poorer HIV-related health outcomes and may negatively impact comorbid mental health outcomes. Screening for PTSD in WLHIV could identify a subset that would benefit from evidence-based PTSD-specific therapies in addition to mental health interventions already in place. PTSD-specific interventions for WLHIV with PTSD may improve outcomes, improve coping strategies, and allow for more effective treatment of comorbid mental health disorders.

  13. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory perceptions...

  14. Attention to bodily sensations and symptom perception in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Signe; Zachariae, Robert; Rasmussen, Alice;

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to exposure to environmental odours or chemicals at levels below those known to induce adverse health effects. A clarification of whether psychological processes involved in sensory...

  15. Health outcomes associated with lung function decline and respiratory symptoms and disease in a community cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baughman, Penelope; Marott, Jacob L; Lange, Peter

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In workplace respiratory disease prevention, a thorough understanding is needed of the relative contributions of lung function loss and respiratory symptoms in predicting adverse health outcomes. METHODS: Copenhagen City Heart Study respiratory data collected at 4 examinations (1976...

  16. Co-occurring Mental Health and Alcohol Misuse Symptoms: Dual Disorder Symptoms in Combat Injured Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-03

    Headaches 45 (45.9) 67 (40.6) .400 70 (12.8) SwoUen. stiff or painful joints 28 (28.6) 36 (21.8) 2 17 64 (11.7) Back pain 51 (52.0) 66 (40.0) .058...depression: Protective factors in the development of unique versus comorbid outcomes. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 19, 309–323...et al. (2010). Evaluation of the PHQ-2 as a brief screen for detecting major depression among adolescents . Pediatrics, 125(5), e1097–e1103. Santiago

  17. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  18. Possibility of the positive mental health activities at work

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 泰正

    2012-01-01

    Positive mental health activities at work may bebeneficial improving workers' health. Positive psychology interventions, such as writing gratitude letters, learning optimistic thoughts, or ruminating positive experiences, were found to be effective to ameliorate not only depressive symptoms but also well-being. Work engagement is one of the key issues for conducting proactive mental health activities at work. Work engagement may be able to be enhanced through work environment improvement inte...

  19. Childhood adversity and adult depression: The protective role of psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, have been identified as salient risk factors for adult depression. However, not all individuals who experience ACEs go on to develop depression. The extent to which resilience- or the ability to demonstrate stable levels of functioning despite adversity- may act as a buffer against depression among individuals with a history of ACEs has not been adequately examined. To address the associations between ACEs, depression, and resilience, 4006 adult participants were recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed self-report questionnaires including: the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a retrospective measure of childhood adversity; the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, a measure of the presence and severity of the major symptoms of depression; and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, a measure of psychological resilience. Results from regression analyses indicated that, while controlling for a range of demographic variables, both ACEs and resilience independently predicted symptoms of depression, F(9, 3040)=184.81, R(2)=0.354. Further, resilience moderated the association between ACEs and depression, F(10, 3039)=174.36, presilience relative to those with high resilience. This research provides important information regarding the relationships among ACEs, resilience, and depression. Results have the potential to inform the development of treatments aimed to reduce symptoms of depression among primary care patients with a history of childhood adversity.

  20. Vandetanib in advanced medullary thyroid cancer: review of adverse event management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grande, Enrique; Kreissl, Michael C; Filetti, Sebastiano

    2013-01-01

    Vandetanib has recently demonstrated clinically meaningful benefits in patients with unresectable, locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Given the potential for long-term vandetanib therapy in this setting, in addition to treatment for disease-related symptoms, effective ...... management of related adverse events (AEs) is vital to ensure patient compliance and maximize clinical benefit with vandetanib therapy....

  1. Adverse events of gastric electrical stimulators recorded in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The role of gastric electrical stimulation for patients with refractory symptoms of gastroparesis remains controversial. Open label studies suggest benefit while randomized controlled trials did not demonstrate differences between active and sham intervention. Using a voluntary reporting system of the Federal Drug Administration, we examined the type and frequency of adverse events.

  2. 40 CFR 159.184 - Toxic or adverse effect incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., an incident which allegedly caused serious but non-fatal effects to human beings and domestic animals...-target organism—for example, both humans and domestic animals are involved—all appropriate available... onset of symptoms. (F) Was adverse effect the result of suicide/homicide or attempted...

  3. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  4. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Pirdehghan; Mahmood Vakili(PhD); Yavar Rajabzadeh; Mohammad Puyandehpour; Arezoo Aghakoochak

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, I...

  5. Hospital deaths and adverse events in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavão Ana Luiza B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse events are considered a major international problem related to the performance of health systems. Evaluating the occurrence of adverse events involves, as any other outcome measure, determining the extent to which the observed differences can be attributed to the patient's risk factors or to variations in the treatment process, and this in turn highlights the importance of measuring differences in the severity of the cases. The current study aims to evaluate the association between deaths and adverse events, adjusted according to patient risk factors. Methods The study is based on a random sample of 1103 patient charts from hospitalizations in the year 2003 in 3 teaching hospitals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The methodology involved a retrospective review of patient charts in two stages - screening phase and evaluation phase. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between hospital deaths and adverse events. Results The overall mortality rate was 8.5%, while the rate related to the occurrence of an adverse event was 2.9% (32/1103 and that related to preventable adverse events was 2.3% (25/1103. Among the 94 deaths analyzed, 34% were related to cases involving adverse events, and 26.6% of deaths occurred in cases whose adverse events were considered preventable. The models tested showed good discriminatory capacity. The unadjusted odds ratio (OR 11.43 and the odds ratio adjusted for patient risk factors (OR 8.23 between death and preventable adverse event were high. Conclusions Despite discussions in the literature regarding the limitations of evaluating preventable adverse events based on peer review, the results presented here emphasize that adverse events are not only prevalent, but are associated with serious harm and even death. These results also highlight the importance of risk adjustment and multivariate models in the study of adverse events.

  6. Asymmetric Information – Adverse Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MARIN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an introduction in the contract theory starting with the definitions of asymmetric information and some of the problems that generate: moral hazard and adverse selection. We provide an insight of the latest empirical studies in adverse selection in different markets. An adverse selection model, based on Rothchild and Stiglitz is also present to give a perspective of the theoretical framework.

  7. Financial Difficulty Effects on Depressive Symptoms Among Dementia Patient Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ilsung

    2016-11-01

    The financial difficulty of dementia caregivers and its effects on mental health has gained increasing attention from researchers. The present study examines the longitudinal relationship between financial difficulty and the depressive symptoms of dementia caregivers using matching methods to account for potential selection bias. Propensity score matching methods and mixed-effects models were used to determine the effects of financial difficulty on depressive symptoms among caregivers participating in the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) intervention program. Propensity score matching confirmed that caregivers experiencing financial difficulty were more likely to have depressive symptoms. The results suggest that dementia caregivers require support for their financial difficulty. Future research should fully examine the complex relationship between financial difficulty and the mental health of caregivers and how this issue can be addressed through assessment and intervention methods.

  8. Religious practices, beliefs, and mental health: Variations across Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternthal, Michelle J.; Williams, David R.; Musick, Marc A.; Buck, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether Black Americans and Hispanic Americans experienced greater mental health benefits from religious involvement than White Americans, and whether these benefits would be mediated through three psychosocial factors—social support, meaning and forgiveness. Methods Utilizing data from a probability sample of Chicago-based adults (n=3103), ethnicity-stratified multivariate regression models estimated the association of religiosity with depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Models controlled for potential confounders and psychosocial mediators. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, religiously involved Black Americans and Hispanic Americans did not experience greater mental health benefits than their White counterparts. For White Americans alone, service attendance was inversely related to depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and major depressive disorder. Religious saliency was consistently associated with worse mental health for Hispanic Americans only. However, both meaning and forgiveness conferred mental health benefits for all three groups. Conclusions The benefits of specific aspects of religious involvement vary across ethnicity. Caution is necessary in any effort to bring religion into the health domain. Our findings, if replicated, suggest that initiatives that facilitate a sense of purpose or forgiveness are likely to prove promising in improving mental health, regardless of race or ethnicity. PMID:22296590

  9. Functional mental capacity, treatment as usual and time: magnitude of change in secure hospital patients with major mental illness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dornan, Julieanne

    2015-01-01

    Decision making ability can change with time, depending on mental or physical health. Little is known about the factors that determine this change and the relationship of capacity to time. As a pilot for studies using functional mental capacities as an outcome measure, we sought to quantify this relationship measuring change over time using competence assessment tools, and rating scales for symptoms and global function.

  10. The effects of spatially varying earthquake impacts on mood and anxiety symptom treatments among long-term Christchurch residents following the 2010/11 Canterbury earthquakes, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, Daniel; Kingham, Simon; Wilson, Thomas M; Ardagh, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the effects of disruptions to different community environments, community resilience and cumulated felt earthquake intensities on yearly mood and anxiety symptom treatments from the New Zealand Ministry of Health's administrative databases between September 2009 and August 2012. The sample includes 172,284 long-term residents from different Christchurch communities. Living in a better physical environment was associated with lower mood and anxiety treatment rates after the beginning of the Canterbury earthquake sequence whereas an inverse effect could be found for social community environment and community resilience. These results may be confounded by pre-existing patterns, as well as intensified treatment-seeking behaviour and intervention programmes in severely affected areas. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that adverse mental health outcomes can be found in communities with worse physical but stronger social environments or community resilience post-disaster. Also, they do not necessarily follow felt intensities since cumulative earthquake intensity did not show a significant effect.

  11. Reactive Attachment Disorder Symptoms in Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Helen; Fleming, Gail; Cooper, Sally-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies with children suggest that reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is associated with pathogenic early care. Little is known about RAD in adults with intellectual disabilities, many of whom experience adversity and abuse in early life. We investigated whether RAD symptoms occur in this population, and explored whether hypothesized…

  12. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  13. [Mental disorder and suicide prevention in patients with physical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ohtsuki, Tsuyuka

    2012-01-01

    Suicide rate in Japan is 25/100,000 in a year. The rate is higher than those in other developed countries. Physical illness is a risk factor for suicide. To prevent suicide in patients with physical illness, identification of mental illness, such as depression, is important. In addition, palliative care for distressing physical and psychological symptoms is also important. In process of identification of mental illness and distressing physical symptoms, communications between medical staff and patients are essential. Enhancing communication skills of medical staff may be a key point to prevent suicide.

  14. Prevalence, severity and risk factors for depressive symptoms and insomnia in college undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gress-Smith, Jenna L; Roubinov, Danielle S; Andreotti, Charissa; Compas, Bruce E; Luecken, Linda J

    2015-02-01

    Although the college years represent a high-risk period for depressive symptoms and insomnia, little research has explored their prevalence, comorbidities and risk factors within this developmental period. Two studies were conducted; the first evaluated the prevalence and comorbidity of depressive symptoms and insomnia in 1338 students (ages 18-23 years) from a large Southwestern University. Mild depressive symptoms were endorsed by 19% of students and 14.5% reported moderate to severe symptoms. Forty-seven percent of students reported mild insomnia and 22.5% endorsed moderate to severe insomnia severity. A second study investigated perceived stress as a potential mediator of the relation between self-reported childhood adversity and concurrent depressive symptoms and insomnia. Undergraduates (N = 447) from a Southwestern and Southeastern University reported prior childhood adversity, current perceived stress, insomnia and depressive symptoms. Self-reported childhood adversity predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms and insomnia severity, partially mediated by perceived stress. Results support the high prevalence of depressive symptoms and insomnia among undergraduates. The risk for depressive and insomnia symptoms may be increased among students who experienced greater levels of childhood adversity.

  15. Premonitory symptoms in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurell, Katarina; Artto, Ville; Bendtsen, Lars

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency and number of premonitory symptoms (PS) in migraine, the co-occurrence of different PS, and their association with migraine-related factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to Finnish migraine families between 2002 and 2013...... to obtain data on 14 predefined PS, migraine diagnoses, demographic factors, and migraine characteristics. The estimated response rate was 80%. RESULTS: Out of 2714 persons, 2223 were diagnosed with migraine. Among these, 77% reported PS, with a mean number of 3.0 symptoms compared to 30% (p ....5 symptoms (p migraine headaches. Yawning was the most commonly reported symptom (34%) among migraineurs. Females reported PS more frequently than males (81 versus 64%, p 

  16. Throat Problems (Symptom Checker)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisThese symptoms may be from BRONCHITIS, PNEUMONIA or POST-NASAL DRIP.Self CareThese illnesses need prescription treatments. See your doctor.Start OverDiagnosisA dry barking cough ...

  17. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tetanus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Tetanus Home About Tetanus Causes and Transmission Symptoms and ...

  18. Dermatomyositis: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Dermatomyositis (DM) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... Signs and Symptoms What happens to someone with dermatomyositis? For many decades, DM was considered “ polymyositis with ...

  19. Symptoms of Blood Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  20. Duration of symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Olfred; Larsen, Susanne; Bastholt, Lars

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relationship between the durations of symptoms before the start of radiotherapy and treatment outcome in Stage I-III glottic cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From 1965 to 1997, 611 glottic cancer patients from the Southern Region of Denmark were treated with primary radiotherapy....... A total of 544 patients fulfilled the criteria for inclusion to the study (Stage I-III glottic cancer, a duration of symptoms less than or equal to 36 months, primary radiotherapy with at least 50 Gy and sufficient data for analysis). The total radiation dose ranged from 50.0 to 71.6 Gy in 22 to 42...... of symptoms was a significant factor (p symptoms was statistically...

  1. 不伴精神症状的苯丙胺类兴奋剂依赖者家庭环境因素的初步分析%ANALYSIS OF THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT IN AMPHETAMINE-TYPE STIMULANTS ADDICTS WITHOUT MENTAL SYMPTOMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦淑芬; 张昌勇

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the family environment of amphetamine - type stimulants addicts without mental symptoms. Methods: Sixty amphetamine -type stimulants addicts were tested with FES -CV. Results: Amphetamine -type stimulants addicts had higher score on cohesion, conflict, recreational and control than Chinese norms ( t = 2. 543, P =0.014, t =2.361, P =0.022, t = 2. 186, P = 0. 033,t =2.571, P =0.013) , and had lower score on expressiveness, achievement and intellectual than Chinese norms ( t= -2.213, P =0.031, t = -2.631, P =0.011, t = -2.268, P =0.027) . Positive correlations were found between cohesion and control ( r - 0.308, P< 0. 05 ) , expressiveness and organization r = 0. 430, P< 0. 01 ) , conflict and independence, intellectual, recreational, moral -religion, control( r =0. 271, P<0. 05, r =0. 512, P<0. 01, r =0. 493, P<0. 01, r =0. 425, P<0. 01, r = 0.413,P(0.01) , independence and intellectual, moral - religion, control ( r =0.372, P< 0. 01, r = 0. 370, P< 0. 01, r =0. 374, P< 0. 01 ) , intellectual and recreational, moral - religion, control( r = 0. 805, P<0. 01, r =0. 698, P<0. 01, r =0. 648, P<0. 01) , recreational and moral - religion, control( r = 0. 637, P< 0. 01, r = 0. 691, P< 0. 01 ) , control and moral - religion( r = 0. 501, P< 0. 01 ) . Negative correlations were found between control and organization ( r = - 0. 381, P< 0. 01 ) . Conclusion: These results indicated that amphetamine - type stimulants addicts without mental symptoms had special family environment, which was high cohesion, low expressiveness, high conflict, low achievement and intellectual, high recreational and control. Finally, we suggest that psychotherapy of comprehensive intervention with the correlation studies of the family environment will be helpful to recovery.%目的:初步分析不伴精神症状的苯丙胺类兴奋剂依赖者的家庭环境.方法:选择60例苯丙胺类兴奋剂依赖者自评中文版的家庭环境量表(FES-CV).结果:该类苯丙胺类兴奋

  2. Prevention of emotional problems and psychiatric risks in children of parents with a mental illness in the Netherlands: I. The scientific basis to a comprehensive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosman, C.M.H.; Doesum, K.T.M. van; Santvoort, F. van

    2009-01-01

    Children of parents with a mental illness are at significant risk of developing mental disorders and other adverse outcomes at some point in their lives compared to children of healthy parents. During the last 20 years, a comprehensive preventive program for children of parents with a mental illness

  3. Dry eye disease is associated with deterioration of mental health in male Japanese university staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounaka, Kaoru; Yuki, Kenya; Kouyama, Keisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is defined as a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability, with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is thought to be associated with reduced quality of life (QOL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DED on health-related QOL in Japanese university sedentary office workers who are daily users of visual display terminal. In this study, 163 university staff (99 male and 64 female), aged 23-69 years, served as study subjects. Subjects were asked to answer the following three questions. (1) How often do your eyes feel dry? (2) How often do your eyes feel irritated? (3) Have you ever been diagnosed by a clinician as having dry eye syndrome? Sixty-eight subjects who answered "constantly," "often", or "sometimes" to both questions 1 and 2 were classified as the DED Group, and the remaining 95 were defined as the Non-DED Group. QOL was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, which consisted of 36 items to produce three summary scores, namely, mental, physical, and role/social component summary scores. For males, the DED Group had significantly lower scores than the Non-DED Group for mental component summary (MCS) (P = 0.005). In multiple regression analysis, MCS scores were adversely related to DED in males (P = 0.015). DED was associated with worsened QOL. DED should be regarded as a factor that can lead to deterioration of mental health.

  4. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of ac

  5. [Episodic manifestation of hemiparkinson syndrome with severe dementia personality change and precursors of paranoid hallucination symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postrach, F

    1989-09-01

    A case of episodic manifestation of semiparalysis agitans is described, accompanied by severe demential personality change and precursory hallucinatory symptoms, which is made the basis for the discussion of aspects of mental disorders, notably dementia and symptoms resembling schizophrenia, in Parkinsonian patients. By way of allusion to Glass, a diagnosis including a very extensive, complex, symptomatology is made of a Parkinsonian syndrome.

  6. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, the symptoms of many disorders presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) lack sufficient psychometric…

  7. Is violent radicalisation associated with poverty, migration, poor self-reported health and common mental disorders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaldeep Bhui

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doctors, lawyers and criminal justice agencies need methods to assess vulnerability to violent radicalization. In synergy, public health interventions aim to prevent the emergence of risk behaviours as well as prevent and treat new illness events. This paper describes a new method of assessing vulnerability to violent radicalization, and then investigates the role of previously reported causes, including poor self-reported health, anxiety and depression, adverse life events, poverty, and migration and socio-political factors. The aim is to identify foci for preventive intervention. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of a representative population sample of men and women aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage and recruited by quota sampling by age, gender, working status, in two English cities. The main outcomes include self-reported health, symptoms of anxiety and depression (common mental disorders, and vulnerability to violent radicalization assessed by sympathies for violent protest and terrorist acts. RESULTS: 2.4% of people showed some sympathy for violent protest and terrorist acts. Sympathy was more likely to be articulated by the under 20s, those in full time education rather than employment, those born in the UK, those speaking English at home, and high earners (>£75,000 a year. People with poor self-reported health were less likely to show sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Anxiety and depressive symptoms, adverse life events and socio-political attitudes showed no associations. CONCLUSIONS: Sympathies for violent protest and terrorism were uncommon among men and women, aged 18-45, of Muslim heritage living in two English cities. Youth, wealth, and being in education rather than employment were risk factors.

  8. Mental health and PTSD in female North Korean refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gisoo; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify mental health status, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychophysiological change in female North Korean refugees. Data were collected using questionnaires and symptom checklists that measured PTSD and the psychosomatic state of the subjects. As many as 97 subjects, who had settled in and around Seoul, South Korea, were selected by snowball sampling. Mental health and PTSD levels of the participants were above a moderate level. We conclude that health care professionals need to provide female North Korean defectors with services to improve mental health and make the sociocultural transition successfully.

  9. Investigating Environmental Links between Parent Depression and Child Depressive/Anxiety Symptoms Using an Assisted Conception Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Rice, Frances; Harold, Gordon T.; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Links between maternal and offspring depression symptoms could arise from inherited factors, direct environmental exposure, or shared adversity. A novel genetically sensitive design was used to test the extent of environmental links between maternal depression symptoms and child depression/anxiety symptoms, accounting for inherited…

  10. The influence of contextual information on lay judgments of childhood mental health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jessecae K; De Los Reyes, Andres; Wallerstein, Alexa

    2014-12-01

    Decisions about whether a person is in need of mental health care are often made by laypeople with no training in the identification of mental health concerns. For example, the parent of a child displaying problematic behavior has to decide whether this behavior is likely related to mental health concerns and necessitates professional care. The process of identifying mental health concerns is made more complicated by the rich background of real-world environmental factors or contexts in which concerns can present-contexts that might or might not relate to the presence of mental health concerns. We investigated whether laypeople use contextual information to make judgments regarding childhood mental health disorder symptoms. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that laypeople's judgments of the likelihood of a mental disorder are influenced by non-diagnostic contextual information that surrounds symptoms of the disorder. In Experiment 2, we demonstrated that providing a causal origin for such disorder symptoms accentuates the use of context, regardless of the nature of the causal process (i.e., environmental vs. biological). These findings indicate that contextual influences on judgments about mental health concerns may reflect a more general set of mental reasoning processes than indicated by previous work focused on clinicians' judgments. Consequently, these findings have important implications for how we think about the influence of contextual information on decision making more generally as well as for improving our ability to both reliably identify children in need of mental health care and increase children's access to such care.

  11. A comparison of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist and the GAF among adults with mental retardation and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlack, Karen J; Hennen, John; Magee, Christine; Cheron, Daniel M

    2005-04-01

    Psychiatric assessment among individuals with a diagnosis of both mental retardation and mental illness presents a clinical challenge. This retrospective study compared two rating scales--the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF)--to determine the scales' utility in a partial hospital setting. Although ABC and GAF ratings were weakly correlated, the ABC revealed symptom patterns consistent with recognizable features of psychiatric syndromes and differential improvement in symptoms within and between diagnostic subgroups. The ABC provided a more useful measure of treatment response than the GAF in this patient population.

  12. Influencing factors of mental health of medical students in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Meng, Heng; Chen, Hui; Xu, Xin-hao; Liu, Zhuo; Luo, Ai; Feng, Zhan-chun

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the mental health status of medical students in China, and analyzed the influencing factors in order to provide evidence for mental health education for medical students. A stratified cluster sampling method was used to recruit medical students from Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China. The questionnaire survey on general information and Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90) were used for investigation and analysis. The results showed among the 1137 valid questionnaires, 278 (24.45%) participants had SCL-90 score ≥ 160. The top three mental problems of medical students were obsessive-compulsive disorder, interpersonal sensitivity and depression in terms of the factor score ≥ 2.5 and the number of participants who reflected on the diseases. The third-year medical students had the worst mental health status, and fifth-year medical students had the best mental health status. Students from rural area had more psychological problems than those from urban area; furthermore, students with high professional satisfaction, those who were the single child of the family, non-poor students, and those whose parents had high education level had better mental health status. It was concluded that the mental health of medical students is not optimistic in China. Medical students have some mental health problems of different degrees. Factors that influence the mental health of medical students include academic pressure, professional satisfaction level and family environment.

  13. Family contexts: parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Alisia G T T

    2014-03-01

    Research on the mental health correlates of discrimination traditionally has been intra-individual, focusing exclusively on the individual directly experiencing discrimination. A small number of studies have begun to consider the links between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health, but little is known about potential underlying mechanisms. The present study tested the independent mediating effects of parent mental health and household socioeconomic status on the associations between parental experiences of discrimination (past-year perceived discrimination and perceptions of being unaccepted culturally) and child mental health (internalizing and externalizing symptoms) using a bootstrapping analytic approach. Data were drawn from racial/ethnic minority (n = 383) and White (n = 574) samples surveyed in an urban Midwestern county. For all measures of discrimination and child mental health, findings supported an association between parental experiences of discrimination and child mental health. Whereas parent mental health served as a significant mediator in all analyses, socioeconomic status did not. Mediation findings held for both the White and racial/ethnic minority samples. Results suggest that parental experiences of discrimination and mental health may contribute to child mental health concerns, thus highlighting the role of family contexts in shaping child development.

  14. Mental disorders are not brain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F

    2013-06-01

    As advances in neuroscience and genetics reveal complex associations between brain structures, functions and symptoms of mental disorders, there have been calls for psychiatric classifications to be reconfigured, to conceptualize mental disorders as disorders of the brain. In this paper, I argue that this view is mistaken, and that the level at which we identify mental disorders is, and should be, the person, not the brain. This is not to deny physicalism or argue that the mental realm is somehow distinct from the physical, but rather to suggest the things that are going 'wrong' in mental disorder are picked out at the person-level: they are characterized by breaches in epistemic, rational, evaluative, emotional, social and moral norms. However, as our scientific understanding of the brain becomes advanced, what makes an identified neurobiological difference in brain structure or functioning indicative of pathology is its association with these behaviours at the person-level. Instead of collapsing psychiatry into biomedicine, biomedicine may benefit from drawing closer to the expertise of psychiatry, as it is able to accommodate social, psychological and biological explanations while focusing on the person, within their environment.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: the future of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Ramirez, Marizen; Coohey, Carol; Nakada, Stephanie; Walz, Amy; Kuntz, Angela; Benoit, Jenna; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are related to short- and long-term negative physical and mental health consequences among children and adults. Studies of the last three decades on ACEs and traumatic stress have emphasized their impact and the importance of preventing and addressing trauma across all service systems utilizing universal systemic approaches. Current developments on the implementation of trauma informed care (TIC) in a variety of service systems call for the surveillance of trauma, resiliency, functional capacity, and health impact of ACEs. Despite such efforts in adult medical care, early identification of childhood trauma in children still remains a significant public health need. This article reviews childhood adversity and traumatic toxic stress, presents epidemiologic data on the prevalence of ACEs and their physical and mental health impacts, and discusses intervention modalities for prevention.

  16. [Psychopathological aspects of negative symptoms in schizophrenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermolacce, M; Belzeaux, R; Pringuey, D; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    During the past ten years, research on schizophrenia has witnessed a clear emphasis on studies based on negative symptoms. This interest can be explained in terms of diagnosis, specific treatment, functional prognosis and outcome issues. However, main current approaches consider negative symptoms from an operationalist view, which implies objective and atheoretical descriptions of clinical criteria, observed from a third person perspective. And the understanding of negative symptoms in schizophrenia, still a crucial issue of mental health, remains only partial. From a different perspective, psychopathology - and notably psychiatric phenomenology -, can provide a conceptual and clinical framework, taking into account subjective experience (first person perspective), based on a global understanding of the clinical situation lived by patients with schizophrenia. In the present review, we give a brief survey on the historical aspects of the description of negative symptoms. Then, we introduce the clinical contributions raised by clinical phenomenology. We principally develop Minkowski's notion of loss of vital contact, and Blankenburg's notion of loss of natural evidence. Then we highlight the current debates which are discussed and explored in contemporary psychopathology. In conclusion, we discuss the possible articulation between objective and subjective approaches, in order to better understand pauci-symptomatic forms of schizophrenia.

  17. Correlates of psychotic symptoms among elderly outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, S; Laurie, S

    1999-05-01

    Psychotic symptoms presenting in late life can offer a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. In this study, 140 geriatric outpatients were prospectively examined for psychotic symptoms and assessed on a number of demographic and clinical variables. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Exam. Psychiatric diagnoses were made by DSM-III-R criteria. Twenty-seven per cent (N = 38) had psychotic symptoms, delusions being the most common type. Patients with psychosis were significantly more likely to have a previous history of psychosis, to have a lower MMSE and to live in a nursing home. Four diagnoses accounted for 79.5% of all psychotic patients. In order of frequency, these were dementia, major depression, delirium and organic psychosis (organic hallucinosis, organic delusional disorder). Psychotic patients were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of dementia, delirium or organic psychosis than non-psychotics, but depression was significantly more likely to occur in patients without psychosis. Although psychotic symptoms occur in a variety of illnesses, elderly patients with psychosis should be carefully evaluated for these disorders.

  18. Mental Health in Sport (MHS): Improving the Early Intervention Knowledge and Confidence of Elite Sport Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbens, Joshua; Hassmén, Peter; Crisp, Dimity; Wensley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Mental illnesses are as prevalent among elite athletes as in the general population. Despite this, there is little research examining how to enhance mental health literacy or helping behaviors in elite sport environments. A Mental Health in Sport (MHS) workshop was therefore developed and its effects on mental health literacy and confidence studied in 166 coaches and support staff working with elite athletes and teams in Australia. Results indicated that participants increased their knowledge of the signs and symptoms of common mental illnesses and were more confident in helping someone who may be experiencing a mental health problem. We conclude that even a very brief intervention can be effective in improving the mental health literacy and confidence of key persons in elite sport environments, and may promote early intervention and timely referral of elite athletes with mental health concerns to appropriate professionals.

  19. Perceived risk of mental health problems in primary care.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2015-01-01

    In the face of limited resources and an aging population with increasingly care needs, healthcare systems must identify community-dwelling older adults with mental health problems at higher risk of adverse outcomes such as institutionalization, hospitalization and death, in order to deliver timely and efficient care. The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of mental health concerns and the associated perceived risk of adverse outcomes in a large sample of older patients in primary care (PC). We trained general practitioners and nurses to use the Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community to rank perceived risk of mental health concerns (including neurocognitive and mood disorders) from 1 (mild) to 3 (severe). The mean age of the 4499 people assessed was 76.3 years (SD = 7.3) and 2645 (58.8%) were female. According to the PC team 1616 (35.9%) were perceived to have mental health concerns of whom 847 (52.4%) were mild, 559 (34.6%) were moderate and 210 (13%) were severe. Patients with mental health concerns had higher odds of perceived risk of adverse outcomes (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.83-2.69 for institutionalization; OR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.41-1.94 for hospitalization; OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.42-2.01 for death). These results suggest a high prevalence of mental health concerns among older adults and supports the need for early identification of patients at high-risk of adverse healthcare outcomes.

  20. Symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder and obsessive beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trinette Cordeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD is a heterogeneous condition with a few major symptom dimensions. These symptom dimensions are thought to have unique clinical and neurobiological correlates. There seems to be a specific relation between OCD symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs, but the findings are not consistent across studies. There is also a paucity of literature from culturally diverse settings. One of the reasons for the varied findings could be due to the method employed in measuring OCD symptoms. Materials and Methods: In this study, we examined the relation between symptom dimensions and obsessive beliefs using the Dimensional Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and the Obsessive Beliefs Questionnaire respectively in 75 patients with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition OCD. Results: Perfectionism predicted both aggressive and symmetry dimensions whereas responsibility beliefs predicted sexual and religious dimensions. Conclusions: The findings suggest that certain obsessive beliefs predicted certain OCD symptom dimensions, but results are not entirely consistent with the published literature suggesting the possibility of cross-cultural variations. That the symptom dimensions have unique belief domains support the argument that symptom dimensions could be targeted to reduce the heterogeneity in etiological and treatment studies of OCD. Therapeutic interventions may have to aim at modifying unique belief domains underlying certain symptom dimensions rather than having generic cognitive-behavioral strategies.