WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse health impacts

  1. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-12-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilitate the emergence of a strong single market for tissue engineered products and their starting materials (human cells and tissues). In this paper we analyze the elaboration process of this new European Union (EU) human cell and tissue product regulatory regime-i.e. the EU Cell and Tissue Directives (EUCTDs) and the Advanced Therapy Medicinal Product (ATMP) Regulation and evaluate its impact on Member States' health care systems. We demonstrate that the successful lobbying on key areas of regulatory and policy processes by industry, in congruence with Europe's risk aversion and urge to promote growth and jobs, led to excessively business oriented legislation. Expensive industry oriented requirements were introduced and contentious social and ethical issues were excluded. We found indications that this new EU safety and health legislation will adversely impact Member States' health care systems; since 30 December 2012 (the end of the ATMP transitional period) there is a clear threat to the sustainability of some lifesaving and established ATMPs that were provided by public health institutions and small and medium-sized enterprises under the frame of the EUCTDs. In the light of the current economic crisis it is not clear how social security systems will cope with the inflation of costs associated with this new regulatory regime and how priorities will be set with regard to reimbursement decisions. We argue that the ATMP Regulation should urgently be revised to focus on delivering

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviours in female prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana Ferreira Cardoso; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Adversity during childhood has been the object of innumerous Psychology studies, justified by its prevalence and decisive impact in the development of human being. The most relevant results confirm that adverse childhood experiences increase the incidence of physical and psychological disturbances in adult age. We intends to characterizes adverse childhood experiences and relate them to health risk behaviour and with psychopathological symptoms, as found within a sample group of 4...

  3. Cadmium & its adverse effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, A

    2008-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd), a by-product of zinc production, is one of the most toxic elements to which man can be exposed at work or in the environment. Once absorbed, Cd is efficiently retained in the human body, in which it accumulates throughout life. Cd is primarily toxic to the kidney, especially to the proximal tubular cells, the main site of accumulation. Cd can also cause bone demineralization, either through direct bone damage or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. In the industry, excessive exposures to airborne Cd may impair lung function and increase the risk of lung cancer. All these effects have been described in populations with relatively high exposures to Cd in the industrial or in heavily polluted environments. Recent studies, however, suggest that the chronic low environmental exposure to Cd now prevailing in industrialized countries can adversely affect the kidneys and bones of the general population. These studies show consistent associations between various renal and bone biomarkers and the urinary excretion of Cd used to assess Cd body burden. The public health impact of these findings are still unknown. Further research is needed to ascertain that these associations are truly causal and not secondary to parallel changes in Cd metabolism and in the bone or kidney function occurring because of ageing or diseases unrelated to Cd exposure. PMID:19106447

  4. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Thomas J; Faraone, Stephen V; Tarko, Laura; McDermott, Katie; Biederman, Joseph

    2014-10-01

    Whereas the adverse impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on emotional and psychosocial well-being has been well investigated, its impact on physical health has not. The main aim of this study was to assess the impact of ADHD on lifestyle behaviors and measures of adverse health risk indicators. Subjects were 100 untreated adults with ADHD and 100 adults without ADHD of similar age and sex. Unhealthy lifestyle indicators included assessments of bad health habits, frequency of visits to healthcare providers, and follow through with recommended prophylactic tests. Assessments of adverse health risk indicators included measurements of cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, weight, body mass index, and waist circumference. No differences were identified in health habits between subjects with and without ADHD, but robust differences were found in a wide range of adverse health risk indicators. ADHD is associated with an adverse impact in health risk indicators well known to be associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:25211634

  5. Adverse weather impacts on arable cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Damages due to extreme or adverse weather strongly depend on crop type, crop stage, soil conditions and management. The impact is largest during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar, and requires a modelling approach to capture the interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event. The hypothesis is that extreme and adverse weather events can be quantified and subsequently incorporated in current crop models. Since crop development is driven by thermal time and photoperiod, a regional crop model was used to examine the likely frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and waterlogging in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages. Risk profiles and associated return levels were obtained by fitting generalized extreme value distributions to block maxima for air humidity, water balance and temperature variables. The risk profiles were subsequently confronted with yields and yield losses for the major arable crops in Belgium, notably winter wheat, winter barley, winter oilseed rape, sugar beet, potato and maize at the field (farm records) to regional scale (statistics). The average daily vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and reference evapotranspiration (ET0) during the growing season is significantly lower (p stress. Effects of heat stress therefore have to be combined with moisture availability such as the precipitation deficit or the soil water balance. Risks of combined heat and moisture deficit stress appear during the summer. These risks are subsequently related to crop damage. The methodology of defining meteorological risks and subsequently relating the risk to the cropping calendar will be demonstrated for major arable crops in Belgium. Physically based crop models assist in understanding the links between adverse weather events, sensitive crop stages and crop damage. Financial support was obtained from Belspo under research contract SD/RI/03A.

  6. Childhood adversity and adult health: Evaluating intervening mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Jay; Thomas, Courtney S; Brown, Tyson H

    2016-05-01

    Substantial evidence has accumulated supporting a causal link between childhood adversity and risk for poor health years and even decades later. One interpretation of this evidence is that this linkage arises largely or exclusively from a process of biological embedding that is not modifiable by subsequent social context or experience - implying childhood as perhaps the only point at which intervention efforts are likely to be effective. This paper considers the extent to which this long-term association arises from intervening differences in social context and/or environmental experiences - a finding that would suggest that post-childhood prevention efforts may also be effective. Based on the argument that the selected research definition of adult health status may have implications for the early adversity-adult health linkage, we use a representative community sample of black and white adults (N = 1252) to evaluate this relationship across three health indices: doctor diagnosed illnesses, self-rated health, and allostatic load. Results generally indicate that observed relationships between childhood adversity and dimensions of adult health status were totally or almost totally accounted for by variations in adult socioeconomic position (SEP) and adult stress exposure. One exception is the childhood SEP-allostatic load association, for which a statistically significant relationship remained in the context of adult stress and SEP. This lone finding supports a conclusion that the impact of childhood adversity is not always redeemable by subsequent experience. However, in general, analyses suggest the likely utility of interventions beyond childhood aimed at reducing exposure to social stress and improving social and economic standing. Whatever the effects on adult health that derive from biological embedding, they appear to be primarily indirect effects through adult social context and exposure. PMID:27030896

  7. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children. PMID:25733725

  8. Assessing Incentives for Adverse Selection in Health Plan Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Layton; Ellis, Randall P.; McGuire, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    Health insurance markets face two forms of adverse selection problems. On the demand side, adverse selection leads to plan price distortions and inefficient sorting of consumers across health plans. On the supply side, adverse selection creates incentives for plans to inefficiently distort benefits to attract profitable enrollees. These problems can be addressed by features of health plan payment systems such as reinsurance, risk adjustment, and premium categories. In this paper, we develop H...

  9. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  10. Text mining electronic health records to identify hospital adverse events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Lars Ulrik; Hardahl, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Manual reviews of health records to identify possible adverse events are time consuming. We are developing a method based on natural language processing to quickly search electronic health records for common triggers and adverse events. Our results agree fairly well with those obtained using manu...

  11. Basic Versus Supplementary Health Insurance : Moral Hazard and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  12. Basic versus supplementary health insurance : Moral hazard and adverse selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a tractable model of health insurance with both moral hazard and adverse selection. We show that government sponsored universal basic insurance should cover treatments with the biggest adverse selection problems. Treatments not covered by basic insurance can be covered on the p

  13. Evidence of Adverse Selection in Iranian Supplementary Health Insurance Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Mahdavi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existence or non-existence of adverse selection in insurance market is one of the important cases that have always been considered by insurers. Adverse selection is one of the consequences of asymmetric information. Theory of adverse selection states that high-risk individuals demand the insurance service more than low risk individuals do.Methods: The presence of adverse selection in Irans supplementary health insurance market is tested in this paper. The study group consists of 420 practitioner individuals aged 20 to 59. We estimate two logistic regression models in order to determine the effect of individual's characteristics on decision to purchase health insurance coverage and loss occurrence. Using the correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase health insurance, the adverse selection problem in Iranian supplementary health insurance market is examined.Results: Individuals with higher level of education and income level purchase less supplementary health insurance and make fewer claims than others make and there is positive correlation between claim occurrence and decision to purchase supplementary health insurance.Conclusion: Our findings prove the evidence of the presence of adverse selection in Iranian supplementary health insurance market.

  14. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  15. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal. PMID:2686171

  16. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    OpenAIRE

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-01-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde-...

  17. Adverse Health Effects in Relation to Urban Residential Soundscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKÅNBERG, A.; ÖHRSTRÖM, E.

    2002-02-01

    Noise pollution from road traffic in residential areas is a growing environmental problem. New approaches to turn the negative trend are needed. The programme “Soundscape Support to Health” will achieve new knowledge about the adverse health effects of noise pollution on humans and will investigate the link between well-being and health and perceived soundscapes for optimizing the acoustic soundscapes in urban residential areas. This paper will briefly present the programme and presents preliminary results from the first study of how various adverse health effects are related to individual noise exposures among individuals in residential areas with and without access to a quiet side of the dwelling.

  18. Long Term Physical Health Consequences of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2015-01-01

    This study examined associations between adverse childhood family experiences and adult physical health using data from 52,250 US adults aged 18–64 from the 2009–2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). We found that experiencing childhood physical, verbal, or sexual abuse, witnessing parental domestic violence, experiencing parental divorce, and living with someone who was depressed, abused drugs or alcohol, or who had been incarcerated were associated with one or more of the following health outcomes: self-rated health, functional limitations, diabetes, and heart attack. Adult socioeconomic status and poor mental health and health behaviors significantly mediated several of these associations. The results of this study highlight the importance of family-based adverse childhood experiences on adult health outcomes and suggest that adult SES and stress-related coping behaviors may be crucial links between trauma in the childhood home and adult health. PMID:26500379

  19. Childhood Poverty: Understanding and Preventing the Adverse Impacts of a Most-Prevalent Risk to Pediatric Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickedanz, Adam; Dreyer, Benard P; Halfon, Neal

    2015-10-01

    Poor children are at greater risk for worse health, less productivity, and harms to well-being that extend into adulthood and subsequent generations. Timing and duration of poverty matter and influence life course outcomes, especially for education, health, and lifetime productivity. This article focuses on interventions by policy advocacy and the pediatric health system, and protection of the health and well-being of families in economic hardship from disadvantages and trauma wrought by poverty. A framework is presented for child poverty prevention and its consequences for lifelong health and success on a national scale. PMID:26318943

  20. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  1. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  2. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  3. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...

  4. No Cranberries for Thanksgiving: The Impact of FDA Adverse Publicity

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, Lisa M.

    2005-01-01

    As the primary federal agency responsible for regulating the safety of food, drugs, medical devices, and cosmetics, The Food and Drug Administration (“FDAâ€) has enormous responsibility. With this responsibility comes power. Through its various enforcement mechanisms, the FDA seeks to protect the health and welfare of Americans. One mechanism the FDA employs involves the use of publicity to warn the public about potentially hazardous products. This adverse public...

  5. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, David A.; Muessig, Paul H.; Loren D. Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b) of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI). Section 316(b) requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regar...

  6. The likely adverse environmental impacts of renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global attention has always been focused on the adverse environmental impacts of conventional energy sources. In contrast nonconventional energy sources, particularly the renewable ones, have enjoyed a 'clean' image vis a vis environmental impacts. The only major exception to this general trend has been large hydropower projects; experience has taught us that they can be disastrous for the environment. The belief now is that minihydel and microhydel projects are harmless alternatives. But are renewable energy sources really as benign as is widely believed? The present essay addresses this question in the background of Lovin's classical paradigm, which had postulated the hard (malignant) and soft (benign) energy concepts in the first place. It critically evaluates the environmental impacts of major renewable energy sources. It then comes up with the broad conclusion that renewable energy sources are not the panacea they are popularly perceived to be; indeed in some cases their adverse environmental impacts can be as strongly negative as the impacts of conventional energy sources. The paper also dwells on the steps we need to take so that we can utilise renewable energy sources without facing environmental backlashes of the type we got from hydropower projects. (Author)

  7. Narghile smoking and its adverse health consequences: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar-Odeh, N S; Abu-Hammad, O A

    2009-06-13

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a world health problem with approximately 50% of patients having a 5-year survival rate. A change in the demographics of the disease is now being recognised, particularly in Europe, where it is increasingly being seen in young males. While a variety of risk factors are important in OSCC, it is tobacco that plays a central part in the pathogenesis of the disease. Narghile is an old form of tobacco use but in the past decade, there has been a resurgence in this form of smoking. The practice is particularly common in young males and females from the Middle East but with the advent of immigration and globalisation, its use is becoming more widespread. It is now not uncommon to see narghile smoking in western countries such as the UK and USA. Studies describing the oral effects of narghile are unfortunately scarce. While adverse effects such as periodontal bone loss and dry socket have been described, its association with OSCC cannot be excluded. Variation in the type of narghile, the type of tobacco and the presence of co-factors such as cigarette smoking may all influence clinical outcome. In the present study, the practice of narghile smoking is reviewed in terms of its effect on health, particularly oral health. The association of narghile smoking and adverse effects on the orofacial region will be outlined, namely, periodontal disease, potentially malignant lesions and oral cancer. PMID:19521371

  8. Poverty in childhood and adverse health outcomes in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphael, Dennis

    2011-05-01

    The experience of poverty during childhood is a potent predictor of a variety of adverse health outcomes during middle and late adulthood. Children who live in poverty are more likely as adults than their peers to develop and die earlier from a range of diseases. These effects are especially strong for cardiovascular disease and type II diabetes. Most disturbingly, these effects appear in large part to be biologically embedded such that later improved life circumstances have only a modest ameliorative effect. Considering these findings and the relatively high rates of child poverty in nations such as Canada, UK, and USA, those concerned with improving the health of citizens should focus their attention on advocating for public policy that will reduce the incidence of child poverty. PMID:21398059

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat

    2015-11-01

    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years. PMID:26047629

  10. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  11. Climate Impacts on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Climate Change Impacts Human Health Impacts Human Health Climate Impacts on Human Health Climate Impacts on Alaska On This Page Temperature-Related ... very old) are especially vulnerable to health impacts. Climate Change Affects Human Health In 2016, the U.S. ...

  12. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized...... articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element...

  13. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  14. Excessive folic acid intake and relation to adverse health outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selhub, Jacob; Rosenberg, Irwin H

    2016-07-01

    The recent increase in the intake of folic acid by the general public through fortified foods and supplements, has raised safety concern based on early reports of adverse health outcome in elderly with low B12 status who took high doses of folic acid. These safety concerns are contrary to the 2015 WHO statement that "high folic acid intake has not reliably been shown to be associated with negative healeffects". In the folic acid post-fortification era, we have shown that in elderly participants in NHANES 1999-2002, high plasma folate level is associated with exacerbation of both clinical (anemia and cognitive impairment) and biochemical (high MMA and high Hcy plasma levels) signs of vitamin B12 deficiency. Adverse clinical outcomes in association with high folate intake were also seen among elderly with low plasma B12 levels from the Framingham Original Cohort and in a study from Australia which combined three elderly cohorts. Relation between high folate and adverse biochemical outcomes were also seen in the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging (High Hcy, high MMA and lower TC2) and at an outpatient clinic at Yale University where high folate is associated with higher MMA in the elderly but not in the young. Potential detrimental effects of high folic acid intake may not be limited to the elderly nor to those with B12 deficiency. A study from India linked maternal high RBC folate to increased insulin resistance in offspring. Our study suggested that excessive folic acid intake is associated with lower natural killer cells activity in elderly women. In a recent study we found that the risk for unilateral retinoblastoma in offspring is 4 fold higher in women that are homozygotes for the 19 bp deletion in the DHFR gene and took folic acid supplement during pregnancy. In the elderly this polymorphism is associated with lower memory and executive scores, both being significantly worse in those with high plasma folate. These and other data strongly imply that

  15. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mayhew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI. Section 316(b requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regarding AEI were reinvigorated following the 1995 Consent Decree requiring EPA to propose new rules to implement Section 316(b. This article reviews and compares eight proposed definitions of AEI. Six of the definitions define AEI as impact expressed at the population or higher level of biological organization. The two remaining definitions are unrelated to populations: a 1% cropping of the near-field organisms and “one fish equals AEI”. The latter definition is based on the desire of some stakeholders to define AEI as the loss of any public trust resources. Equating loss of public trust resources with AEI hampers consensus on a definition because a societal-based policy concept (public trust resources is commingled with science-based definitions based on population effects. We recommend that a population-based definition of AEI be incorporated into Section 316(b guidance and observe that this will not preclude a state from exercising its law and policy to protect public trust resources.

  16. Maternal obesity and its adverse impact on labor outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inas Mahmoud Hamdy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the impact of maternal obesity on the outcome of labour. Setting: Al zahraa University hospital.Design: prospective randomized control study.Patients: a total of (80 pregnant women were included in this study from April 2009 to March 2010. Patients and Methods:According to the BMI the patients were classified into two groups. Group (I: (Control Group:Included (30 patients with (body mass index (BMI ranging from 20 to 25 kg/m2.Group (II: (Obese Group: Included (50 patients with (BMI ranging from 25 to 30kg/m2. Each patient were subjected to full clinical examination (General Abdominal and pelvic U/S pelviabdominal examination that is to confirm the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study. Results : A significant differences was noticed between 2 groups as regard the BMI. The current study showed significant difference in cases subjected to induction of labour with p-value 0.05.No significant diff. were noticed between the 2 groups as regard the cases with Apgar score < 7 at 5 minutes with p-value 0.06. A positive correlation coefficient between the BMI (25-29, (29-33 kg/m2 with the case of induction of labour, failure to progress 1st stage, shoulder dystoca, cesarean section and fetal low Apgar score. While a negative correlation was recorded between the BMI of the control group and all the adverse outcomes. Conclusion:Obesity of the gravid women is a sensitive predictor of the adverse outcome during pregnancy, labour, and post partum. Researches are needed into effective, applicable and acceptable community -based program for obese women planning a pregnancy.

  17. Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavao Joanne

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively California Women's Health Survey (CWHS, a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress, were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted. When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

  18. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  19. Health impact assessment of liquid biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Rok; Medved, Sašo

    2013-01-01

    Bioethanol and biodiesel as potential substitutes for fossil fuels in the transportation sector have been analyzed for environmental suitability. However, there could be impacts on human health during the production, therefore adverse health effects have to be analyzed. The aim of this study is to analyze to what health risk factors humans are exposed to in the production of biofuels and what the size of the health effects is. A health impact assessment expressed as disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was conducted in SimaPro 7.1 software. The results show a statistically significant lower carcinogenic impact of biofuels (p energy sources, this does not necessary mean that they do not represent any health hazards. PMID:22774773

  20. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Health Professionals in Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo; Nasir Tajure Wabe

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected heal...

  1. Introducing Health Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannheimer, L N; Gulis, G; Lehto, J;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intersectoral Action for Health (IAH) and its Health Impact Assessment (HIA) tool are built on collaboration between actors and sectors, requiring multidimensional and horizontal way of working. The study aims to analyse the enablers and barriers when such a new way of working and tool...... used by which the actual problems, the governmental actions (or non-actions) (politics) and the understanding, implementation and evaluation of the initiative (policy) could be analysed. All actors involved, civil servants, politicians, representatives of the local public health institute and...... researchers, were interviewed and made to answer a questionnaire. RESULTS: The results showed that there were a number of factors behind the initiation of HIA, which either delayed or accelerated the process. The problems identified were e.g. the prevailing traditional health care focus and the deteriorating...

  2. Potential health impact of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    In response to public health concerns about wind turbines, a study was conducted to review the scientific evidence on the potential health effects of wind turbines. Several research questions were examined, including scientific evidence on the potential health impacts of wind turbines; the relationship between wind turbine noise and health; the relationship between low frequency sound, infrasound and health; assessment of exposure to wind turbines; wind turbine health and safety hazards and Ontario wind turbine setbacks; community consultation prior to wind farm construction and data gaps and research needs. The study showed that although some people living near wind turbines reported symptoms such as dizziness, headaches, and sleep disturbance, the scientific evidence available to date does not demonstrate a direct causal link between wind turbine noise and adverse health effects. The sound level from wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to cause hearing impairment or other direct health effects, although some people may find it annoying. 41 refs., 1 appendix.

  3. Towards the regulation of aerosol emissions by their potential health impact: Assessing adverse effects of aerosols from wood combustion and ship diesel engine emissions by combining comprehensive data on the chemical composition and their toxicological effects on human lung cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R.; Streibel, T.; Dittmar, G.; Kanashova, T.; Buters, J.; Öder, S.; Paur, H. R.; Dilger, M.; Weiss, C.; Harndorf, H.; Stengel, B.; Hirvonen, M. R.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hiller, K.; Sapcariu, S.; Sippula, O.; Orasche, J.; Müller, L.; Rheda, A.; Passig, J.; Radischat, C.; Czech, H.; Tiita, P.; Jalava, P.; Kasurinen, S.; Schwemer, T.; Yli-Prilä, P.; Tissari, J.; Lamberg, H.; Schnelle-Kreis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ship engine emissions are important regarding lung and cardiovascular diseases in coastal regions worldwide. Bio mass burning is made responsible for adverse health effects in many cities and rural regions. The Virtual Helmholtz Institute-HICE (www.hice-vi.eu) addresses chemical & physical properties and health effects of anthropogenic combustion emissions. Typical lung cell responses to combustion aerosols include inflammation and apoptosis, but a molecular link with the specific chemical composition in particular of ship emissions has not been established. Through an air-liquid interface exposure system (ALI), we exposed human lung cells at-site to exhaust fumes from a ship engine running on common heavy fuel oil (HFO) and cleaner-burning diesel fuel (DF) as well as to emissions of wood combustion compliances. A special field deployable ALI-exposition system and a mobile S2-biological laboratory were developed for this study. Human alveolar basal epithelial cells (A549 etc.) are ALI-exposed to fresh, diluted (1:40-1:100) combustion aerosols and subsequently were toxicologically and molecular-biologically characterized. Advanced chemical analyses of the exhaust aerosols were combined with transcriptional, proteomic and metabolomic profiling to characterise the cellular responses. The HFO ship emissions contained high concentrations of toxic compounds (transition metals, organic toxicants) and particle masses. The cellular responses included inflammation and oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the DF ship emissions, which predominantly contain rather "pure" carbonaceous soot and much less known toxicants, induced significantly broader biological effects, affecting essential cellular pathways (e.g., mitochondrial function and intracellular transport). Therefore the use of distillate fuels for shipping (this is the current emission reduction strategy of the IMO) appears insufficient for diminishing health effects. The study suggests rather reducing the particle emissions

  4. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-03-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  5. [Heat waves: health impacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Natália

    2005-01-01

    During the summer of 2003, record high temperatures were reported across Europe, causing thousands of casualties. Heat waves are sporadic recurrent events, characterised by intense and prolonged heat, associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The most frequent cause of death directly attributable to heat is heat stroke but heat waves are known to cause increases in all-cause mortality, specially circulatory and respiratory mortality. Epidemiological studies demonstrate excess casualties cluster in specific risk groups. The elderly, those with chronic medical conditions and the socially isolated are particularly vulnerable. Air conditioning is the strongest protective factor against heat-related disorders. Heat waves cause disease indirectly, by aggravating chronic disorders, and directly, by causing heat-related illnesses (HRI). Classic HRI include skin eruptions, heat cramps, heat syncope, heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Heat stroke is a medical emergency characterised by hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. Treatment includes immediate cooling and support of organ-system function. Despite aggressive treatment, heat stroke is often fatal and permanent neurological damage is frequent in those who survive. Heat related illness and death are preventable through behavioural adaptations, such as use of air conditioning and increased fluid intake. Other adaptation measures include heat emergency warning systems and intervention plans and environmental heat stress reduction. Heat related mortality is expected to rise as a consequence of the increasing proportion of elderly persons, the growing urban population, and the anticipated increase in number and intensity of heat waves associated with global warming. Improvements in surveillance and response capability may limit the adverse health conditions of future heat waves. It is crucial that health professionals are prepared to recognise, prevent and treat HRI and learn to cooperate with local health

  6. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai; Kurubaran Ganasegeran; Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi Al-Shagga; Hematram Yadav; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationshi...

  7. Adverse Health Consequences of Performance-Enhancing Drugs: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Harrison G.; Wood, Ruth I.; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated....

  8. Adverse Health Effects Associated with Increased Activity at Kīlauea Volcano: A Repeated Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, Bernadette M.

    2013-01-01

    Eruptive activity at the Kīlauea volcano (Hawai`i, USA) has increased since 2008 resulting in volcanic air pollution (vog) at levels exceeding the national air quality standard for sulfur dioxide. Previous investigations during lower vog levels found adverse cardiorespiratory effects in the residents. The purpose of this 2012 survey was to reassess and compare the impact of the increased volcanic activity on population health. Prevalence of cardiorespiratory signs, symptoms, and diseases was ...

  9. Adverse effects of methylmercury: environmental health research implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    documentation before considering prevention and compensation, types of uncertainty that are common in environmental research delayed the scientific consensus and were used as an excuse for deferring corrective action. Symptoms of methylmercury toxicity, such as tunnel vision, forgetfulness, and lack of...... significance for environmental health research in general. SYNTHESIS: At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected the...... coordination, also seemed to affect environmental health research and its interpretation....

  10. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Collinson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, ‘Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa’. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers.

  11. Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinson, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    This article is a review of the PhD thesis of Mark Collinson, titled, 'Striving against adversity: the dynamics of migration, health and poverty in rural South Africa'. The findings show that in rural South Africa, temporary migration has a major impact on household well-being and health. Remittances from migrants make a significant difference to socioeconomic status (SES) in households left behind by the migrant. For the poorest households the key factors improving SES are government grants and female temporary migration, while for the less poor it is male temporary migration and local employment. Migration is associated with HIV but not in straightforward ways. Migrants that return more frequently may be less exposed to outside partners and therefore less implicated in the HIV epidemic. There are links between migration and mortality patterns, including a higher risk of dying for returnee migrants compared with permanent residents. A mother's migration impacts significantly on child survival for South African and former refugee parents, but there is an additional mortality risk for children of Mozambican former refugees. It is recommended that national censuses and surveys account for temporary migration when collecting information on household membership, because different migration types have different outcomes. Without discriminating between different migration types, the implications for sending and receiving communities will remain lost to policy-makers. PMID:20531981

  12. Nonprofit Charity Impacts Wounded Combat Veterans And Children Facing Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Mental and physical health challenges, especially for returning war veterans and their families, is a growing national concern. A grassroots program featuring equine therapy for these patients and their families shows promise in increasing self-esteem and self-confidence, reducing isolation and depression, and improving speaking and writing skills. PMID:26267972

  13. Mental health of prisoners: prevalence, adverse outcomes, and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazel, Seena; Hayes, Adrian J; Bartellas, Katrina; Clerici, Massimo; Trestman, Robert

    2016-09-01

    More than 10 million people are imprisoned worldwide, and the prevalence of all investigated mental disorders is higher in prisoners than in the general population. Although the extent to which prison increases the incidence of mental disorders is uncertain, considerable evidence suggests low rates of identification and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Prisoners are also at increased risk of all-cause mortality, suicide, self-harm, violence, and victimisation, and research has outlined some modifiable risk factors. Few high quality treatment trials have been done on psychiatric disorders in prisoners. Despite this lack of evidence, trial data have shown that opiate substitution treatments reduce substance misuse relapse and possibly reoffending. The mental health needs of women and older adults in prison are distinct, and national policies should be developed to meet these. In this Review, we present clinical, research, and policy recommendations to improve mental health care in prisons. National attempts to meet these recommendations should be annually surveyed. PMID:27426440

  14. Adverse health outcome of cosmetologists and hairdressers : a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Menghan; 邓梦涵

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The number of cosmetologists and hairdressers is increasing. According to the data of US Bureau of Labor Statistics in 1991, there were more than half million people worked as cosmetologists in America. The number is keeping increasing during decades. In 2008, the number of licensed manicurists has increased by 345%, to more than 393000 since 1991 and the 10-year employment growth of nail technicians is 28%. The booming of cosmetologists leads to many potential health problems. ...

  15. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Childhood Disabilities and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Rahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to explore the situation of coastal water pollution and its impact on child health and pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Background: Globally coastal pollution is of greater significance than inland’s for its huge resources and contribution to livelihood. As a result it has been a source of increased Global Burden of Disease by means of consumption of seafood, involvement in risky jobs, and exposure to water related disastrous events. Almost sixty percent of the world’s population is at risk of costal contamination and developing countries like Bangladesh, geographically located at the tip of the Bay of Bengal, are facing significant challenges by this form of pollution. Method: This study was based on a critical review of published literature and unpublished documents from 1972 to 2011 retrieved from databases of scientific publications, from public-access search engines, reports from government, international organizations, and non-government agencies, and personal communications. Discussion: Huge noxious pollutants including heavy metals, oil spill and redionucleotides were found in the Bay of Bengal, those have enormous adverse impacts on child health and pregnancy outcomes. This review focuses on children and pregnant women because of their vulnerable physiological conditions to the impacts of environmental factors. The physiological systems of children and fetuses are developing fast and usually are sensitive to disruptions induced by environmental pollutants and exposures in utero increase the risk of future toxic insults. Conclusion: The coastal zone of Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable zones in the world which is predicted to disappear due to climate change impacts. This areas face huge weather-related disasters due to continuous changing coastal-configuration and man-made pollutions. However, these observations are indecisive due to limitations of supportive evidence. Therefore, further

  16. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  17. Household and community-level Adverse Childhood Experiences and adult health outcomes in a diverse urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Cronholm, Peter F; Fein, Joel A; Forke, Christine M; Davis, Martha B; Harkins-Schwarz, Mary; Pachter, Lee M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs), which include family dysfunction and community-level stressors, negatively impact the health and well being of children throughout the life course. While several studies have examined the impact of these childhood exposures amongst racially and socially diverse populations, the contribution of ACEs in the persistence of socioeconomic disparities in health is poorly understood. To determine the association between ACEs and health outcomes amongst a sample of adults living in Philadelphia and examine the moderating effect of Socioeconomic Status (SES) on this association, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,784 Philadelphia adults, ages 18 and older, using random digit dialing methodology to assess Conventional ACEs (experiences related to family dysfunction), Expanded ACEs (community-level stressors), and health outcomes. Using weighted, multivariable logistic regression analyses along with SES stratified models, we examined the relationship between ACEs and health outcomes as well as the modifying effect of current SES. High Conventional ACE scores were significantly associated with health risk behaviors, physical and mental illness, while elevated Expanded ACE scores were associated only with substance abuse history and sexually transmitted infections. ACEs did have some differential impacts on health outcomes based on SES. Given the robust impact of Conventional ACEs on health, our results support prior research highlighting the primacy of family relationships on a child's life course trajectory and the importance of interventions designed to support families. Our findings related to the modifying effect of SES may provide additional insight into the complex relationship between poverty and childhood adversity. PMID:26726759

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting among Health Professionals in Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Adverse drug reaction is noxious and unwanted reaction to drugs at dose used in humans for diagnosis, treatment or prophylaxis. Adverse drug reaction monitoring is an area of drug information that has been given little attention yet. Spontaneous reporting is currently the major back bone for the detection of adverse drug reactions. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices of adverse drug reaction reporting among health professionals in selected health facilities in southwest Ethiopia. METHOD: A cross-sectional study design was used among health professionals in selected health facilities in January 2010. Prescribers other than physicians, junior pharmacy technicians and also health assistants were excluded. Data was collected using self administered questionnaires from volunteered physicians (Medical interns and above, nurses (Diploma and above and Pharmacy professionals (Diploma and above and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: A total of 82 health professionals were participated in the study. From those 82 participants, only 19 (23.17% and 21 (25.61% knew the existence of national reporting system and a yellow card of adverse drug reaction reporting form. Thirteen (15.85% participants encountered adverse drug reaction in the past 12 months in their clinical activities, but none of them reported to responsible body. Even though the participants’ knowledge and practice were inadequate, most of the respondents 47 (57.31% agreed that adverse drug reaction reporting is part of duty of them and important to the public in general and to the patient in particular. CONCLUSION: There was no documentation and reporting of adverse drug reaction, which might partly be explained by lack of knowledge and misconceptions about spontaneous reporting. Our study strongly suggests that there is a great need to create awareness and to promote the reporting of adverse drug reaction amongst health professionals

  19. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Groopman, John D; Pestka, James J

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by fungi that colonize food crops. The most agriculturally important mycotoxins known today are aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer and have also been implicated in child growth impairment and acute toxicoses; fumonisins, which have been associated with esophageal cancer (EC) and neural tube defects (NTDs); deoxynivalenol (DON) and other trichothecenes, which are immunotoxic and cause gastroenteritis; and ochratoxin A (OTA), which has been associated with renal diseases. This review describes the adverse human health impacts associated with these major groups of mycotoxins. First, we provide background on the fungi that produce these different mycotoxins and on the food crops commonly infected. Then, we describe each group of mycotoxins in greater detail, as well as the adverse effects associated with each mycotoxin and the populations worldwide at risk. We conclude with a brief discussion on estimations of global burden of disease caused by dietary mycotoxin exposure. PMID:24422587

  20. Childhood adversity and behavioral health outcomes for youth: An investigation using state administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. PMID:26234784

  1. Health Impacts of Wildfires

    OpenAIRE

    Finlay, Sarah Elise; Moffat, Andrew; Gazzard, Rob; Baker, David; Murray, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Wildfires are common globally. Although there has been considerable work done on the health effects of wildfires in countries such as the USA where they occur frequently there has been relatively little work to investigate health effects in the United Kingdom. Climate change may increase the risk of increasing wildfire frequency, therefore there is an urgent need to further understand the health effects and public awareness of wildfires. This study was designed to review current ...

  2. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. PMID:26099657

  3. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  4. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  5. Adverse health consequences of US Government responses to the 2001 terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2011-09-01

    In response to the attacks on Sept 11, 2001 (9/11), and the related security concerns, the USA and its coalition partners began a war in Afghanistan and subsequently invaded Iraq. The wars caused many deaths of non-combatant civilians, further damaged the health-supporting infrastructure and the environment (already adversely affected by previous wars), forced many people to migrate, led to violations of human rights, and diverted resources away from important health needs. After 9/11 and the anthrax outbreak shortly afterwards, the USA and other countries have improved emergency preparedness and response capabilities, but these actions have often diverted attention and resources from more urgent health issues. The documentation and dissemination of information about the adverse health effects of these wars and about the diversion of resources could help to mitigate these consequences and prevent their recurrence. PMID:21890059

  6. Health impact assessment in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Health-Risk Behaviors among Adults in a Developing Country Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiro, Laurie S.; Madrid, Bernadette J.; Brown, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association among adverse childhood experiences, health-risk behaviors, and chronic disease conditions in adult life. Study population: One thousand and sixty-eight (1,068) males and females aged 35 years and older, and residing in selected urban communities in Metro Manila participated in the…

  8. Childhood Adversities and Educational Attainment in Young Adulthood : The Role of Mental Health Problems in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, Karin; Bultmann, Ute; Almansa, Josue; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to examine whether the association between childhood adversities and educational attainment in young adulthood can be explained by mental health problems in adolescence and whether associations and pathways differ for boys and girls. Methods: Data were used of 2,

  9. A Health Care Worker with Ebola Virus Disease and Adverse Prognostic Factors Treated in Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Matthew K; Clay, Katherine A; Craig, Darren G; Moore, Alastair J; Lewis, Stephen; Espina, Melanie; Praught, Jeff; Horne, Simon; Kao, Raymond; Johnston, Andrew M

    2016-04-01

    We describe the management of a Sierra Leonean health care worker with severe Ebola virus disease complicated by diarrhea, significant electrolyte disturbances, and falciparum malaria coinfection. With additional resources and staffing, high quality care can be provided to patients with Ebola infection and adverse prognostic factors in west Africa. PMID:26903609

  10. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  11. The Noise from Wind Turbines: Potential Adverse Impacts on Children's Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2011-01-01

    Research linking loud sounds to hearing loss in youngsters is now widespread, resulting in the issuance of warnings to protect children's hearing. However, studies attesting to the adverse effects of intrusive sounds and noise on children's overall mental and physical health and well-being have not received similar attention. This, despite the…

  12. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated. We argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts

  13. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Forms of Childhood Adversity on Adulthood Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Betty

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the independent impact of child sexual abuse on five dimensions of adulthood parenting after controlling for other forms of childhood adversity in a predominantly African-American sample of mothers receiving public assistance (N = 483). An analysis of data previously collected as part of the Illinois Families Study Child…

  14. Adverse health consequences of performance-enhancing drugs: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Harrison G; Wood, Ruth I; Rogol, Alan; Nyberg, Fred; Bowers, Larry; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-06-01

    Despite the high prevalence of performance-enhancing drug (PED) use, media attention has focused almost entirely on PED use by elite athletes to illicitly gain a competitive advantage in sports, and not on the health risks of PEDs. There is a widespread misperception that PED use is safe or that adverse effects are manageable. In reality, the vast majority of PED users are not athletes but rather nonathlete weightlifters, and the adverse health effects of PED use are greatly underappreciated. This scientific statement synthesizes available information on the medical consequences of PED use, identifies gaps in knowledge, and aims to focus the attention of the medical community and policymakers on PED use as an important public health problem. PED users frequently consume highly supraphysiologic doses of PEDs, combine them with other PEDs and/or other classical drugs of abuse, and display additional associated risk factors. PED use has been linked to an increased risk of death and a wide variety of cardiovascular, psychiatric, metabolic, endocrine, neurologic, infectious, hepatic, renal, and musculoskeletal disorders. Because randomized trials cannot ethically duplicate the large doses of PEDs and the many factors associated with PED use, we need observational studies to collect valid outcome data on the health risks associated with PEDs. In addition, we need studies regarding the prevalence of PED use, the mechanisms by which PEDs exert their adverse health effects, and the interactive effects of PEDs with sports injuries and other high-risk behaviors. We also need randomized trials to assess therapeutic interventions for treating the adverse effects of PEDs, such as the anabolic-androgen steroid withdrawal syndrome. Finally, we need to raise public awareness of the serious health consequences of PEDs. PMID:24423981

  15. Primate evidence on the late health effects of early-life adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gabriella; Hansman, Christopher; Heckman, James J; Novak, Matthew F X; Ruggiero, Angela; Suomi, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    This paper exploits a unique ongoing experiment to analyze the effects of early rearing conditions on physical and mental health in a sample of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We analyze the health records of 231 monkeys that were randomly allocated at birth across three rearing conditions: mother rearing, peer rearing, and surrogate peer rearing. We show that the lack of a secure attachment relationship in the early years engendered by adverse rearing conditions has detrimental long-term effects on health that are not compensated for by a normal social environment later in life. PMID:22615410

  16. Patient-reported health as a prognostic factor for adverse events following percutaneous coronary intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biering K

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karin Biering,1 Hans Erik Bøtker,2 Troels Niemann,3 Niels Henrik Hjollund4,51Department of Occupational Medicine, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Herning, 2Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, 3Department of Cardiology, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Herning, 4WestChronic, Regional Hospital West Jutland, Herning, 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkObjective: A relation may exist between self-reported health and adverse events in coronary heart disease. Previous studies have been vulnerable to possible selection bias. In the study reported here, we examined the association between self-rated health and adverse events in terms of cardiac events, cardiac readmissions, and all-cause mortality in a complete cohort of patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI.Study design and setting: A cohort of patients with coronary heart disease treated with PCI was followed up with questionnaires 4 weeks after PCI to measure self-rated health and in registers to identify adverse events. Of 1,752 eligible patients under 67 years, 26 died during the first 4 weeks. A total of 224 patients were excluded from the analysis because they were readmitted with a cardiac diagnosis before answering the first questionnaire. We received complete SF-12 Health Survey component summaries from 984 of the remaining 1,502 patients. We used multiple imputation to establish a complete cohort, including nonrespondents.Results: During follow-up, 83 patients died, 220 patients experienced a new cardiac event, and 526 patients experienced a hospital readmission related to coronary heart disease. Poor self-rated health was related to cardiac events, cardiac readmission, and all-cause mortality. The associations were stronger for all-cause mortality than for events and readmissions. Physical health was more important than mental health, but both revealed an exposure–response pattern

  17. e-Prescription: An e-Health System for Preventing Adverse Drug Events in Community Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma M. Puspitasari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes development activities of an e-health system for community health center (Puskesmas with integrated adverse drug events e-prescription module, consist of system design and development, human resource development, e-health system realization, laboratory and implementation test of e-health system. Some e-readiness evaluations were conducted, through a number of field visits and questionnaires. The results had been used in the e-health system design and development, installation of the internet access infrastructure, and implementation of the education and hands-on training for the medical and administrative staff of the healthcare units. After completing the e-health system design and development as well as system realization and laboratory tests stages, a series of field implementation and experiments have been successfully conducted at Puskesmas Babakansari in Bandung. A number of users feed back have been obtained and used for further improvements on both of the software and hardware modules. The e-health system with integrated e-prescription module has successfully developed and shown its expected functions in: patient registration, medical record, paperless prescription, producing the required reports and preventing possible adverse drug events.

  18. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  19. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community. PMID:24453859

  20. Vaginal douching (vd practice and adverse health effects of 15-49 years married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ege

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTİVE: The purpose of the study is to explore the vaginal douching practice and adverse health effects of the 15-49 age, married women in Konya. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The population of this descriptive- cross-sectional study is 15-49 age, married women who recruited in the number 15 health-center region. The sample consisted of 183 women who were selected with systematic sampling method. A questionnaire designed with researcher based on literature which was 30 questions include fertility characteristics, VD practice and adverse health effects was used to collect data. The data were collected by the researcher with home visiting between April-May 2005. Descriptive statistics and X² test were used to analysis data. RESULTS: The mean age of women in the study group is 33.5±7.86, 87. 4 % has primary school education, 68.3 % middle income, 54.6 % practice VD. The mean year of VD practice is 12.9±8.8 and 65.1 % douche at least once a week. The reasons of the women’s VD practices are religious practice (45.4 %, cleaning (41.5% and preventing pregnancy(13.1% and, 68.9 % of women don’t know harmfull efects of VD. There was no difference between history of sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency and VD in the X² test. There was a difference between contraceptive method used and VD. CONCLUSION: Sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency were not related to VD. We suggest that the women have been educated about adverse health effects of VD and analytic researches may be planned for causal relationship between adverse health effects and VD.

  1. Impact of schizophrenia and schizophrenia treatment-related adverse events on quality of life: direct utility elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reaney Matthew

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To examine the impact of schizophrenia, its treatment and treatment-related adverse events related to antipsychotics, on quality of life from the perspective of schizophrenia patients and laypersons. Methods Health state descriptions for stable schizophrenia, extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS, hyperprolactinemia, diabetes, weight gain and relapse were developed based on a review of the literature and expert opinion. The quality of life impact of each health state was elicited using a time trade-off instrument administered by interview to 49 stable schizophrenia patients and 75 laypersons. Regression techniques were employed to examine the importance of subject characteristics on health-related utility scores. Results Patients and laypersons completed the interview in similar times. Stable schizophrenia had the highest mean utility (0.87 and 0.92 for laypersons and patients respectively, while relapse (0.48 and 0.60 had the lowest mean utility. Of the treatment-related adverse events, EPS had the lowest mean utility (0.57 and 0.72, respectively. Age, gender and PANSS score did not influence the utility results independently of health state. On average, patient utilities are 0.077 points higher than utilities derived from laypersons, although the ranking was similar between the two groups. Conclusion Events associated with schizophrenia and treatment of schizophrenia can bring about a significant detriment in patient quality of life, with relapse having the largest negative impact. Results indicate that patients with stable schizophrenia are less willing to trade years of life to avoid schizophrenia-related symptoms compared to laypersons. Both sets of respondents showed equal ability to complete the questionnaire.

  2. Setting the Stage for Chronic Health Problems: Cumulative Childhood Adversity among Homeless Adults with Mental Illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michelle; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...

  3. Risky Music Listening, Permanent Tinnitus and Depression, Anxiety, Thoughts about Suicide and Adverse General Health

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. Methods ...

  4. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, Ineke; van de Looij-Jansen, Petra; Mieloo, Cathelijne; Burdorf, Alex; de Waart, Frouwkje

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suic...

  5. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M; Anu Manchikanti Gomez

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Fonseka et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing d...

  6. Adverse Impact of the Historic Mining Activities on the Enviroment in Malé Karpaty

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Jozef; Malár Eduard; Slovik Jozef

    2002-01-01

    During 1999 2001 the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic has financed the geological work Evaluation of the Adverse Impact of Mining Activities on the Environment in the Region of Malé Karpaty. Results and recommendations of the work in this contribution are discussed.Mineral resources, such as pyrit pyrhotite deposits, hydrothermal metal ore deposits (Au Ag, pyrit Cu, Pb Ag, Zn, Sb), hydrothermal deposits of barytes and manganesian ore deposits are situated in mining dist...

  7. Towards a More Complete Understanding of Adverse Impact: Examining Issues of Minority Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Tison, Emilee B

    2010-01-01

    Selection research often examines whether adverse impact can be reduced/eliminated from employment practices. Such research, however, largely ignores the influence of minority availability issues (i.e., the number of minorities who apply and the number of minorities who accept a job offer); three general factors comprise minority availability: the missing applicant problem, targeted recruitment and job refusal rates. As minority availability issues have not been systematically addressed in th...

  8. Impact of adverse events of antiretroviral treatment on regimen change and mortality in Ugandan children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntambwe Malangu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Outcomes of antiretroviral treatment have been documented in both developed and developing countries. It has been reported consistently that the treatment is associated with many adverse events. However, little is known about their impact on the quality of life, clinical management, and survival in children aged less than 6 years in Uganda.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of the adverse events of antiretroviral treatment, their impact on mortality and the change in regimens prescribed to children treated at Mildway Centre in Uganda.Method: A retrospective chart review was performed for children younger than 6 years, treated since the Mildway Centre was opened in 1999. In order to achieve a larger sample, the records of children treated from January 2000 to July 2005 were included in the study. A pre-tested data collection form was used to collate socio-demographic and clinical data of the patients. These included the documented adverse events, causes of death, stage of infection, duration of treatment, regimen prescribed, year of enrolment into the treatment program, as well as whether or not they were still alive. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of data.Results: Of the 179 children, the majority were males and had a median age of 4 years. The majority (58.8% of children had suffered from severe immune depression since they met the WHO clinical stage III and IV, 73.8% had a baseline CD4T of less than 15%. Four regimens were prescribed to the children. The most common was a regimen containing zidovudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (34.6%, followed by a regimen containing stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine (27.9%. Eleven children (6.1% had their regimen changed, of which six (54.5% were due to adverse events. The prevalence of adverse events was 8%; of the 14 documented adverse events, the most common were severe anaemia (3, vomiting (3, and skin rashes (3. After 12 months on

  9. Self-focused and other-focused resiliency: Plausible mechanisms linking early family adversity to health problems in college women

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, SRM; Zawadzki, MJ; Heron, KE; Vartanian, LR; Smyth, JM

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women.Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010.Participants completed self-report measures of early family adversity, self-focused (self-esteem, personal growth initiative) and other-focused (perceived social support, gratitude) resiliency, stress, subjective health, and hea...

  10. Adverse Events of Trivalent Influenza Vaccine among Health Care Workers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajiabdolbaghi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: To assess the frequency and type of adverse events after influenza vaccination in Iranian adults."nMethods: Health care workers in 7 medical centers received the influenza vaccine from October 2006 to February 2007 and fol­lowed by phone regarding symptoms experienced after vaccination."nResults: Of 897 adults who participated in the study, local and systemic reactions were reported by 187 (20.8% and 198 (22.1% persons, respectively. The most common local reaction was pain (20.2%, while myalgia (15.8% was the most com­mon systemic reaction. One case of Guillain-barre syndrome was reported."nConclusion: Inactivated influenza vaccine administration did not result in potential adverse events in healthy adults.

  11. Impact of Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 on chronic hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi; Wiesen, Eric; Diorditsa, Sergey; Toda, Kohei; Duong, Thi Hong; Nguyen, Lien Huong; Nguyen, Van Cuong; Nguyen, Tran Hien

    2016-02-01

    Adverse Events Following Immunization in Viet Nam in 2013 led to substantial reductions in hepatitis B vaccination coverage (both the birth dose and the three-dose series). In order to estimate the impact of the reduction in vaccination coverage on hepatitis B transmission and future mortality, a widely-used mathematical model was applied to the data from Viet Nam. Using the model, we estimated the number of chronic infections and deaths that are expected to occur in the birth cohort in 2013 and the number of excessive infections and deaths attributable to the drop in immunization coverage in 2013. An excess of 90,137 chronic infections and 17,456 future deaths were estimated to occur in the 2013 birth cohort due to the drop in vaccination coverage. This analysis highlights the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage and swiftly responding to reported Adverse Events Following Immunization in order to regain consumer confidence in the hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:26055296

  12. Early-Life Adversity and Physical and Emotional Health Across the Lifespan: A Neuroimmune Network Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusslock, Robin; Miller, Gregory E

    2016-07-01

    Children who experience chronic stressors are vulnerable to emotional and physical health problems across the lifespan. This phenomenon raises questions for scientists and clinicians alike. How does adversity get under the skin of the developing child? Through what mechanisms does it confer vulnerability to a heterogeneous set of mental and physical illnesses? And how does it instantiate risk across different life stages, engendering vulnerability to conditions that develop shortly after stressor exposure-like depression-and conditions that manifest decades later, like heart disease? Although answers to these questions have started to emerge, research has typically focused on single diseases or organ systems. To understand the plethora of health problems associated with childhood adversity, we argue that the field needs a second generation of research that recognizes multidirectional transactions among biological systems. To help facilitate this process, we propose a neuroimmune network hypothesis as a heuristic framework for organizing knowledge from disparate literatures and as a springboard for generating integrative research. Drawing on existing data, we argue that early-life adversity amplifies crosstalk between peripheral inflammation and neural circuitries subserving threat-related, reward-related, and executive control-related processes. This crosstalk results in chronic low-grade inflammation, thereby contributing to adiposity, insulin resistance, and other predisease states. In the brain, inflammatory mediators act on cortico-amygdala threat and cortico-basal ganglia reward, circuitries in a manner that predisposes individuals to self-medicating behaviors like smoking, drug use, and consumption of high-fat diets. Acting in concert with inflammation, these behaviors accelerate the pathogenesis of emotional and physical health problems. PMID:26166230

  13. ACTUAL WAYS FOR OVERCOMING THE FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING THE CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS’ HEALTH IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Malyarchuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes a widely discussed problem of the negative health dynamics of the growing generation, and points out the necessity of complex consideration of all the factors adversely affecting children’s health. The special emphasis is on the fallowing harmful factors: intensification of training process; discrepancy between the applied training methods and techniques on the one side, and children’s age, sex and functional specifics and capabilities on the other side; shortcomings in organizing children’s physical activities; limitations of the expositive illustrative methods for developing the healthy lifestyle habits. The other group of factors is related to the teaching style and professional characteristics of the teachers. They include the common practice of «stress» tactics; incompetence in health saving technologies; personal indisposition and psychological drawbacks. The situation is exacerbated by the absence of psychologists and pediatricians in educational institutions. The multilevel approach to solving the problems of students’ health preservation and promotion involves the elicitation of objective, subjective, inschool and out-of-school health determining factors. The paper denotes the actual ways of children’s health preservation at the level of related ministries, departments, and educational institutions.

  14. Risky music listening, permanent tinnitus and depression, anxiety, thoughts about suicide and adverse general health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ineke Vogel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the extent to which exposure to music through earphones or headphones with MP3 players or at discotheques and pop/rock concerts exceeded current occupational safety standards for noise exposure, to examine the extent to which temporary and permanent hearing-related symptoms were reported, and to examine whether the experience of permanent symptoms was associated with adverse perceived general and mental health, symptoms of depression, and thoughts about suicide. METHODS: A total of 943 students in Dutch inner-city senior-secondary vocational schools completed questionnaires about their sociodemographics, music listening behaviors and health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations. RESULTS: About 60% exceeded safety standards for occupational noise exposure; about one third as a result of listening to MP3 players. About 10% of the participants experienced permanent hearing-related symptoms. Temporary hearing symptoms that occurred after using an MP3 player or going to a discotheque or pop/rock concert were associated with exposure to high-volume music. However, compared to participants not experiencing permanent hearing-related symptoms, those experiencing permanent symptoms were less often exposed to high volume music. Furthermore, they reported at least two times more often symptoms of depression, thoughts about suicide and adverse self-assessed general and mental health. CONCLUSIONS: Risky music-listening behaviors continue up to at least the age of 25 years. Permanent hearing-related symptoms are associated with people's health and wellbeing. Participants experiencing such symptoms appeared to have changed their behavior to be less risky. In order to induce behavior change before permanent and irreversible hearing-related symptoms occur, preventive measurements concerning hearing health are needed.

  15. Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Defining the Problem and Promoting Health Among Men with Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saylor, Philip J; Smith, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plays a central role in the management of men with locally advanced, recurrent, and metastatic prostate cancer. Because most men diagnosed with prostate cancer will die of something other than their cancer, treatment-related adverse effects are highly relevant to their long-term health. Benefits of ADT in each clinical setting must be weighed against ADT-related adverse effects. ADT is detrimental to several metabolic end points and to bone health. ADT has b...

  16. The relation of risk assessment and health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ádám, Balázs; Gulis, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    The level and distribution of health risks in a society is substantially influenced by measures of various policies, programmes or projects. Risk assessment can evaluate the nature, likelihood and severity of an adverse effect. Health impact assessment (HIA) provides similar function when used as a...... risk appraisal phase to describe effects of various factors on different health outcomes. Consequently, HIA is typically led by a large, preferably intersectoral steering group with representatives of communities at risk. Risk assessment, in contrary, is mainly a licensed scientific process completed...... by licensed experts and lacks participatory approach. According to our findings, to be able to manage the analysis of the complex impact structure of various planned measures in HIA, the comprehensive assessment of health effects requires the analysis of the full impact scheme and must follow each...

  17. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed. PMID:25383200

  18. Evidence Report: Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Sams, Clarence F.

    2013-01-01

    The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response is identified by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Human Research Program (HRP) as a recognized risk to human health and performance in space. The HRP Program Requirements Document (PRD) defines these risks. This Evidence Report provides a summary of the evidence that has been used to identify and characterize this risk. It is known that human immune function is altered in- and post-flight, but it is unclear at present if such alterations lead to increased susceptibility to disease. Reactivation of latent viruses has been documented in crewmembers, although this reactivation has not been directly correlated with immune changes or with observed diseases. As described in this report, further research is required to better characterize the relationships between altered immune response and susceptibility to disease during and after spaceflight. This is particularly important for future deep-space exploration missions.

  19. Standard practice for labeling ceramic art materials for chronic adverse health hazards

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a procedure for developing precautionary labels for ceramic art materials and provides hazard and precautionary statements based upon knowledge that exists in the scientific and medical communities. This practice concerns those chronic adverse health hazards known to be associated with a product or product component(s), when the component(s) is present in a physical form, volume, or concentration that in the opinion of a toxicologist has the potential to produce a chronic adverse health effect(s). 1.2 This practice is intended to apply exclusively to ceramic art materials which are packaged in sizes intended for use by artists or crafts people, either individually, or in a small group or class. 1.3 This practice applies to developing precautionary labeling for ceramic art materials intended for adult usage. Conformance to this practice does not imply that ceramic art materials will necessarily be labeled adequately or safe for use by children. Labeling determinations should cons...

  20. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities) on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo Teresa; Christian Herder; Rathmann Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES) have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in po...

  1. Exploring the relationship between childhood adversity and oral health: An anecdotal approach and integrative view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Lygre, Henning

    2015-08-01

    During the past two decades, increasing recognition has been given to a relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Associated systemic conditions include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight and preterm births, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, osteoporosis, and, in particular among oral conditions, periodontal disease. Low-grade inflammation is a common denominator linking these disorders. Applying an anecdotal approach and an integrative view, the medical and dental histories of two women document increasing ill health subsequent to incidences of maltreatment and sexual abuse, including oral penetration, at an early age. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was required in both cases. These cases open for medical insight with regard to their implicit patho-physiology, when integrated with current evidence from neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology, converging in the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In cases such as those presented in this paper, primary care physicians (family doctors, General Practitioners) and dentists may be the first to identify an etiological pattern. This report underlines the importance of increased and enhanced multidisciplinary research cooperation among health professionals. Our hypothesis is that childhood adversity may affect all aspects of human health, including adult oral health. PMID:25978926

  2. Cognitive predictors and age-based adverse impact among business executives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Rachael M; Dilchert, Stephan; Ones, Deniz S; Dages, Kelly D

    2015-09-01

    Age differences on measures of general mental ability and specific cognitive abilities were examined in 2 samples of job applicants to executive positions as well as a mix of executive/nonexecutive positions to determine which predictors might lead to age-based adverse impact in making selection and advancement decisions. Generalizability of the pattern of findings was also investigated in 2 samples from the general adult population. Age was negatively related to general mental ability, with older executives scoring lower than younger executives. For specific ability components, the direction and magnitude of age differences depended on the specific ability in question. Older executives scored higher on verbal ability, a measure most often associated with crystallized intelligence. This finding generalized across samples examined in this study. Also, consistent with findings that fluid abilities decline with age, older executives scored somewhat lower on figural reasoning than younger executives, and much lower on a letter series test of inductive reasoning. Other measures of inductive reasoning, such as Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, also showed similar age group mean differences across settings. Implications for employee selection and adverse impact on older job candidates are discussed. PMID:25822067

  3. Meta-analysis of adverse health effects due to air pollution in Chinese populations

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Hak-Kan; Tsang, Hilda; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Background Pooled estimates of air pollution health effects are important drivers of environmental risk communications and political willingness. In China, there is a lack of review studies to provide such estimates for health impact assessments. Methods We systematically searched the MEDLINE database using keywords of 80 major Chinese cities in Mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan on 30 June 2012, yielding 350 abstracts with 48 non-duplicated reports either in English or Chinese after screen...

  4. Impact of poverty on women's health.

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Women's health is determined not only by biology but also by social context. While the health of both men and women is adversely affected by poverty, a higher proportion of women suffer from its effects because of increasing "feminization of poverty." The extent of this phenomenon, its multiple roots, and the role physicians could play in addressing it are discussed.

  5. Associations between Anticholinergic Burden and Adverse Health Outcomes in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A G Crispo

    Full Text Available Elderly adults should avoid medications with anticholinergic effects since they may increase the risk of adverse events, including falls, delirium, and cognitive impairment. However, data on anticholinergic burden are limited in subpopulations, such as individuals with Parkinson disease (PD. The objective of this study was to determine whether anticholinergic burden was associated with adverse outcomes in a PD inpatient population.Using the Cerner Health Facts® database, we retrospectively examined anticholinergic medication use, diagnoses, and hospital revisits within a cohort of 16,302 PD inpatients admitted to a Cerner hospital between 2000 and 2011. Anticholinergic burden was computed using the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS. Primary outcomes were associations between ARS score and diagnosis of fracture and delirium. Secondary outcomes included associations between ARS score and 30-day hospital revisits.Many individuals (57.8% were prescribed non-PD medications with moderate to very strong anticholinergic potential. Individuals with the greatest ARS score (≥ 4 were more likely to be diagnosed with fractures (adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.29-1.88 and delirium (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.08-2.40 relative to those with no anticholinergic burden. Similarly, inpatients with the greatest ARS score were more likely to visit the emergency department (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.58 and be readmitted (AHR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.33 within 30-days of discharge.We found a positive association between increased anticholinergic burden and adverse outcomes among individuals with PD. Additional pharmacovigilance studies are needed to better understand risks associated with anticholinergic medication use in PD.

  6. Perceived impact of Ghana's conditional cash transfer on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer

    2016-03-01

    A plethora of studies from sub-Saharan Africa indicate that orphaned and vulnerable children are exposed to adverse health, education and other social outcomes. Across diverse settings, conditional cash transfer (CCT) programmes have been successful in improving health outcomes amongst vulnerable children. This study explored the pathways of CCTs' impact on the health of orphans and vulnerable children in rural Ghana. Due to the multi-dimensional nature of CCTs, the programme impact theory was used to conceptualize CCTs' pathways of impact on child health. A qualitative descriptive exploratory approach was used for this study. This study drew on the perspectives of 18 caregivers, 4 community leaders and 3 programme implementers from two rural districts in Ghana. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with the participants. Thematic content analysis was conducted on the interview transcripts to pull together core themes running through the entire data set. Five organizing themes emerged from the interview transcripts: improved child nutrition, health service utilization, poverty reduction and social transformation, improved education and improved emotional health and well-being demonstrating the pathways through which CCTs work to improve child health. The results indicated that CCTs offer a valuable social protection instrument for improving the health of orphans and vulnerable children by addressing the social determinants of child health such as nutrition, access to health care, child poverty and education. PMID:25073762

  7. Nutrient supplementation may adversely affect maternal oral health--a randomised controlled trial in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harjunmaa, Ulla; Järnstedt, Jorma; Dewey, Kathryn G; Ashorn, Ulla; Maleta, Kenneth; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional supplementation during pregnancy is increasingly recommended especially in low-resource settings, but its oral health impacts have not been studied. Our aim was to examine whether supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements affects dental caries development or periodontal health in a rural Malawian population. The study was embedded in a controlled iLiNS-DYAD trial that enrolled 1391 pregnant women nutritional and health status. At the end of the intervention, the prevalence of caries was 56.7%, 69.1% and 63.3% (P = 0.004), and periodontitis 34.9%, 29.8% and 31.2% (P = 0.338) in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively. Compared with the IFA group, women in the MMN group had 0.60 (0.18-1.02) and in the LNS group 0.59 (0.17-1.01) higher mean number of caries lesions. In the absence of baseline oral health data, firm conclusions on causality cannot be drawn. However, although not confirmatory, the findings are consistent with a possibility that provision of MMN or LNS may have increased the caries incidence in this target population. Because of the potential public health impacts, further research on the association between gestational nutrient interventions and oral health in low-income settings is needed. PMID:26194850

  8. Measures against the adverse impact of natural wind on air-cooled condensers in power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The natural wind plays disadvantageous roles in the operation of air-cooled steam condensers in power plant.It is of use to take various measures against the adverse effect of wind for the performance improvement of air-cooled condensers.Based on representative 2×600 MW direct air-cooled power plant,three ways that can arrange and optimize the flow field of cooling air thus enhance the heat transfer of air-cooled condensers were proposed.The physical and mathematical models of air-cooled condensers with various flow leading measures were presented and the flow and temperature fields of cooling air were obtained by CFD simulation.The back pressures of turbine were calculated for different measures on the basis of the heat transfer model of air-cooled condensers.The results show that the performance of air-cooled condensers is improved thus the back pressure of turbine is lowered to some extent by taking measures against the adverse impact of natural wind.

  9. Dual use of Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration: are there adverse health outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brezinski Paul R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Millions of veterans are eligible to use the Veterans Health Administration (VHA and Medicare because of their military service and age. This article examines whether an indirect measure of dual use based on inpatient services is associated with increased mortality risk. Methods Data on 1,566 self-responding men (weighted N = 1,522 from the Survey of Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD were linked to Medicare claims and the National Death Index. Dual use was indirectly indicated when the self-reported number of hospital episodes in the 12 months prior to baseline was greater than that observed in the Medicare claims. The independent association of dual use with mortality was estimated using proportional hazards regression. Results 96 (11% of the veterans were classified as dual users. 766 men (50.3% had died by December 31, 2002, including 64.9% of the dual users and 49.3% of all others, for an attributable mortality risk of 15.6% (p Conclusion An indirect measure of veterans' dual use of the VHA and Medicare systems, based on inpatient services, was associated with an increased risk of death. Further examination of dual use, especially in the outpatient setting, is needed, because dual inpatient and dual outpatient use may be different phenomena.

  10. Self-Focused and Other-Focused Resiliency: Plausible Mechanisms Linking Early Family Adversity to Health Problems in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Sulamunn R. M.; Zawadzki, Matthew J.; Heron, Kristin E.; Vartanian, Lenny R.; Smyth, Joshua M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether self-focused and other-focused resiliency help explain how early family adversity relates to perceived stress, subjective health, and health behaviors in college women. Participants: Female students (N = 795) participated between October 2009 and May 2010. Methods: Participants completed self-report measures…

  11. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  12. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. PMID:25867168

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; ULUKOL, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences – e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration – and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Methods Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10 6...

  14. Cumulative burden of lifetime adversities: Trauma and mental health in low-SES African Americans and Latino/as.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Hector F; Wyatt, Gail E; Ullman, Jodie B; Loeb, Tamra B; Chin, Dorothy; Prause, Nicole; Zhang, Muyu; Williams, John K; Slavich, George M; Liu, Honghu

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men and women with histories of adversities and trauma were recruited and assessed with a standard battery of self-report measures of stress and mental health. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated good overall model fit. As hypothesized, experiences of discrimination, childhood family adversities, childhood sexual abuse, other childhood trauma, and chronic stresses all loaded on the latent cumulative burden of adversities and trauma construct (CBAT). The CBAT stress exposure index in turn predicted the mental health status latent variable. Although there were several significant univariate ethnic and gender differences, and ethnic and gender differences were observed on several paths, there were no significant ethnic differences in the final model fit of the data. These findings highlight the deleterious consequences of cumulative stress and trauma for mental health and underscore a need to assess these constructs in selecting appropriate clinical interventions for reducing mental health disparities and improving human health. PMID:25961869

  15. Recognizing the impact of ambient air pollution on skin health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, S E; Wang, S Q

    2015-12-01

    Ambient air pollution is a known public health hazard that negatively impacts non-cutaneous organs; however, our knowledge regarding the effects on skin remains limited. Current scientific evidence suggests there are four mechanisms by which ambient air pollutants cause adverse effects on skin health: (i) generation of free radicals, (ii) induction of inflammatory cascade and subsequent impairment of skin barrier, (iii) activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and (iv) alterations to skin microflora. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview on ambient air pollutants and their relevant sources, and highlight current evidence of the effects on skin. PMID:26289769

  16. Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz participated in the study. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, Wechsler Memory Scale-III test was performed. Results: Twenty to 39% of the radar workers reported different problems such as needing a good tonic, feeling run down and out of sorts, headache, tightness or pressure in the head, insomnia, getting edgy and bad-tempered. Furthermore, 47% of the radar workers reported feeling under strain. In response to this question that if they have been able to enjoy their normal day-to-day activities, 31% responded "less than usual". It was also shown that work experience had significant relationships with reaction time and short-term memory indices i.e., forward digit span, reverse digit span, word recognition and paired words. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Altogether these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some adverse health effects.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:24974249

  18. Endocrine-Disrupting Activity of Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Adverse Health Outcomes After Prenatal Exposure in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Klemp, Kara C; Vu, Danh C; Lin, Chung-Ho; Meng, Chun-Xia; Besch-Williford, Cynthia L; Pinatti, Lisa; Zoeller, R Thomas; Drobnis, Erma Z; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Williams, Michelle A; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas operations have been shown to contaminate surface and ground water with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In the current study, we fill several gaps in our understanding of the potential environmental impacts related to this process. We measured the endocrine-disrupting activities of 24 chemicals used and/or produced by oil and gas operations for five nuclear receptors using a reporter gene assay in human endometrial cancer cells. We also quantified the concentration of 16 of these chemicals in oil and gas wastewater samples. Finally, we assessed reproductive and developmental outcomes in male C57BL/6J mice after the prenatal exposure to a mixture of these chemicals. We found that 23 commonly used oil and natural gas operation chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors, and mixtures of these chemicals can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically in vitro. Prenatal exposure to a mixture of 23 oil and gas operation chemicals at 3, 30, and 300 μg/kg · d caused decreased sperm counts and increased testes, body, heart, and thymus weights and increased serum testosterone in male mice, suggesting multiple organ system impacts. Our results suggest possible adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to potential environmentally relevant levels of oil and gas operation chemicals. PMID:26465197

  19. Impact of pharmaceutical care interventions on the occurrence and resolution of side/adverse drug effects associated with antiretroviral drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaozuzu, E.E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical care (PC has been shown to improve the outcome of drug therapy in many disease conditions. HIV/AIDS is one of the disease conditions that are fraught with many problems that can benefit from this new emphasis of pharmacy practice also known as ‘pharmacists care’. Adverse drug reactions or effects are unintended and undesirable effects of drugs other than their known and expected actions which can be unpleasant and sometimes fatal. This study is designed to evaluate the impact of pharmaceutical care activities on the occurrence of side/adverse drug reactions in HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral drugs. The components of the American society of health-system pharmacists (ASHP guidelines on ‘standardized method for pharmaceutical care’ was used as a data collection instrument to evaluate, document and intervene in the antiretroviral therapy of about one thousand four hundred and seventy three (1,473 patients. The study identified about sixty (60 different types of side/adverse effects occurring among these patients through observation and patient complaints. The study also showed significant reduction in the incidence of side/adverse drug effects following the Pharmacist’s intervention activities, p ≥ 0.5. The study showed that pharmacists’ interventions in antiretroviral drug therapy through Pharmaceutical care can significantly reduce the incidence of side/adverse drug effects in HIV/AIDS patients receiving antiretroviral drugs.

  20. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  1. The "compact impact" in Hawaii: focus on health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riklon, Sheldon; Alik, Wilfred; Hixon, Allen; Palafox, Neal A

    2010-06-01

    The political, economic, and military relationship between the former Pacific Trust Territories of the United States is defined by the Compact of Free Association (COFA) treaty. The respective COFA treaties allow the United States military and strategic oversight for these countries, while COFA citizens can work, reside, and travel with unlimited lengths of stay in the United States. The unforeseen consequences of the diaspora of the people of the COFA nations to the United States and its territories is called the "Compact Impact." In 2007 the social, health, and welfare system costs attributed to the estimated 13,000 COFA migrants in Hawaii was $90 million. The US federal government does not take full responsibility for the adverse economic consequences to Hawaii due to COFA implementation. The lack of health and education infrastructure in the COFA nations, as well as the unique language, culture, political, and economic development of the region have contributed to the adverse elements of the Compact Impact. The Department of Human Services of Hawaii, once supportive of the COFA peoples, now looks to withdraw state sponsored health care support. This paper reviews the historical, political, and economic development, which surrounds the Compact Impact and describes Hawaii's government and community response. This paper attempts to understand, describe, and search for solutions that will mitigate the Compact Impact. PMID:20539994

  2. Climate change and adverse health events: community perceptions from the Tanahu district of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mani Bhandari, Parash; Issa, Rita; Neupane, Dinesh; Gurung, Swadesh; Khanal, Vishnu

    2015-03-01

    Nepal is a country economically dependent on climate-sensitive industries. It is highly vulnerable to the environmental, social, economic and health impacts of climate change. The objective of this study is to explore community perceptions of climate variability and human health risks. In this letter, we present a cross sectional study conducted between August 2013 and July 2014 in the Tanahu district of Nepal. Our analysis is based on 258 face-to-face interviews with household heads utilizing structured questionnaires. Over half of the respondents (54.7%) had perceived a change in climate, 53.9% had perceived an increase in temperature in the summer and 49.2% had perceived an increase in rainfall during the rainy season. Half of the respondents perceived an increase in the number of diseases during the summer, 46.5% perceived an increase during the rainy season and 48.8% during winter. Only 8.9% of the respondents felt that the government was doing enough to prevent climate change and its impact on their community. Belonging to the Janajati (indigenous) ethnic group, living in a pakki, super-pakki house and belonging to poor or mid-level income were related to higher odds of perceiving climate variability. Illiterates were less likely to perceive climate variability. Respondents living in a pakki house, super-pakki, or those who were poor were more likely to perceive health risks. Illiterates were less likely to perceive health risks.

  3. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  4. Comparative assessment of health and safety impacts of coal use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    Increasing the use of coal to replace oil and gas consumption is considered beneficial for economic and political reasons. The evaluation of this report, however, is that the shift to coal can involve significant health, safety, and environmental impacts compared to those from oil and natural gas systems, which are considerably less adverse than those of any coal energy system in use today. An evaluation and comparison of the potential impacts from the various alternative coal technologies would be useful to both governmental and industrial policy planners and would provide them with information relevant to a decision on assistance, incentives, and prioritization among the energy technologies. It is, therefore, the main objective of this report to review the key health, safety, and environmental impacts of some promising coal energy technologies and to compare them.

  5. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrone V

    2014-12-01

    , respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents, B (blood and blood-forming organs, and N (nervous system. Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion: ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. Keywords: adverse drug reaction, preventability, economic impact, emergency department, pharmacovigilance

  6. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdkhasti, Mansureh; Pourreza, Abolghasem; Pirak, Arezoo; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births) imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013). Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation. PMID:26060771

  7. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansureh Yazdkhasti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013. Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.

  8. System impact research - increasing public health and health care system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmivaara, Antti

    2016-06-01

    Background Interventions directed to system features of public health and health care should increase health and welfare of patients and population. Aims To build a new framework for studies aiming to assess the impact of public health or health care system, and to consider the role of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) and of Benchmarking Controlled Trials (BCTs). Methods The new concept is partly based on the author's previous paper on the Benchmarking Controlled Trial. The validity and generalizability considerations were based on previous methodological studies on RCTs and BCTs. Results The new concept System Impact Research (SIR) covers all the studies which aim to assess the impact of the public health system or of the health care system on patients or on population. There are two kinds of studies in System Impact Research: Benchmarking Controlled Trials (observational) and Randomized Controlled Trials (experimental). The term impact covers in particular accessibility, quality, effectiveness, safety, efficiency, and equality. Conclusions System Impact Research - creating the scientific basis for policy decision making - should be given a high priority in medical, public health and health economic research, and should also be used for improving performance. Leaders at all levels of health and social care can use the evidence from System Impact Research for the benefit of patients and population. Key messages The new concept of SIR is defined as a research field aiming at assessing the impacts on patients and on populations of features of public health and health and social care systems or of interventions trying to change these features. SIR covers all features of public health and health and social care system, and actions upon these features. The term impact refers to all effects caused by the public health and health and social care system or parts of it, with particular emphasis on accessibility, quality, effectiveness, adverse effects, efficiency, and

  9. Pesticides and health in highland Ecuadorian potato production: assessing impacts and developing responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, D.; Sherwood, S.G.; Crissman, C.; Barrera, V.H.; Espinosa, E.

    2002-01-01

    Pesticide use in highland Ecuador is concentrated in the high-risk, commercial production of potatoes. Small farm families experience considerable exposure and adverse health consequences. The authors describe a three-pronged strategy to reduce health impacts: 1) a community-based process of educati

  10. Reactions to adverse incidents in the health services on Twitter: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Meaney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Participation in social networking is commonplace and social media is transforming both health and health related research. Of the various social media platforms, Twitter must be considered a platform for rapid and immediate communication. There has been considerable national and international media coverage reporting a number of adverse incidents in the Irish maternity services. The media coverage of these adverse incidents, most recently about a cluster of perinatal deaths, stimulated much public debate including debate online. Aim: Our study aimed to explore the Twitter status updates, and subsequent responses, relating to a number of perinatal deaths which occurred in a maternity unit with approximately 2,000 births per year. Method: As this study examined Twitter status updates in relation to reported perinatal death a mixed methods approach was adopted. Firstly, status updates in English were searched utilising the Twitter search function on its website. A search was undertaken on all public status updates from January 29th 2014 to March 31st 2014 relating to the perinatal deaths. Data were quantitatively analysed in order to assess the frequency of status updates, the demographic profiles of users and to ascertain the potential reach of the status updates. Secondly qualitative analysis was employed to generate themes from the content that twitter users shared publically. Results: From January 29th 2014 to March 31st 2014, 3,577 Twitter status updates from 1,276 profiles relating to the perinatal deaths were identified. Of these, 54.1% (n=1615 were tweets, 38.9% (n=1392 were retweets and 15.9% (n=570 were replies. Over one third of all updates (36.8%; n=1317 were from profiles which identified the user as either a media outlet or media personnel. One in 10 (11.8%; 424 status updates were by those who self-identified as a parent. Twitter was not utilised as a platform by any healthcare authority to release a statement in

  11. Causal Factors and Adverse Events of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    Causal factors in aviation accidents and incidents related to system/component failure/malfunction (SCFM) were examined for Federal Aviation Regulation Parts 121 and 135 operations to establish future requirements for the NASA Aviation Safety Program s Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project. Data analyzed includes National Transportation Safety Board (NSTB) accident data (1988 to 2003), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) incident data (1988 to 2003), and Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) incident data (1993 to 2008). Failure modes and effects analyses were examined to identify possible modes of SCFM. A table of potential adverse conditions was developed to help evaluate IVHM research technologies. Tables present details of specific SCFM for the incidents and accidents. Of the 370 NTSB accidents affected by SCFM, 48 percent involved the engine or fuel system, and 31 percent involved landing gear or hydraulic failure and malfunctions. A total of 35 percent of all SCFM accidents were caused by improper maintenance. Of the 7732 FAA database incidents affected by SCFM, 33 percent involved landing gear or hydraulics, and 33 percent involved the engine and fuel system. The most frequent SCFM found in ASRS were turbine engine, pressurization system, hydraulic main system, flight management system/flight management computer, and engine. Because the IVHM Project does not address maintenance issues, and landing gear and hydraulic systems accidents are usually not fatal, the focus of research should be those SCFMs that occur in the engine/fuel and flight control/structures systems as well as power systems.

  12. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  13. Adverse Impact of Sleep Restriction and Circadian Misalignment on Autonomic Function in Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Daniela; Carter, Jason R; Van Cauter, Eve; Leproult, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Insufficient sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances have been each associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in epidemiological studies, but experimental evidence for a causal link is scarce. The present study compares the impact of circadian misalignment (CM) to circadian alignment (CA) on human autonomic function using a nonrandomized parallel group design to achieve the same total sleep time in both conditions. After baseline assessments (3 days with 10-hour bedtimes), 26 healthy young adults were assigned to sleep restriction (SR; eight 5-hour bedtimes) with either fixed nocturnal bedtimes (CA; n=13) or bedtimes delayed by 8.5 hours on 4 of the 8 days (CM; n=13). Daytime ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate (HR; CA, n=11; CM, n=10) and 24-hour urinary norepinephrine levels (CA, n=13; CM, n=13) were assessed at baseline and the end of SR. Nocturnal HR and HR variability were analyzed during sleep at baseline and during the fourth and seventh nights of SR (CA, n=8; CM, n=12). SR resulted in a significant increase in daytime HR in both groups, without changes in blood pressure. SR increased 24-hour urinary norepinephrine in the CM group (30±4 versus 21±2 μg), but not in the circadian alignment group (group×condition, P=0.005). In contrast to the lack of detectable impact of CM on daytime autonomic function, SR with CM elicited greater increases in nocturnal HR, as well as greater reductions in vagal indices of HR variability, than SR without CM (group×condition, Pautonomic function that could lead, under chronic conditions, to enhanced cardiovascular risk. PMID:27271308

  14. Establishment of Exposure-response Functions of Air Particulate Matter and Adverse Health Outcomes in China and Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI-DONG KAN; BING-HENG CHEN; CHANG-HONG CHEN; BING-YAN WANG; QING-YAN FU

    2005-01-01

    Objective To obtain the exposure-response functions that could be used in health-based risk assessment of particulate air pollution in China. Methods Meta analysis was conducted on the literatures on air particulate matter and its adverse health outcomes in China and worldwide. Results For each health outcome from morbidity to mortality changes, the relative risks were estimated when the concentration of air particulate matter increased to some certain units. Conclusion The exposure-response functions recommended here can be further applied to health risk assessment of air particulate matter in China.

  15. Public health impact of plastics: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeti Rustagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic, one of the most preferred materials in today′s industrial world is posing serious threat to environment and consumer′s health in many direct and indirect ways. Exposure to harmful chemicals during manufacturing, leaching in the stored food items while using plastic packages or chewing of plastic teethers and toys by children are linked with severe adverse health outcomes such as cancers, birth defects, impaired immunity, endocrine disruption, developmental and reproductive effects etc. Promotion of plastics substitutes and safe disposal of plastic waste requires urgent and definitive action to take care of this potential health hazard in future.

  16. Energy Drink Consumption in Europe: A Review of the Risks, Adverse Health Effects, and Policy Options to Respond

    OpenAIRE

    Breda, João Joaquim; Whiting, Stephen Hugh; Encarnação, Ricardo; Norberg, Stina; Jones, Rebecca; Reinap, Marge; Jewell, Jo

    2014-01-01

    With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe; however, more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identi...

  17. Cumulative Burden of Lifetime Adversities: Trauma and Mental Health in Low-SES African Americans and Latino/as

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE; Ullman, JB; Loeb, TB; Chin, D.; Prause, N.; Zhang, M.; Williams, JK; Slavich, GM; H. Liu

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. All rights reserved. This study examined the utility of a lifetime cumulative adversities and trauma model in predicting the severity of mental health symptoms of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. We also tested whether ethnicity and gender moderate the effects of this stress exposure construct on mental health using multigroup structural equation modeling. A sample of 500 low-socioeconomic status African American and Latino men...

  18. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funtikova, Anna N; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fíto, Montserrat; Schröder, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship between their dietary patterns, especially when derived a posteriori, and cardiovascular risk. An adverse association of cardiovascular health and increased intake of sodium, saturated fat, meat, fast food and soft drinks has been reported in this population. In contrast, vitamin D, fiber, mono-and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, dairy, fruits and vegetables were positively linked to cardiovascular health.The aim of this review was to summarize current epidemiological and experimental evidence on the impact of nutrients, foods, and dietary pattern on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents. A comprehensive review of the literature available in English and related to diet and cardiometabolic health in this population was undertaken via the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Medline. PMID:26574072

  19. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  20. Quantifying the impact of adverse weather conditions on road network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Calvert, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions regularly lead to severe congestion and large travel time delays on road networks all over the world. Different climate scenarios indicate that in the future adverse weather conditions are likely to become more frequent, last longer and will be more extreme. Although clima

  1. Genomics and Health Impact Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Blog Post Prostate Cancer: Family History & Genetics Microbiome: Public Health Implications Colorectal Cancer: Screening & Genomics About ... 23) Birth Defects and Child Health Cancer Cardiovascular Disease Chronic Diseases Ethics/ Policy/ Law Genomics in Practice ...

  2. EPSDT Impact on Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Irwin, P.H.; Conroy-Hughes, Rosemary

    1981-01-01

    Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis and Treatment (EPSDT), a large-scale operational screening program which has generated a tremendous volume of data on the socio-demographic characteristics and health status of Medicaid-eligible children, seems to provide an ideal context within which to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive child health care. Concerns about health care expenditures generally, and the effectiveness of preventive child health services specifically, lead to the questio...

  3. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  4. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: Modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and TNF-α were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.

  5. Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Health Outcomes Following Prenatal Exposure to a Hydraulic Fracturing Chemical Mixture in Female C57Bl/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassotis, Christopher D; Bromfield, John J; Klemp, Kara C; Meng, Chun-Xia; Wolfe, Andrew; Zoeller, R Thomas; Balise, Victoria D; Isiguzo, Chiamaka J; Tillitt, Donald E; Nagel, Susan C

    2016-09-01

    Unconventional oil and gas operations using hydraulic fracturing can contaminate surface and groundwater with endocrine-disrupting chemicals. We have previously shown that 23 of 24 commonly used hydraulic fracturing chemicals can activate or inhibit the estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, progesterone, and/or thyroid receptors in a human endometrial cancer cell reporter gene assay and that mixtures can behave synergistically, additively, or antagonistically on these receptors. In the current study, pregnant female C57Bl/6 dams were exposed to a mixture of 23 commonly used unconventional oil and gas chemicals at approximately 3, 30, 300, and 3000 μg/kg·d, flutamide at 50 mg/kg·d, or a 0.2% ethanol control vehicle via their drinking water from gestational day 11 through birth. This prenatal exposure to oil and gas operation chemicals suppressed pituitary hormone concentrations across experimental groups (prolactin, LH, FSH, and others), increased body weights, altered uterine and ovary weights, increased heart weights and collagen deposition, disrupted folliculogenesis, and other adverse health effects. This work suggests potential adverse developmental and reproductive health outcomes in humans and animals exposed to these oil and gas operation chemicals, with adverse outcomes observed even in the lowest dose group tested, equivalent to concentrations reported in drinking water sources. These endpoints suggest potential impacts on fertility, as previously observed in the male siblings, which require careful assessment in future studies. PMID:27560547

  6. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches. PMID:16532301

  7. The impact of cell phone radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant exposure to radio frequency signals from mobile phones and their base stations could adversely affect on human health. As a consequence, as a result of this impact it is appeared frequent headaches, loss of memory and concentration, tension in the eardrum and sudden bouts of fatigue, childhood leukemia, brain tumors, eye cataracts, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system. Some people suffer from hyperelectrosensitivity. It should be noted that the analog phones much more harmful to human health than digital ones. Radio frequency of electromagnetic fields which is used by a modern cellular communications is in the range from 450 MHz to 1.9 GHz. Such fields unlike to ionizing radiation can not cause secondary radioactivity in the body. The cell phone is a device having a potential danger to health, so it is advisable wherever possible to protect yourselves from its use, or at least to minimize its use

  8. Health in social impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the direct negative impacts. However, like other types of impact assessment, SIA has evolved over time and has diverged considerably from EIA. Nowadays, SIA has widened its scope to become a “philosop...

  9. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus

    2016-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  10. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  11. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 μg/L (1.56), 11.7 μg/g (1.75), 12.5 μg/g (2.82), and 25.3 μg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of ≥ 100 μg/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  12. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K. [Minitry of Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environment, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ye, L.X., E-mail: yelx2004@163.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 {mu}g/L (1.56), 11.7 {mu}g/g (1.75), 12.5 {mu}g/g (2.82), and 25.3 {mu}g/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of {>=} 100 {mu}g/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  13. The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Versteeg, Henneke; Nielsen, Jens C.;

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients.......The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification Has No Adverse Impact on Patient Reported Outcomes in Danish Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients....

  14. The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Versteeg, Henneke; Nielsen, Jens C.;

    The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients.......The Medtronic Sprint Fidelis Lead Advisory Notification has no adverse impact on patient reported outcomes in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients....

  15. Impact of landfill waste on human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г.І. Архіпова

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available  Concidered is the impact of dampings solid wastes, which are situated near the populated areas, to the health of people and haveanylazed foreign investigations in this direction.

  16. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani W Fonseka

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30. Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58, while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09. These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war and perpetration of IPV warrants further study

  17. Adverse mental health outcomes associated with emotional abuse in young rural South African women: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Jina, Ruxana; Jewkes, Rachel; Hoffman, Susie; Dunkle, Kristen L.; Nduna, Mzikazi; Shai, Nwabisa J.

    2011-01-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of emotional abuse in youth. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of emotional abuse in intimate partnerships among young women in rural South Africa and to measure the association between lifetime experience of emotional abuse (with and without the combined experience of physical and/or sexual abuse) and adverse health outcomes. Between 2002 and 2003, young women from 70 villages were recruited to participate in the cluster rando...

  18. The Impact of Herbal Drug Use on Adverse Drug Reaction Profiles of Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Gene D. Morse; Qing Ma; Star Khoza; Tinashe Mudzviti; Maponga, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together wi...

  19. The Impact of Outpatient Chemotherapy-Related Adverse Events on the Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tomoya Tachi; Hitomi Teramachi; Kazuhide Tanaka; Shoko Asano; Tomohiro Osawa; Azusa Kawashima; Masahiro Yasuda; Takashi Mizui; Takumi Nakada; Yoshihiro Noguchi; Teruo Tsuchiya; Chitoshi Goto

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to clarify the impact of adverse events associated with the initial course of outpatient chemotherapy on the quality of life of breast cancer patients. We conducted a survey to assess the quality of life in 48 breast cancer patients before and after receiving their first course of outpatient chemotherapy at Gifu Municipal Hospital. Patients completed the European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions and Quality of Life Questionnaire for Cancer Patients Treated with Anti...

  20. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Valentina; Conti, Valentino; Venegoni, Mauro; Scotto, Stefania; Degli Esposti, Luca; Sangiorgi, Diego; Prestini, Lucia; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio; Vighi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported in emergency departments (EDs) and carry out a thorough characterization of these to assess preventability, seriousness that required hospitalization, subsequent 30-day mortality, and economic burden. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study of data from an active pharmacovigilance project at 32 EDs in the Lombardy region collected between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. Demographic, clinical, and pharmacological data on patients admitted to EDs were collected by trained and qualified monitors, and deterministic record linkage was performed to estimate hospitalizations. Pharmacoeconomic analyses were based on Diagnosis-Related Group reimbursement. Results 8,862 ADRs collected with an overall prevalence rate of 3.5 per 1,000 visits. Of all ADRs, 42% were probably/definitely preventable and 46.4% were serious, 15% required hospitalization, and 1.5% resulted in death. The System Organ Classes most frequently associated with ADRs were: skin and subcutaneous tissue, gastrointestinal, respiratory thoracic and mediastinal, and nervous system disorders. The most common Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classes involved in admissions were J (anti-infectives and immunomodulating agents), B (blood and blood-forming organs), and N (nervous system). Older age, yellow and red triage, higher number of concomitantly taken drugs, and previous attendance in ED for the same ADR were significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. The total cost associated with ADR management was €5,184,270, with a mean cost per patient of €585. Fifty-eight percent of the economic burden was defined as probably/definitely preventable. Conclusion ADRs are a serious health/economic issue in EDs. This assessment provides a thorough estimation of their seriousness, preventability, and burden impact in a large population from a representative European region. PMID

  1. The impact of global health experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Halie; Liebe, Sarah; Bien, Matt

    2012-11-01

    Global health has become an increasingly important part of medical education. This paper outlines the global medicine experiences of two students at Sanford School of Medicine of The University of South Dakota. Their stories highlight the global need for improved health care, the potential impact that such opportunities have on education and future practice, and the many opportunities available in international medicine. PMID:23189410

  2. Health Impact Review - Sources of information reports

    OpenAIRE

    Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2010-01-01

    To support each of the IPH series of Health Impact Reviews, a sources of information report is now avalable for each of the four reports. These provide links to organisations who have conducted a wealth of information related to health and either employment, transport, education or the built environment.

  3. Prenatal Family Adversity and Maternal Mental Health and Vulnerability to Peer Victimisation at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Wolke, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prenatal stress has been shown to predict persistent behavioural abnormalities in offspring. Unknown is whether prenatal stress makes children more vulnerable to peer victimisation. Methods: The current study is based on the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective community-based study. Family adversity, maternal…

  4. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  5. Health in social impact assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Broeder, Lea; Vanclay, Frank; Fehr, Rainer; Viliani, Francesca; Nowacki, Julia; Martuzzi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    SIA developed alongside EIA in the early 1970s as a mechanism to consider the social impacts of planned interventions. The early understanding tended to limit the practical application of SIA to the project level, usually within the context of regulatory frameworks, and primarily considered only the

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast Foods and their Impact on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashakiran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eat healthy and live healthy’ is one of the essential requirements for long life. Unfortunately, today’s world has been adapted to a system of consumption of foods which has several adverse effects on health. Lifestyle changes has compelled us so much that one has so little time to really think what we are eating is right Globalisation and urbanisation have greatly affected one’s eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as ‘Junk foods. Research into the possible health hazards on consumption of such high calorie foods has given an insight to avoid them, but unfortunately measures taken are not aseffective as they need to be. Diseases like coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus have seen a profound rise in developing countries and such unhealthy junk food consumption is one of the notable factors to its contribution. This global problem of consuming junk food on a large scale and its impact on health needs emphasis and health education which can greatly contribute to itslimited consumption and switching over to healthy eating habits for the better living. knowledge highlighting about the eating habits,nutritional aspects, quality of unhealthy foods, their health impact and preventive measures should be given to create awareness and render health education for a change towards good eating practices. Junk food and its impact on health have been reviewed from variousresources and have been systematically presented, so as to emphasize its ill effects and measures to be adapted towards healthy living.

  7. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. PMID:26518315

  8. Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Peter

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to

  9. Health impacts of geothermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geothermal resources are used to produce electrical energy and to supply heat for non-electric applications like residential heating and crop drying. The utilization of geothermal energy consists of the extraction of hot water or steam from an underground reservoir followed by different methods of surface processing along with the disposal of liquid, gaseous, and even solid wastes. The focus of this paper is on electric power production using geothermal resources greater than 1500C because this form of geothermal energy utilization has the most serious health-related consequences. Based on measurements and experience at existing geothermal power plants, atmospheric emissions of non-condensing gases such as hydrogen sulphide and benzene pose the greatest hazards to public health. Surface and ground waters contaminated by discharges of spent geothermal fluids constitute another health hazard. In this paper it is shown that hydrogen sulphide emissions from most geothermal power plants are apt to cause odour annoyances among members of the exposed public -some of whom can detect this gas at concentrations as low as 0.002 ppmv. A risk-assessment model is used to estimate the lifetime risk of incurring leukaemia from atmospheric benzene caused by 2000 MW(e) of geothermal development in California's Imperial Valley. Also assessed is the risk of skin cancer due to the ingestion of river water in New Zealand that is contaminated by waste geothermal fluids containing arsenic. Finally, data on the occurrence of occupational disease in the geothermal industry is briefly summarized. (author)

  10. Detecting drugs and adverse events from Spanish health social media streams

    OpenAIRE

    Revert Arenaz, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) are the 4th cause of death in hospitalized patients. Despite the importance of clinical trials, they have many limitations mainly based on time and population. Therefore, other ways of spotting ADRs had to be created, as for instance, the healthcare professionals reporting systems and the spontaneous patients reporting systems created by the FDA or the EMA. Nevertheless, it has been proven that the results obtained are not yet as satisfactory as expected. Heal...

  11. Cigarette smoke and adverse health effects: An overview of research trends and future needs

    OpenAIRE

    Saha, Sibu P.; Deepak K. Bhalla; Whayne, Thomas F.; Gairola, CG

    2007-01-01

    A large volume of data has accumulated on the issues of tobacco and health worldwide. The relationship between tobacco use and health stems initially from clinical observations about lung cancer, the first disease definitively linked to tobacco use. Almost 35 years ago, the Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Health Service reviewed over 7000 research papers on the topic of smoking and health, and publicly recognized the role of smoking in various diseases, including lung cance...

  12. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  13. Unintended adverse consequences of electronic health record introduction to a mature universal HIV screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Yang, Katharine; Pasalar, Siavash; Pillow, M Tyson; Miertschin, Nancy P; Peacock, William F; Giordano, Thomas P; Hoxhaj, Shkelzen

    2016-05-01

    Early HIV detection and treatment decreases morbidity and mortality and reduces high-risk behaviors. Many Emergency Departments (EDs) have HIV screening programs as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recent federal legislation includes incentives for electronic health record (EHR) adoption. Our objective was to analyze the impact of conversion to EHR on a mature ED-based HIV screening program. A retrospective pre- and post-EHR implementation cohort study was conducted in a large urban, academic ED. Medical records were reviewed for HIV screening rates from August 2008 through October 2013. On 1 November 2010, a comprehensive EHR system was implemented throughout the hospital. Before EHR implementation, labs were requested by providers by paper orders with HIV-1/2 automatically pre-selected on every form. This universal ordering protocol was not duplicated in the new EHR; rather it required a provider to manually enter the order. Using a chi-squared test, we compared HIV testing in the 6 months before and after EHR implementation; 55,054 patients presented before, and 50,576 after EHR implementation. Age, sex, race, acuity of presenting condition, and HIV seropositivity rates were similar pre- and post-EHR, and there were no major patient or provider changes during this period. Average HIV testing rate was 37.7% of all ED patients pre-, and 22.3% post-EHR, a 41% decline (p implementation, and could have been improved with more thoughtful inclusion of existing human processes in its design. PMID:26729258

  14. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  15. Smoking and impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vineis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, the World Health Organization set a global goal to reduce the rate of death from chronic (noncommunicable disease by an additional 2% every year. A major component in this strategy was a reduction in the use of tobacco products, as described in the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. According to recent estimates, over 10 yrs (2006–2015 13.8 million deaths could be averted by the implementation of such interventions, at a cost of less than US$0.40 person–1·yr–1 in low-income and lower middle-income countries, and US$0.50–1.00 person–1·yr–1 in upper middle-income countries. According to estimates, approximately one third of tobacco-related deaths will be due to respiratory causes, one third to cancer and one third to cardiovascular diseases. Most of the burden of tobacco in the future will be in low-income countries.

  16. Early-Life Adversity Interacts with FKBP5 Genotypes: Altered Working Memory and Cardiac Stress Reactivity in the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovallo, William R; Enoch, Mary-Anne; Acheson, Ashley; Cohoon, Andrew J; Sorocco, Kristen H; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Vincent, Andrea S; Goldman, David

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to stress during critical periods of development can have adverse effects on adult health behaviors, and genetic vulnerabilities may enhance these stress effects. We carried out an exploratory examination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral characteristics of 252 healthy young adults for the impact of early-life adversity (ELA) in relation to the G-to-A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs9296158, of the FKBP5 gene. FKBP5 is a molecular cochaperone that contributes to the functional status of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and to the quality of corticosteroid signaling. FKBP5 expression is upregulated by cortisol exposure during stressful episodes, with greater upregulation seen in A-allele carriers. As such, FKBP5 expression and GR function may be environmentally sensitive in A-allele carriers and therefore suitable for the study of gene-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Compared with FKBP5, GG homozygotes (N=118), A-allele carriers (N = 132) without psychiatric morbidity had progressively worse performance on the Stroop color-word task with increasing levels of ELA exposure (Genotype × ELA, F=5.14, P=0.007), indicating a G × E interaction on working memory in early adulthood. In addition, heart rate response to mental stress was diminished overall in AA/AG-allele carriers (F=5.15, P=0.024). Diminished working memory and attenuated autonomic responses to stress are both associated with risk for alcoholism and other substance use disorders. The present data suggest that FKBP5 in the GR pathway may be a point of vulnerability to ELA, as seen in this group of non-traumatized young adults. FKBP5 is accordingly a potential target for more extensive studies of the impact of ELA on health and health behaviors in adulthood. PMID:26632991

  17. Describing the impact of health research: a Research Impact Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleasant Andrew

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers are increasingly required to describe the impact of their work, e.g. in grant proposals, project reports, press releases and research assessment exercises. Specialised impact assessment studies can be difficult to replicate and may require resources and skills not available to individual researchers. Researchers are often hard-pressed to identify and describe research impacts and ad hoc accounts do not facilitate comparison across time or projects. Methods The Research Impact Framework was developed by identifying potential areas of health research impact from the research impact assessment literature and based on research assessment criteria, for example, as set out by the UK Research Assessment Exercise panels. A prototype of the framework was used to guide an analysis of the impact of selected research projects at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. Additional areas of impact were identified in the process and researchers also provided feedback on which descriptive categories they thought were useful and valid vis-à-vis the nature and impact of their work. Results We identified four broad areas of impact: I. Research-related impacts; II. Policy impacts; III. Service impacts: health and intersectoral and IV. Societal impacts. Within each of these areas, further descriptive categories were identified. For example, the nature of research impact on policy can be described using the following categorisation, put forward by Weiss: Instrumental use where research findings drive policy-making; Mobilisation of support where research provides support for policy proposals; Conceptual use where research influences the concepts and language of policy deliberations and Redefining/wider influence where research leads to rethinking and changing established practices and beliefs. Conclusion Researchers, while initially sceptical, found that the Research Impact Framework provided prompts and descriptive

  18. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same.

  19. Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators

    OpenAIRE

    Naser Dehghan; Shahram Taeb

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz) participated in the study. Visual reaction time was ...

  20. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Health Impact on Disproportionately Affected Populations, Including Minorities and Impoverished Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Stockman, Jamila K.; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproduc...

  1. Adverse health effects of experiencing food insecurity among Greenlandic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Petzold, M.; Schnohr, C. W.

    2013-01-01

    food insecurity. Poor or fair self-rated health, medicine use last month and physical symptoms during the last 6 months were all more frequent in children reporting food insecurity. Controlling for age, gender and family affluence odds ratio (OR) for self-rated health was 1.60 (95% confidence interval...

  2. Impact of adverse economic shocks on the Indian child labour market and the schooling of children of poor households

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Singh, B

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of adverse economic shocks on human capital formation in the case of India. It uses the extended theoretical model of Basu and Van (1998). The study has been carried out for the period between 1999 and 2002 and covers 385 districts. The results show that during a crisis, there is a fall in the school enrollment rate and a rise in the child labour participation rate. The study also argues that in the absence of a well-functioning credit market, to mitigate the ad...

  3. Does material disadvantage explain the increased risk of adverse health, educational, and behavioural outcomes among children in lone parent households in Britain? A cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, N

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To test the hypothesis that material disadvantage explains the increased risk among children and young people of adverse health, educational, and behavioural problems associated with living in lone parent households in Britain

  4. Adverse Impact of Racial Isolation on Student Performance: A Study in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Andy; Joyner, Ann Moss; Osment, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of racial isolation on high school student performance in North Carolina, a state in the southeast United States. Our research goal is to investigate if increased isolation negatively impacts Black students' academic performance. Employing the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (NCDPI)…

  5. Impact of organisational change on mental health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between......Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of...... organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems...

  6. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  7. Adverse Effects of Tattoos and Piercing on Parent/Patient Confidence in Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scarlett C; Doi, Maegan L M; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2016-09-01

    First impressions based on practitioner appearance often form the basis for preliminary assumptions regarding trust, confidence, and competence, especially in situations where patients or family members do not have an established relationship with the physician. Given their growing prevalence, we strove to further investigate whether visible tattoos or piercings on a medical provider affects a patient's perception of the provider's capabilities and their trust in the care that would be provided. A survey using photographs of simulated practitioners was administered to 314 participants split between rural and urban locations. Study volunteers rated tattooed practitioners with lower confidence ratings when compared with nontattooed practitioners and reported greater degrees of discomfort with greater degrees of facial piercing. We concluded that these factors adversely affect the clinical confidence ratings of practitioners, regardless of the gender, age group, or location of participants. PMID:26603585

  8. Understanding and Mitigating Adverse Health Effects in Space Using A System Physiology Software Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for Space Exploration aims for human interplanetary missions that have significant challenges on crew health and safety including fluid shifts, and...

  9. Economic Inequalities in Latin America at the Base of Adverse Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Juan Cruz

    2016-07-01

    There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of a link between income inequalities and health outcomes. The main purpose of this article is to test whether economic inequalities are associated with poor population health in Latin American countries. Multi-country data from 1970 to 2012 were used to assess this question. The results show that the Gini coefficient has a strong correlation with health outcomes. Moreover, multiple linear regression analysis using fixed effects shows that after controlling for gross national income per capita, literacy rate, and health expenditure, the Gini coefficient is independently negatively associated with health outcomes. In Latin American countries, for every percentage point increase in the Gini coefficient, the infant mortality rate grows by 0.467 deaths per 1,000 live births, holding all other variables constant. Additionally, an ordinary least squares estimation model suggests that countries that do not use International Monetary Fund loans perform better on health outcomes. These findings should alert policymakers, elected officials, and the public of the need to fight income inequalities and rethink the role of international financial institutions that dictate state policies. PMID:27287670

  10. Untapped potential of health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Mirko S; Krieger, Gary R; Divall, Mark J; Cissé, Guéladio; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Tanner, Marcel; Utzinger, Jürg

    2013-04-01

    The World Health Organization has promoted health impact assessment (HIA) for over 20 years. At the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20), HIA was discussed as a critical method for linking health to "green economy" and "institutional framework" strategies for sustainable development. In countries having a high human development index (HDI), HIA has been added to the overall assessment suite that typically includes potential environmental and social impacts, but it is rarely required as part of the environmental and social impact assessment for large development projects. When they are performed, project-driven HIAs are governed by a combination of project proponent and multilateral lender performance standards rather than host country requirements. Not surprisingly, in low-HDI countries HIA is missing from the programme and policy arena in the absence of an external project driver. Major drivers of global change (e.g. population growth and urbanization, growing pressure on natural resources and climate change) inordinately affect low- and medium-HDI countries; however, in such countries HIA is conspicuously absent. If the cloak of HIA invisibility is to be removed, it must be shown that HIA is useful and beneficial and, hence, an essential component of the 21st century's sustainable development agenda. We analyse where and how HIA can become fully integrated into the impact assessment suite and argue that the impact of HIA must not remain obscure. PMID:23599554

  11. Interactions of early adversity with stress-related gene polymorphisms impact regional brain structure in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Labus, Jennifer; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Bonyadi, Mariam; Ashe-McNalley, Cody; Heendeniya, Nuwanthi; Bradesi, Sylvie; Chang, Lin; Mayer, Emeran A

    2016-04-01

    Early adverse life events (EALs) have been associated with regional thinning of the subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), a brain region implicated in the development of disorders of mood and affect, and often comorbid functional pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Regional neuroinflammation related to chronic stress system activation has been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying these neuroplastic changes. However, the interaction of genetic and environmental factors in these changes is poorly understood. The current study aimed to evaluate the interactions of EALs and candidate gene polymorphisms in influencing thickness of the sgACC. 210 female subjects (137 healthy controls; 73 IBS) were genotyped for stress and inflammation-related gene polymorphisms. Genetic variation with EALs, and diagnosis on sgACC thickness was examined, while controlling for race, age, and total brain volume. Compared to HCs, IBS had significantly reduced sgACC thickness (p = 0.03). Regardless of disease group (IBS vs. HC), thinning of the left sgACC was associated with a significant gene-gene environment interaction between the IL-1β genotype, the NR3C1 haplotype, and a history of EALs (p = 0.05). Reduced sgACC thickness in women with the minor IL-1β allele, was associated with EAL total scores regardless of NR3C1 haplotype status (p = 0.02). In subjects homozygous for the major IL-1β allele, reduced sgACC with increasing levels of EALs was seen only with the less common NR3C1 haplotype (p = 0.02). These findings support an interaction between polymorphisms related to stress and inflammation and early adverse life events in modulating a key region of the emotion arousal circuit. PMID:25630611

  12. Population Trends of Central European Montane Birds Provide Evidence for Adverse Impacts of Climate Change on High-Altitude Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Flousek

    Full Text Available Climate change is among the most important global threats to biodiversity and mountain areas are supposed to be under especially high pressure. Although recent modelling studies suggest considerable future range contractions of montane species accompanied with increased extinction risk, data allowing to test actual population consequences of the observed climate changes and identifying traits associated to their adverse impacts are very scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we estimated long-term population trends of montane birds from 1984 to 2011 in a central European mountain range, the Giant Mountains (Krkonoše, where significant warming occurred over this period. We then related the population trends to several species' traits related to the climate change effects. We found that the species breeding in various habitats at higher altitudes had more negative trends than species breeding at lower altitudes. We also found that the species moved upwards as a response to warming climate, and these altitudinal range shifts were associated with more positive population trends at lower altitudes than at higher altitudes. Moreover, long-distance migrants declined more than residents or species migrating for shorter distances. Taken together, these results indicate that the climate change, besides other possible environmental changes, already influences populations of montane birds with particularly adverse impacts on high-altitude species such as water pipit (Anthus spinoletta. It is evident that the alpine species, predicted to undergo serious climatically induced range contractions due to warming climate in the future, already started moving along this trajectory.

  13. Bundling Health Insurance and Microfinance in India: There Cannot be Adverse Selection if There is No Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Abhijit Banerjee; Esther Duflo; Richard Hornbeck

    2014-01-01

    Microfinance institutions have started to bundle their basic loans with other financial services, such as health insurance. Using a randomized control trial in Karnataka, India, we evaluate the impact on loan renewal from mandating the purchase of actuarially-fair health insurance covering hospitalization and maternity expenses. Bundling loans with insurance led to a 16 percentage points (23 percent) increase in drop-out from microfinance, as many clients preferred to give up microfinance tha...

  14. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  15. Urinary catheterization may not adversely impact quality of life in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Rebecca; Frasure, Heidi E; Mahajan, Sangeeta T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Multiple sclerosis (MS) healthcare providers (HCP) have undergone considerable educational efforts regarding the importance of evaluating and treating pelvic floor disorders, specifically, urinary dysfunction. However, limited data are available to determine the impact of catheterization on patient quality of life (QoL). Objectives. To describe the use of urinary catheterization among MS patients and determine the differences between those who report positive versus negative impact of this treatment on QoL. Methods. Patients were queried as part of the 2010 North American Research Committee On Multiple Sclerosis survey; topics included 1) urinary/bladder, bowel, or sexual problems; 2) current urine leakage; 3) current catheter use; 4) catheterizing and QoL. Results. Respondents with current urine leakage were 5143 (54.7%), of which 1201 reported current catheter use (12.8%). The types of catheters (intermittent self-catheterization and Foley catheter (indwelling and suprapubic)) did not differ significantly. Of the current catheter users, 304 (25.35%) respondents reported catheterization negatively impacting QoL, 629 (52.4%) reported a positive impact on QoL, and 223 (18.6%) reported neutral QoL. Conclusions. A large proportion of catheterized MS patients report negative or positive changes in QoL associated with urinary catheterization. Urinary catheterization does not appear to have a universally negative impact on patient QoL. PMID:25006498

  16. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  17. The Adverse Impact of Racial Microaggressions on College Students' Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Kevin L.; Wong, Yinglee; Griffin, Katie E.; Davidoff, Kristin; Sriken, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Racial microaggressions are subtle (often unintentional or unconscious) forms of racial discrimination that negatively affect victims' mental health. Utilizing an undergraduate student sample (N = 225), the current study examined the relationship between racial microaggressions and self-esteem. Results indicate that racial microaggressions…

  18. Adverse childhood experiences, mental health, and quality of life of Chilean girls placed in foster care: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, Annina; Kohler, Stefanie; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Landolt, Markus A

    2016-03-01

    In Latin America, little research has been conducted regarding exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), mental health, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among foster children. This study examined the association between ACEs and mental health, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and HRQoL in Chilean foster girls relative to age-matched Chilean family girls. Data were obtained from 27 Chilean foster girls and 27 Chilean girls ages 6 to 17 years living in family homes. Standardized self- and proxy-report measures were used. Foster girls reported more ACEs than controls in terms of familial and nonfamilial sexual abuse and both emotional and physical neglect. Girls living in foster care had a significantly higher rate of PTSD, displayed greater behavioral and emotional problems, and reported a lower HRQoL. Analysis confirmed the well-known cumulative risk hypothesis by demonstrating a significant positive association between the number of ACEs and PTSD symptom severity and a significant negative association with HRQoL. Chilean foster girls endured more ACEs that impair mental health and HRQoL than age-matched peers living with their families. These findings have implications for out-of-home care services in Latin America, highlighting the need to implement not only appropriate trauma-focused treatments but also appropriate prevention strategies. PMID:25915644

  19. The Relationship between Working Conditions and Adverse Health Symptoms of Employee in Solar Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Wang, Xiu Feng; Cui, Xiu Min; Wang, Jian; Yu, Shi Xin

    2015-02-01

    To determine the correlation between the working environment and the health status of employees in solar greenhouse, 1171 employees were surveyed. The results show the 'Greenhouse diseases' are affected by many factors. Among general uncomforts, the morbidity of the bone and joint damage is the highest and closely related to labor time and age. Planting summer squash and wax gourd more easily cause skin pruritus. Asthma-related cough, eye disease, and skin pruritus are significantly correlated with the cultivation of wax gourd. The application of inorganic fertilizer and fertigation dramatically induce the bone and joint damage. The smell of covering film greatly influence skin pruritus. Personal protection is badly scanty and normative occupational health and safety need to be completed. PMID:25716566

  20. Health impact of air pollution to children

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šrám, Radim; Binková, B.; Dostál, Miroslav; Merkerová-Dostálová, M.; Líbalová, Helena; Milcová, Alena; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Schmuczerová, Jana; Švecová, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavová, H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 216, č. 5 (2013), s. 533-540. ISSN 1438-4639 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08; GA MŠk 2B08005; GA ČR GAP503/11/0084; GA ČR GAP503/11/0142 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : PM2.5 * carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons * pregnancy outcome Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 3.276, year: 2013

  1. Explaining Adverse Behavioural Impact of Performance Management Systems in a Professional Accounting Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Ururuka, V; Otley, D T; Beekes, W A

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how hierarchical level and line of service affect the behavioural effects of performance management systems (PMS) features such as performance evaluative style and goal difficulty, as well as the effects of organisational commitment. Our study provides empirical evidence of the incidence of dysfunctional behaviour in a UK accounting firm, and also show that hierarchical levels impact on the behavioural effects of PMS. We find a high incidence of dysfunctional behaviour...

  2. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society. PMID:27364177

  3. Piezoelectric properties of quartz and cristobalite airborne particulates as a cause of adverse health effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, B. J.; Pastiroff, S.; Cressey, G.

    Inhalation of quartz and cristobalite dusts is commonly linked with health effects although the mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Grinding of these piezoelectric silica polymorphs produces particulates with transient piezoelectric charges. This is likely to cause vigorous reaction with atmospheric gases and, through interaction with surface charges and 'dangling bonds', may lead to the formation of highly deleterious ozonide, superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. It is hoped that this study will encourage experimental work to quantify piezoelectric effects in silica dusts and to develop a method for their neutralisation during cutting and grinding processes.

  4. The impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reaction profiles of patients on antiretroviral therapy in zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudzviti, Tinashe; Maponga, Charles C; Khoza, Star; Ma, Qing; Morse, Gene D

    2012-01-01

    Background. The main objective was to determine the impact of herbal drug use on adverse drug reactions in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methodology. Patients receiving first-line ART from the national roll-out program participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants were interviewed and a data collection sheet was used to collect information from the corresponding medical record. Results. The majority (98.2%) of participants were using at least one herbal drug together with ART. The most common herbal remedies used were Allium Sativum (72.7%), Bidens pilosa (66.0%), Eucalyptus globulus (52.3%), Moringa oleifera (44.1%), Lippia javanica (36.3%), and Peltoforum africanum (34.3%). Two indigenous herbs, Musakavakadzi (OR = 0.25; 95% CI 0.076-0.828) and Peltoforum africanum (OR = 0.495; 95% CI 0.292-0.839) reduced the occurrence of adverse drug events. Conclusions. The use of herbal drugs is high in the HIV-infected population and there is need for pharmacovigilance programs to recognize the role they play in altering ADR profiles. PMID:22506106

  5. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J; Kowall, B; Schmiedel, S; Reis, U; Potthoff, P; Schüz, J; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this first phase of a cross-sectional study from Germany was to investigate whether proximity of residence to mobile phone base stations as well as risk perception is associated with health complaints. METHODS: The researchers conducted a population-based, multi-phase, cross......-sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations...... participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living...

  6. Health impact assessment of proposal to burn tyres in a cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cement plant located in a small English town applied for a variation in its license to allow it to use chopped tyres as fuel in the cement kiln in part replacement for coal. The local health authority (PCT), a statutory consultee in the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) process, requested an Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of the proposal to inform its response. A combination of interviews with key informants, literature search and participatory methods was used. The HIA broadly concluded that the proposal was unlikely to cause adverse impacts. The attempt to be impartial and the failure to confirm health fears disappointed many residents. The HIA had to be completed very quickly and it proved impossible to produce meaningful participation within this time scale. It is also suggested that very few PCTs have adequate resources to make the assessment of health impacts necessary for them to properly fulfil their role in the IPPC process

  7. Bioremediation of adverse impact of cadmium toxicity on Cassia italica Mill by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Abeer; Abd Allah, E F; Alqarawi, A A; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza

    2016-01-01

    Cassia italica Mill is an important medicinal plant within the family Fabaceae. Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate cadmium stress induced changes in physiological and biochemical attributes in C. italica with and without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Cadmium stressed plant showed reduced chlorophyll pigment and protein content while AMF inoculation enhanced the chlorophyll and protein content considerably. AMF also ameliorated the cadmium stress induced reduction in total chlorophyll and protein contents by 19.30% and 38.29%, respectively. Cadmium stress enhanced lipid peroxidation while AMF inoculation reduced lipid peroxidation considerably. Increase in proline and phenol content was observed due to cadmium stress and AMF inoculation caused a further increase in proline and phenol content ensuring better growth under stressed conditions. AMF alone also enhanced proline and phenol content. Activity of antioxidant enzymes enhanced under cadmium treatment and AMF inoculation further enhanced their activity thereby strengthening the antioxidant system. Enhanced activities of antioxidants and increased accumulation of osmolytes help plants to avoid damaging impact of oxidative damage. The research has shown that AMF inoculation mitigated the negative impact of stress by reducing the lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant activity. The present study strongly supports employing AMF as the biological mean for enhancing the cadmium stress tolerance of C. italica. PMID:26858537

  8. Alleviation of adverse impact of cadmium stress in sunflower (helianthus annuus l.) by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is an important ornamental plant and good source of vegetable oil, widely accepted as potential promising plant for phytoremediation. A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of cadmium on the growth and some biochemical attributes of sunflower and role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in assuaging the cadmium stress induced changes. Cadmium treatment reduced growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability. AMF inoculated plants showed increased growth, chlorophyll contents and cell membrane stability and also mitigated changes caused due to cadmium. Cadmium caused increase in lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide production. An increase in antioxidant enzyme activity was observed due to cadmium treatment which was further enhanced by inoculation of AMF. Increase in proline and total phenols due to cadmium stress was obvious. Cadmium stressed plants showed enhanced fatty acid content. AMF inoculated plants showed higher activities of acid and alkaline phosphatases which were reduced by cadmium stress. However palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) reduced in cadmium treated plants and the negative impact of cadmium was mitigated by AMF. (author)

  9. Frequent Mental Distress, Chronic Conditions, and Adverse Health Behaviors in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Al-Nsour, MD, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidence indicates that chronic diseases and mental illness are associated. In the Middle Eastern country of Jordan, chronic diseases and frequent mental distress (FMD are increasing; however, the capacity for mental health care is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the association between FMD, chronic conditions, and adverse health behaviors in Jordan. Methods The third cycle of the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (2007 served as the data source for this study. The sample consisted of 3,612 noninstitutionalized Jordanian adults aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios for the association between chronic conditions, health behaviors, and FMD adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Results In the adjusted models, people with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.7, high cholesterol (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.2, diabetes (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4, and asthma (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.1 and smokers (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0 were more likely to have FMD than people without each of these conditions. Adults who reported vigorous physical activity were less likely to have FMD (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9 than their less active counterparts. Conclusions In Jordan, FMD was associated with several chronic conditions. As a result, we suggest additional research to examine the complex relationship between FMD and chronic conditions. More doctors in the primary health care system should be trained in mental health.

  10. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    Prior research has established an association between loneliness and a variety of negative health conditions among older people. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the association. The Loneliness Model seeks to explain the mechanisms through which chronic loneliness might...

  11. The impact of health insurance on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, G Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, a number of low- and middle-income country governments have introduced health insurance schemes. Yet not a great deal is known about the impact of such policy shifts. Vietnam's recent health insurance experience including a health insurance scheme for the poor in 2003 and a compulsory scheme that provides health insurance to all children under six years of age combined with Vietnam's commitment to universal coverage calls for research that examines the impact of health insurance. Taking advantage of Vietnam's unique policy environment, data from the 2002, 2004 and 2006 waves of the Vietnam Household Living Standard Survey and single-difference and difference-in-differences approaches are used to assess whether access to health insurance--for the poor, for children and for students--impacts on health services utilization and health outcomes in Vietnam. For the poor and for students, results suggest health insurance increased the use of inpatient services but not of outpatient services or health outcomes. For young children, results suggest health insurance increased the use of outpatient services (including the use of preventive health services such as vaccination and check-up) but not of inpatient services. PMID:24661805

  12. [Electrosmog, cellular phones, sunbeds etc. -- adverse health effects from radiation? Health aspects of non-ionizing radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, J H

    2005-01-01

    This review supplies a survey of the three physical influences, i. e. UV radiation, high-frequency electromagnetic fields of radio telephone systems and other wireless radio applications as well as low-frequency fields of electric power supply. The exposure to UV radiation must be considered to be by far the highest health risk. The annual rate of about 2000 deaths from skin cancer in Germany, mainly caused by extensive exposure to solar UV radiation, demands protective measures. Teaching reasonable behaviour is the supreme issue. Recommended protective measures in the order of their effectiveness are protection by adaptation of behaviour, by clothes, sun hats and sunglasses as well as by sun creams. Children are the most important target group. With regard to UV tanning appliances it is recommended not to use artificial UV radiation for cosmetic purposes because of the related health risks. For the assessment of health impairments caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields, direct field reactions due to induced electric body currents, reactions on the surface of the body or heating effects should be separated from indirect field reactions (e. g. electric shocks and burns) due to contact currents or interference with electronic body aids and implants. Risk assessment has led to recommendations of threshold values which-in agreement with international research results-exclude all impairments of health caused by direct field reactions scientifically proven to date. Contrary to public concerns, which are mostly related to base transmitters of radio telephone systems, exposure due to handheld radio telephones (cellular phones) should rather be considered from the viewpoint of precautionary health protection, since it is more likely that their use can lead to high exposure of the user. Due to the protective measures provided so far and observance of the threshold values based on scientific results, exposures do not lead to health impairments-not even in children

  13. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed ...

  14. Adverse Impact of Electromagnetic Radiation on Urban Environment and Natural Resources using Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Katiyar, Swati; Rani, Meenu

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of a rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with an advance technical capacity.This has resulted in wide spread land cover change. One of the main causes for increasing urban heat is that more than half of the world's population lives in a rapidly growing urbanized environment. Satellite data can be highly useful to map change in land cover and other environmental phenomena with the passage of time. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The UHI for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment on climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island change on climate using the geospatial approach. NDVI were generated using day time LANDSAT ETM+ image of 1990, 2000 and 2013. Temperature of various land use and land cover categories was estimated. Keywords: NDVI, Surface temperature, Dynamic changes.

  15. Strong adverse prognostic impact of hyperglycemic episodes during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy of glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Arnulf; Vaupel, Peter; Stockinger, Marcus; Schmidberger, Heinz [University Medical Center, Department of Radiooncology and Radiotherapy, Mainz (Germany); Struss, Hans-Garlich [University Medical Center, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Mainz (Germany); Giese, Alf [University Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Mainz (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    In comparison to normal brain tissue, glioblastomas exhibit significantly increased glucose uptake. Brain edema is a common complication during adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, leading to a requirement for glucocorticoid treatment. Glucocorticoid treatment frequently causes considerable deregulation of blood glucose levels. Therefore, episodes of hyperglycemia may contribute to radio- and/or chemoresistance. This study comprises a retrospective analysis of the influence of hyperglycemic episodes (HEs) during adjuvant therapy on the overall survival of 106 glioblastoma multiforme patients. The occurrence of one or more deregulated blood glucose value(s) > 10 mM is associated with a reduction in median overall survival from 16.7 to 8.8 months. A significantly poorer overall survival of patients with hyperglycemia could also be detected in subgroup analyses of patients with complete tumor resection and complete treatment according to the EORTC 22891/26891 trial protocol, as well as in a multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis. A history of diabetes mellitus had no influence on prognosis. Our data suggest that the observed negative impact of elevated blood glucose levels on overall survival may not solely be explained by the patients' poorer general condition; the elevated blood glucose concentration itself may play a pathogenetic role. This could be due to increased activity of antioxidant systems, elevated expression of DNA damage response proteins and protection of hypoxic tumor cells against apoptosis combined with hypoxia-mediated radioresistance. A possible prognostic impact of elevated blood glucose levels during the period of adjuvant (chemo-) radiotherapy of glioblastoma should be evaluated in a prospective clinical trial. (orig.) [German] Glioblastome zeigen im Vergleich mit normalem Gehirngewebe eine deutlich vermehrte Glukoseaufnahme. Im Rahmen der adjuvanten Radio(chemo)therapie von Glioblastomen treten vielfach Hirnoedeme auf, die eine

  16. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics opinion on reproductive health impacts of exposure to toxic environmental chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Conry, Jeanne A; Blake, Jennifer; DeFrancesco, Mark S; DeNicola, Nathaniel; Martin, James N; McCue, Kelly A; Richmond, David; Shah, Abid; Sutton, Patrice; Woodruff, Tracey J; van der Poel, Sheryl Ziemin; Giudice, Linda C

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals during pregnancy and breastfeeding is ubiquitous and is a threat to healthy human reproduction. There are tens of thousands of chemicals in global commerce, and even small exposures to toxic chemicals during pregnancy can trigger adverse health consequences. Exposure to toxic environmental chemicals and related health outcomes are inequitably distributed within and between countries; universally, the consequences of exposure are disproportionately borne by people with low incomes. Discrimination, other social factors, economic factors, and occupation impact risk of exposure and harm. Documented links between prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals and adverse health outcomes span the life course and include impacts on fertility and pregnancy, neurodevelopment, and cancer. The global health and economic burden related to toxic environmental chemicals is in excess of millions of deaths and billions of dollars every year. On the basis of accumulating robust evidence of exposures and adverse health impacts related to toxic environmental chemicals, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) joins other leading reproductive health professional societies in calling for timely action to prevent harm. FIGO recommends that reproductive and other health professionals advocate for policies to prevent exposure to toxic environmental chemicals, work to ensure a healthy food system for all, make environmental health part of health care, and champion environmental justice. PMID:26433469

  17. Impact of climate change on human health and health systems in Tanzania: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboera, Leonard E G; Mayala, Benjamin K; Kweka, Eliningaya J; Mazigo, Humphrey D

    2011-12-01

    Climate change (CC) has a number of immediate and long-term impacts on the fundamental determinants of human health. A number of potential human health effects have been associated either directly or indirectly with global climate change. Vulnerability to the risks associated with CC may exacerbate ongoing socio-economic challenges. The objective of this review was to analyse the potential risk and vulnerability in the context of climate-sensitive human diseases and health system in Tanzania. Climate sensitive vector- and waterborne diseases and other health related problems and the policies on climate adaptation in Tanzania during the past 50 years are reviewed. The review has shown that a number of climate-associated infectious disease epidemics have been reported in various areas of the country; mostly being associated with increase in precipitation and temperature. Although, there is no single policy document that specifically addresses issues of CC in the country, the National Environmental Management Act of 1997 recognizes the importance of CC and calls for the government to put up measures to address the phenomenon. A number of strategies and action plans related to CC are also in place. These include the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, the National Action Programme, and the National Bio-safety Framework. The government has put in place a National Climate Change Steering Committee and the National Climate Change Technical Committee to oversee and guide the implementation of CC activities in the country. Recognizing the adverse impacts of natural disasters and calamities, the government established a Disaster Management Division under the Prime Minister's Office. Epidemic Preparedness and Response Unit of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare is responsible for emergency preparedness, mostly disease outbreaks. However, specific climate changes associated with human health issues are poorly addressed in the MoHSW strategies and the national

  18. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices towards Pharmacovigilance and Adverse Drug Reactions in health care professional of Tertiary Care Hospital, Bhavnagar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Mukeshkumar B Vora

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs are adverse consequences of drug therapy. ADRs are representing a major concern of health systems in terms of early recognition, proper management and prevention. Under reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs is a common problem in Pharmacovigilance programs. Poor perceptions of doctors about ADRs and risk management have contributed to high rate of ADR under-reporting in India. Underreporting has also been attributed to lack of time to doctor, misconceptions about spontaneous reporting and lack of information on how to report, where to report and a lack of availability of report forms, and also physicians' attitudes to ADRs. The objective of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP of health care professional towards Pharmacovigilance and adverse drug reactions in a tertiary care hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaires based study was carried out in Post graduate students and faculties of tertiary care hospital attached with Govt. Medical College, Bhavnagar, Gujarat. Post graduate students and faculties of different clinical subjects working in the tertiary care teaching hospital, Bhavnagar, Gujarat (India were enrolled and present throughout in study. 22 questionnaires about knowledge, attitude and practices towards ADRs and Pharmacovigilance were developed and peer viewed of all questionnaires by expert faculties from Pharmacology department. We were contacted directly to post graduate students and faculties of respective clinical department, questionnaires were distributed, 30 minutes time given to filled form. Any clarification and extra time was needed, provided to them. The filled KAP questionnaires were analyzed in question wise and their percentage value was calculated by using Microsoft excel spread sheet and online statistical software. Results: In study, postgraduate residents (n=81 and faculties (n=63 from different clinical

  19. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Bruha, Jan; Bruhova-Foltynova, Hana; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Praznoczy, Corinne; Ragettli, Martina S.; Tainio, Marko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling) have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16–64) in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen) produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76–163) annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29–104), Barcelona 37 (24–56), Paris 37 (18–64) and Basel 5 (3–9). An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris) resulted in 19 (3–42) deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3–21) in Prague, 6 (4–9) in Basel, 3 (2–6) in Copenhagen and 3 (2–4) in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation. PMID:26930213

  20. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rojas-Rueda

    Full Text Available Policies that stimulate active transportation (walking and bicycling have been related to heath benefits. This study aims to assess the potential health risks and benefits of promoting active transportation for commuting populations (age groups 16-64 in six European cities. We conducted a health impact assessment using two scenarios: increased cycling and increased walking. The primary outcome measure was all-cause mortality related to changes in physical activity level, exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution with a diameter <2.5 μm, as well as traffic fatalities in the cities of Barcelona, Basel, Copenhagen, Paris, Prague, and Warsaw. All scenarios produced health benefits in the six cities. An increase in bicycle trips to 35% of all trips (as in Copenhagen produced the highest benefits among the different scenarios analysed in Warsaw 113 (76-163 annual deaths avoided, Prague 61 (29-104, Barcelona 37 (24-56, Paris 37 (18-64 and Basel 5 (3-9. An increase in walking trips to 50% of all trips (as in Paris resulted in 19 (3-42 deaths avoided annually in Warsaw, 11(3-21 in Prague, 6 (4-9 in Basel, 3 (2-6 in Copenhagen and 3 (2-4 in Barcelona. The scenarios would also reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year. Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists and urban planners will help to introduce the health perspective in transport policies and promote active transportation.

  1. Impact of the environment on reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The WHO workshop on the impact of the environment on reproductive health is summarized. Topics include the nature of environmental factors affecting reproductive health, environmental factors blamed for declining sperm quantity and quality, the effects of natural and man-made disasters on reproductive health, chemical pollutants, how the environment damages reproductive health, and research needs for better research methodologies and surveillance data. Recommendations are made to: 1) promote international research collaboration with an emphasis on consistency of methodological approaches for assessing developmental and reproductive toxicity, on development of improved surveillance systems and data bases, an strengthening international disaster alert and evaluation systems; 2) promote research capabilities for multidisciplinary studies, for interactive studies of the environment and cellular processes, and for expansion of training and education; and 3) take action on priority problems of exposure to chemical, physical, and biological agents, of exposure to pesticides among specific populations, and of inadequate screening methods for identification of environmental chemicals. The costs of environmental injury to reproduction include subfertility, intrauterine growth retardation, spontaneous abortion, and various birth defects. Developed country's primary threats are from chemical pollution, radiation, and stress. There is a large gap in knowledge. Caution is urged in understanding the direct relationship between environmental causes and infertility. Sexual health is difficult to assess and research is suggested. Exposure to excessive vitamin A and toxic chemicals are cited as agents probably having serious effects on malformations. Sperm quality has declined over the decades; there is speculation about the potential causes. The effects of radiation such as at Chernobyl are described. Toxic chemical exposure such as in Bhopal, India killed thousands. Neurological

  2. Coffee: biochemistry and potential impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Iziar A; Clifford, Michael N; Lean, Michael E J; Ashihara, Hiroshi; Crozier, Alan

    2014-08-01

    This review provides details on the phytochemicals in green coffee beans and the changes that occur during roasting. Key compounds in the coffee beverage, produced from the ground, roasted beans, are volatile constituents responsible for the unique aroma, the alkaloids caffeine and trigonelline, chlorogenic acids, the diterpenes cafestol and kahweol, and melanoidins, which are Maillard reaction products. The fate of these compounds in the body following consumption of coffee is discussed along with evidence of the mechanisms by which they may impact on health. Finally, epidemiological findings linking coffee consumption to potential health benefits including prevention of several chronic and degenerative diseases, such as cancer, cardiovascular disorders, diabetes, and Parkinson's disease, are evaluated. PMID:24671262

  3. The Health Impacts of Ethanol Blend Petrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Wood

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A measurement program designed to evaluate health impacts or benefits of using ethanol blend petrol examined exhaust and evaporative emissions from 21 vehicles representative of the current Australian light duty petrol (gasoline vehicle fleet using a composite urban emissions drive cycle. The fuels used were unleaded petrol (ULP, ULP blended with either 5% ethanol (E5 or 10% ethanol (E10. The resulting data were combined with inventory data for Sydney to determine the expected fleet emissions for different uptakes of ethanol blended fuel. Fleet ethanol compatibility was estimated to be 60% for 2006, and for the air quality modelling it was assumed that in 2011 over 95% of the fleet would be ethanol compatible. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation from ULP, E5 and E10 emissions was studied under controlled conditions by the use of a smog chamber. This was combined with meteorological data from Sydney for February 2004 and the emission data (both measured and inventory data to model pollutant concentrations in Sydney’s airshed for 2006 and 2011. These concentrations were combined with the population distribution to evaluate population exposure to the pollutant. There is a health benefit to the Sydney population arising from a move from ULP to ethanol blends in spark-ignition vehicles. Potential health cost savings for Urban Australia (Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane and Perth are estimated to be A$39 million (in 2007 dollars for a 50% uptake (by ethanol compatible vehicles of E10 in 2006 and $42 million per annum for a 100% take up of E10 in 2011. Over 97% of the estimated health savings are due to reduced emissions of PM2.5 and consequent reduced impacts on mortality and morbidity (e.g., asthma, cardiovascular disease. Despite more petrol-driven vehicles predicted for 2011, the quantified health impact differential between ULP and ethanol fuelled vehicles drops from 2006 to 2011. This is because modern petrol vehicles, with lower emissions than

  4. Adverse Childhood Experiences among American Indian/Alaska Native Children: The 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We examined parent-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and associated outcomes among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children aged 0–17 years from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Bivariate and multivariable analyses of cross-sectional data on 1,453 AI/AN children and 61,381 non-Hispanic White (NHW) children assessed race-based differences in ACEs prevalence and differences in provider-diagnosed chronic emotional and developmental conditions, health characteristics, reported child behaviors, and health services received as a function of having multiple ACEs. AI/AN children were more likely to have experienced 2+ ACEs (40.3% versus 21%), 3+ ACEs (26.8% versus 11.5%), 4+ ACEs (16.8% versus 6.2%), and 5+ ACEs (9.9% versus 3.3%) compared to NHW children. Prevalence rates for depression, anxiety, and ADHD were higher among AI/AN children with 3+ ACEs (14.4%, 7.7%, and 12.5%) compared to AI/ANs with fewer than 2 ACEs (0.4%, 1.8%, and 5.5%). School problems, grade failures, and need for medication and counseling were 2-3 times higher among AI/ANs with 3+ ACEs versus the same comparison group. Adjusted odds ratio for emotional, developmental, and behavioral difficulties among AI/AN children with 2+ ACEs was 10.3 (95% CI = 3.6–29.3). Race-based differences were largely accounted for by social and economic-related factors. PMID:27529052

  5. Insomnia and Its Impact on Physical and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the association of insomnia with mental health, its association with physical health has remained largely unexplored until recently. Based on findings that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with activation of both limbs of the stress system and other indices of physiological hyperarousal, which should affect adversely physical and mental health, we have recently demonstrated that this insomnia phenotype is associated with a significant risk of cardiomet...

  6. PROTECTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS AGAINST THE ADVERSE IMPACT OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND OTHER BUSINESS ENTERPRISES: DILEMMAS OF INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machoňová-Schellongová Ivana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about an impact of corporate and business operations on human rights, both positive and negative. Growing influence of corporations, power shift between business and states, as well as the complex nature of corporate governance and transnational operations require international regulations. International community undertook numerous initiatives, the most significant and recent being the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights [2011], embraced by States, corporations and civil society as a “milestone“ in business and human rights agenda. While being a  useful comprehensive set of guidelines, Principles are lacking the legally binding force and any monitoring or complaints mechanism. Therefore, there are growing calls for a legally binding treaty to stipulate clearly human rights obligations of States/businesses vis-à-vis human rights and fill the protection gap for victims of corporate abuses. A newly established working group by the Human Rights Council has started to negotiate terms of reference of such a treaty in June 2015. However, meaningful negotiations are threatened by many factors, including the negative approach of US, EU and other developed States along with the corporate sector advocating for stronger implementation of Principles instead. This article aims to describe efforts of international community to prevent and eliminate a  negative impact of corporate activities on human rights. It shows different approaches and highlights some challenges and dilemmas. It concludes that parallel efforts should be undertaken - to implement the Principles and to negotiate an international treaty – in order to improve protection against an adverse impact of corporate operations on human rights. As for the Czech Republic, it is suggested to embark on the elaboration of the National Action Plan, thus providing for an opportunity to discuss implementation of the Principles among all the

  7. Gross national happiness as a framework for health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incorporation of population health concepts and health determinants into Health Impact Assessments has created a number of challenges. The need for intersectoral collaboration has increased; the meaning of 'health' has become less clear; and the distinctions between health impacts, environmental impacts, social impacts and economic impacts have become increasingly blurred. The Bhutanese concept of Gross National Happiness may address these issues by providing an over-arching evidence-based framework which incorporates health, social, environmental and economic contributors as well as a number of other key contributors to wellbeing such as culture and governance. It has the potential to foster intersectoral collaboration by incorporating a more limited definition of health which places the health sector as one of a number of contributors to wellbeing. It also allows for the examination of the opportunity costs of health investments on wellbeing, is consistent with whole-of-government approaches to public policy and emerging models of social progress.

  8. Health Impacts of the Built Environment: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lavin T.; Higgins C.; Metcalfe O. and Jordan A.; Institute of Public Health in Ireland

    2006-01-01

    This review is the third in the series and illustrates how the built environment impacts on health. It also highlights the unequal distribution of these impacts on different sections of the population. We hope it will help inform debate about the links between the built environment and health and be a useful resource for those working to influence public policy for health at local and national level across the island. The review has an extensive reference list. To supplement the health impact...

  9. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood A.; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n = 12,981) of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i) the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress) to social support and behavioral factors in adulthood; (ii) the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioral factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10), health (EQ-5D), and subjective well-being (SWLS) in adulthood; (iii) the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv) the mediating role of adult social support and behavioral factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%), health (7.01%), and well-being (9.09%), as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%), health (10.60%), and well-being (20.60%), as compared to mother's and father's education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs had a more than two-fold increased risk of being mentally unhealthy (RRTotal Effect = 2.75, 95% CI: 2.19–3.10), an 89% increased risk of being unhealthy (RRTotal Effect = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.47–1.99), and a 42% increased

  10. Health impacts of climate change in the Solomon Islands: an assessment and adaptation action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands' responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  11. Health Impacts of Climate Change in the Solomon Islands: An Assessment and Adaptation Action Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickett, Jeffery T; Katscherian, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    The Pacific island countries are particularly vulnerable to the environmental changes wrought by global climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent and intense extreme weather events and increasing temperatures. The potential biophysical changes likely to affect these countries have been identified and it is important that consideration be given to the implications of these changes on the health of their citizens. The potential health impacts of climatic changes on the population of the Solomon Islands were assessed through the use of a Health Impact Assessment framework. The process used a collaborative and consultative approach with local experts to identify the impacts to health that could arise from local environmental changes, considered the risks associated with these and proposed appropriate potential adaptive responses. Participants included knowledgeable representatives from the biophysical, socio-economic, infrastructure, environmental diseases and food sectors. The risk assessments considered both the likelihood and consequences of the health impacts occurring using a qualitative process. To mitigate the adverse effects of the health impacts, an extensive range of potential adaptation strategies were developed. The overall process provided an approach that could be used for further assessments as well as an extensive range of responses which could be used by sectors and to assist future decision making associated with the Solomon Islands’ responses to climate change. PMID:25168977

  12. The impact on health of urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satterthwaite, D

    1993-10-01

    In developing countries, environmental hazards in urban areas mainly affect low-income people--especially women, children, and migrants--the people who are least able to avoid the hazards and/or least able to deal with the illness or injury they cause. Poor people are priced out of safe, well-located, well-serviced housing and land sites. Hazards include biological pathogens; chemical pollutants; scarce, over-priced, or poor quality natural resources; physical hazards; natural resource degradation; and national/global environmental degradation. These preventable health burdens cause disease, accidents, and premature death. Biological pathogens have the most serious impact on human health. Crowded conditions, poor sanitation, inadequate water supplies, poor facilities for preparing and storing food, and inadequate hygiene contribute to biological pathogen-induced ill health. Common chemical pollutants in urban areas are lead, indoor air pollutants from fuel combustion, toxic/hazardous wastes, and ambient air pollution. A shortage of fresh water is often why some urban households do not have a safe and adequate water supply. Limited land in cities prevents the urban poor from growing their own crops or maintaining livestock. Common physical hazards in cities are traffic accidents; burns, scalds, and accidental fires and poisonings; falls; and floods. Overcrowding, poor building material, and settlements on dangerous sites (e.g., flood plains, steep hillsides, and dumps) are example of physical hazards. Noise, overcrowding, inappropriate design, and stresses contribute to the growing psychosocial health problems of many urban dwellers in developing countries, especially of adolescents and young adults. Poorer urban residents who begin or are included in initiatives to improve their neighborhoods are more likely to develop integrated responses to nonenvironmental and environmental problems and to make sure that environmental action programs meet local needs and

  13. Low subjective health literacy is associated with adverse health behaviors and worse health-related quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors: results from the profiles registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, O.; Mols, F.; Fransen, M.P.; Poll-Franse, L.V. van de; Ezendam, N.P.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to examine the prevalence of health literacy (HL) among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors and the relation between HL and health behaviors and to explore whether or not HL and health behaviors are independently associated with health-related quality of li

  14. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2011-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives: Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of th...

  15. Delinquency and Recidivism: A Multicohort, Matched-Control Study of the Role of Early Adverse Experiences, Mental Health Problems, and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, David E.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Zhang, Dalun; Zhang, Dake

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined the role of early adverse experiences, mental health problems, and disabilities in the prediction of juvenile delinquency and recidivism, using a matched-control group design. The delinquent group comprised 99,602 youth, born between 1981 and 1988, whose cases had been processed by the South Carolina Department of Juvenile…

  16. Using the Stress and Adversity Inventory as a Teaching Tool Leads to Significant Learning Gains in Two Courses on Stress and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Slavich, George M.; TOUSSAINT, LOREN

    2013-01-01

    The ability to measure cumulative stress exposure is important for research and teaching in stress and health, but until recently, no structured system has existed for assessing exposure to stress over the lifespan. Here, we report the results of two experimental studies that examined the pedagogical efficacy of using an automated system for assessing life stress, called the Stress and Adversity Inventory (STRAIN), for teaching courses on stress and health. In Study 1, a randomized, wait-list...

  17. The Impact of Experiencing Adverse Drug Reactions on the Patient's Quality of Life : A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolfes, Leàn; van Hunsel, Florence; Taxis, Katja; van Puijenbroek, Eugène

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is little information as to what extent adverse drug reactions (ADRs) influence patients' health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). From a pharmacovigilance perspective, capturing and making the best use of this information remains a challenge. The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Ce

  18. [Toxocariasis: spread and impact on reproductive health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanova, T A

    2003-01-01

    To study the prevalence of toxocariasis and its impact on the reproductive health of inhabitants in the Saratov Region, enzyme immunoassay was used to examine 1404 patients, including 210 children, 912 females, and 282 males. Toxocariasis was shown to be a risk factor of male (oligoasthenozoospermia) and female (tuboperitoneal) infertility. The high incidence of toxocariasis in females with reproductive dysfunction (recurrent abortion) and an aggravated obstetric history complicated by chronic renal diseases is indicative of the existence of the urogenital form of toxocariasis. Toxocariasis greatly increases a risk of giving birth to a baby with clinical manifestations of intrauterine infection (IUI), promotes homeostatic disorder and the formation of long-term pathology in babies with IUI. At the same time, there was a significant relationship of abnormal cardiotocograms to toxocariasis and to the presence of Trichomonas, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, and Cytomegalovirus. PMID:14727482

  19. Exploring Health Impact Assessment in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wismar

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Health impact assessment (HIA prospectively judges the potential health impacts of pending decisions and feeds the assessment back into the decision making process. HIA is considered as a key tool for intersectoral collaboration. This article presents selected results of a mapping exercise on HIA in Europe. The mapping exercise is complemented by the presentation of a conceptual framework on the effectiveness of HIA and illustrative examples.

    Method: Two methodologies are employed in this article: First, the use of HIA across Europe is based on a survey conducted by 21 teams in 19 countries. A semi standardized questionnaire was employed, using a wide variety of sources. Second, for the discussion on the effectiveness of HIA, a conceptual framework using four types of effectiveness was employed. Results: HIA is a common practice only in a handful of European countries. In most of Europe, HIA is at an early developmental stage. The mapping exercise, however, provides evidence that HIA can work across all sectors and at all political level, although there is currently a focus on the local level. HIA is conducted in different countries by different sets of actors and organizations, reflecting the existing setup. The evidence on the effectiveness of HIA is still inconclusive. However, single case studies and upcoming evidence suggests that HIA has the capacity to inform and influence the decision making process.

    Conclusions: HIA can work and deliver. The variations in context across European countries have resulted in different forms of implementation and different dynamics of developing HIA.

  20. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  1. [Research progress in health impact of traffic noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    Traffic noise pollution problem is increasingly emerging with the rapid development of urban traffic. Researchers have paid close attention to the health effects of traffic noise. This review has summarized the recent research progress in the health effects of traffic noise both at home and abroad. Traffic noise can have various adverse health effects, and most of them are extra-auditory effects. The main aspects include that traffic noise can affect the cardiovascular system, which is verified by the evidence that exposure to traffic noise significantly increases the risk for cardiovascular diseases, such as high blood pressure, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease, and so on. In addition, traffic noise can induce adverse effects on nervous system, leading to the increasing levels of anxiety, noise annoyance, and occurrence of insomnia. Furthermore, traffic noise is significantly associated with adverse pregnant outcomes, and can affect the endocrine system and digestive system. As traffic noise and traffic related air pollutants co-exist in the traffic environment, whether there are joint effects between these two factors have become areas of research focus nowadays. Although there is sufficient evidence that traffic noise has adverse health effects, inadequacies still existe. Analysis of the shortages of current studies and the prospects of the future studies are pointed out in this review. PMID:26080892

  2. Impacts of cold climate on human heat balance, performance and health in circumpolar areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassi, Juhani; Rytkönen, Mika; Kotaniemi, Jyrki; Rintamäki, Hannu

    2005-12-01

    In circumpolar areas the climate remains cool or thermoneutral during the majority of the days of the year spite of global warming. Therefore, health consequences related to cold exposure represent also in the future the majority of climate-related adverse health effects. Hot summers may be an exception. At ambient temperatures below +10 - +12 degrees C, humans experience cold stress of varying degree. Man can compensate a 10 degrees C change in ambient temperature by changing metabolic heat production by 30-40 W m(-2) or by wearing an additional/taking off ca. 0.4 clo units (corresponding to one thick clothing layer). Cold ambient temperature may be a risk for human health and cause varying levels of performance limitations. The impacts of cold exposure on health and wellbeing cause a burden to many societies in terms of lowered productivity and higher costs related to health care systems as well as public health planning and management. In order to provide preventive and protective public health actions for cold-induced adverse health effects, it is important to recognize cold related injuries, illnesses and symptoms and their turn-up temperatures, and to identify the most at-risk population subgroups and factors that increase or decrease the health risks posed by cold ambient temperatures. The majority of cold-related harmful health impacts can be prevented or managed by correct preventive and protective actions. Rapid unpredictable changes are more difficult to compensate because of lack of experience (affecting attitude and skills), preparedness (vehicles, garments, supplies, logistics etc.) and/or acclimatization. PMID:16440608

  3. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. PMID:23246069

  4. Health impact assessment of global climate change: expanding on comparative risk assessment approaches for policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, Jonathan; Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Gibbs, Holly; Woodruff, Rosalie

    2008-01-01

    Climate change is projected to have adverse impacts on public health. Cobenefits may be possible from more upstream mitigation of greenhouse gases causing climate change. To help measure such cobenefits alongside averted disease-specific risks, a health impact assessment (HIA) framework can more comprehensively serve as a decision support tool. HIA also considers health equity, clearly part of the climate change problem. New choices for energy must be made carefully considering such effects as additional pressure on the world's forests through large-scale expansion of soybean and oil palm plantations, leading to forest clearing, biodiversity loss and disease emergence, expulsion of subsistence farmers, and potential increases in food prices and emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Investigators must consider the full range of policy options, supported by more comprehensive, flexible, and transparent assessment methods. PMID:18173382

  5. A Review of Medication Use as an Indicator of Human Health Impact in Environmentally Stressed Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Samantha A; Kim, Diane Dabok; Jagals, Paul

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed from literature the feasibility of medication use as an indicator of health outcomes in environmentally stressed areas, especially where a paucity of typical epidemiological and other risk-based data are encountered. The majority of studies reported were about medication use as an indicator of adverse respiratory effects from air pollution in developed countries. Studies to a lesser extent pointed to medication use as indicator of health outcomes associated with other environmental health stressors such as water, noise pollution, and habitat conditions. The relationship between environmental stressors and medication use strongly suggests that medication use could be used to measure the impact of environmental stressors that otherwise could not be measured by epidemiological or other impact assessment studies, typically in settings where morbidity and mortality data might not be not accessible. PMID:27325069

  6. Health and Climate Impacts of Ocean-Going Vessels in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Fu, Mingliang; Jin, Xinxin; Shang, Yi; Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Shindell, Cary; He, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    East Asia has the most rapidly growing shipping emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants, but the least in-depth analysis. Full evaluation of all pollutants is needed to assess the impacts of shipping emissions. Here, using an advanced method based on detailed dynamic ship activity data, we show that shipping emissions in East Asia accounted for 16% of global shipping CO2 in 2013, compared to only 4-7% in 2002-2005. Increased emissions lead to large adverse health impacts, with 14,500-37,500 premature deaths per year. Global mean radiative forcing from East Asian shipping is initially negative, but would become positive after approximately eight years for constant current emissions. As a large fraction of vessels are registered elsewhere, joint efforts are necessary to reduce emissions and mitigate the climate and health impacts of shipping in the region.

  7. Acute hazardous substance releases resulting in adverse health consequences in children: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1996-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattigney, Wendy A; Kaye, Wendy E; Orr, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Because of their small size and ongoing organ development, children may be more susceptible than adults to the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. The objective of the study reported here was to identify frequent locations, released substances, and factors contributing to short-term chemical exposures associated with adverse health consequences experienced by children. The study examined the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system data from 1996-2003. Eligible events involved the acute release of a hazardous substance associated with at least one child being injured. The study found that injured children were predominantly at school, home, or a recreational center when events took place. School-related events were associated with the accidental release of acids and the release of pepper spray by pranksters. Carbon monoxide poisonings occurring in the home, retail stores, entertainment facilities, and hotels were responsible for about 10 percent of events involving child victims. Chlorine was one of the top chemicals harmful to children, particularly at public swimming pools. Although human error contributed to the majority of releases involving child victims, equipment failure was responsible for most chlorine and ammonia releases. The authors conclude that chemical releases resulting in injury to children occur mostly in schools, homes, and recreational areas. Surveillance of acute hazardous chemical releases helped identify contributing causes and can guide the development of prevention outreach activities. Chemical accidents cannot be entirely prevented, but efforts can be taken to provide safer environments in which children can live, learn, and play. Wide dissemination of safety recommendations and education programs is required to protect children from needless environmental dangers. PMID:18044249

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Charmian M. Bennett; Sharon Friel

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expect...

  9. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo, Neide Regina Simões; do Nascimento Saldiva, Paulo Hilário; Braga, Alfésio Luís Ferreira; Lin, Chin An; de Paula Santos, Ubiratan; Pereira, Luiz Alberto Amador

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies. PMID:21655765

  10. A review of low-level air pollution and adverse effects on human health: implications for epidemiological studies and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Regina Simoes Olmo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to review original scientific articles describing the relationship between atmospheric pollution and damage to human health. We also aimed to determine which of these studies mentioned public policy issues. Original articles relating to atmospheric pollution and human health published between 1995 and 2009 were retrieved from the PubMed database and analyzed. This study included only articles dealing with atmospheric pollutants resulting primarily from vehicle emissions. Three researchers were involved in the final selection of the studies, and the chosen articles were approved by at least two of the three researchers. Of the 84 non-Brazilian studies analyzed, 80 showed an association between atmospheric pollution and adverse effects on human health. Moreover, 66 showed evidence of adverse effects on human health, even at levels below the permitted emission standards. Three studies mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Similarly, the 29 selected Brazilian studies reported adverse associations with human health, and 27 showed evidence of adverse effects even at levels below the legally permitted emission standards. Of these studies, 16 mentioned public policies aimed at changing emission standards. Based on the Brazilian and non-Brazilian scientific studies that have been conducted, it can be concluded that, even under conditions that are compliant with Brazilian air quality standards, the concentration of atmospheric pollutants in Brazil can negatively affect human health. However, as little discussion of this topic has been generated, this finding demonstrates the need to incorporate epidemiological evidence into decisions regarding legal regulations and to discuss the public policy implications in epidemiological studies.

  11. Health impact of air pollution to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sram, Radim J; Binkova, Blanka; Dostal, Miroslav; Merkerova-Dostalova, Michaela; Libalova, Helena; Milcova, Alena; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Schmuczerova, Jana; Svecova, Vlasta; Topinka, Jan; Votavova, Hana

    2013-08-01

    Health impact of air pollution to children was studied over the last twenty years in heavily polluted parts of the Czech Republic during. The research program (Teplice Program) analyzed these effects in the polluted district Teplice (North Bohemia) and control district Prachatice (Southern Bohemia). Study of pregnancy outcomes for newborns delivered between 1994 and 1998 demonstrated that increase in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was associated with PM10 and c-PAHs exposure (carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the first month of gestation. Morbidity was followed in the cohort of newborns (N=1492) up to the age of 10years. Coal combustion in homes was associated with increased incidence of lower respiratory track illness and impaired early childhood skeletal growth up to the age of 3years. In preschool children, we observed the effect of increased concentrations of PM2.5 and PAHs on development of bronchitis. The Northern Moravia Region (Silesia) is characterized by high concentrations of c-PAHs due to industrial air pollution. Exposure to B[a]P (benzo[a]pyrene) in Ostrava-Radvanice is the highest in the EU. Children from this part of the city of Ostrava suffered higher incidence of acute respiratory diseases in the first year of life. Gene expression profiles in leukocytes of asthmatic children compared to children without asthma were evaluated in groups from Ostrava-Radvanice and Prachatice. The results suggest the distinct molecular phenotype of asthma bronchiale in children living in polluted Ostrava region compared to children living in Prachatice. The effect of exposure to air pollution to biomarkers in newborns was analyzed in Prague vs. Ceske Budejovice, two locations with different levels of pollution in winter season. B[a]P concentrations were higher in Ceske Budejovice. DNA adducts and micronuclei were also elevated in cord blood in Ceske Budejovice in comparison to Prague. Study of gene expression profiles in the cord blood showed

  12. Adaptation strategies for health impacts of climate change in Western Australia: Application of a Health Impact Assessment framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the globe and there is substantial evidence that this will result in a number of health impacts, regardless of the level of greenhouse gas mitigation. It is therefore apparent that a combined approach of mitigation and adaptation will be required to protect public health. While the importance of mitigation is recognised, this project focused on the role of adaptation strategies in addressing the potential health impacts of climate change. The nature and magnitude of these health impacts will be determined by a number of parameters that are dependent upon the location. Firstly, climate change will vary between regions. Secondly, the characteristics of each region in terms of population and the ability to adapt to changes will greatly influence the extent of the health impacts that are experienced now and into the future. Effective adaptation measures therefore need to be developed with these differences in mind. A Health Impact Assessment (HIA) framework was used to consider the implications of climate change on the health of the population of Western Australia (WA) and to develop a range of adaptive responses suited to WA. A broad range of stakeholders participated in the HIA process, providing informed input into developing an understanding of the potential health impacts and potential adaptation strategies from a diverse sector perspective. Potential health impacts were identified in relation to climate change predictions in WA in the year 2030. The risk associated with each of these impacts was assessed using a qualitative process that considered the consequences and the likelihood of the health impact occurring. Adaptations were then developed which could be used to mitigate the identified health impacts and provide responses which could be used by Government for future decision making. The periodic application of a HIA framework is seen as an ideal tool to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to

  13. Secondary Particulate Matter Originating from an Industrial Source and Its Impact on Population Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mangia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have reported adverse associations between long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 and several health outcomes. One issue in this field is exposure assessment and, in particular, the role of secondary PM2.5, often neglected in environmental and health risk assessment. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the long-term environmental and health impact of primary and secondary PM2.5 concentrations originating from a single industrial source. As a case study, we considered a coal power plant which is a large emitter of both primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors. PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using the Calpuff dispersion model. The health impact was expressed in terms of number of non-accidental deaths potentially attributable to the power plant. Results showed that the estimated secondary PM2.5 extended over a larger area than that related to primary PM2.5 with maximum concentration values of the two components well separated in space. Exposure to secondary PM2.5 increased significantly the estimated number of annual attributable non-accidental deaths. Our study indicates that the impact of secondary PM2.5 may be relevant also at local scale and ought to be considered when estimating the impact of industrial emissions on population health.

  14. Trends in child labor and the impact on health in adulthood in Brazil from 1998 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence in Brazil on the impact of child labor on health status in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate trends in child labor in Brazil and estimate the long-term effects of child labor on the health of Brazilian adults, using nationally representative databases (Brazilian National Household Sample Survey from three different years (1998, 2003, and 2008. The models were based on a two-stage linear equation and Generalized Method of Moments (GMM. The results suggest that child labor has declined in Brazil, although the data still show patterns of early entry into the country’s labor market. Regardless of the type of work, child labor adversely affected health outcomes in adulthood, both directly (impacts on health outcomes and indirectly (losses in educational attainment. Child labor places a long-term burden on Brazilians, jeopardizing the formation of human capital through negative impacts on health outcomes in adulthood.

  15. Impact of Early Life Adversity on Reward Processing in Young Adults: EEG-fMRI Results from a Prospective Study over 25 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Regina; Holz, Nathalie E.; Buchmann, Arlette F.; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Plichta, Michael M.; Wolf, Isabella; Baumeister, Sarah; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female) from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA) and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus), indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV), with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway. PMID:25118701

  16. Impact of early life adversity on reward processing in young adults: EEG-fMRI results from a prospective study over 25 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Boecker

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have implicated the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway in altered brain function resulting from exposure to early adversity. The present study examined the impact of early life adversity on different stages of neuronal reward processing later in life and their association with a related behavioral phenotype, i.e. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. 162 healthy young adults (mean age = 24.4 years; 58% female from an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth participated in a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study using a monetary incentive delay task. Early life adversity according to an early family adversity index (EFA and lifetime ADHD symptoms were assessed using standardized parent interviews conducted at the offspring's age of 3 months and between 2 and 15 years, respectively. fMRI region-of-interest analysis revealed a significant effect of EFA during reward anticipation in reward-related areas (i.e. ventral striatum, putamen, thalamus, indicating decreased activation when EFA increased. EEG analysis demonstrated a similar effect for the contingent negative variation (CNV, with the CNV decreasing with the level of EFA. In contrast, during reward delivery, activation of the bilateral insula, right pallidum and bilateral putamen increased with EFA. There was a significant association of lifetime ADHD symptoms with lower activation in the left ventral striatum during reward anticipation and higher activation in the right insula during reward delivery. The present findings indicate a differential long-term impact of early life adversity on reward processing, implicating hyporesponsiveness during reward anticipation and hyperresponsiveness when receiving a reward. Moreover, a similar activation pattern related to lifetime ADHD suggests that the impact of early life stress on ADHD may possibly be mediated by a dysfunctional reward pathway.

  17. Improving health literacy among elderly : The impact of low health literacy on health and well-being of older individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Khadro

    2015-01-01

    Health Literacy is defined as the ability to understand, obtain and appraise health information in order to make appropriate decisions that can promote health. Low health literacy means lacking the ability to understand, obtain and appraise health information successfully and making decisions become difficult. The aim of the study was to address how low health literacy can have negative impact on health of older individual and also to suggest ways to deliver and create more accessible ...

  18. Research as intervention? Exploring the health and well-being of children and youth facing global adversity through participatory visual methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Miranda; Denov, Myriam; Khan, Fatima; Linds, Warren; Akesson, Bree

    2016-01-01

    Global health research typically relies on the translation of knowledge (from health professionals to the community) and the dissemination of knowledge (from research results to the wider public). However, Greenhalgh and Wieringa [2011. Is it time to drop the 'knowledge translation' metaphor? A critical literature review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 104(12), 501-509. doi: 10.1258/jrsm.2011.110285 ] suggest 'that while "translation" is a widely used metaphor in medicine, it constrains how we conceptualize and study the link between knowledge and practice' (p. 501). Often the knowledge garnered from such research projects comes from health professionals rather than reflecting the lived experiences of people and communities. Likewise, there has been a gap in 'translating' and 'disseminating' the results of participatory action research projects to policymakers and medical practitioners. This paper will look at how using participatory visual methodologies in global health research with children and youth facing global adversity incorporates the multiple functions of their lived realities so that research becomes a means of intervention. Drawing from a literature review of participatory visual methods as media, content and processes of global health research, this paper raises practical, theoretical, and ethical questions that arise from research as intervention. The paper concludes by exploring what lessons emerge when participatory visual methodologies are integrated into global health research with children and youth facing global adversity. PMID:27043374

  19. Technical modification within the healthcare industry: improving both the efficacy of the National Drug Code carrier and the accessibility of electronic health records to reduce adverse drug events

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Jeffrey James; McLean, Alistair Saint

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The main focus of this thesis is to present the idea that QR codes could contribute to a reduction in adverse drug events (ADEs) by increasing the efficacy of the national drug code and storing an electronic health record. This research examines a change in drug coding technology that will decrease the number of ADEs by empowering patients to be more proactive in tracking their current prescription and over-the-counter drugs, and the A...

  20. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants compl...

  1. Quantitative health impact assessment: current practice and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Veerman, Lennert; Barendregt, Jan; Mackenbach, Johan

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSTUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess what methods are used in quantitative health impact assessment (HIA), and to identify areas for future research and development. DESIGN: HIA reports were assessed for (1) methods used to quantify effects of policy on determinants of health (exposure impact assessment) and (2) methods used to quantify health outcomes resulting from changes in exposure to determinants (outcome assessment). MAIN RESULTS: Of 98 prospective HIA studies, 17 reported quantitati...

  2. Risk of Performance Decrements and Adverse Health Outcomes Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, and Work Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin; Gregory, Kevin; Arsintescu, Lucia; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload occur to some extent for ground and flight crews, prior to and during spaceflight missions. Ground evidence indicates that such risk factors may lead to performance decrements and adverse health outcomes, which could potentially compromise mission objectives. Efforts are needed to identify the environmental and mission conditions that interfere with sleep and circadian alignment, as well as individual differences in vulnerability and resiliency to sleep loss and circadian desynchronization. Specifically, this report highlights a collection of new evidence to better characterize the risk and reveals new gaps in this risk as follows: Sleep loss is apparent during spaceflight. Astronauts consistently average less sleep during spaceflight relative to on the ground. The causes of this sleep loss remain unknown, however ground-based evidence suggests that the sleep duration of astronauts is likely to lead to performance impairment and short and long-term health consequences. Further research is needed in this area in order to develop screening tools to assess individual astronaut sleep need in order to quantify the magnitude of sleep loss during spaceflight; current and planned efforts in BHP's research portfolio address this need. In addition, it is still unclear whether the conditions of spaceflight environment lead to sleep loss or whether other factors, such as work overload lead to the reduced sleep duration. Future data mining efforts and continued data collection on the ISS will help to further characterize factors contributing to sleep loss. Sleep inertia has not been evaluated during spaceflight. Ground-based studies confirm that it takes two to four hours to achieve optimal performance after waking from a sleep episode. Sleep inertia has been associated with increased accidents and reduced performance in operational environments. Sleep inertia poses considerable risk during spaceflight when emergency

  3. Promoting social responsibility for health: health impact assessment and healthy public policy at the community level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelmark, M B

    2001-09-01

    The 1997 Jakarta Declaration on Health Promotion into the 21st Century called for new responses to address the emerging threats to health. The declaration placed a high priority on promoting social responsibility for health, and it identified equity-focused health impact assessment as a high priority for action. This theme was among the foci at the 2000 Fifth Global Conference on Health Promotion held in Mexico. This paper, which is an abbreviation of a technical report prepared for the Mexico conference, advances arguments for focusing on health impact assessment at the local level. Health impact assessment identifies negative health impacts that call for policy responses, and identifies and encourages practices and policies that promote health. Health impact assessment may be highly technical and require sophisticated technology and expertise. But it can also be a simple, highly practical process, accessible to ordinary people, and one that helps a community come to grips with local circumstances that need changing for better health. To illustrate the possibilities, this paper presents a case study, the People Assessing Their Health (PATH) project from Eastern Nova Scotia, Canada. It places ordinary citizens, rather than community elites, at the very heart of local decision-making. Evidence from PATH demonstrates that low technology health impact assessment, done by and for local people, can shift thinking beyond the illness problems of individuals. It can bring into consideration, instead, how programmes and policies support or weaken community health, and illuminate a community's capacity to improve local circumstances for better health. This stands in contrast to evidence that highly technological approaches to community-level health impact assessment can be self-defeating. Further development of simple, people-centred, low technology approaches to health impact assessment at the local level is called for. PMID:11509463

  4. Public health impact of dietary phosphorus excess on bone and cardiovascular health in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Mona S; Uribarri, Jaime

    2013-07-01

    This review explores the potential adverse impact of the increasing phosphorus content in the American diet on renal, cardiovascular, and bone health of the general population. Increasingly, studies show that phosphorus intakes in excess of the nutrient needs of a healthy population may significantly disrupt the hormonal regulation of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D, which contributes to disordered mineral metabolism, vascular calcification, impaired kidney function, and bone loss. Moreover, large epidemiologic studies suggest that mild elevations of serum phosphate within the normal range are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in healthy populations without evidence of kidney disease. However, few studies linked high dietary phosphorus intake to mild changes in serum phosphate because of the nature of the study design and inaccuracies in the nutrient composition databases. Although phosphorus is an essential nutrient, in excess it could be linked to tissue damage by a variety of mechanisms involved in the endocrine regulation of extracellular phosphate, specifically the secretion and action of fibroblast growth factor 23 and parathyroid hormone. Disordered regulation of these hormones by high dietary phosphorus may be key factors contributing to renal failure, CVD, and osteoporosis. Although systematically underestimated in national surveys, phosphorus intake seemingly continues to increase as a result of the growing consumption of highly processed foods, especially restaurant meals, fast foods, and convenience foods. The increased cumulative use of ingredients containing phosphorus in food processing merits further study given what is now being shown about the potential toxicity of phosphorus intake when it exceeds nutrient needs. PMID:23719553

  5. Population Dynamics and Air Pollution: The Impact of Demographics on Health Impact Assessment of Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Esben Meulengracht Flachs; Jan Sørensen; Jakob Bønløkke; Henrik Brønnum-Hansen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore how three different assumptions on demographics affect the health impact of Danish emitted air pollution in Denmark from 2005 to 2030, with health impact modeled from 2005 to 2050. Methods. Modeled air pollution from Danish sources was used as exposure in a newly developed health impact assessment model, which models four major diseases and mortality causes in addition to all-cause mortality. The modeling was at the municipal level, which divides the approximately 5.5 M ...

  6. The impact of air pollution from used ventilation filters on human comfort and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Geo; Alm, O.; Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    The comfort and health of 30 women was studied during 4 hours´ exposure in an experimental room with either a used or a new filter present in the ventilation system. All other environmental parameters were kept constant. The presence of the used filter in the ventilation system had a significant ...... adverse impact on several perceptions and symptoms, both immediately upon entering the office and throughout the exposure period. None of the perceptions or symptoms were better when the used filter was in the system....

  7. Health Consequence Scales for Use in Health Impact Assessments of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Helen Brown; Jeffery Spickett

    2014-01-01

    While health impact assessment (HIA) has typically been applied to projects, plans or policies, it has significant potential with regard to strategic considerations of major health issues facing society such as climate change. Given the complexity of climate change, assessing health impacts presents new challenges that may require different approaches compared to traditional applications of HIA. This research focuses on the development of health consequence scales suited to assessing and comp...

  8. Advancing Research Methods to Detect Impact of Climate Change on Health in Grand'Anse, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, S.; Coq, R. N.; Frederic, R.; DeRiel, E.; Camara, H.; Barnhart, K. R.

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is considered particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change, but directly linking climate change to health effects is limited by the lack of robust data and the multiple determinants of health. Worsening storms and rising temperatures in this rugged country with high poverty is likely to adversely affect economic activity, population growth and other determinants of health. For the past two years, the Univ. of Washington has supported the public hospital in the department of Grand'Anse. Grand'Anse, a relatively contained region in SW Haiti with an area of 11,912 km2, is predominantly rural with a population of 350,000 and is bounded to the south by peaks up to 2,347 m. Grand'Anse would serve as an excellent site to assess the interface between climate change and health. The Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) shows health status is low relative to other countries. Estimates of climate change for Jeremie, the largest city in Grand'Anse, predict the mean monthly temperature will increase from 26.1 to 27.3 oC while mean monthly rainfall will decrease from 80.5 to 73.5 mm over the next 60 years. The potential impact of these changes ranges from threatening food security to greater mortality. Use of available secondary data such as indicators of climate change and DHS health status are not likely to offer sufficient resolution to detect positive or negative impacts of climate change on health. How might a mixed methods approach incorporating secondary data and quantitative and qualitative survey data on climate, economic activity, health and determinants of health address the hypothesis: Climate change does not adversely affect health? For example, in Haiti most women deliver at home. Maternal mortality is high at 350 deaths/100,000 deliveries. This compares to deliveries in facilities where the median rate is less than 100/100,000. Thus, maternal mortality is closely linked to access to health care in this rugged mountainous country. Climate change

  9. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast Foods and their Impact on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Ashakiran; Deepthi R

    2012-01-01

    Eat healthy and live healthy is one of the essential requirements for long life. Unfortunately, todays world has been adapted to a system of consumption of foods which has several adverse effects on health. Lifestyle changes has compelled us so much that one has so little time to really think what we are eating is right Globalisation and urbanisation have greatly affected ones eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as Junk foods. Res...

  10. Anthropometrics and ageing : impact of weight status on health

    OpenAIRE

    Hollander, de, R.B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Weight status is one of the factors that influence healthy ageing. It is often assessed with anthropometric measures such as body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), which indicate underweight or excess fat. Both are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults. The first paper of this thesis investigates whether this association is consistent over calendar time, to check for possible influences of improved healthcare procedures over time. In old age, this associat...

  11. Health impacts of domestic coal use in China

    OpenAIRE

    Finkelman, Robert B.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Zheng, Baoshan

    1999-01-01

    Domestic coal combustion has had profound adverse effects on the health of millions of people worldwide. In China alone several hundred million people commonly burn raw coal in unvented stoves that permeate their homes with high levels of toxic metals and organic compounds. At least 3,000 people in Guizhou Province in southwest China are suffering from severe arsenic poisoning. The primary source of the arsenic appears to be consumption of chili peppers dried over fire...

  12. Tourism impacts of Three Mile Island and other adverse events: implications for Lincoln County and other rural counties bisected by radioactive wastes intended for Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository system will adversely impact tourism in southern Nevada is an open question of particular importance to visitor-oriented rural counties bisected by planned waste transportation corridors (highway or rail). As part of one such county's repository impact assessment program, tourism implications of Three Mile Island (TMI) and other major hazard events have been revisited to inform ongoing county-wide socioeconomic assessments and contingency planning efforts. This paper summarizes key research implications of such research as applied to Lincoln County, Nevada. Implications for other rural counties are discussed in light of the research findings

  13. Nutrition economics - Characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; Ganse, Éric; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, Thomas; Poley, Marten; Salminen, Seppo; Nuijten, Mark

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThere is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to est...

  14. Vulnerability and Adaptation to the Health Impacts of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Postigo

    2008-01-01

    Antonio Postigo argues that in contrast to the increasing recognition of the environmental outcomes of climate change, its consequences on human health have received little attention. These health impacts will be largely shaped by socio-economic factors being more severe among vulnerable communities in developing countries. He outlines the need to integrate health vulnerabilities into climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. Greater consideration of the health effects of climate c...

  15. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Hendriks, Carlijn; Schaap, Martijn [TNO, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gschwind, Benoit; Lefevre, Mireille; Blanc, Isabelle [MINES ParisTech, Sophia Antipolis (France); Drebszok, Kamila; Wyrwa, Artur [AGH Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Stetter, Daniel [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  16. Estimating particulate matter health impact related to the combustion of different fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in ambient air leads to adverse health effects. To design cost effective mitigation strategies, a thorough understanding of the sources of particulate matter is crucial. We have successfully generated a web map service that allows to access information on fuel dependent health effects due to particulate matter. For this purpose, the LOTOS-EUROS air pollution model was equipped with a source apportionment module that tracks the origin of the modelled particulate matter distributions thoughout a simulation. Combined with a dedicated emission inventory PM2.5 maps specified by fuel type were generated for 2007-2009. These maps were combined with a health impact calculation to estimate Lost of Life Expectancy for each fuel categories. An user friendly web client was generated to access the results and use the web mapping service in an easy manner. (orig.)

  17. The impact of migraine on health status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, M L; van Royen, L; Krabbe, P; Bonsel, G J; Rutten, F F

    1995-01-01

    PROBLEMS: What is the effect of migraine on health status, defined as the patient's physical, psychological, and social functioning? And, suppose that the health status of migraine sufferers appears to be impaired, to what extent is this a consequence of migraine-associated comorbidity rather than o

  18. Governance structures impact on eHealth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background National eHealth implementation efforts need to move beyond the scope of making technology the primary focus and instead consider the broader spectrum of influences that can either hinder or facilitate eHealth adoption such as governance structures and policies. In this study, Denmark...

  19. Health Impacts of Active Transportation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Rueda, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Andersen, Zorana J;

    2016-01-01

    reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the six cities by 1,139 to 26,423 (metric tonnes per year). Policies to promote active transportation may produce health benefits, but these depend of the existing characteristics of the cities. Increased collaboration between health practitioners, transport specialists...

  20. Impact of diurnal temperature range on human health: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Xu; Jin, Liu; Song, Jian; Su, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Increasing epidemiological studies have shown that a rapid temperature change within 1 day is an independent risk factor for human health. This paper aimed to systematically review the epidemiological evidence on the relationship between diurnal temperature range (DTR) and human health and to propose future research directions. A literature search was conducted in October 2013 using the databases including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and EBSCO. Empirical studies regarding the relationship between DTR and mortality and morbidity were included. Twenty-five relevant studies were identified, among which, 11 investigated the relationship between DTR and mortality and 14 examined the impact of DTR on morbidity. The majority of existing studies reported that DTR was significantly associated with mortality and morbidity, particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Notably, compared with adults, the elderly and children were more vulnerable to DTR effects. However, there were some inconsistencies regarding the susceptible groups, lag time, and threshold of DTR. The impact of DTR on human health may be confounded or modified by season, socioeconomic, and educational status. Further research is needed to further confirm the adverse effects of DTR in different geographical locations; examine the effects of DTR on the health of children aged one or under; explore extreme DTR effects on human health; analyze the difference of DTR effects on human health in different locations and the modified effects of potential confounding factors; and develop detailed preventive measures against large DTR, particularly for susceptible groups.

  1. Health impacts of anthropogenic biomass burning in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigsgaard, Torben; Forsberg, Bertil; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Blomberg, Anders; Bølling, Anette; Boman, Christoffer; Bønløkke, Jakob; Brauer, Michael; Bruce, Nigel; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Kelly, Frank; Künzli, Nino; Lundbäck, Bo; Moshammer, Hanns; Noonan, Curtis; Pagels, Joachim; Sallsten, Gerd; Sculier, Jean-Paul; Brunekreef, Bert

    2015-12-01

    Climate change policies have stimulated a shift towards renewable energy sources such as biomass. The economic crisis of 2008 has also increased the practice of household biomass burning as it is often cheaper than using oil, gas or electricity for heating. As a result, household biomass combustion is becoming an important source of air pollutants in the European Union.This position paper discusses the contribution of biomass combustion to pollution levels in Europe, and the emerging evidence on the adverse health effects of biomass combustion products.Epidemiological studies in the developed world have documented associations between indoor and outdoor exposure to biomass combustion products and a range of adverse health effects. A conservative estimate of the current contribution of biomass smoke to premature mortality in Europe amounts to at least 40 000 deaths per year.We conclude that emissions from current biomass combustion products negatively affect respiratory and, possibly, cardiovascular health in Europe. Biomass combustion emissions, in contrast to emissions from most other sources of air pollution, are increasing. More needs to be done to further document the health effects of biomass combustion in Europe, and to reduce emissions of harmful biomass combustion products to protect public health. PMID:26405285

  2. Impact on health caused by water resources development and management projects and health impact assessment as a tool for mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Erlanger, Tobias Ephraim

    2007-01-01

    Since the rise of early civilisations people have adapted and modified water bodies for their use. Water is made available through dams, wells, canals and other infrastructure to provide drinking water for households and livestock and to feed irrigated agriculture. Despite myriad benefits due to water resources development and management there are also adverse effects. Certain components of it can facilitate the transmission of infectious diseases or impact the psychosocial con...

  3. Climate change and health: impacts, vulnerability, adaptation and mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellstrom, Tord; Weaver, Haylee J

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change is progressing and health impacts have been observed in a number of countries, including Australia. The main health impacts will be due to direct heat exposure, extreme weather, air pollution, reduced local food production, food- and vectorborne infectious diseases and mental stress. The issue is one of major public health importance. Adaptation to reduce the effects of climate change involves many different sectors to minimise negative health outcomes. Wide-scale mitigation is also required, in order to reduce the effects of climate change. In addition, future urban design must be modified to mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Strategies for mitigation and adaptation can create co-benefits for both individual and community health, by reducing non-climate-related health hazard exposures and by encouraging health promoting behaviours and lifestyles. PMID:19261209

  4. Assessment of the Health Impacts of Climate Change in Kiribati

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan McIver

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Kiribati—a low-lying, resource-poor Pacific atoll nation—is one of the most vulnerable countries in the World to the impacts of climate change, including the likely detrimental effects on human health. We describe the preparation of a climate change and health adaptation plan for Kiribati carried out by the World Health Organization and the Kiribati Ministry of Health and Medical Services, including an assessment of risks to health, sources of vulnerability and suggestions for highest priority adaptation responses. This paper identifies advantages and disadvantages in the process that was followed, lays out a future direction of climate change and health adaptation work in Kiribati, and proposes lessons that may be applicable to other small, developing island nations as they prepare for and adapt to the impacts of climate change on health.

  5. Impact of High-Normal Blood Pressure Measured in Emergency Room on Adverse Cardiac Events in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Nam Sik; Jeong, Myung Ho; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Jong Hyun; Chae, Shung Chull; Kim, Young Jo; Hur, Seung Ho; Seong, In Whan; Hong, Taek Jong; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Myeong Chan; Kim, Chong Jin; Seung, Ki Bae; Chung, Wook Sung; Jang, Yang Soo

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Prehypertension according to JNC7 is common and is associated with increased vascular mortality. The importance of management in high-normal blood pressure (BP) is underemphasized. Subjects and Methods We analyzed major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry in normal BP (group I) and high-normal BP (group II) patients. Results Among 14871 patients, 159 (61±12.3 years, 122 males) satisfied the study indication. Six-month and ...

  6. Essays on Health Care: The Impact of Insurance and Use of Medical Services on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Moonkyung Kate

    2012-01-01

    The United States per capita health care spending is the highest in the world. This dissertation addresses the impact of additional health care spending/medical service usage on health status. First two chapters investigate the role of insurance on medical service use in understudied dental market. The third chapter examines the effectiveness of additional health care spending on infant health outcomes.The first chapter estimates the causal relationship between adult Medicaid dental benefits ...

  7. Global urbanization and impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melinda; Gould, Philip; Keary, Barbara S

    2003-08-01

    Nearly half the world's population now lives in urban settlements. Cities offer the lure of better employment, education, health care, and culture; and they contribute disproportionately to national economies. However, rapid and often unplanned urban growth is often associated with poverty, environmental degradation and population demands that outstrip service capacity. These conditions place human health at risk. Reliable urban health statistics are largely unavailable throughout the world. Disaggregated intra-urban health data, i.e., for different areas within a city, are even more rare. Data that are available indicate a range of urban health hazards and associated health risks: substandard housing, crowding, air pollution, insufficient or contaminated drinking water, inadequate sanitation and solid waste disposal services, vector-borne diseases, industrial waste, increased motor vehicle traffic, stress associated with poverty and unemployment, among others. Local and national governments and multilateral organizations are all grappling with the challenges of urbanization. Urban health risks and concerns involve many different sectors, including health, environment, housing, energy, transportation, urban planning, and others. Two main policy implications are highlighted: the need for systematic and useful urban health statistics on a disaggregated, i.e., intra-urban, basis, and the need for more effective partnering across sectors. The humanitarian and economic imperative to create livable and sustainable cities must drive us to seek and successfully overcome challenges and capitalize on opportunities. Good urban planning and governance, exchange of best practice models and the determination and leadership of stakeholders across disciplines, sectors, communities and countries will be critical elements of success. PMID:12971682

  8. Integrating Social impacts on Health and Health-Care Systems in Systemic Seismic Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz-Plapp, T.; Khazai, B.; Daniell, J. E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a new method for modeling health impacts caused by earthquake damage which allows for integrating key social impacts on individual health and health-care systems and for implementing these impacts in quantitative systemic seismic vulnerability analysis. In current earthquake casualty estimation models, demand on health-care systems is estimated by quantifying the number of fatalities and severity of injuries based on empirical data correlating building damage with casualties. The expected number of injured people (sorted by priorities of emergency treatment) is combined together with post-earthquake reduction of functionality of health-care facilities such as hospitals to estimate the impact on healthcare systems. The aim here is to extend these models by developing a combined engineering and social science approach. Although social vulnerability is recognized as a key component for the consequences of disasters, social vulnerability as such, is seldom linked to common formal and quantitative seismic loss estimates of injured people which provide direct impact on emergency health care services. Yet, there is a consensus that factors which affect vulnerability and post-earthquake health of at-risk populations include demographic characteristics such as age, education, occupation and employment and that these factors can aggravate health impacts further. Similarly, there are different social influences on the performance of health care systems after an earthquake both on an individual as well as on an institutional level. To link social impacts of health and health-care services to a systemic seismic vulnerability analysis, a conceptual model of social impacts of earthquakes on health and the health care systems has been developed. We identified and tested appropriate social indicators for individual health impacts and for health care impacts based on literature research, using available European statistical data. The results will be used to

  9. Assessments of biofuel sustainability: air pollution and health impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Chi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating biofuel production has been promoted as an opportunity to enhance energy security, offset greenhouse gas emissions and support rural economies. However, large uncertainties remain in the impacts of biofuels, particularly, on air quality and human health. Sugarcane ethanol is one of the most widely used biofuels, and Brazil is its largest producer. Here a systematic framework, including emission modeling, air quality simulation, and health impact assessment was developed to quanti...

  10. Potential Impacts of Golden Rice on Public Health in India

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Alexander J.; Sachdev, H.P.S.; Qaim, Matin

    2006-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects millions of people world-wide, causing serious health problems. Golden Rice (GR), which has been genetically engineered to produce beta-carotene, is being proposed as a remedy. While this new technology has aroused controversial debates, its nutritional impact and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. We determine the current burden of VAD in India from a public health perspective,and simulate the potential alleviating impact of GR using representative househol...

  11. Impact of diet on cardiometabolic health in children and adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Funtikova, Anna N.; Navarro, Estanislau; Bawaked, Rowaedh Ahmed; Fit?? Colomer, Montserrat; Schr??der, H.

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes, and particularly obesity begins in children and adolescents, with deleterious effects for cardiometabolic health at adulthood. Although the impact of diet on cardiovascular risk factors has been studied extensively in adults, showing that their cardiometabolic health is strongly lifestyle-dependent, less is known about this impact in children and adolescents. In particular, little is known about the relationship...

  12. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Heller; Givens, Marjory L.; Yuen, Tina K.; Solange Gould; Maria Benkhalti Jandu; Emily Bourcier; Tim Choi

    2014-01-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communit...

  13. Integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in a health impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adám, Balázs; Molnár, Agnes; Gulis, Gabriel; Adány, Róza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the quantification of health outcomes in a health impact assessment (HIA) is scarce in practice, it is preferred by policymakers, as it assists various aspects of the decision-making process. This article provides an example of integrating a quantitative risk appraisal in an...

  14. Valuing the health impacts from particulate air pollution in Tianjin

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Yuan; Richard S.J. Tol

    2005-01-01

    Although China has made dramatic economic progress in recent years, air pollution continues to be the most visible environmental problem and imposes significant health and economic costs on society. Using data on pollutant concentration and population for 2003, this paper estimates the economic costs of health related effects due to particulate air pollution in urban areas of Tianjin, China. Exposure-response functions are used to quantify the impact on human health. Value of a statistical li...

  15. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    OpenAIRE

    McCallum, Lindsay C.; Kathleen Souweine; Mary McDaniel; Bart Koppe; Christine McFarland; Katherine Butler; Ollson, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA) was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability). Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice b...

  16. Impact of actinide recycle on nuclear fuel cycle health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this background paper is to summarize what is presently known about potential impacts on the impacts on the health risk of the nuclear fuel cycle form deployment of the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR)1 and Integral Fast Reactor (IF)2 technology as an actinide burning system. In a companion paper the impact on waste repository risk is addressed in some detail. Therefore, this paper focuses on the remainder of the fuel cycle

  17. 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence Review for: The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on February 3-4, 2014. The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response (from here on referred to as the 2013 Immune Evidence Report), as well as the Research Plan for this Risk that is in the current version of the Human Research Program’s (HRP) Integrated Research Plan (IRP).

  18. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhondt, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.dhondt@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Beckx, Carolien, E-mail: Carolien.Beckx@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Degraeuwe, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Degraeuwe@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Lefebvre, Wouter, E-mail: Wouter.Lefebvre@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kochan, Bruno, E-mail: Bruno.Kochan@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Bellemans, Tom, E-mail: Tom.Bellemans@uhasselt.be [Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Int Panis, Luc, E-mail: Luc.intpanis@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Transportation Research Institute, Hasselt University, Wetenschapspark 5 bus 6, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Macharis, Cathy, E-mail: cjmachar@vub.ac.be [Department MOSI-Transport and Logistics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050, Brussels (Belgium); Putman, Koen, E-mail: kputman@vub.ac.be [Department of Medical Sociology and Health Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090, Brussels (Belgium); Interuniversity Centre for Health Economics Research (I-CHER), Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-15

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns-including time in commute-for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO{sub 2} using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. Black

  19. Health impact assessment of air pollution using a dynamic exposure profile: Implications for exposure and health impact estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In both ambient air pollution epidemiology and health impact assessment an accurate assessment of the population exposure is crucial. Although considerable advances have been made in assessing human exposure outdoors, the assessments often do not consider the impact of individual travel behavior on such exposures. Population-based exposures to NO2 and O3 using only home addresses were compared with models that integrate all time-activity patterns—including time in commute—for Flanders and Brussels. The exposure estimates were used to estimate the air pollution impact on years of life lost due to respiratory mortality. Health impact of NO2 using an exposure that integrates time-activity information was on average 1.2% higher than when assuming that people are always at their home address. For ozone the overall estimated health impact was 0.8% lower. Local differences could be much larger, with estimates that differ up to 12% from the exposure using residential addresses only. Depending on age and gender, deviations from the population average were seen. Our results showed modest differences on a regional level. At the local level, however, time-activity patterns indicated larger differences in exposure and health impact estimates, mainly for people living in more rural areas. These results suggest that for local analyses the dynamic approach can contribute to an improved assessment of the health impact of various types of pollution and to the understanding of exposure differences between population groups. - Highlights: ► Exposure to ambient air pollution was assessed integrating population mobility. ► This dynamic exposure was integrated into a health impact assessment. ► Differences between the dynamic and residential exposure were quantified. ► Modest differences in health impact were found at a regional level. ► At municipal level larger differences were found, influenced by gender and age.

  20. Health impact from lead: IQ decrement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of lead, once it is in the body, are the same no matter how it enters. Exposure to lead is especially dangerous for unborn children, with high levels associated with premature birth and low birth weight. Young children are at risk because they swallow lead when they put toys or other objects soiled with lead-containing dirt in their mouths. A greater proportion of the lead ingested by children enters their bodies than enters the bodies of adults. For infants and young children, lead exposure has been shown in some studies to decrease intelligence (IQ) scores, slow growth, and cause hearing problems. These effects can last as children get older and can be permanent. Realistic risk assessment for lead-induced neurobehavioral deficit in environmentally exposed children must stem from consistent results from independent studies, as well as the documentation of dose-response relationships. At present, studies investigating such effects have not been definitive. However, taken as a whole, there is growing support for the absence of a threshold for adverse effects in exposed children. Summary of selected recent studies and the obtained data are analyzed

  1. Waterpipe tobacco smoking and its human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-11-01

    Waterpipe tobacco smoking (WTS, also known as hookah, shisha, narghile, and many other names) involves passing tobacco smoke through water prior to inhalation by the consumer. As the number of waterpipe smokers is rising rapidly, there is growing concern over the use of WTS, particularly as there has been a widely held misconception that WTS is free from health hazards. In reality, it is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes on both a short- and long-term basis. Hence, it is desirable to develop advanced techniques for surveillance, intervention, and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the production and use of waterpipe tobacco. This review is written to survey the types and extent of pollutants released from its use and their potential health risks. A review of the present regulation guidelines is also included. PMID:27285594

  2. Geospatial Strategy for Adverse Impact of Urban Heat Island in upper atmospheres of the earth Mountain Areas using LANDSAT ETM+ Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Vandana, Vandana

    2016-07-01

    We are living in the age of the rapidly growing population and changing environmental conditions with advanced technical capacity. This has been resulting in widespread land cover change. Among several human-induced environmental and urban thermal problems are reported to be negatively affecting urban residents in many ways. Urban Heat Islands exist in many large cities especially metropolitan cities and can significantly affect the permafrost layer in mountain areas. The adverse effect of urban heat island has become the subject of numerous studies in recent decades and is reflected in many major mountain cities around the world. The built-up structures in urbanized areas considerably alter land cover thereby affecting thermal energy flow which leads to the development of elevated surface and air temperature. The phenomenon Urban Heat Island implies 'island' of high temperature in cities, surrounded by relatively lower temperature in rural areas. The Urban Heat Island for the temporal period is estimated using geospatial techniques which are then utilized for the impact assessment of the climate of the surrounding regions and how it reduce the sustainability of the natural resources like air, vegetation. The knowledge of surface temperature is important for the study of urban climate and human health. The rapid growth of industries in peri-urban areas results in excessive warming and variations in weather conditions. It leads to soil degradation in frozen areas due to high temperature which leads to melting of snow in mountain areas Remotely sensed data of thermal infrared band in the region of 10.4-12.5 µm of EMR spectrum, available from LANDSAT- ETM+ is proved to be very helpful to identify urban heat islands. Thermal infrared data acquired during the daytime and night time can be used to monitor the heat island associated with urban areas as well as atmospheric pollution. The present paper describes the methodology and resolution dynamic urban heat island

  3. Impact of environmental radiation on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A clean environment is essential for human health because the interaction between the environment and human health shows the complexity. Air pollution, less water quality, noise etc directly affects the health. Climate change, depletion of ozone layer, loss of biodiversity and degradation of land can also affect human health. Most of the modern technologies produce radiations in the environment having both beneficial and harmful effects through radioactive material. Natural radioactive sources include Cosmic radiation comes from the sun and outer space is absorbed by the atmosphere, a small amount reaches the earth's surface to which we are exposed. The exposure to this type of radiation is higher for people living above sea level. Radon is produced through the decay of uranium and thorium that are found naturally in the earth's crust. Primordial and terrestrial radiation are present in rocks and soils and occur when naturally radioactive isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium decay within the earth's crust. Artificial (or man-made) radioactive sources include Fallout radiation, which results from past atmospheric nuclear bomb tests (1950s and 1960s many test explosions). Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, transmit disease. Today, radiation is a common used in medicine to diagnose illnesses, research to treat diseases and industry to generate electricity in nuclear power reactors. Radiation is energy that moves through space or matter at a very high speed. This energy can be in the form of particles, such as alpha or beta particles, which are emitted from radioisotopes. Radioactive Material is material that contains an unstable atomic nucleus releases radiation in the process of changing to a stable form. There are two types of health effects from radiation - threshold and non threshold

  4. The Impact of Health-Promoting Behaviors on Low-Income Children's Health: A Risk and Resilience Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Joan; Slack, Kristen S.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    This study's objective was to examine whether five child health-promoting behaviors by caregivers would be associated with caregivers' assessments of their children's health as "excellent," controlling for an array of risk factors for adverse health outcomes. The study used the third and fourth waves of the Illinois Families Study-Child Well-being…

  5. Oral Health Impact Profile in elderly Chileans in southern Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Yobánolo-Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the impact of oral health on the quality of life of elderly patients (EP in the public health system of Valdivia, Chile in 2015. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using the “Oral Health Impact Profile Spanish version” (OHIP-14Sp, in a population of 387 EP (71,8±7,5 years old; 53% women. The impact of oral health on the quality of life was determined by the average scale score that ranged beween 0 points (good quality of life and 56 points (poor quality of life. In addition, oral health problems reported by EP population as having a greater influence on their quality of life were also included in this study. Results: The mean score of OHIP-14Sp was 20,1±7,6 points. Items showing problems more frequently associated with quality of life were: “toothache” (32,8%, “appearance of the teeth” (32,8%, “sensitive teeth” (32,3% and “difficulty for chewing food” (25,8%. Conclusion: The impact of oral health on the quality of life of the EP population was considered low when compared to the median score of OHIP-14Sp. Functional and esthetic aspects showed the highest impact on the quality of life of EP in the city of Valdivia.

  6. The health impacts of climate change and variability in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menne, B. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome (Italy). Global Change and Health; Kunzil, N. [Institute for Social and Preventive Medicine University, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Basel and Keck School of Medicine; Bertollini, R. [WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen (Denmark). Technical Support Div.

    2002-07-01

    Health is a focus reflecting the combined impacts of climate change on the physical environment, ecosystems, the economic environment and society. Long-term changes in the world's climate may affect many requisites of good health - sufficient food, safe and adequate drinking water and secure dwelling. The current large-scale social and environmental changes mean that we must assign a much higher priority to population health in the policy debate on climate change. Climate change will affect human health and wellbeing through a variety of mechanisms. Climate change can adversely impact on the availability of fresh water supply and the efficiency of local sewerage systems. It is also likely to affect food security. Cereal yields are expected to increase at high and mid latitudes but decrease at lower latitudes. Changes in food production are likely to significantly affect health in Africa. In addition, the distribution and seasonal transmission of several vector-borne infectious diseases (such as malaria and dengue) may be affected by climate change. Altered distribution of some vector species may be among the early signals of climate change. A change in the world climate could increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events. The impacts on health of natural disasters are considerable - the number of people killed, injured or made homeless from such causes is increasingly alarming. The vulnerability of people living in risk-prone areas is an important contributor to disaster casualties and damage. An increase in heatwaves (and possibly air pollution) will be a problem in urban areas, where excess mortality and morbidity is currently observed during hot weather episodes. We can assume that climate change will affect the most vulnerable in developing countries. These might be socio-economic deprived populations, people who lack access to a health care system, technology and communication, as well as immuno compromised persons. The health community

  7. Lean manufacturing comes to China: a case study of its impact on workplace health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garrett D; O'Rourke, Dara

    2007-01-01

    Lean manufacturing, which establishes small production "cells," or teams of workers, who complete an entire product from raw material processing through final assembly and shipment, increases health and safety hazards by mixing previously separated exposures to various chemicals (with possible additive and cumulative effects) and noise. The intensification of work leads to greater ergonomic and stress-related adverse health effects, as well as increased safety hazards. The standard industrial hygiene approach of anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and hazard control is applicable to lean operations. A focus on worker participation in identifying and solving problems is critical for reducing negative impacts. A key to worker safety in lean production operations is the development of informed, empowered, and active workers with the knowledge, skills, and opportunity to act in the workplace to eliminate or reduce hazards. PMID:17915539

  8. Mechanisms of Prebiotic Impact on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steed, H.; Macfarlane, S.

    Prebiotics were originally defined as non-digestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activities of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, thereby improving host health (Gibson and Roberfroid, 1995). However, a more recent definition is that “A prebiotic is a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microbiota that confers benefits upon host wellbeing and health” (Gibson et al., 2004). The principal concept associated with both of these definitions is that the prebiotic has a selective effect on the microbiota that results in an improvement in the health of the host. Common prebiotics in use include inulins, fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), soya-oligosaccharides, xylo-oligosaccharides, pyrodextrins, isomalto-oligosaccharides and lactulose. The majority of studies carried out to date have focused on inulin, FOS and GOS (Macfarlane et al., 2008).

  9. Health Impacts of the School Commute

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Murray; Orenstein, Marla; Richardson, Maxwell J.; Ragland, David R

    2008-01-01

    A dramatic decline in walking and cycling to school has been observed in many geographic and cultural regions, and most children in the US are now driven to school in private vehicles. There are a number of health implications associated with the choice of commute mode, including traffic safety, exposure to air pollution, and levels of physical activity and obesity, and the risks and benefits of each must be weighed. This paper reviews current evidence on these risks and benefits for each hea...

  10. Measuring the impact of allied health research

    OpenAIRE

    Grimmer-Somers, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Jan Heath, Karen Grimmer-Somers, Steve Milanese, Susan Hillier, Ellena King, Kylie Johnston, Kylie Wall, Olivia Thorpe, Alexandra Young, Saravana KumarSchool of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaBackground: Excellence in Research for Australia (ERA) rankings are given to academic journals in which Australian academics publish. This provides a metric on which Australian institutions and disciplines are ranked for international competitiveness. This paper ex...

  11. Impact of rare diseases in oral health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Ana; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Posada-de la Paz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background Rare diseases (RD) are those that present a lower prevalence than 5 cases per 10.000 population. The main objective of this review was to study the effect on oral health in rare diseases, while the secondary objective of the study is theme upgrade. Material and Methods Comparative observational case-control studies were analysed and a systematic review was conducted in PubMed. Each rare disease listed on the statistical data record of the Health Portal of the Ministry of Equality, Health and Social Policies Board of Andalusia was associated with “oral health”. The variables studied included dental, oral mucosa and occlusion alterations, oral pathologies (caries, periodontal disease) and other alterations (mouth breathing, parafunctional habits, etc). A bias analysis of the variable caries was conducted. Results Six RD were selected through our inclusion and exclusion criteria (hypogammaglobulinemia, Rett syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, cystic fibrosis and Cri du chat syndrome) in a total of 8 publications, of which four trials were classified as high risk of bias and one of them as medium risk. There were not trials with low risk of bias. Conclusions The main statistically significant differences found by Syndrome compared to a control group were in Hypogammaglobulinemia with a greater tendency to enamel hypoplasia and dry mouth. The Rett syndrome had, as well, a greater tendency to an anterior open bite, ogival palate, bruxism, mouth breathing and tongue thrusting. Prader-Willi syndrome had a tendency of dental erosion, and Cri du chat syndrome showed a higher association to Tannerella forsythia. Key words:Rare diseases, oral health. PMID:27475682

  12. Local Food Impacts on Health and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, Myra Clarisse R.; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg; Ramirez, Octavio A.; Escalante, Cesar L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence of local foods is believed to answer several food issues one of which is health and nutrition. This study focused on the on the availability of local foods to consumers and see its relationship with two specific diet-related diseases namely, obesity and diabetes. Other variables were included in the analysis to provide additional evidence to previous findings. Factors considered are divided into 5 groups namely diet-, local food-, environment-, education- and gender-related factors...

  13. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Krieger, Gary R; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two have been joined as a right-to-health impact assessment. In the corporate world, the right-to-health approach fulfils neither managers' need to comprehensively understand impacts of a project, nor rightsholders' need to know that the full suite of their human rights will be safe from violation. Despite the limitations of a right-to-health tool for companies, integration of health into human rights provides numerous potential benefits to companies and the communities they affect. Here, a detailed health analysis through the human rights lens is carried out, drawing on a case study from the United Republic of Tanzania. This paper examines the positive and negative health and human rights impacts of a corporate operation in a low-income setting, as viewed through the human rights lens, considering observations on the added value of the approach. It explores the relationship between health impact assessment (HIA) and human rights impact assessment (HRIA). First, it considers the ways in which HIA, as a study directly concerned with human welfare, is a more appropriate guide than environmental or social impact assessment for evaluating human rights impacts. Second, it considers the contributions HRIA can make to HIA, by viewing determinants of health not as direct versus indirect, but as interrelated. PMID:26377091

  14. Impact of leishmaniasis on public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic zoonosis caused by protozoans of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects known as phlebotomines, which are found in wild or urban environments. It affects domestic and wild animals and transmission to man happens by accident. The disease occurs in tropical and sub-tropical areas, mainly in Asia, Europe, Africa, and the Americas. There are two forms that affect man: American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The latter is caused by three species of Leishmania: Leishmania (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, and Leishmania (Leishmania chagasi, which are grouped in the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani complex. Wild reservoir hosts of L. chagasi known so far are foxes and marsupials. In domestic environment, dogs are the most important reservoir hosts and sources of infection to the vectors Lutzomyia longipalpis. Leishmaniasis is difficult to control, causing epidemic outbreaks, thus being an important public health problem. Due to lesions caused by the mucocutaneous type and the severity of those caused by the visceral type in humans, visceral leishmaniasis is one of the main public health concerns. This paper is part of the monograph presented at the end of the residency program in the field of Zoonosis and Public Health at the School of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2005.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charmian M; Friel, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world's poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health. PMID:27417491

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Inequities in Child Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmian M. Bennett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an often overlooked aspect of climate change impacts on child health: the amplification of existing child health inequities by climate change. Although the effects of climate change on child health will likely be negative, the distribution of these impacts across populations will be uneven. The burden of climate change-related ill-health will fall heavily on the world’s poorest and socially-disadvantaged children, who already have poor survival rates and low life expectancies due to issues including poverty, endemic disease, undernutrition, inadequate living conditions and socio-economic disadvantage. Climate change will exacerbate these existing inequities to disproportionately affect disadvantaged children. We discuss heat stress, extreme weather events, vector-borne diseases and undernutrition as exemplars of the complex interactions between climate change and inequities in child health.

  17. Extended impacts of climate change on health and wellbeing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Incorporates wellbeing into understandings of climate change impacts on health. • Considers a range of secondary impacts of climate change on health and wellbeing. • Examines co-benefits and dis-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies for health and wellbeing. • Emphasises the spatially and socially differentiated repercussions of adaptation and mitigation measures. - Abstract: Anthropogenic climate change is progressively transforming the environment despite political and technological attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to tackle global warming. Here we propose that greater insight and understanding of the health-related impacts of climate change can be gained by integrating the positivist approaches used in public health and epidemiology, with holistic social science perspectives on health in which the concept of ‘wellbeing’ is more explicitly recognised. Such an approach enables us to acknowledge and explore a wide range of more subtle, yet important health-related outcomes of climate change. At the same time, incorporating notions of wellbeing enables recognition of both the health co-benefits and dis-benefits of climate change adaptation and mitigation strategies across different population groups and geographical contexts. The paper recommends that future adaptation and mitigation policies seek to ensure that benefits are available for all since current evidence suggests that they are spatially and socially differentiated, and their accessibility is dependent on a range of contextually specific socio-cultural factors

  18. External costs of electricity. Valuation of health impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The health impacts of electricity generation can be significant, depending on the choice of technology and fuel, and the location of the plant. The paper discusses the methodological issues that arise in estimating these impacts in monetary terms. The first part of the paper argues for the use of a willingness to pay approach and discusses some of the problems that arise in implementing the methodology, the most prominent ones being the time-scale of impacts, discounting, uncertainty, and the transferability of data from one location to another. The second part of the paper reviews the literature on the estimation of mortality and morbidity impacts and gives some numbers from a recent study financed by the European Commission. Although there are many problems to be resolved, the monetary valuation of health impacts can assist in the decision making process, both in the selection of fuels and technologies and in the location of plants. (author). 13 refs, 1 tab

  19. Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in The Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors explain their adverse position?

    OpenAIRE

    Reijneveld, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Differences in health, lifestyles, and use of health care between groups of varying ethnic origin can have important implications for preventive and curative health care. This paper studies whether socioeconomic factors explain ethnic differences in these outcomes. DESIGN: Data on health status, lifestyles, and use of health care were obtained from interviews with 3296 people aged 16-64 years (response: 60.6%), among whom were 848 first generation immigrants. Ethnic differenc...

  20. Health impact assessment: assessing opportunities and barriers to intersectoral health improvement in an expanded European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Karen; McKee, Martin

    2005-05-01

    On 1 May 2004 the European Union (EU) underwent unprecedented enlargement, from 15 to 25 countries, increasing its population by 20% to over 450 million. Although EU law has limited specific competence in the area of health, its influence on other policy sectors such as agriculture, trade, and employment has wide ranging implications for health. Yet with the exception of provisions on communicable disease control and food safety, public health considerations have played little part in negotiations on EU accession. This paper argues for an intersectoral public health approach in the expanded EU. It reviews the legal basis for assessing the health impacts of policy in the EU and, using health impact assessment as a case study, it examines how well the new member states may be prepared to tackle intersectoral public health action within the constraints imposed by EU policy. PMID:15831682

  1. Potential impact of climate change on air pollution-related human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagaris, Efthimios; Liao, Kuo-Jen; Delucia, Anthony J; Deck, Leland; Amar, Praveen; Russell, Armistead G

    2009-07-01

    The potential health impact of ambient ozone and PM2.5 concentrations modulated by climate change over the United States is investigated using combined atmospheric and health modeling. Regional air quality modeling for 2001 and 2050 was conducted using CMAQ Modeling System with meteorology from the GISS Global Climate Model, downscaled regionally using MM5,keeping boundary conditions of air pollutants, emission sources, population, activity levels, and pollution controls constant. BenMap was employed to estimate the air pollution health outcomes at the county, state, and national level for 2050 caused by the effect of meteorology on future ozone and PM2.5 concentrations. The changes in calculated annual mean PM2.5 concentrations show a relatively modest change with positive and negative responses (increasing PM2.5 levels across the northeastern U.S.) although average ozone levels slightly decrease across the northern sections of the U.S., and increase across the southern tier. Results suggest that climate change driven air quality-related health effects will be adversely affected in more then 2/3 of the continental U.S. Changes in health effects induced by PM2.5 dominate compared to those caused by ozone. PM2.5-induced premature mortality is about 15 times higher then that due to ozone. Nationally the analysis suggests approximately 4000 additional annual premature deaths due to climate change impacts on PM2.5 vs 300 due to climate change-induced ozone changes. However, the impacts vary spatially. Increased premature mortality due to elevated ozone concentrations will be offset by lower mortality from reductions in PM2.5 in 11 states. Uncertainties related to different emissions projections used to simulate future climate, and the uncertainties forecasting the meteorology, are large although there are potentially important unaddressed uncertainties (e.g., downscaling, speciation, interaction, exposure, and concentration-response function of the human health studies

  2. Motoneuron diseases: impact on health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerutti, Paola; Solara, Valentina; Ferrario, Silvia Rossi

    2016-01-01

    The approach to patients affected by motor neuron disease (MND) and their caregivers requires specific training for the care-team. In fact, the progression of the disease, with the decline of physical--and sometimes cognitive--function, the increasing difficulties in speaking, breathing, and swallowing and the need of invasive choices, as the artificial nutrition and tracheostomy, constitute a challenge for the health professionals, often generating distress. For this reason, their cohesion and sharing abilities are fundamental. Psychologist assumes a strategic role in supporting and facilitating the analysis of clinical cases and of the team's intra/interpersonal dynamics. For this aim, he/she needs specific training and instruments. We here present a semi-structured interview--the Motor Neuron Disease-Psychological Interview (MoNeDi-PI)--which may guide in the psychological assessment of patients affected by MNDs and their caregivers. It can also be a handy reference tool for other members of the healthcare team providing necessary information about the patient and caregiver in order to optimize clinical decision making about which health interventions to apply. PMID:27459838

  3. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  4. The need for health impact assessment in China: Potential benefits for public health and steps forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA) is a useful tool to predict and estimate the potential health impact associated with programs, projects, and policies by comprehensively identifying relevant health determinants and their consequences. China is undergoing massive and rapid socio-economic changes leading to environment and population health challenges such as a large increase in non-communicable diseases, the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, new health risks associated with environmental pollutants and escalating health inequality. These health issues are affected by multiple determinants which can be influenced by planned policies, programs, and projects. This paper discusses the needs for health impact assessment in China in order to minimize the negative health consequences from projects, programs and policies associated with rapid social and economic development. It first describes the scope of China's current impact assessment system and points out its inadequacy in meeting the requirements of population health protection and promotion. It then analyses the potential use of HIA and why China needs to develop and apply HIA as a tool to identify potential health impacts of proposed programs, projects and policies so as to influence decision-making early in the planning process. Thus, the paper recommends the development of HIA as a useful tool in China to enhance decision-making for the protection and promotion of population health. For this to happen, the paper outlines steps necessary for the establishment and successful implementation of HIA in China: beginning with the establishment of a HIA framework, followed by workforce capacity building, methodology design, and intersectoral collaboration and stakeholder engagement.

  5. Climate change and Public health: vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzone, F.; Setegn, S.

    2013-12-01

    Climate Change plays a significant role in public health. Changes in climate affect weather conditions that we are accustomed to. Increases in the frequency or severity of extreme weather events such as storms could increase the risk of dangerous flooding, high winds, and other direct threats to people and property. Changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, and extreme events could enhance the spread of some diseases. According to studies by EPA, the impacts of climate change on health will depend on many factors. These factors include the effectiveness of a community's public health and safety systems to address or prepare for the risk and the behavior, age, gender, and economic status of individuals affected. Impacts will likely vary by region, the sensitivity of populations, the extent and length of exposure to climate change impacts, and society's ability to adapt to change. Transmissions of infectious disease have been associated with social, economic, ecological, health care access, and climatic factors. Some vector-borne diseases typically exhibit seasonal patterns in which the role of temperature and rainfall is well documented. Some of the infectious diseases that have been documented by previous studies, include the correlation between rainfall and drought in the occurrence of malaria, the influence of the dry season on epidemic meningococcal disease in the sub-Saharan African, and the importance of warm ocean waters in driving cholera occurrence in the Ganges River delta in Asia The rise of climate change has been a major concern in the public health sector. Climate change mainly affects vulnerable populations especially in developing countries; therefore, it's important that public health advocates are involve in the decision-making process in order to provide resources and preventative measures for the challenges that are associated with climate change. The main objective of this study is to assess the vulnerability and impact of climate change

  6. Organoleptic water quality: Health and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Nelson, M.A.; Olivieri, A.W.; Cooper, R.C.; Danielson, R.E.; Bruvold, W.H.; Scofield, R.; Hsieh, D.P.H.; Schaub, S.A.

    1987-02-01

    Organoleptic properties of drinking water (i.e., characteristics perceptible to the senses) can affect the acceptance of water by the public. In this paper we present a risk-analysis methodology, along with supporting data, that can be used for assessing the relationship between the level of either (1) turbidity, color, and odor; or (2) total dissolved solids (TDS); or (3) metabolites of algae and associated bacteria in drinking water, and the fraction of an exposed population that could reject the water. We explain how this methodology can be used by public health authorities in developing nations as a rational approach for adopting pragmatic water-quality guidelines for these organoleptic constituents, and for accurately correlating concentrations of these organoleptic constituents with the need to commit manpower and resources to improve water quality in rural areas, small communities, and large cities.

  7. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  8. The Green Heart Initiative: Using Air Quality Information to Reduce Adverse Health Effects in Patients with Heart and Vascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Heart Initiatives designed to raise public awareness about the role outdoor air pollution plays in cardiovascular health. Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to complement the national Million Hearts” initiative1, Green Heart seeks to teach healt...

  9. Health impact assessment of climate change in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global climate change (GCC) may have serious and irreversible impacts. Improved methods are needed to predict and quantify health impacts, so that appropriate risk management strategies can be focused on vulnerable areas. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is proposed as an effective tool in environmental health impact assessment (HIA). The DALY accounts for years of life lost to premature death and/or morbidity. Both the DALY and the determinants-of-health approach are applied to HIA of GCC in Bangladesh. Based on historical data, a major storm event may result in approximately 290 DALY per 1000 population, including both deaths and injuries, compared to a current all-cause rate of about 280 per 1000 in the region. A more precise result would require a large input of data; however, this level of analysis may be sufficient to rank risks, and to motivate and target risk management efforts

  10. Health effects of the London bicycle sharing system: health impact modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Woodcock, James; Tainio, Marko; Cheshire, James; O’Brien, Oliver; Goodman, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To model the impacts of the bicycle sharing system in London on the health of its users. Design Health impact modelling and evaluation, using a stochastic simulation model. Setting Central and inner London, England. Data sources Total population operational registration and usage data for the London cycle hire scheme (collected April 2011-March 2012), surveys of cycle hire users (collected 2011), and London data on travel, physical activity, road traffic collisions, and particulate ...

  11. CDC Wonder Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) online database on CDC WONDER provides counts and percentages of adverse event case reports after vaccination,...

  12. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry. PMID:26943595

  13. Public health impacts of climate change in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H D; Dhimal, B; Dhimal, M; Bhusal, C L

    2011-04-01

    Climate change is a global issue in this century which has challenged the survival of living creatures affecting the life supporting systems of the earth: atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. Scientists have reached in a consensus that climate change is happening. The anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming and therefore climate change. Climate change may directly or indirectly affect human health through a range of pathways related to temperature and precipitation. The aim of this article is to share knowledge on how climate change can affect public health in Nepal based on scientific evidence from global studies and experience gained locally. In this review attempt has been made to critically analyze the scientific studies as well as policy documents of Nepalese Government and shed light on public health impact of climate change in the context of Nepal. Detailed scientific study is recommended to discern impact of climate change on public health problems in Nepal. PMID:22929718

  14. One Health and Cyanobacteria in Freshwater Systems: Animal Illnesses and Deaths are Sentinel Events for Human Health Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms have adversely impacted human and animal health for thousands of years. Recently, the health impacts of harmful cyanobacteria blooms are becoming more frequently detected and reported. However, reports of human and animal illnesses or deaths associat...

  15. Population trends of central European montane birds provide evidence for adverse impacts of climate change on high-altitude species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Flousek, J.; Telenský, Tomáš; Hanzelka, J.; Reif, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 10 (2015), e0139465. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Elevational range shifts * Life-history traits * Arrival date * Boreal birds * Habitat loss * Biodiversity * Declines Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  16. Assessment of the health impact of an environmental pollution and quantitative assessment of health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report made by a working group is written for experts in health risk assessment or for professionals involved in risk management. It proposes a methodological and conceptual framework which could build a unified approach to a quantitative assessment of health risks. In the first part, under the form of questions and answers, it defines the health impact, describes how to assess the excess of individual risk and the related hypothesis, how to pass from the excess of individual risk to the health impact, how to express the results of an health impact calculation, how to take the lack of knowledge into account at the different steps of this calculation, what is the significance of the result of such a calculation, and how useful an health impact assessment can be. The second part proposes a more detailed presentation of the scientific background for the health impact calculation with its indicators, its uncertainties, its practice in other countries, its relevance, and its fields of application. Then, after a comment of the dose-response relationship, it reports the scientific validity of the assessment of a number of cases

  17. Impact of air pollution on reproductive health in Northern Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubeš, J.; Selevan, S. G.; Šrám, Radim; Evenson, D. P.; Perreault, S. D.

    Dordrecht : Springer, 2007 - (P.Nicolopoulou-Stamati), s. 207-224 ISBN 1-4020-4828-9 R&D Projects: GA MŽP ZZ/340/1/97; GA MŽP SI/340/2/00; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * male reproductive health * sperm quality Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  18. Climate Change Impacts and Risks for Animal Health in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Forman, S.; Hungerford, N.; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T.; Tsai, H J; Joo, Y.S.; Yang, D. K.; Nha, J. J.

    2008-01-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases a...

  19. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M.E; Arnold, W; Barrett, P; Biello, S; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F.J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H M; Foster, R G; Hau, M.; Haydon, D.T.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need...

  20. The Impact of Chernobyl on Health and Labour Market Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmut Lehmann; Jonathan Wadsworth

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from Ukraine we examine the extent of any long-lasting effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl disaster on the health and labour market performance of the adult workforce. The variation in the local area level of radiation fallout from the Chernobyl accident is considered as a random exogenous shock with which to try to establish its causal impact on poor health, labour force participation, hours worked and wages. There appears to be a significant positive ass...

  1. HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT BY INGESTION OF POLLUTED SOIL/SEDIMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ines Tomašek; Marta Mileusnić; Andreja Leboš Pavunc

    2016-01-01

    Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) pose a threat to human health as they can easily enter human body via ingestion of polluted soil/sediment. In order to estimate bioavailability and access health impact on people, measurement of the oral bioaccessibility of a contaminant is crucial. Various laboratory based in vitro tests which mimic human gastrointestinal tract conditions can be used. In order to set up the method for analysing bioaccessibility of contaminants in soil samples in Laboratory f...

  2. Identification of Adverse Drug Events from Free Text Electronic Patient Records and Information in a Large Mental Health Case Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Electronic healthcare records (EHRs are a rich source of information, with huge potential for secondary research use. The aim of this study was to develop an application to identify instances of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs from free text psychiatric EHRs.We used the GATE Natural Language Processing (NLP software to mine instances of ADEs from free text content within the Clinical Record Interactive Search (CRIS system, a de-identified psychiatric case register developed at the South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, UK. The tool was built around a set of four movement disorders (extrapyramidal side effects [EPSEs] related to antipsychotic therapy and rules were then generalised such that the tool could be applied to additional ADEs. We report the frequencies of recorded EPSEs in patients diagnosed with a Severe Mental Illness (SMI and then report performance in identifying eight other unrelated ADEs.The tool identified EPSEs with >0.85 precision and >0.86 recall during testing. Akathisia was found to be the most prevalent EPSE overall and occurred in the Asian ethnic group with a frequency of 8.13%. The tool performed well when applied to most of the non-EPSEs but least well when applied to rare conditions such as myocarditis, a condition that appears frequently in the text as a side effect warning to patients.The developed tool allows us to accurately identify instances of a potential ADE from psychiatric EHRs. As such, we were able to study the prevalence of ADEs within subgroups of patients stratified by SMI diagnosis, gender, age and ethnicity. In addition we demonstrated the generalisability of the application to other ADE types by producing a high precision rate on a non-EPSE related set of ADE containing documents.The application can be found at http://git.brc.iop.kcl.ac.uk/rmallah/dystoniaml.

  3. Nature-Based Stress Management Course for Individuals at Risk of Adverse Health Effects from Work-Related Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sahlin, Eva; Ahlborg Jr., Gunnar; Vega-Matuszczyk, Josefa; Grahn, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    Sick leave due to stress-related disorders is increasing in Sweden after a period of decrease. To avoid that individuals living under heavy stress develop more severe stress-related disorders, different stress management interventions are offered. Self-assessed health, burnout-scores and well-being are commonly used as outcome measures. Few studies have used sick-leave to compare effects of stress interventions. A new approach is to use nature and garden in a multimodal stress management cont...

  4. Impact of the European Union enlargement on health professionals and health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgerinos, Efthimios D; Koupidis, Sotirios A; Filippou, Dimitrios K

    2004-09-01

    As the European family enlarges, the admission of new human resources in the health services will have an impact on the European market and health care system. Under the umbrella of the European Union (EU) equality, the educational quality barriers (e.g. PLAB test in UK, DIKATSA test in Greece) will be abolished. The overproduction of health professionals and their heterogeneous regional and per specialty distribution will lead to medical unemployment and demotion of the medical profession. Medical and political authorities and decision makers of the EU need to reform the European Health System, supervise, and assess the quality of medical education, harmonize the individual National Health System policies, and follow the World Health Organization (regional office for Europe) guidelines on health policy. An agreed, structured European Health Policy might moderate the vibrations of the forthcoming EU enlargement. PMID:15276318

  5. Health and environmental impact of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depleted Uranium (DU) is 'nuclear waste' produced from the enrichment process and is mostly made up of 238U and is depleted in the fissionable isotope 235U compared to natural uranium (NU). Depleted uranium has about 60% of the radioactivity of natural uranium. Depleted uranium and natural uranium are identical in terms of the chemical toxicity. Uranium's high density gives depleted uranium shells increased range and penetrative power. This density, combined with uranium's pyrophoric nature, results in a high-energy kinetic weapon that can punch and burn through armour plating. Striking a hard target, depleted uranium munitions create extremely high temperatures. The uranium immediately burns and vaporizes into an aerosol, which is easily diffused in the environment. People can inhale the micro-particles of uranium oxide in an aerosol and absorb them mainly from lung. Depleted uranium has both aspects of radiological toxicity and chemical toxicity. The possible synergistic effect of both kinds of toxicities is also pointed out. Animal and cellular studies have been reported the carcinogenic, neurotoxic, immuno-toxic and some other effects of depleted uranium including the damage on reproductive system and foetus. In addition, the health effects of micro/ nano-particles, similar in size of depleted uranium aerosols produced by uranium weapons, have been reported. Aerosolized DU dust can easily spread over the battlefield spreading over civilian areas, sometimes even crossing international borders. Therefore, not only the military personnel but also the civilians can be exposed. The contamination continues after the cessation of hostilities. Taking these aspects into account, DU weapon is illegal under international humanitarian laws and is considered as one of the inhumane weapons of 'indiscriminate destruction'. The international society is now discussing the prohibition of DU weapons based on 'precautionary principle'. The 1991 Gulf War is reportedly the first

  6. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Clementi, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Valentina Perrone,1,* Valentino Conti,2,* Mauro Venegoni,2 Stefania Scotto,2 Luca Degli Esposti,3 Diego Sangiorgi,3 Lucia Prestini,4 Sonia Radice,1 Emilio Clementi,5,6 Giuseppe Vighi,2,4 1Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2Regional Centre for Pharmacovigilance, Lombardy, Milan, Italy; 3CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 4Unit of Clinica...

  7. Seriousness, preventability, and burden impact of reported adverse drug reactions in Lombardy emergency departments: a retrospective 2-year characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Perrone V; Conti V; Venegoni M; Scotto S; Degli Esposti L; Sangiorgi D.; Prestini L; Radice S; Clementi E; Vighi G

    2014-01-01

    Valentina Perrone,1,* Valentino Conti,2,* Mauro Venegoni,2 Stefania Scotto,2 Luca Degli Esposti,3 Diego Sangiorgi,3 Lucia Prestini,4 Sonia Radice,1 Emilio Clementi,5,6 Giuseppe Vighi,2,4 1Unit of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, University Hospital Luigi Sacco, Università di Milano, Milan, Italy; 2Regional Centre for Pharmacovigilance, Lombardy, Milan, Italy; 3CliCon Srl, Health, Economics and Outcomes Research, Ravenna, Italy; 4Unit of Clinical Ph...

  8. Incidence and preventability of adverse events requiring intensive care admission: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Vlayen, Annemie; Verelst, Sandra; Bekkering, Geertruida E; Schrooten, Ward; Hellings, Johan; Claes, Neree

    2012-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Adverse events are unintended patient injuries or complications that arise from health care management resulting in death, disability or prolonged hospital stay. Adverse events that require critical care are a considerable financial burden to the health care system, but also their global impact on patients and society is probably underestimated. The objectives of this systematic review were to synthesize the best available evidence regarding the estimates of the...

  9. Impact of oral health on health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Zucoloto, Miriane Lucindo; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the consensus regarding the existence of a relationship between “impacts on oral health” and “health-related quality of life”, this relationship, considering the latent nature of these variables, is still poorly investigated. Thus, we performed this study in order to determine the magnitude of the impacts of oral health, demographic and symptom/clinical variables on the health-related quality of life in a Brazilian sample of dental patients. Methods A total of 1,007 adult s...

  10. Status of industrial fluoride pollution and its diverse adverse health effects in man and domestic animals in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubisa, Shanti Lal; Choubisa, Darshana

    2016-04-01

    Hydrofluorosis in humans and domestic animals is a worldwide health problem and caused by a prolonged period of fluoride exposure through drinking of fluoride contaminated water. But in recent years, due to rapid industrialization in India, diverse serious health problems among industrial workers and residents and domestic animals living in the industrial areas due to fluoride pollution are on the rise. A number of coal-burning and industrial activities such as power-generating stations, welding operations and the manufacturing or production of steel, iron, aluminum, zinc, phosphorus, chemical fertilizers, bricks, glass, plastic, cement, and hydrofluoric acid are generally discharging fluoride in both gaseous and particulate/dust forms into surrounding environments which create a industrial fluoride pollution and are an important cause of occupational exposure to fluoride in several countries including India. An industrial emitted fluoride contaminates not only surrounding soil, air, and water but also vegetation, crops and many other biotic communities on which man and animals are generally dependants for food. Long- time of inhalation or ingestion of industrial fluoride also causes serious health problems in the forms of industrial and neighborhood fluorosis. In India, whatever research works conducted so far on the chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or poisoning (industrial and neighborhood fluorosis) in man and various species of domestic animals due to a prolonged period of industrial fluoride exposure or pollution (contamination) are critically reviewed in the present communication. Simultaneously, we are also focused the various bio-indicators and bio-markers for chronic industrial fluoride intoxication or pollution. PMID:26903127

  11. Differing forms, differing purposes: A typology of health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is currently considerable diversity in health impact assessment (HIA) practice internationally. Historically this diversity has been described as simple dichotomies, for example the differences between HIAs of projects and policies. However these distinctions have failed to adequately describe the differences that can be observed between different forms of HIAs. This paper describes the three historical and disciplinary fields from which HIA has emerged - environmental health, a social view of health, and health equity. It also puts forward a typology of four different forms of HIA that can be observed in current HIA practice: mandated, decision-support, advocacy, and community-led HIAs. This paper argues that these different forms of HIA serve different purposes and are not necessarily in competition; rather they allow HIA to be responsive to a range of population health concerns and purposes.

  12. Waste management programmatic environmental impact statement methodology for estimating human health risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has produced large quantities of radioactive and hazardous waste during years of nuclear weapons production. As a result, a large number of sites across the DOE Complex have become chemically and/or radiologically contaminated. In 1990, the Secretary of Energy charged the DOE Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste management (EM) with the task of preparing a Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). The PEIS should identify and assess the potential environmental impacts of implementing several integrated Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) alternatives. The determination and integration of appropriate remediation activities and sound waste management practices is vital for ensuring the diminution of adverse human health impacts during site cleanup and waste management programs. This report documents the PEIS risk assessment methodology used to evaluate human health risks posed by WM activities. The methodology presents a programmatic cradle to grave risk assessment for EM program activities. A unit dose approach is used to estimate risks posed by WM activities and is the subject of this document

  13. Do studies reporting ‘U’-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D–health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.; Karras, Spyridon N.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Annweiler, Cedric; Boucher, Barbara J.; Juzeniene, Asta; Garland, Cedric F.; Holick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration–health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment. However, the various U-shaped associations for allergic reactions may be due to vitamin D modulation of the phenotype of the immune response, shifting the Th1-Th2 balance toward Th2 formation. For prostate cancer, there seems to be little effect of 25(OH)D concentration on incidence; however, there is an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and mortality rates. Future observational studies, and randomized controlled trial data analyses, should include adjustment for data collected on prior long-term vitamin D supplementation and solar UVB exposure, as well as other potential confounders. PMID:27489574

  14. Do studies reporting 'U'-shaped serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-health outcome relationships reflect adverse effects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B; Karras, Spyridon N; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Annweiler, Cedric; Boucher, Barbara J; Juzeniene, Asta; Garland, Cedric F; Holick, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Several reports describe U-shaped 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration-health outcomes, including musculo-skeletal disorders such as falls and fractures, several cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive function, all-cause mortality rates, birth outcomes, allergic reactions, frailty, and some other disorders. This paper reviews reports of U-shaped outcome associations with vitamin D status for evidence of underlying pathophysiological processes, or of confounding, finding that some U-shaped associations appear to be biologically meaningful, but that many could well reflect confounding by factors such as lifestyle, or hypovitaminosis D-related disease onset being masked by self-supplementation that was begun too late to correct developing health problems but before baseline vitamin D status assessment. However, the various U-shaped associations for allergic reactions may be due to vitamin D modulation of the phenotype of the immune response, shifting the Th1-Th2 balance toward Th2 formation. For prostate cancer, there seems to be little effect of 25(OH)D concentration on incidence; however, there is an inverse correlation between 25(OH)D concentration and mortality rates. Future observational studies, and randomized controlled trial data analyses, should include adjustment for data collected on prior long-term vitamin D supplementation and solar UVB exposure, as well as other potential confounders. PMID:27489574

  15. Health Impact Assessment of an oil drilling project in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay C. McCallum

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The Health Impact Assessment (HIA was conducted to evaluate the potential community health implications of a proposed oil drilling and production project in Hermosa Beach, California. The HIA considered 17 determinants of health that fell under 6 major categories (i.e., air quality, water and soil quality, upset conditions, noise and light emissions, traffic, and community livability. Material and Methods: This paper attempts to address some of the gaps within the HIA practice by presenting the methodological approach and results of this transparent, comprehensive HIA; specifically, the evaluation matrix and decision-making framework that have been developed for this HIA and form the basis of the evaluation and allow for a clear conclusion to be reached in respect of any given health determinant (i.e., positive, negative, neutral. Results: There is a number of aspects of the project that may positively influence health (e.g., increased education funding, ability to enhance green space, and at the same time there have been potential negative effects identified (e.g., odor, blowouts, property values. Except for upset conditions, the negative health outcomes have been largely nuisance-related (e.g., odor, aesthetics without irreversible health impacts. The majority of the health determinants, that had been examined, have revealed that the project would have no substantial effect on the health of the community. Conclusions: Using the newly developed methodology and based on established mitigation measures and additional recommendations provided in the HIA, the authors have concluded that the project will have no substantial effect on community health. This approach and methodology will assist practitioners, stakeholders and decision-makers in advancing the HIA as a useful, reproducible, and informative tool.

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and its Health Impact on Ethnic Minority Women [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Jamila K; Hayashi, Hitomi; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, intimate partner violence (IPV) against women disproportionately affects ethnic minorities. Further, disparities related to socioeconomic and foreign-born status impact the adverse physical and mental health outcomes as a result of IPV, further exacerbating these health consequences. This article reviews 36 U.S. studies on the physical (e.g., multiple injuries, disordered eating patterns), mental (e.g., depression, post-traumatic stress disorder), and sexual and reproductive health conditions (e.g., HIV/STIs, unintended pregnancy) resulting from IPV victimization among ethnic minority (i.e., Black/African American, Hispanic/Latina, Native American/Alaska Native, Asian American) women, some of whom are immigrants. Most studies either did not have a sufficient sample size of ethnic minority women or did not use adequate statistical techniques to examine differences among different racial/ethnic groups. Few studies focused on Native American/Alaska Native and immigrant ethnic minority women and many of the intra-ethnic group studies have confounded race/ethnicity with income and other social determinants of health. Nonetheless, of the available data, there is evidence of health inequities associated with both minority ethnicity and IPV. To appropriately respond to the health needs of these groups of women, it is necessary to consider social, cultural, structural, and political barriers (e.g., medical mistrust, historical racism and trauma, perceived discrimination, immigration status) to patient-provider communication and help-seeking behaviors related to IPV, which can influence health outcomes. This comprehensive approach will mitigate the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities related to IPV and associated health outcomes and behaviors. PMID:25551432

  17. The Impact of Electricity Sector Privatization on Public Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Eiras, Martin; Rossi, Martín

    2008-01-01

    We use province-level data for Argentina to test for the causal relation between electricity distribution and health. We are interested in the impact of privatization on two output measures, incidence of low birth weight and child mortality rates caused by food poisoning. Privatization improves s...

  18. IMPACT ON CONTRIBUTIONS FUMES FROM WELDING PROCEDURES WELDER HEALTH OPERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe AMZA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a series of investigations undertaken to establish the impact of gas welding results in fusion welding procedures and welders health operators who work in departments making welded construction. Are the main gases that occur in fusion welding and main effects of short-term and long on the human body.

  19. IMPACT ON CONTRIBUTIONS FUMES FROM WELDING PROCEDURES WELDER HEALTH OPERATORS

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe AMZA; Zoia APOSTOLESCU; Liana Sanda PAISE; Maria Dragomir GROZA

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a series of investigations undertaken to establish the impact of gas welding results in fusion welding procedures and welders health operators who work in departments making welded construction. Are the main gases that occur in fusion welding and main effects of short-term and long on the human body.

  20. The Psychological Impact of Teleworking: Stress, Emotions and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sandi; Holdsworth, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    Study 1 included interviews with 12 teleworkers and office workers. Study 2 surveyed 32 office workers and 30 teleworkers. Results suggest that teleworking has negative emotional impact in terms of such emotions as loneliness, irritability, worry, and guilt and that teleworkers experience significantly more mental health symptoms of stress and…

  1. Mutagenesis and teratogenesis as end points in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic and teratogenic effects of agents released to the environment as a consequence of energy production are exceedingly difficult to evaluate. Nevertheless, these effects on human health may be very costly in the context of cost-benefit analysis. In fact, the procedures required to limit mutagenic or teratogenic agents to the levels considered acceptable by regulatory bodies may constitute a major fraction of the cost of energy, especially where prudence dictates that a lack of empirical data requires extremely conservative regulations. Experience with ionizing radiation and with regulation of nuclear power installations illustrates the difficulty of genetic and teratogenic health impact assessment and the great uncertainties involved, as well as the influence of these impacts on the regulatory process and the consequent increased cost of power from this source. Data on genetic and teratogenic impacts on human health from chemical agents released to the environment by other energy technologies are much less complete, and, because of the large number of potentially active agents involved, it is evident that generic solutions to health impact assessment will be required to evaluate these energy alternatives

  2. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  3. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin BABA

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends merely through recurrent messages. The issues frequently conveyed by media industry influences citizens’ interest with regard to community, producing effects on public policy. We must bear in mind that the more persistent in media they are, the more relevant for community this issues will be. The authors of the study put forward a method through which diverse programmes can be analysed. A comparative analysis of mass media and citizens’ social representations and its findings provide information about the influence between them. According to agenda setting theory and many international studies on health policy the authors conclude that mass media institution highly influence the impact of the health policy in health. Moreover, it is important to mention that the impact refers to all the stages of a policy-making: beginning with the problem identification and ending with the evaluation of the implementation process.

  4. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, B.A.; Williams, R.G.

    1986-01-23

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management.

  5. The environmental impact of health care: implications for infusion nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, Noelle Claire

    2012-01-01

    Health care provision is a dangerous business. Health professionals recognize the potential for miscommunication, medication errors, and other possible threats to patient safety. Less evident are the hazards to the environment inherent in the everyday practice of patient care. This article addresses 3 areas of practice in which infusion nurses can make a positive impact on the environment: preferable intravenous (IV) supply purchasing, proper management of electronic equipment (including purchasing, servicing, and disposal), and appropriate medication use and disposal practices. The article aims to inform IV nurses of the alarming environmental effects that the health care industry has on the environment and to suggest a clear, direct course of action to improve our environmental impact. PMID:22498487

  6. Perceived and calculated health risks: Do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  7. Perceived and calculated health risks: do the impacts differ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cases of radioactive and hazardous waste management, some members of the general public perceive that human health risks associated with the wastes are higher than the calculated risks. Calculated risks are projections that have been derived from models, and it is these risks that are usually used as the basis for waste management. However, for various reasons, the calculated risks are often considered by the public as too low or inappropriate. The reasons that calculated risks are not perceived as accurate and the factors that affect these perceptions are explored in this paper. Also discussed are the impacts related to the perceived and calculated health risks: what they are, and if and how they differ. The kinds of potential impacts examined are health effects, land value changes, and social, transportation, and economic effects. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of incorporating these different risk perspectives in decisions on waste management

  8. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  9. The impact of biomedical innovation on longevity and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank R Lichtenberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many authors have expressed the view that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. This article describes the methodologies and findings of a number of studies based on observational data that have sought to measure the impact of biomedical innovation on the longevity and health of Americans and other populations during recent decades. Most of these studies have examined the impact of innovation in pharmaceuticals, the most research-intensive medical good or service. Two measures of medical innovation that have been used are the mean vintage of the medical goods or procedures used by an individual or population, and the number of distinct products (e.g. drugs available for treating a condition. Longevity (e.g. time till death is the health outcome that has been analyzed the most, but several studies have studied the impact of medical (i.e. pharmaceutical innovation on the ability of people to work or engage in activities of daily living. Some studies have been based on cross-sectional patient-level data. Others have been based on longitudinal, region-level data; they have investigated whether regions (e.g. states undergoing more rapid medical innovation have exhibited larger improvements in health. And some studies have been based on longitudinal, disease-level data; they have investigated whether the medical conditions undergoing more rapid innovation have exhibited larger gains in health outcomes. Innovation related to some specific major diseases (e.g. cardiovascular disease and cancer has been investigated, but the overall impact of innovation related to other major diseases (e.g. diabetes has not.These studies provide considerable support for the hypothesis that a substantial portion of recent gains in longevity and health is due to biomedical research and innovation. It would be desirable to apply these methods to data from developing countries.

  10. The impact of childhood obesity on health and health service use: an instrumental variable approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kinge, Jonas Minet; Morris, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    In the following paper we estimate the impact of obesity in childhood on health and health service use in England using instrumental variables. We use data on children and adolescents aged 3-18 years old from fifteen rounds of the Health Survey for England (1998-2012), which has measures of self-assessed health, primary care use, prescribed medication use, and nurse-measured height and weight. We use instruments for child obesity using genetic variation in weight. We detect a few potential is...

  11. New statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases relevant to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present research develops new statistical methodology, mathematical models, and data bases of relevance to the assessment of health impacts of energy technologies, and uses these to identify, quantify, and pedict adverse health effects of energy related pollutants. Efforts are in five related areas including: (1) evaluation and development of statistical procedures for the analysis of death rate data, disease incidence data, and large scale data sets; (2) development of dose response and demographic models useful in the prediction of the health effects of energy technologies; (3) application of our method and models to analyses of the health risks of energy production; (4) a reanalysis of the Tri-State leukemia survey data, focusing on the relationship between myelogenous leukemia risk and diagnostic x-ray exposure; and (5) investigation of human birth weights as a possible early warning system for the effects of environmental pollution

  12. Health Care Facilities Resilient to Climate Change Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaclyn Paterson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events and create risks that will impact health care facilities. Health care facilities will need to assess climate change risks and adopt adaptive management strategies to be resilient, but guidance tools are lacking. In this study, a toolkit was developed for health care facility officials to assess the resiliency of their facility to climate change impacts. A mixed methods approach was used to develop climate change resiliency indicators to inform the development of the toolkit. The toolkit consists of a checklist for officials who work in areas of emergency management, facilities management and health care services and supply chain management, a facilitator’s guide for administering the checklist, and a resource guidebook to inform adaptation. Six health care facilities representing three provinces in Canada piloted the checklist. Senior level officials with expertise in the aforementioned areas were invited to review the checklist, provide feedback during qualitative interviews and review the final toolkit at a stakeholder workshop. The toolkit helps health care facility officials identify gaps in climate change preparedness, direct allocation of adaptation resources and inform strategic planning to increase resiliency to climate change.

  13. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  14. Direct costs and hospital morbimortality impact from preventable adverse drug events Costos directos e impacto sobre la morbimortalidad hospitalaria de eventos adversos prevenibles a medicamentos en una institución de tercer nivel de Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Segura

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction. Implementing pharmacovigilance activities consists of monitoring and assessment of activities related to medical attention. However, additional data are necessary to identify conditions where care quality can be improved. Therefore, a focus on adverse drug events analysis from a prevention and economic perspective is needed, with emphasis on its local impact.
    Objective. Preventable adverse drug events were summarized to establishing their impact on morbidity and mortality, as well as to estimate the ensuing economic burden.
    Materials and methods. The data were gathered from a level 3 hospital (high complexity, located in Bogotá, Colombia, where specific pharmacovigilance activities were recorded in 2007. Patient charts were reviewed to characterize adverse drug events according to their causality, severity and preventability. Direct costs were estimated by grouping diagnostic tests, length of hospitalization, procedures and additional drugs required.
    Results. The charts of 283 patients and 448 reports were analyzed. These data indicated that 24.8% of adverse drug events were preventable and that an associated mortality of 1.1% had occurred. The associated direct costs were between USD $16,687 and $18,739. Factors more commonly associated with preventability were drug-drug interactions, as well as inappropriate doses and unsuitable frequencies at which the drugs were administrated.
    Conclusions. The data recommended that actions be taken to decrease preventable adverse drug events, because of negative impact on patient's health, and unnecessary consumption of healthcare resources.

    Introducción. La implementación de actividades de farmacovigilancia permite supervisar y evaluar aspectos relacionados con la atención médica. Es necesario que la información recolectada permita identificar oportunidades para mejorar la calidad de la atención en salud. Se propone un análisis de los eventos adversos

  15. Equity-focused health impact assessment: A tool to assist policy makers in addressing health inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Australasia (Australia and New Zealand) the use of health impact assessment (HIA) as a tool for improved policy development is comparatively new. The public health workforce do not routinely assess the potential health and equity impacts of proposed policies or programs. The Australasian Collaboration for Health Equity Impact Assessment was funded to develop a strategic framework for equity-focused HIA (EFHIA) with the intent of strengthening the ways in which equity is addressed in each step of HIA. The collaboration developed a draft framework for EFHIA that mirrored, but modified the commonly accepted steps of HIA; tested the draft framework in six different health service delivery settings; analysed the feedback about application of the draft EFHIA framework and modified it accordingly. The strategic framework shows promise in providing a systematic process for identifying potential differential health impacts and assessing the extent to which these are avoidable and unfair. This paper presents the EFHIA framework and discusses some of the issues that arose in the case study sites undertaking equity-focused HIA

  16. Waterpipe tobacco smoking impact on public health: implications for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinasek MP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mary P Martinasek,1 Linda M Gibson-Young,2 Janiece N Davis,3 Robert J McDermott41Public Health Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Kennedy Boulevard, Tampa, FL, 2College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas A&M University: Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX, 3Department of Health – Palm Beach County, West Palm beach, FL, 4Department of Population Health Sciences, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USABackground: Given the increasing evidence of its negative health effects, including contributions to both infectious and chronic diseases, waterpipe tobacco smoking raises public health concerns beyond even those presented by traditional smoking. Methods: Identification of Clean Indoor Air Acts (CIAAs from each of the 50 United States and District of Columbia were retrieved and examined for inclusion of regulatory measures where waterpipe tobacco smoking is concerned. Several instances of exemption to current CIAAs policies were identified. The cumulative policy lens is presented in this study. Results: States vary in their inclusion of explicit wording regarding CIAAs to the point where waterpipe tobacco smoking, unlike traditional smoking products, is excluded from some legislation, thereby limiting authorities’ ability to carry out enforcement. Conclusion: Consistent, comprehensive, and unambiguous legislative language is necessary to prevent establishments where waterpipe tobacco smoking occurs from skirting legislation and other forms of regulatory control. Stricter laws are needed due to the increasing negative health impact on both the smoker and the bystander. Actions at both the federal and state levels may be needed to control health risks, particularly among youth and young adult populations.Keywords: health policy, waterpipe tobacco, hookah smoking, tobacco regulation

  17. The Health Impact of Nighttime Eating: Old and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber W. Kinsey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Nighttime eating, particularly before bed, has received considerable attention. Limiting and/or avoiding food before nighttime sleep has been proposed as both a weight loss strategy and approach to improve health and body composition. Indeed, negative outcomes have been demonstrated in response to large mixed meals in populations that consume a majority of their daily food intake during the night. However, data is beginning to mount to suggest that negative outcomes may not be consistent when the food choice is small, nutrient-dense, low energy foods and/or single macronutrients rather than large mixed-meals. From this perspective, it appears that a bedtime supply of nutrients can promote positive physiological changes in healthy populations. In addition, when nighttime feeding is combined with exercise training, any adverse effects appear to be eliminated in obese populations. Lastly, in Type I diabetics and those with glycogen storage disease, eating before bed is essential for survival. Nevertheless, nighttime consumption of small (~150 kcals single nutrients or mixed-meals does not appear to be harmful and may be beneficial for muscle protein synthesis and cardiometabolic health. Future research is warranted to elucidate potential applications of nighttime feeding alone and in combination with exercise in various populations of health and disease.

  18. Prescription stimulants in individuals with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: misuse, cognitive impact, and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Kirchgessner, Annette

    2012-09-01

    Prescription stimulants are often used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Drugs like methylphenidate (Ritalin, Concerta), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), and dextroamphetamine-amphetamine (Adderall) help people with ADHD feel more focused. However, misuse of stimulants by ADHD and nonaffected individuals has dramatically increased over recent years based on students' misconceptions or simple lack of knowledge of associated risks. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the use and increasing misuse of prescription stimulants among high school and college students and athletes. Given the widespread belief that stimulants enhance performance, there are in fact only a few studies reporting the cognitive enhancing effects of stimulants in ADHD and nonaffected individuals. Student athletes should be apprised of the very serious consequences that can emerge when stimulants are used to improve sports performance. Moreover, misuse of stimulants is associated with dangers including psychosis, myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy, and even sudden death. As ADHD medications are prescribed for long-term treatment, there is a need for long-term safety studies and education on the health risks associated with misuse is imperative. PMID:23139911

  19. Alcohol Involvement in Sexual Behaviour and Adverse Sexual Health Outcomes from 26 to 38 Years of Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie L Connor

    Full Text Available Research on alcohol and sexual behaviour has focused on young adults or high-risk groups, showing alcohol use contributing to riskier sexual choices. Adults now in their late thirties have been exposed to heavier drinking norms than previously, raising questions about effects on sexual wellbeing. We examined self-reported use and consequences of alcohol in sexual contexts, and its association with usual drinking pattern at age 38, and also associations of heavy drinking occasion (HDO frequency with number of sexual partners, sexually transmitted infections (STIs, and terminations of pregnancy (TOPs, from 26-32 and 32-38 years of age.Members of the Dunedin Study birth cohort answered computer-presented questions about sexual behaviour and outcomes, and interviewer-administered alcohol consumption questions, at age 26, 32 and 38 years.Response level was >90% at each assessment. At 38, drinking before or during sex in the previous year was common (8.2% of men; 14.6% of women reported "usually/always", and unwanted consequences were reported by 13.5% of men and 11.9% of women, including regretted sex or failure to use contraception or condoms. Frequent heavy drinkers were more likely to "use alcohol to make it easier to have sex" and regret partner choice, particularly women. Heavy drinking frequency was strongly associated with partner numbers for men and women at 32, but only for women at 38. Significantly higher odds of STIs amongst the heaviest drinking men, and TOPs amongst the heaviest drinking women were seen at 32-38.Alcohol involvement in sex continues beyond young adulthood where it has been well documented, and is common at 38. Women appear to be more affected than men, and heavy drinking is associated with poorer outcomes for both. Improving sexual health and wellbeing throughout the life course needs to take account of the role of alcohol in sexual behaviour.

  20. Health impact assessment. Schiphol airport. Overview of results until 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franssen, E.A.M.; Lebret, E.; Staatsen, B.A.M.

    1999-07-01

    An English overview is given of the current results of the Dutch Health Impact Assessment Schiphol (HIAS) research programme. This programme consists of a series of studies with different designs. Results are described for each separate health end-point instead of by the separate studies: annoyance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep disturbance, respiratory diseases, perceived health, neurobehavioral effects, birth weight and perception of risks and residential satisfaction. Several of the more complex studies are still ongoing, or in the final stages of reporting. These concern a study of respiratory complaints in children in relation to air pollution and another of aircraft noise and sleep disturbance in adults. Based on the results of the HIAS a monitoring system will be developed to study the health status of the population periodically in relation to expansion of the airport.

  1. Drought impacts on children's respiratory health in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren T.; Aragão, Luiz E. O. C.; Sabel, Clive E.; Nakaya, Tomoki

    2014-01-01

    Drought conditions in Amazonia are associated with increased fire incidence, enhancing aerosol emissions with degradation in air quality. Quantifying the synergic influence of climate and human-driven environmental changes on human health is, therefore, critical for identifying climate change adaptation pathways for this vulnerable region. Here we show a significant increase (1.2%-267%) in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases in children under-five in municipalities highly exposed to drought. Aerosol was the primary driver of hospitalisations in drought affected municipalities during 2005, while human development conditions mitigated the impacts in 2010. Our results demonstrated that drought events deteriorated children's respiratory health particularly during 2005 when the drought was more geographically concentrated. This indicates that if governments act on curbing fire usage and effectively plan public health provision, as a climate change adaptation procedure, health quality would improve and public expenditure for treatment would decrease in the region during future drought events.

  2. Impact of breath holding on cardiovascular respiratory and cerebrovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujic, Zeljko; Breskovic, Toni

    2012-06-01

    Human underwater breath-hold diving is a fascinating example of applied environmental physiology. In combination with swimming, it is one of the most popular forms of summer outdoor physical activities. It is performed by a variety of individuals ranging from elite breath-hold divers, underwater hockey and rugby players, synchronized and sprint swimmers, spear fishermen, sponge harvesters and up to recreational swimmers. Very few data currently exist concerning the influence of regular breath holding on possible health risks such as cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. A literature search of the PubMed electronic search engine using keywords 'breath-hold diving' and 'apnoea diving' was performed. This review focuses on recent advances in knowledge regarding possibly harmful physiological changes and/or potential health risks associated with breath-hold diving. Available evidence indicates that deep breath-hold dives can be very dangerous and can cause serious acute health problems such a collapse of the lungs, barotrauma at descent and ascent, pulmonary oedema and alveolar haemorrhage, cardiac arrest, blackouts, nitrogen narcosis, decompression sickness and death. Moreover, even shallow apnoea dives, which are far more frequent, can present a significant health risk. The state of affairs is disturbing as athletes, as well as recreational individuals, practice voluntary apnoea on a regular basis. Long-term health risks of frequent maximal breath holds are at present unknown, but should be addressed in future research. Clearly, further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms related to the possible development or worsening of different clinical disorders in recreational or competitive breath holding and to determine the potential changes in training/competition regimens in order to prevent these adverse events. PMID:22574634

  3. Human Health Impacts of and Public Health Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebi, K. L.

    2007-12-01

    Weather and climate are among the factors that determine the geographic range and incidence of several major causes of ill health, including undernutrition, diarrheal diseases and other conditions due to unsafe water and lack of basic sanitation, and malaria. The Human Health chapter in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change concluded that climate change has begun to negatively affect human health, and that projected climate change will increase the risks of climate-sensitive health outcomes, particularly in lower-income populations, predominantly within tropical/subtropical countries. Those at greatest risk include the urban poor, older adults, children, traditional societies, subsistence farmers, and coastal populations, particularly in low income countries. The cause-and-effect chain from climate change to changing patterns of health determinants and outcomes is complex and includes socioeconomic, institutional, and other factors. The severity of future impacts will be determined by changes in climate as well as by concurrent changes in nonclimatic factors and by the adaptation measures implemented to reduce negative impacts. Public health has a long history of effectively intervening to reduce risks to the health of individuals and communities. Lessons learned from more than 150 years of research and intervention can provide insights to guide the design and implementation of effective and efficient interventions to reduce the current and projected impacts of climate variability and change.

  4. Measuring the Impact of the Human Rights on Health in Global Health Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sara L M

    2015-01-01

    In response to new scientific developments, UNAIDS, WHO, and global health financing institutions have joined together to promote a "fast-track" global scale-up of testing and treatment programs. They have set ambitious targets toward the goal of ending the three diseases by 2030. These numerical indicators, based on infectious disease modeling, can assist in measuring countries' progressive realization of the right to health. However, they only nominally reference the catastrophic impact that human rights abuses have on access to health services; they also do not measure the positive impact provided by law reform, legal aid, and other health-related human rights programs. Drawing on experience at the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, which has incorporated expanded stakeholder consultation and human rights programming into its grants, the article argues that addressing human rights barriers to access is often an ad hoc activity occurring on the sidelines of a health grantmaking process that has focused on the scale-up of biomedical programs to meet global health indicators. To ensure that these biomedical programs have impact, UN agencies and health financing mechanisms must begin to more systematically and proactively integrate human rights policy and practice into their modeling and measurement tools. PMID:26766865

  5. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  6. Comparing the health impacts of different energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessing health impacts of different energy sources requires synthesis of research results from many different disciplines into a rational framework. Information is often scanty; qualitatively different risks, or energy systems with substantially different end uses, must be put on a common footing. Historically institutional constraints have inhibited agencies from making incisive intercomparisons necessary for formulating energy policy; this has exacerbated public controversy over appropriate energy sources. Risk assessment methods reviewed include examples drawn from work of the Biomedical and Environmental Assessment Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere. Uncertainty over the mechanism and size of air pollution health damage is addressed through a probabilistic health-damage function, using sulphate-particle exposure as an indicator. This facilitates intercomparison through analysis of each step in the whole fuel cycle between a typical coal and nuclear power plant. Occupational health impacts, a significant fraction of overall damage, are illustrated by accident trends in coal-mining. In broadening comparisons to include new technologies, one must include the impact of manufacturing the energy-producing device as part of an expanded fuel cycle, via input/output methods. Throughout the analysis, uncertainties must be made explicit in the results, including uncertainty of data and uncertainty in choice of appropriate models and methods. No single method of comparative risk assessment is fully satisfactory; each has its limitations. Several methods must be compared if decision-making is to be realistic. (author)

  7. Health impact assessment: where does the law come in?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Convention on Human Rights has profound implications for HIA. Public authorities have a positive obligation to stop others from infringing citizens' rights to life and to respect for private and family life. These rights are qualified and have now been interpreted in many thousands of cases. Authorities must, as best they reasonably can, secure the safety of citizens and inform the citizens about the safety or otherwise of any development. Authorities have to strike a balance between the individuals rights and the public benefit. Any public authority before approving a scheme or reaching a regulatory decision which may impact on human rights must consider the nature of that impact, its seriousness and whether it can be justified on public interest grounds. A number of court judgements in cases concerning these issues are discussed. This article is not about how certain of the ideas underlying Health Impact Assessment, in certain circumstances, are or can be incorporated in existing legally recognised instruments such as Environmental Impact Assessments. Nor is it about the statutory powers which authorities--local and national--could, if so inclined, exercise, to further the health and well-being of their constituents. It is about something rather more general, important and yet rather formless, namely the duties identified by the European Court of Human Rights as resting upon public authorities to take steps to safeguard the public health rights of their citizens

  8. Adverse impacts of pasture abandonment in Himalayan protected areas: Testing the efficiency of a Natural Resource Management Plan (NRMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high elevational areas in the Himalayas of India are dominated by forests and alpine pastures. There are many protected areas in the region, including Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and Valley of Flowers (VOF) where natural resource management plan (NRMP) has been implemented for the conservation of biodiversity. This has affected the traditional animal husbandry system, as well as the vegetation dynamics of alpine pastures. An integrated approach to studying the impact of NRMP in the region has been applied by us. First, a survey was conducted regarding livestock management, data pertaining the livestock husbandry, the role of animal husbandry in economics of rural household, and socioeconomics. Second, field based study on phytosociology of some important alpine herbs was done to enumerate the density and species richness in different land mark of the region. Thereafter, satellite data and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to develop a land cover map of the area and to note changes in the landscape over time after implementation of NRMP. From an economic point of view the implementation of such plan is a setback to the rural economy. However, the ecological perspective of such models is a threat to the diversity of alpine pastures. The invasion of bushes/thorny bushes/shrubs and weeds with their luxuriant growth is changing the vegetation index and dynamics. Consequently, the diversity of herbs in alpine pastures of the Himalayan Mountains is in jeopardy. Overall, the situation is leading to landscape change in the region. This study is helpful for generating useful outcomes and strategies considering the question or debate 'is grazing good or bad for pasture ecosystems in the Himalayas?'

  9. Global health impacts due to infectious diseases and climate change: A narrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2013-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), environment is explained in terms of human health, such as physical, chemical and biological factors that are external to a person and all the related behavioral changes that affect population health. Quality of life and health is generally affected by people’s interaction with the environment.The purpose of this narrative review was to address various global health impacts such as heat wave impact, impact of floods and droughts, impact of all...

  10. Evaluation of the public health impacts of traffic congestion: a health risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buonocore Jonathan J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic congestion is a significant issue in urban areas in the United States and around the world. Previous analyses have estimated the economic costs of congestion, related to fuel and time wasted, but few have quantified the public health impacts or determined how these impacts compare in magnitude to the economic costs. Moreover, the relative magnitudes of economic and public health impacts of congestion would be expected to vary significantly across urban areas, as a function of road infrastructure, population density, and atmospheric conditions influencing pollutant formation, but this variability has not been explored. Methods In this study, we evaluate the public health impacts of ambient exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations associated with a business-as-usual scenario of predicted traffic congestion. We evaluate 83 individual urban areas using traffic demand models to estimate the degree of congestion in each area from 2000 to 2030. We link traffic volume and speed data with the MOBILE6 model to characterize emissions of PM2.5 and particle precursors attributable to congestion, and we use a source-receptor matrix to evaluate the impact of these emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Marginal concentration changes are related to a concentration-response function for mortality, with a value of statistical life approach used to monetize the impacts. Results We estimate that the monetized value of PM2.5-related mortality attributable to congestion in these 83 cities in 2000 was approximately $31 billion (2007 dollars, as compared with a value of time and fuel wasted of $60 billion. In future years, the economic impacts grow (to over $100 billion in 2030 while the public health impacts decrease to $13 billion in 2020 before increasing to $17 billion in 2030, given increasing population and congestion but lower emissions per vehicle. Across cities and years, the public health impacts range from

  11. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  12. Health impacts of power-exporting plants in northern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past two decades, rapid population and economic growth on the U.S.–Mexico border has spurred a dramatic increase in electricity demand. In response, American energy multinationals have built power plants just south of the border that export most of their electricity to the U.S. This development has stirred considerable controversy because these plants effectively skirt U.S. air pollution regulations in a severely degraded international airshed. Yet to our knowledge, this concern has not been subjected to rigorous scrutiny. This paper uses a suite of air dispersion, health impacts, and valuation models to assess the human health damages in the U.S. and Mexico caused by air emissions from two power-exporting plants in Mexicali, Baja California. We find that these emissions have limited but nontrivial health impacts, mostly by exacerbating particulate pollution in the U.S., and we value these damages at more than half a million dollars per year. These findings demonstrate that power-exporting plants can have cross-border health effects and bolster the case for systematically evaluating their environmental impacts. - Highlights: ► We estimate the health effects of emissions from Mexican electric power plants exporting to the U.S. ► The plants have limited but nontrivial effects, mostly from particulate pollution in the U.S. ► We value these damages at more than half a million dollars per year. ► Hence, power-exporting plants can have significant cross-border health effects.

  13. Impact of air pollution on health in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruzyzanowski, M. [WHO European Centre for Environment and Health, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Assessment of health risks due to air pollution should be an important indicator for setting the priorities for the environmental policies and for the abatement of the pollution. The scale of such assessment depends on the level, and scope, of the policy decisions relying on the evaluation. The analysis may range from an estimate of the health impact of a single pollution source, through the risk assessment in a community or a region of a country, to an international, or pan-continental approach. Such assessment, addressing population of all Europe, was one of the aims of the project `Concern for Europe`s Tomorrow` (CET). The WHO European Centre for Environment and Health completed this project, and the corresponding report, as a contribution to the Second European Conference on Environment and Health which gathered ministries of health and of environment from all European countries in Helsinki in June 1994. Using the report as the background information, the ministries have endorsed the `Environmental Health Action Plan for Europe`, the document formulating common environmental health policy of the Region. In this article, the summary of the evaluation will be presented and the main constraints of the pan-European approach will be addressed. (author)

  14. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  15. The impact of incinerators on human health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Raman; Sharma, Meenakshi; Sharma, Ratika; Sharma, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Of the total wastes generated by health-care organizations, 10%-25% are biomedical wastes, which are hazardous to humans and the environment and requires specific treatment and management. For decades, incineration was the method of choice for the treatment of such infectious wastes. Incinerator releases a wide variety of pollutants depending on the composition of the waste, which leads to health deterioration and environmental degradation. The significant pollutants emitted are particulate matter, metals, acid gases, oxides of nitrogen, and sulfur, aside from the release of innumerable substances of unknown toxicity. This process of waste incineration poses a significant threat to public health and the environment. The major impact on health is the higher incidence of cancer and respiratory symptoms; other potential effects are congenital abnormalities, hormonal defects, and increase in sex ratio. The effect on the environmental is in the form of global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone or smog formation, eutrophication, and human and animal toxicity. Thus, there is a need to skip to newer, widely accepted, economical, and environment-friendly technologies. The use of hydroclaves and plasma pyrolysis for the incineration of biomedical wastes leads to lesser environmental degradation, negligible health impacts, safe handling of treated wastes, lesser running and maintenance costs, more effective reduction of microorganisms, and safer disposal. PMID:23612530

  16. Perceptions of the mental health impact of intimate partner violence and health service responses in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lignet Chepuka

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: This study explores the perceptions of a wide range of stakeholders in Malawi towards the mental health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV and the capacity of health services for addressing these. Design: In-depth interviews (IDIs and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted in three areas of Blantyre district, and in two additional districts. A total of 10 FGDs, 1 small group, and 14 IDIs with health care providers; 18 FGDs and 1 small group with male and female, urban and rural community members; 7 IDIs with female survivors; and 26 key informant interviews and 1 small group with government ministry staff, donors, gender-based violence service providers, religious institutions, and police were conducted. A thematic framework analysis method was applied to emerging themes. Results: The significant mental health impact of IPV was mentioned by all participants and formal care seeking was thought to be impeded by social pressures to resolve conflict, and fear of judgemental attitudes. Providers felt inadequately prepared to handle the psychosocial and mental health consequences of IPV; this was complicated by staff shortages, a lack of clarity on the mandate of the health sector, as well as confusion over the definition and need for ‘counselling’. Referral options to other sectors for mental health support were perceived as limited but the restructuring of the Ministry of Health to cover violence prevention, mental health, and alcohol and drug misuse under a single unit provides an opportunity. Conclusion: Despite widespread recognition of the burden of IPV-associated mental health problems in Malawi, there is limited capacity to support affected individuals at community or health sector level. Participants highlighted potential entry points to health services as well as local and national opportunities for interventions that are culturally appropriate and are built on local structures and resilience.

  17. Environmental Impacts of the U.S. Health Care System and Effects on Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckelman, Matthew J.; Sherman, Jodi

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. health care sector is highly interconnected with industrial activities that emit much of the nation’s pollution to air, water, and soils. We estimate emissions directly and indirectly attributable to the health care sector, and potential harmful effects on public health. Negative environmental and public health outcomes were estimated through economic input-output life cycle assessment (EIOLCA) modeling using National Health Expenditures (NHE) for the decade 2003–2013 and compared to national totals. In 2013, the health care sector was also responsible for significant fractions of national air pollution emissions and impacts, including acid rain (12%), greenhouse gas emissions (10%), smog formation (10%) criteria air pollutants (9%), stratospheric ozone depletion (1%), and carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic air toxics (1–2%). The largest contributors to impacts are discussed from both the supply side (EIOLCA economic sectors) and demand side (NHE categories), as are trends over the study period. Health damages from these pollutants are estimated at 470,000 DALYs lost from pollution-related disease, or 405,000 DALYs when adjusted for recent shifts in power generation sector emissions. These indirect health burdens are commensurate with the 44,000–98,000 people who die in hospitals each year in the U.S. as a result of preventable medical errors, but are currently not attributed to our health system. Concerted efforts to improve environmental performance of health care could reduce expenditures directly through waste reduction and energy savings, and indirectly through reducing pollution burden on public health, and ought to be included in efforts to improve health care quality and safety. PMID:27280706

  18. Environment, Health and Climate: Impact of African aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liousse, C.; Doumbia, T.; Assamoi, E.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Baeza, A.; Penner, J. E.; Val, S.; Cachier, H.; Xu, L.; Criqui, P.

    2012-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to rapid growth of African cities. In addition to biomass burning emissions prevailing in these areas, air quality degradation is then expected with important consequences on population health and climatic/radiative impact. In our group, we are constructing a new integrated methodology to study the relations between emissions, air quality and their impacts. This approach includes: (1) African combustion emission characterizations; (2) joint experimental determination of aerosol chemistry from ultrafine to coarse fractions and health issues (toxicology and epidemiology). (3) integrated environmental, health and radiative modeling. In this work, we show some results illustrating our first estimates of African anthropogenic emission impacts: - a new African anthropogenic emission inventory adapted to regional specificities on traffic, biofuel and industrial emissions has been constructed for the years 2005 and 2030. Biomass burning inventories were also improved in the frame of AMMA (African Monsoon) program. - carbonaceous aerosol radiative impact in Africa has been modeled with TM5 model and Penner et al. (2011) radiative code for these inventories for 2005 and 2030 and for two scenarios of emissions : a reference scenario, with no further emission controls beyond those achieved in 2003 and a ccc* scenario including planned policies in Kyoto protocol and regulations as applied to African emission specificities. In this study we will show that enhanced heating is expected with the ccc* scenarios emissions in which the OC fraction is relatively lower than in the reference scenario. - results of short term POLCA intensive campaigns in Bamako and Dakar in terms of aerosol chemical characterization linked to specific emissions sources and their inflammatory impacts on the respiratory tract through in vitro studies. In this study, organic

  19. Economic Impact of Adverse Drug Events – A Retrospective Population-Based Cohort Study of 4970 Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Hanna; Hakkarainen, Katja M.; Hägg, Staffan; Carlsten, Anders; Petzold, Max; Rehnberg, Clas; Jönsson, Anna K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim was to estimate the direct costs caused by ADEs, including costs for dispensed drugs, primary care, other outpatient care, and inpatient care, and to relate the direct costs caused by ADEs to the societal COI (direct and indirect costs), for patients with ADEs and for the entire study population. Methods We conducted a population-based observational retrospective cohort study of ADEs identified from medical records. From a random sample of 5025 adults in a Swedish county council, 4970 were included in the analyses. During a three-month study period in 2008, direct and indirect costs were estimated from resource use identified in the medical records and from register data on costs for resource use. Results Among 596 patients with ADEs, the average direct costs per patient caused by ADEs were USD 444.9 [95% CI: 264.4 to 625.3], corresponding to USD 21 million per 100 000 adult inhabitants per year. Inpatient care accounted for 53.9% of all direct costs caused by ADEs. For patients with ADEs, the average societal cost of illness was USD 6235.0 [5442.8 to 7027.2], of which direct costs were USD 2830.1 [2260.7 to 3399.4] (45%), and indirect costs USD 3404.9 [2899.3 to 3910.4] (55%). The societal cost of illness was higher for patients with ADEs compared to other patients. ADEs caused 9.5% of all direct healthcare costs in the study population. Conclusions Healthcare costs for patients with ADEs are substantial across different settings; in primary care, other outpatient care and inpatient care. Hence the economic impact of ADEs will be underestimated in studies focusing on inpatient ADEs alone. Moreover, the high proportion of indirect costs in the societal COI for patients with ADEs suggests that the observed costs caused by ADEs would be even higher if including indirect costs. Additional studies are needed to identify interventions to prevent and manage ADEs. PMID:24637879

  20. The Mass Media Influence on the Impact of Health Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cătălin BABA; Răzvan M. CHERECHEŞ; Olimpia MOŞTEANU

    2007-01-01

    The theme of this study is a distinct examination of the issues regarding health policy, social representations and mass media. The analysis of the mass media influence on the impact of health policy leads to a portrayal of the related programs and the way they are received by citizens through mass media. Owing to the mass media quality to be an indicator of democracy it is very important to study its role in setting people daily agenda considering how it is able to maintain and create trends...

  1. Impact of information and communication technology on child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Eugenia Hc; White, Peter; Lai, Christopher Wk

    2016-06-01

    This article provides a general framework for understanding the use of information and communication technology in education and discusses the impact of computer usage on students' health and development. Potential beneficial and harmful effects of computer use by children are discussed. Early epidemiological and laboratory studies have indicated that children are at least of similar risk of developing musculoskeletal and vision problems as adults, and musculoskeletal and visual health problems developed in childhood are likely to persist into adulthood. This article, therefore, aims to provide a reflection on the deficits of existing policy and recommendations for child-specific guidelines in computer use. PMID:27333844

  2. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Aderita Sena; Christovam Barcellos; Carlos Freitas; Carlos Corvalan

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northe...

  3. Health impact of climate change on occupational health and productivity in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Langkulsen, Uma; Vichit-Vadakan, Nuntavarn; Taptagaporn, Sasitorn

    2010-01-01

    Background: The rise in global temperature is well documented. Changes in temperature lead to increases in heat exposure, which may impact health ranging from mild heat rashes to deadly heat stroke. Heat exposure can also aggravate several chronic diseases including cardiovascular and respiratory disease. Objective: This study examined the relationship between climate condition and health status and productivity in two main categories of the occupational setting - where one setting involves h...

  4. [Health impact assessment of policies for municipal solid waste management: findings of the SESPIR Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranzi, Andrea; Ancona, Carla; Angelini, Paola; Badaloni, Chiara; Cernigliaro, Achille; Chiusolo, Monica; Parmagnani, Federica; Pizzuti, Renato; Scondotto, Salvatore; Cadum, Ennio; Forastiere, Francesco; Lauriola, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The SESPIR Project (Epidemiological Surveillance of Health Status of Resident Population Around the Waste Treatment Plants) assessed the impact on health of residents nearby incinerators, landfills and mechanical biological treatment plants in five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Lazio, Campania, and Sicily). The assessment procedure took into account the available knowledge on health effects of waste disposal facilities. Analyses were related to three different scenarios: a Baseline scenario, referred to plants active in 2008-2009; the regional future scenario, with plants expected in the waste regional plans; a virtuous scenario (Green 2020), based on a policy management of municipal solid waste (MSW) through the reduction of production and an intense recovery policy. Facing with a total population of around 24 million for the 5 regions, the residents nearby the plants were more than 380,000 people at Baseline. Such a population is reduced to approximately 330.000 inhabitants and 170.000 inhabitants in the regional and Green 2020 scenarios, respectively. The health impact was assessed for the period 2008-2040. At Baseline, 1-2 cases per year of cancer attributable to MSW plants were estimated, as well as 26 cases per year of adverse pregnancy outcomes (including low birth weight and birth defects), 102 persons with respiratory symptoms, and about a thousand affected from annoyance caused by odours. These annual estimates are translated into 2,725 years of life with disability (DALYs) estimated for the entire period. The DALYs are reduced by approximately 20% and 80% in the two future scenarios. Even in these cases, health impact is given by the greater effects on pregnancy and the annoyance associated with the odours of plants. In spite of the limitations due to the inevitable assumptions required by the present exercise, the proposed methodology is suitable for a first approach to assess different policies that can be adopted in regional planning in

  5. Effects of 20 Selected Fruits on Ethanol Metabolism: Potential Health Benefits and Harmful Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Jie; Wang, Fang; Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Zhang, Jiao-Jiao; Li, Sha; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The consumption of alcohol is often accompanied by other foods, such as fruits and vegetables. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of 20 selected fruits on ethanol metabolism to find out their potential health benefits and harmful impacts. The effects of the fruits on ethanol metabolism were characterized by the concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood, as well as activities of alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase in liver of mice. Furthermore, potential health benefits and harmful impacts of the fruits were evaluated by biochemical parameters including aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Generally, effects of these fruits on ethanol metabolism were very different. Some fruits (such as Citrus limon (yellow), Averrhoa carambola, Pyrus spp., and Syzygium samarangense) could decrease the concentration of ethanol in blood. In addition, several fruits (such as Cucumis melo) showed hepatoprotective effects by significantly decreasing AST or ALT level in blood, while some fruits (such as Averrhoa carambola) showed adverse effects. The results suggested that the consumption of alcohol should not be accompanied by some fruits, and several fruits could be developed as functional foods for the prevention and treatment of hangover and alcohol use disorder. PMID:27043608

  6. Design Criteria for Future Fuels and Related Power Systems Addressing the Impacts of Non-CO2 Pollutants on Human Health and Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James Jay

    2015-01-01

    Concerns over the economics, supply chain, and emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the wide use of fossil fuels have led to increasing interest in developing alternative and renewable fuels for stationary power generation and transportation systems. Although there is considerable uncertainty regarding the economic and environmental impacts of alternative and renewable fuels, there is a great need for assessment of potential and emerging fuels to guide research priorities and infrastructure investment. Likewise, there is a great need to identify potential unintended adverse impacts of new fuels and related power systems before they are widely adopted. Historically, the environmental impacts of emerging fuels and power systems have largely focused on carbon dioxide emissions, often called the carbon footprint, which is used to assess impacts on climate change. Such assessments largely ignore the large impacts of emissions of other air pollutants. Given the potential changes in emissions of air pollutants associated with the large-scale use of new and emerging fuels and power systems, there is a great need to better guide efforts to develop new fuels and power systems that can avoid unexpected adverse impacts on the environment and human health. This review covers the nature of emissions, including the key components and impacts from the use of fuels, and the design criteria for future fuels and associated power systems to assure that the non-CO2 adverse impacts of stationary power generation and transportation are minimized. PMID:26134739

  7. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment for human rights impact assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Salcito, Kendyl; Utzinger, Jürg; Gary R. Krieger; Wielga, Mark; Singer, Burton H.; Winkler, Mirko S; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    As globalisation has opened remote parts of the world to foreign investment, global leaders at the United Nations and beyond have called on multinational companies to foresee and mitigate negative impacts on the communities surrounding their overseas operations. This movement towards corporate impact assessment began with a push for environmental and social inquiries. It has been followed by demands for more detailed assessments, including health and human rights. In the policy world the two ...

  8. Factors affecting the health of migrants and their impact on Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasopoulou M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Globalization from a public health perspective, has endangered the health of migrants due to the deteriorating socio-economic conditions of living and working. The protection of health is a fundamental human right, which must be guaranteed by institutions, without distinction. Purpose: the present study is to investigate the factors that affect the health of migrants and their impact on public health. Method: A search was made in electronic databases for review and research studies using the keywords «Aggravating Health Factors», «Immigrants» and «Public Health» alone or in combination. The search was extended to include the databases of the European Union (EU, the World Health Organization (WHO and the United Nations (UN. Conclusions: The review findings, since the majority of the research studies show that for the protection of Public Health, interventions awareness of migrants about the importance of prevention, the adoption of healthy lifestyles and behavior modification. are necessary. The ultimate goal of interventions, should be the full integration of special operations in the existing National Health System and the smooth integration of immigrants in the productive, despite of social exclusion.

  9. Reducing health inequalities: the use of Health Impact Assessment on Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Sanz Tolosana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Health is greatly influenced by social, economic and political determinants. Accordingly, decisions influencing people's health do not concern only health services or 'health policies', but decisions in many different policy areas have their influence on these health determinants. Health Impact assessment (HIA is a predictive tool to support decisions in policy-making. The ultimate goal of this framework is to maximize health gains and, as far as possible, to reduce health inequalities. HIA presents a commitment to ensure that the rural dimension is routinely considered as part of the making and implementing of policy. The aim of this paper is to review the use of HIA on rural areas. Conclusions: HIA shows its great potential to contribute to local authority decision making. The use of HIA was identified in 2 key areas: strategic planning (sustainable development, EU Common Agricultural Policy, Federal Farm Bill, land-use planning work; and in specific smaller scale projects (rural health service redesign proposal, accessing healthy food, transport, health care disparities, etc..

  10. Study of occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at an iron and steel complex by using neutron activation analysis of scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational health impact of atmospheric pollution on exposed workers at one iron and steel complex was studied by instrumental neutron activation analysis of workers' hair samples and medical examination. The experimental results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the high inhalation amounts of iron and other trace elements by the exposed workers and the symptom of their high blood pressure and hypoglycemia, which implies that the atmospheric environment polluted by iron and steel industry has an adverse health impact on the exposed workers. The measures to relieve and abate the occupational diseases caused by air-borne particulate matter should be taken. (author)

  11. Acceptance and Adverse Effects of H1N1 Vaccinations Among a Cohort of National Guard Health Care Workers during the 2009 Hajj Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balkhy Hanan H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The H1N1 influenza pandemic had garnered a large amount of attention. Currently, the most effective preventive measure available is the H1N1 vaccine. We aimed to assess the willingness of our study participants to receive the H1N1 vaccination prior to the annual Hajj season. If any participant declined, we investigated the reasons for vaccine rejection. Findings We conducted a prospective cohort study of National Guard employees during the 1430 (2009 Hajj season. A survey was used as the primary method for data collection. Participants were vaccinated one to two weeks prior to their trip to Mona, and any side effects reported at the time of injection and three weeks post vaccination were recorded. There were 100 male and 26 female participants in the study. In total, 66.7% (n = 84 of the participants were health care workers (HCWs and 33.3% (n = 42 were non-health care workers (non-HCWs. Less than half of the respondents (46.8%, n = 59 accepted the vaccination. The vaccination acceptance rate was higher among non-HCWs, at a rate of 71.4% (n = 30; HCWs only accepted at a rate of 34.5% (n = 29 (OR 1.103, 95% CI [0.488-2.496]. The most common reason for vaccine refusal was the impression that the disease was not fatal (25.4%, n = 32. Finally, all participants reported pain at the injection site and 18.3% (n = 11 reported swelling. All other side effects were reported in less than 15% of the participants. Conclusions Despite fears of the new H1N1 vaccine, there was a reasonable rate of vaccine acceptance among our study participants. Early health education may increase the rate of acceptance of the H1N1 vaccine. Furthermore, additional research is needed on long-term adverse effects of the H1N1 vaccine.

  12. Proposing a framework for Health Impact Assessment in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhri, Ali; Harris, Patrick; Maleki, MohammadReza

    2015-01-01

    Background Health impact assessments (HIA) of policies and projects are conducted differently in different contexts although there has been less HIA research to date in non-western countries. Global HIA research has however suggested that the technical conduct of HIAs is tied to broader conditions and influences to do with decision making and policy development. This study was conducted to develop a conceptual framework for progressing HIA in Iran including all factors influencing HIA plannin...

  13. The Impact of Inclusion Criteria in Health Economic Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Anke Richter; Patricia Thieda; Kylie Thaler; Gerald Gartlehner

    2011-01-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore t...

  14. Assessment of public health impact of work-related asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Jaakkola Maritta S; Jaakkola Jouni JK

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in working-aged populations and occupational exposures are important causal agents. Our aims were to evaluate the best methods to assess occurrence, public health impact, and burden to society related to occupational or work-related asthma and to achieve comparable estimates for different populations. Methods We addressed three central questions: 1: What is the best method to assess the occurrence of occupational asthma? We ...

  15. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    OpenAIRE

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Laia Font-Ribera

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemio...

  16. The 6/94 gap in health impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health impact assessment (HIA), a methodology that aims to facilitate the mitigation of negative and enhancement of positive health effects due to projects, programmes and policies, has been developed over the past 20-30 years. There is an underlying assumption that HIA has become a full fledged critical piece of the impact assessment process with a stature equal to both environmental and social impact assessments. This assumption needs to be supported by evidence however. Within the context of projects in developing country settings, HIA is simply a slogan without a clearly articulated and relevant methodology, offered by academia and having little or no salience in the decision-making process regarding impacts. This harsh assertion is supported by posing a simple question: 'Where in the world have HIAs been carried out?' To answer this question, we systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature and online HIA-specific databases. We identified 237 HIA-related publications, but only 6% of these publications had a focus on the developing world. What emerges is, therefore, a huge disparity, which we coin the 6/94 gap in HIA, even worse than the widely known 10/90 gap in health research (10% of health research funding is utilized for diseases causing 90% of the global burden of disease). Implications of this 6/94 gap in HIA are discussed with pointed emphasis on extractive industries (oil/gas and mining) and water resources development. We conclude that there is a pressing need to institutionalize HIA in the developing world, as a consequence of current predictions of major extractive industry and water resources development, with China's investments in these sectors across Africa being particularly salient

  17. A multi-layered governance framework for incorporating social science insights into adapting to the health impacts of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J. Bowen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Addressing climate change and its associated effects is a multi-dimensional and ongoing challenge. This includes recognizing that climate change will affect the health and wellbeing of all populations over short and longer terms, albeit in varied ways and intensities. That recognition has drawn attention to the need to take adaptive actions to lessen adverse impacts over the next few decades from unavoidable climate change, particularly in developing country settings. A range of sectors is responsible for appropriate adaptive policies and measures to address the health risks of climate change, including health services, water and sanitation, trade, agriculture, disaster management, and development. Objectives: To broaden the framing of governance and decision-making processes by using innovative methods and assessments to illustrate the multi-sectoral nature of health-related adaptation to climate change. This is a shift from sector-specific to multi-level systems encompassing sectors and actors, across temporal and spatial scales. Design: A review and synthesis of the current knowledge in the areas of health and climate change adaptation governance and decision-making processes. Results: A novel framework is presented that incorporates social science insights into the formulation and implementation of adaptation activities and policies to lessen the health risks posed by climate change. Conclusion: Clarification of the roles that different sectors, organizations, and individuals occupy in relation to the development of health-related adaptation strategies will facilitate the inclusion of health and wellbeing within multi-sector adaptation policies, thereby strengthening the overall set of responses to minimize the adverse health effects of climate change.

  18. Faith in Islam and Christianity and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Ajdar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Of the most central elements of religions and most important issues in theology and the Contemporary study of religion is the category of faith and its greatest impact on various aspects of life. Faith, in Islamic and Christian theology, has common and also distinct aspects. The truth of Faith in Islamic thought was multidimensional and consists of a wide range of Confession of language, intellectual knowledge, heart affirmation and inner experience to the treatment involves external actions. In Christianity, it was faith in confirmation of the revealed proposition that led to a sense of transcendence and meta-proposition and created Interest mode in human And sometimes faith apply to the experience of presence and manifestation of God in life.   The position of consensus and association between Islam and Christianity was consists of the doctrine of Belief in God and the prophecy and resurrection. This belief is based on the functionalist view affected on body and psyche (or soul health of the human. The impact of Faith on physical and mental health has been separately approved by the specialists. The impacts of faith and religious teachings on physical health have been investigated through psycho-neuro-physiological way that Faith and Religious teachings produce positive emotions in human. The emotions through autonomous nervous system strengthen the immune system and its optimal performance in a way that the messenger molecule called neuropeptide Y, carry the messages related to thoughts and transport it through the blood circulation, and the mental state directly relate to the body's cells. This is the most important factor in strengthening or weakening the immune system influenced by the thoughts and beliefs. Moreover, Te'osumatic medicine known as the God-body medicine, after the psychosomatic or psycho-body medicine confirms the impact of faith on the health and recovery of individuals. They believe that illness and death

  19. Faith in Islam and Christianity and its impact on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahdi Ahmad farazi

    Full Text Available Of the most central elements of religions and most important issues in theology and the Contemporary study of religion is the category of faith and its greatest impact on various aspects of life. Faith, in Islamic and Christian theology, has common and also distinct aspects. The truth of Faith in Islamic thought was multidimensional and consists of a wide range of Confession of language, intellectual knowledge, heart affirmation and inner experience to the treatment involves external actions. In Christianity, it was faith in confirmation of the revealed proposition that led to a sense of transcendence and meta-proposition and created Interest mode in human And sometimes faith apply to the experience of presence and manifestation of God in life. The position of consensus and association between Islam and Christianity was consists of the doctrine of Belief in God and the prophecy and resurrection. This belief is based on the functionalist view affected on body and psyche (or soul health of the human. The impact of Faith on physical and mental health has been separately approved by the specialists. The impacts of faith and religious teachings on physical health have been investigated through psycho-neuro-physiological way that Faith and Religious teachings produce positive emotions in human. The emotions through autonomous nervous system strengthen the immune system and its optimal performance in a way that the messenger molecule called neuropeptide Y, carry the messages related to thoughts and transport it through the blood circulation, and the mental state directly relate to the body's cells. This is the most important factor in strengthening or weakening the immune system influenced by the thoughts and beliefs. Moreover, Te'osumatic medicine known as the God-body medicine, after the psychosomatic or psycho-body medicine confirms the impact of faith on the health and recovery of individuals. They believe that illness and death of individuals

  20. Impacts of flood on health: epidemiologic evidence from Hanoi, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debarati Guha-Sapir

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam is one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. The country suffers from many kinds of natural disasters, of which the most common and serious one is flooding. Long and heavy rainfall during the last days of October and the first week of November 2008 resulted in a devastating flood unseen for over three decades in the capital city of Hanoi. It caused a substantial health impact on residents in and around the city and compromised the capacity of local health services. The aim of this study is to ascertain the vulnerability and health impacts of the devastating flood in Hanoi by identifying the differences in mortality, injuries, and morbidity patterns (dengue, pink eye, dermatitis, psychological problems, and hypertension between flood affected and non-affected households. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 871 households in four selected communes (two heavily flood affected and two comparatively less affected from two severely flooded districts of Hanoi. Participants were interviewed and information collected on the social, economic, and health impacts of the devastation within 1 month after the flood. The self-reported number of deaths and injuries reported in this study within 1 month after the heavy rainfall were a bit higher in severely affected communes as compared to that of the less affected communes of our study. The findings showed higher incidences of dengue fever, pink eye, dermatitis, and psychological problems in communes severely affected by flood as compared to that of the controlled communes. For people in flood prone areas (at risk for flooding, flood prevention and mitigation strategies need to be seriously thought through and acted upon, as these people are exposed to greater health problems such as psychological issues and communicable diseases such as pink eye or dermatitis.

  1. Consumerism: its impact on the health of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S B; Rich, M

    2001-10-01

    Marketplace practices are integral to the larger economic and social context of adolescent health risk behaviors. To corporations and marketers, adolescents represent a gold mine of current and future profits. Adolescent incomes increased by almost a third in the 1990s. The annual spending of the U.S. adolescent population is estimated now to have reached 155 billion US dollars. The sheer size of the adolescent population and its spending power are of keen interest to corporations and marketers. This chapter presents a brief history of youth-targeted marketing and examines the major avenues in the media and inside schools that marketers and corporations use today to reach adolescents with their messages and products. It outlines the impact of consumerism and marketing on adolescent health using five case examples: tobacco, alcohol, cosmetic surgery, laxatives, and diet pills. It then concludes with a discussion of resistance efforts, led by health advocates, policy makers, parents, and youth themselves to restrict sales of harmful products to youth and curtail advertisers' access to adolescents in schools. A critical role for adolescent health researchers and advocates is to contribute a public health perspective into ongoing debates over regulating business practices that negatively affect the health of young people. PMID:11602442

  2. Impact of climate change on the domestic indoor environment and associated health risks in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Dimitroulopoulou, Chrysanthi; Thornes, John; Lai, Ka-Man; Taylor, Jonathon; Myers, Isabella; Heaviside, Clare; Mavrogianni, Anna; Shrubsole, Clive; Chalabi, Zaid; Davies, Michael; Wilkinson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence that projected climate change has the potential to significantly affect public health. In the UK, much of this impact is likely to arise by amplifying existing risks related to heat exposure, flooding, and chemical and biological contamination in buildings. Identifying the health effects of climate change on the indoor environment, and risks and opportunities related to climate change adaptation and mitigation, can help protect public health. We explored a range of health risks in the domestic indoor environment related to climate change, as well as the potential health benefits and unintended harmful effects of climate change mitigation and adaptation policies in the UK housing sector. We reviewed relevant scientific literature, focusing on housing-related health effects in the UK likely to arise through either direct or indirect mechanisms of climate change or mitigation and adaptation measures in the built environment. We considered the following categories of effect: (i) indoor temperatures, (ii) indoor air quality, (iii) indoor allergens and infections, and (iv) flood damage and water contamination. Climate change may exacerbate health risks and inequalities across these categories and in a variety of ways, if adequate adaptation measures are not taken. Certain changes to the indoor environment can affect indoor air quality or promote the growth and propagation of pathogenic organisms. Measures aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions have the potential for ancillary public health benefits including reductions in health burdens related heat and cold, indoor exposure to air pollution derived from outdoor sources, and mould growth. However, increasing airtightness of dwellings in pursuit of energy efficiency could also have negative effects by increasing concentrations of pollutants (such as PM2.5, CO and radon) derived from indoor or ground sources, and biological contamination. These effects can largely be ameliorated by mechanical

  3. Reducing health impacts of biomass burning for cooking. The need for cookstove performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeliotis, K. [Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens (Greece); Pakula, C. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Section Household and Appliance Technology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is routinely used for cooking in the developing world, especially in rural areas. The World Health Organization estimates that about 2.5 billion people globally rely on biomass, such as wood, agricultural waste and animal dung to meet their energy needs for cooking utilising traditional low-efficiency cookstoves. However, certain human health risks are associated with the inhalation of off-gases resulting from the indoor use of biomass for cooking, especially for women and children who spend more of their time at home. On the other hand, use of energy-efficient cookstoves is considered to reduce those risks. Thus, qualitative and quantitative measurements of cookstove performance are necessary in order to make different stoves and different cooking processes comparable. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the current situation regarding biomass use for cooking with emphasis placed on the developing world, the brief of the adverse health impacts of biomass burning based on the review of literature, the presentation of the merits of improved efficiency cookstoves and to highlight the need for stove performance tests. The demand of different types of biomass is not likely to change in the near future in the developing world since biomass is readily available and cheap. Thus, the efforts to improve household air quality must concentrate on improving cookstoves efficiency and ventilation of the flue gases outdoors. Programmes for the improvement of the cookstoves efficiency in the developing world should be part of the development agenda.

  4. A review of waste management practices and their impact on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work reviews (i) the most recent information on waste arisings and waste disposal options in the world, in the European Union (EU), in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OEDC) countries, and in some developing countries (notably China) and (ii) the potential direct and indirect impact of waste management activities on health. Though the main focus is primarily on municipal solid waste (MSW), exposure to bioaerosols from composting facilities and to pathogens from sewage treatment plants are considered. The reported effects of radioactive waste are also briefly reviewed. Hundreds of epidemiological studies reported on the incidence of a wide range of possible illnesses on employees of waste facilities and on the resident population. The main conclusion of the overall assessment of the literature is that the evidence of adverse health outcomes for the general population living near landfill sites, incinerators, composting facilities and nuclear installations is usually insufficient and inconclusive. There is convincing evidence of a high risk of gastrointestinal problems associated with pathogens originating at sewage treatment plants. In order to improve the quality and usefulness of epidemiological studies applied to populations residing in areas where waste management facilities are located or planned, preference should be given to prospective cohort studies of sufficient statistical power, with access to direct human exposure measurements, and supported by data on health effect biomarkers and susceptibility biomarkers.

  5. Evidence of impact: health, psychological and social effects of adult HIV on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherr, L; Cluver, L D; Betancourt, T S; Kellerman, S E; Richter, L M; Desmond, C

    2014-07-01

    There is a growing evidence base on the immediate and short-term effects of adult HIV on children. We provide an overview of this literature, highlighting the multiple risks and resultant negative consequences stemming from adult HIV infection on the children they care for on an individual and family basis. We trace these consequences from their origin in the health and wellbeing of adults on whom children depend, through multiple pathways to negative impacts for children. As effective treatment reduces vertical transmission, the needs of affected children will predominate. Pathways include exposure to HIV in utero, poor caregiver mental or physical health, the impact of illness, stigma and increased poverty. We summarize the evidence of negative consequences, including those affecting health, cognitive development, education, child mental health, exposure to abuse and adolescent risk behaviour, including sexual risk behaviour, which has obvious implications for HIV-prevention efforts. We also highlight the evidence of positive outcomes, despite adversity, considering the importance of recognizing and supporting the development of resilience. This study is the first in a series of three commissioned by President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR)/United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the summary provided here was used to inform a second study which seeks to identify insights from the broader child development field which will help us predict what long-term negative consequences children affected by HIV and AIDS are likely to experience. The third study discusses the design of a model to estimate these consequences. Although comprehensive, the review is often hampered by poor-quality research, inadequate design, small sample sizes and single studies in some areas. PMID:24991898

  6. Impact-acoustics-based health monitoring of tile-wall bonding integrity using principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, F.; Tso, S. K.; Hung, M. Y. Y.

    2006-06-01

    The use of the acoustic features extracted from the impact sounds for bonding integrity assessment has been extensively investigated. Nonetheless, considering the practical implementation of tile-wall non-destructive evaluation (NDE), the traditional defects classification method based directly on frequency-domain features has been of limited application because of the overlapping feature patterns corresponding to different classes whenever there is physical surface irregularity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the clustering and classification ability of principal component analysis (PCA) as applied to the impact-acoustics signature in tile-wall inspection with a view to mitigating the adverse influence of surface non-uniformity. A clustering analysis with signature acquired on sample slabs shows that impact-acoustics signatures of different bonding quality and different surface roughness are well separated into different clusters when using the first two principal components obtained. By adopting as inputs the feature vectors extracted with PCA applied, a multilayer back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) classifier is developed for automatic health monitoring and defects classification of tile-walls. The inspection results obtained experimentally on the prepared sample slabs are presented and discussed, confirming the utility of the proposed method, particularly in dealing with tile surface irregularity.

  7. Bike racing, recreational riding, impact sport and bone health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmont Michael R

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cycling has been shown to confer considerable benefits in terms of health, leading to reductions in death rates principally due to cardiovascular improvements and adaptation. Given the disparity between the benefits of cycling on cardiovascular fitness and previous research finding that cycling may not be beneficial for bone health, Hugo Olmedillas and colleagues performed a systematic review of the literature. They concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. They postulate that the cause of this is that, particularly at a competitive level, riders spend long periods of time in a weight-supported position on the bike. Training programs may be supplemented with impact loading to preserve bone health; however, the small increased risk of soft tissue injury must also be considered. See related commentary http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/168

  8. Generating scenarios to predict air quality impact in public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.M.; Coelho, L.M.R.; Gouveia, C.; Cerdeira, R. [Escola Superior de Tecnologia de Setubal (EST-IPS), Setubal (Portugal); Ferreira, T.; Baptista, M.N. [Hospital Na. Sa. do Rosario, Servico de Pediatria, Barreiro (Portugal)

    2004-07-01

    This study intends to associate air quality with public health by generating air quality scenarios, under different future perspectives in Barreiro. This city is located in middle south of Portugal nearby Lisbon and it has a large resident population, an important industrial area and intense traffic. In this study ADMS-urban was used to simulate the possible scenarios of future air quality in this city, taking into consideration the probable city development and future activities. Special attention was given to the future evolutions of traffic, industrial activities, demographical and geographical expansion. The new EU directives about air quality and the CAFE program were also considered. To correlate the impact of the future air quality of the city and public health, a children population sample was used. This study team is also composed by paediatric doctors from Hospital N{sup a}. S{sup a}. do Rosario that contribute with public health information and helped to identify air quality related diseases. (orig.)

  9. Family Impact in Intellectual Disability, Severe Mental Health Disorders and Mental Health Disorders in ID. A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Almudena; Gutierrez-Recacha, Pedro; Irazabal, Marcia; Marsa, Ferran; Garcia, Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Family impact (or family burden) is a concept born in the field of mental health that has successfully been exported to the ambit of intellectual disability (ID). However, differences in family impact associated with severe mental health disorders (schizophrenia), to ID or to mental health problems in ID should be expected. Seventy-two adults with…

  10. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  11. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  12. Integrating health impact assessment into the triple bottom line concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This theoretical study explores the links between the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) concept and the principles of HIA and considers the potential role of HIA to provide a mechanism for integrating health concerns within a broader agenda of government and business. TBL is a framework linked to the broader sustainability agenda that underpins and reviews environmental, economic and social performance of organizations. In its simplest form, TBL acts as a tool for reporting to stakeholders/shareholders organizational performance and the nature of the impacts on the community. The links to HIA are clear as both seek to determine the impact (potential and actual) on the health and well-being of the population. The study found that TBL can operate at four levels within organizations ranging from reporting through to full integration with the organization's goals and practices. Health is narrowly defined and there are tensions about how to undertake the social accountability functions. The study shows the potential role for HIA within the broader policy and accountability agenda. As health is one of the main outcomes of an organization's activities it needs to be taken into account at all levels of activity

  13. Targeting safety. Studying health and environmental impacts of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today's energy planners and decision makers must consider complex and difficult questions particularly for the generation of electricity. The factors at play are related to the entire fuel chain of the energy source, including technical and economic performance and health and environmental impacts. While costs remain a key factor, they must be measured in comparative ways. This fact, together with the needs of many countries to define their energy and electricity programs in a sustainable manner, has provided the basis for a growing interest in comparative assessment of different electricity generation options, especially from environmental and human health points of view. Against this backdrop, the IAEA has been supporting various activities in this field, namely: International Symposium on Health impacts of Different Sources of Energy in 1981; International Symposium on the Risks and benefits of Energy Systems, in 1984; Senior Expert Symposium on Electricity and the Environment in 1991; International Symposium on Electricity, Health and the Environment: Comparative Assessment in Support of Decision making in 1995

  14. Prominent Human Health Impacts from Several Marine Microbes: History, Ecology, and Public Health Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Bienfang, P. K.; DeFelice, S. V.; E. A. Laws; Brand, L.E.; Bidigare, R. R.; Christensen, S.; Trapido-Rosenthal, H.; T. K. Hemscheidt; McGillicuddy, D.J.; Anderson, D M; Solo-Gabriele, H. M.; Boehm, A. B.; Backer, L. C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper overviews several examples of important public health impacts by marine microbes and directs readers to the extensive literature germane to these maladies. These examples include three types of dinoflagellates (Gambierdiscus spp., Karenia brevis, and Alexandrium fundyense), BMAA-producing cyanobacteria, and infectious microbes. The dinoflagellates are responsible for ciguatera fish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and paralytic shellfish poisoning, respectively, that have...

  15. Health Literacy Impact on National Healthcare Utilization and Expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafia Rasu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Health literacy presents an enormous challenge in the delivery of effective healthcare and quality outcomes. We evaluated the impact of low health literacy (LHL on healthcare utilization and healthcare expenditure. Methods Database analysis used Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS from 2005-2008 which provides nationally representative estimates of healthcare utilization and expenditure. Health literacy scores (HLSs were calculated based on a validated, predictive model and were scored according to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL. HLS ranged from 0-500. Health literacy level (HLL and categorized in 2 groups: Below basic or basic (HLS <226 and above basic (HLS ≥226. Healthcare utilization expressed as a physician, nonphysician, or emergency room (ER visits and healthcare spending. Expenditures were adjusted to 2010 rates using the Consumer Price Index (CPI. A Pvalue of 0.05 or less was the criterion for statistical significance in all analyses. Multivariate regression models assessed the impact of the predicted HLLs on outpatient healthcare utilization and expenditures. All analyses were performed with SAS and STATA®11.0 statistical software. Results The study evaluated 22 599 samples representing 503 374 648 weighted individuals nationally from 2005-2008. The cohort had an average age of 49 years and included more females (57%. Caucasian were the predominant racial ethnic group (83% and 37% of the cohort were from the South region of the United States of America. The proportion of the cohort with basic or below basic health literacy was 22.4%. Annual predicted values of physician visits, nonphysician visits, and ER visits were 6.6, 4.8, and 0.2, respectively, for basic or below basic compared to 4.4, 2.6, and 0.1 for above basic. Predicted values of office and ER visits expenditures were $1284 and $151, respectively, for basic or below basic and $719 and $100 for above basic (P < .05. The extrapolated national

  16. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  17. Health impact assessment as an agent of policy change: improving the health impacts of the mayor of London's draft transport strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Mindell, J; Sheridan, L.; Joffe, M.; Samson-Barry, H.; Atkinson, S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To increase the positive and mitigate the negative health impacts of the mayor's draft transport strategy for London.Design: A rapid prospective health impact assessment (HIA) of the penultimate draft of the strategy, using a review commissioned by the regional director of public health; an appraisal of congestion charging; and a participatory workshop. Two audits of changes were performed to assess the impact on policy of the HIA process.Setting: Regional government policy develop...

  18. Bridging the Gap between Primary Care and Specialized Mental Health Care. A mixed method study of the quality of referral information and the referral letters’ potential impact on quality of care

    OpenAIRE

    Hartveit, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Background. A major cause of adverse events in health care is insufficient information transference between health professionals. Despite the cardinal role of referral letters as the means of communication between primary care and specialized mental health care, earlier studies have shown that these letters often lack essential information. The impact of this lack of communication on patient care is unknown. The present study primarily aims to explore what information referral letters from pr...

  19. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    ; what benefits have been realised and for whom; the level of community satisfaction with the service; and the impact of a health service on community viability. While the need to reduce the rural-urban health service disparity in Australia is pressing, the evidence regarding how to move forward is inadequate. This comprehensive evaluation will add significant new knowledge regarding the characteristics associated with a sustainable rural primary health care service.

  20. 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel Research Plan Review for: The Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Immune Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a meeting with representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element and HRP management on February 3-4, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the updated Research Plan for the Risk of Crew Adverse Health Event Due to Altered Immune Response in the HRP Integrated Research Plan. The SRP is impressed with the work the immune discipline has done since the 2012 SRP review and agrees with the new wording of the Gaps, no longer questions, now statements. The SRP also likes the addition of adding targets for closing the Gaps, but it is not clear how they got to some of the interim stages (interval percentages). A major concern that the SRP has mentioned since the initial 2009 SRP meeting is that there is still not enough emphasis on the interdisciplinary aspect of the immune risk associated with other risks (i.e., nutrition, radiation, etc.). The SRP recommends that a "translational SRP" or advisory group be developed that is composed of members from all of the HRP SRPs. The SRP also thinks that the immune discipline should consider a more systems biology approach. Lastly, the SRP is concerned that the risks observed in research from low Earth orbit (LEO) missions may not accurately reflect all the risks of longer duration flight beyond LEO. Also, there does not seem to be a concern for immune responses that may occur when someone is in space longer than six months, for example, a Mars mission would take three years. The absence of disease in past and current flight scenarios does not mean the risk may not be there in future flight settings.

  1. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way. PMID:26965900

  2. Advancing efforts to achieve health equity: equity metrics for health impact assessment practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jonathan; Givens, Marjory L; Yuen, Tina K; Gould, Solange; Jandu, Maria Benkhalti; Bourcier, Emily; Choi, Tim

    2014-11-01

    Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA). Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA) Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1) the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2) the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3) the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4) the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric. PMID:25347193

  3. Advancing Efforts to Achieve Health Equity: Equity Metrics for Health Impact Assessment Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Heller

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Equity is a core value of Health Impact Assessment (HIA. Many compelling moral, economic, and health arguments exist for prioritizing and incorporating equity considerations in HIA practice. Decision-makers, stakeholders, and HIA practitioners see the value of HIAs in uncovering the impacts of policy and planning decisions on various population subgroups, developing and prioritizing specific actions that promote or protect health equity, and using the process to empower marginalized communities. There have been several HIA frameworks developed to guide the inclusion of equity considerations. However, the field lacks clear indicators for measuring whether an HIA advanced equity. This article describes the development of a set of equity metrics that aim to guide and evaluate progress toward equity in HIA practice. These metrics also intend to further push the field to deepen its practice and commitment to equity in each phase of an HIA. Over the course of a year, the Society of Practitioners of Health Impact Assessment (SOPHIA Equity Working Group took part in a consensus process to develop these process and outcome metrics. The metrics were piloted, reviewed, and refined based on feedback from reviewers. The Equity Metrics are comprised of 23 measures of equity organized into four outcomes: (1 the HIA process and products focused on equity; (2 the HIA process built the capacity and ability of communities facing health inequities to engage in future HIAs and in decision-making more generally; (3 the HIA resulted in a shift in power benefiting communities facing inequities; and (4 the HIA contributed to changes that reduced health inequities and inequities in the social and environmental determinants of health. The metrics are comprised of a measurement scale, examples of high scoring activities, potential data sources, and example interview questions to gather data and guide evaluators on scoring each metric.

  4. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. PMID:26970884

  5. Towards integration of environmental and health impact assessments for wild capture fishing and farmed fish with particular reference to public health and occupational health dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Watterson; David Little; Kathleen Boyd; Young, James A.; Ekram Azim; Francis Murray

    2008-01-01

    The paper offers a review and commentary, with particular reference to the production of fish from wild capture fisheries and aquaculture, on neglected aspects of health impact assessments which are viewed by a range of international and national health bodies and development agencies as valuable and necessary project tools. Assessments sometimes include environmental health impact assessments but rarely include specific occupational health and safety impact assessments especially integrated ...

  6. Quality of life in patients with schizophrenia: the impact of socio-economic factors and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Aurigena Antunes; de Araújo Dantas, Diego; do Nascimento, Gemma Galgani; Ribeiro, Susana Barbosa; Chaves, Katarina Melo; de Lima Silva, Vanessa; de Araújo, Raimundo Fernandes; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra; de Medeiros, Caroline Addison Carvalho Xavier

    2014-09-01

    This cross-sectional study compared the effects of treatment with atypical antipsychotic drugs on quality of life (QoL) and side effects in 218 patients with schizophrenia attending the ambulatory services of psychiatric in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Socio-economic variables were compared. The five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D) was used to evaluate QoL, and side effects were assessed using the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser (UKU) Side Effect Rating Scale and the Simpson-Angus Scale. Data were analysed using the χ (2) test and Student's t test, with a significance level of 5 %. Average monthly household incomes in the medication groups were 1.1-2.1 minimum wages ($339-$678). UKU Scale scores showed significant differences in side effects, mainly, clozapine, quetiapine and ziprasidone (p < 0.05). EQ-5D scores showed that all drugs except olanzapine significantly impacted mobility (p < 0.05), and proportions of individuals reporting problems in other dimensions were high: 63.6 % of clozapine users reported mobility problems, 63.7 and 56.3 % of clozapine and ziprasidone users, respectively, had difficulties with usual activities, 68.8 and 54.5 % of ziprasidone and clozapine users, respectively, experienced pain and/or discomfort, and 72.8 % of clozapine users reported anxiety and/or depression. Psychiatric, neurological, and autonomous adverse effects, as well as other side effects, were prevalent in users of atypical antipsychotic drugs, especially clozapine and ziprasidone. Olanzapine had the least side effects. QoL was impacted by side effects and economic conditions in all groups. Thus, the effects of these antipsychotic agents appear to have been masked by aggravating social and economic situations. PMID:24789610

  7. How Health Impact Assessments (HIAs Help Us to Select the Public Health Policies Most Likely to Maximise Health Gain, on the Basis of Best Public Health Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreaves Hilary A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Health Impact Assessment (HIA is a decision support tool intended to present timely, evidence–based recommendations to decision makers in all sections of society in order to accentuate potential positive health and well-being impacts (and mitigate potential negative impacts of policies, plans (including local and neighbourhood plans, programmes and projects (including infrastructure and local development proposals, in order to reduce health inequalities/disparities. HIA is a well established and proven means of linking research evidence from public health and the environmental sciences with equitable decision making processes at all levels, from local to global. It may also provide a platform for examination of research proposals to strengthen the impact statement therein, identifying potential for future public benefit. This paper highlights some of the main drivers for a timely re-emphasis on the use of best scientific evidence and systematic HIA to inform decision making for future public benefit, citing the example of air pollution.

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health and Adaptation Strategies in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yao-Dong; WANG Xian-Wei; YANG Xiao-Feng; MA Wen-Jun; AI Hui; WU Xiao-Xuan

    2013-01-01

    This study reviews the impacts of climate change on human health and presents corresponding adaptation strategies in South China. The daily mean surface air temperatures above or below 26.4◦C increase the death risk for the people in Guangzhou, especially the elderly are vulnerable to variations in temperature. Heat waves can cause insomnia, fatigue, clinical exacerbation, or death from heatstroke etc., while cold spells show increases in patients with fractures. During a cold spell period, the rates of both on-site emergency rescues and non-implementable rescues increase, and the risk of non-accidental deaths and respiratory disease deaths significantly rise as well. Both time series of hazy days and ozone concentrations have significant positive correlations with the number of patients with cardiovascular diseases. Both malaria and dengue fever reach higher altitudes and mountainous areas due to climate warming. Climate change is likely to bring stronger heat waves in the future, thereby increasing heat wave-related illnesses and deaths, particularly in the metropolitan areas of the Pearl River Delta. The projected increase of continuous cold days in Guangdong province and parts of northern Guangxi province will affect residents’ health in the future. The rising temperature exaggerates ozone pollution, but it is not clear whether climate change is aggravating or mitigating haze pollution. The transmission potential of malaria in South China will increase by 39%-140% and the transmission season will extend by 1-2 months with an air temperature increase of 1-2◦C. By 2050, most areas in Hainan province are projected to convert from non-endemic dengue into endemic dengue areas. The aging population will cause more vulnerable people. To mitigate the adverse impacts of climate change on human health, sound and scientific adaptation strategies must be adopted in advance, such as strengthening the surveillance of epidemic diseases in potential transmission areas

  9. Managing the health impacts of drought in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil's Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  10. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, Aderita; Barcellos, Christovam; Freitas, Carlos; Corvalan, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability. PMID:25325358

  11. Disrupted seasonal biology impacts health, food security and ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.

    2015-01-01

    The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for humans and biodiversity. Human populations show robust annual rhythms in health and well-being, and the birth month can have lasting effects that persist throughout life. This review emphasizes the need for a better understanding of seasonal biology against the backdrop of its rapidly progressing disruption through climate change, human lifestyles and other anthropogenic impact. Climate change is modifying annual rhythms to which numerous organisms have adapted, with potential consequences for industries relating to health, ecosystems and food security. Disconcertingly, human lifestyles under artificial conditions of eternal summer provide the most extreme example for disconnect from natural seasons, making humans vulnerable to increased morbidity and mortality. In this review, we introduce scenarios of seasonal disruption, highlight key aspects of seasonal biology and summarize from biomedical, anthropological, veterinary, agricultural and environmental perspectives the recent evidence for seasonal desynchronization between environmental factors and internal rhythms. Because annual rhythms are pervasive across biological systems, they provide a common framework for trans-disciplinary research. PMID:26468242

  12. Managing the Health Impacts of Drought in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aderita Sena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drought is often a hidden risk with the potential to become a silent public health disaster. It is difficult to define precisely when it starts or when it is over, and although it is a climatological event, its impacts depend on other human activities, and are intensified by social vulnerability. In Brazil, half of all natural disaster events are drought related, and they cause half of the impacts in number of affected persons. One large affected area is the semiarid region of Brazil’s Northeast, which has historically been affected by drought. Many health and well-being indicators in this region are worse than the rest of the country, based on an analysis of 5565 municipalities using available census data for 1991, 2000 and 2010, which allowed separating the 1133 municipalities affected by drought in order to compare them with the rest of the country. Although great progress has been made in reducing social and economic vulnerability, climate change and the expected changes in the semiarid region in the next few decades call for a review of current programs, particularly in public health, and the planning of new interventions with local communities. This study reviews the literature, analyzes available data and identifies possible actions and actors. The aim is to ensure there will be sufficient and sustainable local adaptive capacity and resilience, for a population already living within the limits of environmental vulnerability.

  13. Transport policy and health inequalities: a health impact assessment of Edinburgh's transport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, D; Douglas, M J; Conway, L; Noble, P; Hanlon, P

    2003-01-01

    Health impact assessment (HIA) can be used to examine the relationships between inequalities and health. This HIA of Edinburgh's transport policy demonstrates how HIA can examine how different transport policies can affect different population groupings to varying degrees. In this case, Edinburgh's economy is based on tourism, financial services and Government bodies. These need a good transport infrastructure, which maintains a vibrant city centre. A transport policy that promotes walking, cycling and public transport supports this and is also good for health. The HIA suggested that greater spend on public transport and supporting sustainable modes of transport was beneficial to health, and offered scope to reduce inequalities. This message was understood by the City Council and influenced the development of the city's transport and land-use strategies. The paper discusses how HIA can influence public policy. PMID:12802900

  14. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations

    OpenAIRE

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PT...

  15. Solid waste for health: environmental impact health and feedback in case-disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Ferraz dos Anjos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the reality of the city of Vitoria da Conquista, with regard to the handling and final provisions of solid waste, health, it becomes imperative to raise so reflective, environmental impact and harm to health caused by them. This aims to describe research on the environmental impacts generated by Solid Wastes of Health (RSS and its implicativos in the health-disease; reflect on the ethical point of view focusing on professional negligence on the part of these, identifying the responsibilities of each involved in context; propose suggestions for improvements to creation of specific areas and handling appropriate to their final destination, to promote a balance of the environment and a healthy life. Through bibliographic methods, descriptive and exploratory with empirical basis, it was emphasized the conduct of that employed the landfill council, whose information based on photographic images of the site, showing thus the breach of the rules of the National Environmental Council ( CONAMA, the resolution 5 / 93 establishing standards of environmental quality in ralação to RSS1. Among other bodies engaged in monitoring the performance of health standards, is also SURVEILLANCE OF DIRECTORS AND CONTROL HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT (DIVISAM 2. The situation, if not circumvented quickly, tends to increase the rates of infections caused by such waste and degradation of the environment due to the exorbitant amount of them, that the landfill receives daily from various establishments of health. To this apparatus pejorativo, perceives itself as a city seen as a model in health, and this concept is linked directly with the environment, once you see an unconnected with reality and nature, and this source and stage of human life and well divides his words as a form of protest or a coincidence "Natu Reza"

  16. Role of assessment components and recent adverse outcomes in risk estimation and prediction: Use of the Short Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) in an adult secure inpatient mental health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Laura E; Dickens, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-30

    The Short Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability is a structured judgement tool used to inform risk estimation for multiple adverse outcomes. In research, risk estimates outperform the tool's strength and vulnerability scales for violence prediction. Little is known about what its'component parts contribute to the assignment of risk estimates and how those estimates fare in prediction of non-violent adverse outcomes compared with the structured components. START assessment and outcomes data from a secure mental health service (N=84) was collected. Binomial and multinomial regression analyses determined the contribution of selected elements of the START structured domain and recent adverse risk events to risk estimates and outcomes prediction for violence, self-harm/suicidality, victimisation, and self-neglect. START vulnerabilities and lifetime history of violence, predicted the violence risk estimate; self-harm and victimisation estimates were predicted only by corresponding recent adverse events. Recent adverse events uniquely predicted all corresponding outcomes, with the exception of self-neglect which was predicted by the strength scale. Only for victimisation did the risk estimate outperform prediction based on the START components and recent adverse events. In the absence of recent corresponding risk behaviour, restrictions imposed on the basis of START-informed risk estimates could be unwarranted and may be unethical. PMID:27138837

  17. Induced abortion in the Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and impact on mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Niškanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Induced abortion is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, with potentially negative impact on physical and emotional health of women. The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of abortion in our society, characteristics of women who had induced abortion and its impact on mental health. The results presented in this paper are part of the bigger study "Health Status, Health Needs and Utilization of Health Services", which was carri...

  18. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negev, Maya, E-mail: mayane@tau.ac.il [Hartog School of Government and Policy, Faculty of Social Sciences, Tel Aviv University, P.O.B. 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Davidovitch, Nadav, E-mail: nadavd@bgu.ac.il [Department of Health Systems Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, P.O.B. 653, Be' er Sheva 84105 (Israel); Garb, Yaakov, E-mail: ygarb@bgu.ac.il [Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel); Tal, Alon, E-mail: alontal@bgu.ac.il [Mitrani Department of Dryland Ecology, Swiss Institute for Dryland Environmental Research, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer 84990 (Israel)

    2013-11-15

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA.

  19. Stakeholder participation in health impact assessment: A multicultural approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The literature on impact assessment (HIA) registers the importance of stakeholder participation in the assessment process, but still lacks a model for engaging stakeholders of diverse ethnic, professional and sectorial backgrounds. This paper suggests that the multicultural approach can contribute to HIA through a revision of the generic 5-step HIA model, and its implementation in a metropolitan plan in Southern Israel. The health issue scoped by the stakeholders in the HIA is related to land uses in the vicinity of the national hazardous industry and hazardous waste site. The stakeholders were representatives of the diverse populations at stake, including rural Bedouins and Jewish city dwellers, as well as representatives from the public sector, private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. The case study revealed that a multicultural stakeholder participation process helps to uncover health issues known to the community which were not addressed in the original plan, and provides local knowledge regarding health conditions that is especially valuable when scientific data is uncertain or absent. It enables diverse stakeholders to prioritize the health issues that will be assessed. The case study also reveals ways in which the model needs revisions and improvements such as in recruitment of diverse participants. This paper presents a multicultural model of HIA and discusses some of the challenges that are faced when HIA is implemented in the context of current decision-making culture. -- Highlights: • We revised the generic HIA model in light of the multicultural approach. • We tested the model in a case study of zoning a hazardous industry site. • Multicultural stakeholder participation uncovers health issues known to communities. • It enables community prioritization of health issues. • We present a model for multicultural stakeholder participation in HIA

  20. Potential Health Impacts of Bauxite Mining in Kuantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Noor Hisham; Mohamed, Norlen; Sulaiman, Lokman Hakim; Zakaria, Thahirahtul Asma; Rahim, Daud Abdul

    2016-05-01

    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised. PMID:27418864

  1. Translating Developmental Science to Address Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Forkey, Heather; Szilagyi, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Demystifying child development is a defining element of pediatric care, and pediatricians have long appreciated the profound influences that families and communities have on both child development and life course trajectories. Dramatic advances in the basic sciences of development are beginning to reveal the biologic mechanisms underlying well-established associations between a spectrum of childhood adversities and less than optimal outcomes in health, education and economic productivity. Pediatricians are well positioned to translate this new knowledge into both practice and policy, but doing so will require unprecedented levels of collaboration with educators, social service providers, and policy makers. Pediatricians might recognize the negative impact of family-level adversities on child development, but developing an effective response will likely require the engagement of community partners. By developing collaborative, innovative ways to promote the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that are biologic prerequisites for health, academic success, and economic productivity, family-centered pediatric medical homes will remain relevant in an era that increasingly values wellness and population health. PMID:26183002

  2. Synthetic fuels technology overview with health and environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, E. J., Jr.; Salmon, E. J.

    1981-06-01

    An introduction is presented to the following synthetic fuels technologies: (1) the Lurgi gasification of coal; (2) the Fischer-Tropsch liquefaction of coal; (3) coal-methanol conversion; (4) donor solvent gas liquefaction; (5) Tosco surface shale retorting; ethanol production from coal; and (6) the coal-methanol-gasoline conversion process. After establishing the system characteristics of these six technologies, consideration is given to their potential major health, safety, environmental and socio-economic impacts at the global, regional and local levels. It is determined that the main global consequence of synfuels development is climate modification, to which may be added the regional impact of dry and wet deposition of gaseous and particulate pollutants, and land and water quality deterioration due to soil erosion at the local level.

  3. Structural health monitoring and impact detection for primary aircraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosters, Eric; van Els, Thomas J.

    2010-04-01

    The increasing use of thermoplastic carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) materials in the aerospace industry for primary aircraft structures, such as wing leading-edge surfaces and fuselage sections, has led to rapid growth in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Impact, vibration, and load can all cause failure, such as delamination and matrix cracking, in composite materials. Moreover, the internal material damage can occur without being visible to the human eye, making inspection of and clear insight into structural integrity difficult using currently available evaluation methods. Here, we describe the detection of impact and its localization in materials and structures by high-speed interrogation of multiple-fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors mounted on a composite aircraft component.

  4. Birth Defects in India: Magnitude, Public Health Impact and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Kar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Birth defects refer to a group of diverse congenital conditions, which are responsible for stillbirths, neonatal deaths, chronic medical conditions and disability. Due to their low prevalence and high mortality, birth defects are not considered to be a significant health problem in India. Various data however identify that India may harbour a significant burden of birth defects, and that these conditions may be responsible for a considerable proportion of neonatal deaths in India. Although it is widely assumed that survival of patients with birth defects is low, data suggests that in 2002, there were nearly six million Indians living with impairments arising at birth. These data urge the need for implementation of a national birth defects programme in India, with a strong component of prevention. The need for significant research investments to understand the epidemiology and public health impact of birth defects in India is identified. Translation research, transcending the disciplines of medicine, public health and genetics is required to develop a low cost birth defects service as a component of the existing maternal and child health programme.

  5. Climate change impacts and risks for animal health in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, S; Hungerford, N; Yamakawa, M; Yanase, T; Tsai, H-J; Joo, Y-S; Yang, D-K; Nha, J-J

    2008-08-01

    The threat of climate change and global warming is now recognised worldwide and some alarming manifestations of change have occurred. The Asian continent, because of its size and diversity, may be affected significantly by the consequences of climate change, and its new status as a 'hub' of livestock production gives it an important role in mitigating possible impacts of climate variability on animal health. Animal health may be affected by climate change in four ways: heat-related diseases and stress, extreme weather events, adaptation of animal production systems to new environments, and emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases, especially vector-borne diseases critically dependent on environmental and climatic conditions. To face these new menaces, the need for strong and efficient Veterinary Services is irrefutable, combined with good coordination of public health services, as many emerging human diseases are zoonoses. Asian developing countries have acute weaknesses in their Veterinary Services, which jeopardises the global surveillance network essential for early detection of hazards. Indeed, international cooperation within and outside Asia is vital to mitigating the risks of climate change to animal health in Asia. PMID:18819679

  6. Impact of Delivery Types on Women's Postpartum Sexual Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-ying WANG; Xiao-yang XU; Zhen-wei YAO; Qin ZHOU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of childbirth on the sexual health of primiparous women in China and the prevalence of women's postpartum sexual problems Method In this cross-sectional study, obstetric records of 460 primiparous women delivering a live-birth at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing University of Medical Sciences between November 1, 2000 and July 31, 2001 were analyzed together with the data collected from questionnaire survey conducted six months after delivery.Results Totally 460 women participated in the questionnaire survey. Though 94. 74% of the subjects had resumed sexual activity within six months after birth, most of them had experienced postpartum sexual problems, among which dyspareunia was the most common type. There was no significant association between delivery types and women's sexual health status in six months after birth, including their satisfactory degree of sexual intercourse, sexual desire, sex active rate, the incidence of dyspareunia and pubococcygeal muscle strength ( P>0. 05 ). Only 20.80%of women had knowledge of sexual health and 8.02% of them had consulted for sexual problems.Conclusions Women's postpartum sexual health problems were very common, they deserve more attention. There was no significant association between delivery types and women's postpartum sexual problems at the 6th month after delivery.

  7. The impact of husband's job loss on partners' mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Mendolia, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the impact of job loss on family mental well-being. The negative income shock can affect the mental health status of the individual who directly experiences such displacement, as well as the psychological well-being of his partner; also, job loss may have a significantly detrimental effect on life satisfaction, self-esteem and on the individual’s perceived role in society. This analysis is based on a sample of married and cohabitating ...

  8. Impact of water pollution on the health of human population

    OpenAIRE

    Pesevska, Slavica; Velickova, Nevenka; Sumanov, Gorgi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Qualitative and quantitative status of this industrial water depends on the operation of the flotation in Kriva Palanka, which is in continuous work in the recent years so that it is necessary more frequent inspections to be carried out along with the analysis of these waste waters. The lack and poor quality of drinking water in Kriva Palanka region is mostly reflected as a risk to the health of human population. The purpose of this researche is to analysis of the impact of ...

  9. Nanosilver: Properties, Applications and Impacts on Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia F. M. Nogueira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has developed rapidly in the last decade as a multidisciplinary field, with a myriad of applications in strategic areas including energy, electronics, medi-cine, biotechnology, among others. In modern days, the high commercial demand of silver nanoparticles (NPAg, in particular, has motivated a broad debate in the scientific community. This review gives a brief survey of the applications, commercialization and possible impacts of NPAg to human health and environment, with focus on their toxicity, transformation, and bioavailability. We also present a description of the current international laws and regulations regarding commercialization of nanomaterials.

  10. Hazardous waste: its impact on human health in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyes, H W

    1997-01-01

    Hazardous waste management is of great concern to the nations of Europe. The European public, like that in North America, expresses great concern that hazardous waste is impacting individual health and degrades the environment. The level of resources and degree of hazardous waste problems varies widely throughout Europe. In particular, the Central and Eastern European countries face enormous challenges in trying to solve their waste problems. Progress in managing the hazardous waste burden is evident in Europe, but cooperation across the nations of Europe will be essential to assure success. PMID:9200783

  11. Mind and body: how the health of the body impacts on neuropsychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault eRenoir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has long been established in traditional forms of medicine and in anecdotal knowledge that the health of the body and the mind are inextricably linked. Strong and continually developing evidence now suggests a link between disorders which involve Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis (HPA dysregulation and the risk of developing psychiatric disease. For instance, adverse or excessive responses to stressful experiences are built into the diagnostic criteria for several psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety disorders. Interestingly, peripheral disorders such as metabolic disorders and cardiovascular diseases are also associated with HPA changes. Furthermore, many of other systemic disorders associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disease involve a significant inflammatory component. In fact, inflammatory and endocrine pathways seem to interact in both the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS to potentiate states of psychiatric dysfunction. This review synthesizes clinical and animal data looking at interactions between peripheral and central factors, gaining an understanding at the molecular and cellular level of how processes in the entire body can impact on mental state and psychiatric health.

  12. Epilepsy in India II: Impact, burden, and need for a multisectoral public health response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amudhan, Senthil; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Satishchandra, Parthasarathy

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder whose consequences are influenced socially and culturally, especially in India. This review (second of the two part series) was carried out to understand the social impact and economic burden to develop comprehensive program for control and prevention of epilepsy. Epilepsy is known to have adverse effect on education, employment, marriage, and other essential social opportunities. Economic burden associated with epilepsy is very high with treatment and travel costs emerging as an important contributing factor. A vicious cycle between economic burden and poor disease outcome is clear. There is no significant change in the perception, stigma, and discrimination of epilepsy across the country despite improvement in educational and social parameters over the time. The huge treatment gap and poor quality of life is further worsened by the associated comorbidities and conditions. Thus, a multidisciplinary response is needed to address the burden and impact of epilepsy which calls for an integrated and multipronged approach for epilepsy care, prevention, and rehabilitation. Service delivery, capacity building, integration into the existing program, mobilizing public support, and increasing public awareness will be the hallmarks of such an integrated approach in a public health model. PMID:26713005

  13. Epilepsy in India II: Impact, burden, and need for a multisectoral public health response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Amudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder whose consequences are influenced socially and culturally, especially in India. This review (second of the two part series was carried out to understand the social impact and economic burden to develop comprehensive program for control and prevention of epilepsy. Epilepsy is known to have adverse effect on education, employment, marriage, and other essential social opportunities. Economic burden associated with epilepsy is very high with treatment and travel costs emerging as an important contributing factor. A vicious cycle between economic burden and poor disease outcome is clear. There is no significant change in the perception, stigma, and discrimination of epilepsy across the country despite improvement in educational and social parameters over the time. The huge treatment gap and poor quality of life is further worsened by the associated comorbidities and conditions. Thus, a multidisciplinary response is needed to address the burden and impact of epilepsy which calls for an integrated and multipronged approach for epilepsy care, prevention, and rehabilitation. Service delivery, capacity building, integration into the existing program, mobilizing public support, and increasing public awareness will be the hallmarks of such an integrated approach in a public health model.

  14. Impact of current policies on future air quality and health outcomes in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Hem H.; Purohit, Pallav; Rao, Shilpa; Garg, Amit

    2013-08-01

    A key policy challenge in Indian megacities is to curb high concentrations of PM2.5 and mitigate associated adverse health impacts. Using the Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) model we carry out an integrated analysis of the air quality regulations across different sectors for the city of Delhi. Our findings show that PM2.5 concentrations for Delhi will not reach the recommended national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) even by 2030 under the current policies scenario. Adopting advanced control technologies reduces PM2.5 concentrations by about 60% and all-cause mortality by half in 2030. Climate change mitigation policies significantly reduce greenhouse gases, but have a modest impact on reducing PM2.5 concentrations. Stringent policies to control the net flow of air pollution from trans-boundary sources will play a crucial role in reducing pollution levels in Delhi city. Achieving NAAQS requires a stringent policy portfolio that combines advanced control technologies with a switch to cleaner fuels and the control of trans-boundary pollution.

  15. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

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    Herbert Joe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19% showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6% experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55% over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape

  16. Government use licenses in Thailand: an assessment of the health and economic impacts

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    Chaisiri Kakanang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Between 2006 and 2008, Thailand's Ministry of Public Health (MOPH granted government use licenses for seven patented drugs in order to improve access to these essential treatments. The decision to grant the government use licenses was contentious both within and beyond the country. In particular, concerns were highlighted that the negative consequences might outweigh the expected benefits of the policy. This study conducted assessments of the health and economic implications of these government use licenses. Methods The health and health-related economic impacts were quantified in terms of i Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs gained and ii increased productivity in US dollars (USD as a result of the increased access to drugs. The study adopted a five-year timeframe for the assessment, commencing from the time of the grant of the government use licenses. Empirical evidence gathered from national databases was used to assess the changes in volume of exports after US Generalized System of Preferences (GSP withdrawal and level of foreign direct investment (FDI. Results As a result of the granting of the government use licenses, an additional 84,158 patients were estimated to have received access to the seven drugs over five years. Health gains from the use of the seven drugs compared to their best alternative accounted for 12,493 QALYs gained, which translates into quantifiable incremental benefits to society of USD132.4 million. The government use license on efavirenze was found to have the greatest benefit. In respect of the country's economy, the study found that Thailand's overall exports increased overtime, although exports of the three US GSP withdrawal products to the US did decline. There was also found to be no relationship between the government use licenses and the level of foreign investment over the period 2002 to 2008. Conclusions The public health benefits of the government use licenses were generally positive

  17. The impact of poor adult health on labor supply in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Goryakin, Yevgeniy; Suhrcke, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We examine the labor supply consequences of poor health in the Russian Federation, a country with exceptionally adverse adult health outcomes. In both baseline OLS models and in models with individual fixed effects, more serious ill-health events, somewhat surprisingly, generally have only weak effects on hours worked. At the same time, their effect on the extensive margin of labor supply is substantial. Moreover, when combining the effects on both the intensive and extensive margins, the eff...

  18. The impact of SHS exposure on health status and exacerbations among patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Eisner

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Mark D Eisner1,3, Carlos Iribarren3, Edward H Yelin2, Stephen Sidney3, Patricia P Katz2, Gabriela Sanchez3, Paul D Blanc11Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine and Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine; 2Institute for Health Policy Studies, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente, Oakland, CA, USAAbstract: Secondhand smoke (SHS is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Because it contains respiratory irritants, it may adversely influence the clinical course of persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. We used data from nonsmoking members of the FLOW cohort of COPD (n = 809 to elucidate the impact of SHS exposure on health status and exacerbations (requiring emergency department visits or hospitalization. SHS exposure was measured by a validated survey instrument (hours of exposure during the past week. Physical health status was measured by the SF-12 Physical Component Summary Score and disease-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL by the Airways Questionnaire 20-R. Health care utilization for COPD was determined from Kaiser Permanente Northern California computerized databases. Compared to no SHS exposure, higher level SHS exposure was associated with poorer physical health status (mean score decrement −1.78 points; 95% confidence interval [CI] −3.48 to −0.074 points after controlling for potential confounders. Higher level SHS exposure was also related to poorer disease-specific HRQL (mean score increment 0.63; 95% CI 0.016 to 1.25 and less distance walked during the Six-Minute Walk test (mean decrement −50 feet; 95% CI −102 to 1.9. Both lower level and higher level SHS exposure was related to increased risk of emergency department (ED visits (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.05 and HR 1.41; 95% CI 0.94 to 2.13. Lower level and higher level SHS exposure were associated with a greater risk of

  19. Environmental and health impacts of artificial turf: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hefa; Hu, Yuanan; Reinhard, Martin

    2014-02-18

    With significant water savings and low maintenance requirements, artificial turf is increasingly promoted as a replacement for natural grass on athletic fields and lawns. However, there remains the question of whether it is an environmentally friendly alternative to natural grass. The major concerns stem from the infill material that is typically derived from scrap tires. Tire rubber crumb contains a range of organic contaminants and heavy metals that can volatilize into the air and/or leach into the percolating rainwater, thereby posing a potential risk to the environment and human health. A limited number of studies have shown that the concentrations of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in the air above artificial turf fields were typically not higher than the local background, while the concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants in the field drainages were generally below the respective regulatory limits. Health risk assessment studies suggested that users of artificial turf fields, even professional athletes, were not exposed to elevated risks. Preliminary life cycle assessment suggested that the environmental impacts of artificial turf fields were lower than equivalent grass fields. Areas that need further research to better understand and mitigate the potential negative environmental impacts of artificial turf are identified. PMID:24467230

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Kende, D; Rener-Sitar, K; Reissmann, D R

    2014-09-01

    Previous exploratory analyses suggest that the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) consists of four correlated dimensions and that individual differences in OHIP total scores reflect an underlying higher-order factor. The aim of this report is to corroborate these findings in the Dimensions of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Validation Sample (n = 5022), we conducted confirmatory factor analyses in a sample of 4993 subjects with sufficiently complete data. In particular, we compared the psychometric performance of three models: a unidimensional model, a four-factor model and a bifactor model that included one general factor and four group factors. Using model-fit criteria and factor interpretability as guides, the four-factor model was deemed best in terms of strong item loadings, model fit (RMSEA = 0·05, CFI = 0·99) and interpretability. These results corroborate our previous findings that four highly correlated factors - which we have named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact - can be reliably extracted from the OHIP item pool. However, the good fit of the unidimensional model and the high interfactor correlations in the four-factor solution suggest that OHRQoL can also be sufficiently described with one score. PMID:24909797

  1. Exploratory factor analysis of the Oral Health Impact Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, M T; Reissmann, D R; Feuerstahler, L; Waller, N; Baba, K; Larsson, P; Celebić, A; Szabo, G; Rener-Sitar, K

    2014-09-01

    Although oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) as measured by the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) is thought to be multidimensional, the nature of these dimensions is not known. The aim of this report was to explore the dimensionality of the OHIP using the Dimensions of OHRQoL (DOQ) Project, an international study of general population subjects and prosthodontic patients. Using the project's Learning Sample (n = 5173), we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the 46 OHIP items not specifically referring to dentures for 5146 subjects with sufficiently complete data. The first eigenvalue (27·0) of the polychoric correlation matrix was more than ten times larger than the second eigenvalue (2·6), suggesting the presence of a dominant, higher-order general factor. Follow-up analyses with Horn's parallel analysis revealed a viable second-order, four-factor solution. An oblique rotation of this solution revealed four highly correlated factors that we named Oral Function, Oro-facial Pain, Oro-facial Appearance and Psychosocial Impact. These four dimensions and the strong general factor are two viable hypotheses for the factor structure of the OHIP. PMID:24909881

  2. Globalisation and climate change in Asia: the urban health impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munslow, Barry; O'Dempsey, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Asia's economic development successes will create new policy areas to address, as the advances made through globalisation create greater climate change challenges, particularly the impact on urban health. Poverty eradication and higher standards of living both increase demand on resources. Globalisation increases inequalities and those who are currently the losers will carry the greatest burden of the costs in the form of the negative effects of climate change and the humanitarian crises that will ensue. Of four major climate change challenges affecting the environment and health, two—urban air pollution and waste management—can be mitigated by policy change and technological innovation if sufficient resources are allocated. Because of the urban bias in the development process, these challenges will probably register on policy makers' agenda. The second two major challenges—floods and drought—are less amenable to policy and technological solutions: many humanitarian emergency challenges lie ahead. This article describes the widely varying impact of both globalisation and climate change across Asia. The greatest losers are those who flee one marginal location, the arid inland areas, only to settle in another marginal location in the flood prone coastal slums. Effective preparation is required, and an effective response when subsequent humanitarian crises occur. PMID:21506298

  3. ASXL1 but not TET2 mutations adversely impact overall survival of patients suffering systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematologic non-mast-cell diseases.

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    Gandhi Damaj

    Full Text Available Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD is a rare and heterogeneous subtype of SM and few studies on this specific entity have been reported. Sixty two patients with Systemic mastocytosis with associated hematologic clonal non-mast cell disease (SM-AHNMD were presented. Myeloid AHNMD was the most frequent (82% cases. This subset of patients were older, had more cutaneous lesions, splenomegaly, liver enlargement, ascites; lower bone mineral density and hemoglobin levels and higher tryptase level than lymphoid AHNMD. Defects in KIT, TET2, ASXL1 and CBL were positive in 87%, 27%, 14%, and 11% of cases respectively. The overall survival of patients with SM-AHNMD was 85.2 months. Within the myeloid group, SM-MPN fared better than SM-MDS or SM-AML (p = 0.044,. In univariate analysis, the presence of C-findings, the AHNMD subtypes (SM-MDS/CMML/AML versus SM-MPN/hypereosinophilia (p = 0.044, Neutropenia (p = 0.015, high monocyte level (p = 0.015 and the presence of ASXL1 mutation had detrimental effects on OS (p = 0.007. In multivariate analysis and penalized Cox model, only the presence of ASXL1 mutation remained an independent prognostic factor that negatively affected OS (p = 0.035. SM-AHNMD is heterogeneous with variable prognosis according to the type of the AHNMD. ASXL1 is mutated in a subset of myeloid AHNMD and adversely impact on OS.

  4. História de adversidade, saúde e psicopatologia em reclusos: comparação entre homens e mulheres History of adversity, health and psychopathology among prisoners: comparison between men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Adversidade na infância, comportamentos de risco e psicopatologia são fenómenos muito prevalentes na população reclusa e com forte impacto na saúde. Conhecer as diferenças entre sexos, no que diz respeito a tais variáveis, é de elevada importância no sentido de adequar estratégias de intervenção em contexto prisional. Utilizando o Questionário Sociodemográfico e História de Vida, o Questionário de Adversidade na Infância e o Brief Symptons Inventory, procuramos caracterizar a adversidade na infância, os comportamentos de risco e as dimensões psicopatológicas, e averiguar as diferenças entre 65 homens e 42 mulheres reclusos em estabelecimentos prisionais Portugueses. Homens e mulheres relatam um quadro complexo de adversidade na infância. Num total possível de dez categorias, verificamos uma média de adversidade total de 5.05 (DP = 2.63 para as mulheres e de 2.63 (DP = 2.18 para os homens, sendo a prevalência significativamente mais elevada junto da população feminina (Z = -4.33; p = .000. Foi ainda encontrada uma elevada prevalência de comportamentos de risco e de sintomatologia psicopatológica em ambos os grupos, sendo esta última superior nas mulheres. Concluímos que as diferenças entre sexos devem ser estudadas para guiarem a adequação dos projetos de intervenção junto de populações específicas.Adversity in childhood, risk behaviors and psychopathology are highly prevalent phenomena in inmate populations and have a strong impact on health. Knowing the differences in these variables between the sexes is most important in order to develop appropriate intervention strategies in a prison context. By administering the Socio-demographic and Life History Questionnaire and the Brief Symptoms Inventory, we sought to characterize adverse childhood experiences and relate them to risk behaviors and to psychopathological symptoms, and study the differences between the 65 male and 42 female detainees in Portuguese

  5. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  6. Investigating Underlying Principles to Guide Health Impact Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fakhri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods This study was conducted in three stages: 1 Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2 The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3 Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion Determining the principles of HIA from

  7. Investigating underlying principles to guide health impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Ali; Maleki, Mohammadreza; Gohari, Mahmoodreza; Harris, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many countries conduct Health Impact Assessment (HIA) of their projects and policies to predict their positive and negative health impacts. In recent years many guides have been developed to inform HIA practice, largely reflecting local developments in HIA. These guides have often been designed for specific contexts and specific need, making the choice between guides difficult. The objective of the current study is to identify underlying principles in order to guide HIA practice in Iran. Methods: This study was conducted in three stages: 1) Studies comparing HIA guidelines were reviewed to identify criteria used for comparison seeking emphasized principles. 2) The HIA characteristics extracted from published papers were categorized in order to determine the principles that could guide HIA practice. 3) Finally, these principles were agreed by experts using nominal group technique. Results: The review of the studies comparing HIA guides demonstrated there are no clear comparison criteria for reviewing HIA guides and no study mentioned HIA principles. Investigating the HIA principles from peer-reviewed papers, we found 14 issues. These were, considering of general features in planning and conducting HIAs such as HIA stream, level, timing and type, considering of the wider socio-political and economic context, considering of economic, technical and legal aspects of HIA and capacities for HIA, rationality and comprehensiveness, using appropriate evidence, elaborating on HIA relation to other forms of Impact Assessment, considering of equity, and encouraging intersectoral and interdisciplinary cooperation, involvement of stakeholders and transparency as underlying principles to guide HIA practice. The results emphasize how critical these technical as well as tactical considerations are in the early scoping step of an HIA which plans the conduct of the HIA in reponse to local contextual issues. Conclusion: Determining the principles of HIA from peer

  8. The Impact of Visuals on Nutrition and Health Education Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Clyatt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Colorado State University Extension (CSUE recently launched a new website, Live Eat Play Colorado (LEP; www.liveeatplay.colostate.edu which promotes traditional CSUE fact sheets as well as new consumer-friendly materials with dense imagery and lower reading levels. LEP has allowed for an increased use of visuals to enrich nutrition and health materials. Appealing visuals serve as tools designed to increase comprehension and memory of health topics (Frisch, Camerini, & Schultz, 2013. Information retention is higher when visuals are combined with text, as opposed to text-only information (Peregrin, 2010. Testing this idea, visuals were placed in the text-only fact sheet, “Nutrition for the Athlete” (231,424 page views in 2014. Google Analytics data revealed that read time increased 23% in the 15 months after visuals were placed compared to the 15 months prior, from an average of 5:32 to 6:50 minutes. The increased read time could suggest that readers are more engaged with information on the webpage and demonstrates the potential positive impact of visuals on web-based education materials. Educators should intentionally select images for fact sheets that will support, reinforce, and/or clarify messages on health topics.

  9. The impact of mass communication campaigns in the health field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalay, R

    1983-01-01

    This article analyzes a series of health education projects that used the mass media to change behavior. First, the article describes how persuasion theories are used to maximize impact in mass communication campaigns. Second, this paper discusses theories of social psychology used in such campaigns. One such theory, cognitive dissonance, explains changes at the level of attitudes, beliefs and opinion. Another theory, social learning, defines strategies of behavior changes. A third theory, concerning diffusion of innovations, helps understand the network of interpersonal relationships essential for the adoption of any innovation. McGuire's inoculation theory suggests strategies to aid resistance to harmful environmental influences (e.g. smoking, excessive drinking, etc.). Third, this work reviews public health campaigns that have used one or more of these theories of social psychology. The first project, dealing with smoking behavior cessation and prevention, mainly used strategies of interpersonal communication for inoculating and modeling useful behavior in order to resist social pressures favorable to smoking. The second project, designed to prevent alcoholism, used the mass media primarily. The objective of this campaign was to obtain changes in knowledge, attitude and behavior in the public through modeling desirable behaviors over public service announcements. The third campaign, a heart disease prevention program, used a combination of mass media and interpersonal communication to achieve changes in lifestyle of the population. Finally, this article describes limitations in using mass media in behavior change health programs. PMID:6836345

  10. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M; Font-Ribera, Laia

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs) in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks. PMID:23247135

  11. Health impact of disinfection by-products in swimming pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Villanueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the epidemiological evidence on the health impacts related to disinfection by-products (DBPs in swimming pools, which is a chemical hazard generated as an undesired consequence to reduce the microbial pathogens. Specific DBPs are carcinogenic, fetotoxic and/or irritant to the airways according to experimental studies. Epidemiological evidence shows that swimming in pools during pregnancy is not associated with an increased risk of reproductive outcomes. An epidemiological study suggested an increased risk of bladder cancer with swimming pool attendance, although evidence is inconclusive. A higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms including asthma is found among swimming pool workers and elite swimmers, although the causality of this association is unclear. The body of evidence in children indicates that asthma is not increased by swimming pool attendance. Overall, the available knowledge suggests that the health benefits of swimming outweigh the potential health risks of chemical contamination. However, the positive effects of swimming should be enhanced by minimising potential risks.

  12. Health Impacts in a Changing Climate - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, V. R.; Phalkey, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    In the past decades the topic of climate change has been subjected to intense scientific scrutiny, and since the mid-1990's it has become an increasingly political issue. Because of increased temperatures and more frequent and intense extreme weather events, the number of direct injuries and deaths will increase, along with infectious diseases, whether food, water or vector-borne; respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are expected to rise due to worsened air pollution and extreme heat. In a context of on-going environmental degradation, local food-producing systems, both marine and terrestrial, will be affected and the risk of malnutrition, especially in children, will increase. These impacts on health and livelihood are expected to be significant factors in the spread of regional social crises, potentially leading to forced migration, conflicts and increased poverty. The link between health and climate change operates through a variety of pathways that are now well established. In addition to taking climate mitigation measures, it will also be necessary to take adaptation measures, such as strengthening health systems, improving preparedness and developing early warning systems. There is now a broad scientific consensus on the issue and the science is sufficiently robust to enable a coordinated response to meet this global challenge.

  13. An equity tool for health impact assessments: Reflections from Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A health impact assessment (HIA) is a tool for assessing the potential effects of a project or policy on a population's health. In this paper, we discuss a tool for successfully integrating equity concerns into HIAs. This discussion is the product of collaboration by Mongolian and Canadian experts, and it incorporates comments and suggestions of participants of a workshop on equity focused HIAs that took place in Mongolia in October, 2010. Our motivation for discussing this tool is based on the observation that existing HIAs tend either to fail to define equity or use problematic accounts of this concept. In this paper we give an overview of socio-demographic and health indicators in Mongolia and briefly discuss its mining industry. We then review three accounts of equity and argue for the importance of developing a consensus understanding of this concept when integrating considerations of equity into an HIA. Finally, we present findings from the workshop in Mongolia and outline a tool, derived from lessons from this workshop, for critically considering and integrating the concept of equity into an HIA.

  14. Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Jayesh R; Forrest, Benjamin D; Freeman, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present a review of the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of the three approved cannabis-based medications and ingested marijuana. A literature review was conducted utilizing key search terms: dronabinol, nabilone, nabiximols, cannabis, marijuana, smoke, efficacy, toxicity, cancer, multiple sclerosis, nausea, vomiting, appetite, pain, glaucoma, and side effects. Abstracts of the included literature were reviewed, analyzed, and organized to identify the strength of evidence in medical use, efficacy, and adverse effects of the approved cannabis-based medications and medical marijuana. A total of 68 abstracts were included for review. Dronabinol's (Marinol) most common medical uses include weight gain, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), and neuropathic pain. Nabiximol's (Sativex) most common medical uses include spasticity in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuropathic pain. Nabilone's (Cesamet) most common medical uses include CINV and neuropathic pain. Smoked marijuana's most common medical uses include neuropathic pain and glaucoma. Orally ingested marijuana's most common medical uses include improving sleep, reducing neuropathic pain, and seizure control in MS. In general, all of these agents share similar medical uses. The reported adverse effects of the three cannabis-based medications and marijuana show a major trend in central nervous system (CNS)-related adverse effects along with cardiovascular and respiratory related adverse effects. Marijuana shares similar medical uses with the approved cannabis-based medications dronabinol (Marinol), nabiximols (Sativex), and nabilone (Cesamet), but the efficacy of marijuana for these medical uses has not been fully determined due to limited and conflicting literature. Medical marijuana also has similar adverse effects as the FDA-approved cannabis-based medications mainly consisting of CNS related adverse effects but also including cardiovascular and respiratory

  15. Analysis of Adverse Reaction of Analgesics, Antipyretics and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Prescribed by Physicians of Health Care Facilities in Podilskyi Region during 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Stepaniuk, N. H.; Hladkykh, F. V.; Basarab, O. V.

    2016-01-01

    The problem of medicines rational use exists all over the world. It concerns particularly analgesics, antipyretics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). In Ukraine the side effects caused by non-steroidal antiphlogistics rank the second place according to the prevalence among all registered cases.The objective of the research was to analyze adverse drug reaction report forms concerning adverse reactions caused by the use of NSAIDs, analgesics, antipyretics, and were submitted du...

  16. Business oriented EU human cell and tissue product legislation will adversely impact Member States’ health care systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Vanderkelen, Alain; De Vos, Daniel; Draye, Jean-Pierre; Rose, Thomas; Ceulemans, Carl; Ectors, Nadine; Huys, Isabelle; Jennes, Serge; Verbeken, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The transplantation of conventional human cell and tissue grafts, such as heart valve replacements and skin for severely burnt patients, has saved many lives over the last decades. The late eighties saw the emergence of tissue engineering with the focus on the development of biological substitutes that restore or improve tissue function. In the nineties, at the height of the tissue engineering hype, industry incited policymakers to create a European regulatory environment, which would facilit...

  17. Health Impact Modelling of Active Travel Visions for England and Wales Using an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling Tool (ITHIM)

    OpenAIRE

    James Woodcock; Moshe Givoni; Andrei Scott Morgan

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achieving health benefits while reducing greenhouse gas emissions from transport offers a potential policy win-win; the magnitude of potential benefits, however, is likely to vary. This study uses an Integrated Transport and Health Impact Modelling tool (ITHIM) to evaluate the health and environmental impacts of high walking and cycling transport scenarios for English and Welsh urban areas outside London. METHODS: Three scenarios with increased walking and cycling and lower car us...

  18. Validating administrative data for the detection of adverse events in older hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackroyd-Stolarz S

    2014-08-01

    -related injuries, and 69 adverse drug events were identified through health record review. Of these, 34 pressure ulcers, 54 fall-related injuries, and 47 adverse drug events were also identified in administrative data. Overall, the diagnostic codes for adverse events had a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 0.67 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–0.99 and 0.89 (95% CI: 0.72–0.99, respectively. Conclusion: It is feasible and valid to identify pressure ulcers, fall-related injuries, and adverse drug events in older hospitalized patients using routinely collected administrative hospitalization data. The information is relatively inexpensive and easy to access with no impact on clinical staff. Keywords: geriatrics, patient safety, adverse drug events, pressure ulcers, fall-related injuries

  19. Managing Environmental and Health Impacts of Uranium Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium is the raw material used to produce fuel for nuclear power plants that generate significant amounts of electricity with life cycle carbon emissions that are as low as renewable energy sources. However, the mining of this valuable energy commodity remains controversial, principally because of environmental and health impacts associated with the early years of uranium mining. Maximising production in the face of rapidly rising demand was the principal goal of uranium mining at the time, with little concern given to properly managing environmental and health impacts. Today, societal expectations and regulation of the industry are directed much more towards radiation protection, environmental stewardship, health and safety. With over 430 operational reactors in the world, nuclear fuel will be required for many decades in order to meet requirements to fuel the existing fleet and demand created by new reactors, given the projected growth in nuclear generating capacity, particularly in the developing world. New mines will in turn be needed. As a result, enhancing awareness of leading practices in uranium mining is increasingly important. This report aims to dispel some of the myths, fears and misconceptions about uranium mining by providing an overview of how leading practice mining can significantly reduce all impacts compared to the early strategic period. It also provides a non-technical overview of leading practices, the regulatory environment in which mining companies operate and the outcomes of implementing such practices. Societal expectations related to environmental protection and the safety of workers and the public evolved considerably as the outcomes of the early era of mining became apparent, driving changes in regulatory oversight and mining practices. Uranium mining is now conducted under significantly different circumstances, with leading practice mining the most regulated and one of the safest and environmentally responsible forms of mining in the

  20. The impact of global health initiatives on the health system in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craveiro, Isabel; Dussault, Gilles

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the impact of global health initiatives (GHIs) on the health care system of Angola, as a contribution to documenting how GHIs, such as the Global Fund, GAVI and PEPFAR, influence the planning and delivery of health services in low-income countries and how national systems respond. We collected the views of national and sub-national key informants through 42 semi-structured interviews between April 2009 and May 2011 (12 at the national level and 30 at the sub-national level). We used a snowball technique to identify respondents from government, donors and non-governmental organisations. GHIs stimulated the formulation of a health policy and of plans and strategies, but the country has yet to decide on its priorities for health. At the regional level, managers lack knowledge of how GHIs' function, but they assess the effects of external funds as positive as they increased training opportunities, and augment the number of workers engaged in HIV or other specific disease programmes. However, GHIs did not address the challenge of attraction and retention of qualified personnel in provinces. Since Angola is not entirely dependent on external funding, national strategic programmes and the interventions of GHIs co-habit well, in contrast to countries such as Mozambique, which heavily depend on external aid. PMID:26758687