WorldWideScience

Sample records for adverse environmental conditions

  1. Adverse environmental conditions influence age-related innate immune responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amankwa Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- The innate immune system plays an important role in the recognition and induction of protective responses against infectious pathogens, whilst there is increasing evidence for a role in mediating chronic inflammatory diseases at older age. Despite indications that environmental conditions can influence the senescence process of the adaptive immune system, it is not known whether the same holds true for the innate immune system. Therefore we studied whether age-related innate immune responses are similar or differ between populations living under very diverse environmental conditions. Methods- We compared cross-sectional age-related changes in ex vivo innate cytokine responses in a population living under affluent conditions in the Netherlands (age 20–68 years old, n = 304 and a population living under adverse environmental conditions in Ghana (age 23–95 years old, n = 562. Results- We found a significant decrease in LPS-induced Interleukin (IL-10 and Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF production with age in the Dutch population. In Ghana a similar age-related decline in IL-10 responses to LPS, as well as to zymosan, or LPS plus zymosan, was observed. TNF production, however, did not show an age-associated decline, but increased significantly with age in response to co-stimulation with LPS and zymosan. Conclusion- We conclude that the decline in innate cytokine responses is an intrinsic ageing phenomenon, while pathogen exposure and/or selective survival drive pro-inflammatory responses under adverse living conditions.

  2. Evaluation of oxidative stress during adverse environmental conditions in Marwari sheep from arid tracts in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchi Maan; Nalini Kataria,

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate oxidative stress during adverse environmentalconditions in Marwari sheep breed, to monitor the health status. Six hundred and thirty animals weresampled belonging to arid tracts of Rajasthan, India during adverse environmental conditions includingextreme hot and extreme cold. Oxidative stress was evaluated by determining serum catalase activitiesby basic colorimetric method in which serum was reacted with hydrogen peroxide for specific period oftime. T...

  3. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  4. Bill E. Kunkle Interdisciplinary Beef Symposium: Animal welfare concerns for cattle exposed to adverse environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, T L

    2014-12-01

    Increasing awareness of animal welfare has become a priority in food production systems involving animals. Under normal working environments, production practices are constantly evaluated to maintain optimum levels of animal well-being. However, during periods of adverse weather, optimum conditions for animal comfort, as well as animal performance, are often compromised. In the Midwest and Great Plains states, the heat waves of 1995, 1999, 2006, 2009, 2010, and 2013 were particularly difficult on animals reared in confinement, with documented cattle losses approaching 5,000 head each year. Additionally, during the summer of 2011, nearly 15,000 head of cattle across 5 states were lost as a result of heat stress. During prolonged periods of heat stress, lower conceptions rates are observed in livestock. In addition, animals reared in confinement buildings are often compromised because of limitations in ventilation systems. Under the opposite environmental spectrum, the winters of 1992 to 1993, 1996 to 1997, 1997 to 1998, 2006 to 2007, and 2008 to 2009 caused hardship for livestock producers, particularly for those rearing animals in an outdoor environment. During the winters of 1996 to 1997 and 2008 to 2009 up to 50% of the newborn calves were lost in many areas, with over 75,000 head of cattle lost in the northern plains states. Late fall and early winter snowstorms in 1992, 1997, 2006, and 2013 resulted in the loss of over 25,000 head of cattle each year in the Great Plains region of the United States. Economic losses from reduced performance of cattle experiencing severe environmental stress likely exceed losses associated with livestock death by 5- to 10-fold. Use of alternative supplementation programs may need to be considered for livestock challenged by adverse environmental conditions. Use of additional water for consumption and cooling, shade, and/or alternative management strategies need to be considered to help livestock cope with heat stress. For animals

  5. Selection for genetic variation inducing pro-inflammatory responses under adverse environmental conditions in a Ghanaian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Kuningas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic age-associated, degenerative diseases. Pro-inflammatory host responses that are deleterious later in life may originate from evolutionary selection for genetic variation mediating resistance to infectious diseases under adverse environmental conditions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the Upper-East region of Ghana where infection has remained the leading cause of death, we studied the effect on survival of genetic variations at the IL10 gene locus that have been associated with chronic diseases. Here we show that an IL10 haplotype that associated with a pro-inflammatory innate immune response, characterised by low IL-10 (p = 0.028 and high TNF-alpha levels (p = 1.39 x 10(-3, was enriched among Ghanaian elders (p = 2.46 x 10(-6. Furthermore, in an environment where the source of drinking water (wells/rivers vs. boreholes influences mortality risks (HR 1.28, 95% CI [1.09-1.50], we observed that carriers of the pro-inflammatory haplotype have a survival advantage when drinking from wells/rivers but a disadvantage when drinking from boreholes (p(interaction = 0.013. Resequencing the IL10 gene region did not uncover any additional common variants in the pro-inflammatory haplotype to those SNPs that were initially genotyped. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, these data lend strong arguments for the selection of pro-inflammatory host responses to overcome fatal infection and promote survival in adverse environments.

  6. In vitro techniques for selection of radiation induced mutations adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ever increasing human population and dwindling land and water resources worldwide make it essential to produce more food, fibre and fodder from less and less land. During the last century, plant breeding contributed remarkably to increasing food by producing varieties which give higher yield, have improved quality and nutrition, and resist diseases and pests. Nearly 50% of the increase in food production in Asia during the last fifty years can be attributed to the high yielding, short height varieties of rice and wheat, the remaining to the improved agronomic inputs and management. Many crops, such as cassava, potato, pineapple, sweet potato, sugarcane, banana and plantain are major food crops, and others such as sugarcane and pineapple are important to the economies of many developing countries. One of the solutions to have a sustainable and secure food production is to breed varieties which are tolerant of stress conditions during their growth and development. Hence a Co-ordinated Research Project on In vitro Techniques for Selection of Radiation Induced Mutations Adapted to Adverse Environmental Conditions was initiated and focused primarily on the improvement of vegetatively propagated plants. Since the inception of this project, several participating scientists established the optimal dose requirement for in vitro cultured material. Investigations were carried out on the effect of radiation to alter traits which affect survival under stress conditions and high temperature stress in potato, pineapple, sweet potato and garlic. The possibility to change traits such as tolerance to saline and water logged soils in sugarcane and gene regulation for salinity tolerance were studied. The limited number of available reports suggest that callus cultures are much more sensitive to radiation treatment and require much lower doses (2 to 5 Gy) than stem cuttings or seeds, and that relatively higher doses (15 to 20 Gy) cause necrosis or loss of regenerative capacity. The

  7. Delayed consequences of extremely low frequency magnetic fields and the influence of adverse environmental conditions on roach Rutilus rutilus L. embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav V. Krylov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that animals are most sensitive to the influence of different environmental stressors, including magnetic fields, during the embryonic period. Our study presents data collected over a six-year period on the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MFs (1.4-1.6 µT, 500 Hz and 1.4-1.6 µT, 72.5 Hz and MFs in combination with other environmental stressors (elevated temperature, 0.01 mg/L water solution of trichlorfon, 0.01 mg/L water solution of copper sulphate penta-hydrate on roach embryos. The effects of these stressors were studied during different stages of early development. The fish developed in ponds for four months after exposure to MFs. The weight, standard length and morphological characteristics of underyearlings which developed from the exposed embryos were recorded. An increase in embryo mortality and a decrease in size-weight indices in underyearlings were noted after fish had been exposed to a combination of magnetic fields and different adverse environmental factors. In addition, exposure to magnetic fields led to changes in the total number of vertebrae and in the number of seismosensory system openings in the mandibular bones of underyearlings. Magnetic fields of different frequency caused both increases (500 Hz and decreases (72.5 Hz in underyearlings' morphological diversity. The stressors used did not increase the fluctuating asymmetry of bilateral morphological characters. The possible microevolutionary effects of exposure to magnetic fields alone and in combination with other adverse environmental factors upon natural fish populations are discussed.

  8. Report of second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on in vitro techniques for selection of radiation-induced mutants adapted to adverse environmental conditions. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting was attended by scientists from nine countries: Bangladesh, China P.R., Colombia, Egypt, Ghana, India, Pakistan, Peru and United States of America. The participants in this Research Coordination Meeting are working on the improvement of potato, sweet potato, garlic, sugarcane, pineapple and alfalfa by combining in vitro techniques with induced mutagenesis to select for resistance to salinity, freezing, heat, drought, and water-logging depending upon adverse condition prevailing in their region. The participants reported results of their experiments on the radio-sensitivity tests on in vitro cultured plant material, such as micropropagated plants and organogenic or embryogenic callus cultures. In addition, reports on the modifications of culture media required to regenerate and multiply local varieties and to carry out in vitro selection for specific stress conditions were presented. Refs, figs, tabs

  9. Hierarchically nanotextured surfaces maintaining superhydrophobicity under severely adverse conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Tanmoy; Antonini, Carlo; Auf der Mauer, Matthias; Stamatopoulos, Christos; Tiwari, Manish K.; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2014-07-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically nanostructured, environmentally friendly, metal-based (aluminum) superhydrophobic surfaces, which maintain their performance under severely adverse conditions. Based on their functionality, we superpose selected hydrophobic layers (i.e. self-assembled monolayers, thin films, or nanofibrous coatings) on hierarchically textured aluminum surfaces, collectively imparting high level robustness of superhydrophobicity under adverse conditions. These surfaces simultaneously exhibit chemical stability, mechanical durability and droplet impalement resistance. They impressively maintained their superhydrophobicity after exposure to severely adverse chemical environments like strong alkaline (pH ~ 9-10), acidic (pH ~ 2-3), and ionic solutions (3.5 weight% of sodium chloride), and could simultaneously resist water droplet impalement up to an impact velocity of 3.2 m s-1 as well as withstand standard mechanical durability tests.Superhydrophobic surfaces are highly desirable for a broad range of technologies and products affecting everyday life. Despite significant progress in recent years in understanding the principles of hydrophobicity, mostly inspired by surface designs found in nature, many man-made surfaces employ readily processable materials, ideal to demonstrate principles, but with little chance of survivability outside a very limited range of well-controlled environments. Here we focus on the rational development of robust, hierarchically

  10. Modelling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    Jørgensen and Dau (J Acoust Soc Am 130:1475-1487, 2011) proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech...... subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of the intelligibility of speech signal is strongly affected, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast, the effects of this distortion can be predicted -successfully by the spectro-temporal modulation...... suggest that the SNRenv might reflect a powerful decision metric, while some explicit across-frequency analysis seems crucial in some conditions. How such across-frequency analysis is "realized" in the auditory system remains unresolved....

  11. Modeling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    by the normal as well as impaired auditory system. Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII......) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting...... the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of speech is destroyed, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast...

  12. Migration, neighborhoods, and networks: approaches to understanding how urban environmental conditions affect syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, James E; Frye, Victoria; Kurtz, Steven P; Latkin, Carl; Chen, Minxing; Tobin, Karin; Yang, Cui; Koblin, Beryl A

    2011-04-01

    Adopting socioecological, intersectionality, and lifecourse theoretical frameworks may enhance our understanding of the production of syndemic adverse health outcomes among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM). From this perspective, we present preliminary data from three related studies that suggest ways in which social contexts may influence the health of MSM. The first study, using cross-sectional data, looked at migration of MSM to the gay resort area of South Florida, and found that amount of time lived in the area was associated with risk behaviors and HIV infection. The second study, using qualitative interviews, observed complex interactions between neighborhood-level social environments and individual-level racial and sexual identity among MSM in New York City. The third study, using egocentric network analysis with a sample of African American MSM in Baltimore, found that sexual partners were more likely to be found through face-to-face means than the Internet. They also observed that those who co-resided with a sex partner had larger networks of people to depend on for social and financial support, but had the same size sexual networks as those who did not live with a partner. Overall, these findings suggest the need for further investigation into the role of macro-level social forces on the emotional, behavioral, and physical health of urban MSM.

  13. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS... significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106.... Determinations will be based upon the best information available, including relevant environmental...

  14. HEPA Filter Performance under Adverse Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study involved challenging nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters under a variety of conditions that can arise in Department of Energy (DOE) applications such as: low or high RH, controlled and uncontrolled challenge, and filters with physically damaged media or seals (i.e., leaks). Reported findings correlate filter function as measured by traditional differential pressure techniques in comparison with simultaneous instrumental determination of up and down stream PM concentrations. Additionally, emission rates and failure signatures will be discussed for filters that have either failed or exceeded their usable lifetime. Significant findings from this effort include the use of thermocouples up and down stream of the filter housing to detect the presence of moisture. Also demonstrated in the moisture challenge series of tests is the effect of repeated wetting of the filter. This produces a phenomenon referred to as transient failure before the tensile strength of the media weakens to the point of physical failure. An evaluation of the effect of particle size distribution of the challenge aerosol on loading capacity of filters is also included. Results for soot and two size distributions of KCl are reported. Loading capacities for filters ranged from approximately 70 g of soot to nearly 900 g for the larger particle size distribution of KCl. (authors)

  15. 40 CFR 125.94 - How will requirements reflecting best technology available for minimizing adverse environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact be established for my Phase II existing... technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact for your facility in accordance with paragraphs... technology available for minimizing adverse environmental impact. This determination must be based...

  16. Do oral health conditions adversely impact young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Carvalho; H.D. Mestrinho; S. Stevens; A.J. van Wijk

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the extent to which clinically measured oral health conditions, adjusted for sociodemographic and oral health behavior determinants, impact adversely on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in a sample of Belgian young adults. The null hypothesis was that, among young

  17. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers.

  18. Health Monitoring and Management for Manufacturing Workers in Adverse Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoya; Zhong, Miao; Wan, Jiafu; Yi, Minglun; Gao, Tiancheng

    2016-10-01

    In adverse working conditions, environmental parameters such as metallic dust, noise, and environmental temperature, directly affect the health condition of manufacturing workers. It is therefore important to implement health monitoring and management based on important physiological parameters (e.g., heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature). In recent years, new technologies, such as body area networks, cloud computing, and smart clothing, have allowed the improvement of the quality of services. In this article, we first give five-layer architecture for health monitoring and management of manufacturing workers. Then, we analyze the system implementation process, including environmental data processing, physical condition monitoring and system services and management, and present the corresponding algorithms. Finally, we carry out an evaluation and analysis from the perspective of insurance and compensation for manufacturing workers in adverse working conditions. The proposed scheme will contribute to the improvement of workplace conditions, realize health monitoring and management, and protect the interests of manufacturing workers. PMID:27624491

  19. Survivability of meteor burst communication under adverse operating conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis is a study of the survivability and reliability issues associated with operating meteor burst communication systems under adverse conditions. Meteor burst communication relies on the phenomenon of reflecting radio waves off the ionized trails left by meteors as they enter the atmosphere and disintegrate. The system's rapid deployment capability, mobility, and operating characteristics make it ideal for disast...

  20. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Mayhew, David A.; Muessig, Paul H.; Loren D. Jensen

    2002-01-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b) of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI). Section 316(b) requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regar...

  1. Minimizing Adverse Environmental Impact: How Murky the Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed W. Super

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The withdrawal of water from the nation’s waterways to cool industrial facilities kills billions of adult, juvenile, and larval fish each year. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA promulgation of categorical rules defining the best technology available to minimize adverse environmental impact (AEI could standardize and improve the control of such mortality. However, in an attempt to avoid compliance costs, industry has seized on the statutory phrase “adverse environmental impact” to propose significant procedural and substantive hurdles and layers of uncertainty in the permitting of cooling-water intakes under the Clean Water Act. These include, among other things, a requirement to prove that a particular facility threatens the sustainability of an aquatic population as a prerequisite to regulation. Such claims have no foundation in science, law, or the English language. Any nontrivial aquatic mortality constitutes AEI, as the EPA and several state and federal regulatory agencies have properly acknowledged. The focus of scientists, lawyers, regulators, permit applicants, and other interested parties should not be on defining AEI, but rather on minimizing AEI, which requires minimization of impingement and entrainment.

  2. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA commitment to human space flight includes continuing to fly astronauts on the ISS until it is decommissioned as well as possibly returning astronauts to the moon or having astronauts venture to an asteroid or Mars. As missions leave low Earth orbit and explore deeper space, BHP supports and conducts research to enable a risk posture that considers the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders “acceptable given mitigations,” for pre-, in, and post-flight.The Human System Risk Board (HSRB) determines the risk of various mission scenarios using a likelihood (per person per year) by consequences matrix examining those risks across two categories—long term health and operational (within mission). Colors from a stoplight signal are used by HSRB and quickly provide a means of assessing overall perceived risk for a particular mission scenario. Risk associated with the current six month missions on the ISS are classified as “accepted with monitoring” while planetary missions, such as a mission to Mars, are recognized to be a “red” risk that requires mitigation to ensure mission success.Currently, the HSRB deems that the risk of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric outcomes requires mitigation for planetary missions owing to long duration isolation and radiation exposure (see Table 1). While limited research evidence exists from spaceflight, it is well known anecdotally that the shift from the two week shuttle missions to the six month ISS missions renders the psychological stressors of space as more salient over longer duration missions. Shuttle astronauts were expected just to tolerate any stressors that arose during their mission and were successful at doing so (Whitmire et al, 2013). While it is possible to deal with stressors such as social isolation and to live with incompatible crewmembers for two weeks on shuttle, “ignoring it” is much less likely to be a successful coping mechanism

  3. Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline Borch Petersen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory. One neural signature of working memory load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6 ‒ 12 Hz. However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of working memory when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram (EEG was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62 – 86 years, with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss, behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level and hearing loss; while alpha power increased with hearing loss during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe hearing loss under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of hearing loss, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  4. Adverse Environmental Impact: 30-Year Search for a Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Mayhew

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the Clean Water Act in 1972, there has been a long, unresolved struggle to define a key phrase in Section 316(b of the act: “adverse environmental impact” (AEI. Section 316(b requires that the best technology available be used in cooling-water intake structures to minimize AEI due to entrainment and impingement of aquatic organisms. Various attempts were made to evaluate and define AEI, including focused national conferences on impact assessment. Unresolved arguments regarding AEI were reinvigorated following the 1995 Consent Decree requiring EPA to propose new rules to implement Section 316(b. This article reviews and compares eight proposed definitions of AEI. Six of the definitions define AEI as impact expressed at the population or higher level of biological organization. The two remaining definitions are unrelated to populations: a 1% cropping of the near-field organisms and “one fish equals AEI”. The latter definition is based on the desire of some stakeholders to define AEI as the loss of any public trust resources. Equating loss of public trust resources with AEI hampers consensus on a definition because a societal-based policy concept (public trust resources is commingled with science-based definitions based on population effects. We recommend that a population-based definition of AEI be incorporated into Section 316(b guidance and observe that this will not preclude a state from exercising its law and policy to protect public trust resources.

  5. Adverse Conditions and ASR Techniques for Robust Speech User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila Shrawankar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main motivation for Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR is efficient interfaces to computers, and for the interfaces to be natural and truly useful, it should provide coverage for a large group of users. The purpose of these tasks is to further improve man-machine communication. ASR systems exhibit unacceptable degradations in performance when the acoustical environments used for training and testing the system are not the same. The goal of this research is to increase the robustness of the speech recognition systems with respect to changes in the environment. A system can be labeled as environment-independent if the recognition accuracy for a new environment is the same or higher than that obtained when the system is retrained for that environment. Attaining such performance is the dream of the researchers. This paper elaborates some of the difficulties with Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR. These difficulties are classified into Speakers characteristics and environmental conditions, and tried to suggest some techniques to compensate variations in speech signal. This paper focuses on the robustness with respect to speakers variations and changes in the acoustical environment. We discussed several different external factors that change the environment and physiological differences that affect the performance of a speech recognition system followed by techniques that are helpful to design a robust ASR system

  6. Quantifying the impact of adverse weather conditions on road network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Calvert, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions regularly lead to severe congestion and large travel time delays on road networks all over the world. Different climate scenarios indicate that in the future adverse weather conditions are likely to become more frequent, last longer and will be more extreme. Although clima

  7. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  8. Functions of Nitric Oxide (NO in Roots during Development and under Adverse Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Corpas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The free radical molecule, nitric oxide (NO, is present in the principal organs of plants, where it plays an important role in a wide range of physiological functions. Root growth and development are highly regulated by both internal and external factors such as nutrient availability, hormones, pattern formation, cell polarity and cell cycle control. The presence of NO in roots has opened up new areas of research on the role of NO, including root architecture, nutrient acquisition, microorganism interactions and the response mechanisms to adverse environmental conditions, among others. Additionally, the exogenous application of NO throughout the roots has the potential to counteract specific damages caused by certain stresses. This review aims to provide an up-to-date perspective on NO functions in the roots of higher plants.

  9. COST TU0702: Real-time monitoring, surveillance and control of road networks under adverse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Minh Tan

    2012-01-01

    Contribution au chapitre 1: Pavement surface conditions during adverse weather. Effects of adverse weather conditions on pavement surface conditions are assessed by measuring the effect of water and snow/ice on skid resistance. Skid resistance is defined as the contribution of the road surface to the tire/road friction. Water alters skid resistance by masking the top of the road surface. The tire tread pattern and the road macro/microtexture can help to evacuate the water film. However,...

  10. 15 CFR 970.701 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES... effects of deep seabed mining which cumulatively during commercial recovery have the potential for significant effect. These three effects also occur during mining system tests that may be conducted under...

  11. Adverse effects of methylmercury: environmental health research implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Satoh, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The scientific discoveries of health risks resulting from methylmercury exposure began in 1865 describing ataxia, dysarthria, constriction of visual fields, impaired hearing, and sensory disturbance as symptoms of fatal methylmercury poisoning. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine how...... significance for environmental health research in general. SYNTHESIS: At first, methylmercury research was impaired by inappropriate attention to narrow case definitions and uncertain chemical speciation. It also ignored the link between ecotoxicity and human toxicity. As a result, serious delays affected...... the recognition of methylmercury as a cause of serious human poisonings in Minamata, Japan. Developmental neurotoxicity was first reported in 1952, but despite accumulating evidence, the vulnerability of the developing nervous system was not taken into account in risk assessment internationally until...

  12. ACCEPT: Introduction of the Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Rodney A.; Santanu, Das; Janakiraman, Vijay Manikandan; Hosein, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of anomalies or adverse events is a challenging task, and there are a variety of methods which can be used to address the problem. In this paper, we introduce a generic framework developed in MATLAB (sup registered mark) called ACCEPT (Adverse Condition and Critical Event Prediction Toolbox). ACCEPT is an architectural framework designed to compare and contrast the performance of a variety of machine learning and early warning algorithms, and tests the capability of these algorithms to robustly predict the onset of adverse events in any time-series data generating systems or processes.

  13. Comprehension of Familiar and Unfamiliar Native Accents under Adverse Listening Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adank, Patti; Evans, Bronwen G.; Stuart-Smith, Jane; Scott, Sophie K.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relative processing cost associated with comprehension of an unfamiliar native accent under adverse listening conditions. Two sentence verification experiments were conducted in which listeners heard sentences at various signal-to-noise ratios. In Experiment 1, these sentences were spoken in a familiar or an…

  14. 7 CFR 760.203 - Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... to, flood, freeze, hurricane, hail, tidal surge, volcanic eruption, and wildfire on non-Federal land... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible losses, adverse weather, and other loss conditions. 760.203 Section 760.203 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued)...

  15. Adverse acculturation conditions and well-being of mine employees in the North-West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Burckard, Anneke; Jackson, Leon Trodricht Basie; Van de Vijver, Alphonsius Josephus Rachel

    2011-01-01

    The frequency of intercultural contact in the South African workplace has increased after 1994. We investigated relations between adverse acculturation conditions, separation and well-being in Black and White miners. We utilized a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black and White miners. We then considered the effect of race in the experiences of miners and also used multigroup path analysis to determine whether identical relations between multiculturalism, work success,...

  16. Speech perception under adverse conditions: insights from behavioral, computational, and neuroscience research

    OpenAIRE

    Guediche, Sara; Blumstein, Sheila E.; Fiez, Julie A.; Holt, Lori L.

    2014-01-01

    Adult speech perception reflects the long-term regularities of the native language, but it is also flexible such that it accommodates and adapts to adverse listening conditions and short-term deviations from native-language norms. The purpose of this article is to examine how the broader neuroscience literature can inform and advance research efforts in understanding the neural basis of flexibility and adaptive plasticity in speech perception. Specifically, we highlight the potential role of ...

  17. Risk of Adverse Cognitive or Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders: Evidence Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Kelley J.; Williams, Thomas J.; Schneiderman, Jason S.; Whitmire, Alexandra M.; Picano, James J.; Leveton, Lauren B.; Schmidt, Lacey L.; Shea, Camille

    2016-01-01

    In April 2010, President Obama declared a space pioneering goal for the United States in general and NASA in particular. "Fifty years after the creation of NASA, our goal is no longer just a destination to reach. Our goal is the capacity for people to work and learn and operate and live safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time, ultimately in ways that are more sustainable and even indefinite." Thus NASA's Strategic Objective 1.1 emerged as "expand human presence into the solar system and to the surface of Mars to advance exploration, science, innovation, benefits to humanity, and international collaboration" (NASA 2015b). Any space flight, be it of long or short duration, occurs in an extreme environment that has unique stressors. Even with excellent selection methods, the potential for behavioral problems among space flight crews remain a threat to mission success. Assessment of factors that are related to behavioral health can help minimize the chances of distress and, thus, reduce the likelihood of adverse cognitive or behavioral conditions and psychiatric disorders arising within a crew. Similarly, countermeasures that focus on prevention and treatment can mitigate the cognitive or behavioral conditions that, should they arise, would impact mission success. Given the general consensus that longer duration, isolation, and confined missions have a greater risk for behavioral health ensuring crew behavioral health over the long term is essential. Risk, which within the context of this report is assessed with respect to behavioral health and performance, is addressed to deter development of cognitive and behavioral degradations or psychiatric conditions in space flight and analog populations, and to monitor, detect, and treat early risk factors, predictors and other contributing factors. Based on space flight and analog evidence, the average incidence rate of an adverse behavioral health event occurring during a space mission is relatively low for the

  18. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Mosedale

    Full Text Available The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  19. Fluid Sampling under Adverse Conditions Echantillonnage des fluides en conditions difficiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams J. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Valid samples are essential to the proper description of reservoir fluids; if the samples are not representative, all measurements on them will be invalid. This paper discusses the principal challenges facing fluid sampling including gas condensate reservoirs, compositional gradients, water content of hydrocarbon fluids, asphaltene deposition, wax formation, oil base mud contamination, and reactive components. It also reports the major technological advances recently made in this field. It reviews developments in sampling techniques such as MDT-type tools, new DST sampling tools, coiled tubing sampling, and isokinetic techniques, and it highlights common limitations. The value of making proper use of existing technology is emphasized, both with traditional techniques and new developments, with reference to correct well conditioning, interpretation of field data, and especially to optimum handling of samples. The paper emphasizes the need for better exchange of sampling knowledge between organizations, and highlights the lack of up-to-date industry standards with respect to fluid sampling. A solution is proposed in the form of a joint industry project to identify and document best practices. Des échantillons valables sont essentiels pour bien caractériser les fluides de gisements. Si les échantillons ne sont pas représentatifs, toutes les mesures ultérieures seront entachées d'erreurs. Cet article discute les principaux défis en matière d'échantillonnage, en particulier les réservoirs de gaz à condensats, les gradients compositionnels, la teneur en eau des fluides hydrocarbonés, les dépôts d'asphaltènes, les dépôts de paraffines, la contamination par les boues à base d'huile, et les constituants réactifs. Il relate également les principaux progrès technologiques récemment réalisés dans ce domaine et passe en revue les développements des techniques d'échantillonnage telles que les outils de type MDT, les nouveaux outils d

  20. Adverse acculturation conditions and wellbeing in the workplace : the mediating role of separation / Dudley Gustav de Koker

    OpenAIRE

    De Koker, Dudley Gustav

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the mediating role of ethnic separation in the relationship between adverse acculturation conditions and wellbeing in the workplace. The analysis entails establishment of how acculturation conditions, such as segregation demands, racism and discrimination, affect employees’ intentions to quit and their physical and psychological health. In addition, it aims to determine the mediating role of ethnic separation between adverse conditions and wellbeing. De...

  1. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elias; Morales, Alejandro; Harbinson, Jeremy; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-05-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the research questions necessary to advance our understanding of interactions between environmental factors and dynamic behaviour of photosynthesis using a mechanistic framework. Firstly, dynamic photosynthesis is separated into sub-processes related to proton and electron transport, non-photochemical quenching, control of metabolite flux through the Calvin cycle (activation states of Rubisco and RuBP regeneration, and post-illumination metabolite turnover), and control of CO₂ supply to Rubisco (stomatal and mesophyll conductance changes). Secondly, the modulation of dynamic photosynthesis and its sub-processes by environmental factors is described. Increases in ambient CO₂ concentration and temperature (up to ~35°C) enhance rates of photosynthetic induction and decrease its loss, facilitating more efficient dynamic photosynthesis. Depending on the sensitivity of stomatal conductance, dynamic photosynthesis may additionally be modulated by air humidity. Major knowledge gaps exist regarding environmental modulation of loss of photosynthetic induction, dynamic changes in mesophyll conductance, and the extent of limitations imposed by stomatal conductance for different species and environmental conditions. The study of mutants or genetic transformants for specific processes under various environmental conditions could provide significant progress in understanding the control of dynamic photosynthesis.

  2. Environmental Conditions in Kentucky's Penal Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Irving

    1974-01-01

    A state task force was organized to identify health or environmental deficiencies existing in Kentucky penal institutions. Based on information gained through direct observation and inmate questionnaires, the task force concluded that many hazardous and unsanitary conditions existed, and recommended that immediate action be given to these…

  3. Chosen risk level during car-following in adverse weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2016-10-01

    This study examines how precipitation, light conditions and surface conditions affect the drivers' risk perception. An indicator CRI (Chosen Risk Index) is defined, which describes the chosen risk level for drivers in a car-following situation. The dataset contains about 70 000 observations of driver behaviour and weather status on a rural road. Based on the theory of risk homeostasis and an assumption that driving behaviour in situations with daylight, dry road and no precipitation reflects drivers' target level of risk, generalised linear models (GLM) were estimated for cars and trucks separately to reveal the effect of adverse weather conditions on risk perception. The analyses show that both car and truck drivers perceive the highest risk when driving on snow covered roads. For car drivers, a snow covered road in combination with moderate rain or light snow are the factors which lowers the CRI the most. For trucks, snow cover and partially covered roads significantly lowers the CRI, while precipitation did not seem to impose any higher risk. Interaction effects were found for car drivers only. PMID:27454867

  4. Optical tests of a space mechanism under an adverse environment: GAIA secondary mirror mechanism under vaccum and thermal controlled conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Sánchez Rodríguez, Antonio; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Urgoiti, Eduardo; Ramírez Quintana, Argiñe

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the optical evaluation of a mechanism for space applications under vacuum and temperature controlled conditions at the facilities of the Space Instrumentation Laboratory (LINES) of the Aerospace Technical Nacional Institute of Spain (INTA) is reported. The mechanism was developed by the Spanish company SENER to fulfill the high performance requirements from ESA technology preparatory program for GAIA Astrometric Mission; in particular, a five degrees of freedom (dof), three translations and two rotations positioning mechanism for the secondary mirror of the GAIA instrument. Both interferometric tests and autocollimator measurements have been combined in order to extract the information about the accuracy of the mechanism movements as well as their repeatability under adverse environmental conditions: vacuum and thermal controlled conditions, up to a 10 -6mbar and 100K. The scope of this paper will cover the measurements concept selection, the presentation of verification activities, the results of such dedicated optical measurements, the correlation with the mechanical models and a brief description of the design process followed to meet the test requirements.

  5. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  6. Defining “Adverse Environmental Impact” and Making § 316(b Decisions: A Fisheries Management Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Bailey

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric utility industry has developed an approach for decisionmaking that includes a definition of Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI and an implementation process. The definition of AEI is based on lessons from fishery management science and analysis of the statutory term “adverse environmental impact” and is consistent with current natural resource management policy. The industry has proposed a definition focusing on “unacceptable risk to the population’s ability to sustain itself, to support reasonably anticipated commercial or recreational harvests, or to perform its normal ecological function.” This definition focuses not on counting individual fish or eggs cropped by the various uses of a water body, but on preserving populations of aquatic organisms and their functions in the aquatic community. The definition recognizes that assessment of AEI should be site-specific and requires both a biological decision and a balancing of diverse societal values. The industry believes that the definition of AEI should be implemented in a process that will maximize the overall societal benefit of the § 316(b decision by considering the facility’s physical location, design, and operation, as well as the local biology. The approach considers effects on affected fish and shellfish populations and the benefits of any necessary best technology available (BTA alternatives. This is accomplished through consideration of population impacts, which conversely allows consideration of the benefits of any necessary BTA modifications. This in turn allows selection of BTAs that will protect potentially affected populations in a cost-effective manner. The process also employs risk assessment with stakeholder participation, in accordance with EPA’s Guidelines for Ecological Risk Assessment. The information and tools are now available to make informed decisions about site-specific impacts that will ensure protection of aquatic ecosystems and best serve

  7. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  8. Overcoming adverse weather conditions with a common optical path, multiple sensors, and intelligent image fusion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joseph; Piacentino, Michael; Caldwell, Brian

    2008-04-01

    Mission success is highly dependent on the ability to accomplish Surveillance, Situation Awareness, Target Detection and Classification, but is challenging under adverse weather conditions. This paper introduces an engineering prototype to address the image collection challenges using a Common Optical Path, Multiple Sensors and an Intelligent Image Fusion System, and provides illustrations and sample fusion images. Panavision's advanced wide spectrum optical design has permitted a suite of imagers to perform observations through a common optical path with a common field of view, thereby aligning images and facilitating optimized downstream image processing. The adaptable design also supports continuous zoom or Galilean lenses for multiple field of views. The Multiple Sensors include: (1) High-definition imaging sensors that are small, have low power consumption and a wide dynamic range; (2) EMCCD sensors that transition from daylight to starlight, even under poor weather conditions, with sensitivity down to 0.00025 Lux; and (3) SWIR sensors that, with the advancement in InGaAs, are able to generate ultra-high sensitivity images from 1-1.7μm reflective light and can achieve imaging through haze and some types of camouflage. The intelligent fusion of multiple sensors provides high-resolution color information with previously impossible sensitivity and contrast. With the integration of Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), real-time Image Processing and Fusion Algorithms can facilitate mission success in a small, low power package.

  9. Parental exposure at periconception to environmental adverse factors and early embryo loss in Tianjin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Hai-yan; Wang Dan; Yang Zhen-hua; Zou Xiao-ping; Chen Ya-qiong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the association of environmental adverse factors with early embryo loss, and explore the possible risk factors in daily life. Methods: A questionnaire was administered to 93 new cases of embryo loss (case group) collected in four general hospitals in Tianjin from April 2007 to April 2008 and 93 matched cases of induced abortion (control group) in normal pregnant women who sought the abortion by other reasons. The questionnaire covered information on parental exposure to various environmental factors during and before pregnancy, and the information on daily life. Data were analyzed by single-factor analysis, multiple linear regression and logistic regression analysis. Possible risk factors were identified and odds ratio calculated.Results: Cooking frequently during pregnancy, more daily traffic hours, and decoration history in early pregnancy and paternal exposure to toxic matters three months before pregnancy were associated with early embryo loss, while maternal education was a protective factor. Conclusion: Women exposed to the harmful substances from traffic emissions, cooking and decoration could be at an increased risk of early embryo loss.

  10. Assessment of Deep Geological Environmental Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    - Evaluation of stable geologic conditions for a repository · Qualitative and Quantitative evaluation of volcanic, seismic, faulting and uplifting activities near Korean peninsula · Definition of parameters describing the neotectonic movement and establishment of stable geologic environmental conditions - Conceptualization of geological setting including groundwater flow pathway · Establishment of reference pathway geological setting · Analysis of hydraulic property of the reference pathway system · Characterization of groundwater flow system through groundwater age measurement using environmental isotope in each pathway domain · Hydro-geochemical interactions of water-fillings-host rock · Redox front transition regime in the main-pathway domain - Hydrogeological and hydrochemical properties of reference pathway · Hydrogeologic/geochemical long-term monitoring using a multi-packer system · Particle travel distance and time in the reference pathway · Synthesis of integrated condition for flow system changes in reference pathway case - Establishment of factors for repository design · Acquisition of mechanical and thermal properties of rocks from the existing data · Estimation of stress field due to future loads change - Establishment of factors for safety assessment · Characterization of hydraulic property of repository and main pathway domain from chemical and environmental isotope analysis of groundwater · Determination of hydraulic parameters through in-situ tests in the KURT and the reference pathway · Comparison of hydraulic properties of the reference pathway system and the KURT · Synthesis of integrated condition for flow system changes in reference pathway case - Development of the investigation and analysis techniques · Quantifying technique for fracture properties · Analysis technique for a borehole logging test

  11. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Wim; Kros, Hans; Kroeze, Carolien; Seitzinger, Sybil

    2014-05-01

    In this presentation, we first discuss the concept of -, governance interest in- and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. We then systematically evaluate the criticism and argue that planetary N boundaries need to include both the benefits and adverse impacts of reactive N (Nr) and the spatial variability of Nr impacts, in terms of shortage and surplus, being main arguments for not deriving such boundaries. Next, we present an holistic approach for an updated planetary N boundary by considering the need to: (i) avoid adverse impacts of elevated Nr emissions to water, air and soils, and (ii) feed the world population in an adequate way. The derivation of a planetary N boundary, in terms of anthropogenic fixation of di-nitrogen (N2) by growing legumes and production of N fertilizer, is illustrated by (i) identification of multiple threat N indicators and setting critical limits for them, (ii) back calculating critical N losses from critical limits for N indicators, while accounting for the spatial variability of indicators and their exceedance and (iii) back calculating critical N fixation rates from critical N losses. The derivation of the needed planetary N fixation is assessed from the global population, the recommended dietary N consumption per capita and the N use efficiency in the complete chain from N fixation to N consumption. Results of example applications show that the previously suggested planetary N boundary of 25% of the current value is too low in view of needed N fixation and also unnecessary in view of most environmental impacts. We also illustrate the impacts of changes in the N use efficiency on planetary boundaries in terms of critical N fixation rates.

  12. Efficiency of Sodium Polyacrylate to Improve Durability of Concrete under Adverse Curing Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional external curing process requires supply of large amount of water in addition to mixing water as well as strict quality control protocol. However, in a developing country like Bangladesh, many local contractors do not have awareness and required knowledge on importance of curing which often results in weaker concrete with durability issues. Moreover, at times it is difficult to maintain proper external curing process due to nonavailability of water and skilled laborer. Internal curing can be adopted under such scenario since this method is simple and less quality intensive. Usually, naturally occurring porous light weight aggregates (LWA are used as internal curing agent. However, naturally occurring LWA are not available in many countries like Bangladesh. Under these circumstances, Super Absorbent Polymer (SAP can be utilized as an alternative internal curing agent. In this study, sodium polyacrylate (SP as SAP has been used to produce internally cured concrete. Desorption isotherm of SP has been developed to investigate its effectiveness as internal curing agent. Test results showed that internally cured concrete with SP performed better in terms of both strength and durability as compared to control samples when subjected to adverse curing conditions where supply of additional water for external curing was absent.

  13. Assessment of nitrogen ceilings for Dutch agricultural soils to avoid adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, W; Kros, H; Oenema, O; Erisman, J W

    2001-11-01

    In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N) into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1) nitrate (NO3) contamination of drinking water, (2) eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3) acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4) ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5) global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling) and to the soil surface (application in the field) by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO 3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3) emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH 3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year(-1) depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year(-1). A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture. PMID:12805837

  14. Assessment of Nitrogen Ceilings for Dutch Agricultural Soils to Avoid Adverse Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, high traffic density and intensive animal husbandry have led to high emissions of reactive nitrogen (N into the environment. This leads to a series of environmental impacts, including: (1 nitrate (NO3 contamination of drinking water, (2 eutrophication of freshwater lakes, (3 acidification and biodiversity impacts on terrestrial ecosystems, (4 ozone and particle formation affecting human health, and (5 global climate change induced by emissions of N2O. Measures to control reactive N emissions were, up to now, directed towards those different environmental themes. Here we summarize the results of a study to analyse the agricultural N problem in the Netherlands in an integrated way, which means that all relevant aspects are taken into account simultaneously. A simple N balance model was developed, representing all crucial processes in the N chain, to calculate acceptable N inputs to the farm (so-called N ceiling and to the soil surface (application in the field by feed concentrates, organic manure, fertiliser, deposition, and N fixation. The N ceilings were calculated on the basis of critical limits for NO3 concentrations in groundwater, N concentrations in surface water, and ammonia (NH3 emission targets related to the protection of biodiversity of natural areas. Results show that in most parts of the Netherlands, except the western and the northern part, the N ceilings are limited by NH3 emissions, which are derived from critical N loads for nature areas, rather than limits for both ground- and surface water. On the national scale, the N ceiling ranges between 372 and 858 kton year–1 depending on the choice of critical limits. The current N import is 848 kton year–1. A decrease of nearly 60% is needed to reach the ceilings that are necessary to protect the environment against all adverse impacts of N pollution from agriculture.

  15. Tolerances of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial isolates from sites relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes have been subjected to extreme environmental conditions in order to ascertain their tolerance ability. Two groups were chosen, sulphate reducing bacteria and sulphur oxidising bacteria, because of their potential effects on waste containment. They have been subjected to high temperatures, pressures and radiation (delta-emissions) in optimal media conditions and their ability to tolerate the conditions has been ascertained by epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis followed by 'culture-on' to assess post experimental viability. Results indicate that the sulphate reducers in general, are more tolerant to these conditions than the sulphur oxidisers, some proving to be thermophilic. The sulphate reducer showed increased growth rates, as determined by population numbers, at 500C and survived at 800C, 4,500 psig (310 bar) with no subsequent loss in viability. Gamma irradiation of this group and an isolate of 105 rad over 4 hours had no effect on population numbers or viability. Such resistances are not apparent with the sulphur oxidisers whose numbers decreased with increasing radiation dose and are destroyed with pressure. (author)

  16. Red Sea Acropora hemprichii Bacterial Population Dynamics under Adverse Anthropogenic Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Lizcano, Javier

    2012-08-01

    Reef-building corals are cornerstones of life in the oceans. Understanding their interactions with microorganisms and their surrounding physicochemical conditions is important to comprehend reef functioning and ultimately protect coral reef ecosystems. Corals associate with a complex and specific array of microorganisms that supposedly affect their physiology and therefore can significantly determine the condition of a coral ecosystem. As environmental conditions may shape bacterial diversity and ecology in the coral symbiosis, ecosystem changes might have unfavorable consequences for the holobiont, to date poorly understood. Here, we were studying microbial community changes in A. hemprichii as a consequence of simulated eutrophication and overfishing over a period of 16 weeks by using in situ caging and slow release fertilizer treatments in an undisturbed Red Sea reef (22.18ºN, 38.57ºW). We used 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to evaluate the individual and combined effects of overnutrification and fishing pressure, two of the most common local threats to coral reefs. With our data we hope to better understand bacterial population dynamics under anthropogenic influences and its role in coral resilience. Projecting further, this data will be useful to better predict the consequences of human activity on reef ecosystems.

  17. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  18. Stress, Health Behavior, and Sleep as Mediators of the Association between Loneliness and Adverse Health Conditions among Older People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Julie

    was significantly associated with poor self-rated health, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and migraine. In addition, high perceived stress, physical inactivity, problems with alcohol, and poor sleep demonstrated an indirect effect on the association between loneliness and adverse health conditions. The findings...

  19. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Rötter, Reimund P.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita;

    2014-01-01

    events that might significantly affect wheat yield in Europe. For this purpose we analysed changes in the frequency of the occurrence of 11 adverse weather events. Using climate scenarios based on the most recent ensemble of climate models and greenhouse gases emission estimates, we assessed...

  20. Abnormal features of Macoma balthica (Bivalvia) in the Baltic Sea: alerting symptoms of environmental adversity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Adam; Wolowicz, Maciej; Hummel, Herman; Smolarz-Gorska, Katarzyna; Fichet, Denis; Radenac, Gilles; Thiriot-Quievreux, Catherine; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2004-07-01

    Recent studies of the Baltic clam Macoma balthica (L.) from the southern Baltic (the Gulf of Gdansk) have revealed striking morphological, histological and cytogenetic features. Strong deformation of the shell, including elongation of the posterior end and the appearance of an easily visible flexure in this part, has been recorded. The population contribution of the deformed blunt shelled ('irregular') clams ranged from 0% to 65% and tended to increase with depth. The morphologically 'irregular' clams had higher accumulated tissue concentrations of trace metals (As, Ag, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn), indicating a different metal handling ability. Adverse conditions in deeper water regions of the Gulf (e.g. hypoxia, hydrogen sulphide, elevated bioavailability of contaminants) have been suggested as inducers of the phenotypical changes (morphological deformation) in part of the population and, in parallel, of the specific physiological adaptations that result in higher metal accumulation in the 'irregular' clams. Cytogenetic and histological analyses showed the presence of tumours in gill cells and digestive system of the affected clams, the prevalence of disseminated neoplasia ranging from 0% to 94% depending on the site. The disease was manifested by a modified karyotype (i.e. an abnormal number and morphology of chromosomes), a higher activity of nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs), and tissue lesions (enlarged cells, actively proliferative with pleomorphic nuclei). Bottom sediments showed acute toxicity and have been proposed as a source of an initialising carcinogenic factor. However, none of the ecotoxicological studies provided was successful in the clear demonstration of a single (or multifactorial) agent that can account for the disseminated neoplasia.

  1. 10 CFR 50.36b - Environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 50.36b Environmental conditions. (a) Each construction permit under this part, each early site permit... conditions to protect the environment during construction. These conditions are to be set out in...

  2. Potential roles of omics data in the use of adverse outcome pathways for environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current approach to assessing adverse effects of chemicals in the environment is largely based on a battery of in-vivo study methods and a limited number of accepted in-silico approaches. For most substances the pool of data from which to predict ecosystem effects is limited ...

  3. Assessing planetary and regional nitrogen boundaries related to food security and adverse environmental impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de W.; Kros, J.; Kroeze, C.; Seitzinger, S.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper first describes the concept of, governance interest in, and criticism on planetary boundaries, specifically with respect to the nitrogen (N) cycle. These criticisms are then systematically evaluated. We argue that planetary N boundaries should include both the benefits and adverse impacts

  4. The Influence of Perinatal Complications and Environmental Adversity on Boys' Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Joy E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to test components of Raine's (2002) biosocial model, specifically the interactive effects of perinatal complications, rejecting parenting, and family adversity on the development of early-onset antisocial behavior (ASB). Boys' internalizing problems were also tested to investigate the specificity…

  5. The Role of Early-Life Conditions in the Cognitive Decline due to Adverse Events Later in Life

    OpenAIRE

    Van Den Berg, Gerard J.; Deeg, Dorly J H; Lindeboom, Maarten; Portrait, France

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive functioning of elderly individuals may be affected by events such as the loss of a (grand)child or partner or the onset of a serious chronic condition, and by negative economic shocks such as job loss or the reduction of pension benefits. It is conceivable that the impact of such events is stronger if conditions early in life were adverse. In this paper we address this using a Dutch longitudinal database that follows elderly individuals for more than 15 years and contains informatio...

  6. Adverse Events of Massage Therapy in Pain-Related Conditions: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain-related massage, important in traditional Eastern medicine, is increasingly used in the Western world. So the widening acceptance demands continual safety assessment. This review is an evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs reported mainly for pain-related massage between 2003 and 2013. Relevant all-languages reports in 6 databases were identified and assessed by two coauthors. During the 11-year period, 40 reports of 138 AEs were associated with massage. Author, year of publication, country of occurrence, participant related (age, sex or number of patients affected, the details of manual therapy, and clinician type were extracted. Disc herniation, soft tissue trauma, neurologic compromise, spinal cord injury, dissection of the vertebral arteries, and others were the main complications of massage. Spinal manipulation in massage has repeatedly been associated with serious AEs especially. Clearly, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. But the incidence of such events is low.

  7. Relationships among fisheries exploitation, environmental conditions, and ecological indicators across a series of marine ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Caihong; Large, Scott; Knight, Ben; Richardson, Anthony J.; Bundy, Alida; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Boldt, Jennifer; van der Meeren, Gro I.; Torres, Maria A.; Sobrino, Ignacio; Auber, Arnaud; Travers-Trolet, Morgane; Piroddi, Chiara; Diallo, Ibrahima; Jouffre, Didier; Mendes, Hugo; Borges, Maria Fatima; Lynam, Christopher P.; Coll, Marta; Shannon, Lynne J.; Shin, Yunne-Jai

    2015-08-01

    Understanding how external pressures impact ecosystem structure and functioning is essential for ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. We quantified the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions on ecological indicators derived from two different data sources, fisheries catch data (catch-based) and fisheries independent survey data (survey-based) for 12 marine ecosystems using a partial least squares path modeling approach (PLS-PM). We linked these ecological indicators to the total biomass of the ecosystem. Although the effects of exploitation and environmental conditions differed across the ecosystems, some general results can be drawn from the comparative approach. Interestingly, the PLS-PM analyses showed that survey-based indicators were less tightly associated with each other than the catch-based ones. The analyses also showed that the effects of environmental conditions on the ecological indicators were predominantly significant, and tended to be negative, suggesting that in the recent period, indicators accounted for changes in environmental conditions and the changes were more likely to be adverse. Total biomass was associated with fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions; however its association with the ecological indicators was weak across the ecosystems. Knowledge of the relative influence of exploitation and environmental pressures on the dynamics within exploited ecosystems will help us to move towards ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. PLS-PM proved to be a useful approach to quantify the relative effects of fisheries exploitation and environmental conditions and suggest it could be used more widely in fisheries oceanography.

  8. Paradoxical adverse culture conditions do not hamper the growth of human multipotent vascular wall-mesenchymal stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCiavarella

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with multilineage potential and anti-inflammatory property can be isolated from different human tissues, representing promising candidates in regenerative medicine. Despite the common criteria of characterization, many factors contribute to MSC heterogeneity (i.e. tissue origin, coexistence of cell subsets at different stage of differentiation, epigenetic and no standard methods have been approved to characterize MSCs in cell culture.Aim: The present study aimed to test whether MSCs resist adverse chemical and physical culture conditions, surviving MSC subpopulations are endowed with the stemness abilities; to characterize MMP expression in AAA-MSCs under the adverse experimental conditions. Methods and results: MSCs enzymatically isolated from human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA-MSCs were exposed to media acidification, hypoxia, starving, drying and hypothermia through the following strategies: 1 low-density seeding in closed flasks; 2 exposure to a chemical hypoxia inducer, cobalt chloride; 3 exposure to a dry environment with growing medium deprivation and culture at 4°C. None of these conditions affected MSC viability and stemness profile, as evidenced by NANOG, OCT-4 and Sox-2 mRNA expression in surviving cells. A significant MMP-9 decrease, especially when AAA-MSCs were exposed to hypothermia, was associated with stress resistant stem cells.Conclusions: AAA-MSCs survive to extremely adverse culture conditions, keeping their morphology and stemness features. Besides MMP-9 role in pathological tissue remodeling, this protease may be related to MSC survival. Future studies on MSCs derived from other tissues will be necessary to refine our culture protocol, which can represent an empirical method to demonstrate MSC stemness,, with potential implications for their clinical use.

  9. Expatriate’s and Host Country National’s Professional Learning in Adverse Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani, Laurence; Lorenzen, Julie; Holck, Lotte;

    Despite a context of challenging working conditions, ethnocentrism, post-colonial tensions and no valorization of local Greenlandic professional knowledge, the Danish Police Officers sent to Greenland report knowledge development. And not intercultural knowledge or interaction skills, but rather...

  10. Study of correlation between placental morphology and adverse perinatal outcome in different conditions affecting pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manik Sirpurkar

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: These conditions also affect the perinatal outcome. Placental parameters are also altered along with foetal parameters like foetal weight. So the diagnosis of such risk factors in pregnancies during antenatal period will improve the outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 1165-1168

  11. Predicting speech intelligibility in adverse conditions: evaluation of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    conditions by comparing predictions to measured data from [Kjems et al. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126 (3), 1415-1426] where speech is mixed with four different interferers, including speech-shaped noise, bottle noise, car noise, and cafe noise. The model accounts well for the differences in intelligibility...

  12. The influence of adverse weather conditions on probability of congestion on dutch motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stralen, W.J.H. van; Calvert, S.C.; Molin, E.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the influence o

  13. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  14. Adverse working conditions and mental illness in poultry slaughterhouses in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Simon Hutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mental illness is one of the reasons for the great number of absences from work due to incapacity in Brazil. Recently, mental disorders were included in the list of occupational diseases of the International Labour Office. In spite of the difficulty in attributing a causal link between an inappropriate work environment and mental illness, studies have shown that workers exposed to high levels of stress are more likely to present psychopathological symptoms. The present study investigated the relationship between working conditions and the Neuroticism personality factor. Participants were 951 workers from southern Brazilian poultry slaughterhouses, who work in positions with varied levels of risk and stress. The neuroticism scores of such employees were compared with those of other samples. A scale which measures the Neuroticism factor in the model of the Big Five Personality Factor validated for use in Brazil was employed. The results showed that workers of the sectors in which the working conditions are highly stressful presented higher levels in all sub-factors of neuroticism than workers in other sectors and groups. These sectors also showed higher indexes of mental disorders.

  15. Performance evaluation of laser scanners through the atmosphere with adverse condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespel, L.; Riviere, N.; Huet, T.; Tanguy, B.; Ceolato, R.

    2011-11-01

    Using laser imaging systems to represent 3-D scene becomes a referent prospective technology in the areas of guidance and navigation. Measurements with high spatial resolution for significant range can be achieved, even in degraded visibility conditions such as the Brown-White Out, rain, fog, sandstorms... Moreover, this technology is well suited for assisted perception tasks (access to 3D information) and obstacle detection (telemetry of small objects). For airborne applications, it is very complementary to conventional enhanced vision systems such as Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) and millimeter wave radar to provide images of land in environments with limited visibility. It also offers a 3D mapping of land or a single location in relation to the environment, which means alone or coupled with others, can realign and secure real-time database of information used such in a synthetic vision system (SVS). The objective of the work is to assess the impact of degraded visibility conditions on the laser radiometric propagation of a 3D laser scanner as they directly influence the performance of the ladar system [1].

  16. Building associations between markers of environmental stressors and adverse human health impacts using frequent itemset mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building associations between markers of exposure and effect using frequent itemset mining The human-health impact of environmental contaminant exposures is unclear. While some exposure-effect relationships are well studied, health effects are unknown for the vast majority of the...

  17. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  18. A study of different indicators of Maillard reaction with whey proteins and different carbohydrates under adverse storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Graciela E; Naranjo, Gabriela B; Malec, Laura S

    2017-01-15

    This study examined different indicators of each stage of Maillard reaction under adverse storage conditions in a system with whey proteins and lactose or glucose. The analysis of lysine loss by the o-phthaldialdehyde method can be considered a good indicator of the early stage, showing considerable differences in reactivity when systems with mono and disaccharides were analyzed. Capillary electrophoresis proved to be a sensitive method for evaluating the extent of glycosylation of the native proteins, providing valuable information when the loss of lysine was not significant. The estimation of the Amadori compound from the determination of total 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde would have correlate well with reactive lysine content if the advanced stages of the reaction had not been reached. For assessing the occurrence of the intermediate and final stages, the measurement of free 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde and color, proved not to be suitable for storage conditions. PMID:27542493

  19. SUFFERING: THE ADVERSE MEANING OF WORK CONDITIONS AT THE FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILMARA CIMBALISTA

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the vision, the consciousness, and the tolerance of workers at the assembly line in automotiveindustries and the car supply industry sited at the Metropolitan area in Curitiba (RMC, trying to demonstrate theirdaily strife at work. It explains about the flexible production work organization and the conditions of work inside theactivities developed at the work quotidian and the effects over workers’ physical and subjective dimensions. The worksituations reported try to demonstrate some kinds of suffering or physical and mental deterioration created throughoutthe work. The data and workers’ reports are from interviews performed as a part of my doctorate thesis. In spite of theresearcher’s difficulties so as to not express feelings before the workers’ narrative, we got to interpret them with the helpof sociology of work and organizational behaviour authors.

  20. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, John S.

    2016-07-12

    conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  1. Turbine Aeration Design Software for Mitigating Adverse Environmental Impacts Resulting From Conventional Hydropower Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, John S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional hydropower turbine aeration test-bed for computational routines and software tools for improving environmental mitigation technologies for conventional hydropower systems. In achieving this goal, we have partnered with Alstom, a global leader in energy technology development and United States power generation, with additional funding from the Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment (IREE) and the College of Science and Engineering (CSE) at the UMN

  2. Flexible DCP interface. [environmental sensor and signal conditioning interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasu, E. T.; Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system (DCS) must supply the sensors and signal-conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform. A universal signal-conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  3. Frequent Mental Distress, Chronic Conditions, and Adverse Health Behaviors in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, Jordan, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohannad Al-Nsour, MD, MSc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Recent evidence indicates that chronic diseases and mental illness are associated. In the Middle Eastern country of Jordan, chronic diseases and frequent mental distress (FMD are increasing; however, the capacity for mental health care is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the association between FMD, chronic conditions, and adverse health behaviors in Jordan. Methods The third cycle of the Jordan Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (2007 served as the data source for this study. The sample consisted of 3,612 noninstitutionalized Jordanian adults aged 18 years or older. Logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios for the association between chronic conditions, health behaviors, and FMD adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, income, and employment. Results In the adjusted models, people with hypertension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6–2.7, high cholesterol (AOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6–3.2, diabetes (AOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1–2.4, and asthma (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.5–3.1 and smokers (AOR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1–2.0 were more likely to have FMD than people without each of these conditions. Adults who reported vigorous physical activity were less likely to have FMD (AOR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4–0.9 than their less active counterparts. Conclusions In Jordan, FMD was associated with several chronic conditions. As a result, we suggest additional research to examine the complex relationship between FMD and chronic conditions. More doctors in the primary health care system should be trained in mental health.

  4. Estradiol and endocrine disrupting compounds adversely affect development of sea urchin embryos at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepke, Troy A. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Snyder, Mark J. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States); Cherr, Gary N. [Bodega Marine Laboratory, University of California, Davis, POB 247, Bodega Bay, CA 94923 (United States) and Departments of Environmental Toxicology and Nutrition, One Shields Avenue, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: gncherr@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-26

    Environmental endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are a wide variety of chemicals that typically exert effects, either directly or indirectly, through receptor-mediated processes, thus mimicking endogenous hormones and/or inhibiting normal hormone activities and metabolism. Little is known about the effects of EDCs on echinoderm physiology, reproduction and development. We exposed developing sea urchin embryos (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus anamesus) to two known EDCs (4-octylphenol (OCT), bisphenol A (BisA)) and to natural and synthetic reproductive hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E{sub 2}), estrone (E{sub 1}), estriol (E{sub 3}), progesterone (P{sub 4}) and 17{alpha}-ethynylestradiol (EE{sub 2})). In addition, we studied two non-estrogenic EDCs, tributyltin (TBT) and o,p-DDD. Successful development to the pluteus larval stage (96 h post-fertilization) was used to define EDC concentration-response relationships. The order of compound potency based on EC{sub 50} values for a reduction in normal development was as follows: TBT {sub L.anamesus} > OCT > TBT {sub S.{sub p}}{sub urpuratus} >> E{sub 2} > EE{sub 2} > DDD >> BisA > P{sub 4} > E{sub 1} >> E{sub 3}. The effect of TBT was pronounced even at concentrations substantially lower than those commonly reported in heavily contaminated areas, but the response was significantly different in the two model species. Sea urchin embryos were generally more sensitive to estrogenic EDCs and TBT than most other invertebrate larvae. Stage-specific exposure experiments were conducted to determine the most sensitive developmental periods using blastula, gastrula and post-gastrula (pluteus) stages. The stage most sensitive to E{sub 2}, OCT and TBT was the blastula stage with less overall sensitivity in the gastrula stage, regardless of concentration. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) were added to the experiments individually and in combination with estrogenic EDCs to interfere with potential receptor

  5. A Process for Evaluating Adverse Environmental Impacts by Cooling-Water System Entrainment at a California Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ehrler

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the effects of entrainment by the Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP was conducted between 1996 and 1999 as required under Section 316(b of the Clean Water Act. The goal of this study was to present the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and Central Coast Regional Water Quality Control Board (CCRWQCB with results that could be used to determine if any adverse environmental impacts (AEIs were caused by the operation of the plant’s cooling-water intake structure (CWIS. To this end we chose, under guidance of the CCRWQCB and their entrainment technical working group, a unique approach combining three different models for estimating power plant effects: fecundity hindcasting (FH, adult equivalent loss (AEL, and the empirical transport model (ETM. Comparisons of the results from these three approaches provided us a relative measure of confidence in our estimates of effects. A total of 14 target larval fish taxa were assessed as part of the DCPP 316(b. Example results are presented here for the kelp, gopher, and black-and-yellow (KGB rockfish complex and clinid kelpfish. Estimates of larval entrainment losses for KGB rockfish were in close agreement (FH is approximately equals to 550 adult females per year, AEL is approximately equals to 1,000 adults [male and female] per year, and ETM = larval mortality as high as 5% which could be interpreted as ca. 2,600 1 kg adult fish. The similar results from the three models provided confidence in the estimated effects for this group. Due to lack of life history information needed to parameterize the FH and AEL models, effects on clinid kelpfish could only be assessed using the ETM model. Results from this model plus ancillary information about local populations of adult kelpfish suggest that the CWIS might be causing an AEI in the vicinity of DCPP.

  6. Microstructure study of alloy to enhance safety and reduce adverse environmental effects of future fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A., E-mail: Salari_phy@yahoo.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Nano-metric precipitates through heat treatments in Cr–W–V alloy were formed. • Metallography studies shows that the microstructure of alloy has been tempered martensite. • The formation of nano-scale precipitates was confirmed by SEM observations. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels were developed to enhance safety and reduce adverse environmental effects of future fusion power plants. Martensitic and bainitic steels were developed during the 1985–90 timeframe, and the feasibility of their use for fusion was investigated in an international collaboration from 1994 to present. This work continues to improve the steels and the formation of very small nano-metric precipitates through standardized heat treatments in Cr–W–V alloy system using the microscopic observations. Metallography studies have revealed that the microstructure of alloy after tempering has been tempered martensite. Also after tempering, the matrix structure of alloy and the formation of nano-scale precipitates on grain and lath boundaries were confirmed by SEM observations. By the application of XRD spectra analysis and TEM electron diffraction patterns, it was shown that the type of precipitates extracted from alloy, would be M{sub 23}C{sub 6} and M{sub 7}C{sub 3}that include a cubic and trigonal crystal structure, respectively.

  7. Foliar photochemical processes and carbon metabolism under favourable and adverse winter conditions in a Mediterranean mixed forest, Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sperlich

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region must cope with a wide range of environmental stresses from summer drought to winter cold. The mildness of Mediterranean winters can periodically lead to favourable environmental conditions above the threshold for a positive carbon balance, benefitting evergreen woody species more than deciduous ones. The comparatively lower solar energy input in winter decreases the foliar light saturation point. This leads to a higher susceptibility to photoinhibitory stress especially when chilly (Quercus ilex L., Pinus halepensis Mill., and Arbutus unedo L. during a period of mild winter conditions and their responses to a sudden cold period. The state of the photosynthetic machinery in both periods was thus tested by estimating the foliar photosynthetic potential with CO2 response curves in parallel with chlorophyll fluorescence measurements. The studied evergreen tree species benefited strongly from mild winter conditions by exhibiting extraordinarily high photosynthetic potentials similar to those under spring conditions. A sudden period of frost, however, negatively affected the photosynthetic apparatus, leading to significant decreases in key physiological parameters such as the maximum carboxylation velocity (Vc, max, the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate (Jmax, and the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm. This change persisted for several weeks after the cold period despite the recovery of the temperature to the conditions previous to the frost event. The responses of Vc, max and Jmax were highly species-specific, where Q. ilex exhibited the highest and P. halepensis the lowest reductions. In contrast, the optimal fluorometric quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm was significantly lower in A. unedo after the cold period. The leaf position played an important role in Q. ilex showing a comparatively stronger winter effect on sunlit leaves. Our results generally agreed with

  8. Matching biological traits to environmental conditions in marine benthic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremner, J.; Rogers, S. I.; Frid, C. L. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of variability in environmental conditions on species composition in benthic ecosystems are well established, but relatively little is known about how environmental variability relates to ecosystem functioning. Benthic invertebrate assemblages are heavily involved in the maintenance of ecological processes and investigation of the biological characteristics (traits) expressed in these assemblages can provide information about some aspects of functioning. The aim of this study was to establish and explore relationships between environmental variability and biological traits expressed in megafauna assemblages in two UK regions. Patterns of trait composition were matched to environmental conditions and subsets of variables best describing these patterns determined. The nature of the relationships were subsequently examined at two separate scales, both between and within the regions studied. Over the whole area, some traits related to size, longevity, reproduction, mobility, flexibility, feeding method, sociability and living habit were negatively correlated with salinity, sea surface temperature, annual temperature range and the level of fishing effort, and positively associated with fish taxon richness and shell content of the substratum. Between the two regions, reductions in temperature range and shell content were associated with infrequent relative occurrences of short-lived, moderately mobile, flexible, solitary, opportunistic, permanent-burrow dwelling fauna and those exhibiting reproductive strategies based on benthic development. Relationships between some traits and environmental conditions diverged within the two regions, with increases in fishing effort and shell content of the substratum being associated with low frequencies of occurrence of moderately mobile and moderately to highly flexible fauna within one region, but high frequencies in the other. These changes in trait composition have implications for ecosystem processes, with, for

  9. Genotype and Neuropsychological Response Inhibition as Resilience Promoters for ADHD, ODD, and CD under Conditions of Psychosocial Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Friderici, Karen; Park, Leeyoung; Robert A. Zucker

    2007-01-01

    Whereas child personality, IQ, and family factors have been identified as enabling a resilient response to psychosocial adversity, more direct biological resilience factors have been less well delineated. This is particularly so for child ADHD, which has received less attention from a resilience perspective than have associated externalizing disorders. Children from two independent samples were classified as resilient if they avoided developing ADHD, ODD, or CD in the face of family adversity...

  10. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L., Bonda, Chun aru  (D. daemona Roxb., Karondi aru (D.bellophylla L., Pani aru (D. oppositifolia L. and Arguna (Cycas spp. to fulfill their food, medicinal and nutritional requirements particularly in harsh climatic conditions. They eat various wild leafy vegetables like Kolod (Lathyrus sativa L.,Bilo (Pisum sativum L., Kulthi (Microtylum uniflorumLam., Banana stem (Musa superba L. Ban poi (Basella alba L.. They also utilize NTFPs like Bamboo karda (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad exJC Wendl., Moha (Madhuca indica J.F Gmel., Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., fruits. Some wild mushrooms like Banschattu, Ambachattu (Agaricus spp. after drying and crushing were eaten by them. Indigenous practices of Saora tribes to cope up extreme environmental conditions and utilization of forest products during drought were discussed in the paper.

  11. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  12. Biological responses to environmental heterogeneity under future ocean conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Philip W; Cornwall, Christopher E; Davison, Andrew; Doney, Scott C; Fourquez, Marion; Hurd, Catriona L; Lima, Ivan D; McMinn, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Organisms are projected to face unprecedented rates of change in future ocean conditions due to anthropogenic climate-change. At present, marine life encounters a wide range of environmental heterogeneity from natural fluctuations to mean climate change. Manipulation studies suggest that biota from more variable marine environments have more phenotypic plasticity to tolerate environmental heterogeneity. Here, we consider current strategies employed by a range of representative organisms across various habitats - from short-lived phytoplankton to long-lived corals - in response to environmental heterogeneity. We then discuss how, if and when organismal responses (acclimate/migrate/adapt) may be altered by shifts in the magnitude of the mean climate-change signal relative to that for natural fluctuations projected for coming decades. The findings from both novel climate-change modelling simulations and prior biological manipulation studies, in which natural fluctuations are superimposed on those of mean change, provide valuable insights into organismal responses to environmental heterogeneity. Manipulations reveal that different experimental outcomes are evident between climate-change treatments which include natural fluctuations vs. those which do not. Modelling simulations project that the magnitude of climate variability, along with mean climate change, will increase in coming decades, and hence environmental heterogeneity will increase, illustrating the need for more realistic biological manipulation experiments that include natural fluctuations. However, simulations also strongly suggest that the timescales over which the mean climate-change signature will become dominant, relative to natural fluctuations, will vary for individual properties, being most rapid for CO2 (~10 years from present day) to 4 decades for nutrients. We conclude that the strategies used by biota to respond to shifts in environmental heterogeneity may be complex, as they will have to

  13. Transcriptional Profiling of Chromera velia Under Diverse Environmental Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyrov, Annageldi

    2014-05-01

    Since its description in 2008, Chromera velia has drawn profound interest as the closest free-­‐living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites that are significant pathogens, causing enormous health and economic problems. There-­‐ fore, this newly described species holds a great potential to understand evolu-­‐ tionary basis of how photosynthetic algae evolved into the fully pathogenic Apicomplexa and how their common ancestors may have lived before they evolved into obligate parasites. Hence, the aim of this work is to understand how C. velia function and respond to different environmental conditions. This study aims to reveal how C. velia is able to respond to environmental perturbations that are applied individually and simultaneously since, studying stress factors in separation fails to elucidate complex responses to multi stress factors and un-­‐ derstanding the systemic regulation of involved genes. To extract biologically significant information and to identify genes involved in various physiological processes under variety of environmental conditions (i.e. a combination of vary-­‐ ing temperatures, iron availability, and salinity in the growth medium) we pre-­‐ pared strand specific RNA-­‐seq libraries for 83 samples in diverse environmental conditions. Here, we report the set of significantly differentially expressed genes as a re-­‐ sponse to the each condition and their combinations. Several interesting up-­‐ regulated and down-­‐regulated genes were found and their functions and in-­‐ volved pathways were studied. We showed that the profound regulation of HSP20 proteins is significant under stress conditions and hypothesized that the-­‐ se proteins might be involved in their movements.

  14. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress.

  15. Adversity-induced relapse of fear: neural mechanisms and implications for relapse prevention from a study on experimentally induced return-of-fear following fear conditioning and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfenort, R; Menz, M; Lonsdorf, T B

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of current treatments for anxiety disorders is limited by high relapse rates. Relapse of anxiety disorders and addiction can be triggered by exposure to life adversity, but the underlying mechanisms remain unexplored. Seventy-six healthy adults were a priori selected for the presence or absence of adverse experiences during childhood (CA) and recent past (RA; that is, past 12 months). Participants underwent fear conditioning (day 1) and fear extinction and experimental return-of-fear (ROF) induction through reinstatement (a model for adversity-induced relapse; day 2). Ratings, autonomic (skin conductance response) and neuronal activation measures (functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)) were acquired. Individuals exposed to RA showed a generalized (that is, not CS- specific) fear recall and ROF, whereas unexposed individuals showed differential (that is, CS+ specific) fear recall and ROF on an autonomic level despite no group differences during fear acquisition and extinction learning. These group differences in ROF were accompanied by corresponding activation differences in brain areas known to be involved in fear processing and differentiability/generalization of ROF (that is, hippocampus). In addition, dimensional measures of RA, CA and lifetime adversity were negatively correlated with differential skin conductance responses (SCRs) during ROF and hippocampal activation. As discriminating signals of danger and safety, as well as a tendency for overgeneralization, are core features in clinically anxious populations, these deficits may specifically contribute to relapse risk following exposure to adversity, in particular to recent adversity. Hence, our results may provide first and novel insights into the possible mechanisms mediating enhanced relapse risk following exposure to (recent) adversity, which may guide the development of effective pre- and intervention programs. PMID:27434492

  16. Research progress of environmental factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes%不良妊娠结局的环境因素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜波玲; 卢媛

    2013-01-01

    妊娠不良结局的相关因素很多,这些危险因素影响着孕妇的健康,增加不良妊娠结局风险,包括早产、低出生体重、出生缺陷等。导致妊娠不良结局的原因目前主要分为母体、胎儿、环境三方面。研究环境因素与不良妊娠结局的关系,减少孕妇高危环境暴露,提前采取干预措施,可避免不良妊娠结局的发生。该文就不良妊娠结局的环境因素研究进展进行综述。%There are many related risk factors of adverse pregnancy outcomes , which affect the health of pregnant women and lead to the increase of adverse pregnancy outcomes , including preterm delivery, low birth weight, birth defects, etc.The causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes are mainly from the aspects of parent , fetus and environment .Studying on the relationship between environmental factors and adverse pregnancy outcomes of pregnant women , reducing environment exposure of pregnant women and taking preventive measures beforehand can avoid adverse pregnancy outcomes .This article gave an overview of research progress on environmental factors in adverse pregnancy outcome .

  17. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisescu, Cristina; Ardelean, Ioan I; Benning, Liane G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4) or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4) nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, "magnetofossils," have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life. In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron. PMID:24575087

  18. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMoisescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4 or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4 nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, magnetofossils, have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life.In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron.

  19. Odors eliciting fear: a conditioning approach to Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Smeets, Monique A M; Bulsing, Patricia J; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2011-06-01

    Patients suffering from Idiopathic Environmental Intolerances (IEI) report health symptoms, referable to multiple organ systems, which are triggered by harmless odors and therefore medically unexplainable. In line with previous research that predominantly points towards psychological explanations, the present study tests the hypothesis that IEI symptoms result from learning via classical conditioning of odors to fear. A differential conditioning paradigm was employed. Hedonically different odors were compared on ease of fear acquisition. Conditioned stimuli (CSs) were Dimethyl Sulfide (unpleasant) and peach (pleasant). The unconditioned stimulus (US) was an electrical shock. During acquisition one odor (CS+) was followed by shock, while the other odor (CS-) was not. Next, fear extinction was tested by presenting both CS+ and CS- without US. Electrodermal response, odor evaluation, and sniffing behavior were monitored. Results showed successful fear conditioning irrespective of hedonic character as evidenced by electrodermal response. Acquired fear did not extinguish. There was no evidence of evaluative conditioning taking place, as CS evaluation did not change during fear acquisition. Early avoidance of the CS+, as deduced from odor inhalation measures, was demonstrated, but did not sustain during the entire acquisition phase. This study suggests that a fear conditioning account of IEI is only partially satisfactory.

  20. Ecological conditions favoring budding in colonial organisms under environmental disturbance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Nakamaru

    Full Text Available Dispersal is a topic of great interest in ecology. Many organisms adopt one of two distinct dispersal tactics at reproduction: the production of small offspring that can disperse over long distances (such as seeds and spawned eggs, or budding. The latter is observed in some colonial organisms, such as clonal plants, corals and ants, in which (superorganisms split their body into components of relatively large size that disperse to a short distance. Contrary to the common dispersal viewpoint, short-dispersal colonial organisms often flourish even in environments with frequent disturbances. In this paper, we investigate the conditions that favor budding over long-distance dispersal of small offspring, focusing on the life history of the colony growth and the colony division ratio. These conditions are the relatively high mortality of very small colonies, logistic growth, the ability of dispersers to peacefully seek and settle unoccupied spaces, and small spatial scale of environmental disturbance. If these conditions hold, budding is advantageous even when environmental disturbance is frequent. These results suggest that the demography or life history of the colony underlies the behaviors of the colonial organisms.

  1. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  2. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDY IN CHILDREN WITH RENAL DISEASES LIVING IN REGIONS WITH UNFAVORABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Kudin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Seventy-nine children participated in the study including 33 children living in region with developed cement industry (12 with glomerulonephritis, and 21 with obstructive pyelonephritis. A group of comparison consisted of 46 children living in Moscow, including 17 subjects with glomerulonephritis and 29 children with obstructive pyelonephritis, and control group of 26 healthy children. ELISA method was used to perform immunological studies. The levels of sCD4, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, sICAM-1, TNFα were evaluated in blood sera. The data obtained show significant increase of TNFα levels and decreased IL-6 levels (p < 0,05 in children with nephropathy living in regions with unfavorable environmental conditions as compared with control group. A seven-fold increase in TNFα levels, along with more than twofold decrease in IL-6 was revealed among children with obstructive pyelonephritis, as compared with control group (p < 0,05. In children with glomerulonephritis and obstructive pyelonephritis, a distinct increase of sCD4 , as well as decreased IL-2 level (p < 0,05 was registered, as compared with control group. Meanwhile, IL-10 contents in this group of patients was 22,4 times less than the in controls (p < 0,05. In the main group, no enhanced sICAM synthesis was found, both in children with glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. In children affected by adverse environmental pathogens, we have shown a prevailing immune inflammation due to hyperproduction of TNFα, IL-6, and activation of sCD4 helpers. Adverse environmental effects inhibit cytokine synthesis, thus reducing production of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

  3. Selection of Environmental Conditions for Nearshore Structure Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Sheng; GAN Buhong; HAO Xiaoli

    2004-01-01

    Different from the traditional one-dimensional extreme value statistical method, practical design criteria for nearshore structure design are presented based on joint probability theory in this paper. The proposed procedure considers the combined effect of tide level, huge waves and wind affecting coastal structures. The Importance Sampling Procedure (ISP) is utilized to solve the joint distribution of non-Gaussian correlated multivariate distributions. The calculation results show that the ISP is a simulating technique with the advantages of efficiency and high convergency. Finally the environmental conditions are given using this technique for near-shore structure design in the Qingdao area.

  4. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leirs Herwig

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-vector-borne zoonoses such as Puumala hantavirus (PUUV can be transmitted directly, by physical contact between infected and susceptible hosts, or indirectly, with the environment as an intermediate. The objective of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ, such that the risk of transmission to humans is not only determined by host abundance. We explored the relationship between, on one hand, environmental variables and, on the other hand, host abundance, PUUV prevalence in the host, and human cases of nephropathia epidemica (NE. Statistical analyses were carried out on 17 field sites situated in Belgian broadleaf forests. Results Linear regressions showed that landscape attributes, particularly landscape configuration, influence the abundance of hosts in broadleaf forests. Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases. Conclusion The transmission risk to humans of non-vector-borne zoonoses such as PUUV depends on a combination of various environmental factors. To understand the complex causal pathways between the environment and disease risk, one should distinguish between environmental factors related to the abundance of hosts

  5. Antagonistic Pleiotropy at the Human IL6 Promoter Confers Genetic Resilience to the Pro-Inflammatory Effects of Adverse Social Conditions in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Steven W.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Manu, Kavya; Telzer, Eva H; Kiang, Lisa; Bower, Julienne E.; Irwin, Michael R.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    The authors tested the evolutionary genetic hypothesis that the functional form of an asymmetrically risky Gene × Environment interaction will differ as a function of age-related antagonistic pleiotropy (i.e., show opposite effects in young vs. old individuals). Previous studies have identified a polymorphism in the human IL6 promoter (rs1800795; IL6 –174 G/C) that interacts with adverse socioenvironmental conditions to promote chronic inflammation in older adults (elevated C-reactive protein...

  6. Juvenile Male Rats Exposed to a Low-Dose Mixture of Twenty-Seven Environmental Chemicals Display Adverse Health Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Svingen, Terje; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup;

    2016-01-01

    , we found effects on weight, histology and gene expression in the liver, as well as changes to the blood plasma metabolome in all exposure groups, including low-dose. Additional adverse effects were observed in the higher dosed groups, including enlarged kidneys and alterations to the metabolome...

  7. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered plants on non-target organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs...

  8. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  9. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of 222Rn and its progeny 218Po and 214Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  10. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)]|[School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)]|[School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.S. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  11. Relationship between continuity of care and adverse outcomes varies by number of chronic conditions among older adults with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    DuGoff, Eva H.; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Anderson, Gerard F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Continuity of care is a basic tenant of primary care practice. However, the evidence on the importance of continuity of care for older adults with complex conditions is mixed. Objective: To assess the relationship between measurement of continuity of care, number of chronic conditions, and health outcomes. Design: We analyzed data from a cohort of 1,600 US older adults with diabetes and ≥1 other chronic condition in a private Medicare health plan from July 2010 to December 2011. M...

  12. Age at menarche: the influence of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, E.; Shalev, C.; Dalal, I.; Sod-Moriah, U. A.

    1988-03-01

    Age at menarche was studied by the recollection method in two groups of Causasian Jewish high school girls, inhabitants of two towns in Israel, Safad and Elat. The two towns differ mainly in climatic conditions. The age at menarche was found to be significantly lower ( Pmenarche and the town in which the girls lived. Accordingly, in the hot town of Elat, the percentage of girls who had their first menstrual cycle by the age of 12 years and earlier, was more than double that of the girls in Safad (17.9% and 7.1%, respectively). It is concluded that the environmental temperature, with or without any possible interaction of humidity, is probably responsible for the tendency for an earlier onset of menarche in girls living in the hot town of Elat.

  13. Environmental Conditions and Occupant Perceptions in European Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-03-01

    This is a preliminary report regarding a portion of the environmental conditions and occupant comfort perceptions from a five nation, 26 building European field data collection effort. Approximately 1,000 participants were involved in this project which included twelve monthly visits to each building. Climate, building and cultural variation will be illustrated for the five countries involved - France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Each country used identical instrumentation; questionnaires and experimental protocols imbedded in a custom hardware/software system. The comfort survey was based on the ASHRAE model. The physical measurements included air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air movement, CO{sub 2}, light, and sound levels. Where possible, connections and explanations between variables are made. Potential energy and policy ramifications are illustrated. (The publication includes two reports from EU JOULE III projects JOE3CT970066 'Smart controls and thermal comfort project)

  14. Leaching of metals from cement under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huixia; Wei, Fang; Tang, Jingchun; Giesy, John P

    2016-03-15

    Leaching of metals from cement under various environmental conditions was measured to evaluate their environmental safety. A cement product containing clinker, which was produced from cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, was solidified and leaching of metals was characterized using the 8-period test. Concentrations and speciation of metals in cements were determined. Effects of ambient environment and particle size on leachability of metals and mineralogical phases of cement mortars were evaluated by use of XRD and SEM. Results indicated that metals in cements were leachable in various media in descending order of: sea water, groundwater and acid rain. Cr, Ni, As, Co and V were leached by simulated sea water, while Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb and Tl were not leached in simulated sea water, groundwater or acid rain. When exposed to simulated acid rain or groundwater, amounts of Cr, Ni, As and V leached was inversely proportional to particle size of cement mortar. According to the one-dimensional diffusion equation, Cr was most leachable and the cumulative leached mass was predicted to be 9.6 mg kg(-1) after 20 years. Results of this study are useful in predicting releases of metals from cement products containing ash and clinkers cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, so that they can be safely applied in the environment.

  15. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  16. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O; Coutinho, Felipe H; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E M; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A B; Vicente, Ana Carolina P; Amado Filho, Gilberto M; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E; Thompson, Cristiane C; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km(2). In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay's degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay's water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  18. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  19. Quantification of the environmental impacts of road conditions in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomeu, Daniela Bacchi [Applied Economics and Researcher at CEPEA - ESALQ/USP (Brazil); Caixeta Filho, Jose Vicente [Department of Economics, Management and Sociology - ESALQ/USP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    This study evaluates the impacts of Brazilian highway conditions on fuel consumption and, consequently, on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. For the purpose of this study, highway conditions refer to the level of highway maintenance: the incidence of large potholes, large surface cracks, uneven sections, and debris. Primary computer collected data related to the fuel consumption of three types of trucks were analyzed. The data were derived from 88 trips taken over six routes, each route representative of one of two highway conditions: better or worse. Study results are initially presented for each type of truck being monitored. The results are then aggregated to approximate the entire Brazilian highway network. In all cases, results confirmed environmental benefits resulting from travel over the better routes. There was found to be an increase in energy efficiency from traveling better roads, which resulted in lower fuel consumption and lower CO{sub 2} emissions. Statistical analysis of the results suggests that, in general, fuel consumption data were significant at {sup *}P < 0.05, rejecting the null hypothesis that average fuel consumption from traveling the better routes is statistically equal to average fuel consumption from traveling the worse routes. Improved Brazilian road conditions would generate economic benefits, reduce dependency on and consumption of fossil fuels (due to the increase in energy efficiency), and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. These findings may have additional relevancy if Brazil needs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions to reach future Kyoto Protocol's emissions targets, which should take effect in January 2013. (author)

  20. Research on the Selection of the Most Adverse Condition of Windshield Anti-icing%风挡防冰严酷设计状态的选取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽

    2014-01-01

    According to windshield anti-icing heat load's relationship with the lfight conditions and the icing conditions, the severity evaluation index which is used to estimate the anti-icing adverse condition is presented. Compared to the traditional method, the method of the paper can reduce the calculation workload, improve the computational efifciency. Selection of the most adverse condition of windshield anti-icing has certain engineering application value.%根据飞行条件和结冰气象条件与风挡防冰需用热载荷的关系,提出评价防冰严酷设计状态的指数--严酷度评估指数,与传统确定严酷状态的方法相比,减少了系统的计算工作量,提高系统的计算效率,具有一定的应用价值。

  1. Environmental conditions for alternative tree cover states in high latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abis, Beniamino; Brovkin, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Previous analysis of the vegetation cover from remote sensing revealed the existence of three alternative modes in the frequency distribution of boreal tree cover: a sparsely vegetated treeless state, a savanna-like state, and a forest state. Identifying which are the regions subject to multimodality, and assessing which are the main factors underlying their existence, is important to project future change of natural vegetation cover and its effect on climate. We study the impact on the forest cover fraction distribution of seven globally-observed environmental factors: mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, growing degree days above 0, permafrost distribution, soil moisture, wildfire occurrence frequency, and thawing depth. Through the use of generalised additive models, regression trees, and conditional histograms, we find that the main factors determining the forest distribution in high latitudes are: permafrost distribution, mean annual rainfall, mean minimum temperature, soil moisture, and wildfire frequency. Additionally, we find differences between regions within the boreal area, such as Eurasia, Eastern North America, and Western North America. Furthermore, using a classification based on these factors, we show the existence and location of alternative tree cover states under the same climate conditions in the boreal region. These are areas of potential interest for a more detailed analysis of land-atmosphere interactions.

  2. Extreme Air Pollution Conditions Adversely Affect Blood Pressure and Insulin Resistance: The Air Pollution and Cardiometabolic Disease Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Sun, Zhichao; Brook, Jeffrey R; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Ruan, Yanping; Yan, Jianhua; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Rao, Xiaoquan; Duan, Fengkui; Sun, Lixian; Liang, Ruijuan; Lian, Hui; Zhang, Shuyang; Fang, Quan; Gu, Dongfeng; Sun, Qinghua; Fan, Zhongjie; Rajagopalan, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports that fine particulate matter adversely affects cardiometabolic diseases particularly in susceptible individuals; however, health effects induced by the extreme concentrations within megacities in Asia are not well described. We enrolled 65 nonsmoking adults with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in the Beijing metropolitan area into a panel study of 4 repeated visits across 4 seasons since 2012. Daily ambient fine particulate matter and personal black carbon levels ranged from 9.0 to 552.5 µg/m(3) and 0.2 to 24.5 µg/m(3), respectively, with extreme levels observed during January 2013. Cumulative fine particulate matter exposure windows across the prior 1 to 7 days were significantly associated with systolic blood pressure elevations ranging from 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.3-3.7) to 2.7 (0.6-4.8) mm Hg per SD increase (67.2 µg/m(3)), whereas cumulative black carbon exposure during the previous 2 to 5 days were significantly associated with ranges in elevations in diastolic blood pressure from 1.3 (0.0-2.5) to 1.7 (0.3-3.2) mm Hg per SD increase (3.6 µg/m(3)). Both black carbon and fine particulate matter were significantly associated with worsening insulin resistance (0.18 [0.01-0.36] and 0.22 [0.04-0.39] unit increase per SD increase of personal-level black carbon and 0.18 [0.02-0.34] and 0.22 [0.08-0.36] unit increase per SD increase of ambient fine particulate matter on lag days 4 and 5). These results provide important global public health warnings that air pollution may pose a risk to cardiometabolic health even at the extremely high concentrations faced by billions of people in the developing world today.

  3. Bacterial assisted degradation of chlorpyrifos: The key role of environmental conditions, trace metals and organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Khan, Sher Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater from pesticide industries, agricultural or surface runoff containing pesticides and their residues has adverse environmental impacts. Present study demonstrates effect of petrochemicals and trace metals on chlorpyrifos (CP) biotransformation often released in wastewater of agrochemical industry. Biodegradation was investigated using bacterial strain Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1 isolated from wastewater spiked with CP. Optimal environmental conditions for CP removal were CFU (306 × 10(6)), pH (8); initial CP concentration (150 mg/L) and glucose as additional carbon source. Among various organic solvents (petrochemicals) used in this study toluene has stimulatory effect on CP degradation process using SRK1, contrary to this benzene and phenol negatively inhibited degradation process. Application of metal ions (Cu (II), Fe (II) Zn (II) at low concentration (1 mg/L) took part in biochemical reaction and positively stimulated CP degradation process. Metal ions at high concentrations have inhibitory effect on degradation process. A first order growth model was shown to fit the data. It could be concluded that both type and concentration of metal ions and petrochemicals can affect CP degradation process. PMID:26692411

  4. Bacterial assisted degradation of chlorpyrifos: The key role of environmental conditions, trace metals and organic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Khan, Sher Jamal

    2016-03-01

    Wastewater from pesticide industries, agricultural or surface runoff containing pesticides and their residues has adverse environmental impacts. Present study demonstrates effect of petrochemicals and trace metals on chlorpyrifos (CP) biotransformation often released in wastewater of agrochemical industry. Biodegradation was investigated using bacterial strain Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1 isolated from wastewater spiked with CP. Optimal environmental conditions for CP removal were CFU (306 × 10(6)), pH (8); initial CP concentration (150 mg/L) and glucose as additional carbon source. Among various organic solvents (petrochemicals) used in this study toluene has stimulatory effect on CP degradation process using SRK1, contrary to this benzene and phenol negatively inhibited degradation process. Application of metal ions (Cu (II), Fe (II) Zn (II) at low concentration (1 mg/L) took part in biochemical reaction and positively stimulated CP degradation process. Metal ions at high concentrations have inhibitory effect on degradation process. A first order growth model was shown to fit the data. It could be concluded that both type and concentration of metal ions and petrochemicals can affect CP degradation process.

  5. A Stationary Reference Frame Grid Synchronization System for Three-Phase Grid-Connected Power Converters Under Adverse Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, P.; Luna, A.; Muñoz-Aguilar, R. S.;

    2012-01-01

    synchronization method for three-phase three-wire networks, namely dual second-order generalized integrator (SOGI) frequency-locked loop. The method is based on two adaptive filters, implemented by using a SOGI on the stationary αβ reference frame, and it is able to perform an excellent estimation......Grid synchronization algorithms are of great importance in the control of grid-connected power converters, as fast and accurate detection of the grid voltage parameters is crucial in order to implement stable control strategies under generic grid conditions. This paper presents a new grid...... of the instantaneous symmetrical components of the grid voltage under unbalanced and distorted grid conditions. This paper analyzes the performance of the proposed synchronization method including different design issues. Moreover, the behavior of the method for synchronizing with highly unbalanced grid is proven...

  6. NON TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS UTILIZATION DURING ADVERSE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS : A CASE OF SAORA TRIBES OF GANJAM DISTRICT, ODISHA

    OpenAIRE

    MANISH MISHRA, P A JADHAV1 AND MUKTA SHRIVASTAVA2

    2014-01-01

    Saoras are one of the most ancient tribes in Odisha mentioned in Hindu myths and classics are also expert climbers and hunters. Saoras of Ganjam district mostly depend on forest for their livelihood and the area is rich in biodiversity and also have rare medicinal flora. They eat several NTFPs, wild roots, rhizome, seeds, fruits and mushrooms during harsh climatic conditions like severe drought. They use stored wild tubers mostly Dioscoreas like Bowla (Dioscorea bulbifera L.), Bonda, Chun aru...

  7. Patterns of Reef Ecosystem Recovery Indicate That Adverse Early Triassic Ocean Conditions Extended into Middle Triassic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, B. M.; Yu, M.; Lehrmann, D. J.; Jost, A. B.; Lau, K. V.; Li, X.; Schaal, E. K.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    The pattern of reef ecosystem recovery from the end-Permian extinction is poorly constrained due to the limited stratigraphic, spatial, and geographic range of reef buildups in Early Triassic and Anisian (early Middle Triassic) strata. In this study, we combined field studies and petrographic analysis to examine the pattern of reef evolution in latest Permian to Late Triassic carbonate platforms in the Nanpanjiang Basin of South China, an area of extensive shallow-water carbonate deposition in the tropical eastern Tethys. We find that early Mesozoic reef recovery in the eastern Tethys was a five-step process: (1) in the immediate aftermath of extinction, calcimicrobial biostromes (P/T boundary microbialites) developed in shallow-water platform settings; (2) in late Induan time, biohermal stromatolites developed in platform interior settings; (3) in latest Spathian time, large-scale Tubiphytes, microbial, and cement reefs lacking skeletal metazoans initiated on the margins and steep upper slopes of carbonate platforms, signaling the return of reefs to platform-margin settings; (4) in the Aegean or Bithynian (early Anisian), diminutive (mm-scale) calcareous sponges and calcareous algae appeared in the Tubiphytes reef, marking the reappearance of skeletal metazoans and calcareous algae to reefs in the eastern Tethys; and (5) in the late Anisian, the appearance of scleractinian corals coincided with increased abundance, size, and diversity of metazoan and algal reef builders. Early Mesozoic reefs of the eastern Tethys were dominated by microbes, Tubiphytes, and early-marine cements until the late Anisian, several million years into the Middle Triassic. The appearance of small metazoan buildups in Early Triassic strata in other parts of the world indicates that potential reef-building organisms were present much earlier. The limited stratigraphic range of those buildups, however, reinforces the interpretation that episodic environmental disturbances such as euxinia

  8. Developing a Traffic Management Framework for Coastal Expressway Bridges under Adverse Weather Conditions: Case Study of Rain Day in Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenming Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse weather can reduce visibility and road surface friction, lower vehicle maneuverability, and increase crash frequency and injury severity. The impacts of adverse weather and its interactions with drivers and roadway on the operation and management of expressway or expressway bridges have drawn the researchers’ and managers’ attention to develop traffic management frameworks to mitigate the negative influence. Considering the peculiar geographical location and meteorological conditions, the Guangshen Coast Expressway-Shenzhen Segment (GSCE-SS was selected as a case in this study to illustrate the proposed traffic management framework on rain days. Conditions categorized by rainfall intensity and traffic flow were the main precondition to make the management decisions. CORSIM simulator was used to develop the alternate routes choice schemes, providing reference for other systems in the proposed traffic management framework. Maps of (a entrance ramp control (ERC strategies; (b mainline control strategies; (c alternate routes choice; (d information release schemes, under scenarios of different volume and rainstorm warning grades (BLUE to RED, were drawn to present a reference or demonstration for managers of long-span expressway bridges not only in China, but even in the world.

  9. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air conditioning environmental test... conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements. The goal of an air conditioning test facility is..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average...

  10. Data quality monitoring in the presence of aerosols and other adverse atmospheric conditions with H.E.S.S

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, J; Bernlöhr, K; Krüger, P; Lo, Y T E; Chadwick, P M; Daniel, M K; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2015-01-01

    Cherenkov telescope experiments, such as H.E.S.S., have been very successful in astronomical observations in the very-high-energy (VHE; E $>$ 100 GeV) regime. As an integral part of the detector, such experiments use Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter. For the calibration and energy determination, a standard model atmosphere is assumed. Deviations of the real atmosphere from the model may therefore lead to an energy misreconstruction of primary gamma rays. To guarantee satisfactory data quality with respect to difficult atmospheric conditions, several atmospheric data quality criteria are implemented in the H.E.S.S. software. These quantities are sensitive to clouds and aerosols. Here, the Cherenkov transparency coefficient will be presented. It is a new monitoring quantity that is able to measure long-term changes in the atmospheric transparency. The Cherenkov transparency coefficient derives exclusively from Cherenkov data and is quite hardware-independent. Furthermore, its positive correlation with indepe...

  11. A comparison of cytokine responses during prolonged cycling in normal and hot environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila M Cosio-Lima

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ludmila M Cosio-Lima, Bhargav V Desai, Petra B Schuler, Lesley Keck, Logan ScheelerDepartment of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL, USAPurpose: Components of immune function are affected by physical activity in an adverse environment. The purpose of this study was to compare plasma differences in inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin 6 (IL-6, in addition to the stress hormone cortisol, during prolonged cycling under normal and hot environmental conditions in elite cyclists.Methods and design: Six trained elite male cyclists (27 ± 8 years; 75.5 ± 4 kg; maximum oxygen uptake [VO2max] = 66 ± 6 mL/kg/min, mean ± SD. The cyclists biked for 2.5 h at their prescribed 60% maximum exercise workload (Wmax or 75% VO2max either in an environmental chamber set at 15°C and 40% relative humidity (NEUTRAL or at 35°C and 40% relative humidity (HOT. The cyclists were given 4 mL of water/kg body weight every 15 min under both conditions.Results: Total cortisol concentrations were elevated (P < 0.05 immediately postexercise and 12 h postexercise in both the NEUTRAL and HOT conditions. TNF-α concentrations were only significantly (P = 0.045 elevated postexercise in HOT conditions. During the HOT conditions, a significant (P = 0.006 and 0.007, respectively difference in IL-6 was seen immediately after and 12 h postexercise. During the NEUTRAL condition, IL-6 was only significantly elevated postexercise (P < 0.05.Conclusions: Heat exposure during a long bout of exercise is sufficient to elicit stress response in elite cyclists. However, the degree of release of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines might be related to several factors that include the athlete’s fitness level, hydration status, exercise intensity, and length of exposure to hot environments.Keywords: cytokines, inflammation, heat, exercise, performance 

  12. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J.; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M.; Bruce, Marino A.; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N.; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V.; LaVeist, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status (SES), and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and White men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore (EHDIC-SWB) which was conducted in a racially a racially-integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in NHIS had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] =1.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] 129, 1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR= 0.77, 95% CI 0.65, 0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR= 0.58, 95% CI 0.50, 0.67). In the EHDIC-SWB sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.50, 1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.60, 1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 0.81, 2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental and SES conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and White men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men’s health disparities. PMID:26291190

  13. Race, Social and Environmental Conditions, and Health Behaviors in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Griffith, Derek M; Bruce, Marino A; Coa, Kisha; Bell, Caryn N; Young, Jessica; Bowie, Janice V; LaVeist, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Although understanding race differences in health behaviors among men is an important step in reducing disparities in leading causes of death in the United States, progress has been stifled when using national data because of the confounding of race, socioeconomic status, and residential segregation. The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of disparities in health behaviors among African American and white men in the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore, which was conducted in a racially integrated neighborhood of Baltimore to data from the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. After adjusting for age, marital status, insurance, income, educational attainment, poor or fair health, and obesity status, African American men in National Health Interview Survey had greater odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 1.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 129-1.69), reduced odds of being a current smoker (OR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90), and reduced odds of being a current drinker (OR = 0.58; 95% CI, 0.50-0.67). In the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities Study-Southwest Baltimore sample, African American and white men had similar odds of being physically inactive (OR = 0.79; 95% CI, 0.50-1.24), being a current smoker (OR = 0.86; 95% CI, 0.60-1.23), or being a current drinker (OR = 1.34; 95% CI, 0.81-2.21). Because race disparities in these health behaviors were ameliorated in the sample where African American and white men were living under similar social, environmental, and socioeconomic status conditions, these findings suggest that social environment may be an important determinant of health behaviors among African American and white men. Public health interventions and health promotion strategies should consider the social environment when seeking to better understand men's health disparities. PMID:26291190

  14. Effects of Environmental Conditions on an Urban Wetland's Methane Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naor Azrieli, L.; Morin, T. H.; Bohrer, G.; Schafer, K. V.; Brooker, M.; Mitsch, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Methane emissions from wetlands are the largest natural source of uncertainty in the global methane (CH4) budget. Wetlands are highly productive ecosystems with a large carbon sequestration potential. While wetlands are a net sink for carbon dioxide, they also release methane, a potent greenhouse gas. To effectively develop wetland management techniques, it is important to properly calculate the carbon budget of wetlands by understand the driving factors of methane fluxes. We constructed an eddy flux covariance system in the Olentangy River Wetland Research Park, a series of created and restored wetland in Columbus Ohio. Through the use of high frequency open path infrared gas analyzer (IRGA) sensors, we have continuously monitored the methane fluxes associated with the wetland since May 2011. To account for the heterogeneous landscape surrounding the tower, a footprint analysis was used to isolate data originating from within the wetland. Continuous measurements of the meteorological and environmental conditions at the wetlands coinciding with the flux measurements allow the interactions between methane fluxes and the climate and ecological forcing to be studied. The wintertime daily cycle of methane peaks around midday indicating a typical diurnal pattern in cold months. In the summer, the peak shifts to earlier in the day and also includes a daily peak occurring at approximately 10 AM. We believe this peak is associated with the onset of photosynthesis in Typha latifolia flushing methane from the plant's air filled tissue. Correlations with methane fluxes include latent heat flux, soil temperature, and incoming radiation. The connection to radiation may be further evidence of plant activity as a driver of methane fluxes. Higher methane fluxes corresponding with higher soil temperature indicates that warmer days stimulate the methanogenic consortium. Further analysis will focus on separating the methane fluxes into emissions from different terrain types within

  15. EDF - 2015 full-year results: all targets reached, Strong operating performance in adverse market conditions, 2018 ambition reiterated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key player in energy transition, the EDF Group is an integrated electricity company, active in all areas of the business: generation, transmission, distribution, energy supply and trading, energy services. A global leader in low-carbon energies, the Group has developed a diversified generation mix based on nuclear power, hydropower, new renewable energies and thermal energy. The Group is involved in supplying energy and services to approximately 37.6 million customers, of which 27.8 million in France. The Group generated consolidated sales of Euro 75 billion in 2015, of which 47.2% outside of France. EDF is listed on the Paris Stock exchange. EDF achieved all its targets in 2015. The year was marked by strong operational performance, reflecting the significant efforts the teams made. With the end of the regulated Yellow and Green Tariffs, most clients turned to EDF. Nuclear output reached its highest level, since 2011 in France, and since 2005 in the United Kingdom. EDF is also continuing its significant development in renewable energy, with an additional 1 GW of net installed capacity. The transformation of EDF Group is essential in the unfavourable market conditions. EDF has embarked on this transformation, and is accelerating innovation to serve the energy transition

  16. Factors for consideration in the interpretation of the adverse effects of elevated environmental temperatures on reproduction in the male rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrak, E.; Chap, Z.; Fried, K.

    1980-06-01

    Continuous exposure of male rats to an elevated environmental temperature (33 35° C) for 3 weeks led to heat-acclimatized (HA) rats whose serum testosterone concentratrion was significantly lower (Phypothalamic content of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (THR), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, the prostaglandin F2α(PGF2α) content of the hypothalamus of HA rats was significantly lower (P hypothalamic contents of TRH, GnR H and PGE2. The physiological significance in the response of PGF2α awaits further clarification.

  17. One-against-all weighted dynamic time warping for language-independent and speaker-dependent speech recognition in adverse conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglilan Zhang

    Full Text Available Considering personal privacy and difficulty of obtaining training material for many seldom used English words and (often non-English names, language-independent (LI with lightweight speaker-dependent (SD automatic speech recognition (ASR is a promising option to solve the problem. The dynamic time warping (DTW algorithm is the state-of-the-art algorithm for small foot-print SD ASR applications with limited storage space and small vocabulary, such as voice dialing on mobile devices, menu-driven recognition, and voice control on vehicles and robotics. Even though we have successfully developed two fast and accurate DTW variations for clean speech data, speech recognition for adverse conditions is still a big challenge. In order to improve recognition accuracy in noisy environment and bad recording conditions such as too high or low volume, we introduce a novel one-against-all weighted DTW (OAWDTW. This method defines a one-against-all index (OAI for each time frame of training data and applies the OAIs to the core DTW process. Given two speech signals, OAWDTW tunes their final alignment score by using OAI in the DTW process. Our method achieves better accuracies than DTW and merge-weighted DTW (MWDTW, as 6.97% relative reduction of error rate (RRER compared with DTW and 15.91% RRER compared with MWDTW are observed in our extensive experiments on one representative SD dataset of four speakers' recordings. To the best of our knowledge, OAWDTW approach is the first weighted DTW specially designed for speech data in adverse conditions.

  18. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport near Cordova, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, J.M.; Sokup, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Air service to Cordova, Alaska and the surrounding region is provided by the Merle K. "Mudhole" Smith Airport, 21 kilometers east of the townsite. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates support facilities at the airport and wishes to consider the environmental setting and hydro- geologic conditions when evaluating options for remediation of potential contamination at these facilities. The airport is within the Copper River Delta wetlands area and the Chugach National Forest. Silts, sands, and gravels of fluvial origin underlie the airport. Potential flooding may be caused by outbursts of glacier-dammed lakes, glacier icemelt, snowmelt runoff, or precipitation. Surface spills and disposal of hazardous materials in conjunction with precipitation or flooding may adversely affect the quality of ground water. Drinking water at the airport is currently supplied by wells. Alternative drinking-water sources include local rivers and streams, transporting city water from Cordova, or undiscovered aquifers. Each alternative source, however, would likely cost significantly more to develop than using the existing shallow aquifer supply.

  19. Protection Of Chemolithoautotrophic Bacteria Exposed To Simulated Mars Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we stud...

  20. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-01-01

    In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can ...

  1. Environmental conditions on the Norwegian continental shelf Barents sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, P.L.; Torsethaugen, K.

    1989-05-01

    Environmental data from the Barents Sea are presented. These data include data from measurements of waves, wind, current, water level and temperature, hindcast data for waves and wind and information on sea ice and icing. The data are synthesized for use in design and operational planning. An overview of the instrumentation used and rutine data analysis performed is given. Mathematical and statistical methods are used in the data analysis and presentation are discussed. 81 refs., 120 figs., 50 tabs. (Author).

  2. Environmental conditions experienced during the tadpole stage alter post-metamorphic glucocorticoid response to stress in an amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to adverse environmental conditions during early development can shape life-history traits and have lasting effects on physiological function in later life. Although findings within the biomedical literature have shown that environmentally induced elevations in glucocorticoids (GCs) during critical developmental windows can cause persistent carry-over effects (i.e., developmental programming), little is known about whether such effects of GCs can be generalized to wildlife species. Using wood frogs as a study species, we conducted an experiment with a split-plot design to assess the short-term and the long-term physiological consequences of availability of food, hydroperiod length (i.e., pond drying), and the interaction between these two environmental conditions. In outdoor experimental ponds, we reared tadpoles in chronically high or low-food conditions, and tadpoles from each pond experienced either high water until metamorphosis or a reduction in water volume during late developmental stages (after Gosner stage 38). After metamorphosis, animals were housed individually and fed ad libitum for 10 weeks, and growth rate, fat content, and resting and acute stress-induced GC levels were measured. We found that tadpoles experiencing low availability of food and reduced water volume had elevated GC levels, reduced mass, and body condition as they approached metamorphosis. At 10 weeks after metamorphosis, we found that these two conditions also had persistent interactive effects on post-metamorphic allocation of resources to growth, energy storage, and responsiveness of GCs to a novel stressor. Of individuals that experienced reduced water volume, only those that experienced high food as tadpoles were able to catch up to individuals that did not experience reduced water volume in terms of body mass, femur length, and body condition, and they allocated more resources to fat storage. By contrast, 10-week old frogs with low-food and that experienced low water

  3. EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON ISOPRENE EMISSION FROM LIVE OAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Live-oak plants (Quercus virginia) were subjected to various levels of CO2, water stress or photosynthetic photon flux density to test the hypothesis that isoprene biosynthesis occurred only under conditions of restricted CO2 availability. Isoprene emission increases as the ambie...

  4. Overview of environmental and hydrogeologic conditions at Moses Point, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, J.M.; Ayres, R.P.; Sisco, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration facility at Moses Point is located at the mouth of the Kwiniuk River on the Seward Peninsula in northwestern Alaska. This area has long cold winters and short summers which affect the hydrology of the area. The Federal Aviation Administration owns or operates airport support facilities at the Moses Point site and wishes to consider the subsistence lifestyles of area residents and the quality of the current environment when evaluating options for remediation of environmental contamination at their facilities. Currently no operating wells are in the area, but the vulnerability of the aquifer and other alternative water supplies are being evaluated because the Federal Aviation Administration has a potential liability for the storage and use of hazardous materials in the area.

  5. Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides under cyclic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, A.; Alven, D.A.; Stoloff, N.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The tensile and fatigue crack growth behavior in air in hydrogen and in oxygen of an Fe-Al-Cr-Zr alloy is described. The results are compared to data for FA-129. A detailed analysis of frequency effects on fatigue crack growth rates of FA-129, tested in the B2 condition, shows that dislocation transport of hydrogen from the surface is the rate limiting step in fatigue crack growth.

  6. Corrosion behavior of carbon steels under tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steels may be used for borehole liners in a potential high-level nuclear waste repository in tuff in Nevada. Borehole liners are needed to facilitate emplacement of the waste packages and to facilitate retrieval of the packages, if required. Corrosion rates of low carbon structural steels AISI 1020 and ASTM A-36 were determined in J-13 well water and in saturated steam at 1000C. Tests were conducted in air-sparged J-13 water to attain more oxidizing conditions representative of irradiated aqueous environments. A limited number of irradiation corrosion and stress corrosion tests were performed. Chromium-molybdenum alloy steels and cast irons were also tested. These materials showed lower general corrosion but were susceptible to stress corrosion cracking when welded. 4 references, 4 tables

  7. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  8. Environmental and behavioral conditions of bathing among elderly Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Yuji; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tochihara, Yutaka; Nagai, Yumiko; Ito, Hiromitsu; Yoshitake, Shiro

    2007-03-01

    This study investigated the bathing conditions of elderly Japanese, and sought to find factors relating to regional differences in death rates from bathtub accidents. A questionnaire survey was carried out in 11 areas of Japan. Questionnaires including questions regarding the length of time since houses had been built, types of facilities, and subjects' indoor thermal sensations and behavior while bathing were distributed to detached houses in each area twice, once in summer and once in winter. Completed questionnaires were collected from approximately 160 elderly people over 65 years old. Information regarding thermal sensations of rooms in winter revealed that a prefabricated bath and insulating window glass eased the cold in the bathroom. Unexpectedly, more subjects in the southern region than in the northern region reported being cold or a little cold while bathing in winter. In the present study, thermal sensations and behaviors while bathing seemed to be more affected by facilities and the location of houses than by the sex and age of the subjects. PMID:17435371

  9. Flashover Characteristics of Silicone Rubber Sheets under Various Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Silicone rubber insulators are replacing the conventional ceramic and porcelain insulators rapidly in power transmission and distribution industry. Very limited field knowledge is available about the performance of silicone rubber insulators in polluted and contaminated environments and therefore need further investigation. A comprehensive analysis of silicone rubber sheets (intended for coating outdoor insulators was carried out in this paper based on experimental results. The main performance parameters analyzed were arc inception voltage and flashover voltage. Dependence of these parameters on equivalent salt deposit density (ESDD, non-soluble salt deposit density (NSDD, relative humidity, ambient temperature, fog rate, dry band formation, dry band location and number of dry bands were investigated extensively. Insulator orientation and its effect on performance were also studied. The authors believe that this paper will provide a comprehensive knowledge about the flashover characteristics of silicone rubber insulators under humid, contaminated and dry band conditions. These results could be used in the selection and design of silicone rubber insulators for polluted environments.

  10. Potassium Supplying Power of Soils in Heilongjiang Province and the Effect of Potassium Application on Resistance of Crops to Adverse Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenKuiqing; WangErli; 等

    1995-01-01

    The total potassium(K)content of soils in Heilongjiang was relatively high in general and the available potassium content on soils was quite different for different soil types.The results of electro-ultra-filtration(EUF)analysis showed that the dark brown forest soils and the black soils in the northern part contained relatively high EUF-K,ranged from 12.5 to 15.7 mg per 100g soil.In the black soils in the southern part,the EUF-K ranged from 8 to 9mg per 100g soil.The albic and aeolian sandy soils contained low EUF-K,ranged from 3.2 to 4.8mg per 100g soil.Field experiment in 1982 indicated that potassium fertilizer in soils with medium or low EUF-K,increased soybean yield by 17%-34%,and obviously prevented the epidemic of meadow moth and soybean mosaic virus.Application of potassium fertilizer increased the protein and total sugar content of the plants,promoted transportation of nutrients,speeded up the growth of the plants,improved the resistance of crops to adverse conditions.Application of potassium fertilizer resulted in early maturity of crops(4-7 days earlier than cotrol),which had great significance for preventing crops from early frost damage.Hence,in order to keep nutrients balance in the soil and to increase soil fertility.potassium fertilizer or materials containing potassium must be applied to soils with medium and low EUF-K,such as black soils in the south part,ablic soils and aeolian sandy soils in Heilongjiang Province.

  11. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  12. Multivariate characterisation of environmental conditions for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pastoralism using semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer t. tarandus is a traditional livelihood in northern Fennoscandia. The area used for reindeer herding in Sweden covers as much as half of the country’s area. Variation in the productivity of reindeer husbandry is clearly affected by many biotic and abiotic factors. The aim of this investigation was to identify factor combinations which describe the spatial variation in conditions that plausibly determine productivity in reindeer herding. Initially, 37 variables representing geographical location, climate, weather episodes related to ice crust formation and insect harassment, topography, vegetation, forage abundance and qualities, and fragmentation of the ranges were derived, using prior ecological knowledge and spatially explicit data. The variables were mapped in a raster of 1958 squares of 100 km2 each, covering the entire Swedish reindeer herding area. Reductions of variables were performed with multivariate analyses in steps, ultimately retaining 15 variables. The first five principal components (PCs of these variables explained 84% of the total variation. The first component, related to major western mountain/eastern lowland gradients, already accounts for 49% of the variation. The following components explained variation ranging from 10% to 5.4%, and revealed spatial patterns in summer versus winter forage, climatic conditions and ice crust formation, abundance of forests and winter forage, and northward slopes together with valuable forest areas, respectively. A tentative zone division of the Swedish reindeer herding area into seven zones was made, based upon cluster analysis and spatial distribution of component scores. Extending this approach and method seems useful also in the understanding and management of other natural resources and national parks, especially with an ongoing global climate change perspective.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Multivariat karakterisering av grundf

  13. Environmental Conditions in Northern Gulf of Mexico Estuaries: Before and After the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    When conducting an environmental assessment to determine the ecological effects of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), baseline environmental data is essential to establish ecosystem condition prior to the incident. EPA’s National Coastal Assessment...

  14. Multiscale Effects of Management, Environmental Conditions, and Land Use on Nitrate Leaching in Dairy Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Verloop, J.; Hooijboer, A.; Boumans, L.; Berge, ten H.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth)

  15. Flexible DCP interface. [signal conditioning system for use with Kansas environmental sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemasu, E. T. (Principal Investigator); Schimmelpfenning, H.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A user of an ERTS data collection system must supply the sensors and signal conditioning interface. The electronic interface must be compatible with the NASA-furnished data collection platform (DCP). A universal signal conditioning system for use with a wide range of environmental sensors is described. The interface is environmentally and electronically compatible with the DCP and has operated satisfactorily for a complete winter wheat growing season in Kansas.

  16. Multiple Stressors in a Top Predator Seabird: Potential Ecological Consequences of Environmental Contaminants, Population Health and Breeding Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bourgeon, Sophie; Leat, Eliza H K; Magnusdóttir, Ellen; Strøm, Hallvard; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Petersen, Aevar; Olafsdóttir, Kristin; Borgå, Katrine; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Furness, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Environmental contaminants may have impacts on reproduction and survival in wildlife populations suffering from multiple stressors. This study examined whether adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) increased with poor population health and breeding conditions in three colonies (60-74°N) of great skua (Stercorarius skua) in the north-eastern Atlantic (Shetland, Iceland and Bjørnøya [Bear Island]). POPs (organochlorines [OCs] and polybrominated diphenyl ethers [BDEs]) were measured in plasma of incubating birds (n = 222), concentrations differing nearly tenfold among colonies: Bjørnøya (2009) > Bjørnøya (2010) > Iceland (2009) > Shetland (2009). Reproductive success (hatching success and chick survival) showed that breeding conditions were favourable in Shetland and at Bjørnøya (2010), but were very poor in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2009). Biomarkers indicated that health was poor in the Shetland population compared to the other populations. Females whose chicks hatched late had high POP concentrations in all colonies except at Bjørnøya (2010), and females losing their eggs at Bjørnøya (2009) tended to have higher concentrations than those hatching. Moreover, there was a negative relationship between female POP concentrations and chick body condition at hatching in Iceland and at Bjørnøya (2010). Supplementary feeding experiments were conducted, and in Iceland where feeding conditions were poor, significant negative relationships were found between female POP concentrations and daily growth-rate in first-hatched chicks of control nests, but not in food supplemented nests. This suggests that negative impacts of POPs were mitigated by improved feeding conditions. For second-chicks, there was a strong negative relationship between the female POP concentrations and growth-rate, but no effects of supplementary feeding. Lowered adult return-rate between breeding seasons with increasing POP loads were found both at Bjørnøya (2009) and in

  17. Regulation of free corticosterone and CBG capacity under different environmental conditions in altricial nestlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi, Bettina; Roulin, Alexandre; Jenni-Eiermann, Susanne; Breuner, Creagh W; Jenni, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of circulating glucocorticoids is regulated in response to environmental and endogenous conditions. Total circulating corticosterone, the main glucocorticoid in birds, consists of a fraction which is bound to corticosterone-binding globulins (CBG) and a free fraction. There is increasing evidence that the environment modulates free corticosterone levels through varying the concentration of CBG, but experimental evidence is lacking. To test the hypothesis that the regulation of chronic stress in response to endogenous and environmental conditions involves variation in both corticosterone release and CBG capacity, we performed an experiment with barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings in two different years with pronounced differences in environmental conditions and in nestlings experimentally fed ad libitum. In half of the individuals we implanted a corticosterone-releasing pellet to artificially increase corticosterone levels and in the other half we implanted a placebo pellet. We then repeatedly collected blood samples to measure the change in total and free corticosterone levels as well as CBG capacity. The increase in circulating total corticosterone after artificial corticosterone administration varied with environmental conditions and with the food regime of the nestlings. The highest total corticosterone levels were found in nestlings growing up in poor environmental conditions and the lowest in ad libitum fed nestlings. CBG was highest in the year with poor environmental conditions, so that, contrary to total corticosterone, free corticosterone levels were low under poor environmental conditions. When nestlings were fed ad libitum total corticosterone, CBG and free corticosterone did not increase when administering corticosterone. These results suggest that depending on the individual history an animal experienced during development the HPA-axis is regulated differently. PMID:19467233

  18. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A.

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  19. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin; Orlando Antonio Lucca Filho; Leopoldo Mario Baudet Labbe; Mirela Rossetto

    2014-01-01

    Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three i...

  20. Pneumothorax as an Adverse Drug Event: An Exploratory Aggregate Analysis of the US FDA AERS Database Including a Confounding by Indication Analysis Inspired by Cornfield's Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric Y.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Pneumothorax is either primary or secondary. Secondary pneumothorax is usually due to trauma, including various non-pharmacologic iatrogenic triggers. Although not normally thought of as an adverse drug event (ADE) secondary pneumothorax is associated with numerous drugs, though it is often difficult to determine whether this association is causal in nature, or reflects an epiphenomenon of efficacy or inefficacy, or confounding by indication (CBI). Herein we explore this associa...

  1. Vaccine adverse events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follows, Jill

    2012-01-01

    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  2. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  3. Environmental Condition and its Impact on Landscape Description by Salient Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S.; Malek, M. R.; Soleimani, Z.; Arabsheibani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Describing a landscape means making link between concepts of visible features and people's perception. Most landscape description methods underline salient entities which are a key trigger for wayfinding problems and tourism management. Searching for a better understanding of landscape descriptions implies to explore and identify the main visual properties that differentiate between landscapes depending on both human cognition and environmental condition. Furthermore, this environmental condition affects the credibility of data produced by people, particularly when using Volunteered Geographical Information systems which brings forward a huge amount of information. Then this paper proposes an approach to emerge patterns by which describing landscape in general and choosing salient objects in particular have been influenced.

  4. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  5. Effects of semi-natural environmental conditions on phenotypic plasticity in Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Margerum, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Controlled laboratory experiments find there is normal variation in maternal care that regulates the development of the endocrine, cognitive and behavioral responses to stress in rats. As housing conditions of laboratory rats can have pronounced effects on experimental outcomes, I examined how semi-naturalistic environmental conditions affect maternal care and how or if variation in maternal care affects neural and behavioral development in adult female offspring. Specifically, I assessed ma...

  6. Responses of Organic Phosphorus Fractionation to Environmental Conditions and Lake Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Changwei; Wang, Bing; He, Jiang; Vogt, Rolf D; Zhou, Bin; Guan, Rui; Zuo, Le; Wang, Weiying; Xie, Zhilei; Wang, Jinghua; Yan, Daohao

    2016-05-17

    Geochemical fractionation is used to assess the significance of environmental factors on organic phosphorus (OP) pools in sediments. Labile, moderately labile, and nonlabile OP pools in the sediments from Lake Hulun, Inner Mongolia, were fractionated, and their responses to environmental conditions and lake evolution were investigated based on the spatial and vertical distribution of OP fractionations. In light of the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter (OM) in different environmental conditions, the pH presents significant negative effects on the amount of labile OP, while water depth shows an important role in regulating the distribution between the moderately labile and nonlabile OP pools. A latitudinal zonation in the distribution of OP pools in surface sediments from different lakes was apparent with this zonation likely linked to the gradient effects of climate and anthropogenic activities on OM decomposition and thereby on the sediments capacity to hold phosphorus. These results show that OM plays a role in governing the impacts of weather and environmental factors on OP fractionation in aquatic environments. This work suggests that OP pools in the sediment core could be used as an archive for environmental conditions and lake evolution. PMID:27104794

  7. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  8. Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Mushrooms as Influenced by Physiological and Environmental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Bech, K.; Lundsten, K.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of irradiation with β (10 MeV fast electrons)- and γ-rays were studied on several characters in strains of the cultured mushroom under different physiological and environmental conditions, including uncut and cut mushrooms, tightness of packing, and relative humidity. Weight loss...

  9. Application of carbonation model for service life design to Serbian environmental conditions and engineering practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ignjatovic, I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the application of carbonation model for service life design to local, Serbian environmental conditions and engineering practice. The basis of service life design using probabilistic approach and the deterioration model are presented. According to the data obtained from differe

  10. The effect of environmental conditions on the seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of weed seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Weeds cause considerable losses in horticultural and agricultural crops. Weeds are still predominantly controlled with herbicides. To reduce the use of chemicals, a better understanding of the biology of weeds is required. In this thesis the effect of environmental conditions on dormancy and germina

  11. A Model of Competition with Environmental Taxes and Regulation Under Conditions of Oligopoly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jiang-wen; LUO Yun-feng; ZHAO Yong; YUE Chao-yuan

    2002-01-01

    The Cournot static game with complete information is reviewed. A model of competition with environmental taxes under conditions of oligopoly is built based on the Cournot game, and some helpful conclusions are drawn from the model. A game model with regulation of government is also established.Finally the optimization problem of market structure is discussed.

  12. Association between Markers of Classroom Environmental Conditions and Teachers' Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Luz; Rivera, Glory A.; Ramirez, Olivia F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have assessed health in schoolchildren. Less is known about the environmental and occupational health of teachers. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of teachers was conducted in 24 randomly selected public elementary schools. Questionnaire included sociodemographic information, healthcare, school conditions, and health…

  13. Ebola Virus RNA Stability in Human Blood and Urine in West Africa's Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janvier, Frédéric; Delaune, Deborah; Poyot, Thomas; Valade, Eric; Mérens, Audrey; Rollin, Pierre E; Foissaud, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated RNA stability of Ebola virus in EDTA blood and urine samples collected from infected patients and stored in West Africa's environmental conditions. In blood, RNA was stable for at least 18 days when initial cycle threshold values were <30, but in urine, RNA degradation occurred more quickly.

  14. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala;

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the is...

  15. Music venues and hearing loss: Opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions in order to reduce the risk for music-induced hearing loss in people who attend music venues. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with 20 representatives of music venues and of governmental organ

  16. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light qua

  17. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron W E Galloway

    Full Text Available Essential fatty acids (EFA, which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting

  18. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  19. Unravelling environmental conditions during the Holocene in the Dead Sea region using multiple archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambeau, Claire; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline; van der Knaap, Pim; Gobet, Erika

    2016-04-01

    For the most arid parts of the Southern Levant (roughly corresponding to modern Jordan, Israel and Palestine), environmental reconstructions are impeded by the limited number of archives, and the frequent contradictions between individual palaeoenvironmental records. The Southern Levant is characterised by steep climate gradients; local conditions presently range from arid to dry Mediterranean, with limits that may have fluctuated during the Holocene. This further complicates the determination of site-specific past environmental conditions. Understanding past climate and environmental evolution through time, at a local level, is however crucial to compare these with societal evolution during the Holocene, which features major cultural developments such as cereal cultivation, animal domestication, water management, as well as times of preferential settlement growth or site abandonment. This contribution proposes to examine the different archives available for the Dead Sea region, paying special attention to the most recent pollen data obtained from the area. It will particularly critically compare local to regional-scale information, and try to decipher the main evolutions of environmental conditions during the Holocene in arid and semi-arid Southern Levant.

  20. An adaptive ant colony optimization framework for scheduling environmental flow management alternatives under varied environmental water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemis, J. M.; Maier, H. R.; Dandy, G. C.

    2014-10-01

    Human water use is increasing and, as such, water for the environment is limited and needs to be managed efficiently. One method for achieving this is the scheduling of environmental flow management alternatives (EFMAs) (e.g., releases, wetland regulators), with these schedules generally developed over a number of years. However, the availability of environmental water changes annually as a result of natural variability (e.g., drought, wet years). To incorporate this variation and schedule EFMAs in a operational setting, a previously formulated multiobjective optimization approach for EFMA schedule development used for long-term planning has been modified and incorporated into an adaptive framework. As part of this approach, optimal schedules are updated at regular intervals during the planning horizon based on environmental water allocation forecasts, which are obtained using artificial neural networks. In addition, the changes between current and updated schedules can be minimized to reduce any disruptions to long-term planning. The utility of the approach is assessed by applying it to an 89km section of the River Murray in South Australia. Results indicate that the approach is beneficial under a range of hydrological conditions and an improved ecological response is obtained in a operational setting compared with previous long-term approaches. Also, it successfully produces trade-offs between the number of disruptions to schedules and the ecological response, with results suggesting that ecological response increases with minimal alterations required to existing schedules. Overall, the results indicate that the information obtained using the proposed approach potentially aides managers in the efficient management of environmental water.

  1. Incorporating temporal heterogeneity in environmental conditions into a somatic growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzul, Maria C.; Yackulic, Charles B.; Korman, Josh; Yard, Michael D.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating environmental effects on fish growth can be challenging because environmental conditions may vary at relatively fine temporal scales compared to sampling occasions. Here we develop a Bayesian state-space growth model to evaluate effects of monthly environmental data on growth of fish that are observed less frequently (e.g., from mark-recapture data where time between captures can range from months to years). We assess effects of temperature, turbidity duration, food availability, flow variability, and trout abundance on subadult humpback chub (Gila cypha) growth in two rivers, the Colorado River (CR) and the Little Colorado River (LCR), and we use out-of-sample prediction to rank competing models. Environmental covariates explained a high proportion of the variation in growth in both rivers; however, the best growth models were river-specific and included either positive temperature and turbidity duration effects (CR) or positive temperature and food availability effects (LCR). Our approach to analyzing environmental controls on growth should be applicable in other systems where environmental data vary over relatively short time scales compared to animal observations.

  2. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  3. Oil Recovery from Water under Environmentally Relevant Conditions Using Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahghassemi, Seyyedali; Lead, Jamie R

    2015-10-01

    Large oil spills and oily wastewater discharges from ships and industrial activities can have serious impacts on the environment with potentially major economic impacts. Current oil remediation techniques are inefficient and may have deleterious environmental consequences. However, nanotechnology offers a new route to potentially remediate oil pollution. In this study, a cheap and facile hydrothermal method was developed to synthesize polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated magnetite nanoparticles to separate a reference MC252 oil from oil-water mixture under environmentally relevant conditions. Fluorescence and Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy results showed near 100% oil removal from oil-water mixture in the ultrapure water under optimum condition. Based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data, approximately 100% of lower molecular mass alkanes (C9-C21) were removed within 10 min of magnetic separation and by increasing the separation time to 40 min, greater than 67% of C22-25 alkanes were removed. Moreover, nanoparticles removed near 100% oil from synthetic seawater solutions in the presence and absence of fulvic acid showing excellent oil removal capacity of the nanoparticles under different conditions. Results show that these nanoparticles can be utilized to remove oil over a short time with a high removal efficiency under environmentally relevant conditions. PMID:26358198

  4. Being born under adverse economic conditions leads to a higher cardiovascular mortality rate later in life: evidence based on individuals born at different stages of the business cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer-Reiter, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2011-01-01

    We connect the recent medical and economic literatures on the long-run effects of early-life conditions by analyzing the effects of economic conditions on the individual cardiovascular (CV) mortality rate later in life, using individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births...

  5. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate......-products, the resulting environmental impacts were allocated between the main product and their respective by-products using economic allocation. Impact assessment was done using the ReCiPe (H) methodology, except for toxicity impacts, which were assessed using USEtox. The results show that the impacts for all impact...... for the increased impacts. This finding was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Because this study focused solely on the impacts of climate change, technological improvements and political measures to reduce impacts in the 2050 scenario are not taken into account. Options to mitigate the environmental impacts...

  6. Status report on assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for LWR extended service conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, W. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-07-09

    This report provides an update on an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for light water reactor (LWR) materials under extended service conditions. This report is a deliverable in September 2013, under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program. The overall objective of this LWRS project is to assess the degradation by environmentally assisted cracking/fatigue of LWR materials, such as various alloy base metals and their welds used in reactor coolant system piping. This effort is to support the U.S. Department of Energy LWRS program for developing tools to predict the aging/failure mechanism and to correspondingly predict the remaining life of LWR components for anticipated 60-80 year operation.

  7. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  8. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios. PMID:27459161

  9. Microbial forensics: predicting phenotypic characteristics and environmental conditions from large-scale gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseung Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tantalizing question in cellular physiology is whether the cellular state and environmental conditions can be inferred by the expression signature of an organism. To investigate this relationship, we created an extensive normalized gene expression compendium for the bacterium Escherichia coli that was further enriched with meta-information through an iterative learning procedure. We then constructed an ensemble method to predict environmental and cellular state, including strain, growth phase, medium, oxygen level, antibiotic and carbon source presence. Results show that gene expression is an excellent predictor of environmental structure, with multi-class ensemble models achieving balanced accuracy between 70.0% (±3.5% to 98.3% (±2.3% for the various characteristics. Interestingly, this performance can be significantly boosted when environmental and strain characteristics are simultaneously considered, as a composite classifier that captures the inter-dependencies of three characteristics (medium, phase and strain achieved 10.6% (±1.0% higher performance than any individual models. Contrary to expectations, only 59% of the top informative genes were also identified as differentially expressed under the respective conditions. Functional analysis of the respective genetic signatures implicates a wide spectrum of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways with condition-specific information content, including iron transport, transferases, and enterobactin synthesis. Further experimental phenotypic-to-genotypic mapping that we conducted for knock-out mutants argues for the information content of top-ranked genes. This work demonstrates the degree at which genome-scale transcriptional information can be predictive of latent, heterogeneous and seemingly disparate phenotypic and environmental characteristics, with far-reaching applications.

  10. Effects of environmental conditions on aerobic degradation of a commercial naphthenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinley, Ciera M; Gaspari, Daniel P; McQueen, Andrew D; Rodgers, John H; Castle, James W; Friesen, Vanessa; Haakensen, Monique

    2016-10-01

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are problematic constituents in energy-derived waters, and aerobic degradation may provide a strategy for mitigating risks to aquatic organisms. The overall objective of this study was to determine the influence of concentrations of N (as ammonia) and P (as phosphate), and DO, as well as pH and temperatures on degradation of a commercial NA in bench-scale reactors. Commercial NAs provided replicable compounds necessary to compare influences of environmental conditions on degradation. NAs were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Microbial diversity and relative abundance were measured in treatments as explanatory parameters for potential effects of environmental conditions on microbial populations to support analytically measured NA degradation. Environmental conditions that positively influenced degradation rates of Fluka NAs included nutrients (C:N 10:1-500:1, C:P 100:1-5000:1), DO (4.76-8.43 mg L(-1)), pH (6-8), and temperature (5-25 °C). Approximately 50% removal of 61 ± 8 mg L(-1) was achieved in less than 2 d after NA introduction, achieving the method detection limit (5 mg L(-1)) by day 6 of the experiment in treatments with a C:N:P ratio of 100:10:1, DO > 8 mg L(-1), pH ∼8-9, and temperatures >23 °C. Microbial diversity was lowest in lower temperature treatments (6-16 °C), which may have resulted in observed slower NA degradation. Based on results from this study, when macro- and micronutrients were available, DO, pH, and temperature (within environmentally relevant ranges) influenced rates of aerobic degradation of Fluka NAs. This study could serve as a model for systematically evaluating environmental factors that influence NA degradation in field scenarios.

  11. Variability in oxidative degradation of charcoal: Influence of production conditions and environmental exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascough, P. L.; Bird, M. I.; Francis, S. M.; Thornton, B.; Midwood, A. J.; Scott, A. C.; Apperley, D.

    2011-05-01

    Charcoal is a key component of the Black Carbon (BC) continuum, where BC is characterized as a recalcitrant, fire-derived, polyaromatic material. Charcoal is an important source of palaeoenvironmental data, and of great interest as a potential carbon sink, due to its high apparent environmental stability. However, at least some forms of charcoal are clearly susceptible to environmental alteration and degradation over relatively short timescales. Although these processes have importance for the role of charcoal in global biogeochemistry, they remain poorly understood. Here we present results of an investigation into the susceptibility of a range of charcoal samples to oxidative degradation in acidified potassium dichromate. The study examines both freshly-produced charcoal, and charcoal exposed to environmental conditions for up to 50,000 years. We compare the proportion of carbon present in different forms between the samples, specifically with respect to the relative chemical resistance of these forms. This was undertaken in order to improve understanding of the post-depositional diagenetic changes affecting charcoal within environmental deposits. A wide range in chemical compositions are apparent both within and between the sample groups. In freshly-produced charcoal, material produced at 300 °C contains carbon with more labile forms than charcoal produced at ⩾400 °C, signifying a key chemical change over the 300-400 °C temperature range. Charcoal exposed to environmental depositional conditions is frequently composed of a highly carboxylated aromatic structure and contains a range of carbon fractions of varying oxidative resistance. These findings suggest that a significant number of the environmental charcoals have undergone post-depositional diagenetic alteration. Further, the data highlight the potential for the use of controlled progressive oxidative degradation as a method to characterize chemical differences between individual charcoal samples.

  12. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Léo; Colosimo, Enrico Antonio; Antunes, Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables were found to be significantly associated with diarrhea: washing and purifying fruit and vegetables; presence of wastewater in the street; refuse storage, collection and disposal; domestic water reservoir conditions; feces disposal from swaddles; presence of vectors in the house and flooding in the lot. The estimates of the relative risks reached values up to 2.87. The present study revealed the feasibility of developing and implementing an adequate model to establish intervention priorities in the field of environmental sanitation. PMID:12715062

  13. Research of Wireless Sensor Monitoring Network of Melon Fly under Different Temperatures and Other Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve multi-point, highly efficient and real-time wireless transmission of data about melon fly monitoring under various temperatures and other variable environmental conditions, this paper proposes and builds a model of a melon fly monitoring system with a wireless sensor network. Combined with multi-hop wireless sensor networks suitable for Adaptive Ad Hoc Transmission Control Protocol (ADTCP algorithm, the transmission-limited congestion window is a method to reduce network congestion, simulate the aggregation node of the sensor network through a wireless transceiver platform, and finally to compile monitoring data in a central computer. The proposed scheme can effectively mitigate congestion problems of the wireless sensor network for monitoring melon flies at the aggregation node, can improve the data transmission performance of the monitoring network, and can adapt to various environmental conditions.

  14. Adverse Effects of Bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  15. Adverse effects of bisphosphonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    tolerated by the majority of patients, but serious adverse events have been recorded in some cases. Only the most common of adverse effects are robustly observable in clinical trials. In general, studies were not powered to detect effects that were lower in incidence than fractures. This review of adverse...

  16. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  17. The hidden function of photosynthesis: a sensing system for environmental conditions that regulates plant acclimation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannschmidt, Thomas; Yang, Chunhong

    2012-06-01

    Plants convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy by photosynthesis. Since they are sessile, they have to deal with a wide range of conditions in their immediate environment. Many abiotic and biotic parameters exhibit considerable fluctuations which can have detrimental effects especially on the efficiency of photosynthetic light harvesting. During evolution, plants, therefore, evolved a number of acclimation processes which help them to adapt photosynthesis to such environmental changes. This includes protective mechanisms such as excess energy dissipation and processes supporting energy redistribution, e.g. state transitions or photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. Intriguingly, all these responses are triggered by photosynthesis itself via the interplay of its light reaction and the Calvin-Benson cycle with the residing environmental condition. Thus, besides its primary function in harnessing and converting light energy, photosynthesis acts as a sensing system for environmental changes that controls molecular acclimation responses which adapt the photosynthetic function to the environmental change. Important signalling parameters directly or indirectly affected by the environment are the pH gradient across the thylakoid membrane and the redox states of components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain and/or electron end acceptors coupled to it. Recent advances demonstrate that these signals control post-translational modifications of the photosynthetic protein complexes and also affect plastid and nuclear gene expression machineries as well as metabolic pathways providing a regulatory framework for an integrated response of the plant to the environment at all cellular levels.

  18. Wireless monitoring of the longitudinal displacement of the Tamar Suspension Bridge deck under changing environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Battista, Nicky; Westgate, Robert; Koo, Ki Young; Brownjohn, James

    2011-04-01

    In order to be able to monitor the performance and health of a civil structure it is essential to understand how it behaves under different environmental conditions. It is a well documented fact that the structural performance of bridges can be altered considerably when they are subjected to changes in environmental conditions. This paper presents a study investigating the longitudinal movement of the road deck on Tamar Suspension Bridge in Plymouth in the UK over six months. The expansion joint of the bridge deck was instrumented with pull-wire type extensometers. The data were transmitted wirelessly using commercial wireless sensor nodes and collected at a data acquisition laptop computer, which was accessible online for remote monitoring. In addition, position data of various locations on the bridge deck were collected using a Robotic Total Station (RTS). Environmental data, such as the temperature, and structural data, such as cable tension, were acquired from other monitoring systems. Conclusions drawn from a fusion of the bridge deck's longitudinal displacement with other structural and environmental data are discussed in this paper.

  19. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210(210Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  20. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    DURUSU, A.; NAKIR, I.; AJDER, A.; Ayaz, R.; Akca, H.; TANRIOVEN, M.

    2014-01-01

    Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs) play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV) panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP) whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are ...

  1. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  2. Environmental sanitation conditions and health impact: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Heller Léo; Colosimo Enrico Antonio; Antunes Carlos Mauricio de Figueiredo

    2003-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation examines the impact of several environmental sanitation conditions and hygiene practices on diarrhea occurrence among children under five years of age living in an urban area. The case-control design was employed; 997 cases and 999 controls were included in the investigation. Cases were defined as children with diarrhea and controls were randomly selected among children under five years of age. After logistic regression adjustment, the following variables we...

  3. Geochemical Processes Controlling the Generation and Environmental Impacts of Acid Mine Drainage in Semi Arid Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Magombedze, Chris

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates the geochemical processes that control the geochemistry of acid mine drainage in semi arid conditions. The central objective is to characterise and understand the evolution of acid mine drainage and its potential environmental impacts on the Mazowe River sub-catchment, in north east Zimbabwe. The work is based on a case study at three neighbouring metal sulphide mines, namely Trojan Nickel Mine, Mazowe Gold Mine and Iron Duke Pyrites.The methodology used in this research ...

  4. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Stuart E.; Casady, Grant M.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  5. Nutritional and environmental impacts on skin and mucus condition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Linda Beate

    2015-01-01

    The skin and associated mucus layer of Atlantic salmon constitutes its first line of defence against the aqueous environment. Through intensive farming, a range of stressors including both mechanical and environmental factors are known to have an impact on the skin condition of fish. Damaged skin can serve as a portal of entry for primary pathogens and secondary infections. Two of the current main problems in the salmon farming industry are skin related: ectoparasitism with sea...

  6. Effect of Plant Species and Environmental Conditions on Ice Nucleation Activity of Pseudomonas syringae on Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, R. Douglas; Steven E Lindow

    1988-01-01

    Selected plant species and environmental conditions were investigated for their influences on expression of ice nucleation activity by 15 Pseudomonas syringae strains grown on plants in constant-temperature growth chamber studies. Ice nucleation frequencies (INFs), the fraction of cells that expressed ice nucleation at −5 or −9°C, of individual strains varied greatly, both on plants and in culture. This suggests that the probability of frost injury, which is proportional to the number of ice ...

  7. The seed physiological potential of hybrid corn treated with insecticides and store in two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Fátima Baldiga Tonin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Seed treatment is a widely disseminated practice in Brazilian cultural areas, which linked to other cultural practices, has contributed to the increase in productivity, cost reduction, final product improvement, environmental damage reduction as well as good seed protection in the field level and storage. The work had the objective to check the insecticide effect on the germination and vigor of the hybrid maize seeds, stored in two environmental conditions. The seeds were treated with three insecticides, identified as: Insecticide one (Thiametoxan; Insecticide two (Neonicotinoide and Insecticide three [Neonicotinoide + (Imidaclopride+thiodicarbe]. After being treated, the seeds were stored for a period of 270 days, in two different places, one with (10ºC temperature and relative humidity (60% and another under normal condition of storage. During this period evaluations were accomplished every 45 days, through germination and vigor tests. In addition to germination and cooling tests, sanitation analysis, seedling emergency and seed inoculation were carried out. After that the seeds were stored for a period of 30 days in environmental places with and without control of air condition. The results obtained allow to conclude that the maintenance of seed quality of hybrid maize, treated with insecticides, depends on the hybrid and chemical product used in their treatment and that the reduction in feasibility and vigor of seeds treated with thiametoxan is intensified due to the storage period extension.

  8. Enhanced UV-B radiation alleviates the adverse effects of summer drought in two Mediterranean pines under field conditions [ozone depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of enhanced UV-B (290-320 nm) radiation on two native Mediterranean pines (Pinus pinea L., Pinus halepensis Mill.) were recorded during a one-year field study. Plants received ambient or ambient plus supplemental UV-B radiation (simulating a 15% stratospheric ozone depletion over Patras. Greece, 38.3°N. 29.1°E) and only natural precipitation, i.e. they were simultaneously exposed to other natural stresses. particularly water stress during summer. Supplemental UV-B irradiation started in early February, 1993 and up to late June, no effects were observed on growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, as measured by chlorophy II fluorescence induction. Water stress during the summer was manifested in the control plants as a decline in the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), the apparent photon yield for oxygen evolution (φI) and the photosynthetic capacity at 5% CO2 (Pm). In addition, a partial needle loss was evident. Under supplemental UV-B radiation, however, the decreases in Fv/Fm, φi, and Pm. as well as needle losses were significantly less. Soon after the first heavy autumn rains. photosynthetic parameters in both control and UV-B treated plants recovered to similar values. but the transient summer superiority of UV-B irradiated plants resulted in a significant increase in their dry weight measured at plant harvest. during late January. 1994. Plant height. UV-B absorbing compounds, photosynthetic pigments and relative water content measured at late spring. late summer and at plant harvest, were not significantly affected by supplemental UV-B radiation. The results indicate that enhanced UV-B radiation may be beneficial for Mediterranean pines through a partial alleviation of the adverse effects of summer drought. (author)

  9. Role of phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in adaptation to novel environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volis, Sergei; Ormanbekova, Danara; Yermekbayev, Kanat

    2015-09-01

    Species can adapt to new environmental conditions either through individual phenotypic plasticity, intraspecific genetic differentiation in adaptive traits, or both. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual grass with major distribution in Eastern Mediterranean region, is predicted to experience in the near future, as a result of global climate change, conditions more arid than in any part of the current species distribution. To understand the role of the above two means of adaptation, and the effect of population range position, we analyzed reaction norms, extent of plasticity, and phenotypic selection across two experimental environments of high and low water availability in two core and two peripheral populations of this species. We studied 12 quantitative traits, but focused primarily on the onset of reproduction and maternal investment, which are traits that are closely related to fitness and presumably involved in local adaptation in the studied species. We hypothesized that the population showing superior performance under novel environmental conditions will either be genetically differentiated in quantitative traits or exhibit higher phenotypic plasticity than the less successful populations. We found the core population K to be the most plastic in all three trait categories (phenology, reproductive traits, and fitness) and most successful among populations studied, in both experimental environments; at the same time, the core K population was clearly genetically differentiated from the two edge populations. Our results suggest that (1) two means of successful adaptation to new environmental conditions, phenotypic plasticity and adaptive genetic differentiation, are not mutually exclusive ways of achieving high adaptive ability; and (2) colonists from some core populations can be more successful in establishing beyond the current species range than colonists from the range extreme periphery with conditions seemingly closest to those in the new

  10. Effects of surface condition on aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R.L.; Buchanan, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides (FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo), a FeAl-based iron aluminide (FA-385), and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy (FAPY) were evaluated. All tests were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution. In cyclic-anodic-polarization testing for aqueous-corrosion behavior, the surface conditions examined were: as-received (i.e., with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned and chemically cleaned. For all materials, the polarization tests showed the critical pitting potentials to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. These results indicate detrimental effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased susceptibilities to localized corrosion. In 200-hour U-bend stress-corrosion-cracking tests for environmental-embrittlement behavior, conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at a hydrogen-charging potential of {minus}1500 mV (SHE), the above materials (except FA-385) were examined with retained oxides and with mechanically cleaned surfaces. At the open-circuit corrosion potentials, none of the materials in either surface condition underwent cracking. At the hydrogen-charging potential, none of the materials with retained oxides underwent cracking, but FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo in the mechanically cleaned condition did undergo cracking. These results suggest beneficial effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased resistance to environmental hydrogen embrittlement.

  11. Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) Network Development for Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) are descriptive biological sequences that start from a molecular initiating event (MIE) and end with an adverse health outcome. AOPs provide biological context for high throughput chemical testing and further prioritize environmental health risk re...

  12. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier-Larabie, S; Segura, P A; Gagnon, C

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental samples

  13. Conceptual modeling for identification of worst case conditions in environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials using nZVI and C60 as case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieger, Khara D; Hansen, Steffen F; Sørensen, Peter B; Baun, Anders

    2011-09-01

    Conducting environmental risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials has been an extremely challenging endeavor thus far. Moreover, recent findings from the nano-risk scientific community indicate that it is unlikely that many of these challenges will be easily resolved in the near future, especially given the vast variety and complexity of nanomaterials and their applications. As an approach to help optimize environmental risk assessments of nanomaterials, we apply the Worst-Case Definition (WCD) model to identify best estimates for worst-case conditions of environmental risks of two case studies which use engineered nanoparticles, namely nZVI in soil and groundwater remediation and C(60) in an engine oil lubricant. Results generated from this analysis may ultimately help prioritize research areas for environmental risk assessments of nZVI and C(60) in these applications as well as demonstrate the use of worst-case conditions to optimize future research efforts for other nanomaterials. Through the application of the WCD model, we find that the most probable worst-case conditions for both case studies include i) active uptake mechanisms, ii) accumulation in organisms, iii) ecotoxicological response mechanisms such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and cell membrane damage or disruption, iv) surface properties of nZVI and C(60), and v) acute exposure tolerance of organisms. Additional estimates of worst-case conditions for C(60) also include the physical location of C(60) in the environment from surface run-off, cellular exposure routes for heterotrophic organisms, and the presence of light to amplify adverse effects. Based on results of this analysis, we recommend the prioritization of research for the selected applications within the following areas: organism active uptake ability of nZVI and C(60) and ecotoxicological response end-points and response mechanisms including ROS production and cell membrane damage, full nanomaterial characterization taking

  14. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content. PMID:27457754

  15. Is ragweed pollen allergenicity governed by environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiani, Alessandra; Ciappetta, Silvia; Gentili, Rodolfo; Asero, Riccardo; Citterio, Sandra

    2016-07-01

    Pollen allergenicity is one of the main factors influencing the prevalence and/or severity of allergic diseases. However, how genotype and environment contribute to ragweed pollen allergenicity has still to be established. To throw some light on the factors governing allergenicity, in this work 180 ragweed plants from three Regions (Canada, France, Italy) were grown in both controlled (constant) and standard environmental conditions (seasonal changes in temperature, relative humidity and light). Pollen from single plants was characterized for its allergenic potency and for the underlying regulation mechanisms by studying the qualitative and quantitative variations of the main isoforms of the major ragweed allergen Amb a 1. Results showed a statistically higher variability in allergenicity of pollen from standard conditions than from controlled conditions growing plants. This variability was due to differences among single plants, regardless of their origin, and was not ascribed to differences in the expression and IgE reactivity of individual Amb a 1 isoforms but rather to quantitative differences involving all the studied isoforms. It suggests that the allergenic potency of ragweed pollen and thus the severity of ragweed pollinosis mainly depends on environmental conditions during plant growth and flowering, which regulate the total Amb a 1 content.

  16. U0{sub 2} pellets surface properties and environmental conditions effects on the wet adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fabio da S.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R., E-mail: fabiojunqueira@inb.gov.br, E-mail: joaocarnaval@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil S.A. (INB), Resende, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Angra power plants fuels are made bye en riche uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) pellets which are assembled inside metal tubes. These tubes are welded and arranged in order to perform the final product, the fuel assembly. The UO{sub 2} pellets have a specified humidity tolerance designed to comply with security and performance requirements when working under operating conditions in the reactor. This work intends to verify the pellet opened porosity and the environmental conditions (relative humidity and temperature) influence on the wet adsorption by UO{sub 2} pellet. The work was done in 2 parts: Firstly, pallets groups from 3 opened porosity levels were tested under a fixed relative humidity, temperature and time. In the second part of the work, the most critical pallet group upon wet adsorption was tested under different relative humidity and temperature conditions, regarding design of experiments. The opened porosity and environmental conditions tests allowed the evolution of the wet adsorption by the UO{sub 2} pallet. (author)

  17. Environmental effects and individual body condition drive seasonal fecundity of rabbits: identifying acute and lagged processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Cooke, Brian D; Mutze, Greg J; Prowse, Thomas A A; Fordham, Damien A

    2016-07-01

    The reproduction of many species is determined by seasonally-driven resource supply. But it is difficult to quantify whether the fecundity is sensitive to short- or long-term exposure to environmental conditions such as rainfall that drive resource supply. Using 25 years of data on individual fecundity of European female rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus, from semiarid Australia, we investigate the role of individual body condition, rainfall and temperature as drivers of seasonal and long-term and population-level changes in fecundity (breeding probability, ovulation rate, embryo survival). We built distributed lag models in a hierarchical Bayesian framework to account for both immediate and time-lagged effects of climate and other environmental drivers, and possible shifts in reproduction over consecutive seasons. We show that rainfall during summer, when rabbits typically breed only rarely, increased breeding probability immediately and with time lags of up to 10 weeks. However, an earlier onset of the yearly breeding period did not result in more overall reproductive output. Better body condition was associated with an earlier onset of breeding and higher embryo survival. Breeding probability in the main breeding season declined with increased breeding activity in the preceding season and only individuals in good body condition were able to breed late in the season. Higher temperatures reduce breeding success across seasons. We conclude that a better understanding of seasonal dynamics and plasticity (and their interplay) in reproduction will provide crucial insights into how lagomorphs are likely to respond and potentially adapt to the influence of future climate and other environmental change. PMID:27028444

  18. Identifying the environmental conditions favouring West Nile Virus outbreaks in Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Marcantonio

    Full Text Available West Nile Virus (WNV is a globally important mosquito borne virus, with significant implications for human and animal health. The emergence and spread of new lineages, and increased pathogenicity, is the cause of escalating public health concern. Pinpointing the environmental conditions that favour WNV circulation and transmission to humans is challenging, due both to the complexity of its biological cycle, and the under-diagnosis and reporting of epidemiological data. Here, we used remote sensing and GIS to enable collation of multiple types of environmental data over a continental spatial scale, in order to model annual West Nile Fever (WNF incidence across Europe and neighbouring countries. Multi-model selection and inference were used to gain a consensus from multiple linear mixed models. Climate and landscape were key predictors of WNF outbreaks (specifically, high precipitation in late winter/early spring, high summer temperatures, summer drought, occurrence of irrigated croplands and highly fragmented forests. Identification of the environmental conditions associated with WNF outbreaks is key to enabling public health bodies to properly focus surveillance and mitigation of West Nile virus impact, but more work needs to be done to enable accurate predictions of WNF risk.

  19. Estimating the impact of environmental conditions on hatching results using multivariable analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IA Nääs

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hatching results are directly related to environmental and biological surroundings. This research study aimed at evaluating the influence of incubation environmental conditions on hatchability and one-day-old chickling quality of five production flocks using multivariable analysis tool. The experiment was carried out in a commercial hatchery located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Environmental variables such as dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, and number of colony forming units of fungi were recorded inside a broiler multi-stage setter, a hatcher after eggs transference, and a chick-processing room. The homogeneity of parameter distribution among quadrants inside the setter, the hatcher, and the chick room was tested using the non-parametric test of Kruskal-Wallis, and the fit analysis was applied. The multivariate analysis was applied using the Main Component Technique in order to identify possible correlations between environmental and production parameters. Three different groups were identified: the first group is represented by temperature, which was positively correlated both with good hatchability and good chick quality; the second group indicates that poor chick quality was positively correlated with air velocity and relative humidity increase. The third group, represented by carbon dioxide concentration and fungi colonies forming units, presented strong positive association with embryo mortality increase.

  20. Innovations in energy efficient and environmentally friendly space-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses several different approaches to increase the energy efficiency and decrease the environmental impact of space-conditioning systems. The use of microchannel components and hydronic coupling is presented as a method to drastically reduce the size and refrigerant inventories of the refrigerant-carrying components of vapor-compression heat pumps. Design aspects of heat pumps using carbon dioxide, a natural refrigerant with minimal environmental impact, are discussed, and novel component geometries that offer compactness are presented. The advantages of absorption heat pumps using waste heat and natural gas are discussed, and innovative component designs are presented. It is believed that these innovations will hasten the commercialization of these environmentally benign alternatives to CFC- and HCFC-based vapor-compression systems. The environmental benefits of waste heat-driven absorption chillers are quantified in terms of the energy savings, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and installed electric power reductions. Ground coupling of these heat pumps is also discussed, with specific examples of the performance improvement over similar air-coupled heat pumps

  1. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  2. Environmental conditions influence the plant functional diversity effect on potential denitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E Sutton-Grier

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP. We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning.

  3. Evaluation of natural colonisation of cementitious materials: effect of bioreceptivity and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Sandra; Calvo-Torras, María Ángeles; De Belie, Nele; Segura, Ignacio; Aguado, Antonio

    2015-04-15

    Incorporation of living organisms, such as photosynthetic organisms, on the structure envelope has become a priority in the area of architecture and construction due to aesthetical, economic and ecological advantages. Important research efforts are made to achieve further improvements, such as for the development of cementitious materials with an enhanced bioreceptivity to stimulate biological growth. Previously, the study of the bioreceptivity of cementitious materials has been carried out mainly under laboratory conditions although field-scale experiments may present different results. This work aims at analysing the colonisation of cementitious materials with different levels of bioreceptivity by placing them in three different environmental conditions. Specimens did not present visual colonisation, which indicates that environmental conditions have a greater impact than intrinsic properties of the material at this stage. Therefore, it appears that in addition to an optimized bioreceptivity of the concrete (i.e., composition, porosity and roughness), extra measures are indispensable for a rapid development of biological growth on concrete surfaces. An analysis of the colonisation in terms of genus and quantity of the most representative microorganisms found on the specimens for each location was carried out and related to weather conditions, such as monthly average temperature and total precipitation, and air quality in terms of NOx, SO2, CO and O3. OPC-based specimens presented a higher colonisation regarding both biodiversity and quantity. However, results obtained in a previous experimental programme under laboratory conditions suggested a higher suitability of Magnesium Phosphate Cement-based (MPC-based) specimens for algal growth. Consequently, carefully considering the environment and the relationships between the different organisms present in an environment is vital for successfully using a cementitious material as a substrate for biological growth. PMID

  4. Transforming Adverse Cognition on the Path of Bhakti: Rule-Based Devotion, “My-Ness,” and the Existential Condition of Bondage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis Chilcott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Early Gauḍīya Vaiṣṇava theologians developed a unique path of Hindu devotion during the 16th century through which an aspirant cultivates a rapturous form of selfless love (premā for Kṛṣṇa, who is recognized as the supreme and personal deity. In the course and consequence of cultivating this selfless love, the recommended practices of devotion are claimed to free one from the basic existential condition of bondage that is of concern for a wide range of South Asian religious and philosophical traditions. One of the principle cognitive tendencies characterizing this condition is to have thoughts and feelings of possessiveness over objects of the world, or what is referred to as the state of “my-ness” (mamatā, e.g., my home, my children, or my wealth. Using the therapeutic model of schema therapy as a heuristic analogue, this article explores the relationship between recommended practices of rule-based devotion (vaidhi-bhakti and the modulation of thoughts and feelings of possessiveness towards mundane objects. I argue that such practices function as learning strategies that can systematically rework and modulate how one relates to and responds to these objects in theologically desirable ways. I conclude by suggesting that connectionist theories of cognition and learning may offer a promising explanatory framework for understanding the dynamics of this kind of relationship.

  5. Thermal Cyclic Behavior of Thermal and Environmental Barrier Coatings Investigated Under High-Heat-Flux Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Lee, Kang N.; Miller, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Environmental barrier coatings (EBC's) have been developed to protect silicon-carbide- (SiC) based ceramic components in gas turbine engines from high-temperature environmental attack. With continuously increasing demands for significantly higher engine operating temperature, future EBC systems must be designed for both thermal and environmental protection of the engine components in combustion gases. In particular, the thermal barrier functions of EBC's become a necessity for reducing the engine-component thermal loads and chemical reaction rates, thus maintaining the required mechanical properties and durability of these components. Advances in the development of thermal and environmental barrier coatings (TBC's and EBC's, respectively) will directly impact the successful use of ceramic components in advanced engines. To develop high-performance coating systems, researchers must establish advanced test approaches. In this study, a laser high-heat-flux technique was employed to investigate the thermal cyclic behavior of TBC's and EBC's on SiC-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates (SiC/SiC) under high thermal gradient and thermal cycling conditions. Because the laser heat flux test approach can monitor the coating's real-time thermal conductivity variations at high temperature, the coating thermal insulation performance, sintering, and delamination can all be obtained during thermal cycling tests. Plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-8 wt% Y2O3) thermal barrier and barium strontium aluminosilicate-based environmental barrier coatings (BSAS/BSAS+mullite/Si) on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites were investigated in this study. These coatings were laser tested in air under thermal gradients (the surface and interface temperatures were approximately 1482 and 1300 C, respectively). Some coating specimens were also subject to alternating furnace cycling (in a 90-percent water vapor environment at 1300 C) and laser thermal gradient cycling tests

  6. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  7. Contribution of environmental conditions in dental offices of Antioquia to the risk of mercury contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Ruiz C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a product from the project “Environmental Management of Dental Amalgam in the State of Antioquia” which was carried out by the following research groups belonging to the University of Antioquia: Science and Biomedical Technology, Precious Materials, and Pirometallurgical and Materials Researches, as well as the private company New Stetic S. A., between February 2005 and February 2007. Objective: to describe the environmental conditions in 30 big dental offices of the State of Antioquia, Colombia. Those dental offices having more than five dental chairs in the same work place were defined as “big” for the purpose of this project. Due to the fact that these dental offices represents 85% of the population of reference, the results described in this article can be consequently considered as is they were derived from a census. The description is made bearing in mind the people who are exposed to the risk of mercury contamination due to their occupation. Materials and method: an observation tool was designed in order to be applied in each dental office. It contained aspects as floor and wall characteristics, ventilation, room temperature, storing place for mercury, elements for handling amalgam scraps, and those activities which deviate from the regular dental service in the same site. Each dental office was visited by a research engineer and an advanced engineering student on a previously defined date. The researchers were trained in advance to collect the information. Results: it was found that some big dental offices have inadequate conditions in their premises for offering their services, and do not have a good handling of the environmental conditions. That’s why immediate actions are mandatory to minimize the risk of mercury contamination.

  8. Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome in the north-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Abigail R.; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    1. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating North American bats that is caused by the cold-growing fungus Geomyces destructans. Since first observed in the winter of 2007, WNS has led to unprecedented mortality in several species of bats and may threaten more than 15 additional hibernating bat species if it continues across the continent. Although the exact means by which fungal infection causes mortality are undetermined, available evidence suggests a strong role of winter environmental conditions in disease mortality.

  9. Oxidative stress in limpets exposed to different environmental conditions in the Beagle Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to study the oxidative profile of digestive glands of two limpets species (Nacella (Patinigera) magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata) exposed to different environmental conditions. The intertidal population of N. (P.) magellanica is subjected to a wide variety of stresses not experienced by N. (P.) deaurata. Although a typical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of ascorbyl radical in digestive gland from both limpets was observed, neither ascorbyl radical content nor the ascorbyl radical content/ascorbate content ratio was significantly different, suggesting that the difference in the environmental conditions did not appear to be responsible for developing alterations in the oxidative status of both organisms at the hydrophilic level (e.g. cytosol). Lipid peroxidation in the digestive glands was estimated, both as the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and as the content of lipid radicals assessed by EPR, in both organisms. TBARS and lipid radical content were 34.8 and 36.5%, respectively, lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. On the other hand, total iron content and the rate of generation of superoxide anion were 47.9 and 51.4%, respectively, lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was 35.3 and 128.6% higher in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata, respectively. No significant differences were determined between the digestive glands of both molluscs regarding the content of total thiols. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene content were significantly lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. A distinctive EPR signal for the adduct Fe-MGD-NO (g = 2.03 and aN = 12.5 G) was detected in the homogenates of digestive glands of both limpets. A significant difference in the content of the Fe-MGD-NO adduct in digestive glands from N. (P.) magellanica and N. (P.) deaurata (491

  10. Oxidative stress in limpets exposed to different environmental conditions in the Beagle Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malanga, Gabriela; Estevez, Maria Susana; Calvo, Jorge; Puntarulo, Susana

    2004-09-20

    The aim of this work was to study the oxidative profile of digestive glands of two limpets species (Nacella (Patinigera) magellanica and Nacella (Patinigera) deaurata) exposed to different environmental conditions. The intertidal population of N. (P.) magellanica is subjected to a wide variety of stresses not experienced by N. (P.) deaurata. Although a typical electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of ascorbyl radical in digestive gland from both limpets was observed, neither ascorbyl radical content nor the ascorbyl radical content/ascorbate content ratio was significantly different, suggesting that the difference in the environmental conditions did not appear to be responsible for developing alterations in the oxidative status of both organisms at the hydrophilic level (e.g. cytosol). Lipid peroxidation in the digestive glands was estimated, both as the content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and as the content of lipid radicals assessed by EPR, in both organisms. TBARS and lipid radical content were 34.8 and 36.5%, respectively, lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. On the other hand, total iron content and the rate of generation of superoxide anion were 47.9 and 51.4%, respectively, lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was 35.3 and 128.6% higher in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata, respectively. No significant differences were determined between the digestive glands of both molluscs regarding the content of total thiols. {alpha}-Tocopherol and {beta}-carotene content were significantly lower in N. (P.) magellanica as compared to N. (P.) deaurata. A distinctive EPR signal for the adduct Fe-MGD-NO (g = 2.03 and a{sub N} = 12.5 G) was detected in the homogenates of digestive glands of both limpets. A significant difference in the content of the Fe-MGD-NO adduct in digestive glands from N. (P.) magellanica and N. (P

  11. Physical performance and environmental conditions: 2014 World Soccer Cup and 2016 Summer Olympics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneroso, Christiano E; Ramos, Guilherme P; Mendes, Thiago T; Silami-Garcia, Emerson

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is for the special issue "Temperature sciences in Brazil" of the journal Temperature. It focuses on the physical performance and environmental conditions during the 2014 World Cup and the coming 2016 Summer Olympics. It emphasizes that a hot and humid environment imposes a great challenge to the human thermoregulation system, can lead to performance decrements, and increases the risk of developing hyperthermia. Adequate hydration, acclimatization, and body cooling strategies are effective interventions to minimize the risks associated with exercise in the heat.

  12. Impact of aerosols and adverse atmospheric conditions on the data quality for spectral analysis of the H.E.S.S. telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, J; Bernlöhr, K; Krüger, P; Lo, Y T E; Chadwick, P M; Daniel, M K; Deil, C; Gast, H; Kosack, K; Marandon, V

    2013-01-01

    The Earth's atmosphere is an integral part of the detector in ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope (IACT) experiments and has to be taken into account in the calibration. Atmospheric and hardware-related deviations from simulated conditions can result in the mis-reconstruction of primary particle energies and therefore of source spectra. During the eight years of observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) in Namibia, the overall yield in Cherenkov photons has varied strongly with time due to gradual hardware aging, together with adjustments of the hardware components, and natural, as well as anthropogenic, variations of the atmospheric transparency. Here we present robust data selection criteria that minimize these effects over the full data set of the H.E.S.S. experiment and introduce the Cherenkov transparency coefficient as a new atmospheric monitoring quantity. The influence of atmospheric transparency, as quantified by this coefficient, on energy reconstruction and s...

  13. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle;

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...

  14. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  15. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85% and low (≤70% relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion: C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01 in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter

  16. Effects of nutritional and environmental conditions on Sinorhizobium meliloti biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Fujishige, Nancy A; Hirsch, Ann M; Banchio, Erika; Zorreguieta, Angeles; Giordano, Walter

    2006-11-01

    Rhizobia are non-spore-forming soil bacteria that fix atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia in a symbiosis with legume roots. However, in the absence of a legume host, rhizobia manage to survive and hence must have evolved strategies to adapt to diverse environmental conditions. The capacity to respond to variations in nutrient availability enables the persistence of rhizobial species in soil, and consequently improves their ability to colonize and to survive in the host plant. Rhizobia, like many other soil bacteria, persist in nature most likely in sessile communities known as biofilms, which are most often composed of multiple microbial species. We have been employing in vitro assays to study environmental parameters that might influence biofilm formation in the Medicago symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. These parameters include carbon source, amount of nitrate, phosphate, calcium and magnesium as well as the effects of osmolarity and pH. The microtiter plate assay facilitates the detection of subtle differences in rhizobial biofilms in response to these parameters, thereby providing insight into how environmental stress or nutritional status influences rhizobial survival. Nutrients such as sucrose, phosphate and calcium enhance biofilm formation as their concentrations increase, whereas extreme temperatures and pH negatively affect biofilm formation. PMID:16887339

  17. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth of ferritic steel under environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K.H.; Schuler, X.; Weissenberg, T. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    The assessment of fatigue and cyclic crack growth behaviour of safety relevant components is of importance for the ageing management with regard to safety and reliability. For cyclic stress evaluation different codes and standards provide fatigue analysis procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as a limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g. environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) und high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and high temperature (HT) boiling water reactor environment to extend the state of knowledge of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) as it can occur in boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. Using the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel 22NiMoCr3-7 experimental data were developed to verify the influence of BWR coolant environment (high purity water as well as sulphate containing water with 90 ppb SO{sub 4} at a test temperature of 240 C and an oxygen content of 400 ppb) on the fatigue life and to extend the basis for a reliable estimation of the remaining service life of reactor components. Corresponding experiments in air were performed to establish reference data to determine the environmental correction factor F{sub en} accounting for the environment. The experimental results are compared with international available mean data curves, the new design curves and on the basis of the environmental factor F{sub en}. Furthermore the behaviour of steel 22NiMoCr3-7 in oxygenated high temperature water under transient loading conditions was investigated with respect to crack initiation and cyclic crack growth. In this process the stress state of the specimen and the chemical composition of

  18. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth of ferritic steel under environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of fatigue and cyclic crack growth behaviour of safety relevant components is of importance for the ageing management with regard to safety and reliability. For cyclic stress evaluation different codes and standards provide fatigue analysis procedures to be performed considering the various mechanical and thermal loading histories and geometric complexities of the components. For the fatigue design curves used as a limiting criteria the influence of different factors like e.g. environment, surface finish and temperature must be taken into consideration in an appropriate way. Fatigue tests were performed in the low cycle fatigue (LCF) und high cycle fatigue (HCF) regime with low alloy steels as well as with Nb- and Ti-stabilized German austenitic stainless steels in air and high temperature (HT) boiling water reactor environment to extend the state of knowledge of environmentally assisted fatigue (EAF) as it can occur in boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. Using the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel 22NiMoCr3-7 experimental data were developed to verify the influence of BWR coolant environment (high purity water as well as sulphate containing water with 90 ppb SO4 at a test temperature of 240 C and an oxygen content of 400 ppb) on the fatigue life and to extend the basis for a reliable estimation of the remaining service life of reactor components. Corresponding experiments in air were performed to establish reference data to determine the environmental correction factor Fen accounting for the environment. The experimental results are compared with international available mean data curves, the new design curves and on the basis of the environmental factor Fen. Furthermore the behaviour of steel 22NiMoCr3-7 in oxygenated high temperature water under transient loading conditions was investigated with respect to crack initiation and cyclic crack growth. In this process the stress state of the specimen and the chemical composition of the high

  19. The Neuro-Environmental Loop of Plasticity: A Cross-Species Analysis of Parental Effects on Emotion Circuitry Development Following Typical and Adverse Caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaghan, Bridget L; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Early experiences critically shape the structure and function of the brain. Perturbations in typical/species-expected early experiences are known to have profound neural effects, especially in regions important for emotional responding. Parental care is one species-expected stimulus that plays a fundamental role in the development of emotion neurocircuitry. Emerging evidence across species suggests that phasic variation in parental presence during the sensitive period of childhood affects the recruitment of emotional networks on a moment-to-moment basis. In addition, it appears that increasing independence from caregivers cues the termination of the sensitive period for environmental input into emotion network development. In this review, we examine how early parental care, the central nervous system, and behavior come together to form a 'neuro-environmental loop,' contributing to the formation of stable emotion regulation circuits. To achieve this end, we focus on the interaction of parental care and the developing amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) network-that is at the core of human emotional functioning. Using this model, we discuss how individual or group variations in parental independence, across chronic and brief timescales, might contribute to neural and emotional phenotypes that have implications for long-term mental health. PMID:26194419

  20. EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND ACTIVITIES INTENSIFICATION OF GROWTH ON LYUBINSKY SCALED CARP TRIBAL FINGERLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hrytsyniak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore effect of environmental conditions, the level of development of natural food base and feeding of cultivated fodder zooplankton on tribal fingerlings Lyubinsky scaly carp growth. Methodology. The development of natural food base of nursery ponds stimulated bymaking compost from cattle at 4 t/ha and the introduction of the mother culture of Daphnia magna at 2 kg/ha. In the experimental pond in July was introduced of 60 kg/ha of zooplankton caught in the pond-cultivator which is based on daphnia magna, also in this pond Daphnia magna cultured in corf of nylon sieve, allowing fingerlings carp in July – August, was suckled by 5 kg/ha of water fleas. the growth of carp fingerlings were determined by regular check-caughting and analyzed, taking into account environmental conditions, availability of natural food and feeding characteristics. Findings. Prior to the beginning feeding carp fingerlings of average daily increments were higher by 10 % under the best of natural food base pond. In July, when feeding carp fry feed cereal, the introduction of zooplankton contributed to their highest intensity on 46,8 – 88,4 % growth, while the average daily growth rates ranged between 0,4 – 1,0 g. In August, average daily growth decreased from 0,44 – 0,57 g in the first decade to 0,17 g in the third decade. For unstable oxygen regime, which was observed when the temperature of the water and the accumulation of organic matter, the rate of growth of fingerlings decreased. Originality. First studied the growth rate of breeding fingerlings carp provided they are feeding zooplankton, as well as, the influence of environmental factors, the state of development of natural food base and feed composition on the growth of of fingerlings. Found that under favorable environmental conditions, feeding carp fingerlings on zooplankton in the amount of 2 kg/ha/day when feeding grain feed increases the absolute daily gain on 46,8 – 88,4 %, and the

  1. A review on the effects of environmental conditions on growth and toxin production of Ostreopsis ovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistocchi, R; Pezzolesi, L; Guerrini, F; Vanucci, S; Dell'aversano, C; Fattorusso, E

    2011-03-01

    Since the end of the 1990s the occurrence of blooms of the benthic dinoflagellates Ostreopsis spp. is spreading in many tropical and temperate regions worldwide, sometimes causing benthonic biocenosis suffering and occasional human distress. Ostreopsis ovata has been found to produce palytoxin-like compounds, a class of highly potent toxins. As general, the highest abundances of Ostreopsis spp. are recorded during warmer periods characterized by high temperature, salinity, and water column stability. Moreover, as these cells are easily resuspended in the water column, the role of hydrodynamism in the blooms development and decline has been highlighted. The environmental conditions appear, therefore, to be one of the main factors determining the proliferation of these species as testified by several field surveys. Laboratory studies on the effect of environmental parameters on growth and toxicity of O. ovata are rather scarce. With regard to the effects of temperature, culture results indicate that different strains blooming along Italian coasts displayed different optima, in accordance to blooming periods, and that higher toxin levels correlated with best growth conditions. Additionally, in relation to an Adriatic strain, cell growth positively correlated with the increase in salinity, while toxicity was lowest at the highest salinity value (i.e. 40). For the same strain, both nitrogen and phosphorus limitation determined a decrease in cell toxicity showing different behaviour with respect to many other toxic dinoflagellates. PMID:20920514

  2. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from Kīlauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from Kīlauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  3. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Yi, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters for both 127I and 129I. Despite the rather constant ratios of 127I−/127IO3−, the 129I−/129IO3− values reveal variations that apparently response to sources, environmental conditions and residence time. These findings provide a new tracer approach that will strongly enhance the application of anthropogenic 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer. PMID:24284916

  4. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage. PMID:20568743

  5. Physico-chemical characterization of steel slag. Study of its behavior under simulated environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Carla; Díaz, Mario; Villa-García, María A

    2010-07-15

    The chemical and mineralogical composition of steel slag produced in two ArcelorMittal steel plants located in the North of Spain, as well as the study of the influence of simulated environmental conditions on the properties of the slag stored in disposal areas, was carried out by elemental chemical analysis, XRF, X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analyzer. Spectroscopic characterization of the slag was also performed by using FTIR spectroscopy. Due to the potential uses of the slag as low cost adsorbent for water treatment and pollutants removal, its detailed textural characterization was carried out by nitrogen adsorption-desorption at 77 K and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The results show that the slag is a crystalline heterogeneous material whose main components are iron oxides, calcium (magnesium) compounds (hydroxide, oxide, silicates, and carbonate), elemental iron, and quartz. The slags are porous materials with specific surface area of 11 m(2)g(-1), containing both mesopores and macropores. Slag exposure to simulated environmental conditions lead to the formation of carbonate phases. Carbonation reduces the leaching of alkaline earth elements as well as the release of the harmful trace elements Cr (VI) and V. Steel slags with high contents of portlandite and calcium silicates are potential raw materials for CO(2) long-term storage.

  6. Effect of gamma rays on 'delicious' apples stored under environmental conditions and under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was made with a Gammacell 200 irradiator, the radioactive source in which is cobalt-60. The following doses were studied in detail: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 4 kGy. As a comparison, an unirradiated sample was studied at the same time. The storage conditions for refrigeration were 2+-1 deg. C and r.h. from 85 to 90%, while for environmental storage they were 26+-1 deg. C and r.h. between 63 and 80%. During storage periodic checks were carried out to ascertain weight loss, appearance, titratable acidity, soluble solids and vitamin C. The results obtained for the tests during storage both under environmental conditions and under refrigeration show that there is no great variation between the doses applied. It is also found that irradiated apples stored in the environment can be kept 14-15 days more than the unirradiated ones. Similarly, the refrigerated irradiated apples have a shelf-life of more than 150 days, whereas the unirradiated ones last only up to 120 days. It was also found that a dose of 2 kGy is the best one for preserving apples, since they then last 240 days, while keeping a good colour and appearance. (author)

  7. The role of abiotic environmental conditions and herbivory in shaping bacterial community composition in floral nectar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Samuni-Blank

    Full Text Available Identifying the processes that drive community assembly has long been a central theme in ecology. For microorganisms, a traditional prevailing hypothesis states that "everything is everywhere, but the environment selects". Although the bacterial community in floral nectar may be affected by both atmosphere (air-borne bacteria and animals as dispersal vectors, the environmental and geographic factors that shape microbial communities in floral nectar are unknown. We studied culturable bacterial communities in Asphodelus aestivus floral nectar and in its typical herbivorous bug Capsodes infuscatus, along an aridity gradient. Bacteria were sampled from floral nectar and bugs at four sites, spanning a geographical range of 200 km from Mediterranean to semi-arid conditions, under open and bagged flower treatments. In agreement with the niche assembly hypothesis, the differences in bacterial community compositions were explained by differences in abiotic environmental conditions. These results suggest that microbial model systems are useful for addressing macro-ecological questions. In addition, similar bacterial communities were found in the nectar and on the surface of the bugs that were documented visiting the flowers. These similarities imply that floral nectar bacteria dispersal is shaped not only by air borne bacteria and nectar consumers as previously reported, but also by visiting vectors like the mirid bugs.

  8. Using Magnetically Responsive Tea Waste to Remove Lead in Waters under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yeo, Siang Yee

    2013-06-20

    We report the use of a simple yet highly effective magnetite-waste tea composite to remove lead(II) (Pb2+) ions from water. Magnetite-waste tea composites were dispersed in four different types of water–deionized (DI), artificial rainwater, artificial groundwater and artificial freshwater–that mimic actual environmental conditions. The water samples had varying initial concentrations (0.16–5.55 ppm) of Pb2+ ions and were mixed with the magnetite-waste tea composite for at least 24 hours to allow adsorption of the Pb2+ ions to reach equilibrium. The magnetite-waste tea composites were stable in all the water samples for at least 3 months and could be easily removed from the aqueous media via the use of permanent magnets. We detected no significant leaching of iron (Fe) ions into the water from the magnetite-waste tea composites. The percentage of Pb adsorbed onto the magnetite-waste tea composite ranged from ~70% to 100%; the composites were as effective as activated carbon (AC) in removing the Pb2+ ions from water, depending on the initial Pb concentration. Our prepared magnetite-waste tea composites show promise as a green, inexpensive and highly effective sorbent for removal of Pb in water under environmentally realistic conditions.

  9. Remotely Sensed Environmental Conditions and Malaria Mortality in Three Malaria Endemic Regions in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlm, Clas; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-01-01

    Background Malaria is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in malaria endemic countries. The malaria mosquito vectors depend on environmental conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, for reproduction and survival. To investigate the potential for weather driven early warning systems to prevent disease occurrence, the disease relationship to weather conditions need to be carefully investigated. Where meteorological observations are scarce, satellite derived products provide new opportunities to study the disease patterns depending on remotely sensed variables. In this study, we explored the lagged association of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NVDI), day Land Surface Temperature (LST) and precipitation on malaria mortality in three areas in Western Kenya. Methodology and Findings The lagged effect of each environmental variable on weekly malaria mortality was modeled using a Distributed Lag Non Linear Modeling approach. For each variable we constructed a natural spline basis with 3 degrees of freedom for both the lag dimension and the variable. Lag periods up to 12 weeks were considered. The effect of day LST varied between the areas with longer lags. In all the three areas, malaria mortality was associated with precipitation. The risk increased with increasing weekly total precipitation above 20 mm and peaking at 80 mm. The NDVI threshold for increased mortality risk was between 0.3 and 0.4 at shorter lags. Conclusion This study identified lag patterns and association of remote- sensing environmental factors and malaria mortality in three malaria endemic regions in Western Kenya. Our results show that rainfall has the most consistent predictive pattern to malaria transmission in the endemic study area. Results highlight a potential for development of locally based early warning forecasts that could potentially reduce the disease burden by enabling timely control actions. PMID:27115874

  10. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto; Milanez, Camilla Rozindo

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf & Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (-0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. PMID:24496023

  11. Durability studies of montmorillonite clay filled epoxy composites under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many applications, their integrity overtime is still unknown and remains a major concern. Due to inherent viscoelastic nature of polymers and their composites, exposure to elevated temperature and moist conditions results in matrix cracking, plasticization, and interfacial debonding and so on resulting in premature failure of composite structures. Researcher have found that failure in environmentally exposed composites is mainly dominated by matrix whereas the effect on fiber is minimal. Recent advancement in polymeric nanocomposites has shown significant enhancement in mechanical and thermal properties with small weight % addition of nanoclay particles. Most of studies on modified polymeric composite have been carried out at room temperature and to the best of our knowledge no studies are performed under extreme/long-term conditions. Hence, an attempt is made in this work to study nanophased epoxy composites under accelerated ageing conditions. Epoxy resin was modified by incorporating nanoclay at different weight percentages using magnetic mixing method and then samples were prepared for various tests. The samples were subjected to hot (elevated temperature: dry, wet at 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero: dry, wet, -18 deg. C) conditions for 15, 45 and 90 days, respectively. Moisture absorption kinetics, quasi-static flexure and micrographic studies were performed of these composites and compared with the samples aged at control conditions. Percentage weight increase was observed in all the wet conditioned samples with a maximum of 3.1% in neat and 2.1% in 2 wt% nanophased epoxy samples. Quasi-static characterization showed degradation in strength and modulus for all conditioned neat samples with a maximum decrease of 37% and 22% in strength and modulus of hot-wet (80 deg. C) samples conditioned for 90 days in comparison to room temperature samples. 2 wt% nanophased samples showed increase in

  12. Durability studies of montmorillonite clay filled epoxy composites under different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainuddin, S. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hosur, M.V. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)], E-mail: hosur@tuskegee.edu; Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL 61821-9005 (United States); Jeelani, S. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Even though fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are used in many applications, their integrity overtime is still unknown and remains a major concern. Due to inherent viscoelastic nature of polymers and their composites, exposure to elevated temperature and moist conditions results in matrix cracking, plasticization, and interfacial debonding and so on resulting in premature failure of composite structures. Researcher have found that failure in environmentally exposed composites is mainly dominated by matrix whereas the effect on fiber is minimal. Recent advancement in polymeric nanocomposites has shown significant enhancement in mechanical and thermal properties with small weight % addition of nanoclay particles. Most of studies on modified polymeric composite have been carried out at room temperature and to the best of our knowledge no studies are performed under extreme/long-term conditions. Hence, an attempt is made in this work to study nanophased epoxy composites under accelerated ageing conditions. Epoxy resin was modified by incorporating nanoclay at different weight percentages using magnetic mixing method and then samples were prepared for various tests. The samples were subjected to hot (elevated temperature: dry, wet at 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero: dry, wet, -18 deg. C) conditions for 15, 45 and 90 days, respectively. Moisture absorption kinetics, quasi-static flexure and micrographic studies were performed of these composites and compared with the samples aged at control conditions. Percentage weight increase was observed in all the wet conditioned samples with a maximum of 3.1% in neat and 2.1% in 2 wt% nanophased epoxy samples. Quasi-static characterization showed degradation in strength and modulus for all conditioned neat samples with a maximum decrease of 37% and 22% in strength and modulus of hot-wet (80 deg. C) samples conditioned for 90 days in comparison to room temperature samples. 2 wt% nanophased samples showed increase in

  13. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John C. WINGFIELD; J. Patrick KELLEY; Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-01-01

    Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a) modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b) reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c) a combination of (a) and (b). Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP) buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11β-hydroxysteroid dehy-drogenase and variants) can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather.

  14. INEL Geothermal Environmental Program. Final environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurow, T.L.; Cahn, L.S.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of environmental monitoring programs and research during development of a moderate temperature geothermal resource in the Raft River Valley is presented. One of the major objectives was to develop programs for environmental assessment and protection that could serve as an example for similar types of development. The monitoring studies were designed to establish baseline conditions (predevelopment) of the physical, biological, and human environment. Potential changes were assessed and adverse environmental impacts minimized. No major environmental impacts resulted from development of the Raft River Geothermal Research Facility. The results of the physical, biological, and human environment monitoring programs are summarized.

  15. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  16. The ecophysiology of sulfur isotope fractionation by sulfate reducing bacteria in response to variable environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, W.; Bradley, A. S.; Johnston, D. T.; Pereira, I. A. C.; Venceslau, S.; Wallace, C.

    2014-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The sulfide produced is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur relative to sulfate. The magnitude of discrimination (fractionation) depends on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR, Kaplan & Rittenberg (1964) Can. J. Microbio.; Chambers et al. (1975) Can. J. Microbio; Sim et al. (2011) GCA; Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS), ii) the ambient sulfate concentration (Harrison & Thode (1958) Research; Habicht et al. (2002) Science; Bradley et al. in review), iii) both sulfate and electron donor availability, or iv) an intrinsic physiological limitation (e.g. cellular division rate). When neither sulfate nor electron donor limits csSRR a more complex function relates the magnitude of isotope fractionation to cell physiology and environmental conditions. In recent and on-going work we have examined the importance of enzyme-specific fractionation factors, as well as the influence of electron donor or electron acceptor availability under carefully controlled culture conditions (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). In light of recent advances in MSR genetics and biochemistry we utilize well-characterized mutant strains, along with a continuous-culture methodology (Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS) to further probe the fractionation capacity of this metabolism under controlled physiological conditions. We present our latest findings on the magnitude of S and D/H isotope fractionation in both wild type and mutant strains. We will discuss these in light of recent theoretical advances (Wing & Halevy (2014) PNAS), examining the mode and relevance of MSR isotope fractionation in the laboratory to modern and ancient environmental settings, particularly anoxic marine sediments.

  17. Can environmental conditions trigger cyanobacterial surfaces and following carbonate formation: implication for biomineralization and biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, C.; Dittrich, M.; Zhu, T.

    2015-12-01

    In this presentation we will give an overview what kind of the factors may trigger carbonate formations at the cell surfaces under a variety of environmental conditions. As examples, we will present the results from our recent studies on formation of calcium carbonates, dolomites and bio-cements. The extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in the Synechococcuscell envelope are recognized key players in the nucleation of carbonates in marine and freshwater environments. Yet, little is known about a nutrient contents control over the molecular composition of Synechococcus cell envelope, and consequently, biomineralization. In the first study, we investigated how a variation of the phosphorus (P) in the growth media can lead to changes in the surface reactivity of the cells and impact their ability to form carbonates. The objective of the second study is to gain insights into the spatial distribution of cyanobacterial EPS and dolomite from different sediment layers of Khor Al-Adaid sabkha (Qatar). Here, we characterized microbial mats on molecular level in respect of organic and inorganic components using in-situ 2D Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used. Additionally, 2D chemical maps of sediment layers documented spectral characterizations of minerals and organic matter of microbial origins at high spatial resolution. Finally, we will show the results from the experiments with auto-phototrophic cyanobacteria Gloeocapsa PCC73106, which habitat on the monument surfaces, towards its application for bio-concrete, a product of microbial carbonate precipitation. We studied the biomineralization in biofilm forming Gloeocapsa PCC73106 on the concrete surface as a pre-requirement for microbial carbonate precipitation. Biomineralization on the concrete surface by live cells and killed cells were compared with that under the abiotic condition. Our experiments allow us to conclude that environmental conditions play a significant role in the control of

  18. Environmental distribution of acetochlor, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and propisochlor under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, L N; Pásztor, Z

    2001-08-01

    The environmental behavior, movement, distribution, persistence, and runoff by rainfall of the pesticides acetochlor, atrazine, chlorpyrifos, and propisochlor were studied under field conditions during a five-month period at normal weather conditions. The pesticide concentrations in soil depths of 0-5 and 5-20 cm, and in sediment and runoff water samples (collected from an artificial reservoir built in the lower part of the experimental plot) were measured every second week and following every runoff event. The contamination of a stream running across the lowest part of the plot was also monitored. The weather conditions were also recorded at the experimental site. The pesticide residues were quantified by a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a nitrogen phosphorus selective detector (GC-NPD). There was a consistent decrease in pesticide residues in the 0-5 cm soil layer with time after spaying. At 140 days after treatment only atrazine and chlorpyrifos were present; acetochlor and propisochlor were not detected in this soil layer. Atrazine and chlorpyrifos in the soil at a depth of 5-20 cm were detectable during the whole experimental interval, whereas acetochlor and propisochlor concentrations were below the limit of detection. Pesticide losses by the surface runoff process and the contamination of the stream were closely related to the time of rainfall elapsed after treatment and amount of rain at the experimental plots. Losses were primarily dependent on surface rainfall volume and intensity. The maximum detected residues of atrazine and acetochlor in stream water were 1 order of magnitude higher than the maximum residue limit specified by the European Union (EU) for environmental and drinking water (0.1 microg/L for individual compounds and 0.5 microg/L for total pesticides). Chlorpyrifos and propisochlor were not detected in this matrix. PMID:11513679

  19. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine

  20. Chlorophyll dynamics in leaves of Platanus orientalis L. and P. acerifolia willd. in the conditions of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kapelyush

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The state of pigmentary system of plants Platanus orientalis and P. acerifolia under conditions of environmental pollution was studied. Green pigments in leaves of Platanus acerifolia are more resistant to environmental pollution in comparison with Platanus orientalis leaves. The abundance of chloroplasts per a unit of area decreases in leaves of both plane-tree species.

  1. Relationship between environmental conditions and rates of coastal erosion in Arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K. R.; Anderson, R. S.; Overeem, I.; Wobus, C. W.; Clow, G. D.; Urban, F. E.; LeWinter, A. L.; Stanton, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    Rates of coastal cliff erosion are a function of the geometry and substrate of the coast; storm frequency, duration, magnitude, and wave field; and regional sediment sources. In the Arctic, the duration of sea ice-free conditions limits the time over which coastal erosion can occur, and sea water temperature modulates erosion rates where ice content of coastal bluffs is high. Predicting how coastal erosion rates in this environment will respond to future climate change requires that we first understand modern coastal erosion rates. Arctic coastlines are responding rapidly to climate change. Remotely sensed observations of coastline position indicate that the mean annual erosion rate along a 60-km reach of Alaska's Beaufort Sea coast, characterized by high ice content and small grain size, doubled from 7 m yr-1 for the period 1955-1979 to 14 m yr-1 for 2002-2007. Over the last 30 years the duration of the open water season expanded from ˜45 days to ˜95 days, increasing exposure of permafrost bluffs to seawater by a factor of 2.5. Time-lapse photography indicates that coastal erosion in this environment is a halting process: most significant erosion occurs during storm events in which local water level is elevated by surge, during which instantaneous submarine erosion rates can reach 1-2 m/day. In contrast, at times of low water, or when sea ice is present, erosion rates are negligible. We employ a 1D coastal cross-section numerical model of the erosion of ice-rich permafrost bluffs to explore the sensitivity of the system to environmental drivers. Our model captures the geometry and style of coastal erosion observed near Drew Point, Alaska, including insertion of a melt-notch, topple of ice-wedge-bounded blocks, and subsequent degradation of these blocks. Using consistent rules, we test our model against the temporal pattern of coastal erosion over two periods: the recent past (~30 years), and a short (~2 week) period in summer 2010. Environmental conditions used

  2. Proposed Methods and Endpoints for Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact (AEI on Fish Communities/Populations in Tennessee River Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Hickman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two multimetric indices have been developed to help address fish community (reservoir fish assemblage index [RFAI] and individual population quality (sport fishing index [SFI] in Tennessee River reservoirs. The RFAI, with characteristics similar to the index of biotic integrity (IBI used in stream fish community determinations, was developed to monitor the existing condition of resident fish communities[1,2,3]. The index, which incorporates standardized electrofishing of littoral areas and experimental gill netting for limnetic bottom-dwelling species, has been used to determine residential fish community response to various anthropogenic impacts in southeastern reservoirs.

  3. Growth and bleaching of the coral Oculina patagonica under different environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Portillo, Esther; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Valle-Pérez, Carlos; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Ramos-Esplá, Alfonso A

    2014-01-01

    The success that the putative alien species Oculina patagonica is able to survive under different environmental conditions may be benefiting its establishment and spreading along the Mediterranean Basin. Our objectives were to determine the response of this species, in terms of growth and bleaching, under different environmental conditions. Field data on colony growth and bleaching were obtained for a period of 18 months (from June 2010 to December 2011), in the Alicante Harbour (38°20′11″N, ...

  4. Nanosized titanium dioxide influences copper-induced toxicity during aging as a function of environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Seitz, Frank; Haigis, Ann-Cathrin; Höger, Johanna; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco

    2016-07-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) adsorb co-occurring heavy metals in surface waters, modulating their toxicity for freshwater invertebrates. The processes triggering this interaction may be influenced by several environmental parameters; however, their relative importance remains unclear. The present study assessed the implications of aging on the joint acute toxicity of copper (Cu) and TiO2 -NPs for Daphnia magna over a duration of up to 72 h. The influences of aging duration as well as ionic strength, pH, and presence of different qualities of organic matter during aging were assessed. The results indicated that the presence of TiO2 -NPs often reduced the Cu-induced toxicity for daphnids after aging (albeit with varying extent), which was displayed by up to 3-fold higher EC50 (50% effective concentration) values compared to the absence of TiO2 -NPs. Moreover, the Cu speciation, influenced by the ionic composition and the pH as well as the presence of organic additives in the medium, strongly modulated the processes during aging, with partly limited implications of the aging duration on the ecotoxicological response of D. magna. Nonetheless, the present study underpins the potential of TiO2 -NPs to modify toxicity induced by heavy metals in freshwater ecosystems under various environmental conditions. This pattern, however, needs further verification using heavy metal ions with differing properties in combination with further environmental factors, such as ultraviolet irradiation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1766-1774. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26640248

  5. Imprint of past and present environmental conditions on microbiology and biogeochemistry of coastal Quaternary sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beck

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, North Sea tidal-flat sediments have been intensively studied down to a depth of 5 m below seafloor (mbsf. However, little is known about the biogeochemistry, microbial abundance, and activity of sulfate reducers as well as methanogens in deeper layers. In this study, two 20 m-long cores were retrieved from the tidal-flat area of Spiekeroog Island, NW Germany. The drill sites were selected with a close distance of 900 m allowing to compare two depositional settings: first, a paleo-channel filled with Holocene sediments and second, a mainly Pleistocene sedimentary succession. Analyzing these cores, we wanted to test to which degree the paleo-environmental imprint is superimposed by present processes.

    In general, the numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes are one to two orders of magnitude higher than those of Archaea. The abundances of key genes for sulfate reduction and methanogenesis (dsrA and mcrA correspond to the sulfate and methane profiles. A co-variance of these key genes at sulfate-methane interfaces and enhanced ex situ AOM rates suggest that anaerobic oxidation of methane may occur in these layers. Microbial and biogeochemical profiles are vertically stretched relative to 5 m-deep cores from shallower sediments in the same study area, but still appear compressed compared to deep sea sediments. Our interdisciplinary analysis shows that the microbial abundances and metabolic rates are elevated in the Holocene compared to Pleistocene sediments. However, this is mainly due to present environmental conditions such as pore water flow and organic matter availability. The paleo-environmental imprint is still visible but superimposed by these processes.

  6. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David;

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... a second generation feedstock, namely, wheat straw. The LCA used lab results of a set of 36 process configurations in which dry matter content, enzyme preparation and loading, and process strategy were varied. The LCA results show that higher dry matter content leads to a higher environmental impact...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  7. Sediment modification by seagrass beds: Muddification and sandification induced by plant cover and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Katwijk, M. M.; Bos, A. R.; Hermus, D. C. R.; Suykerbuyk, W.

    2010-09-01

    Seagrasses are well-known ecosystem engineers. They reduce water dynamics and sediment resuspension, and trap fine sediments. However, exceptions of this paradigm have been reported. To test whether these exceptions could be related to plant cover and environmental conditions, we investigated sediment modification under influence of seagrass presence in various annual eelgrass ( Zostera marina) beds with varying plant cover and sediment composition. At the relatively wave-exposed, sandy sites, dense vegetation caused muddification (increase in fine sediments and organic content) of the sediments. Sparse vegetation (seagrass performance. Muddification may increase the nutrient input and, depending on the nutrient status of the system, either stimulate or reduce seagrass development. Similarly, sandification may postpone and even prevent extinction of seagrass beds when it occurs in areas that may have become too muddy for seagrass growth.

  8. Spatial distributions of tropical tree species in northern Vietnam under environmentally variable site conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen Hong Hai; Kerstin Wiegand; Stephan Getzin

    2014-01-01

    Ecological interactions of species and thus their spatial pat-terns may differ between homogeneous and heterogeneous forests. To account for this, techniques of point pattern analysis were implemented on mapped locations of tree individuals from two 1-ha tropicalforest plots in Vietnam. We analyzed the effect of environmental heterogeneity on tree distributions; spatial distribution patterns of dominant species;inter-specific associations; and conspecific associations between life stages. Our analyses showed that:environmental conditions were homo-geneous at plot 1 but heterogeneous at plot 2;in both plots, all six domi-nant species were aggregated at various scales up to 30 m, and tree spe-cies were aggregated at larger scales in the homogeneous site than in the heterogeneous site; attraction between pairs of species was remarkably higher at the homogeneous site while negative associations were more frequent in the heterogeneous site; some species, H. kurzii, T. ilicifolia (homogeneous plot) and D. sylvatica, S. wightianum (heterogeneous plot), showed a lack of early life-stage individuals near conspecific adults. Moreover, additional clustering of young individuals was independent from conspecific adults, except D. sylvatica in both sites. These findings are consistent with the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Overall, habitat het-erogeneity influences spatial patterns and inter-specific associations of the tree species and evidences of self-thinning are shown in most species.

  9. Differential display of skin mRNAs regulated under varying environmental conditions in a mudskipper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, T; Yasunaga, H; Yokota, S; Ando, M

    2002-07-01

    To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the terrestrial adaptation, as well as adaptation to different salinities, of the euryhaline and amphibious mudskipper ( Periophthalmus modestus), we have looked for the skin mRNAs that change during varying environmental conditions. Using differential mRNA display polymerase chain reaction, we compared skin mRNAs in mudskipper transferred from isotonic 30% seawater to fresh water or to seawater for 1 day and 7 days, as well as those kept out of water for 1 day. At the end of these periods, poly(A(+))RNA was prepared from the Cl(-)-secreting pectoral skins and also from the outer opercular skins where ion transport is negligible, and analyzed by differential display. We identified four cDNA products expressed differently under various environments as homologues of known genes. A further 34 cDNAs were expressed differentially, but they have no significant homology to identified sequences in GenBank. Northern blots demonstrate that mRNA levels of the actin-binding protein and the platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase increased in the pectoral skins during seawater acclimation. The mRNA of the 90 kDa heat shock protein was down-regulated in water-deprived and freshwater fish, whose plasma cortisol levels were high. The aldolase mRNA was induced in both skins after desiccation. These four genes may be involved in the environmental adaptations. PMID:12122461

  10. Modeling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, the speech we listen to is often mixed with many other sound sources as well as reverberation. In such situations, people with normal hearing are able to almost effortlessly segregate a single voice out of the background. In contrast, hearing-impaired people have great difficulty understanding speech when more than one person is talking, even when reduced audibility has been fully compensated for by a hearing aid. The reasons for these difficulties are not well understood. T...

  11. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Kaur S

    2003-01-01

    Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly ...

  12. On Peak Mooring Loads and the Influence of Environmental Conditions for Marine Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Harnois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mooring systems are among the most critical sub-systems for floating marine energy converters (MEC. In particular, the occurrence of peak mooring loads on MEC mooring systems must be carefully evaluated in order to ensure a robust and efficient mooring design. This understanding can be gained through long-term field test measurement campaigns, providing mooring and environmental data for a wide range of conditions. This paper draws on mooring tensions and environmental conditions that have been recorded (1 for several months during the demonstration of an MEC device and (2 over a period of 18 months at a mooring test facility. Both systems were installed in a shallow water depth (45 m and 30 m, respectively using compliant multi-leg catenary mooring systems. A methodology has been developed to detect peak mooring loads and to relate them to the associated sea states for further investigation. Results indicate that peak mooring loads did not occur for the sea states on the external contour line of the measured sea states, but for the sea states inside the scatter diagram. This result is attributed to the short-term variability associated with the maximum mooring load for the given sea state parameters. During the identified sea states, MEC devices may not be in survival mode, and thus, the power take-off (PTO and ancillary systems may be prone to damage. In addition, repeated high peak loads will significantly contribute to mooring line fatigue. Consequently, considering sea states inside the scatter diagram during the MEC mooring design potentially yields a more cost-effective mooring system. As such, the presented methodology contributes to the continuous development of specific MEC mooring systems.

  13. Toward an integrated understanding of perceived biodiversity values and environmental conditions in a national park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Sutton, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In spatial planning and management of protected areas, increased priority is being given to research that integrates social and ecological data. However, public viewpoints of the benefits provided by ecosystems are not easily quantified and often implicitly folded into natural resource management decisions. Drawing on a spatially explicit participatory mapping exercise and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) analysis tool, the present study empirically examined and integrated social values for ecosystem services and environmental conditions within Channel Islands National Park, California. Specifically, a social value indicator of perceived biodiversity was examined using on-site survey data collected from a sample of people who visited the park. This information was modeled alongside eight environmental conditions including faunal species richness for six taxa, vegetation density, categories of marine and terrestrial land cover, and distance to features relevant for decision-makers. Results showed that biodiversity value points assigned to places by the pooled sample of respondents were widely and unevenly mapped, which reflected the belief that biodiversity was embodied to varying degrees by multiple locations in the park. Models generated for two survey subgroups defined by their self-reported knowledge of the Channels Islands revealed distinct spatial patterns of these perceived values. Specifically, respondents with high knowledge valued large spaces that were publicly inaccessible and unlikely to contain on-ground biodiversity, whereas respondents with low knowledge valued places that were experienced first-hand. Accessibility and infrastructure were also important considerations for anticipating how and where people valued the protected land and seascapes of Channel Islands National Park.

  14. XPS study of nitrogen dioxide adsorption on metal oxide particle surfaces under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Jayaweera, Pradeep M; Grassian, Vicki H

    2009-10-01

    The adsorption of nitrogen dioxide on gamma aluminium oxide (gamma-Al(2)O(3)) and alpha iron oxide (alpha-Fe(2)O(3)) particle surfaces under various conditions of relative humidity, presence of molecular oxygen and UV light has been investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is used to monitor the different surface species that form under these environmental conditions. Adsorption of NO(2) on aluminum oxide particle surfaces results primarily in the formation of surface nitrate, NO(3)(-) with an oxidation state of +5, as indicated by a peak with binding energy of 407.3 eV in the N1s region. An additional minority species, sensitive to the presence of relative humidity and molecular oxygen, is also observed in the N1s region with lower binding energy of 405.9 eV. This peak is assigned to a surface species in the +4 oxidation state. When irradiated with UV light, other species form on the surface. These surface-bound photochemical products all have lower binding energy, between 400 and 402 eV, indicating reduced nitrogen species in the range of N oxidations states spanning +1 to -1. Co-adsorbed water decreases the amount of these reduced surface-bound products while the presence of molecular oxygen completely suppresses the formation of all reduced nitrogen species on aluminum oxide particle surfaces. For NO(2) on iron oxide particle surfaces, photoreduction is enhanced relative to gamma-Al(2)O(3) and surface bound photoreduced species are observed under all environmental conditions. Complementing the experimental data, N1s core electron binding energies (CEBEs) were calculated using DFT for a number of nitrogen-containing species in the gas phase and adsorbed on an Al(8)O(12) cluster. A range of CEBEs is calculated for various nitrogen species in different adsorption modes and oxidation states. These calculated values are discussed in light of the peaks observed in the XPS N1s region and the possible species that form following NO(2) adsorption and

  15. Stability of metabolic correlations under changing environmental conditions in Escherichia coli--a systems approach.

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    Jedrzej Szymanski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biological systems adapt to changing environments by reorganizing their cellular and physiological program with metabolites representing one important response level. Different stresses lead to both conserved and specific responses on the metabolite level which should be reflected in the underlying metabolic network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Starting from experimental data obtained by a GC-MS based high-throughput metabolic profiling technology we here develop an approach that: (1 extracts network representations from metabolic condition-dependent data by using pairwise correlations, (2 determines the sets of stable and condition-dependent correlations based on a combination of statistical significance and homogeneity tests, and (3 can identify metabolites related to the stress response, which goes beyond simple observations about the changes of metabolic concentrations. The approach was tested with Escherichia coli as a model organism observed under four different environmental stress conditions (cold stress, heat stress, oxidative stress, lactose diauxie and control unperturbed conditions. By constructing the stable network component, which displays a scale free topology and small-world characteristics, we demonstrated that: (1 metabolite hubs in this reconstructed correlation networks are significantly enriched for those contained in biochemical networks such as EcoCyc, (2 particular components of the stable network are enriched for functionally related biochemical pathways, and (3 independently of the response scale, based on their importance in the reorganization of the correlation network a set of metabolites can be identified which represent hypothetical candidates for adjusting to a stress-specific response. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Network-based tools allowed the identification of stress-dependent and general metabolic correlation networks. This correlation-network-based approach does not rely on major changes in

  16. Biocontrol agents promote growth of potato pathogens, depending on environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Jonathan A; Connor, Mairéad C; Stevenson, Andrew; Houghton, Jonathan D R; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Cooke, Louise R; Hallsworth, John E

    2016-05-01

    There is a pressing need to understand and optimize biological control so as to avoid over-reliance on the synthetic chemical pesticides that can damage environmental and human health. This study focused on interactions between a novel biocontrol-strain, Bacillus sp. JC12GB43, and potato-pathogenic Phytophthora and Fusarium species. In assays carried out in vitro and on the potato tuber, the bacterium was capable of near-complete inhibition of pathogens. This Bacillus was sufficiently xerotolerant (water activity limit for growth = 0.928) to out-perform Phytophthora infestans (~0.960) and challenge Fusarium coeruleum (~0.847) and Fusarium sambucinum (~0.860) towards the lower limits of their growth windows. Under some conditions, however, strain JC12GB43 stimulated proliferation of the pathogens: for instance, Fusarium coeruleum growth-rate was increased under chaotropic conditions in vitro (132 mM urea) by >100% and on tubers (2-M glycerol) by up to 570%. Culture-based assays involving macromolecule-stabilizing (kosmotropic) compatible solutes provided proof-of-principle that the Bacillus may provide kosmotropic metabolites to the plant pathogen under conditions that destabilize macromolecular systems of the fungal cell. Whilst unprecedented, this finding is consistent with earlier reports that fungi can utilize metabolites derived from bacterial cells. Unless the antimicrobial activities of candidate biocontrol strains are assayed over a full range of field-relevant parameters, biocontrol agents may promote plant pathogen infections and thereby reduce crop yields. These findings indicate that biocontrol activity, therefore, ought to be regarded as a mode-of-behaviour (dependent on prevailing conditions) rather than an inherent property of a bacterial strain. PMID:26880001

  17. What are extreme environmental conditions and how do organisms cope with them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. WINGFIELD, J. Patrick KELLEY, Frédéric ANGELIER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Severe environmental conditions affect organisms in two major ways. The environment may be predictably severe such as in deserts, polar and alpine regions, or individuals may be exposed to temporarily extreme conditions through weather, presence of predators, lack of food, social status etc. Existence in an extreme environment may be possible, but then to breed or molt in addition can present major bottlenecks that have resulted in the evolution of hormone-behavior adaptations to cope with unpredictable events. Examples of hormone-behavior adaptations in extreme conditions include attenuated testosterone secretion because territoriality and excess courtship may be too costly when there is one opportunity to reproduce. The individual may even become insensitive to testosterone when target areas of the brain regulating reproductive behavior no longer respond to the hormone. A second example is reduced sensitivity to glucocorticoids following acute stress during the breeding season or molt that allows successful reproduction and/or a vital renewal of the integument to endure extreme conditions during the rest of the year. Reduced sensitivity could involve: (a modulated response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, (b reduced sensitivity to high glucocorticoid levels, or (c a combination of (a and (b. Moreover, corticosteroid binding proteins (CBP buffer responses to stress by reducing the movement of glucocorticoids into target cells. Finally, intracellular enzymes (11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and variants can deactivate glucocorticoids entering cells thus reducing interaction with receptors. These mechanisms have important implications for climate change and increasing extremes of weather [Current Zoology 57 (3: 363–374, 2011].

  18. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  19. Some problems and essential objectives of improving environmental condition of southern aral sea

    OpenAIRE

    Turdimambetov Izimbet

    2015-01-01

    The article overviews the environmental situation, as well as geographical and legal frameworks of mitigating the environmental situation of the Southern Aral Sea area. Presents priorities for improving environmental sustainability in the Southern Aral Sea region, aiming at reducing environmentally deterministic diseases and death rate.

  20. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart E. Marsh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fire rates of vegetation regeneration between ecoregions. We then related precipitation, temperature, and elevation records at four temporal scales to rates of post-fire vegetation regeneration to ascertain the influence of climate on post-fire vegetation dynamics. We found that broad-scale climate factors are an important influence on post-fire vegetation regeneration. Most notably, higher rates of post-fire regeneration occurred with warmer minimum temperatures. Increases in precipitation also resulted in higher rates of post-fire vegetation growth. While explanatory power was slight, multiple statistical approaches provided evidence for real ecological drivers of post-fire regeneration that should be investigated further at finer scales. The sensitivity of post-disturbance vegetation dynamics to climatic drivers has important ramifications for the management of ecosystems under changing climatic conditions. Shifts in temperature and precipitation regimes are likely to result in changes in post-disturbance dynamics, which could represent important feedbacks into the global climate system.

  1. ЕFFECT OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS IN THE CONDITIONS OF ANTHROPOGENIC ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Vasilyuk

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the general (GА, nM pyruvic acid/ml∙second and specific (SA, nM pyruvic acid /mg second transferase enzyme activity of protein metabolism (Аlanine aminotransferase ALT, EC 2.6.1.2, and Аspartate aminotransferase, AST, EC 2.6.1.1 in Salix alba L. leaves, that planted on the banks of Mokra Sura River (anthropogenic polluted, increased level of salinity and Shpakova River (relatively clean, control which are parts of Dnipro River Basin of Steppe Dnipro Region. We used the plant growth regulator “Kornevin” in order to accelerate rooting and reducing of exogenous pressures on the plant. We registered the Aminotransferase nonspecific reaction towards anthropogenic pressure, which was associated with the formation of non-specific mechanisms of adaptation to support the homeostasis. We revealed the significant differences between experiment and control in index of protein synthesis and metabolism depending on the conditions of growth and development. Protective and leveling effects of growth regulator have been proved. The advisability of using the "Kornevin" as an adaptogene and a protector in variable environmental conditions have been indicated. Salix alba L., increased level of salinity, growth regulators, alaninaminotransferase, aspartataminotransferase, adaptogene, anthropogenic factors

  2. Egg quality in layers housed in different production systems and submitted to two environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAD Barbosa Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The production system using cages is a highly polemical issue in Europe, because of the space restriction imposed to laying hens. It is considered that the cage system might compromise important comfort movements, welfare and egg quality. This study evaluated egg quality and welfare of two strains of hens housed in a conventional system (battery laying cages or litter system with nest and perches, and submitted to heat stress or comfort conditions. Two groups of 20 birds (10 Hy-line W36 and 10 Hy-line Brown were submitted to two environmental conditions (26°C and 60% RH or 35°C and 70% RH and two housing systems (cages or litter in the early production phase. Egg quality was analyzed based on egg weight, eggshell thickness, specific gravity, and Haugh units. Yolk and shell contamination by Salmonella sp was also assessed. A significant (p<0.05 reduction in quality parameters was observed in eggs produced by laying hens under heat stress, mainly in the birds housed in cages.

  3. Evaluation of environmental condition: water and sediment examination of oxbow lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGIT TAMÁS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the river regulation a number of oxbow lakes have arisen in the floodplain of the Lower-Tisza. The floodplain lakes represent natural values and major recreation areas of the lowland region. Due to the human activity the oxbow lakes' condition declined. It can be shown by the water quality, the channel discharge by deposit, the high eutrophication of the lakes and the heavy metal elevation of the sediment. Discovering these processes, analysing the condition and recultivation of the oxbow lakes came into prominence only in the past few years. Our research aims to conclude the current environmental pollution of the oxbow lakes from statistical analyses of the heavy metal content of the sediment and from the water quality data. The oxbow lakes have been classified by chemistry instead of chemical. Results of the research show differences between the floodplain oxbows and the lakes outside the dam in terms of the quality of the sediment and the nutrient content of the water.

  4. Relationship between fumonisin production and FUM gene expression in Fusarium verticillioides under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, Francesca; Iversen, Anita; Logrieco, Antonio F.;

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is the main source of fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that can contaminate maize-based food and feed and cause diseases in humans and animals. The study of the effect of different environmental conditions on toxin production should provide information that can be used...... to develop strategies to minimize the risk. This study analysed the effect of temperature (15°C-35°C), water activity (aw: 0.999-0.93), salinity (0-125 g l-1 NaCl) and pH (5-8) on the growth and production of fumonisins B1 (FB1), B2 (FB2) and B3 (FB3) and the expression of FUM1 and FUM21 in F....... verticillioides. The highest growth rate was measured at 25°C, aw of 0.998-0.99 and 0-25 g l-1 of NaCl. Optimal conditions for fumonisin production were 30°C, aw of 0.99, 25 g l-1 of NaCl and pH 5; nevertheless, the strain showed a good adaptability and was able to produce moderate levels of fumonisins under...

  5. Effects of environmental stress on the condition of Littorina littorea along the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Heidi; De Wolf, Hans; Backeljau, Thierry; Blust, Ronny

    2007-04-15

    The condition of the periwinkle Littorina littorea, expressed in terms of its shell morphology, reproductive impairment (i.e. female sterility/intersex, male penis shedding), trematode infestation load, lipid reserves and dry/wet weight ratio, was determined in function of environmental stress along the polluted Western and relatively clean Eastern Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands). The upstream increasing pollution and decreasing salinity levels along the Western Scheldt estuary (Fig. 1) are reflected in the dry/wet weight ratio and lipid content of the periwinkles. Compared to the Eastern Scheldt, female intersex (i.e. indicator of TBT pollution) and sterility occurred more frequently in the Western Scheldt estuary, while male penis shedding was even restricted to the latter estuary. The highest population intersex and sterility incidence was found near the harbour of Vlissingen and reflects potential nautical activities. The number of trematode infested periwinkles did not differ between both estuaries, although local sampling site differences were detected within each estuary, reflecting the complex interactions that exist among parasites, hosts and the local environment. Finally, both estuaries were maximally discriminated from each other based on the shell weight of the periwinkles using a canonical discriminant analysis. Periwinkles with the heaviest shells were found in the Western Scheldt estuary and may reflect growth rate or structural population differences caused by the less favourable living conditions in the Western Scheldt estuary. PMID:17343899

  6. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanini, D G; Monk, W A; Carter, L; Cote, D; Baird, D J

    2013-08-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification System approach with regional-scale applicability. To achieve this, we used biological monitoring data collected from wadeable streams across Atlantic Canada together with freely available, nationally consistent geographic information system (GIS) environmental data layers. For the first time, we demonstrated that it is possible to use data generated from different studies, even when collected using different sampling methods, to generate a robust predictive model. This model was successfully generated and tested using GIS-based rather than local habitat variables and showed improved performance when compared to a null model. In addition, ecological quality ratio data derived from the model responded to observed stressors in a test dataset. Implications for future large-scale implementation of river biomonitoring using a standardised approach with global application are presented. PMID:23250724

  7. Light acclimation of leaf gas exchange in two Tunisian cork oak populations from contrasting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzigui T

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to diverse environmental conditions, Mediterranean plant populations are exposed to a range of selective pressures that may lead to phenotypic plasticity and local adaptation. We examined the effect of light acclimation on photosynthetic capacity in two Quercus suber (L. populations that are native to different ecological conditions. Low-light adapted seedlings from both populations were exposed to three light treatments: full sunlight (HL, medium light (ML, 43% sunlight and low light (LL, 15% sunlight for one month. Photosynthetic performance was monitored by measuring leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. The light environment influences light-saturated carbon assimilation (Amax in the leaves of the population inhabiting the hot and dry region (from Gaafour. In contrast, there was no significant difference in Amax between leaves grown in high light and low light from Feija (the population native to a cold and humid climate, which suggests an inability of the Feija population to adjust its photosynthesis to respond to higher irradiance. The inability of the Feija population to adjust its photosynthesis did not result from a light acclimation failure in terms of chlorophyll content and ratio compared with the Gaafour population. Instead, it seems to be the consequence of lower stomatal conductance in the Feija population at HL compared to Gaafour.

  8. Calcification intensity in planktonic Foraminifera reflects ambient conditions irrespective of environmental stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. G. Weinkauf

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Planktonic Foraminifera are important marine calcifiers, and the ongoing change in the oceanic carbon system makes it essential to understand the influence of environmental factors on the biomineralisation of their shells. The amount of calcite deposited by planktonic Foraminifera during calcification has been hypothesized to reflect a range of environmental factors. However, it has never been assessed whether their calcification only passively responds to the conditions of the ambient seawater or whether it reflects changes in resource allocation due to physiological stress. To disentangle these two end-member scenarios, an experiment is required where the two processes are separated. A natural analogue to such an experiment occurred during the deposition of the Mediterranean sapropels, where large changes in surface water composition and stratification at the onset of the sapropel deposition were decoupled from local extinctions of planktonic Foraminifera species. We take advantage of this natural experiment and investigate the reaction of calcification intensity, expressed as size-normalized weight (SNW, of four species of planktonic Foraminifera to changing conditions during the onset of Sapropel S5 (126–121 ka in a sediment core from the Levantine Basin. We observe a significant relationship between SNW and surface water properties, as reflected by stable isotopes in the calcite of Foraminifera shells, but we failed to observe any reaction of calcification intensity on ecological stress during times of decreasing abundance culminating in local extinction. The reaction of calcification intensity to surface water perturbation at the onset of the sapropel was observed only in surface dwelling species, but all species calcified more strongly prior to the sapropel deposition and less strongly within the sapropel than at comparable conditions during the present day. These results indicate that the high-salinity environment of the glacial

  9. Precursor Environmental Conditions Associated with the Termination of Madden-Julian Oscillation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    Current generations of global climate models continue to struggle with simulating many of the observed features of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and suffer from low skill regarding initiation forecasts. While recent work has focused on those mechanisms thought to be important for MJO initiation, fewer studies have examined the large-scale conditions associated with quiescent periods of the MJO and the decay of existing events. Understanding these mechanisms may provide a valuable context toward improving simulations of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and operational weather forecast models. This study presents an analysis of the precursor environmental conditions related to the termination of MJO events. A simple climatology is created using a real-time MJO monitoring index, documenting the locations and frequencies of MJO decay. Lead-lag composites of several atmospheric variables including temperature, moisture, and intraseasonal wind anomalies are generated from three reanalyses. Long-term, lower tropospheric moisture deficits over the local domain best identify terminating events over the Indian Ocean, with a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and corresponding lead times as much as 20 days prior to MJO decay. Statistically significant differences are also identified more than 10 days in advance of MJO termination events in the west Pacific, though the vertical velocity and moisture anomalies are more symmetric about the equator. We also present results for those MJOs that terminate over the maritime continent. Unlike the Indian Ocean and west Pacific, the likelihood of an MJO to cross the maritime continent appears related to its own intensity, rather than the upstream environmental conditions, with only the strongest MJOs propagating into the warm pool region. Finally, a budget analysis is performed on the three-dimensional moisture advection equation in order to better elucidate what time-scales and physical

  10. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  11. The impact of extreme environmental conditions, as occurring in natural ecosystems, on the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of pH, soil organic matter content and soil moisture conditions on the uptake of Cs, Sr, Pu, Am, Np and Co by grass, cereals and some other crops was determined by analysing data of a data bank. The results, extrapolated to extreme environmental conditions, are shown as figures which include regression curves. (author)

  12. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  13. Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Anniina L K

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at candidate loci, and environmental conditions. Measurements were made under a natural range of conditions using infrared thermal imaging. Heating of flight muscles by flight metabolism has been presumed to be negligible in small butterflies. However, the results demonstrate that Glanville fritillary males with high flight metabolic rate maintain elevated body temperature better during flight than males with a low rate of flight metabolism. This effect is likely to have a significant influence on the dispersal performance and fitness of butterflies and demonstrates the possible importance of intraspecific physiological variation on dispersal in other similar ectothermic insects. The results also suggest that individuals having an advantage in low ambient temperatures can be susceptible to overheating at high temperatures. Further, tolerance of high temperatures may be important for flight performance, as indicated by an association of heat-shock protein (Hsp70) genotype with flight metabolic rate and body temperature at takeoff. The dynamics of body temperature at flight and factors affecting it also differed significantly between female and male butterflies, indicating that thermal dynamics are governed by different mechanisms in the two sexes. This study contributes to knowledge about factors affecting intraspecific variation in dispersal-related thermal performance in butterflies and other insects. Such information is needed for predictive

  14. Automated ambulatory assessment of cognitive performance, environmental conditions, and motor activity during military operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Harris R.; Kramer, F. Matthew; Montain, Scott J.; Niro, Philip; Young, Andrew J.

    2005-05-01

    Until recently scientists had limited opportunities to study human cognitive performance in non-laboratory, fully ambulatory situations. Recently, advances in technology have made it possible to extend behavioral assessment to the field environment. One of the first devices to measure human behavior in the field was the wrist-worn actigraph. This device, now widely employed, can acquire minute-by-minute information on an individual"s level of motor activity. Actigraphs can, with reasonable accuracy, distinguish sleep from waking, the most critical and basic aspect of human behavior. However, rapid technologic advances have provided the opportunity to collect much more information from fully ambulatory humans. Our laboratory has developed a series of wrist-worn devices, which are not much larger then a watch, which can assess simple and choice reaction time, vigilance and memory. In addition, the devices can concurrently assess motor activity with much greater temporal resolution then the standard actigraph. Furthermore, they continuously monitor multiple environmental variables including temperature, humidity, sound and light. We have employed these monitors during training and simulated military operations to collect information that would typically be unavailable under such circumstances. In this paper we will describe various versions of the vigilance monitor and how each successive version extended the capabilities of the device. Samples of data from several studies are presented, included studies conducted in harsh field environments during simulated infantry assaults, a Marine Corps Officer training course and mechanized infantry (Stryker) operations. The monitors have been useful for documenting environmental conditions experienced by wearers, studying patterns of sleep and activity and examining the effects of nutritional manipulations on warfighter performance.

  15. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  16. Environmental conditions predict helminth prevalence in red foxes in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybing, Narelle A; Fleming, Patricia A; Adams, Peter J

    2013-12-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are the most common and widely distributed wild carnivore worldwide. These predators harbour a wide range of parasites, many of which may have important conservation, agricultural and zoonotic repercussions. This project investigated the occurrence of helminth parasites from the intestines of 147 red foxes across 14 sampling localities of southwest Western Australia. Helminth parasites were detected in 58% of fox intestines: Dipylidium caninum (27.7% of foxes), Uncinaria stenocephala (18.2%), Toxocara canis (14.9%), Spirometra erinaceieuropaei (5.4%), Toxascaris leonina (4.7%), Taenia serialis (1.4%), Taenia hydatigena (0.7%), unidentified Taenia spp. (4.1%), Brachylaima cribbi (0.7%), Plagiorchis maculosus (0.7%) and an Acanthocephalan; family Centrorhynchidae (2.1%). Importantly, two cestodes of agricultural significance, Echinococcus granulosus and Taenia ovis, were not detected in red foxes in this study, despite the presence of suitable intermediate hosts in the diets of these animals. Parasite richness varied from 1-3 species per host, with average parasite number varying from 1-39 worms (across all helminth species). Regression analyses indicated that the presence of four helminth parasites was related to various environmental factors. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei (p < 0.001), T. leonina (p < 0.01) and U. stenocephala (p < 0.01) was positively associated with average relative humidity which may affect the longevity of infective stages in the environment. The presence of S. erinaceieuropaei and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with 5-y-average minimum temperature which could reflect poor survival of infective stages through cold winter conditions. The presence of T. canis and U. stenocephala (p < 0.001) was positively associated with the percentage cover of native vegetation at each sampling location, which is likely to reflect transmission from native prey species acting as paratenic hosts

  17. Effect of environmental conditions on the spectroscopic signature of DNT in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Alejandro; Mina, Nairmen; Castro, Miguel E.; Castillo-Chara, Jairo; Hernandez-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    Landmines have been a part of war technology for many years. As a result of the continued and indiscriminate use in approximately 90 countries landmines pose a severe and ever growing problem and a daily risk. Raman Spectroscopy is capable of providing rich information about the molecular structure of the sample and pinpoint detection of many chemicals, both of organic and inorganic nature. The presence of landmines in soils can be detected by Raman Spectroscopy sensing in a Point Detection modality, using characteristic vibrational signals of each explosive present in landmines. Detection of 2,4-DNT in sand and studies on how the vibrational signatures of 2,4-DNT is modified by interacting with soil particles and environmental conditions is reported. Raman Microspectrometers equipped with 514 nm and 785 nm laser excitation lines were used. The work focused in how the spectroscopic signatures of DNT in contact with Ottawa Sand are affected by the presence of humidity, pH, temperature, UV light and reaction times. Samples of mixtures of sand/2,4-DNT were analyzed by Raman Spectroscopy at 10, 50 and 100% water content and temperatures in range of 40-80 °C. Mixtures were also analyzed at different pH: 4, 7 and 10 and under ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Raman spectra were taken as a function of time in an interval from 24 to 336 hours (two weeks). Characteristic signals of 2,4-DNT were analyzed in different ranges 100-3800 cm-1, 600-1200 cm-1, 300-1700 cm-1 and 2800-3500 cm-1. The effect of these variables was measured during 45 consecutive days. It was confirmed that the decrease of characteristic vibrational signatures of 2,4-DNT can be attributed to increase of the degradation of 2,4-DNT by the simulated environmental conditions. Spectroscopic characterization of degradation products, both in contact with sand as well as airborne is under way. These results will make possible the development of highly sensitive sensors for detection of explosives materials and

  18. Environmental Conditions Affect Exhalation of H3N2 Seasonal and Variant Influenza Viruses and Respiratory Droplet Transmission in Ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kortney M Gustin

    Full Text Available The seasonality of influenza virus infections in temperate climates and the role of environmental conditions like temperature and humidity in the transmission of influenza virus through the air are not well understood. Using ferrets housed at four different environmental conditions, we evaluated the respiratory droplet transmission of two influenza viruses (a seasonal H3N2 virus and an H3N2 variant virus, the etiologic virus of a swine to human summertime infection and concurrently characterized the aerosol shedding profiles of infected animals. Comparisons were made among the different temperature and humidity conditions and between the two viruses to determine if the H3N2 variant virus exhibited enhanced capabilities that may have contributed to the infections occurring in the summer. We report here that although increased levels of H3N2 variant virus were found in ferret nasal wash and exhaled aerosol samples compared to the seasonal H3N2 virus, enhanced respiratory droplet transmission was not observed under any of the environmental settings. However, overall environmental conditions were shown to modulate the frequency of influenza virus transmission through the air. Transmission occurred most frequently at 23°C/30%RH, while the levels of infectious virus in aerosols exhaled by infected ferrets agree with these results. Improving our understanding of how environmental conditions affect influenza virus infectivity and transmission may reveal ways to better protect the public against influenza virus infections.

  19. Methodological Approaches To Environmental Management In The Conditions Of Structural Changes In Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Dragan

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the theoretical and methodological approaches to environmental management. Determined that the operation mechanism of modern environmental management in Ukraine is imperfect and the necessity of its transformation in accordance with market economy.

  20. Voluntary agreements as a way to stimulate industrial environmental management and their conditions for success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans; Bruijn, de Theo; Franco-Garcia, Laura; Lulofs, Kris; Xue, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Numerous governments have adopted innovative policy instruments to deal with important environmental policy challenges. Various forms of negotiated instruments may offer the potential to improve on environmental performance beyond what regulation alone can accomplish. Dutch covenants, which represen

  1. 33 CFR 148.710 - What environmental conditions must be satisfied?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... serves the national interest. (c) In accordance with 40 CFR 1502.9, the Commandant (CG-5) will prepare a..., environmental quality, protection from the threat of terrorist attack and other subversive activity against... single detailed environmental impact statement or environmental assessment for all timely...

  2. Spatial distribution of dengue incidence and socio-environmental conditions in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, José Vilton; Donalisio, Maria Rita; Silveira, Liciana Vaz de Arruda

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to analyze the spatial distribution of dengue risk and its association with socio-environmental conditions. This was an ecological study of the counts of autochthonous dengue cases in the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the year 2007, aggregated according to 47 coverage areas of municipal health centers. Spatial models for mapping diseases were constructed with Bayesian hierarchical models, based on Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA). The analyses were stratified according to two age groups, 0 to 14 years and above 14 years. The results indicate that the spatial distribution of dengue risk is not associated with socio-environmental conditions in the 0 to 14 year age group. In the age group older than 14 years, the relative risk of dengue increases significantly as the level of socio-environmental deprivation increases. Mapping of socio-environmental deprivation and dengue cases proved to be a useful tool for data analysis in dengue surveillance systems.

  3. Innovative monitoring campaign of the environmental conditions of the Stibbert museum in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, E.; Civita, F.; Corbellini, S.; Fulginiti, D.; Giovagnoli, A.; Grassini, S.; Parvis, M.

    2016-02-01

    Conservation of ancient metallic artefact displayed inside museums is a complex problem due to the large number of constraints mainly related to the artefacts fruition by people. The development of a simple procedure for monitoring the artefact conservation state promptly highlighting risky conditions without impacting on the normal museum operations could be of interest in the cultural heritage world. This paper describes the interesting results obtained by using a highly sensitive and innovative methodology for evaluating the safety level of the museum indoor areas, and more specifically of the interior of the showcases, with respect to the metallic artefacts. The methodology is based on the use of an innovative smart sensors network and of copper reference samples. The smart sensors network was employed for the continuous monitoring of temperature and relative humidity close to the artefacts, i.e. inside the display showcases. The reference specimens were Cu coated with a 100 nm Cu nanostructured layer put for 1 year in the exhibition rooms inside and outside the showcases and characterised by means of normal imaging, colorimetric and FESEM techniques at regular intervals. The results of the monitoring activity evidenced the higher reactivity to the environmental aggressivity of the nanocoated copper specimen with respect to bulk artefacts and therefore the possibility to use them as alerts to possible corrosion phenomena that may occur to the real artefacts. A proper temperature and relative humidity monitoring inside the showcases and close to each group of artefacts is a powerful though economic and non-invasive way to highlight most of the possible critical display conditions.

  4. Simulation of the environmental climate conditions on martian surface and its effect on Deinococcus radiodurans

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, U. Pogoda; Rettberg, P.; Reitz, G.

    The resistance of terrestrial microorganisms under the thermo-physical conditions of Mars (diurnal temperature variations, UV climate, atmospheric pressure and gas composition) at mid-latitudes was studied for the understanding and assessment of potential life processes on Mars. In order to accomplish a targeted search for life on other planets, e.g. Mars, it is necessary to know the limiting physical and chemical parameters of terrestrial life. Therefore the polyextremophile bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans was chosen as test organism for these investigations. For the simulation studies at the Planetary and Space Simulation Facilities (PSI) at DLR, Cologne, Germany, conditions that are present during the southern summer at latitude of 60° on Mars were applied. We could simulate several environmental parameters of Mars in one single experiment: vacuum/low pressure, anoxic atmosphere and diurnal cycles in temperature and relative humidity, energy-rich ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as shielding by different martian soil analogue materials. These parameters have been applied both single and in different combinations in laboratory experiments. Astonishingly the diurnal Mars-like cycles in temperature and relative humidity affected the viability of D. radiodurans cells quite severely. But the martian UV climate turned out to be the most deleterious factor, though D. radiodurans is red-pigmented due to carotenoids incorporated in its cell wall, which have been assigned not only a possible role as free radical scavenger but also as a UV-protectant. An additional UV-protection was accomplished by mixing the bacteria with nano-sized hematite.

  5. Evaluation of indoor environmental quality conditions in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshood Olawale Fadeyi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents findings of indoor environmental quality (IEQ investigations conducted in elementary schools׳ classrooms in the United Arab Emirates (UAE. Average TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle concentrations measured in the classrooms were 815 µg/m3, 1605 ppm, 0.05 ppm, 1.16 ppm, and 1730 µg/m3, respectively. Whereas, local authority known as Dubai Municipality recommended 300 µg/m3, 800 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 9 ppm, and 150–300 µg/m3 for TVOC, CO2, O3, CO, and particle, respectively. Dubai Municipality recommended temperature and relative humidity (RH levels of 22.5 °C to 25.5 °C and 30%–60%, respectively. Average temperature and RH levels measured in the classrooms were 24.5 °C and 40.4%, respectively. Average sound level in the classrooms was 24 dB greater than recommended sound level limit of 35 dB. Six (6 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 400–800 lux. Two (2 classrooms had average lux levels in the range of 100–200 lux. The remaining classrooms had lux levels around the recommended 300 lux. High occupancy density was observed in majority of the studied classrooms. Observations during walkthrough investigations could be used to explain measured IEQ data. Poor IEQ conditions in the studied classrooms highlight the need for further research investigation to understand how poor classrooms׳ IEQ condition could influence students׳ health, comfort, attendance rate, and academic performance.

  6. Environmental conditioning of skeletal anomalies typology and frequency in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L., 1758) juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestinicola, Loredana; Boglione, Clara; Makridis, Pavlos; Spanò, Attilio; Rimatori, Valentina; Palamara, Elisa; Scardi, Michele; Cataudella, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, 981 reared juveniles of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were analysed, 721 of which were from a commercial hatchery located in Northern Italy (Venice, Italy) and 260 from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (Crete, Greece). These individuals were from 4 different egg batches, for a total of 10 different lots. Each egg batch was split into two lots after hatching, and reared with two different methodologies: intensive and semi-intensive. All fish were subjected to processing for skeletal anomaly and meristic count analysis. The aims involved: (1) quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing whether differences in skeletal elements arise between siblings and, if so, what they are; (2) investigating if any skeletal bone tissue/ossification is specifically affected by changing environmental rearing conditions; and (3) contributing to the identification of the best practices for gilthead seabream larval rearing in order to lower the deformity rates, without selections. The results obtained in this study highlighted that: i) in all the semi-intensive lots, the bones having intramembranous ossification showed a consistently lower incidence of anomalies; ii) the same clear pattern was not observed in the skeletal elements whose ossification process requires a cartilaginous precursor. It is thus possible to ameliorate the morphological quality (by reducing the incidence of severe skeletal anomalies and the variability in meristic counts of dermal bones) of reared seabream juveniles by lowering the stocking densities (maximum 16 larvae/L) and increasing the volume of the hatchery rearing tanks (minimum 40 m(3)). Feeding larvae with a wide variety of live (wild) preys seems further to improve juvenile skeletal quality. Additionally, analysis of the morphological quality of juveniles reared under two different semi-intensive conditions, Mesocosm and Large Volumes, highlighted a somewhat greater capacity of Large Volumes to significantly augment the gap with

  7. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta) larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira; Jorge Luiz Nessimian; Darcílio Fernandes Baptista

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to At...

  8. (C-V) and y-parameters determination of JFETs under different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ghanam, S.M., E-mail: safaaghanam@yahoo.co [Women' s College for Art, Science and Education, Ain-Shams University, Heliopolis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2010-10-01

    The C-V characteristics of n-channel JFET have been measured under different environmental conditions of temperature up to 140 deg. C and {gamma}-rays up to 100 kGy. For low bias voltage and frequency, the input capacitance, C{sub iss}, is shown to be a direct function of temperature. On the other hand, its value was shown to decrease from 11.68 down to 8.17 nF due to {gamma}-exposure up to 100 kGy. The y-parameters of common source amplifier were calculated under the influence of temperature and {gamma}-rays. The results show that the susceptance component of the admittance increases due to increase in temperature, while decreasing after {gamma}-exposure. Considering the cutoff frequency f{sub T0}, it is clear that as the temperature increases from 30 up to 140 deg. C, f{sub T0} dropped from 47 MHz down to 5 MHz, measured at 0.8 V. On the other hand its value was shown to increase from 43 MHz up to 102 MHz, measured at the same bias voltage, due to {gamma}-exposure up to 100 kGy.

  9. Conditional Order-m Efficiency of Wastewater Treatment Plants: The Role of Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Fuentes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing economic and environmental importance of managing water resources at a global level also entails greater efforts and interest in improving the functioning and efficiency of the increasingly more numerous wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. In this context, this study analyzes the efficiency of a uniform sample of plants of this type located in the region of Valencia (Spain. The type of efficiency measure used for this (conditional order-m efficiency allows continuous and discrete contextual variables to be directly involved in the analysis and enables the assessment of their statistical significance and effect (positive or negative. The main findings of the study showed that the quality of the influent water and also the size and age of the plants had a significant influence on their efficiency levels. In particular, as regards the effect of such variables, the findings pointed to the existence of an inverse relationship between the quality of the influent water and the efficiency of the WWTPs. Also, a lower annual volume of treated water and more modern installations showed a positive influence. Additionally, the average efficiency levels observed turned out to be higher than those reported in previous studies.

  10. Biofilm formation by Streptococcus agalactiae: influence of environmental conditions and implicated virulence factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma eMargarit

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS is an important human pathogen that colonizes the urogenital and/or the lower gastro-intestinal tract of up to 40% of healthy women of reproductive age and is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in the neonates. GBS can also infect the elderly and immuno-compromised adults, and is responsible for mastitis in bovines. Like other Gram-positive bacteria, GBS can form biofilm-like three-dimensional structures that could enhance its ability to colonize and persist in the host. Biofilm formation by GBS has been investigated in vitro and appears tightly controlled by environmental conditions. Several adhesins have been shown to play a role in the formation of GBS biofilm-like structures, among which are the protein components of pili protruding outside the bacterial surface. Remarkably, antibodies directed against pilus proteins can prevent the formation of biofilms. The implications of biofilm formation in the context of GBS asymptomatic colonization and dissemination to cause invasive disease remain to be investigated in detail.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF IMPACT OF COHERENT LIGHT ON RESISTANCE OF PLANTS GROWING IN UNFAVOURABLE ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Śliwka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of experiments on the effect of the coherent light emitted by lasers on plant material show that properly selected laser stimulation parameters, such as: wavelength, power, time and type of exposure, allow to obtain a greater growth of plant biomass, changes in the content of elements in the biomass and increasing plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of laser stimulation on selected plant species (Iris pseudoacorus L., Lemna minor L. to increase their resistance to low temperatures and the ability to adapt to an environment polluted by mining activities (Phelum pratense L.. Plants from experimental groups (Iris pseudoacorus L., Phelum pratense L., Lemna minor L. were stimulated with coherent light with specific characteristics. To irradiate plants from experimental groups different algorithms of stimulation parameters, differentiating the method and time of exposure were used. Plants group without the stimulation, were the reference group. The article discusses the results of preliminary experiments carried out on a laboratory scale and pot experiments.

  12. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin A Urquhart

    Full Text Available Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  13. Environmental Conditions Associated with Elevated Vibrio parahaemolyticus Concentrations in Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Erin A; Jones, Stephen H; Yu, Jong W; Schuster, Brian M; Marcinkiewicz, Ashley L; Whistler, Cheryl A; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2016-01-01

    Reports from state health departments and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicate that the annual number of reported human vibriosis cases in New England has increased in the past decade. Concurrently, there has been a shift in both the spatial distribution and seasonal detection of Vibrio spp. throughout the region based on limited monitoring data. To determine environmental factors that may underlie these emerging conditions, this study focuses on a long-term database of Vibrio parahaemolyticus concentrations in oyster samples generated from data collected from the Great Bay Estuary, New Hampshire over a period of seven consecutive years. Oyster samples from two distinct sites were analyzed for V. parahaemolyticus abundance, noting significant relationships with various biotic and abiotic factors measured during the same period of study. We developed a predictive modeling tool capable of estimating the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus presence in coastal New Hampshire oysters. Results show that the inclusion of chlorophyll a concentration to an empirical model otherwise employing only temperature and salinity variables, offers improved predictive capability for modeling the likelihood of V. parahaemolyticus in the Great Bay Estuary.

  14. Interplay between heritability of smoking and environmental conditions? A comparison of two birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vink Jacqueline M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attitudes and policy towards smoking changed over the past years in many countries including the Netherlands. Generally, this led to a decrease in smoking prevalence. As demonstrated in twin and family studies, individual differences in smoking behavior are partly influenced by genetic factors. We explore whether the current change in environmental conditions has influenced the genetic architecture of smoking. This would constitute evidence for Gene × Environment (G×E interaction. Methods Data on smoking were available from 2 cohorts of young adult twins (18-25 year registered with the Netherlands Twin Register. The first cohort completed a survey in 1993-1995 (n = 2669 and the second in 2009-2010 (n = 2339. Prevalence and genetic architecture of smoking were compared across cohorts using structural equation models in MX. Results Smoking prevalence decreased from 40-51% to 22-23% between 1993-1995 and 2009-2010. Genetic analyses, making use of the different genetic resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins, showed that the heritability was the same in both cohorts. Conclusions The change in policy and smoking attitudes that led to a decrease in prevalence of smoking did not change the heritability of smoking and thus no evidence was found for GxE interaction.

  15. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokman Hakim Ismail

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than conventional designed ones, when situated in a tropical climate such as that in Malaysia. The paper describes a number of case studies which compare Malaysian bioclimatic and conventional building using indoor environmental parameter criteria such as air temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. Building energy index for both types of buildings is presented to illustrate the real energy savings in both types of buildings. The major finding of this work is that, the bioclimatic buildings offering a more comfortable indoor environment, increase satisfaction and show an improvement in energy saving.

  16. Environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas generated by impact of energetic particle fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Directional flows of energetic ions produced by laser-exploded foils were used to investigate transient phenomena accompanying the plasma interaction with surfaces of solid targets (walls). In experiments carried out on the iodine laser system PALS, the formation of energetic plasma jets from burn-through foils of Al and Ta was optimized using the three-frame interferometry and applied to a design of alternate experimental configurations. The interaction of the directional plasma flows with secondary targets was studied via X-ray imaging, optical and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. The environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas created at surfaces of plasma-exposed solids, in particular the velocity distribution of impinging and back-scattered ions, were determined via analysis of the observed spatially-resolved spectra of Al Lyα and Hea groups. The validity of the ion velocity gradients derived from the Doppler effect induced shifts and splitting of the spectral lines was supported by theoretical modeling based on a combination of hydrodynamic, atomic and collisional-radiative codes. (authors)

  17. Dependence of polarization mode dispersion of slotted core NZDF ribbon on cable design and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlik, Sait Eser; Yilmaz, Gunes

    2006-09-01

    Non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF) ribbon cable has recently become a considerable alternative in long-haul high-speed network construction. Since long-distance high-bit rate transmission requires low polarization mode dispersion (PMD), it is very important to know the PMD performance of this type of optical fiber cables. In this paper, we report experimental analysis of effects of the cable design and environmental parameters, in particular ribbon thickness, positions of fibers in the ribbon, flexing and vibration, on PMD performances of several slotted-core fiber ribbon cables. Results show that ribbon thickness and positions of fibers in the ribbon alter the PMD values of NZDF ribbon cables. Also, 23% and 11% PMD variations have been determined in flexing and vibration experiments, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that vibration amplitude has significant effects and vibration frequency has little effects (14% and 6% variations, respectively) on fiber PMD. Results are important for understanding effects of installation conditions and wind, especially for aerial fibers, on PMD values of cables.

  18. Variability of 40K isotopic composition in forest soils under different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopotassium isotopic composition (40K/K, %) of several forest soils did not show a constant value of generally known 1.17 × 10-2 %, but they were varied significantly from 0.4 × 10-2 to 1.3 × 10-2 % at different locations under different environmental conditions. Surface portion of a soil (2-4 cm in depth) gave always lower 40K/K values compared with those of deeper soil layer (35-40 cm in depth). Ion exchange of K+ with NH4+ did not affects the 40K/K value in any soils, which revealed with chemical leaching experiments in the laboratory. Some plant species showed much lower 40K/K values than those in the surface soil. Possible reasons for varying 40K/K values obtained in this study may result from a dynamic behavior of potassium in soil, probably due to biological activity including root uptake and decomposing soil organic matter by microorganisms in the forest floor. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  20. Scottish Passive House: Insights into Environmental Conditions in Monitored Passive Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Foster

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and sustainability legislation in recent years has led to significant changes in construction approaches in the UK housing sector. This has resulted in the adoption of new building typologies, including the German Passivhaus (Passive House standard. This standard aims to improve occupant comfort and energy efficiency, potentially changing the ways in which homes operate and how occupants interact with them. With increasing construction of low energy dwellings, there is an emerging gap in knowledge in relation to occupant health and wellbeing, thermal comfort, and indoor air quality (IAQ. Using data collected from a two year Building Performance Evaluation (BPE study funded by Innovate UK, the environmental data (temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide concentrations from five Certified Passive House homes in Scotland was compared. The results demonstrate problems with overheating with peak temperatures exceeding 30 °C. Imbalanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR systems were identified in 80% of the dwellings and inadequate IAQ was found due to poor ventilation. Only one of the Passive Houses studied exhibited thermal conditions and IAQ which were, on the whole within Passive House parameters. This paper outlines the insights and the main issues of Scottish Passive House in the broader context of sustainability.

  1. Risk perception and environmental health concerns in conditions of social security threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: this study explores the connection between the perception of different societal risk, health concerns and behavioral attitudes of people in condition of social security threat. Two small and two big industrial towns were chosen in order to observe the social and psychological price of the structural changes in the industry such as unemployment and its reflection on the households and the individuals' social attitudes. Key stakeholders were interviewed and questionnaire survey was carried out. The results showed high level of risk sensitivity and health concerns when people felt threatened by lack of social and economic security. The pollution was found to be important problem when it caused direct and obvious risk to human health and the environment. In the same time reverse environmental behavior like insensitiveness and neglectful attitude was observed in cases when the health consequences of the pollution were perceived to be unclear and with delayed effect. In situation of a great socio-economic threat noninvolvement helped the individuals to adapt. The research proved the influence of several risk characteristics on risk perception. It was found a connection between the risk perception and risk controllability, voluntariness of exposure and cost/benefits distribution. In the study areas respondents' judgments on these characteristics reflected directly their social status and material state. The study presented here is in progress - it i's supported by research grant from Open Society Foundation. (author)

  2. Hydrogen gas sensing feature of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite at environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milani Moghaddam, Hossain, E-mail: hossainmilani@yahoo.com [Solid State Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nasirian, Shahruz [Solid State Physics Department, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Basic Sciences Department, Mazandaran University of Science and Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite (TPNC) was synthesized by a chemical oxidative polymerization method. • Surface morphology and titania (rutile) wt% in TPNC sensors were significant factors for H{sub 2} gas sensing. • TPNC sensors could be used for H{sub 2} gas sensing at different R.H. humidity. • TPNC Sensors exhibited considerable sensitive, reversible and repeatable response to H{sub 2} gas at environmental conditions. - Abstract: The resistance-based sensors of polyaniline/titania (rutile) nanocomposite (TPNC) were prepared by spin coating technique onto an epoxy glass substrate with Cu-interdigited electrodes to study their hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas sensing features. Our findings are that the change of the surface morphology, porosity and wt% of titania in TPNCs have a significant effect on H{sub 2} gas sensing of sensors. All of the sensors had a reproducibility response toward 0.8 vol% H{sub 2} gas at room temperature, air pressure and 50% relative humidity. A sensor with 40 wt% of titania nanoparticles had better response/recovery time and the response than other sensors. Moreover, H{sub 2} gas sensing mechanism of TPNC sensors based contact areas and the correlation of energy levels between PANI chains and the titania grains were studied.

  3. Does prolactin mediate parental and life-history decisions in response to environmental conditions in birds? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelier, Frédéric; Wingfield, John C; Tartu, Sabrina; Chastel, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Parental Care". In vertebrates, adjustments of physiology and behavior to environmental changes are often mediated by central physiological mechanisms, and more specifically by hormonal mechanisms. As a consequence, these mechanisms are thought to orchestrate life-history decisions in wild vertebrates. For instance, investigating the hormonal regulation of parental behavior is relevant to evaluate how parents modulate their effort according to specific environmental conditions. Surprisingly and despite being classically known as the 'parental hormone', prolactin has been overlooked in birds relative to this context. Our aim is to review evidence that changes in prolactin levels can mediate, at least to some extent, the response of breeding birds to environmental conditions. To do so, we first examine current evidence and limits for the role of prolactin in mediating parental behavior in birds. Second, we emphasize the influence of environmental conditions and stressors on circulating prolactin levels. In addition, we review to what extent prolactin levels are a reliable predictor of breeding success in wild birds. By linking environmental conditions, prolactin regulation, parental behavior, and breeding success, we highlight the potential role of this hormone in mediating parental decisions in birds. Finally, we also review the potential role of prolactin in mediating other life history decisions such as clutch size, re-nesting, and the timing of molt. By evaluating the influence of stressors on circulating prolactin levels during these other life-history decisions, we also raise new hypotheses regarding the potential of the prolactin stress response to regulate the orchestration of the annual cycle when environmental changes occur. To sum up, we show in this review that prolactin regulation has a strong potential to allow ecological physiologists to better understand how individuals adjust their life-history decisions

  4. Scientists Trace Adversity's Toll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2012-01-01

    The stress of a spelling bee or a challenging science project can enhance a student's focus and promote learning. But the stress of a dysfunctional or unstable home life can poison a child's cognitive ability for a lifetime, according to new research. Those studies show that stress forms the link between childhood adversity and poor academic…

  5. Environmental factors and habitat use influence body condition of individuals in a species at risk, the grizzly bear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Mathieu L; Nelson, Trisalyn A; Cattet, Marc R L; Darimont, Chris T; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Janz, David M

    2014-01-01

    Metrics used to quantify the condition or physiological states of individuals provide proactive mechanisms for understanding population dynamics in the context of environmental factors. Our study examined how anthropogenic disturbance, habitat characteristics and hair cortisol concentrations interpreted as a sex-specific indicator of potential habitat net-energy demand affect the body condition of grizzly bears (n = 163) in a threatened population in Alberta, Canada. We quantified environmental variables by modelling spatial patterns of individual habitat use based on global positioning system telemetry data. After controlling for gender, age and capture effects, we assessed the influence of biological and environmental variables on body condition using linear mixed-effects models in an information theoretical approach. Our strongest model suggested that body condition was improved when patterns of habitat use included greater vegetation productivity, increased influence of forest harvest blocks and oil and gas well sites, and a higher percentage of regenerating and coniferous forest. However, body condition was negatively affected by habitat use in close proximity to roads and in areas where potential energetic demands were high. Poor body condition was also associated with increased selection of parks and protected areas and greater seasonal vegetation productivity. Adult females, females with cubs-of-year, juvenile females and juvenile males were in poorer body condition compared with adult males, suggesting that intra-specific competition and differences in habitat use based on gender and age may influence body condition dynamics. Habitat net-energy demand also tended to be higher in areas used by females which, combined with observed trends in body condition, could affect reproductive success in this threatened population. Our results highlight the importance of considering spatiotemporal variability in environmental factors and habitat use when assessing

  6. Abundance of broad bacterial Taxa in the Sargasso Sea explained by environmental conditions but not water mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöstedt, Johanna; Martiny, Jennifer Bellanca Hughes; Munk, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    To explore the potential linkage between distribution of marine bacterioplankton groups, environmental conditions, and water mass, we investigated the factors determining the abundance of bacterial taxa across the hydrographically complex Subtropical Convergence Zone in the Sargasso Sea. Based...... of Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and picoalgae were determined by flow cytometry. Linear multiple-regression models determining the relative effects of eight environmental variables and of water mass explained 35 to 86% of the variation in abundance of the quantified taxa, even though only one to three variables...... the Sargasso Sea using only a few environmental parameters....

  7. Feasibility of Fiber Bragg Grating and Long-Period Fiber Grating Sensors under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the feasibility of utilizing fiber Bragg grating (FBG and long-period fiber grating (LPFG sensors for nondestructive evaluation (NDE of infrastructures using Portland cement concretes and asphalt mixtures for temperature, strain, and liquid-level monitoring. The use of hybrid FBG and LPFG sensors is aimed at utilizing the advantages of two kinds of fiber grating to implement NDE for monitoring strains or displacements, temperatures, and water-levels of infrastructures such as bridges, pavements, or reservoirs for under different environmental conditions. Temperature fluctuation and stability tests were examined using FBG and LPFG sensors bonded on the surface of asphalt and concrete specimens. Random walk coefficient (RWC and bias stability (BS were used for the first time to indicate the stability performance of fiber grating sensors. The random walk coefficients of temperature variations between FBG (or LPFG sensor and a thermocouple were found in the range of −0.7499 °C/ to −1.3548 °C/. In addition, the bias stability for temperature variations, during the fluctuation and stability tests with FBG (or LPFG sensors were within the range of 0.01 °C/h with a 15–18 h time cluster to 0.09 °C/h with a 3–4 h time cluster. This shows that the performance of FBG or LPFG sensors is comparable with that of conventional high-resolution thermocouple sensors under rugged conditions. The strain measurement for infrastructure materials was conducted using a packaged FBG sensor bonded on the surface of an asphalt specimen under indirect tensile loading conditions. A finite element modeling (FEM was applied to compare experimental results of indirect tensile FBG strain measurements. For a comparative analysis between experiment and simulation, the FEM numerical results agreed with those from FBG strain measurements. The results of the liquid-level sensing tests show the LPFG-based sensor could discriminate five stationary liquid

  8. Learning from adverse incidents involving medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoore, John; Ingram, Paula

    While an adverse event involving a medical device is often ascribed to either user error or device failure, the causes are typically multifactorial. A number of incidents involving medical devices are explored using this approach to investigate the various causes of the incident and the protective barriers that minimised or prevented adverse consequences. User factors, including mistakes, omissions and lack of training, conspired with background factors--device controls and device design, storage conditions, hidden device damage and physical layout of equipment when in use--to cause the adverse events. Protective barriers that prevented or minimised the consequences included staff vigilance, operating procedures and alarms. PMID:12715578

  9. Genomic sweep and potential genetic rescue during limiting environmental conditions in an isolated wolf population

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Jennifer R.; Vucetich, Leah M.; Hedrick, Philip W.; Rolf O Peterson; Vucetich, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic rescue, in which the introduction of one or more unrelated individuals into an inbred population results in the reduction of detrimental genetic effects and an increase in one or more vital rates, is a potentially important management tool for mitigating adverse effects of inbreeding. We used molecular techniques to document the consequences of a male wolf (Canis lupus) that immigrated, on its own, across Lake Superior ice to the small, inbred wolf population in Isle Royale National P...

  10. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE BAIA MARE AREA METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS IN THE LAST 5 YEARS WITH HELP OF ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cioruţa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ever since “the environment” gained its place in the public international agenda (environmental legislation, sustainable development or disaster and hazard management it has been bundled with data, information, knowledge and information systems. Environmental Monitoring Systems (EMSs, Environmental Monitoring and Analyzing Systems (EMASs and especially Environmental Information Systems (EISs are integrated part of what we call Environmental Informatics (EI platform.In this context, as we speak, the are of EI is becoming more complex due to the current context and trend of making the EISs available to the public and end-users access; this phenomena is based on the assumption that public and environmental information end-users awareness, participation and acting is improved by the rate of access to the environmental information to solve the complex problematic covered by the research, engineering and environmental protection fields. The aim of the present paper is to introduce and describe an innovative possibilities of forecasting and monitoring the environment meteorological specific conditions in Baia Mare urban area using a specialized EISs software.

  11. Evidence for density-dependent changes in body condition and pregnancy rate of North Atlantic fin whales over four decades of varying environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Robert; Vikingsson, Gisli A.; Gislason, Astthor; Lockyer, Christina; New, Leslie; Thomas, Len; Hammond, Philip Steven

    2013-01-01

    A central theme in ecology is the search for pattern in the response of a species to changing environmental conditions. Natural resource management and endangered species conservation require an understanding of density-dependent and density-independent factors that regulate populations. Marine mammal populations are expected to express density dependence in the same way as terrestrial mammals, but logistical difficulties in data acquisition for many large whale species have hindered attempts...

  12. Environmental control integrated system for abnormal conditions of CNAAA-Angra-1 operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system of computer codes named NUCSICA (Calculation Nucleus of Environmental Control Integrated System) to be used in the Environmental Control Integrated System (SICA) and integrated to the supervision system of Safety Parameters (SSPS), is described. The system is based on a model compatible with local characteristics of Angra-I reactor, relating to micrometeorology, topography, population distribution and socio-economic activities. The model was constructed to foresee the environmental impact. (M.C.K.)

  13. Weeks Island brine diffuser site study: baseline conditions and environmental assessment technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-12

    This technical report presents the results of a study conducted at two alternative brine diffuser sites (A and B) proposed for the Weeks Island salt dome, together with an analysis of the potential physical, chemical, and biological effects of brine disposal for this area of the Gulf of Mexico. Brine would result from either the leaching of salt domes to form or enlarge oil storage caverns, or the subsequent use of these caverns for crude oil storage in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program. Brine leached from the Weeks Island salt dome would be transported through a pipeline which would extend from the salt dome either 27 nautical miles (32 statute miles) for Site A, or 41 nautical miles (47 statute miles) for Site B, into Gulf waters. The brine would be discharged at these sites through an offshore diffuser at a sustained peak rate of 39 ft/sup 3//sec. The disposal of large quantities of brine in the Gulf could have a significant impact on the biology and water quality of the area. Physical and chemical measurements of the marine environment at Sites A and B were taken between September 1977 and July 1978 to correlate the existing environmental conditions with the estimated physical extent of tthe brine discharge as predicted by the MIT model (US Dept. of Commerce, 1977a). Measurements of wind, tide, waves, currents, and stratification (water column structure) were also obtained since the diffusion and dispersion of the brine plume are a function of the local circulation regime. These data were used to calculate both near- and far-field concentrations of brine, and may also be used in the design criteria for diffuser port configuration and verification of the plume model. Biological samples were taken to characterize the sites and to predict potential areas of impact with regard to the discharge. This sampling focused on benthic organisms and demersal fish. (DMC)

  14. Nitrogen fertilizer influence on wheat yield and use efficiency under different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Mandic

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Managing N inputs in wheat production systems is an important issue in order to achieve máximum profitable production, and minimum negative environmental impact. The aim of this investigation carried out in dry land farming in the Vojvodina province (Serbia was to estimate the effects of different N fertilization levels (0, 75, and 150 kg N ha-1 on some quantitative traits, rain-use efficiency (RUE, N agronomic efficiency (NAE, and N use efficiency (NUE in two Serbian winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars 'Pobeda' and 'Renesansa'. 'Pobeda' had higher grain yield (4437 kg ha-1 and RUE (8.32 kg ha-1 mm-1 than 'Renesansa' (4265 kg ha-1 and 8 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Grain yield (4652 kg ha-1 and NUE (31.46 kg kg-1 N were higher in the 2010-2011 season (favorable weather conditions than in the 2011-2012 (4050 kg ha-1 and 27.59 kg kg-1 N, respectively. The highly significant effect on grain yield (4396 and 4494 kg ha-1, RUE (8.24 and 8.45 kg ha-1 mm-1, NAE (3.11 and 2.21 kg kg-1 N and NUE (58.62 and 29.96 kg kg-1 N had levels of 75 and 150 kg N ha-1. NAE and NUE declined at high N rates. Based on the results of this study, farmers should be advised that the use of large amounts of N increases production costs and reduce the economic benefits. The increase in wheat production is possible by selecting adapted genotypes with improved NUE.

  15. Infrared Spectroscopy of Pollen Identifies Plant Species and Genus as Well as Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Kohler, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Background It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. Methodology The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids). Results The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities. PMID:24748390

  16. Growth conditions and environmental factors impact aerosolization but not virulence of Francisella tularensis infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth eFaith

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In refining methodology to develop a mouse model for inhalation of Francisella tularensis, it was noted that both relative humidity and growth media impacted the aerosol concentration of the live vaccine strain (LVS of F. tularensis. A relative humidity of less than 55% had a negative impact on the spray factor, the ratio between the concentration of LVS in the aerosol and the nebulizer. The spray factor was significantly higher for LVS grown in brain heart infusion (BHI broth than LVS grown in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHb or Chamberlain’s Chemically Defined Medium (CCDM. The variability between aerosol exposures was also considerably less with BHI. LVS grown in BHI survived desiccation far longer than MHb-grown or CCDM-grown LVS (~70% at 20 minutes for BHI compared to <50% for MHb and CCDM. Removal of the capsule by hypertonic treatment impacted the spray factor for CCDM-grown LVS or MHb-grown LVS but not BHI-grown LVS, suggesting the choice of culture media altered the adherence of the capsule to the cell membrane. The choice of growth media did not impact the LD50 of LVS but the LD99 of BHI-grown LVS was 1 log lower than that for MHb-grown LVS or CCDM-grown LVS. Splenomegaly was prominent in mice that succumbed to MHb- and BHI-grown LVS but not CCDM-grown LVS. Environmental factors and growth conditions should be evaluated when developing new animal models for aerosol infection, particularly for vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  17. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantripragada, Venkata P. [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614-5807 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. - Highlights: • Coacervation chitosan microparticles were biocompatible and biodegradable. • IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency increased with coacervation chitosan microparticles. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast attachment and differentiation. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast mineralization.

  18. Spatial structuring of an evolving life-history strategy under altered environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegg, Jens C; Kennedy, Brian P; Chittaro, Paul M; Zabel, Richard W

    2013-08-01

    Human disturbances to ecosystems have created challenges to populations worldwide, forcing them to respond phenotypically in ways that increase their fitness under current conditions. One approach to examining population responses to disturbance in species with complex life histories is to study species that exhibit spatial patterns in their phenotypic response across populations or demes. In this study, we investigate a threatened population of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Snake River of Idaho, in which a significant fraction of the juvenile population have been shown to exhibit a yearling out-migration strategy which had not previously been thought to exist. It has been suggested that dam-related environmental changes may have altered the selective pressures experienced by out-migrating fall chinook, driving evolution of a later and more selectively advantageous migration strategy. Using isotopic analysis of otoliths from returning adult spawners, we reconstructed the locations of individual fish at three major juvenile life stages to determine if the representation of the yearling life history was geographically structured within the population. We reconstructed juvenile locations for natal, rearing and overwintering life stages in each of the major spawning areas in the basin. Our results indicate that the yearling life-history strategy is predominantly represented within one of the main spawning regions, the Clearwater River, rather than being distributed throughout the basin. Previous studies have shown the Clearwater River to have cooler temperatures, later hatch dates, and later outmigration of juveniles, indicating a link between environment and expression of the yearling life history. Our data suggest that this new yearling life history may be disproportionally represented in returning adult spawners, indicating selection for this life history within the population.

  19. Concrete Durability in Harsh Environmental Conditions Exposed to Freeze Thaw Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamze, Youssef

    Under line Pathology of Materials; one of the environmental causes of damage effects on concrete is freeze thaw cycles, which deteriorate the concrete exposed to water in cold weather. An example of old concrete is a dam project that was built in Canada, in the early 1909-1913. This project was reconstructed in 1932, 1934 and 1972, and required renovation due to the ice abrasion with the freeze/thaw cycles. Before completing any renovation, it is required to analyze the structural stability and the concrete failures of this dam. An investigation was conducted to determine the quality of the concrete in the Piers and in the Bridge Deck Slab. It was also required to determine the basic materials' properties that constitute this project. This will improve the analysis of its stability [10]. Core samples were examined and used as test samples, for the Alkali-Silica reactivity test samples, as well as the compressive strength test, the Chloride Ion test, and the freeze thaw testing which was performed on two sets of 12 concrete core samples that were taken from different locations in the project. These locations are the representations of the age of the concrete. Thus, the age difference between the samples' two sets is four decades. Testing was performed on prisms cut from cores. ASTM C-666 procedure (A) was applied using an automatic test system [6]. It was suggested that a plan for renovation of this project should be performed after the analysis is undertaken to assess the conditions estimating the remaining life of the concrete in this project [15].

  20. Incidence of exercise-induced asthma in adolescent athletes under different training and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidiropoulou, Maria P; Kokaridas, Dimitrios G; Giagazoglou, Paraskevi F; Karadonas, Michalis I; Fotiadou, Eleni G

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish if there were differences in the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm between athletes in different sports, which take place under different environmental conditions such as open places, closed courses, and swimming pools with similar exercise intensity (football, basketball, water polo) using the free running test. The study included 90 adolescents (3 groups of 30) aged 14-18 years recruited from academies in northern Greece. All the participants were initially subjected to (a) a clinical examination and cardiorespiratory assessment by a physician and (b) free running test of a 6-minute duration and measurement with a microspirometer of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁). Only the participants who had measured a decrease in FEV₁ ≥ 10% were reevaluated with the microspirometer during a training session. The examination of all the participants during the free running test showed that 22 athletes, that is, 9, 8, and 5 of football, basketball, and water polo athletes, respectively, demonstrated an FEV₁ ≥ 10 drop. Reevaluation of the 22 participants during training showed that 5 out 9 (55%) football athletes, 4 out of 8 basketball athletes (50%), and none of the 5 athletes of the water polo team displayed a drop of FEV₁ ≥ 10%. Despite the absence of any significant statistical differences between the 3 groups, the analysis of variances did show a trend of a lower incidence of EIA in the water polo athletes. It was found that a football or basketball game can induce EIA in young athletes but to a lesser degree than the free running test can induce. The water polo can be a safer sport even for participants with a medical history of asthma or allergies. PMID:21912293

  1. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO3, NaCl, NaF, and Na2SO4 were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO3− and Cl− could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F− and SO42− highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10−20 and 2.29 × 10−20 J−1, respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO3, NaCl, NaF, and Na2SO4 systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred

  2. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wenxiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C were>64 d, 30.5 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64 d at 4 °C, 27.9 d at 25 °C and 4.5d at 40 °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7 d and 6.8 d, respectively, compared with 9.7 d and 14.4 d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5 d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4 d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  3. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianguo; Xu, Ying; Wang, Wenxiong; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4 °C, 25 °C and 40 °C were>64 d, 30.5 d and 3.9 d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64 d at 4 °C, 27.9 d at 25 °C and 4.5d at 40 °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7 d and 6.8 d, respectively, compared with 9.7 d and 14.4 d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5 d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4 d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry. PMID:25460745

  4. Infrared spectroscopy of pollen identifies plant species and genus as well as environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is imperative to have reliable and timely methodologies for analysis and monitoring of seed plants in order to determine climate-related plant processes. Moreover, impact of environment on plant fitness is predominantly based on studies of female functions, while the contribution of male gametophytes is mostly ignored due to missing data on pollen quality. We explored the use of infrared spectroscopy of pollen for an inexpensive and rapid characterization of plants. METHODOLOGY: The study was based on measurement of pollen samples by two Fourier transform infrared techniques: single reflectance attenuated total reflectance and transmission measurement of sample pellets. The experimental set, with a total of 813 samples, included five pollination seasons and 300 different plant species belonging to all principal spermatophyte clades (conifers, monocotyledons, eudicots, and magnoliids. RESULTS: The spectroscopic-based methodology enables detection of phylogenetic variations, including the separation of confamiliar and congeneric species. Furthermore, the methodology enables measurement of phenotypic plasticity by the detection of inter-annual variations within the populations. The spectral differences related to environment and taxonomy are interpreted biochemically, specifically variations of pollen lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sporopollenins. The study shows large variations of absolute content of nutrients for congenital species pollinating in the same environmental conditions. Moreover, clear correlation between carbohydrate-to-protein ratio and pollination strategy has been detected. Infrared spectral database with respect to biochemical variation among the range of species, climate and biogeography will significantly improve comprehension of plant-environment interactions, including impact of global climate change on plant communities.

  5. Effect of Plant Species and Environmental Conditions on Ice Nucleation Activity of Pseudomonas syringae on Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'brien, R D; Lindow, S E

    1988-09-01

    Selected plant species and environmental conditions were investigated for their influences on expression of ice nucleation activity by 15 Pseudomonas syringae strains grown on plants in constant-temperature growth chamber studies. Ice nucleation frequencies (INFs), the fraction of cells that expressed ice nucleation at -5 or -9 degrees C, of individual strains varied greatly, both on plants and in culture. This suggests that the probability of frost injury, which is proportional to the number of ice nuclei on leaf surfaces, is strongly determined by the particular bacterial strains that are present on a leaf surface. The INFs of strains were generally higher when they were grown on plants than when they were grown in culture. In addition, INFs in culture did not correlate closely with INFs on plants, suggesting that frost injury prediction should be based on INF measurements of cells grown on plants rather than in culture. The relative INFs of individual strains varied with plant host and environment. However, none of seven plant species tested optimized the INFs of all 15 strains. Similarly, incubation for 48 h at near 100% relative humidity with short photoperiods did not always decrease the INF when compared with a 72 h, 40% relative humidity, long-photoperiod incubation. Pathogenic strains on susceptible hosts were not associated with higher or lower INFs relative to their INFs on nonsusceptible plant species. The ice nucleation activity of individual bacterial strains on plants therefore appears to be controlled by complex and interacting factors such as strain genotype, environment, and host plant species. PMID:16347741

  6. Degradation kinetics of a potent antifouling agent, butenolide, under various environmental conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Lianguo

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Here, we investigated the degradation kinetics of butenolide, a promising antifouling compound, under various environmental conditions. The active ingredient of the commercial antifoulant SeaNine 211, 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOIT), was used as positive control. The results showed that the degradation rate increased with increasing temperature. Half-lives of butenolide at 4. °C, 25. °C and 40. °C were. >64. d, 30.5. d and 3.9. d, respectively. Similar half-lives were recorded for DCOIT: >64. d at 4. °C, 27.9. d at 25. °C and 4.5. d at 40. °C. Exposure to sunlight accelerated the degradation of both butenolide and DCOIT. The photolysis half-lives of butenolide and DCOIT were 5.7. d and 6.8. d, respectively, compared with 9.7. d and 14.4. d for the dark control. Biodegradation led to the fastest rate of butenolide removal from natural seawater, with a half-life of 0.5. d, while no obvious degradation was observed for DCOIT after incubation for 4. d. The biodegradative ability of natural seawater for butenolide was attributed mainly to marine bacteria. During the degradation of butenolide and DCOIT, a gradual decrease in antifouling activity was observed, as indicated by the increased settlement percentage of cypris larvae from barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Besides, increased cell growth of marine diatom Skeletonema costatum demonstrated that the toxicity of seawater decreased gradually without generation of more toxic by-products. Overall, rapid degradation of butenolide in natural seawater supported its claim as a promising candidate for commercial antifouling industry.

  7. IGF-1 release kinetics from chitosan microparticles fabricated using environmentally benign conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study is to maximize growth factor encapsulation efficiency into microparticles. The novelty of this study is to maximize the encapsulated growth factors into microparticles by minimizing the use of organic solvents and using relatively low temperatures. The microparticles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer as a base polymer and cross-linked with tripolyphosphate (TPP). Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was encapsulated into microparticles to study release kinetics and bioactivity. In order to authenticate the harms of using organic solvents like hexane and acetone during microparticle preparation, IGF-1 encapsulated microparticles prepared by the emulsification and coacervation methods were compared. The microparticles fabricated by emulsification method have shown a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency, and cumulative release during the two-week period. The biocompatibility of chitosan microparticles and the bioactivity of the released IGF-1 were determined in vitro by live/dead viability assay. The mineralization data observed with von Kossa assay, was supported by mRNA expression levels of osterix and runx2, which are transcription factors necessary for osteoblasts differentiation. Real time RT-PCR data showed an increased expression of runx2 and a decreased expression of osterix over time, indicating differentiating osteoblasts. Chitosan microparticles prepared in optimum environmental conditions are a promising controlled delivery system for cells to attach, proliferate, differentiate and mineralize, thereby acting as a suitable bone repairing material. - Highlights: • Coacervation chitosan microparticles were biocompatible and biodegradable. • IGF-1 encapsulation efficiency increased with coacervation chitosan microparticles. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast attachment and differentiation. • Coacervation chitosan microparticles support osteoblast mineralization

  8. The effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Scaramal da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenanthracene is a highly toxic organic compound capable of contaminating water and soils, and biodegradation is an important tool for remediating polluted environments. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trace elements, cations, and environmental conditions on the activity of the protocatechol 3,4-dioxygenase (P3,4O enzyme produced by the isolate Leifsonia sp. in cell-free and immobilized extracts. The isolate was grown in Luria Bertani broth medium (LB amended with 250 mg L-1 of phenanthrene. Various levels of pH (4.0-9.0, temperature (5-80 °C, time (0-90 min, trace elements (Cu2+, Hg2+ and Fe3+, and cations (Mg2+, Mn2+, K+ and NH4+ were tested to determine which conditions optimized enzyme activity. In general, the immobilized extract exhibited higher enzyme activity than the cell-free extract in the presence of trace elements and cations. Adding iron yielded the highest relative activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 16 and 99 %, respectively. Copper also increased enzyme activity for both cell-free and immobilized extracts, with values of 8 and 44 %, respectively. Enzyme activity in the phosphate buffer was high across a wide range of pH, reaching 80 % in the pH range between 6.5 and 8.0. The optimum temperatures for enzyme activity differed for cell-free and immobilized extracts, with maximum enzyme activity observed at 35 ºC for the cell-free extract and at 55 ºC for the immobilized extract. The cell-free extract of the P3,4O enzyme exhibited high activity only during the first 3 min of incubation, when it showed 50 % relative activity, and dropped to 0 % after 60 min of incubation. By contrast, activity in the immobilized extract was maintained during 90 min of incubation. This isolate has important characteristics for phenanthrene biodegradation, producing high quantities of the P3,4O enzyme that forms part of the most important pathway for PAH biodegradation.

  9. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  10. Fine-scale spatial variation in plant species richness and its relationship to environmental conditions in coastal marshlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, J.E.; Meche, G.C.; Cardona-Olarte, P.P.; Castaneda-Moya, E.; Chiasson, R.L.; Geddes, N.A.; Schile, L.M.; Wang, H.G.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Grace, J.B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that variations in environmental conditions play a major role in explaining variations in plant species richness at community and landscape scales. In this study, we considered the degree to which fine-scale spatial variations in richness could be related to fine-scale variations in abiotic and biotic factors. To examine spatial variation in richness, grids of 1 m(2) plots were laid out at five sites within a coastal riverine wetland landscape. At each site, a 5 x 7 array of plots was established adjacent to the river's edge with plots one meter apart. In addition to the estimation of species richness, environmental measurements included sediment salinity, plot microelevation, percent of plot recently disturbed, and estimated community biomass. Our analysis strategy was to combine the use of structural equation modeling (path modeling) with an assessment of spatial association. Mantel's tests revealed significant spatial autocorrelation in species richness at four of the five sites sampled, indicating that richness in a plot correlated with the richness of nearby plots. We subsequently considered the degree to which spatial autocorrelations in richness could be explained by spatial autocorrelations in environmental conditions. Once data were corrected for environmental correlations, spatial autocorrelation in residual species richness could not be detected at any site. Based on these results, we conclude that in this coastal wetland, there appears to be a fine-scale mapping of diversity to microgradients in environmental conditions.

  11. Adverse effects of benzodiazepines

    OpenAIRE

    Claire Gudex

    1990-01-01

    The growing realisation that the benzodiazepines have potential for causing serious harm has caused concern due to their wide and common use. This has stimulated interest in the costs and benefits of their use. This paper is a review of the adverse effects of benzodiazepines, and concentrates on four areas of particular concern: drug dependence which the consequent withdrawal symptoms; psychological effects while on the drugs; use by the elderly’ and tolerance to the drug effects. Although th...

  12. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature...

  13. Collateral Adverse Outcomes After Lumbar Spine Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Alan H; Gundle, Kenneth; Hart, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Collateral adverse outcomes are the expected or unavoidable results of a procedure that is performed in a standard manner and typically experienced by the patient. Collateral adverse outcomes do not result from errors, nor are they rare. Collateral adverse outcomes occur as the direct result of a surgical procedure and must be accepted as a trade-off to attain the intended benefits of the surgical procedure. As such, collateral adverse outcomes do not fit into the traditional definition of a complication or adverse event. Examples of collateral adverse outcomes after lumbar spine arthrodesis include lumbar stiffness, postoperative psychological stress, postoperative pain, peri-incisional numbness, paraspinal muscle denervation, and adjacent-level degeneration. Ideally, a comparison of interventions for the treatment of a clinical condition should include information on both the negative consequences (expected and unexpected) and potential benefits of the treatment options. The objective evaluation and reporting of collateral adverse outcomes will provide surgeons with a more complete picture of invasive interventions and, thus, the improved ability to assess alternative treatment options. PMID:27049197

  14. Impact of environmental conditions on aggregation kinetics of hematite and goethite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chen-yang, E-mail: cyxu@issas.ac.cn; Deng, Kai-ying; Li, Jiu-yu, E-mail: jyli@issas.ac.cn; Xu, Ren-kou, E-mail: rkxu@issas.ac.cn [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science (China)

    2015-10-15

    Hematite and goethite nanoparticles were used as model minerals to investigate their aggregation kinetics under soil environmental conditions in the present study. The hydrodynamic diameters of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were 34.4 and 66.3 nm, respectively. The positive surface charges and zeta potential values for goethite were higher than for hematite. The effective diameter for goethite was much larger than for hematite due to anisotropic sticking of needle-shaped goethite during aggregation. Moreover, the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values of nanoparticles in solutions of NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} were 79.2, 75.0, 7.8, and 0.5 mM for hematite and they were 54.7, 62.6, 5.5, and 0.2 mM for goethite, respectively. The disparity of anions in inducing hematite or goethite aggregation lay in the differences in interfacial interactions. NO{sub 3}{sup −} and Cl{sup −} could decrease the zeta potential and enhance aggregation mainly through increasing ionic strength and compressing electric double layers of hematite and goethite nanoparticles. F{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} highly destabilized the suspensions of nanoparticles mainly through specific adsorption and then neutralizing the positive surface charges of nanoparticles. Specific adsorption of cations could increase positive surface charges and stabilize hematite and goethite nanoparticles. The Hamaker constants of hematite and goethite nanoparticles were calculated to be 2.87 × 10{sup −20} and 2.29 × 10{sup −20} J{sup −1}, respectively. The predicted CCC values based on DLVO theory were consistent well with the experimentally determined CCC values in NaNO{sub 3}, NaCl, NaF, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} systems, which demonstrated that DLVO theory could successfully predict the aggregation kinetics even when specific adsorption of ions occurred.

  15. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Robert Rockwell,

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  16. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.

    2013-03-01

    model. The method can be also used to predict fatigue crack growth under constant amplitude and spectrum loading in various environmental conditions such as vacuum, air, and corrosive environment providing that appropriate limited constant amplitude fatigue crack growth data obtained in the same environment are available. The proposed methodology is equally suitable for fatigue analysis of smooth, notched, and cracked components.

  17. Considerations of Environmentally Relevant Test Conditions for Improved Evaluation of Ecological Hazards of Engineered Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly entering the environment with uncertain consequences including potential ecological effects. Various research communities view differently whether ecotoxicological testing of ENMs should be conducted using environmentally relevant ...

  18. THE ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY IN POPULATION DYNAMICS UNDER CHANGING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental variability can influence species distributions through changes in survival, fecundity, behavior, and metabolic activities. As worldwide coastal populations rise, the associated deforestation and development can increase both quantities and variability in runoff...

  19. Heteroaggregation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles with Model Natural Colloids under Environmentally Relevant Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Praetorius, Antonia; Labille, Jérôme; Scheringer, Martin; Thill, Antoine; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    International audience The heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with natural colloids (NCs), which are ubiquitous in natural surface waters, is a crucial process affecting the environmental transport and fate of ENPs. Attachment efficiencies for heteroaggregation, αhetero, are required as input parameters in environmental fate models to predict ENP concentrations and contribute to ENP risk assessment. Here, we present a novel method for determining αhetero values by using a...

  20. Evolution of Eutrophication depending on Environmental Conditions: A Case Study in a Reservoir.

    OpenAIRE

    Xana Álvarez; Enrique Valero; Juan Picos

    2014-01-01

    In the last years, the phenomenon of eutrophication is affecting many river ecosystems. Besides being an environmental problem, it can also be a problem for human health. This study aims to explore how environmental parameters affect the concentration of green algae and cyanobacteria throughout the period from 2010 to 2013 in A Baxe reservoir (NW Spain). Factors such as temperature, rainfall and solar radiation influenced in the presence of the algae, as well as in its concentration. Being li...

  1. Monitoring well-being and changing environmental conditions in coastal communities: development of an assessment method

    OpenAIRE

    Dillard, Maria K.; Goedeke, Theresa L.; Lovelace, Susan; Orthmeyer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    The intersection of social and environmental forces is complex in coastal communities. The well-being of a coastal community is caught up in the health of its environment, the stability of its economy, the provision of services to its residents, and a multitude of other factors. With this in mind, the project investigators sought to develop an approach that would enable researchers to measure these social and environmental interactions. The concept of well-being proved extremely useful for th...

  2. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  3. [Adverse events prevention ability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparo, Ugo Luigi; Aparo, Andrea

    2007-03-01

    The issue of how to address medical errors is the key to improve the health care system performances. Operational evidence collected in the last five years shows that the solution is only partially linked to future technological developments. Cultural and organisational changes are mandatory to help to manage and drastically reduce the adverse events in health care organisations. Classical management, merely based on coordination and control, is inadequate. Proactive, self-organising network based structures must be put in place and managed using adaptive, fast evolving management tools. PMID:17484160

  4. Diversity and composition of Trichoptera (Insecta larvae assemblages in streams with different environmental conditions at Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Henriques-Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The goal of this study is to examine the composition and richness of caddisfly assemblages in streams at the Serra da Bocaina Mountains, Southeastern Brazil, and to identify the main environmental variables, affecting caddisfly assemblages at the streams with different conditions of land use. Methods The sampling was conducted in 19 streams during September and October 2007. All sites were characterized physiographically by application of environmental assessment protocol to Atlantic Forest streams and by some physical and chemical parameters. Of the 19 streams sampled, six were classified as reference, six streams as intermediate (moderate anthropic impact and seven streams as poor (strong anthropic impact. In each site, a multi-habitat sampling was taken with a kick sampler net. The sample was composed by 20 units, each one corresponded to 1 m2 of collected substrate, corresponding 20 m2 of sampling area. The material was placed in a plastic container (500 µm of mesh, washed, homogenized and sub-sampled. For each stream, 6 subsamples were randomly sorted. Results Were collected 2,113 caddisfly larvae, belonging to 12 families and 28 genera. Hydropsychidae and Leptoceridae were the most abundant families, and Smicridea was the most abundant genus. Sorensen’s index results showed that the streams studied were grouped according to environmental integrity. The Indicator Species Analysis showed only characteristic taxa to reference streams. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that caddisfly assemblage was strongly influenced by nitrate concentration, pH and condition of riparian vegetation. Multiple regression analysis indicated significant correlations to five genera with some environmental parameters, besides total abundance of Trichoptera. Conclusions Ours results showed that degree of environmental impact, mainly the nitrate concentration, pH, and condition of cover vegetation acted as a major factor in determining the

  5. Effect of environmental conditions on production of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 by Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, A C; Bergdoll, M S

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) production by Staphylococcus aureus was studied in a fermentor in which aeration rate, atmospheric composition, pH, and temperature were controlled. The toxin was synthesized at a maximal rate during the exponential phase. High bacterial populations were not necessarily accompanied by high TSST-1 yields. Aerobiosis increased TSST-1 production, but excessive aeration had an adverse effect. Addition of CO2 enhanced TSST-1 yield by increasing toxin production rate and efficiency. Cultures with no pH control made more TSST-1 than those maintained at pH 5.5 to 7.5. Maximum TSST-1 yields were obtained when cultures were supplied with air (20 cm3/min) and CO2 (5 cm3/min) via a sintered glass sparger. PMID:2108084

  6. Condition of larval red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus) relative to environmental variability and the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, F. J., Jr.; Filbrun, J. E.; Fang, J.; Ransom, J. T.

    2016-09-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (DWHOS) spatially and temporally overlapped with the spawning of many fish species, including Red Snapper, one of the most economically important reef fish in the Gulf of Mexico. To investigate potential impacts of the DWHOS on larval Red Snapper, data from a long-term ichthyoplankton survey off the coast of Alabama were used to examine: (1) larval abundances among pre-impact (2007-2009), impact (2010), and post-impact (2011, 2013) periods; (2) proxies for larval condition (size-adjusted morphometric relationships and dry weight) among the same periods; and (3) the effects of background environmental variation on larval condition. We found that larval Red Snapper were in poorer body condition during 2010, 2011, and 2013 as compared to the 2007-2009 period, a trend that was strongly (and negatively) related to variation in Mobile Bay freshwater discharge. However, larvae collected during and after 2010 were in relatively poor condition even after accounting for variation in freshwater discharge and other environmental variables. By contrast, no differences in larval abundance were detected during these survey years. Taken together, larval supply did not change relative to the timing of the DWHOS, but larval condition was negatively impacted. Even small changes in condition can affect larval survival, so these trends may have consequences for recruitment of larvae to juvenile and adult life stages.

  7. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - Biological standard particles and the influence of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex; Förster, Jan-David; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    standard bioparticles (pollen, fungal spores, and bacteria) as well as atmospherically relevant chemical substances. We addressed the sensitivity and selectivity of autofluorescence based online techniques. Moreover, we investigated the influence of environmental conditions, such as relative humidity and oxidizing agents in the atmosphere, on the autofluorescence signature of standard bioparticles. Our results will support the molecular understanding and quantitative interpretation of data obtained by real-time FBAP instrumentation [5,6]. [1] Elbert, W., Taylor, P. E., Andreae, M. O., & Pöschl, U. (2007). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 4569-4588. [2] Huffman, J. A., Treutlein, B., & Pöschl, U. (2010). Atmos. Chem. Phys., 10, 3215-3233. [3] Pöschl, U., et al. (2010). Science, 329, 1513-1516. [4] Lakowicz, J., Principles of fluorescence spectroscopy, Plenum publishers, New York, 1999. [5] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., & Pöschl, U., (2012). Atmos. Meas. Tech., 5, 37-71. [6] Pöhlker, C., Huffman, J. A., Förster J.-D., & Pöschl, U., (2012) in preparation.

  8. How to improve housing conditions of laboratory animals: The possibilities of environmental refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumans, V.; Loo, P.L.P. van

    2013-01-01

    Housing systems for captive animals have often been designed on the basis of economic and ergonomic considerations, such as equipment, costs, space, workload, ability to observe the animals and to maintain a certain degree of hygiene, with little or no consideration for animal welfare. Environmental

  9. Sustainable development and quality of life : expected effects of prospective changes in economic and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlek, C; Skolnik, M; Gatersleben, B

    1998-01-01

    In the context of "sustainable development", we studied which attributes are important to people's quality of life (QoL) and which changes in QoL people would expect from future economic and environmental improvements or deteriorations. About 200 adult subjects evaluated the relative importance of 2

  10. Food for thought: conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Runhaar, P.R.; Oegema, T.

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses—frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world—act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-makin

  11. Food for thought: conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses—frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world—act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-makin

  12. The effect of environmental conditions on extracellular protease activity in controlled fermentations of Aspergillus niger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braaksma, M.; Smilde, A.K.; Werf, M.J. van der; Punt, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation by host proteases is one of the key issues in the application of filamentous fungi for non-fungal protein production. In this study the influence of several environmental factors on the production of extracellular proteases of Aspergillus niger was investigated systematically

  13. Characteristics of fruiting of Catalpa bignonioides under conditions of environmental pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. V. Leppik

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plantsbecame worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  14. CHARACTERISTICS OF FRUITING OF CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES UNDER CONDITIONS OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    М. V. Leppik

    2008-01-01

    Influence of the industrial air pollution on traits of Catalpa bignonioides Walt. fruiting has been studied. The fruiting quality of C. bignonioides plants became worse under environmental contamination by emissions of pipe factory and motor transport. The coefficient of fruiting was reduced owing to diminution of the fruits quantity. Moreover the dimensions and form of fruits changed.

  15. Conditions for the success of negotiated agreements: Partnerships for environmental improvement in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bressers, Hans; Bruijn, de Theo

    2005-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, Dutch environmental policy has built on close collaboration with industry, meaning: between industry on one side and governments on the other side. Through negotiations between sectors of industry, and the Ministry of the Environment and regional governments, agreements have be

  16. MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE DISPLACEMENTS OF A CONCRETE DAM WITH RESPECT TO THE ACTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Regina Oro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review of the concrete dam’s structural performance is a complex issue comprised of many dimensions. This article proposes a method to assist in monitoring the displacements of structures and foundations of dams, considering the action of environmental conditions. Multivariate techniques are used to analyze the data pendulums, extensometer bases and multiple rods extensometer, along with environmental variables of the concrete surface temperature, ambient temperature and the reservoir water level. Specifically applies to Canonical Correlation Analysis to evaluate the influence of environmental variables in the displacement of structures and foundations. Factor Analysis identifies the factors inherent to the variability of the data. This technique makes it possible to order the variables considering the action of factors. This applies also to Cluster Analysis on the data of dates of measurements, according to the similarities present in the observations. Then, Discriminant Analysis evaluates the formed groups for uniformity. The results demonstrate that the method can distinguish the dam responses and identify the effects of variations in environmental conditions over the displacements of structures and foundations.

  17. Industrial activity, gas emissions and environmental urban management. Operative condition's diagnostic of smelting activities in Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amongst urban environmental problems, those associated to industry are of particular interest in environmental management. Tandil, a city in Argentina, owes its economic and urban growth to metalworking activity, especially to smelting. Despite the crisis in the sector, activity continues to be the axis of local economic and urban growth. The present research characterizes, in production, operative and environmental terms, local smelting industries and assesses operative conditions of gas emissions management during 2010. There were analyzed 25 industries over 30. The sample was representative of five productive processes: aluminum (Al), aluminum/iron (Al Fe), aluminum/bronze (Al Cu+Sn), aluminum/iron/bronze (Al Fe Cu+Sn), and iron (Fe). The variables analyzed were: primary fusion mater, oven used and industry size. To obtain production data we applied structured interviews, and for industry sizes we used surveys. It was possible to describe the productive prospect of the sector at a local level: for most industries the destination of their production is automotive sector. Taking into account the relation between the size and the type of industry, the aluminum smelting companies are small. Regarding iron industries, all three company sizes are present in the sample and exists a medium size industry that occupies between 51 and 230 employees. The operative conditions and their compliance with current legislation regarding control of gas emissions require to identify monitoring indicators for the melting stage that allow knowing precisely the resulting contaminants and their environmental effects.

  18. Design and Application of Variable Temperature Environmental Capsule for Scanning Electron Microscopy in Gases and Liquids at Ambient Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Asadi, Ahmed S.; Jie ZHANG; Li, Jianbo; Potyrailo, Radislav A.; Kolmakov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of nanoscale objects in their native conditions and at different temperatures are of critical importance in revealing details of their interactions with ambient environments. Currently available environmental capsules are equipped with thin electron transparent membranes and allow imaging the samples at atmospheric pressure. However these capsules do not provide the temperature control over the sample. Here we developed and tested a thermoelectric cooling / ...

  19. The demersal fish assemblage of the coastal area adjacent to the Tagus estuary (Portugal): relationships with environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Prista, N.; Vasconcelos, Rp; Costa, MJ; Cabral, H.

    2003-01-01

    The subtidal fish assemblage of Tagus estuary coastal area was sampled in order to infer about its relationship to environmental conditions and its possible nursery function for marine species. Fish sampling took place between May 2001 and February 2002 with an otter trawl. In addition to fish sampling, a physical, chemical and biological characterization of the water column and bottom sediment was performed. Density and biomass were determined and ecological and feeding guilds assigned to ea...

  20. Environmental politics with eco-taxes. Ecological and financial conditions for new environmental taxes. Umweltpolitik mit Oeko-Steuern. Oekologische und finanzpolitische Bedingungen fuer neue Umweltabgaben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkert, W. (Witten-Herdecke Univ., Witten (Germany, F.R.)); Bunde, J. (Rat von Sachverstaendigen fuer Umweltfragen, Wiesbaden (Germany, F.R.)); Hansjuergens, B. (Marburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-01-01

    This book contains a comprehensive and systematic description of questions relating to the eco-tax debate from an ecological and financial point of view. It analyzes the conditions and requirements under which eco-taxes can make a contribution to a better quality environment and the areas in which eco-taxes can usefully be applied. Against this background important concepts from the debate discussed and for important areas of environmental policy concrete suggestions are developed or those already established are further developed or defined. (orig./HP).

  1. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  2. Analysis of the Salmonella typhimurium Proteome through Environmental Response toward Infectious Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Joshua N.; Mottaz, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; Gustin, Jean K.; Rue, Joanne; Clauss, Therese RW; Purvine, Samuel O.; Rodland, Karin D.; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.

    2006-08-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (aka, S. typhimurium) is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes ~40,000 reported cases of acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea a year in the United States. To develop a deeper understanding of the infectious state of S. typhimurium, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based “bottom-up” proteomics was used to globally analyze the proteins present under specific growth conditions. Salmonella typhimurium LT2 strain cells were grown in contrasting culture conditions that mimicked both natural free-living conditions and an infectious state, i.e., logarithm phase, stationary phase and Mg-depleted medium growth. Initial comparisons of the LT2 strain protein abundances among cell culture conditions indicate that the majority of proteins do not change significantly. Not unexpectedly, cells grown in Mg-depleted medium conditions had a higher abundance of Mg2+ transport proteins than found in other growth conditions. A second more virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain (14028) was also studied with these growth conditions and used to directly compare to the LT2 strain. The strain comparison offers a unique opportunity to compare and contrast observations in these closely related bacteria. One particular protein family, propanediol utilization proteins, was drastically more abundant in the 14028 strain than in the LT2 strain, and may be a contributor to increased pathogenicity in the 14028 strain.

  3. Study on SO2 Removal Efficiency by Nanosecond Rising Edge Pulse DBD Under Different Environmental Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; SU Biao; LIU Ding-xin; WANG Jun-hua; RONG Ming-zhe

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,an experimental study on SO2 removal by nanosecond rising edge pulse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma,generated by multi-needle-to-plane electrodes,is carried out.The mechanism of the effect of various factors,such as gap size between dielectric barrier and discharge needles,environmental humidity,and inlet speed of gas flow upon the removal efficiency of air purification is analyzed.The studies show that SO2 removal efficiency improves with the increase in the gap size between dielectric barrier and discharge needles in the case of a fixed space between two electrodes,and also improves with the increase in the environmental humidity.For a mixed gas with a fixed concentration,there is an optimal inlet speed of gas flow,which leads to the best removal efficiency.

  4. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani; Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-01-01

    Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental...

  5. Testing a new multigroup inference approach to reconstructing past environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria RIERADEVALL

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A new, quantitative, inference model for environmental reconstruction (transfer function, based for the first time on the simultaneous analysis of multigroup species, has been developed. Quantitative reconstructions based on palaeoecological transfer functions provide a powerful tool for addressing questions of environmental change in a wide range of environments, from oceans to mountain lakes, and over a range of timescales, from decades to millions of years. Much progress has been made in the development of inferences based on multiple proxies but usually these have been considered separately, and the different numeric reconstructions compared and reconciled post-hoc. This paper presents a new method to combine information from multiple biological groups at the reconstruction stage. The aim of the multigroup work was to test the potential of the new approach to making improved inferences of past environmental change by improving upon current reconstruction methodologies. The taxonomic groups analysed include diatoms, chironomids and chrysophyte cysts. We test the new methodology using two cold-environment training-sets, namely mountain lakes from the Pyrenees and the Alps. The use of multiple groups, as opposed to single groupings, was only found to increase the reconstruction skill slightly, as measured by the root mean square error of prediction (leave-one-out cross-validation, in the case of alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon and altitude (a surrogate for air-temperature, but not for pH or dissolved CO2. Reasons why the improvement was less than might have been anticipated are discussed. These can include the different life-forms, environmental responses and reaction times of the groups under study.

  6. Assessing the environmental impact of biobleaching: effects of the operational conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Valls Vidal, Cristina; Quintana, Elisabet; Roncero Vivero, María Blanca

    2012-01-01

    The environmental impact of enzyme bleaching stages applied to oxygen-delignified eucalypt kraft pulp was assessed via the chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, absorbance spectrum, residual enzyme activity and Microtox toxicity of the effluents from a laccase–HBT (1-hydoxybenzotriazole) treatment. The influence of the laccase and HBT doses, and reaction time, on these effluent properties was also examined. The laccase dose was found to be the individual variable most strongly affecting COD, w...

  7. Environmental Conditions in Water Storage Drums and Influences on Aedes aegypti inTrinidad, West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Hemme, Ryan R; Tank, Jennifer L.; Chadee, Dave D; Severson, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Water storage drums are often a primary breeding site for Aedes aegypti in developing countries. Habitat characteristics can impact both adult and larval fitness and survival, which may potentially influence arbovirus transmission. Our objective was to compare fundamental environmental differences in water drums based on the presence or absence of larvae in Trinidad. Drums were categorized according to the larval status, and if the drum was constructed of steel or plastic. Water samples were ...

  8. Health, safety and environmental conditions at housing construction sites in Lahore city, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The construction industry is an important section of the economy and is generally considered as a driver of economic growth in many countries. It also provides opportunities for employment for diverse sections of society. Regardless of its importance, construction industry is considered as hazardous with frequent accidents to workers. Nevertheless, knowledge and awareness on how health, safety and environmental issues are managed on Pakistani construction sites is limited. This paper theref...

  9. Condition-Based Maintenance Strategy for Production Systems Generating Environmental Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Tlili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider production systems which generate damage to environment as they get older and degrade. The system is submitted to inspections to assess the generated environmental damage. The inspections can be periodic or nonperiodic. In case an inspection reveals that the environmental degradation level has exceeded the critical level U, the system is considered in an advanced deterioration state and will have generated significant environmental damage. A corrective maintenance action is then performed to renew the system and clean the environment and a penalty has to be paid. In order to prevent such an undesirable situation, a lower threshold level L is considered to trigger a preventive maintenance action to bring back the system to a state as good as new at a lower cost and without paying the penalty. Two inspection policies are considered (periodic and nonperiodic. For each one of them, a mathematical model and a numerical procedure are developed to determine simultaneously the preventive maintenance (PM threshold L∗ and the inspection sequence which minimize the average long-run cost per time unit. Numerical calculations are performed to illustrate the proposed maintenance policies and highlight their main characteristics with respect to relevant input parameters.

  10. Introducing a conditional 'Willingness to Pay' index as a quantifier for environmental impact assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Fragiskos; Kopsidas, Odysseas

    2012-12-01

    The optimal concentration Copt of a pollutant in the environment can be determined as an equilibrium point in the trade off between (i) environmental cost, due to impact on man/ecosystem/economy, and (ii) economic cost for environmental protection, as it can be expressed by Pigouvian tax. These two conflict variables are internalized within the same techno-economic objective function of total cost, which is minimized. In this work, the first conflict variable is represented by a Willingness To Pay (WTP) index. A methodology is developed for the estimation of this index by using fuzzy sets to count for uncertainty. Implementation of this methodology is presented, concerning odor pollution of air round an olive pomace oil mill. The ASTM E544-99 (2004) 'Standard Practice for Referencing Suprathreshold Odor Intensity' has been modified to serve as a basis for testing, while a network of the quality standards, required for the realization/application of this 'Practice', is also presented. Last, sensitivity analysis of Copt as regards the impact of (i) the increase of environmental information/sensitization and (ii) the decrease of interest rate reveals a shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively; certain positive and negative implications (i.e., shifting of Copt to lower and higher values, respectively) caused by socio-economic parameters are also discussed.

  11. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton dynamics in Nunatsiavut fjords (Labrador, Canada) and their relationships with environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simo-Matchim, Armelle-Galine; Gosselin, Michel; Blais, Marjolaine; Gratton, Yves; Tremblay, Jean-Éric

    2016-04-01

    We assessed phytoplankton dynamics and its environmental control in four Labrador fjords (Nachvak, Saglek, Okak, and Anaktalak) during summer, early fall and late fall. Primary production and chlorophyll a (chl a) biomass were measured at seven optical depths, including the depth of subsurface chl a maximum (SCM). Phytoplankton abundance, size structure and taxonomy were determined at the SCM. Principal component analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling were used to analyze relationships between production, biomass and community composition in relation to environmental variables. We observed a marked seasonal variability, with significant differences in phytoplankton structure and function between summer and fall. Surprisingly, primary production and chl a biomass were not significantly different from one fjord to another. The highest values of primary production (1730 mg C m- 2 day- 1) and chl a biomass (96 mg chl a m- 2) were measured during the summer bloom, and those high values indicate that Labrador fjords are highly productive ecosystems. The summer community showed relatively high abundance of nanophytoplankton (2-20 μm) while the fall community was characterized by low primary production and chl a biomass as well as relatively high abundance of picophytoplankton (structure and function in Labrador fjords, and provides an essential foundation for further research and for monitoring environmental changes in arctic and subarctic coastal areas.

  12. Trace element ratios in bivalve shells as records of environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, S.; Opdyke, B.; Welch, S.; Beavis, S.

    2007-12-01

    Stable isotope and trace element data from the carbonate of both marine and freshwater bivalves are proving to be useful tools in studies of palaeoclimate and environmental change. However, much of the work already done has shown that the trace element ratios in bivalve shells exhibit a complex relationship with the ambient environment and caution must be exercised when attempting to use them as environmental proxies. This work examines the feasibility of using the trace element ratios Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca of the shells of a number of different species of bivalves as records of the temperature and salinity of their ambient aquatic environment. The species analysed were the estuarine oysters Saccostrea glomerata, Ostrea angasi, and Crassostrea gigas, an estuarine mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis, and the freshwater mussel Velesunio ambiguus. The estuarine shells were taken from monitoring experiments conducted over a period of 12 months at two different field sites. Freshwater shells were collected wild, from locations close to water monitoring stations. Preliminary results show distinct variations in the Mg/Ca of O. angasi shells with an apparent seasonal pattern. V. ambiguus shells show clear patterns in Mn/Ca, linked to environmental variations.

  13. Modeling the effects of environmental conditions on HT2 and T2 toxin accumulation in field oat grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiangming; Madden, Laurence V; Edwards, Simon G

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley has been extensively researched worldwide; in contrast, there is limited information on the effects of environmental conditions on Fusarium toxin accumulation in oat grains. More than 300 samples of oat grain from various regions of the United Kingdom from 2006 to 2008 were analyzed for mycotoxin contamination due to infection by Fusarium spp. HT2 and T2 toxins were the two most commonly detected, and their concentrations in individual samples were highly correlated. Hourly weather data were obtained from meteorological recording stations near most of the sampling sites. Statistical modeling was applied to both the original toxin (HT2 plus T2) data and the toxin data adjusted for oat cultivars and number of cereal crops in the previous four seasons. Accumulation of HT2 and T2 toxin was positively correlated with warm and wet conditions during early May and dry conditions thereafter. Using a collection of 51 environmental variables summarized over three lengths (10, 15, and 20 days) of time periods encompassing early May, late May, and early July, all-subsets regression showed that many models, consisting of three to six predictor variables, could be identified with similar explanatory strength for the effect of environmental conditions on toxin accumulation. Most important predictor variables were related to wet conditions during the early-May period, which was before anthesis. These results suggest that the predominant period for Fusarium langsethiae infection of oat is likely to be before rather than during anthesis, as for other head blight pathogens. These empirical models may be further improved by using quantified pathogen biomass within the grains and weather predictor variables summarized in relation to plant growth stages (instead of calendar times).

  14. Accelerating Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) development via computationally predicted AOP networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) framework is increasingly being adopted as a tool for organizing and summarizing the mechanistic information connecting molecular perturbations by environmental stressors with adverse outcomes relevant for ecological and human health outcomes. Ho...

  15. Feature Extraction of Gesture Recognition Based on Image Analysis for Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A. Dedakiya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gesture recognition system received great attention in the recent few years because of its manifoldness applications and the ability to interact with machine efficiently through human computer interaction. Gesture is one of human body languages which are popularly used in our daily life. It is a communication system that consists of hand movements and facial expressions via communication by actions and sights. This research mainly focuses on the research of gesture extraction and finger segmentation in the gesture recognition. In this paper, we have used image analysis technologies to create an application by encoding in MATLAB program. We will use this application to segment and extract the finger from one specific gesture. This paper is aimed to give gesture recognition in different natural conditions like dark and glare condition, different distances condition and similar object condition then collect the results to calculate the successful extraction rate.

  16. Towards generalised reference condition models for environmental assessment: a case study on rivers in Atlantic Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Armanini, D. G.; Monk, W.A.; Carter, L; Cote, D.; Baird, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the ecological status of river sites in Canada is supported by building models using the reference condition approach. However, geography, data scarcity and inter-operability constraints have frustrated attempts to monitor national-scale status and trends. This issue is particularly true in Atlantic Canada, where no ecological assessment system is currently available. Here, we present a reference condition model based on the River Invertebrate Prediction and Classification Syste...

  17. Apomorphine-induced pecking in pigeons classically conditioned to environmental cues

    OpenAIRE

    Delius, Juan; Lindenblatt, Ulrike

    1987-01-01

    The dopamine agonist apomorphine elicits protracted pecking when injected systemically (1 mg/kg) into pigeons. In two experiments it was investigated whether apomorphine would function as an unconditioned stimulus in the classical conditioning of pecking in these animals. An experimental design based on a differentiation procedure was used so that possible pseudoconditioning effects were controlled. Two differently coloured test chambers served as negative (CS-) and positive conditioned (CS+)...

  18. Cytoplasmic continuity revisited: closure of septa of the filamentous fungus Schizophyllum commune in response to environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arend F van Peer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mycelia of higher fungi consist of interconnected hyphae that are compartmentalized by septa. These septa contain large pores that allow streaming of cytoplasm and even organelles. The cytoplasm of such mycelia is therefore considered to be continuous. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show by laser dissection that septa of Schizophyllum commune can be closed depending on the environmental conditions. The most apical septum of growing hyphae was open when this basidiomycete was grown in minimal medium with glucose as a carbon source. In contrast, the second and the third septum were closed in more than 50% and 90% of the cases, respectively. Interestingly, only 24 and 37% of these septa were closed when hyphae were growing in the absence of glucose. Whether a septum was open or closed also depended on physical conditions of the environment or the presence of toxic agents. The first septum closed when hyphae were exposed to high temperature, to hypertonic conditions, or to the antibiotic nourseothricin. In the case of high temperature, septa opened again when the mycelium was placed back to the normal growth temperature. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, it is concluded that the septal pores of S. commune are dynamic structures that open or close depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings imply that the cytoplasm in the mycelium of a higher fungus is not continuous per se.

  19. Variation in nematode assemblages over multiple spatial scales and environmental conditions in Arctic deep seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Gustavo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Vanreusel, Ann; Lindegarth, Mats

    2010-03-01

    Although the comparison of relevant scales of variation is a prerequisite for understanding processes structuring benthic communities, deep-sea studies have traditionally examined spatial patterns of distribution of assemblages along a single scale or environmental gradient. A multiple-scale approach identifying which spatial-scale and associated environmental gradient is the most important in structuring the deep-sea benthos has never been attempted. To answer this question this study merged three independent data sets of nematodes from the Arctic deep seas. The data set included 300 samples and covered both margins of the Arctic Seas (Greenland and Norway-Spitsbergen, ca. 10 3 km distant apart), seven degrees of latitude (72-79°N), 2700 m depth differences (656-3350 m), horizontal distances between cores (20 cm) and vertical distances within the uppermost sediment layers (1-5 cm). Results showed that for abundance (N) and generic composition, differences between margins (M) and between cores (C) were the most important sources of variability, followed by water depth (D), vertical distribution within the sediment (VD) and latitude ( L). For species and genera diversity, measured as ES(50) and EG(50), the order was slightly different. For species, C was the most important source of variability, followed by D, M and L, while for genera VD was the most important. Relationships between environmental variables and the fauna were highly dependent on scale indicating that, at least for the deep-sea environment, we cannot predict the structure of nematode assemblages by scaling up or down results obtained on one or another scale. The only consistent pattern across different spatial scales was that higher abundances were associated with higher number and lower turnover of species. This raises the hypothesis that the most abundant species are also the most widespread and that abundance is the best predictor of nematode diversity patterns in deep-sea ecosystems.

  20. Durability study of neat/nanophased GFRP composites subjected to different environmental conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations on the durability of E-glass/nanoclay-epoxy composites are reported. SC-15 epoxy system was modified using 1-2 wt.% of nanoclay. Extent of clay platelet exfoliation in epoxy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite panels were fabricated using modified epoxy and exposed to four different conditions, i.e. hot (elevated temperature-dry, wet: 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero-dry, wet) for 15, 45 and 90 days. Weight change due to conditioning, quasi-static flexure and micrographic characterization were studied on the conditioned samples. Room temperature samples were also tested for baseline consideration. XRD results showed exfoliation of clay platelets in nanoclay-epoxy samples with decrease in peak intensity and increase in interplanar spacing. Samples subjected to hot-wet conditions showed higher percentage weight gain with a maximum of 4.25% in neat and 3.1% in 2 wt.% samples. Flexural tests results showed degradation with increasing time. Maximum degradation were observed for hot-wet (80 deg. C) for 90 days neat samples, i.e. 22.6% and 29.8% reduction in flexural strength and stiffness, respectively. However, less degradation was noticed for nanophased composites under similar conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of failed samples showed better interfacial bonding in nanophased composites.

  1. Durability study of neat/nanophased GFRP composites subjected to different environmental conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zainuddin, S. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Hosur, M.V., E-mail: hosur@tuskegee.edu [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Zhou, Y. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States); Kumar, Ashok [Construction Engineering Research Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Champaign, IL 61821-9005 (United States); Jeelani, S. [Center for Advanced Materials, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL 36088 (United States)

    2010-05-25

    Experimental investigations on the durability of E-glass/nanoclay-epoxy composites are reported. SC-15 epoxy system was modified using 1-2 wt.% of nanoclay. Extent of clay platelet exfoliation in epoxy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite panels were fabricated using modified epoxy and exposed to four different conditions, i.e. hot (elevated temperature-dry, wet: 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero-dry, wet) for 15, 45 and 90 days. Weight change due to conditioning, quasi-static flexure and micrographic characterization were studied on the conditioned samples. Room temperature samples were also tested for baseline consideration. XRD results showed exfoliation of clay platelets in nanoclay-epoxy samples with decrease in peak intensity and increase in interplanar spacing. Samples subjected to hot-wet conditions showed higher percentage weight gain with a maximum of 4.25% in neat and 3.1% in 2 wt.% samples. Flexural tests results showed degradation with increasing time. Maximum degradation were observed for hot-wet (80 deg. C) for 90 days neat samples, i.e. 22.6% and 29.8% reduction in flexural strength and stiffness, respectively. However, less degradation was noticed for nanophased composites under similar conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of failed samples showed better interfacial bonding in nanophased composites.

  2. Evaluation of chemical conversion material (protective coating) exposed to space environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. L.

    1993-01-01

    This report focuses on the development of an operational Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) system and shows the application of such a system on a space environmental test. Thin films of aluminum and tantalum were deposited on diamond substrates. These films were anodized and preexposure characterization spectra obtained using RBS and total hemispherical reflectance. The samples were exposed to energetic protons then postexposure characterization spectra was obtained using the same techniques. Conclusions based on the comparison of preexposure and postexposure spectra are presented. RBS comparison spectra show no change in the metal/metal oxide interface, while the comparison reflectance data indicate change. Explanations for this reflectance change are presented in this report.

  3. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  4. Metabolic response of Taxus baccata L. to Pestalotipsis funerea Desm. in dependence of environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kozłowska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the reasons of yew shoot blight observed in the garden and park plantations was the infection with Pestalotiopsis funerea fungus. Leaves with extensive disease symptoms have been found to have metabolic disturbances induced by this pathogen. Activation of oxidative stress enzymes, i.e. catalase and peroxidase, points to the possibility of inducing defense responses. Among factors modifying the degree of plant affection under natural conditions, the level of nitric nutrition as well as light conditions may play an important role.

  5. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, S. S.; Siegel, J. A.; Kinney, K. A.

    2014-07-01

    Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas, ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in December to 3.81 nmoles H2O2 m-3 air in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation) indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  6. Technical Note: Particulate reactive oxygen species concentrations and their association with environmental conditions in an urban, subtropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Khurshid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactions between hydrocarbons and ozone or hydroxyl radicals lead to the formation of oxidized species, including reactive oxygen species (ROS, and secondary organic aerosol (SOA in the troposphere. ROS can be carried deep into the lungs by small aerodynamic particles where they can cause oxidative stress and cell damage. While environmental studies have focused on ROS in the gas-phase and rainwater, it is also important to determine concentrations of ROS on respirable particles. Samples of PM2.5 collected over 3 h at midday on 40 days during November 2011 and September 2012 show that the particulate ROS concentration in Austin, Texas ranged from a minimum value of 0.02 nmol H2O2 (m3 air−1 in December to 3.81 nmol H2O2 (m3 air−1 in September. Results from correlation tests and linear regression analysis on particulate ROS concentrations and environmental conditions (which included ozone and PM2.5 concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation and solar radiation indicate that ambient particulate ROS is significantly influenced by the ambient ozone concentration, temperature and incident solar radiation. Particulate ROS concentrations measured in this study were in the range reported by other studies in the US, Taiwan and Singapore. This study is one of the first to assess seasonal variations in particulate ROS concentrations and helps explain the influence of environmental conditions on particulate ROS concentrations.

  7. Economic and environmental performance of oil transesterification in supercritical methanol at different reaction conditions: Experimental study with a batch reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Influence of reaction parameters on FAME yields has been investigated. • The highest yield (93%) was achieved after 15 min at 350 °C and 12 MPa. • Models which predict with high certainty yields at different reaction conditions. • Economic and environmental performance of supercritical transesterification. • The lowest costs and impacts are always achieved at the highest yields. - Abstract: This study aims to investigate the influence of various reaction parameters (temperatures, working pressures and reaction time) on biodiesel yields and environmental and economic performance of rapeseed oil transesterification in supercritical methanol. Experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. Results were statistically analysed and multiple regression models which describe and predict biodiesel yields with high certainty at different reaction conditions were provided. The highest biodiesel yield (93 wt%) was achieved at 350 °C and 12 MPa after 15 min of reaction. The lowest direct costs and life cycle environmental impacts (in terms of GHG emissions and fossil energy demand) are achieved at the highest yield due to the lowest oil consumption per unit of biodiesel produced. The results of sensitivity analysis showed that even at significantly lower oil feedstock prices this observation stands firm

  8. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  9. Predicting plant performance under simultaneously changing environmental conditions – the interplay between temperature, light and internode growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eKahlen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system’s analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modelling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  10. Predicting Plant Performance Under Simultaneously Changing Environmental Conditions-The Interplay Between Temperature, Light, and Internode Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Katrin; Chen, Tsu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Plant performance is significantly influenced by prevailing light and temperature conditions during plant growth and development. For plants exposed to natural fluctuations in abiotic environmental conditions it is however laborious and cumbersome to experimentally assign any contribution of individual environmental factors to plant responses. This study aimed at analyzing the interplay between light, temperature and internode growth based on model approaches. We extended the light-sensitive virtual plant model L-Cucumber by implementing a common Arrhenius function for appearance rates, growth rates, and growth durations. For two greenhouse experiments, the temperature-sensitive model approach resulted in a precise prediction of cucumber mean internode lengths and number of internodes, as well as in accurately predicted patterns of individual internode lengths along the main stem. In addition, a system's analysis revealed that environmental data averaged over the experimental period were not necessarily related to internode performance. Finally, the need for a species-specific parameterization of the temperature response function and related aspects in modeling temperature effects on plant development and growth is discussed.

  11. Proper housing conditions in experimental stroke studies – special emphasis on environmental enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu eMering

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental enrichment provides laboratory animals with novelty and extra space, allowing different forms of multisensory stimulation ranging from social grouping to enhanced motor activity. At the extreme end of the spectrum, one can have a super-enriched environment. Environmental enrichment is believed to result in improved cognitive and sensorimotor functions both in naïve rodents and in animals with brain lesions such as those occurring after a stroke. Robust behavioral effects in animals which have suffered a stroke are probably related not only to neuronal plasticity in the perilesional cortex but also in remote brain areas. There is emerging evidence to suggest that testing restorative therapies in an enriched environment can maximize treatment effects, e.g., the perilesional milieu seems to be more receptive to concomitant pharmacotherapy and/or cell therapy. This review provides an updated overview on the effect of an enriched environment in stroke animals from the practical points to be considered when planning experiments to the mechanisms explaining why combined therapies can contribute to behavioral improvement in a synergistic manner.

  12. Evolution of Eutrophication depending on Environmental Conditions: A Case Study in a Reservoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xana Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the phenomenon of eutrophication is affecting many river ecosystems. Besides being an environmental problem, it can also be a problem for human health. This study aims to explore how environmental parameters affect the concentration of green algae and cyanobacteria throughout the period from 2010 to 2013 in A Baxe reservoir (NW Spain. Factors such as temperature, rainfall and solar radiation influenced in the presence of the algae, as well as in its concentration. Being limiting factors in the cyanobacterial blooms. The highest value of chlorophyll occurs during the summer, with higher temperatures, coinciding with the dry season and with a light cycle of 15/9light/dark cycle. We conclude that predictive models can be designed using the weather forecast that are currently available well in advance, with the result that water managerscan know when it will be probable that a bloom take place as an early warning system, therefore they will have a protocol of action.Keywords: Freshwater ecosystems, cyanobacteria blooms, temperature, dry season.

  13. Variation of cyanobacteria with different environmental conditions in Nansi Lake, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Tian; Haiyan Pei; Wenrong Hu; Jun Xie

    2012-01-01

    Nansi Lake is located on the east line of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project in China.A comprehensive study was carried out to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of cyanobacteria in the lake from June 2008 to May 2011 based on monthly sample monitoring from five stations.The effect of environmental factors on cyanobacterial abundance was also evaluated.The cyanobacterial community contained 15 genera and 23 species.The cyanobacterial abundance of each monitoring station ranged from 0 to 1.53×107 cells/L with an average of 1.45×106 cells/L,which accounted for 11.66% of the total phytoplankton abundance.The dominant species of cyanobacteria were Pseudanabaena(32.94%)and Merismopedia(19.85%),not the bloom-forming algae such as Microcystis and Anabaena.In addition,the cyanobacterial community structure and water quality variables changed substantially over the survey period.Redundancy analysis(RDA)suggested that temperature and phosphorus were important environmental factors that affected cyanobacteria.Temperature was the most important factor affecting cyanobacterial abundance.The effect of phosphorus on cyanobacterial abundance was more notable in warm periods than in periods with low temperature.

  14. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  15. Environmental conditions that influence the ability of humic acids to induce permeability in model biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojwang', Loice M; Cook, Robert L

    2013-08-01

    The interaction of humic acids (HAs) with 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-Sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) large unilamellar vesicle (LUV) model biomembrane system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. HAs from aquatic and terrestrial (including coal) sources were studied. The effects of HA concentration and temperature over environmentally relevant ranges of 0 to 20 mg C/L and 10 to 30 °C, respectively, were investigated. The dosage studies revealed that the aquatic Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA) causes an increased biomembrane perturbation (percent leakage of the fluorescent dye, Sulforhodamine B) over the entire studied concentration range. The two terrestrial HAs, namely Leonardite humic acid (LAHA) and Florida peat humic acid (FPHA), at concentrations above 5 mg C/L, show a decrease or a plateau effect attributable to the competition within the HA mixture and/or the formation of "partial aggregates". The temperature studies revealed that biomembrane perturbation increases with decreasing temperature for all three HAs. Kinetic studies showed that the membrane perturbation process is complex with both fast and slow absorption (sorption into the bilayer) components and that the slow component could be fitted by first order kinetics. A mechanism based on "lattice errors" within the POPC LUVs is put forward to explain the fast and slow components. A rationale behind the concentration and temperature findings is provided, and the environmental implications are discussed. PMID:23805776

  16. Salmon Futures: Stakeholder-driven salmon management scenarios under changing environmental conditions on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.; Krupa, M.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the adaptive capacity of individuals within natural resource management agencies is a key component of assessing the vulnerability of salmon to future environmental change. We seek to explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula by exploring the drivers and implications of different salmon allocation scenarios through participatory workshops with managers. We present here the initial results from the first workshop, which explores the various drivers responsible for changes in salmon allocation. Ranging from global to local, and biophysical to socioeconomic, these drivers are also linked to specific actors in the region. These complex interactions comprise the Kenai Peninsula's social-ecological system and determine its ability to react to change. Using a stakeholder-driven scenario framework, we aim to: 1) explore the adaptive capacity of natural resource agencies in the region by exploring and exposing managers to different but logically coherent salmon allocation scenarios; 2) build stakeholder confidence in the science of environmental change on the Kenai Peninsula; and 3) develop a decision support tool that helps regional resource managers better understand their changing environment. We utilize and present the scenario framework as a platform for integrating hydrologic, landscape, and cultural change information into actionable decisions, crafted by the stakeholders, so that landscape change on the Kenai becomes more coordinated.

  17. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eMurillo-Amador

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L. cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  18. Transcriptome response of Lactobacillus plantarum to global regulator deficiency, stress and other environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, M.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium encountered in a variety of food and feed fermentations and as a natural inhabitant of human gastrointestinal tract. To survive in these niches and to maintain its capability, L. plantarum has to respond to numerous changing conditions and the cellu

  19. Arsenic incorporation into pyrite at ambient environmental conditions: a continuous-flow experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, M.; Butler, I.B.; Rickard, D.; Mason, P.R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrite was synthesized in the presence of arsenite, As(III), at concentrations approaching those in ambient environments, under controlled, monitored, anoxic conditions in a continuous-flow reaction system at pH 6 and 25°C. During the continuous pyrite growth in these experiments, a continued uptake

  20. Biofouling community composition across a range of environmental conditions and geographical locations suitable for floating marine renewable energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Adrian K; Stanley, Michele S; Day, John G; Cook, Elizabeth J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of biofouling typical of marine structures is essential for engineers to define appropriate loading criteria in addition to informing other stakeholders about the ecological implications of creating novel artificial environments. There is a lack of information regarding biofouling community composition (including weight and density characteristics) on floating structures associated with future marine renewable energy generation technologies. A network of navigation buoys were identified across a range of geographical areas, environmental conditions (tidal flow speed, temperature and salinity), and deployment durations suitable for future developments. Despite the perceived importance of environmental and temporal factors, geographical location explained the greatest proportion of the observed variation in community composition, emphasising the importance of considering geography when assessing the impact of biofouling on device functioning and associated ecology. The principal taxa associated with variation in biofouling community composition were mussels (Mytilus edulis), which were also important when determining loading criteria.

  1. An Environmentally-Friendly and Catalytic Procedure for Mukaiyama Aldol Reaction Using Organic Catalyst DBU under Solvent Free Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN,Zhi-Liang; JI,Shun-Jun; LOH,Teck Peng

    2004-01-01

    @@ Recently, methods based exclusively on organic catalysts have become of major significance in synthetic chemistry.Mukaiyama-aldol reaction, as one of the most important and frequently utilized methods for C-C bond formation, is well documented in literatures recently. A variety of reagents, particularly metal-containing Lewis acids or bases, are known to promote the nucleophilic process. However, many of the reported strategies might have the following limitations from environmental viewpoints: (1) the use of metal-containing catalyst. Some of the catalysts are air or moisture sensitive (such as lithium amide), and crucial reaction conditions are needed; Some of the catalysts derived from poisonous metal (for example: SnCl4, SmI2 etc.) may cause harmful influence on humane body and environment; (2) the use of organic solvent (such as DMF, CH2Cl2 etc.) may bring about environmental pollution and solvent waste.

  2. Environmentally friendly hybrid coating prepared by electro-deposition method at various seawater conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myeong-Hoon LEE; Kyung-Man MOON; Jong-Do KIM; Kang JUN; Kwang-Ho KIM

    2009-01-01

    The formation mechanism of calcareous deposit films in seawater involves an increase in pH at the metal/solution interface due to cathodic reactions, a raised carbonate ion concentration at the interface and precipitation of inorganic deposits such as CaCO3, Mg(OH)2. Environmentally friendly hybrid calcareous deposit films were formed by an electrochemical technique on steel substrates in various solution environments. And the influence of dissolved gas on formation of calcareous deposit films was investigated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS) and X-ray diffractometry(XRD). Consequently, these results showed that formation of good overall calcareous deposited films by dissolved gas in seawater environments can be achieved by controlling the material composition and structure through effective use of electrochemical method.

  3. Male germplasm in relation to environmental conditions: synoptic focus on DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Tiersch, Terrence R.; Green, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Wild animals are generally more sensitive than humans to environmental stressors, thus they act as sentinels for resource degradation. Sublethal stress is generally manifested first at the sub-organismal level, where immune systems are compromised, reproductive success is reduced, and genetic integrity is altered. Biomarkers - variables quantifiably responsive to changes in the environment - provide useful information to resource managers and regulatory agencies. Biomarkers of sperm quality are proving useful in this capacity, as well as in artificial breeding. Cellular and molecular bioassays can help to determine mechanisms of action of deleterious agents, predict fertility and reproductive potential, and model population-wide and community level effects. A sequence of biomarker assays can be tailored to fit species of concern, to study physiological effects responsive to known contamination events, and can be selectively applied to fresh, thawed, and fixed samples, as well as those shipped to the laboratory from field sites.

  4. Can French environmental taxes really turn into green taxes? Current status and conditions of acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French environmental taxes are not really ecologically oriented. Their main aim is to raise revenues. Clear signs of this inappropriate direction are given by the large share of the energy taxes and by the low level of most tax rates, which for the most part, are only implicit tax rates on the polluting goods. An ecological tax reform would imply a global green tax shift with tax rates proportionate to the marginal damages. The success and the acceptation of such a reform by the taxpayers rely on the chosen recycling mechanism for the tax revenues, on government's efforts in information and pedagogy, on transparency about the policy choices but also, somehow paradoxically, on audacity of actions. Initially published in 'Revue de l'OFCE', No. 139

  5. Transcriptional response of the model planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1T to changing environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langhammer Philipp

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The marine model organism Rhodopirellula baltica SH1T was the first Planctomycete to have its genome completely sequenced. The genome analysis predicted a complex lifestyle and a variety of genetic opportunities to adapt to the marine environment. Its adaptation to environmental stressors was studied by transcriptional profiling using a whole genome microarray. Results Stress responses to salinity and temperature shifts were monitored in time series experiments. Chemostat cultures grown in mineral medium at 28°C were compared to cultures that were shifted to either elevated (37°C or reduced (6°C temperatures as well as high salinity (59.5‰ and observed over 300 min. Heat shock showed the induction of several known chaperone genes. Cold shock altered the expression of genes in lipid metabolism and stress proteins. High salinity resulted in the modulation of genes coding for compatible solutes, ion transporters and morphology. In summary, over 3000 of the 7325 genes were affected by temperature and/or salinity changes. Conclusion Transcriptional profiling confirmed that R. baltica is highly responsive to its environment. The distinct responses identified here have provided new insights into the complex adaptation machinery of this environmentally relevant marine bacterium. Our transcriptome study and previous proteome data suggest a set of genes of unknown functions that are most probably involved in the global stress response. This work lays the foundation for further bioinformatic and genetic studies which will lead to a comprehensive understanding of the biology of a marine Planctomycete.

  6. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Tani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11 on glyphosate susceptible (GS and glyphosate resistant (GR horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1 and high rates (4×, 8×, measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT and a later stage (four DAT of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C. GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  7. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-04-20

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance.

  8. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S.; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha−1) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  9. Biofilm formation of the L. monocytogenes strain 15G01 is influenced by changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jessika; Cruz, Cristina D; Palmer, Jon; Fletcher, Graham C; Flint, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes 15G01, a strain belonging to the persistent pulsotype 5132, was isolated from a seafood processing plant in New Zealand. Simple monoculture assays using crystal violet staining showed good biofilm formation for this strain and it was therefore chosen to be further investigated in regard to its biofilm forming ability. To evaluate its behaviour in different conditions commonly encountered in food processing environments, biofilm assays and growth studies were performed using common laboratory media under a range of temperatures (20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). Furthermore, the effects of incubation time and different environmental conditions including static, dynamic and anaerobic incubation on biofilm formation were investigated. Changes in the environmental conditions resulted in different biofilm phenotypes of L. monocytogenes 15G01. We demonstrated that increasing temperature and incubation time led to a higher biofilm mass and that dynamic incubation has little effect on biofilm formation at 37 °C but encourages biofilm formation at 30 °C. Biofilm production at 20 °C was minimal regardless of the medium used. We furthermore observed that anaerobic environment led to reduced biofilm mass at 30 °C for all tested media but not at 37 °C. Biofilm formation could not be narrowed down to one factor but was rather dependent on multiple factors with temperature and medium having the biggest effects.

  10. Environmental Conditions Influence Induction of Key ABC-Transporter Genes Affecting Glyphosate Resistance Mechanism in Conyza canadensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Eleni; Chachalis, Demosthenis; Travlos, Ilias S; Bilalis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    Conyza canadensis has been reported to be the most frequent weed species that evolved resistance to glyphosate in various parts of the world. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of environmental conditions (temperature and light) on the expression levels of the EPSPS gene and two major ABC-transporter genes (M10 and M11) on glyphosate susceptible (GS) and glyphosate resistant (GR) horseweed populations, collected from several regions across Greece. Real-time PCR was conducted to determine the expression level of the aforementioned genes when glyphosate was applied at normal (1×; 533 g·a.e.·ha(-1)) and high rates (4×, 8×), measured at an early one day after treatment (DAT) and a later stage (four DAT) of expression. Plants were exposed to light or dark conditions, at three temperature regimes (8, 25, 35 °C). GR plants were made sensitive when exposed to 8 °C with light; those sensitized plants behaved biochemically (shikimate accumulation) and molecularly (expression of EPSPS and ABC-genes) like the GS plants. Results from the current study show the direct link between the environmental conditions and the induction level of the above key genes that likely affect the efficiency of the proposed mechanism of glyphosate resistance. PMID:27104532

  11. Biofilm formation of the L. monocytogenes strain 15G01 is influenced by changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Jessika; Cruz, Cristina D; Palmer, Jon; Fletcher, Graham C; Flint, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes 15G01, a strain belonging to the persistent pulsotype 5132, was isolated from a seafood processing plant in New Zealand. Simple monoculture assays using crystal violet staining showed good biofilm formation for this strain and it was therefore chosen to be further investigated in regard to its biofilm forming ability. To evaluate its behaviour in different conditions commonly encountered in food processing environments, biofilm assays and growth studies were performed using common laboratory media under a range of temperatures (20 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C). Furthermore, the effects of incubation time and different environmental conditions including static, dynamic and anaerobic incubation on biofilm formation were investigated. Changes in the environmental conditions resulted in different biofilm phenotypes of L. monocytogenes 15G01. We demonstrated that increasing temperature and incubation time led to a higher biofilm mass and that dynamic incubation has little effect on biofilm formation at 37 °C but encourages biofilm formation at 30 °C. Biofilm production at 20 °C was minimal regardless of the medium used. We furthermore observed that anaerobic environment led to reduced biofilm mass at 30 °C for all tested media but not at 37 °C. Biofilm formation could not be narrowed down to one factor but was rather dependent on multiple factors with temperature and medium having the biggest effects. PMID:26524221

  12. Influence of the environmental conditions on the transfer factors of Am-241, Co-60 and Cs-137 in fluvisol soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Transfer factors (TFs) of the radionuclides are used to evaluate the biological uptake and the distribution of radioactive contaminants from soil to vegetation. They are defined as the ratio of the specific activity (Bq/g) of the radionuclide in a given plant species and its specific activity in the soil. TFs depend on the geochemical properties of the radionuclides and on the soil characteristics. The sharp variations of the environmental temperature and precipitations may alter the soil properties and influence the geochemical fractionation of the radionuclides, thus changing their TFs. This paper presents the changes of the geochemical fractionation of 241Am, 60Co and 137Cs in Fluvisol soil as a result of temperature increase, freezing and water deficiency. The fractionation of 241Am and 60Co under different conditions was studied using two sequential extraction procedures. The exchangeable 137Cs was determined after extraction with 1 M NH4NO3. The influence of the environmental temperature and soil drought on the TFs of the radionuclides from the Fluvisol soil to grass was evaluated. The radioactivity of the leachants was measured by gamma-spectrometry. The results showed that the conditioning at higher temperature or soil drought increased the mobility of 241Am and 137Cs. The temperature raise caused decrease of the mobile and bioavailable forms of 60Co. The conditioning at sharp temperature increase led to higher values of the TFs of the studied radionuclides. This effect was highest for 137Cs. key words: transfer factors, radionuclides, Fluvisol soil

  13. Environmental risk of climate change and groundwater abstraction on stream ecological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seaby, Lauren Paige; Bøgh, Eva; Jensen, Niels H.

    flows and groundwater levels are of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future...... and risk to stream ecological conditions. We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher......A doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas of Denmark to meet water resource demands. Combined with projected climate change, which is characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for the country, the impacts to low...

  14. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  15. Effect of environmental condition on ventilation rate of special standard bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Qian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard bar of ventilation is the equipment extensively used in the tobacco industry to calibrate the variety of testing machines. The bar’s performance that is usually affected by ambient conditions is numerically studied in this paper. Firstly, the geometry of standard bar is obtained by an optical microscopic 3-D measurement. Then, Solidworks is used to build the 3-D model of standard bar and Gambit is used to mesh the model. Finally, the performance of standard bar under variant ambient conditions is analyzed by Fluent. Compared with the experimental data, the numerical results are found to be quite accurate, and it is found that the ventilation rate increases linearly as temperature rise and decreases non-linearly with the growth of pressure.

  16. Development of human comfort criteria for environmental conditions in urban areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nina Gall; Koss, Holger

    2011-01-01

    . The work presented in this paper is the first step in identifying and understanding the different factors affecting the human perception of urban space quality. For this purpose the registration of urban space conditions has been conducted on different locations in the city of Copenhagen. Furthermore......, selected tests on human perception of climatic conditions have been performed in the newly developed Climatic Wind Tunnel facility (CWT), jointly operated by DTU and FORCE Technology in Lyngby, Denmark. The conducted work is related to a Ph.D. project on the integration of numerical simulation methods...... will be studied, based on full-scale registration of urban environment parameters. The collected data and observations will be used to review existing criteria allowing assessing urban space quality for city life. The overall aim of our research is to create a holistic method to determines and describe the value...

  17. A comparative study of some barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) lines and mutants under local environmental condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield, 1000 grain weight and other agronomical traits were studied under the rain fed condition. Nineteen pure lines (doubled haploid) and mutants and two controls were grown in the field. Net blotch resistance in 150 (Dh), mutants, and their parental genotype were used to determine their resistance level against three strains of net bloch. Differences were found among the genotypes. Five lines (Dh) and mutants resistant to net blotch with good agronomic performance were selected for further investigation. (author)

  18. The impact of invasive alien species impatiens glandulifera on environmental conditions in the habitat

    OpenAIRE

    Ropret, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis provides an overview of literature together with the results of field measurements of a non-native species called Himalayan Balsam, Impatiens glandulifera. Since the measurements were conducted near the Tržiška Bistrica river, a short description of its characteristics is provided and so is the importance of the riparian zone. A description of a non-native and invasive species follows combined with its characteristics. Hereinafter, the physical conditions which affect the growt...

  19. Bioclimatic Technology in High Rise Office Building Design: A Comparison Study for Indoor Environmental Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Lokman Hakim Ismail; Magda Sibley; Izudinshah Abdul Wahab

    2011-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable architecture for high-rise building is discussed and illustrated through the work of Ken Yeang and other architects. The claimed benefits of such a bioclimatic design approach are examined in the light of the results of previously conducted research projects, dealing with indoor thermal condition of high-rise office buildings. This paper reports on a study to determine if high-rise buildings designed on bioclimatic principles perform better than convention...

  20. Perbedaan Adversity Quotient Pada Wirausahawan Batak Toba Dan Jawa

    OpenAIRE

    Sitepu, Olyfia Karona

    2013-01-01

    Adversity quotient is a capability of anyone to survive in any difficult condition and solve the problems to achieve a success either in the work or life. This is a quantitative comparative research that aims to know the difference of adversity quotient between Batak Toba entrepreneur and Javanese entrepreneur. The hypothesis in this research says that adversity quotient of Batak Toba entrepreneur is higher than Javanese entrepreneur. This research involved 200 entrepreneurs, consisting...

  1. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  2. Different effects of unexpected changes in environmental conditions on prepulse inhibition in rats and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Casa, L G; Fernandez, A; Larrauri, J; Mena, A; Puentes, A; Quintero, E; Schmajuk, N

    2012-06-25

    The reduction of the startle response to an auditory stimulus caused by the presentation of another stimulus of lower intensity closely preceding it, a phenomenon known as prepulse inhibition (PPI), can be modulated by changes in dopaminergic activity. Schmajuk, Larrauri, De la Casa, and Levin (2009) demonstrated that this dopaminergic modulation of PPI in rats can be influenced by manipulating the experimental context, specifically by introducing changes in the ambient lighting condition that include novel elements. In this paper we analyze the effects of introducing changes in context illumination on PPI in male rats (Experiment 1) and humans (Experiment 2). The results with rats showed a reduction of PPI when the illumination condition switched from dark to light, but not from light to dark. In the experiment with human participants the reduction of PPI occurred for both changes in illumination conditions. The animal experiment results are interpreted in terms of competing exploratory behavior that appear when the context is illuminated after the dark-light transition; while in the case of human participants a perceptual and/or attentional mechanism after both illumination transitions is proposed, which may result in a reduced processing of the prepulse and subsequent lower PPI. PMID:22504495

  3. Bacterial Epimerization as a Route for Deoxynivalenol Detoxification: the Influence of Growth and Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian Wei; Hassan, Yousef I; Perilla, Norma; Li, Xiu-Zhen; Boland, Greg J; Zhou, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30°C), and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 μg DON/h/10(8) cells). The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions. PMID:27148248

  4. Uranium Biominerals Precipitated by an Environmental Isolate of Serratia under Anaerobic Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newsome

    Full Text Available Stimulating the microbially-mediated precipitation of uranium biominerals may be used to treat groundwater contamination at nuclear sites. The majority of studies to date have focussed on the reductive precipitation of uranium as U(IV by U(VI- and Fe(III-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter and Shewanella species, although other mechanisms of uranium removal from solution can occur, including the precipitation of uranyl phosphates via bacterial phosphatase activity. Here we present the results of uranium biomineralisation experiments using an isolate of Serratia obtained from a sediment sample representative of the Sellafield nuclear site, UK. When supplied with glycerol phosphate, this Serratia strain was able to precipitate 1 mM of soluble U(VI as uranyl phosphate minerals from the autunite group, under anaerobic and fermentative conditions. Under phosphate-limited anaerobic conditions and with glycerol as the electron donor, non-growing Serratia cells could precipitate 0.5 mM of uranium supplied as soluble U(VI, via reduction to nano-crystalline U(IV uraninite. Some evidence for the reduction of solid phase uranyl(VI phosphate was also observed. This study highlights the potential for Serratia and related species to play a role in the bioremediation of uranium contamination, via a range of different metabolic pathways, dependent on culturing or in situ conditions.

  5. Non conformance in fittings for critical environmental conditions; Conexoes nao conformes para trabalho em meios criticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgarbi, Mauricio [Promon Engenharia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zeemann, Annelise [Tecmetal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Carbon steel fittings ASTM A105 and ASTM A234 WPB are widely applied for refinery piping and equipment and the detection, by a construction company, of a fitting manufacturing non conformance (NC) showed to be an unexpected problem of enormous dimension, since part of the plant was in startup conditions, with the NC fittings already welded, hydrostatically tested, painted and, in several lines, already thermally insulated. The challenge of treating the NC in a quick way with 100% confidence was even more difficult due to the metallurgical nature of the problem, not in the expertise of a construction company, which analyzed and decided about changing or accepting about 11,251 fittings of small diameter. This decision could impact directly in the refinery schedule for urgently running the unity. This work shows how the NC was detected, the extension of the problem that required field chemistry and hardness analysis of 7.425 parts, the metallurgical nature of the NC and the adopted treatment, considering that this unity presents aggressive environments and critical conditions like H2S. After a complex metallurgical study it was possible to change only 30% of the NC fittings, although some additional heat treatments were required to assure favorable conditions for piping use. (author)

  6. Degradation of High Voltage Polymeric Insulators in Arid Desert's Simulated Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Khan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: High Voltage (HV polymeric insulators are replacing ceramic insulator commonly used for HV outdoor networks due to their ease of handling, reliability and cost. However, their long term performance and reliability are major concerns to power utilities. Approach: To investigate their performance in arid desert's conditions, two types of HV composite insulators were aged as per International Electrochemical Commission (IEC standard-61109. Additional test samples were subjected to accelerated aging conditions simulating the actual Ultraviolet (UV radiation intensity and temperature in the inland desert. Results: This study described the experimental results of the effects of thermo electric stress and UV radiations on the polymeric insulators aged under two conditions i.e., as per IEC standard and modified IEC standard that simulates the inland arid desert. The tests results after the artificial accelerated aging indicated that the dielectric response of thermoplastic insulators under the tested thermo-electric cum UV-irradiations outperforms Silicone rubber insulators.Conclusion: From the obtained results it will be easy to assess the performance and suitability of composite insulators for their applications in arid desert environments.

  7. Bacterial epimerization as a route for deoxynivalenol detoxification: the influence of growth and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wei eHe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by several Fusarium species that infest wheat and corn. Food and feed contaminated with DON pose a health risk to both humans and livestock and form a major barrier for international trade. Microbial detoxification represents an alternative approach to the physical and chemical detoxification methods of DON-contaminated grains. The present study details the characterization of a novel bacterium, Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8, that is capable of transforming DON to a non-toxic stereoisomer, 3-epi-deoxynivalenol under aerobic conditions, mild temperature (25-30 oC, and neutral pH. The biotransformation takes place in the presence of rich sources of organic nitrogen and carbon without the need of DON to be the sole carbon source. The process is enzymatic in nature and endures a high detoxification capacity (3 µg DON/h/108 cells. The above conditions collectively suggest the possibility of utilizing the isolated bacterium as a feed treatment to address DON contamination under empirical field conditions.

  8. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-04-01

    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  9. An Outbreak of Aspergillus Species in Response to Environmental Conditions in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Lević

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and incidence of A. flavus and A. niger on barley, maize, soybean, sunflowerand wheat grain, the abundance of European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis mothsand their interaction depending on weather conditions in the 2008-2012 period were studied.Under the agroecological conditions of Serbia, the species A. niger is more frequentthan A. flavus, and concerning the crop species, its frequency is highest in kernels of sunflower,than soybean, maize, barley and wheat. A. flavus was extremely dominant on allplant species in 2012 regarding its frequency: 100% on soybean, 95.3% on maize, 65.2% onbarley, 57.1% on sunflower and 45.8% on wheat. Furthermore, the incidence of A. flavus washigher in 2012 than in previous years. The uncommonly high frequency and incidence of A.flavus infestation of maize grain in 2012 were caused by extremely stressful agrometeorologicalconditions, high temperatures and drought over the period from flowering to waxymaturity of maize. The precipitation factor (Pf = precipitation sum / average monthly temperatureshowed that 2012 was extremely arid in June (Pf = 0.57, July (Pf = 1.45, August (Pf= 0.15 and September (Pf = 1.42. European corn borer (ECB was a second factor causingintensive occurrence of A. flavus on maize grain in 2012. The maximum flight of ECB mothswas recorded as early as in July (5,149 and, as a result of this, high damage and numerousinjuries were detected at harvest. Those injuries were covered by visible olive-green powderycolonies typical of A. flavus. In the chronology of A. flavus occurrence, these are thefirst data on its very high frequency and incidence under the agroecological conditions ofSerbia. As intensive infections with A. flavus were rare in the past 50 years, the level of aflatoxinsin maize grain was low.

  10. Application of gamma rays for induction of tolerance mutants to environmental stress conditions in canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to induce useful mutations in canola possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sina (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility). Canola seeds of four varieties (Serow 4, Serow 6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). Thirty mutant plants for number of pods/plant and changes in morphological criteria were selected at M2 generation. The mutants at M3 generation confirmed that induction of mutant lines possessed higher number of pods and seed yield/plant than the mother varieties. The mutant lines possessed homogeneity at M3 generation were 5, 8,10, 11, 18 and 22 at serow 4, 38 and 45 at serow 6, 63 and 66 at Pactol and mutant lines 74,75, 78,92 at Evita. Highest number of pods/plant (110) was recorded at line 74 derived from Evita variety. The results were appeared the same trend for seed yield/plant with number of pods/plant, the lines which possessed high number of pods/plant were had high seed yield/plant. The results at M4 and M5 generations for 13 homogeneity mutant lines selected from M3 generation contained different response of mutant genotypes for different conditions on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant. Promising mutant lines were detected under both conditions possessed significant increases at both M4 and M5 generations. Oil percent as well as acid value at M4 and M5 were recorded the highest mean value was found at Inshas in line 75 and the lowest acid value was noticed at line 5. Finally nine mutant lines possessed promising traits of this study, lines 11, 66 and 87 under both conditions (Suder and Inshas), lines 8, 38 and 63 under Ras-Sudr and lines 74, 75 and 92 under Inshas condition.

  11. Characterization of Rice NADPH Oxidase Genes and Their Expression under Various Environmental Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gang-Feng Wang; Wen-Qiang Li; Wen-Yan Li; Guo-Li Wu; Cong-Yi Zhou; Kun-Ming Chen

    2013-01-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (Noxs) are key producers of reactive oxygen species under both normal and stress conditions in plants. We demonstrate that at least eleven genes in the genome of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were predicted to encode Nox proteins, including nine genes (OsNox1–9) that encode typical Noxs and two that encode ancient Nox forms (ferric reduction oxidase 1 and 7, OsFRO1 and OsFRO7). Phylogenetic analysis divided the Noxs from nine plant species into six subfamilies, with ri...

  12. Environmental Risk of Climate Change and Groundwater Abstraction on Ecological Conditions in a Danish Catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaby, L. P.; Boegh, E.; Jensen, N. H.

    2014-12-01

    The Danish drinking water supply is sourced almost entirely from groundwater. Balancing water abstraction demands and the ecological conditions in streams is one of the major challenges for water resource managers. With projected climate change, characterised by increased annual temperature, precipitation, and evapotranspiration rates for Denmark, the impact to low flows and groundwater levels are especially of interest, as they relate to aquatic habitat and nitrate leaching, respectively. On the island Sjælland, which includes urban and agricultural regions, a doubling of groundwater abstraction rates has been proposed in selected areas to meet water resource demands. This study evaluates the risk to stream ecological conditions for a lowland Danish catchment under multiple scenarios of climate change and groundwater abstraction. Projections of future climate (i.e. precipitation, temperature, reference evapotranspiration) come from the ENSEMBLES climate modelling project. Climate variables from 11 climate models are first bias corrected with a distribution based scaling (DBS) method (Seaby et al., 2013) and then used to force hydrological simulations of stream discharge, groundwater recharge, and nitrate leaching from the root zone under present (1991-2010) and future (2071-2100) climate conditions. Hydrological modelling utilises a sequential coupling methodology with DAISY, a one dimensional crop model describing soil water dynamics in the root zone, and MIKE SHE, a distributed groundwater-surface water model which the National Water Resources Model (DK-model) is set up in (Henriksen et al., 2003). We find low flow and annual discharge to be most impacted by scenarios of climate change, with high variation across climate models (+/- 40% change). Doubling of current groundwater abstraction rates reduces annual discharge by approximately 20%, with higher reductions to low flows seen around 40%. The combined effects of climate change and increased groundwater

  13. Effects of environmental preconditioning, donor tissue and isolation conditions on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. protoplast yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kuźniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of soil or in vitro grown plants, pretreatment conditions, donor tissue and isolation procedure on protoplast yield from cotyledons and leaves of tomato cv. 'Perkoz' and 'Zorza' were studied. The highest protoplast yield of 1.5 x 107/g FW was obtained from leaves of in vitro grown plants. Low light intensity during donor plants in vitro culture and dark pretreatment were essential for successful protoplast isolation while cold pretreatment was not. Tissue preplasmolysis prior to transfer to enzyme mixture increased 4-fold the number of isolated protoplasts. Glycine and bovine serum albumin in the isolation medium did not significantly influence the protoplast yield.

  14. Environmental conditions enhance toxicant effects in larvae of the ground beetle Pterostichus oblongopunctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bednarska, Agnieszka J., E-mail: a.bednarska@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland); Laskowski, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard.laskowski@uj.edu.p [Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Krakow (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The wide geographical distribution of ground beetles Pterostichus oblongopunctatus makes them very likely to be exposed to several environmental stressors at the same time. These could include both climatic stress and exposure to chemicals. Our previous studies demonstrated that the combined effect of nickel (Ni) and chlorpyrifos (CHP) was temperature (T)-dependent in adult P. oblongopunctatus. Frequently the different developmental stages of an organism are differently sensitive to single stressors, and for a number of reasons, such as differences in exposure routes, their interactions may also take different forms. Because of this, we studied the effects of the same factors on the beetle larvae. The results showed that all factors, as well as their interactions, influenced larvae survival. The synergistic effect of Ni and CPF was temperature-dependent and the effect of Ni x T interaction on the proportion of emerged imagines indicated stronger toxicity of Ni at 25 deg. C than at 10 deg. C. - Combined negative effects of nickel and chlorpyrifos on carabid beetles depend on ambient temperature.

  15. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  16. Mars-Relevant Environmental Conditions at the Lakes of Licancabur Volcano, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, A. N.; Cabrol, N. A.; Grin, E. A.; Kovacs, G. T; Rothschild, L. J.; Parazynski, S. E.; Prufert-Bebout, L.

    2005-12-01

    In the Bolivian Altiplano, a number of environmental variables combine to produce some of the most exotic and poorly understood lacustrine environments on Earth. In a cold, arid environment with extreme ultraviolet flux, these lakes provide a habitat for biology and a proxy for the study of potentially analogous martian environments. Here, we present new data on the physical, chemical environment of three such lakes at Licancabur Volcano, Bolivia and explore the quantitative basis for an analogy to Mars. Licancabur (22°50`'S, 67°53`'W) is a large, dormant volcano on the western edge of the Bolivian Altiplano at the border with Chile. Two hypersaline lakes, Laguna Blanca and Laguna Verde, are located at the volcano`'s 4300 m base. Within the past thirty years, these two were connected as a single reservoir, but local climate-driven evaporation (precipitation 1000 mm/y) has resulted in two topographically and chemically distinct bodies connected by a small stream. At nearly 6000 m, the small crater lake of Licancabur is one of the highest known and least explored on Earth. While sub-freezing average air temperature and extreme ultraviolet flux create an environment similar to the surface of Mars, the lake harbors a small biological community and is ice-covered only part of the year.

  17. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  18. Environmental profile analysis of MDF panels production: study in a brazilian technological condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Moro Piekarski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to analyze the environmental profile of MDF panel manufacturing in the Brazilian industry in terms of energy, emissions and dependence on renewable sources. The study was conducted by using the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA, specifically through the development of the first Life Cycle Inventory (LCI of MDF in a Brazilian industry. The life cycle inventory and the production processes analysis were constructed using Umberto® v.5.6 software and following the ISO 14040 series. The study covers the life cycle of MDF production from gate-to-gate perspective, involving the on-site manufacturing system. The functional unit was defined in 1 m3 of MDF. About 76% of energy required to produce MDF is thermal (52.8% of thermal energy is required for the drying process of wood fiber. CO2 is a major emission during the MDF production, where natural gas contributes to 96.7% of total CO2 fossils. It was observed a low dependence of non-renewable source (19.2% compared with the literature.

  19. Transcriptional Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to Oxidative Stress Mimicking Environmental Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Patricia M.; He, Qiang; Xavier, Antonio V.; Zhou, Jizhong; Pereira, Ines A.C.; Louro, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-12

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria are anaerobes readily found in oxic-anoxic interfaces. Multiple defence pathways against oxidative conditions were identified in these organisms and proposed to be differentially expressed under different concentrations of oxygen, contributing to their ability to survive oxic conditions. In this study, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough cells were exposed to the highest concentration of oxygen that sulphate-reducing bacteria are likely to encounter in natural habitats, and the global transcriptomic response was determined. 307 genes were responsive, with cellular roles in energy metabolism, protein fate, cell envelope and regulatory functions, including multiple genes encoding heat shock proteins, peptidases and proteins with heat shock promoters. Of the oxygen reducing mechanisms of D. vulgaris only the periplasmic hydrogen-dependent mechanism is up-regulated, involving the [NiFeSe]hydrogenase, formate dehydrogenase(s) and the Hmc membrane complex. The oxidative defence response concentrates on damage repair by metal-free enzymes. These data, together with the down regulation of the Fur operon, which restricts the availability of iron, and the lack of response of the PerR operon, suggest that a major effect of this oxygen stress is the inactivation and/or degradation of multiple metalloproteins present in D. vulgaris as a consequence of oxidative damage to their metal clusters.

  20. Effects of wearing compression garments on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity in temperate environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Laurence A; Dawson, Brian; Maloney, Shane K

    2009-03-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests compression garments (CGs) are being worn underneath normal playing attire during team sports. Wearing CGs as a baselayer could possibly increase heat storage, and so this field study investigated the effects of wearing CGs, comprising knee-length shorts and short-sleeved top underneath normal match-day attire (COMP), versus normal match-day attire alone (NORM) on thermoregulation during simulated team sport activity. Ten match-fit field hockey players twice performed 4x15min exercise bouts consisting of repeated cycles of intermittent, varied-intensity 20m shuttle running (Loughborough intermittent shuttle test), once in COMP and once in NORM. Testing was conducted in an indoor gymnasium (ambient conditions: approximately 17 degrees C, approximately 60% relative humidity). Participants acted as their own controls. Heart rate (HR), 15m sprint time, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate concentration, sweat rate and body core temperature (T(core)) were similar between trials (p>0.05). Mean skin temperature (T(skin)) was significantly higher in COMP than NORM (p<0.05). Overall, CGs worn as a baselayer during simulated team sport exercise in temperate ambient conditions had no thermoregulatory benefits nor any detrimental effects on T(core), physiological performance or dehydration. However, the higher T(skin) may affect individual preference for wearing CGs as an undergarment during team sports.

  1. Effect of environmental conditions on radon concentration-track density calibration factor of solid-state nuclear track detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sersy, A.; Mansy, M.; Hussein, A.

    2004-04-01

    In this work, the effect of environmental conditions viz., temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) on the track density--radon concentrations calibration factor (K) has been studied for CR-39 and LR-115 track detectors. The factor K was determined using a reference radon chamber in the National Institute for Standards (NIS) in Egypt. Track detectors were etched at the recommended optimum etching conditions. It is found that, the calibration factor K varies with both T and RH, so they should be considered for the sake of uncertainty reduction. Good agreement is found between the calculated and measured values of K and the compatibility between them is in the range of experimental uncertainty.

  2. Degradation of methylene blue: Optimization of operating condition through a statistical technique and environmental estimate of the treated wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FeOx-MoO3-P2O5 (x = 1 or 1.5) composite catalyst was prepared by solid reaction method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Its catalytic activities on degradation of a heteropolyaromatic dye, methylene blue (MB), were also investigated under mild condition. In order to determine the optimum operating condition, the orthogonal experiments were devised. And the results revealed that initial concentration of MB was the key factor that affected the decoloration, while the catalysts dose has an insignificant effect. Environmental estimation was also done and the results showed that the treated wastewater have little influence on plant growth and could totally be applied to irrigation

  3. Does spatial variation in environmental conditions affect recruitment? A study using a 3-D model of Peruvian anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yi; Rose, Kenneth A.; Chai, Fei; Chavez, Francisco P.; Ayón, Patricia

    2015-11-01

    We used a 3-dimensional individual-based model (3-D IBM) of Peruvian anchovy to examine how spatial variation in environmental conditions affects larval and juvenile growth and survival, and recruitment. Temperature, velocity, and phytoplankton and zooplankton concentrations generated from a coupled hydrodynamic Nutrients-Phytoplankton-Zooplankton-Detritus (NPZD) model, mapped to a three dimensional rectangular grid, were used to simulate anchovy populations. The IBM simulated individuals as they progressed from eggs to recruitment at 10 cm. Eggs and yolk-sac larvae were followed hourly through the processes of development, mortality, and movement (advection), and larvae and juveniles were followed daily through the processes of growth, mortality, and movement (advection plus behavior). A bioenergetics model was used to grow larvae and juveniles. The NPZD model provided prey fields which influence both food consumption rate as well as behavior mediated movement with individuals going to grids cells having optimal growth conditions. We compared predicted recruitment for monthly cohorts for 1990 through 2004 between the full 3-D IBM and a point (0-D) model that used spatially-averaged environmental conditions. The 3-D and 0-D versions generated similar interannual patterns in monthly recruitment for 1991-2004, with the 3-D results yielding consistently higher survivorship. Both versions successfully captured the very poor recruitment during the 1997-1998 El Niño event. Higher recruitment in the 3-D simulations was due to higher survival during the larval stage resulting from individuals searching for more favorable temperatures that lead to faster growth rates. The strong effect of temperature was because both model versions provided saturating food conditions for larval and juvenile anchovies. We conclude with a discussion of how explicit treatment of spatial variation affected simulated recruitment, other examples of fisheries modeling analyses that have used a

  4. Environmental education as preparation people for life in conditions of global changes imbalanced Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Regional Teacher Training Centre in Skierniewice is one of 49 public, accredited institutions in Poland. It is responsible for organizing of support of schools, institutions, networks of teachers and school managers for cooperation and self education, organizing and conducting forms of in-service training, giving methodological councils and disseminating examples of good practice. I present one example of how Environmental Education has been imparted to school students and their teachers through outdoor activities as part of the learning process. An Environmental Education Program, 'On Bolimov Nature Preserve Trails' has been organized regularly since 2001. The Bolimov Nature Preserve is a protected area in central Poland, situated between two agglomerations: capital city Warsaw to the East and industrial city Lodz to the West. It was established to protect an unique ecosystem on the Rawka River banks from human activity and harmful external factors. Pine tree forests, small streams, wetlands, glades are another elements of the park scenery. Walks on the park's trails are a great opportunity to see unique species of flora (more than 40 protected species and many endangered species on verge of extinction) and fauna. For teachers and students the Bolimov Nature Preserve offers educational lessons and events. The main activity is participation of students and teachers in group walk along trails of the park using various tools of orientation: maps, compasses and GPS. Along the paths they learn recognition of forms of terrain, identification of living species (using flora&fauna guides, magnifying glasses), measuring components of weather (using weather atlases, thermometers, anemometers) as well as preparation of soil profile. A survey is conducted after each such program. A statistical analysis of the survey data reveals that each year more and more students representing all levels of education from primary to upper secondary levels and their teachers are involved

  5. The effect of environmental conditions on biofilm formation of Burkholderia pseudomallei clinical isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Siti K Ramli

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, a Gram-negative saprophytic bacterium, is the causative agent of the potentially fatal melioidosis disease in humans. In this study, environmental parameters including temperature, nutrient content, pH and the presence of glucose were shown to play a role in in vitro biofilm formation by 28 B. pseudomallei clinical isolates, including four isolates with large colony variants (LCVs and small colony variants (SCVs morphotypes. Enhanced biofilm formation was observed when the isolates were tested in LB medium, at 30 °C, at pH 7.2, and in the presence of as little as 2 mM glucose respectively. It was also shown that all SVCs displayed significantly greater capacity to form biofilms than the corresponding LCVs when cultured in LB at 37 °C. In addition, octanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(8-HSL, a quorum sensing molecule, was identified by mass spectrometry analysis in bacterial isolates referred to as LCV CTH, LCV VIT, SCV TOM, SCV CTH, 1 and 3, and the presence of other AHL's with higher masses; decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(10-HSL and dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone (C(12-HSL were also found in all tested strain in this study. Last but not least, we had successfully acquired two Bacillus sp. soil isolates, termed KW and SA respectively, which possessed strong AHLs degradation activity. Biofilm formation of B. pseudomallei isolates was significantly decreased after treated with culture supernatants of KW and SA strains, demonstrating that AHLs may play a role in B. pseudomallei biofilm formation.

  6. Peroxisomal Monodehydroascorbate Reductase. Genomic Clone Characterization and Functional Analysis under Environmental Stress Conditions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J.; Barroso, Juan B.; Sandalio, Luisa M.; del Río, Luis A.

    2005-01-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5′ untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns

  7. Peroxisomal monodehydroascorbate reductase. Genomic clone characterization and functional analysis under environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Corpas, Francisco J; Barroso, Juan B; Sandalio, Luisa M; del Río, Luis A

    2005-08-01

    In plant cells, ascorbate is a major antioxidant that is involved in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR) is the enzymatic component of this cycle involved in the regeneration of reduced ascorbate. The identification of the intron-exon organization and the promoter region of the pea (Pisum sativum) MDAR 1 gene was achieved in pea leaves using the method of walking polymerase chain reaction on genomic DNA. The nuclear gene of MDAR 1 comprises nine exons and eight introns, giving a total length of 3,770 bp. The sequence of 544 bp upstream of the initiation codon, which contains the promoter and 5' untranslated region, and 190 bp downstream of the stop codon were also determined. The presence of different regulatory motifs in the promoter region of the gene might indicate distinct responses to various conditions. The expression analysis in different plant organs by northern blots showed that fruits had the highest level of MDAR. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis of pea leaves transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens having the binary vectors pGD, which contain the autofluorescent proteins enhanced green fluorescent protein and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein with the full-length cDNA for MDAR 1 and catalase, indicated that the MDAR 1 encoded the peroxisomal isoform. The functional analysis of MDAR by activity and protein expression was studied in pea plants grown under eight stress conditions, including continuous light, high light intensity, continuous dark, mechanical wounding, low and high temperature, cadmium, and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. This functional analysis is representative of all the MDAR isoforms present in the different cell compartments. Results obtained showed a significant induction by high light intensity and cadmium. On the other hand, expression studies, performed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated differential expression patterns of

  8. The influence of environmental conditions on the age pattern in breeding performance in a transequatorial migratory seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia eHernández

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several studies of marine top predators, above all of seabirds, have analysed the effects of either individual age or environmental fluctuations on reproduction; nevertheless, little is known about the age patterns in breeding performance in a variable environment. To investigate the simultaneous influence of age and environmental conditions on laying dates and egg volumes, we tested different climate and food availability indices in a transequatorial migratory seabird using female data from a 23-year study. Our results show an initial improvement in breeding parameters with age (i.e. earlier laying dates and greater egg volumes but no pattern of senescence in older age groups. The best models showed an interaction of time and age in breeding performance, i.e. the age pattern of breeding performance changed each year likely as a result of environmental variability. Nevertheless, climatic indexes used here explained part of that annual variability: NAO and SOI index accounted for 24% and 20% of deviances in laying dates and egg volume respectively. Part of that unexplained variability might be related to other processes such as intermittent breeding and the individual quality of breeders, which were not assessed in our study.

  9. The effect of environmental conditions on expression of Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron C10 protease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thornton Roibeard F

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteroides fragilis and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron are members of the normal human intestinal microbiota. However, both organisms are capable of causing opportunistic infections, during which the environmental conditions to which the bacteria are exposed change dramatically. To further explore their potential for contributing to infection, we have characterized the expression in B. thetaiotaomicron of four homologues of the gene encoding the C10 cysteine protease SpeB, a potent extracellular virulence factor produced by Streptococcus pyogenes. Results We identified a paralogous set of genes (btp genes in the B. thetaiotaomicron genome, that were related to C10 protease genes we recently identified in B. fragilis. Similar to C10 proteases found in B. fragilis, three of the B. thetaiotaomicron homologues were transcriptionally coupled to genes encoding small proteins that are similar in structural architecture to Staphostatins, protease inhibitors associated with Staphopains in Staphylococcus aureus. The expression of genes for these C10 proteases in both B. fragilis and B. thetaiotaomicron was found to be regulated by environmental stimuli, in particular by exposure to oxygen, which may be important for their contribution to the development of opportunistic infections. Conclusions Genes encoding C10 proteases are increasingly identified in operons which also contain genes encoding proteins homologous to protease inhibitors. The Bacteroides C10 protease gene expression levels are responsive to different environmental stimuli suggesting they may have distinct roles in the bacterial-host interaction.

  10. Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Álvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available A concern associated with the growing of genetically modified (GM crops is that they could adversely affect non-target organisms. We assessed the impact of several transgenic powdery mildew-resistant spring wheat lines on insect herbivores. The GM lines carried either the Pm3b gene from hexaploid wheat, which confers race-specific resistance to powdery mildew, or the less specific anti-fungal barley seed chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. In addition to the non-transformed control lines, several conventional spring wheat varieties and barley and triticale were included for comparison. During two consecutive growing seasons, powdery mildew infection and the abundance of and damage by naturally occurring herbivores were estimated under semi-field conditions in a convertible glasshouse and in the field. Mildew was reduced on the Pm3b-transgenic lines but not on the chitinase/glucanase-expressing lines. Abundance of aphids was negatively correlated with powdery mildew in the convertible glasshouse, with Pm3b wheat plants hosting significantly more aphids than their mildew-susceptible controls. In contrast, aphid densities did not differ between GM plants and their non-transformed controls in the field, probably because of low mildew and aphid pressure at this location. Likewise, the GM wheat lines did not affect the abundance of or damage by the herbivores Oulema melanopus (L. and Chlorops pumilionis Bjerk. Although a previous study has revealed that some of the GM wheat lines show pleiotropic effects under field conditions, their effect on herbivorous insects appears to be low.

  11. Thermo-physiological comfort of soft-shell back protectors under controlled environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotti, Francesca; Ferri, Ada; Moncalero, Matteo; Colonna, Martino

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate thermo-physiological comfort of three back protectors identifying design features affecting heat loss and moisture management. Five volunteers tested the back protectors in a climatic chamber during an intermittent physical activity. Heart rate, average skin temperature, sweat production, microclimate temperature and humidity have been monitored during the test. The sources of heat losses have been identified using infrared thermography and the participants answered a questionnaire to express their subjective sensations associated with their thermo-physiological condition. The results have shown that locally torso skin temperature and microclimate depended on the type of back protector, whose design allowed different extent of perspiration and thermal insulation. Coupling physiological measurements with the questionnaire, it was found that overall comfort was dependent more on skin wetness than skin temperature: the participants preferred the back protector with the highest level of ventilation through the shell and the lowest level of microclimate humidity.

  12. Population dynamics of European honey bee genotypes under different environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatjina, Fani; Costa, Cecilia; Büchler, Ralph;

    2014-01-01

    Adaptation of honey bees to their environment is expressed by the annual development pattern of the colony, the balance with food sources and the host - parasite balance, all of which interact among each other with changes in the environment. In the present study, we analyse the development...... - environment interactions and their effects on colony development, which we use in this study as a measure of their vitality. We found that colonies placed in Southern Europe tend to have lower adult bee populations compared to colonies placed in colder conditions, while the brood population tends...... to be smaller in the North, thus reflecting the shorter longevity of bees in warmer climates and the shorter brood rearing period in the North. We found that both genotype and environment significantly affect colony development, and that specific adaptations exist, especially in terms of adult bee population...

  13. Acoustic noise in deep ice and environmental conditions at the South Pole

    CERN Document Server

    Karg, Timo

    2008-01-01

    To study the acoustic properties of the Antarctic ice the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was installed in the upper part of drill holes for the IceCube neutrino observatory. An important parameter for the design of a future acoustic neutrino telescope is the acoustic background noise in the ice and its spatial and temporal variations. We study the absolute noise level depth profile from SPATS data and discuss systematic uncertainties. The measured noise is very stable over one year of data taking, and we estimate the absolute noise level to be < 10 mPa in the frequency range from 10 kHz to 50 kHz at depths below 200 m. This noise level is of the same order of magnitude as observed by ocean based acoustic neutrino detection projects in good weather conditions.

  14. Autochthonous microbial community associated with pine needle forest litterfall influences its degradation under natural environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rishi; Nikitina, Anna; Litti, Yury; Nozhevnikova, Alla; Goel, Gunjan

    2016-07-01

    The slow natural degradation of chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) needle litterfall and its accumulation on forest floors have been attributed to its lignocellulosic complexities of the biomass. The present study offers a microbiological insight into the role of autochthonous microflora associated with pine needle litterfall in its natural degradation. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting indicated actinomycetes (Saccharomonospora sp., Glycomyces sp., Agrococcus sp., Leifsonia sp., Blastocatella sp., and Microbacterium sp.) as a dominant microbial community associated with pine needle litterfall with the absence of fungal decomposers. On exclusion of associated autochthonous microflora from pine litterfall resulted in colonization by decomposer fungi identified as Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus sp., which otherwise failed to colonize the litterfall under natural conditions. The results, therefore, indicated that the autochthonous microbial community of pine needle litterfall (dominated by actinomycetes) obstructs the colonization of litter-degrading fungi and subsequently hinders the overall process of natural degradation of litterfall. PMID:27317052

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on re-emission of formaldehyde from textile materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiglusz, R; Sitko, E; Jarnuszkiewicz, I

    1995-01-01

    Furnishing textile materials may be a source of formaldehyde (CH2O) re-emission if this compound is present in the environment. In the examinations performed the effect of temperature (23 degrees C, 35 degrees C) and air humidity (RH: 45%, 85%) upon CH2O re-emission from curtain materials was determined. The source of CH2O emission was particle board. CH2O emission was determined in small glass chambers (13.08 dm3) in controlled conditions, one air exchange per hour at loading factor of 1 m2/m3. The results of these examinations showed that the effect of temperature and humidity upon CH2O adsorption and desorption was different. Increase of temperature from 25 degrees C to 35 degrees C caused increase of the magnitude and rate of CH2O re-emission and the phenomenon intensified at high air humidity.

  16. Environmental conditions during the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction inferred from chlorophyll-derived porphyrin biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uveges, B. T.; Junium, C. K.; Cohen, P. A.; Boyer, D.

    2014-12-01

    The widespread mass extinction that occurred across the Frasnian- Fammenian (F-F) boundary was one of the largest losses of biodiversity in Earth's history. The F-F extinction interval is expressed in western New York State by two organic rich black shale intervals known as the Upper and Lower Kellwasser events. These shale intervals are well preserved, thermally immature, and are well constrained in age by conodont biostratigraphy, and thus provide an exceptional opportunity to study the organic material originating from the F-F boundary. In order to test hypotheses about the cause(s) and consequences of the FF biotic crisis, a broader knowledge of the organic carbon sources is needed, and a characterization of the marine primary producer communities will assist in this endeavor. One such avenue is through the study of chlorophyll-derived biomarkers (porphyrins). The organic extracts of powdered shale samples from the Kellwasser horizons were analyzed using HPLC/LC-MSn and diode array UV-Vis spectroscopy. Preliminary data from the Kellwasser intervals reveal only one porphyrin, with a mass (M+H) of 600. The UV-Vis absorbance spectrum (Soret = 405nm, α = 533nm, β = 570nm) of the metallated compound is consistent with that of a vanadyl porphyrin with a free-base (M+H) of 535. Collision-induced mass spectra displays mass losses of 43 and 57 daltons, which are consistent with an extended alkyl chain at the C-8 position. Extended alkyl chains at C-8 are exclusively associated with porphyrins derived from bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e. The presence of bacterioporphyrins is congruous with the episodic presence of anoxic and sulfidic conditions in the photic zone. What is surprising is that a bacteriochlorophyll- derived porphyrin is the most abundant in these sequences, and their study may help to elucidate the conditions surrounding the F-F mass extinction, and further constrain the fluctuations in marine oxygen content in the Upper Devonian Appalachian Basin.

  17. The Eocene Arctic Azolla bloom: environmental conditions, productivity and carbon drawdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speelman, E N; Van Kempen, M M L; Barke, J; Brinkhuis, H; Reichart, G J; Smolders, A J P; Roelofs, J G M; Sangiorgi, F; de Leeuw, J W; Lotter, A F; Sinninghe Damsté, J S

    2009-03-01

    Enormous quantities of the free-floating freshwater fern Azolla grew and reproduced in situ in the Arctic Ocean during the middle Eocene, as was demonstrated by microscopic analysis of microlaminated sediments recovered from the Lomonosov Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 302. The timing of the Azolla phase (approximately 48.5 Ma) coincides with the earliest signs of onset of the transition from a greenhouse towards the modern icehouse Earth. The sustained growth of Azolla, currently ranking among the fastest growing plants on Earth, in a major anoxic oceanic basin may have contributed to decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels via burial of Azolla-derived organic matter. The consequences of these enormous Azolla blooms for regional and global nutrient and carbon cycles are still largely unknown. Cultivation experiments have been set up to investigate the influence of elevated pCO2 on Azolla growth, showing a marked increase in Azolla productivity under elevated (760 and 1910 ppm) pCO2 conditions. The combined results of organic carbon, sulphur, nitrogen content and 15N and 13C measurements of sediments from the Azolla interval illustrate the potential contribution of nitrogen fixation in a euxinic stratified Eocene Arctic. Flux calculations were used to quantitatively reconstruct the potential storage of carbon (0.9-3.5 10(18) gC) in the Arctic during the Azolla interval. It is estimated that storing 0.9 10(18) to 3.5 10(18) g carbon would result in a 55 to 470 ppm drawdown of pCO2 under Eocene conditions, indicating that the Arctic Azolla blooms may have had a significant effect on global atmospheric pCO2 levels through enhanced burial of organic matter. PMID:19323694

  18. Fish otolith geochemistry, environmental conditions and human occupation at Lake Mungo, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kelsie; Stern, Nicola; Williams, Ian S.; Kinsley, Les; Wood, Rachel; Sporcic, Katarina; Smith, Tegan; Fallon, Stewart; Kokkonen, Harri; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    Fish otoliths from the Willandra Lakes Region World Heritage Area (south-western New South Wales, Australia) have been analysed for oxygen isotopes and trace elements using in situ techniques, and dated by radiocarbon. The study focused on the lunettes of Lake Mungo, an overflow lake that only filled during flooding events and emptied by evaporation, and Lake Mulurulu, which was part of the running Willandra Creek system. Samples were collected from two different contexts: from hearths directly associated with human activity, and isolated surface finds. AMS radiocarbon dating constrains the human activity documented by five different hearths to a time span of less than 240 years around 19,350 cal. BP. These hearths were constructed in aeolian sediments with alternating clay and sand layers, indicative of fluctuating lake levels and occasional drying out. The geochemistry of the otoliths confirms this scenario, with shifts in Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca marking the entry of the fish into Lake Mungo several years before their death, and a subsequent increase in the δ18O by ˜4‰ indicating increasing evaporation of the lake. During sustained lake-full conditions there are considerably fewer traces of human presence. It seems that the evaporating Lake Mungo attracted people to harvest fish that might have become sluggish through oxygen starvation in an increasingly saline water body (easy prey hypothesis). In contrast, surface finds have a much wider range in radiocarbon age as a result of reworking, and do not necessarily indicate evaporative conditions, as shown by comparison with otoliths from upstream Lake Mulurulu.

  19. Reproductive performance of Brown Swiss, Holstein and their crosses under subtropical environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S; Nasr, Mohammed A F

    2015-09-01

    Selection has been emphasized for increasing production traits with ignoring the fertility traits, which leads to a general loss of reproductive fitness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of the pure Brown Swiss (BS), Holstein (HO), their first-generation crossbred (F1), and backcross (BC) cows under subtropical Egyptian conditions. The reproductive performance and health traits were measured in the pure BS, HO, their F1, and BC crossbred, in addition to investigating the impact of temperature-humidity index level (THI) on reproductive traits. Brown Swiss and her F1 had a better reproductive efficiency and health traits than in HO and BC. They possess a higher conception (34.1% and 36.9%, respectively) and pregnancy rates (32.8% and 31.1%, respectively), a shorter calving interval (401 and 420 days, respectively), and a lower average insemination per parturition (3.18 and 3.45, respectively), with a lower incidence of metritis (14.1% and 14.6%, respectively). Moreover, no difference has been detected in the fertility of BS with different THI levels, whereas F1 was slightly affected by increasing THI, especially for conception rate which declined from 43.1% at low to 24.1% at high THI. But the pregnancy rate did not change with different levels of THI. Our results indicate that BS and her F1 have a better reproductive performance and adaptability than pure HO and BC under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Furthermore, milk yield of the F1 crossbred is comparable to that of the pure HO cows. PMID:25986066

  20. Diversity and interactions of microbial functional genes under differing environmental conditions: insights from a membrane bioreactor and an oxidation ditch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yu; Hu, Man; Wen, Xianghua; Wang, Xiaohui; Yang, Yunfeng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of environmental conditions on the diversity and interactions of microbial communities has caused tremendous interest in microbial ecology. Here, we found that with identical influents but differing operational parameters (mainly mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) concentrations, solid retention time (SRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations), two full-scale municipal wastewater treatment systems applying oxidation ditch (OD) and membrane bioreactor (MBR) processes harbored a majority of shared genes (87.2%) but had different overall functional gene structures as revealed by two datasets of 12-day time-series generated by a functional gene array-GeoChip 4.2. Association networks of core carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling genes in each system based on random matrix theory (RMT) showed different topological properties and the MBR nodes showed an indication of higher connectivity. MLSS and DO were shown to be effective in shaping functional gene structures of the systems by statistical analyses. Higher MLSS concentrations resulting in decreased resource availability of the MBR system were thought to promote positive interactions of important functional genes. Together, these findings show the differences of functional potentials of some bioprocesses caused by differing environmental conditions and suggest that higher stress of resource limitation increased positive gene interactions in the MBR system.

  1. Phyllopshere Bacterial Community Structure of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea as Affected by Cultivar and Environmental Conditions at Time of Harvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O. Falkinham III

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern molecular ecology techniques were used to demonstrate the effects of plant genotype and environmental conditions prior to harvest on the spinach epiphytic bacterial community. Three cultivars of spinach with different leaf topographies were collected at three different periods during the fall growing season. Leaf surface topography had an effect on diversity and number of culturable bacteria on the phylloepiphtyic community of spinach. Savoy cultivars, which had larger surface area and more stomata and glandular trichomes, where bacterial aggregates were observed, featured more diverse communities with increased richness and larger bacterial populations compared to flat-leaved cultivars. Bacterial community richness was compared using denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE, while abundance was quantified using 16s rRNA primers for major phyla. The most diverse communities, both in richness and abundance, were observed during the first sampling period, immediately following a period of rapid spinach growth. Exposure to lower air and soil temperatures and decreased precipitation resulted in significantly reduced bacterial population size and bacterial community richness in November and December. This study describes the effect of the plant characteristics and environmental conditions that affect spinach microbiota population size and diversity, which might have implications in the survival of food and plant bacterial pathogens.

  2. Biodegradation of aged diesel in diverse soil matrixes: impact of environmental conditions and bioavailability on microbial remediation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Nora B; van Gaans, Pauline; Langenhoff, Alette A M; Maphosa, Farai; Smidt, Hauke; Grotenhuis, Tim; Rijnaarts, Huub H M

    2013-07-01

    While bioremediation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) is in general a robust technique, heterogeneity in terms of contaminant and environmental characteristics can impact the extent of biodegradation. The current study investigates the implications of different soil matrix types (anthropogenic fill layer, peat, clay, and sand) and bioavailability on bioremediation of an aged diesel contamination from a heterogeneous site. In addition to an uncontaminated sample for each soil type, samples representing two levels of contamination (high and low) were also used; initial TPH concentrations varied between 1.6 and 26.6 g TPH/kg and bioavailability between 36 and 100 %. While significant biodegradation occurred during 100 days of incubation under biostimulating conditions (64.4-100 % remediation efficiency), low bioavailability restricted full biodegradation, yielding a residual TPH concentration. Respiration levels, as well as the abundance of alkB, encoding mono-oxygenases pivotal for hydrocarbon metabolism, were positively correlated with TPH degradation, demonstrating their usefulness as a proxy for hydrocarbon biodegradation. However, absolute respiration and alkB presence were dependent on soil matrix type, indicating the sensitivity of results to initial environmental conditions. Through investigating biodegradation potential across a heterogeneous site, this research illuminates the interplay between soil matrix type, bioavailability, and bioremediation and the implications of these parameters for the effectiveness of an in situ treatment.

  3. Variations of vessel diameter and δ13C in false rings of Arbutus unedo L. reflect different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; De Micco, Veronica; Brand, Willi A; Linke, Petra; Aronne, Giovanna; Saurer, Matthias; Cherubini, Paolo

    2010-12-01

    Woody species in Mediterranean ecosystems form intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs) in tree rings in response to changes in environmental conditions, especially water availability. Dendrochronology, quantitative wood anatomy and high-resolution isotopic analysis (using a laser ablation technique) were used to characterize IADFs in Arbutus unedo shrubs grown on two sites with different water availability on the island of Elba (Italy). Our findings show that IADF characterization can provide information about the relationship between environmental factors and tree growth at the seasonal level. At the more xeric site, IADFs mainly located in the early and middle parts of the annual ring, showed a decrease in vessel size and an increase in δ(13) C as a result of drought deficit. Opposite trends were found at the more mesic site, with IADFs located at the end of the ring and associated with a lower δ(13) C. Moreover, at the first site, IADFs are induced by drought deficit, while at the second site IADFs are linked with the regrowth in the last part of the growing season triggered by favourable wet conditions. This combined approach is a promising way for dating problematic wood samples and interpreting the phenomena that trigger the formation of IADFs in the Mediterranean environment.

  4. Spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system of southeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of macroinvertebrate distributions and associated environmental drivers in subtropical Asian rivers is relatively scarce. To fill this knowledge gap, we examined the spatial variation of macroinvertebrate community structure and associated environmental conditions in a subtropical river system, the Dongjiang River Basin, in southeastern China. A total of 70 families and 9 classes of macroinvertebrates were identified from 74 sites sampled in January 2013. Our study has the following findings: (1 a distinct spatial differentiation of macroinvertebrate communities was present in the Dongjiang River Basin indicated by non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS, which corresponded to the northern region (NR, middle region (MR, and southern region (SR gradient; (2 ANOVAs showed that diversity indices (total taxa, Margalef index and the Shannon diversity index, biotic indices (richness of EPT, percentage of EPT, and family biotic index and most of the studied environmental conditions (elevation, slope, steam order, water temperature, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, substrates, ammoniacal nitrogen, total phosphorus, percentage of urban land, percentage of rural land, and percentage of forest land differed significantly among the three regions and a degradation gradient was observed in the NR–MR–SR direction; (3 Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA revealed that NR sites were characterized by steep slope and coarse substrate, MR sites were characterized by high water temperatures and shallow slopes, and SR sites were primarily characterized by high total phosphorus and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; and (4 the Indicator Species Analysis, in conjunction with CCA analysis indicated that the most representative indicator taxon is Tipulidae for NR, Semisulcospira sp. for MR, and Branchiura sp. for SR.

  5. The environmental impact of groundwater heat pump used for air conditioning. Feedback from the ImPAC Lyon study site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project ImPAC Lyon was to evaluate the thermal, physico-chemical and microbiological impacts potentially associated to a groundwater heat pump (GSHP). It is based on two experimental parts: one in laboratory and the other on land (8. district of Lyon). The main results indicate that: - on land, no physical and microbiological disturbances were revealed in the conditions of the study (range of temperature; 16-24 deg. C). Only thermal disturbances were observed; - the experimental approach of laboratory displayed in this study (range of temperature: 15-25 deg. C) indicates a certain influence of the temperature on the native bacterial microflora, but not enough to compromise the ecosystem balance, However, other environmental conditions have to be studied (T >25 deg. C and T< 15 deg. C, different redox conditions); - behaviour of pathogenic bacteria and organic pollutants in the presence of thermal modifications could not be observed in Lyon (no pollutions observed). It will also have to be studied in new projects; - the bad sizing of ta plant (which seems to be a significant practice in urban areas with little space) could lead to thermal disturbances and a progressive heating of the aquifer at an inter-annual scale. In these conditions, it seems necessary to pursue the works begun in Lyon by treating the other ranges of temperatures. (authors)

  6. Species-specific climate response of oaks (Quercus spp. under identical environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders TGM

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oak forests play a major role in Britain due to their economic, social and historic value. Sudden oak death and general decline symptoms have therefore caused major concerns in the forestry sector over the past decade. Several strategies have been proposed to preserve the economic and social value of oak forests, including the planting of native species with more southerly origins, or non-native species of oak that may be better suited to the projected climate of the future. The Ovington research plots, established 50 years ago at the Bedgebury Pinetum in southeast England, provided the opportunity to compare annual growth rates and climate-growth relationships of five oak species growing adjacent to each other on the same soil type and under the same climatic conditions. Clear differences were evident in annual increment and climate-growth responses for the five Quercus species. Growth rates were significantly lower (p<0.05 for the two species native to the UK (Q. petraea and Q. robur compared to the southern European and American species. A partitioning analysis using key climatic variables separates Q. coccinea from the other species due to its negative response to low temperatures. These results were confirmed by pointer year analysis. The analysis suggests that Q. robur is likely to be the more resilient of the two native species of oak to the future climate of southern Britain. Of the non-native species of oak evaluated, Q. coccinea represents an alternative species to Q. robur and Q. petraea on very dry, nutrient-poor sites. Q. palustris may also have some potential under current conditions for species diversification, but its requirement for higher summer precipitation than the other four species suggests that this potential may not be sustained as climate change progresses. However, if alternative species are selected as more resilient to climate change in terms of growth, it will be essential to consider a range of other issues

  7. Environmental conditions associated with repetitive behavior in a group of African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenjager, Matthew J; Bergl, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive movement patterns are commonly observed in zoo elephants. The extent to which these behaviors constitute a welfare concern varies, as their expression ranges from stereotypies to potentially beneficial anticipatory behaviors. Nevertheless, their occurrence in zoo animals is often viewed negatively. To better identify conditions that prompt their performance, observations were conducted on six African elephants (Loxodonta africana) at the North Carolina Zoo. Individuals spent most of their time engaged in feeding, locomotion, resting, and repetitive behavior. Both generalized estimating equation and zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to identify factors associated with increased rates of repetitive behavior. Time of day in conjunction with location on- or off-exhibit best explained patterns of repetitive behavior. Repetitive behaviors occurred at a lower rate in the morning when on-exhibit, as compared to afternoons on-exhibit or at any time of day off-exhibit. Increased repetitive behavior rates observed on-exhibit in the afternoon prior to the evening transfer and feeding were possibly anticipatory responses towards those events. In contrast, consistently elevated frequencies of repetitive behavior off-exhibit at all times of day could be related to differences in exhibit complexity between off-exhibit and on-exhibit areas, as well as a lack of additional foraging opportunities. Our study contributes valuable information on captive elephant behavior and represents a good example of how behavioral research can be employed to improve management of zoo animals. PMID:25919392

  8. Effectiveness of low concentration electrolyzed water to inactivate foodborne pathogens under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S M E; Ding, Tian; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2010-05-15

    Strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) has a very limited application due to its low pH value (4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 9.0) and temperatures (4, 15, 23, 35 and 50 degrees C) were determined. Reductions of bacterial populations of 1.7 to 6.6 log(10) CFU/mL in various treated conditions in cell suspensions were observed after treatment with LcEW and SAEW, compared to the untreated control. Dip washing (1 min at 35 degrees C) of lettuce leaves in both electrolyzed water resulted in 2.5 to 4.0 log(10) CFU/g compared to the unwashed control. Strong inactivation effects were observed in LcEW, and no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between LcEW and SAEW. The effective form of chlorine compounds in LcEW was almost exclusively hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which has strong antimicrobial activity and leaves no residuals due to the low concentration of residual chlorine. Thus, LcEW could be widely applied as a new sanitizer in the food industry.

  9. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H; Strand, Micheline K; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such "migratory management" causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  10. PRODUCTION AND PERIODICITY CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME OLIVE CULTIVARS (OLEA EUROPAEA L IN VLORA ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ismaili

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 44 olive cultivars were studied for their morphological and technological characteristics in Vlora area conditions, during a 12-year period (1993-2005. The main indices studied were the cultivar adaptability in the growing area and regularity of its initial production. Olive cultivars have shown significant changes with regard to their efflorescence and first production. Cultivars like, Manzanilla, Pendolino, Koroneiki, Amigdanolia started their first production during the second year whereas other cultivars like Unafka, Boçi, Kallmet, KME, KMB, Kaninjot, B. TIR, Kushan, H. Himara, Nisiot, Marks started their first production from the 5th to 7th year. Regarding the CP analysis, cultivars were classified according to their diversity level below and above the threshold 0.3. The values of coefficient of periodicity (CP analyzing the cluster average linkage method, showed three groups with similarities: (i 16% of cultivars with alternation coefficient 0.09 to 0.30; (ii 32% of cultivars with alternation coefficient 0.30-0.45; (iii 52% of cultivars with alternation coefficient over 0.45. This means that production of the third group was without uniformity.

  11. K-shell spectroscopic diagnosis of suprathermal electrons at fusion-relevant environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, O.; Šmíd, M.; Khaghani, D.; Rosmej, F. B.

    2016-03-01

    Fast-electron-induced changes in the ion charge distribution lead to a substantial modification of radiative properties of x-ray emitting systems. We report Cu K-shell spectra emitted from 1.5-μm-thick Cu foils irradiated by laser intensities up to 5×1016 W/cm2 using the fundamental and frequency tripled radiation of the Prague iodine laser system PALS, i.e., at conditions characteristic for laser spikes anticipated in the shock ignition scheme. The emission of the lower-ionization-stage ions observed as a fine structure merged with the Cu Kα12 doublet and spectral lines corresponding to transitions in He-like to Ne-like Cu atoms were identified. The spectra analysis based on a combination of MULTI2D hydrodynamic modelling of the plasma evolution and its emissivity synthesized by collisional-radiative code FLYCHK provides information on distribution of hot electron fractions at low plasma temperatures. The procedure used for interpretation of experimental data contributes to a development of alternative methods for diagnosis of suprathermal electrons.

  12. S-layer production by Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under environmental stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosu-Tudor, Silvia-Simona; Brown, Lucia; Hebert, Elvira M; Brezeanu, Aurelia; Brinzan, Alexandru; Fadda, Silvina; Mozzi, Fernanda; Zamfir, Medana

    2016-05-01

    The ability of microorganisms to synthesize S-layer, the outermost structure of the microbial cell envelope composed of non-covalently bound proteins, has been ascribed to help microorganisms to exert their probiotic properties in the host. In this work, formation of S-layer by the potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus IBB 801 under different stress culture conditions (high incubation temperatures, presence of bile salts or NaCl, and acidic pH) was assayed. A marked S-layer synthesis by L. acidophilus IBB 801 was detected when the strain was grown at 42 °C and in the presence of 0.05 % bile salts or 2.0 % NaCl. The presence of S-layer proteins was further confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and protein identification by MS/MS. The differential expression of the proteome of this strain at 42 °C, when a marked formation of S-layer was detected, revealed the overexpression of six proteins mainly related to general stress and protein biosynthesis and translation, while four proteins detected in lower amounts were involved in DNA repair and energy metabolism. As L. acidophilus IBB 801 produces both a bacteriocin and S-layer proteins, the strain could be of interest to be used in the formulation of functional food products with specific properties. PMID:26910041

  13. Migratory management and environmental conditions affect lifespan and oxidative stress in honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone-Finstrom, Michael; Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Huang, Ming H.; Strand, Micheline K.; Rueppell, Olav; Tarpy, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Most pollination in large-scale agriculture is dependent on managed colonies of a single species, the honey bee Apis mellifera. More than 1 million hives are transported to California each year just to pollinate the almonds, and bees are trucked across the country for various cropping systems. Concerns have been raised about whether such “migratory management” causes bees undue stress; however to date there have been no longer-term studies rigorously addressing whether migratory management is detrimental to bee health. To address this issue, we conducted field experiments comparing bees from commercial and experimental migratory beekeeping operations to those from stationary colonies to quantify effects on lifespan, colony health and productivity, and levels of oxidative damage for individual bees. We detected a significant decrease in lifespan of migratory adult bees relative to stationary bees. We also found that migration affected oxidative stress levels in honey bees, but that food scarcity had an even larger impact; some detrimental effects of migration may be alleviated by a greater abundance of forage. In addition, rearing conditions affect levels of oxidative damage incurred as adults. This is the first comprehensive study on impacts of migratory management on the health and oxidative stress of honey bees. PMID:27554200

  14. Marine cold seeps and their manifestations: geological control, biogeochemical criteria and environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Erwin

    2014-10-01

    , by emitting characteristically gas hydrate-derived methane, brine-associated non-methane hydrocarbons or leached elements and their isotopes (Li, δ7Li, B, Ba) from host sediments. Smectite-illite transformation and associated Cl-depletion from release of interlayer water is a pervasive process at these margins. Rare earth element pattern in conjunction with redox-sensitive metals retained in seep carbonates indicate whether or not they precipitated in contact with oxic bottom water or suboxic fluids; clear environmental characterization, though, currently remains inconclusive. More deeply sourced fluids as in transform margins may be characterized by their 87Sr/86Sr ratios from interaction with oceanic crustal rocks below. Quantification of flow and reliable estimates of total volatile output from fore-arcs remain a challenge to seep research, as does understanding the role of geologically derived methane in the global methane cycle.

  15. Ammonium Oxidation Under Iron Reducing Conditions: Environmental Factors Characterization and Process Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shan; Ruiz, Melany; Jaffe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Ammonium (NH4+) oxidation coupled to iron (Fe) reduction in the absence of oxygen and nitrate/nitrite (NO3-/NO2-) has been reported by several investigators and is referred to as Feammox. Feammox is a biological reaction, where Fe(III) is the electron acceptor, which is reduced to Fe(II), and NH4+ is the electron donor, which is oxidized to NO2-. An Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium named A6, a previously unreported species in the Acidimicrobiaceae family, has been identified as being responsible for the Feammox process(1, 2) Feammox process was noted in riparian wetland soils in New Jersey(1,3), in tropical rainforest soils in Puerto Rico (4) and in paddy soils in China (5). In addition to these published locations, Feammox process was also found in samples collected from a series of local wetland-, upland-, as well as storm-water detention pond-sediments in New Jersey, river sediments from South Carolina, and forested soils near an acid mine drainage (Dabaoshan, Guangdong province) in China. Using primers acm342f - 439r (2), Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 was detected in samples where Feammox was observed, after strictly anaerobic incubations. According to a canonical correspondence analysis with environmental characteristics and soil microbial communities, the species-environment relationship indicated that pH and Fe oxides content were the primary factors controlling Feammox process. Anaerobic incubations of Feammox enrichment cultures adjusted to different pH, revealed that the optimal pH for Feammox is 4 ~ 5, and the reaction does not proceed when pH > 7. No correlation was found between the distributions of Feammox bacteria and other NH4+ oxidation bacteria. Pure Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6 strain was isolated in an autotrophic medium, from an active Feammox membrane reactor (A6 was enriched to 65.8% of the total bacteria). A 13C labeled CO2 amendment was conducted, and the 13C in cells of A6 increased from 1.80% to 10.3% after 14 days incubation. In a separate

  16. Linking Metabolism, Elemental Cycles, and Environmental Conditions in the Deep Biosphere: Growth of a Model Extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, Under High-Pressure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, G. C. M.; Cario, A.; Rogers, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Earth's biosphere is hosted in subsurface environments where global-scale biogeochemical and energy cycles are driven by diverse microbial communities that operate on and are influenced by micro-scale environmental variables. While the subsurface hosts a variety of geochemical and geothermal conditions, elevated pressures are common to all subsurface ecosystems. Understanding how microbes adapt to and thrive in high-pressure environments is essential to linking microbial subsurface processes with global-scale cycles. Here we are using a model extremophile, Archaeoglobus fulgidus, to determine how elevated pressures affect the growth, metabolism, and physiology of subsurface microorganisms. A. fulgidus cycles carbon and sulfur via heterotrophic and autotrophic sulfate reduction in various high temperature and high-pressure niches including shallow marine vents, deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and deep oil reservoirs. Here we report the results of A. fulgidus growth experiments at optimum temperature, 83°C, and pressures up to 600 bars. Exponential growth was observed over the entire pressure range, though growth rates were diminished at 500 and 600 bars compared to ambient pressure experimental controls. At pressures up to 400 bars, cell density yields and growth rates were at least as high as ambient pressure controls. Elevated pressures and extended incubation times stimulated cell flocculation, a common stress response in this strain, and cellular morphology was affected at pressures exceeding 400 bars. These results suggest that A. fulgidus continues carbon, sulfur and energy cycling unaffected by elevated pressures up to 400 bars, representing a variety of subsurface environments. The ability of subsurface organisms to drive biogeochemical cycles at elevated pressures is a critical link between the surface and subsurface biospheres and understanding how species-scale processes operate under these conditions is a vital part of global

  17. Phytoplankton communities of polar regions--Diversity depending on environmental conditions and chemical anthropopressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, Klaudia; Polkowska, Żaneta; Żyszka, Beata; Lipok, Jacek

    2016-04-15

    The polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic) constitute up to 14% of the biosphere and offer some of the coldest and most arid Earth's environments. Nevertheless several oxygenic phototrophs including some higher plants, mosses, lichens, various algal groups and cyanobacteria, survive that harsh climate and create the base of the trophic relationships in fragile ecosystems of polar environments. Ecosystems in polar regions are characterized by low primary productivity and slow growth rates, therefore they are more vulnerable to disturbance, than those in temperate regions. From this reason, chemical contaminants influencing the growth of photoautotrophic producers might induce serious disorders in the integrity of polar ecosystems. However, for a long time these areas were believed to be free of chemical contamination, and relatively protected from widespread anthropogenic pressure, due their remoteness and extreme climate conditions. Nowadays, there is a growing amount of data that prove that xenobiotics are transported thousands of kilometers by the air and ocean currents and then they are deposed in colder regions and accumulate in many environments, including the habitats of marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria (blue green algae), as a natural part of phytoplankton assemblages, are globally distributed, but in high polar ecosystems they represent the dominant primary producers. These microorganisms are continuously exposed to various concentration levels of the compounds that are present in their habitats and act as nourishment or the factors influencing the growth and development of cyanobacteria in other way. The most common group of contaminants in Arctic and Antarctic are persistent organic pollutants (POPs), characterized by durability and resistance to degradation. It is important to determine their concentrations in all phytoplankton species cells and in their environment to get to know the possibility of contaminants to transfer to higher

  18. A Model Based Ideotyping Approach for Wheat Under Different Environmental Conditions in North China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markus Herndl; SHAN Cheng-gang; WANG Pu; Simone Graeff; Wilhelm Claupein

    2007-01-01

    Before starting a breeding program for a specific crop or variety,it Call be helpful to know how traits behave in determining yield under different conditions and environments.Crop growth models can be used to generate valuable information on the relevance of specific traits for an environment of interest.In this paper,the simulation model CMS-Cropsim-CERESWheat was used to test the performance of input parameters which describe cultivar differences concerning plant development and grain yield.In so-called ideotyping sequences,the specific eultivar parameters were varied and the model was run with the same management information in four different scenarios.The scenarios consisted of two locations,Wuqiao(37.3°N,116.3°E)and Quzhou(36.5°N,115°E)in Hebei Province(North China Plain),and a dry and a wet growing season for each location.The input parameter G1(corresponding trait:kernel number per spike)followed by G2 (corresponding trait:kernel weight)had the biggest influence on yield over all scenarios.The input parameters P1V (corresponding trait:vernalization requirement)and P1D(corresponding trait:photoperiod response)also played an important role in determining yield.In the dry scenarios a low response in vernalization and photoperiod generated a higher yield compared to a high response.The lower responses caused earliness and the period of late water stress was avoided.The last relevant parameter that affected yield was PHINT(corresponding trait:leaf area of first leaf).Thesimulation showed that with an increasing PHINT.yield was enhanced over all scenarios.Based on the results obtained in this study,plant breeders could carefully select the relevant traits and integrate them in their breeding program for a specific region.

  19. Experimental Study on Formation Conditions of Ammoniojarosite and Its Environmental Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Changqiu; MA Shengfeng; LU Anhuai; ZHOU Jiangong

    2006-01-01

    Formation conditions of ammoniojarosite in system Fe2(SO4)3-(NH4)2SO4-H2O are investigated in this paper. The results show that ammoniojarosite can be formed rapidly under normal temperature and pressure by controlling suitable pH value and Fe2(SO4)3 and (NH4)2SO4 concentrations. The pH value, temperature and concentration of Fe2(SO4)3 medium are key factors influencing the formation of ammoniojarosite. Under normal temperature, precipitation of ammoniojarosite can be seen within 24 hours at pH values between 2.6-3.1, and a great quantity of ammoniojarosite is formed within 48 hours. At about 90℃, the pH value range forming ammoniojarosite extends to 1.2-3.1, and within this range the rise of pH value is advantageous to the formation of ammoniojarosite and high Fe2(SO4)3 concentration is also advantageous. Relative pure ammoniojarosite is synthesized under high Fe2(SO4)3 concentration (≥0.05 M) and ammoniojarosite containing melanterite and colloid amorphous hydroxide vitriol iron is formed at low Fe2(SO4)3 concentration. The deposition process of ammoniojarosite can be used to harness wastewater from mines and other industries and remove S, Fe and other toxic and harmful elements, such as As, Cr, Hg,Pb in water. Rapid formation of ammoniojarosite and other jarosite analogs under normal temperature and pressure has a good potential prospect for harnessing acid wastewater by means of precipitation of jarosite and its analogs.

  20. How lake morphometry reflects environmental conditions in the permafrost-dominated Lena Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, A.; Grosse, G.; Schirrmeister, L.

    2007-12-01

    Numerous lakes characterize the landscape of the northeast Siberian Lena Delta, which is situated in the zone of continuous permafrost. We provide a detailed lake inventory of this largest Arctic delta. The inventory is based on Landsat-7 ETM+ image data and spatial analysis in ArcGIS. Several morphometric lake attributes were determined from the resulting data set and statistically analysed regarding the lakes' association with one of the three geomorphological main units of the Lena delta. Significant differences in the morphometric lake characteristics allowed the distinction of a mean lake type for each main unit. The lake types reflect the special lithological and cryolithological conditions and geomorphologic processes prevailing on each terrace. The first main unit, which represents the modern active delta, is characterized by small lakes of irregular shape, like meander scrolls and oxbow lakes. Large oriented lakes dominate on the second terrace that consists of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene sands. On the third terrace, which is represented by relics of a Late Pleistocene accumulation plain with fine-grained and ice-rich deposits, typical thermokarst lakes with regular, circular shorelines prevail. Most studied lakes are thermokarst lakes by their nature, as they have been or still are expanding by thermoabrasion of shore banks and deepening of the lake basin. However, a distinction between primary and secondary thermokarst lakes can be made. Primary lakes are those initially formed by thaw subsidence, i.e. the third terrace lakes. Secondary thermokarst lakes are typically formed by other processes, e.g. the change of the fluvial channel network on the first terrace. The role of lakes on the second terrace is still debated. They appear to be typical thermokarst lakes by morphometry, but their primary initiation might have been related to inter-dune or old fluvial water bodies.