Sample records for adverse childhood experiences

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study (United States)

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  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. (United States)

    Reiser, Sarah J; McMillan, Katherine A; Wright, Kristi D; Asmundson, Gordon J G


    Childhood experiences are thought to predispose a person to the development of health anxiety later in life. However, there is a lack of research investigating the influence of specific adverse experiences (e.g., childhood abuse, household dysfunction) on this condition. The current study examined the cumulative influence of multiple types of childhood adversities on health anxiety in adulthood. Adults 18-59 years of age (N=264) completed a battery of measures to assess adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs (i.e., negative affect and trait anxiety). Significant associations were observed between adverse childhood experiences, health anxiety, and associated constructs. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicted that adverse childhood experiences were predictive of health anxiety in adulthood; however, the unique contribution of these experience were no longer significant following the inclusion of the other variables of interest. Subsequently, mediation analyses indicated that both negative affect and trait anxiety independently mediated the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and health anxiety in adulthood. Increased exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with higher levels of health anxiety in adulthood; this relationship is mediated through negative affect and trait anxiety. Findings support the long-term negative impact of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and emphasize the importance of addressing negative affect and trait anxiety in efforts to prevent and treat health anxiety.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences and premature all-cause mortality. (United States)

    Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Lepage, Benoit; Dedieu, Dominique; Bartley, Mel; Blane, David; Grosclaude, Pascale; Lang, Thierry; Delpierre, Cyrille


    Events causing stress responses during sensitive periods of rapid neurological development in childhood may be early determinants of all-cause premature mortality. Using a British birth cohort study of individuals born in 1958, the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and mortality≤50 year was examined for men (n=7,816) and women (n=7,405) separately. ACE were measured using prospectively collected reports from parents and the school: no adversities (70%); one adversity (22%), two or more adversities (8%). A Cox regression model was carried out controlling for early life variables and for characteristics at 23 years. In men the risk of death was 57% higher among those who had experienced 2+ ACE compared to those with none (HR 1.57, 95% CI 1.13, 2.18, p=0.007). In women, a graded relationship was observed between ACE and mortality, the risk increasing as ACE accumulated. Women with one ACE had a 66% increased risk of death (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.19, 2.33, p=0.003) and those with ≥2 ACE had an 80% increased risk (HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.10, 2.95, p=0.020) versus those with no ACE. Given the small impact of adult life style factors on the association between ACE and premature mortality, biological embedding during sensitive periods in early development is a plausible explanatory mechanism.

  4. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara


    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  5. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

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    William Fulford


    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  6. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

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    Samardžić Ljiljana


    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  7. Do adverse childhood experiences increase the risk of postdeployment posttraumatic stress disorder in US Marines?

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    Ryan Margaret AK


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD has been associated with combat intensity, lack of social support, and adverse childhood factors among military personnel in previous studies. It has not been well established if adverse childhood experiences reported predeployment are independently associated with postdeployment PTSD. Methods Data were evaluated from 8,391 male responders of the Recruit Assessment Program survey at Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego who were deployed in support of military conflicts between September 2001 and June 2004. Using patient medical records to determine PTSD diagnoses, Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to examine if adverse childhood experiences were independently associated with postdeployment PTSD. Results After adjustment, those who reported adverse childhood experiences in more than one category were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with postdeployment PTSD. Specifically, childhood physical neglect was mostly strongly associated with postdeployment PTSD. Conclusions Findings suggest that Marines who experience multiple types of adverse childhood experiences may be at increased risk for postdeployment PTSD. It is possible, however, that these results indicate that men willing to report childhood adverse experiences are also more willing to seek care for PTSD.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk of Binge Drinking and Drunkenness in Middle-Aged Finnish Men

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    Laura Kauhanen


    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking and drunkenness in adulthood using both historical and recalled data from childhood. Methods. Data on childhood adverse experiences were collected from school health records and questionnaires completed in adulthood. Adulthood data were obtained from the baseline examinations of the male participants (n=2682 in the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD in 1984–1989 from eastern Finland. School health records from the 1930s to 1950s were available for a subsample of KIHD men (n=952. Results. According to the school health records, men who had adverse childhood experiences had a 1.51-fold (95% CI 1.05 to 2.18 age- and examination-year adjusted odds of binge drinking in adulthood. After adjustment for socioeconomic position in adulthood or behavioural factors in adulthood, the association remained unchanged. Adjustment for socioeconomic position in childhood attenuated these effects. Also the recalled data showed associations with adverse childhood experiences and binge drinking with different beverages. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that childhood adversities are associated with increased risk of binge drinking in adulthood.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences: assessing the impact on health and school engagement and the mitigating role of resilience. (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Newacheck, Paul; Hawes, Eva; Halfon, Neal


    The ongoing longitudinal Adverse Childhood Experiences Study of adults has found significant associations between chronic conditions; quality of life and life expectancy in adulthood; and the trauma and stress associated with adverse childhood experiences, including physical or emotional abuse or neglect, deprivation, or exposure to violence. Less is known about the population-based epidemiology of adverse childhood experiences among US children. Using the 2011-12 National Survey of Children's Health, we assessed the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and associations between them and factors affecting children's development and lifelong health. After we adjusted for confounding factors, we found lower rates of school engagement and higher rates of chronic disease among children with adverse childhood experiences. Our findings suggest that building resilience-defined in the survey as "staying calm and in control when faced with a challenge," for children ages 6-17-can ameliorate the negative impact of adverse childhood experiences. We found higher rates of school engagement among children with adverse childhood experiences who demonstrated resilience, as well as higher rates of resilience among children with such experiences who received care in a family-centered medical home. We recommend a coordinated effort to fill knowledge gaps and translate existing knowledge about adverse childhood experiences and resilience into national, state, and local policies, with a focus on addressing childhood trauma in health systems as they evolve during ongoing reform.

  10. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model (United States)

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  11. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on an Urban Pediatric Population (United States)

    Burke, Nadine J.; Hellman, Julia L.; Scott, Brandon G.; Weems, Carl F.; Carrion, Victor G.


    Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in youth in a low-income, urban community. Study design: Data from a retrospective chart review of 701 subjects from the Bayview Child Health Center in San Francisco are presented. Medical chart documentation of ACEs as defined in previous studies were…

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and trauma informed care: the future of health care. (United States)

    Oral, Resmiye; Ramirez, Marizen; Coohey, Carol; Nakada, Stephanie; Walz, Amy; Kuntz, Angela; Benoit, Jenna; Peek-Asa, Corinne


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are related to short- and long-term negative physical and mental health consequences among children and adults. Studies of the last three decades on ACEs and traumatic stress have emphasized their impact and the importance of preventing and addressing trauma across all service systems utilizing universal systemic approaches. Current developments on the implementation of trauma informed care (TIC) in a variety of service systems call for the surveillance of trauma, resiliency, functional capacity, and health impact of ACEs. Despite such efforts in adult medical care, early identification of childhood trauma in children still remains a significant public health need. This article reviews childhood adversity and traumatic toxic stress, presents epidemiologic data on the prevalence of ACEs and their physical and mental health impacts, and discusses intervention modalities for prevention.

  13. Childhood Adversity and Neural Development: Deprivation and Threat as Distinct Dimensions of Early Experience (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Lambert, Hilary K.


    A growing body of research has examined the impact of childhood adversity on neural structure and function. Advances in our understanding of the neurodevelopmental consequences of adverse early environments require the identification of dimensions of environmental experience that influence neural development differently and mechanisms other than the frequently-invoked stress pathways. We propose a novel conceptual framework that differentiates between deprivation (absence of expected environmental inputs and complexity) and threat (presence of experiences that represent a threat to one’s physical integrity) and make predictions grounded in basic neuroscience principles about their distinct effects on neural development. We review animal research on fear learning and sensory deprivation as well as human research on childhood adversity and neural development to support these predictions. We argue that these previously undifferentiated dimensions of experience exert strong and distinct influences on neural development that cannot be fully explained by prevailing models focusing only on stress pathways. Our aim is not to exhaustively review existing evidence on childhood adversity and neural development, but to provide a novel framework to guide future research. PMID:25454359

  14. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom


    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  15. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

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    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  16. Appetitive Aggression and Adverse Childhood Experiences Shape Violent Behavior in Females Formerly Associated with Combat. (United States)

    Augsburger, Mareike; Meyer-Parlapanis, Danie; Bambonye, Manassé; Elbert, Thomas; Crombach, Anselm


    This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 158 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude toward aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  17. Developmental Patterns of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Current Symptoms and Impairment in Youth Referred For Trauma-Specific Services. (United States)

    Grasso, Damion J; Dierkhising, Carly B; Branson, Christopher E; Ford, Julian D; Lee, Robert


    By the time children reach adolescence, most have experienced at least one type of severe adversity and many have been exposed to multiple types. However, whether patterns of adverse childhood experiences are consistent or change across developmental epochs in childhood is not known. Retrospective reports of adverse potentially traumatic childhood experiences in 3 distinct developmental epochs (early childhood, 0- to 5-years-old; middle childhood, 6- to 12-years-old; and adolescence, 13- to 18-years-old) were obtained from adolescents (N = 3485) referred to providers in the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) for trauma-focused assessment and treatment. Results from latent class analysis (LCA) revealed increasingly complex patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences in middle childhood and adolescence compared to early childhood. Depending upon the specific developmental epoch assessed, different patterns of adverse/traumatic experiences were associated with gender and with adolescent psychopathology (e.g., internalizing/externalizing behavior problems), and juvenile justice involvement. A multiply exposed subgroup that had severe problems in adolescence was evident in each of the 3 epochs, but their specific types of adverse/traumatic experiences differed depending upon the developmental epoch. Implications for research and clinical practice are identified.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Health of University Students in Eight Provinces of Vietnam. (United States)

    Tran, Quynh Anh; Dunne, Michael P; Vo, Thang Van; Luu, Ngoc Hoat


    Recent systematic reviews have emphasized the need for more research into the health and social impacts of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the Asia-Pacific region. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 2099 young adult students in 8 medical universities throughout Vietnam. An anonymous, self-report questionnaire included the World Health Organization ACE-International Questionnaire and standardized measures of mental and physical health. Three quarters (76%) of the students reported at least one exposure to ACEs; 21% had 4 or more ACEs. The most commonly reported adversities were emotional abuse, physical abuse, and witnessing a household member being treated violently (42.3%, 39.9%, and 34.6%, respectively). Co-occurrence of ACEs had dose-response relationships with poor mental health, suicidal ideation, and low physical health-related quality of life. This first multisite study of ACEs among Vietnamese university students provided evidence that childhood adversity is common and is significantly linked with impaired health and well-being into the early adult years.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

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    Lin Fang


    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  20. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents. (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G


    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  1. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults (United States)

    Ballespí, Sergi; Mitjavila, Mercè; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus


    Background There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i) associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii) whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii) the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors. Method A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress. Results Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses) moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors. Discussion The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support

  2. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey


    Hughes, K; Lowey, H; Quigg, Z; Bellis, MA


    BACKGROUND: Individuals' childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. METHODS: A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885) measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Men...

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships. (United States)

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard


    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients

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    Dube Shanta R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. Method We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Results Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend Conclusion ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems.

  5. Assessing adverse experiences from infancy through early childhood in home visiting programs. (United States)

    McKelvey, Lorraine M; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Swindle, Taren; Fitzgerald, Shalese


    The general aim of early intervention and home visiting programs is to support families to minimize Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs). However, assessing children's exposure to these risks is complicated because parents serve as the conduit for both measurement and intervention. The primary aims of the study were to develop an assessment of children's exposure to ACEs and to examine concurrently measured parental child abuse and neglect potential and child social-emotional functioning. Home visiting programs in a southern state implemented the Family Map Inventories (FMI) as comprehensive family assessment and child screenings (N=1,282) within one month of enrollment. Children (M=33 months of age, SD=20) were exposed at rates of 27% to one, 18% to two, 11% to three, and 12% to four or more FMI-ACEs. FMI-ACEs were associated with increased parental beliefs and behaviors associated with child abuse and neglect. FMI-ACEs also significantly predicted the likelihood of the child having at-risk social-emotional development; children with 4 or more FMI-ACEs were over 6 times more likely than those with none to have at-risk scores. The findings add to our understanding of the negative impact of trauma on children and families. Assessing these risks as they occur in a family-friendly manner provides a platform for early intervention programs to work with families to increase family strengths and reduce the impacts of adverse experiences for their children.

  6. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors. (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A


    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  7. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

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    Munemoto Takao


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9 and illness in household (RR = 1.7 increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder.

  8. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men.

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    Ruvani W Fonseka

    Full Text Available In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30. Witnessing abuse of one's mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58, while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09. These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka's recent civil war and perpetration of IPV warrants further study

  9. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration among Sri Lankan Men (United States)

    Fonseka, Ruvani W.; Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti


    In Sri Lanka, over one in three women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization in their lifetime, making it a serious public health concern. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse and neglect, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation, and bullying are also widespread. Studies in Western settings have shown positive associations between ACEs and IPV perpetration in adulthood, but few have examined this relationship in a non-Western context. In the present study, we examined the association of ACEs with IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men surveyed for the UN Multi-Country Study on Men and Violence in Asia and the Pacific. We found statistically significant positive associations between the number of ACE categories (ACE score) and emotional, financial, physical, and sexual IPV perpetration among Sri Lankan men. We analyzed the contributions of each ACE category and found that childhood abuse was strongly associated with perpetration of IPV in adulthood, with sexual abuse associated with the greatest increase in odds of perpetration (Adjusted odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval: 1.69, 3.30). Witnessing abuse of one’s mother was associated with the greatest increase in the odds of perpetrating physical IPV (AOR 1.82; 95% CI: 1.29, 2.58), while lack of a male parental figure was not associated with physical IPV perpetration (AOR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.53, 1.09). These findings support a social learning theory of IPV perpetration, in which children who are exposed to violence learn to perpetrate IPV in adulthood. They also suggest that in Sri Lanka, being raised in a female-headed household does not increase the risk of IPV perpetration in adulthood compared to being raised in a household with a male parental figure. The relationship between being raised in a female-headed household (the number of which increased dramatically during Sri Lanka’s recent civil war) and perpetration of IPV warrants further study. Interventions

  10. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

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    Crichton Joanna


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Use of Cigarettes and Smokeless Tobacco Products. (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E; von Ehrenstein, Ondine S; Tomiyama, A Janet


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to increased use of tobacco products later in life. However, studies to date have ignored smokeless tobacco products. To address this, data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which interviewed adults 18 years and over (N = 102,716) were analyzed. Logistic regression models were fit to estimate odds ratios of ever smoking, current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use in relation to ACEs. Results showed that less than 4 % of respondents currently used smokeless tobacco products, while 44.95 and 18.57 % reported ever and current smoking, respectively. Physical abuse (OR 1.40; 95 % CI 1.14, 1.72), emotional abuse (OR 1.41; 95 % CI 1.19, 1.67), sexual abuse (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.51, 0.95), living with a drug user (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.17, 1.93), living with someone who was jailed (OR 1.50; 95 % CI 1.11, 2.02) and having parents who were separated or divorced (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.09, 1.57) were associated with smokeless tobacco use in unadjusted models. After accounting for confounders, physical abuse (OR 1.43; 95 % CI 1.16, 1.78), emotional abuse (OR 1.32; 95 % CI 1.10, 1.57), living with a problem drinker (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.08, 1.58), living with a drug user (OR 1.31; 95 % CI 1.00, 1.72) and living with adults who treated each other violently (OR 1.30; 95 % CI 1.05, 1.62) were associated with smokeless tobacco use. Living with someone who was mentally ill (OR 0.70; 95 % CI 0.53, 0.92) was associated with smokeless tobacco use after accounting for confounders and all ACEs. Results indicated that some childhood adversities are associated with use of smokeless tobacco products. Special attention is needed to prevent tobacco use of different types among those experiencing ACEs.

  12. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  13. Adverse Childhood Experiences among Veterinary Medical Students: A Multi-Site Study. (United States)

    Strand, Elizabeth B; Brandt, Jennifer; Rogers, Kenita; Fonken, Laurie; Chun, Ruthanne; Conlon, Peter; Lord, Linda


    This research explores Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) among veterinary medical students across six academic institutions of veterinary medicine, and their relationship with depression, stress, and desire to become a veterinarian. Between April 1, 2016 and May 23, 2016, 1,118 veterinary medical students in all 4 years of the curriculum (39% response rate) completed an anonymous web-based questionnaire about ACEs, depression using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CESD), stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the age at which they wanted to become a veterinarian. Sixty-one percent (677) of respondents reported having at least one ACE. The most prevalent ACE reported was living with a household member with a mental illness (31%). Students who had experienced four or more ACEs had an approximately threefold increase in signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress when compared to students who had experienced no ACEs. The number of ACEs showed an overall graded relationship to signs of clinical depression and higher than average stress. There was no statistically significant relationship between age at which a student wanted to become a veterinarian and exposure to ACEs. Veterinary students report being exposed to ACEs before age 18 at a rate similar to that of other population-based studies. These findings do not suggest that veterinary students enter the veterinary medical education system more at risk for poor mental health due to ACEs than the general population.

  14. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis. (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon


    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed.

  15. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Andersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences. PURPOSE: To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults. METHODS: Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071. RESULTS: Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual compared to their heterosexual peers. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  16. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham TJ


    Full Text Available Timothy J Cunningham,1 Earl S Ford,1 Janet B Croft,1 Melissa T Merrick,2 Italia V Rolle,3 Wayne H Giles1 1Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the general population. Materials and methods: Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results: Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61, sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10, living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81, witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72, and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80 during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs

  17. The role of adverse childhood experiences in cardiovascular disease risk: a review with emphasis on plausible mechanisms. (United States)

    Su, Shaoyong; Jimenez, Marcia P; Roberts, Cole T F; Loucks, Eric B


    Childhood adversity, characterized by abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, is a problem that exerts a significant impact on individuals, families, and society. Growing evidence suggests that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with health decline in adulthood, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the current review, we first provide an overview of the association between ACEs and CVD risk, with updates on the latest epidemiological evidence. Second, we briefly review plausible pathways by which ACEs could influence CVD risk, including traditional risk factors and novel mechanisms. Finally, we highlight the potential implications of ACEs in clinical and public health. Information gleaned from this review should help physicians and researchers in better understanding potential long-term consequences of ACEs and considering adapting current strategies in treatment or intervention for patients with ACEs.

  18. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability.Adults (ages 18-64 who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009.The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce. Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support and structural (living with another adult support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health to the model.ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories. ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs. Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63] and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56] were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health.ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to

  19. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi


    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  20. [Adverse Sensory Input of Childhood Maltreatment Modified by Early Experience Ascertaining the Neural Basis of Neurodevelopmental and Attachment Disorders]. (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi


    Childhood maltreatment, which markedly increases the risk of psychopathology such as depression, PTSD, and reduced cognitive abilities, is associated with structural and functional brain differences. Our earlier studies elucidated potential discernible effects on the brain morphology of childhood maltreatment on the gray matter volume or cortical thickness. Further, our preliminary studies revealed a significantly reduced gray matter volume (GMV) in the left primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17) in the reactive attachment disorder (RAD) group compared to the typically developed group. These visual cortex GMV abnormalities may also be associated with such visual stimulus-induced emotion regulation impairments of RAD, leading to an increase in the risk of future psychopathology. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse might be modified specifically by such experiences, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Thus, exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions.

  1. The associations of cumulative adverse childhood experiences and irritability with mental disorders in detained male adolescent offenders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bielas, Hannes; Barra, Steffen; Skrivanek, Christine


    -reported irritability. The ACE total score predicted depressive disorders, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety disorders. Irritability was positively related to depressive disorders, suicidality, disruptive behavior disorder (DBD), substance use disorder (SUD), and attention deficit...... and SUD, the training of emotion regulation techniques appears most promising. Approaches focusing on both, ACEs and emotion-focused contents may be implemented in the treatment of depressive disorders and suicidality.......BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and psychiatric disorders are common in juvenile detainees. Emotional dysregulation resulting from cumulated ACEs may be characterized by symptoms of irritability. The present study examined whether the accumulation of ACEs, irritability, or both...

  2. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology


    McLaughlin, Katie A.


    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology—and whether those mechanis...

  3. A review of primary care interventions to improve health outcomes in adult survivors of adverse childhood experiences. (United States)

    Korotana, Laurel M; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis; Josephson, Trevor


    Research has consistently demonstrated a link between the experience of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult health conditions, including mental and physical health problems. While a focus on the prevention or mitigation of adversity in childhood is an important direction of many programs, many individuals do not access support services until adulthood, when health problems may be fairly engrained. It is not clear which interventions have the strongest evidence base to support the many adults who present to services with a history of ACEs. The current review examines the evidence base for psychosocial interventions for adults with a history of ACEs. The review focuses on interventions that may be provided in primary care, as that is the setting where most patients will first present and are most likely to receive treatment. A systematic review of the literature was completed using PsycInfo and PubMed databases, with 99 studies identified that met inclusion and exclusion criteria. These studies evaluated a range of interventions with varying levels of supportive evidence. Overall, cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT) have the most evidence for improving health problems - in particular, improving mental health and reducing health-risk behaviors - in adults with a history of ACEs. Expressive writing and mindfulness-based therapies also show promise, whereas other treatments have less supportive evidence. Limitations of the current literature base are discussed and research directions for the field are provided.

  4. Auditory hallucinations in childhood : associations with adversity and delusional ideation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels-Velthuis, A. A.; van de Willige, G.; Jenner, J. A.; Wiersma, D.; van Os, J.


    Background. Previous work suggests that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with the combination of delusions and hallucinations. In the present study, associations between (severity of) auditory vocal hallucinations (AVH) and (i) social adversity [traumatic experiences (TE) and stressful

  5. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A


    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: Sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Perera, Robert A.; Masho, Saba W.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.


    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. PMID:25753285

  7. Relationships of Childhood Adverse Experiences With Mental Health and Quality of Life at Treatment Start for Adult Refugees Traumatized by Pre-Flight Experiences of War and Human Rights Violations. (United States)

    Opaas, Marianne; Varvin, Sverre


    Adverse and potentially traumatic experiences (PTEs) in childhood were examined among 54 adult refugee patients with pre-flight PTEs of war and human rights violations (HRVs) and related to mental health and quality of life at treatment start. Extent of childhood PTEs was more strongly related to mental health and quality of life than the extent of war and HRV experiences. Childhood PTEs were significantly related to arousal and avoidance symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to quality of life, whereas pre-flight war and HRV experiences were significantly related to reexperiencing symptoms of PTSD only. Within childhood adversities, experiences of family violence and external violence, but not of loss and illness, were significantly related to increased mental health symptoms and reduced quality of life. These results point to the importance of taking childhood adverse experiences into account in research and treatment planning for adult refugees with war and HRVs trauma.

  8. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  9. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population. (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H


    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research.

  10. Profiles of family-focused adverse experiences through childhood and early adolescence: The ROOTS project a community investigation of adolescent mental health

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    Herbert Joe


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse family experiences in early life are associated with subsequent psychopathology. This study adds to the growing body of work exploring the nature and associations between adverse experiences over the childhood years. Methods Primary carers of 1143 randomly recruited 14-year olds in Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, UK were interviewed using the Cambridge Early Experiences Interview (CAMEEI to assess family-focused adversities. Adversities were recorded retrospectively in three time periods (early and later childhood and early adolescence. Latent Class Analysis (LCA grouped individuals into adversity classes for each time period and longitudinally. Adolescents were interviewed to generate lifetime DSM-IV diagnoses using the K-SADS-PL. The associations between adversity class and diagnoses were explored. Results LCA generated a 4-class model for each time period and longitudinally. In early childhood 69% were allocated to a low adversity class; a moderate adversity class (19% showed elevated rates of family loss, mild or moderate family discord, financial difficulties, maternal psychiatric illness and higher risk for paternal atypical parenting; a severe class (6% experienced higher rates on all indicators and almost exclusively accounted for incidents of child abuse; a fourth class, characterised by atypical parenting from both parents, accounted for the remaining 7%. Class membership was fairly stable (~ 55% over time with escape from any adversity by 14 years being uncommon. Compared to those in the low class, the odds ratio for reported psychopathology in adolescents in the severe class ranged from 8 for disruptive behaviour disorders through to 4.8 for depressions and 2.0 for anxiety disorders. Only in the low adversity class did significantly more females than males report psychopathology. Conclusions Family adversities in the early years occur as multiple rather than single experiences. Although some children escape

  11. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology. (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W


    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  12. Spanking and adult mental health impairment: The case for the designation of spanking as an adverse childhood experience. (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O; Ford, Derek; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Merrick, Melissa; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Ports, Katie A; MacMillan, Harriet L; Holden, George W; Taylor, Catherine A; Lee, Shawna J; Peters Bennett, Robbyn


    Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) such as child abuse are related to poor health outcomes. Spanking has indicated a similar association with health outcomes, but to date has not been considered an ACE. Physical and emotional abuse have been shown in previous research to correlate highly and may be similar in nature to spanking. To determine if spanking should be considered an ACE, this study aimed to examine 1): the grouping of spanking with physical and emotional abuse; and 2) if spanking has similar associations with poor adult health problems and accounts for additional model variance. Adult mental health problems included depressive affect, suicide attempts, moderate to heavy drinking, and street drug use. Data were from the CDC-Kaiser ACE study (N=8316, response rate=65%). Spanking loaded on the same factor as the physical and emotional abuse items. Additionally, spanking was associated with increased odds of suicide attempts (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=1.02 to1.86), moderate to heavy drinking (AOR)=1.23; 95% CI=1.07 to 1.41), and the use of street drugs (AOR)=1.32; 95% CI=1.4 to 1.52) in adulthood over and above experiencing physical and emotional abuse. This indicates spanking accounts for additional model variance and improves our understanding of these outcomes. Thus, spanking is empirically similar to physical and emotional abuse and including spanking with abuse adds to our understanding of these mental health problems. Spanking should also be considered an ACE and addressed in efforts to prevent violence.

  13. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K


    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  14. Positive affect, childhood adversity, and psychopathology in psychiatric inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl W. Etter


    Full Text Available Background : Low positive affect is closely related to common pathological responses to childhood adversity, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression, but little is known about how the characteristics of early adversity experiences might be related to positive affect in adulthood. Objective : This study aimed to explore whether low positive affect is related to specific childhood adversities, including abuse, neglect, caretaker dysfunction, and low childhood social support. Method : Using structured interviews and self-report measure data collected from 173 adult psychiatric inpatients, this study examined the relationship between positive affect and symptoms of psychopathology, as well as how the number of types of abuse experienced, severity of adversity types (physical abuse and sexual abuse, childhood environment (childhood social support, neglect, and caretaker dysfunction, and number of non-abuse traumas related to positive affect. Results: Positive affect was significantly negatively related to several symptoms of psychopathology, including depression, dissociation, self-destructive behavior, PTSD, and global psychopathology. Individuals who experienced both physical and sexual abuse reported significantly less positive affect than those with only physical or no abuse experiences. Lower positive affect was predicted by lower childhood social support and greater severity of sexual abuse, with both factors accounting for unique variance in positive affect. Conclusion : These results suggest that individuals who experience multiple types of early adversity, more severe sexual abuse experiences, and less social support are at risk of psychological difficulties. Given the relatively strong association between positive affect and childhood social support, interventions to foster social support may be a means of increasing positive affect among individuals exposed to childhood adversity.

  15. Early Childhood Adversity and Pregnancy Outcomes (United States)

    Smith, Megan V.; Gotman, Nathan; Yonkers, Kimberly A.


    Objectives To examine the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and pregnancy outcomes; to explore mediators of this association including psychiatric illness and health habits. Methods Exposure to ACEs was determined by the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report Short Form; psychiatric diagnoses were generated by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview administered in a cohort of 2303 pregnant women. Linear regression and structural equation modeling bootstrapping approaches tested for multiple mediators. Results Each additional ACE decreased birth weight by 16.33 g and decreased gestational age by 0.063. Smoking was the strongest mediator of the effect on gestational age. Conclusions ACEs have an enduring effect on maternal reproductive health, as manifested by mothers’ delivery of offspring that were of reduced birth weight and shorter gestational age. PMID:26762511

  16. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  17. Retrospective study on the adverse childhood experience among medical college student%医学生儿童期不良经历回顾性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤; 戴江红; 关素珍; 刘维; 刘继文


    Objective To examine the prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experience ( ACEs) among medical college students and its characteristics, and to provide evidence for the interventive measurements. Methods A total of 475 medical college students were chosen by stratified cluster sampling and investigated by ACEs questionnaire. Results The prevalence rate of total adverse childhood experiences among the medical college students was 77. 1% , it was higher than other study. The prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experiences among medical college students were not equal. The highest was the prevalence rate of emotional abuse (36. 2% ) , then were the prevalence rate of domestic violence (28. 2% ) and substance abusers (29. 5% ). The lowest was the prevalence rate of incarcerated household member(4. 4% ). The boys had higher report rates of e-motional abuse and emotional neglect than girls'; the minority students had a higher report rate of substance abusers in family than Han students'; the medicos from city had the highest report rate of family violence than those from other regions) P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The prevalence rate of different adverse childhood experiences among medical college students in Xinjiang Autonomous Region is high, especially the prevalence rate of emotional abuse, domestic violence and substance abusers.%目的 了解儿童期不良经历发生率及其特征,为采取相应的干预措施改善人群健康状况提供依据.方法 采用分层整群抽样方法,选取新疆某医科院校在校本科学生475名;采用问卷调查的方式对10种儿童期不良经历的发生情况进行调查.结果 医学生儿童期不良经历的报告率为77.1%,其中情感虐待报告率最高,为36.2%;家庭中有物质滥用者及家庭暴力报告率分别达到了29.5%和28.2%;家人中有犯罪者的报告率最低,为4.4%.男生情感虐待、情感忽视的报告率明显高于女生;家人中有物质滥用者的

  18. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis


    Shaun eSweeney; Tracy eAir; Lana eZannettino; Cherrie eGalletly


    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employm...

  19. Impacts of adverse childhood experiences on health, mental health, and substance use in early adulthood: a cohort study of an urban, minority sample in the U.S. (United States)

    Mersky, J P; Topitzes, J; Reynolds, A J


    Research has shown that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increase the risk of poor health-related outcomes in later life. Less is known about the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood or among diverse samples. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of differential exposure to ACEs on an urban, minority sample of young adults. Health, mental health, and substance use outcomes were examined alone and in aggregate. Potential moderating effects of sex were also explored. Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a panel investigation of individuals who were born in 1979 or 1980. Main-effect analyses were conducted with multivariate logistic and OLS regression. Sex differences were explored with stratified analysis, followed by tests of interaction effects with the full sample. Results confirmed that there was a robust association between ACEs and poor outcomes in early adulthood. Greater levels of adversity were associated with poorer self-rated health and life satisfaction, as well as more frequent depressive symptoms, anxiety, tobacco use, alcohol use, and marijuana use. Cumulative adversity also was associated with cumulative effects across domains. For instance, compared to individuals without an ACE, individuals exposed to multiple ACEs were more likely to have three or more poor outcomes (OR range=2.75-10.15) and four or more poor outcomes (OR range=3.93-15.18). No significant differences between males and females were detected. Given that the consequences of ACEs in early adulthood may lead to later morbidity and mortality, increased investment in programs and policies that prevent ACEs and ameliorate their impacts is warranted.

  20. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  1. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. METHOD: 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. RESULTS: Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  2. Childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles as predictors of anxiety among elderly caregivers. (United States)

    Prigerson, H G; Shear, M K; Bierhals, A J; Zonarich, D L; Reynolds, C F


    The purpose of this study was to examine the ways in which childhood adversity, attachment and personality styles influenced the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers for terminally ill spouses. We also sought to determine how childhood adversity and attachment/personality styles jointly influenced the likelihood of developing an anxiety disorder among aged caregivers. Data were derived from semistructured interviews with 50 spouses (aged 60 and above) of terminally ill patients. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) record provided retrospective, behaviorally based information on childhood adversity. Measures of attachment and personality styles were obtained from self-report questionnaires, and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-III-R (SCID) was used to determine diagnoses for anxiety disorders. Logistic regression models estimated the effects of childhood adversity, attachment/personality disturbances, and the interaction between the two on the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. Results indicated that childhood adversity and paranoid, histrionic and self-defeating styles all directly increase the odds of having an anxiety disorder as an elderly spousal caregiver. In addition, childhood adversity in conjunction with borderline, antisocial and excessively dependent styles increased the likelihood of having an anxiety disorder. The results indicate the need to investigate further the interaction between childhood experiences and current attachment/personality styles in their effects on the development of anxiety disorders.

  3. Childhood adversities and distress - The role of resilience in a representative sample (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E.; Tibubos, Ana N.; Klein, Eva M.; Schmutzer, Gabriele; Reiner, Iris; Kocalevent, Rüya-Daniela; Brähler, Elmar


    While adverse childhood experiences have been shown to contribute to adverse health outcomes in adulthood, specifically distress and somatic symptoms, few studies have examined their joint effects with resilient coping style on adult adjustment. Hence, we aim to determine the association between resilient coping and distress in participants with and without reported childhood adversities. A representative German community sample (N = 2508) between 14–92 years (1334 women; 1174 men) was examined by the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Brief Resilience Coping Scale, standardized scales of distress and somatoform symptoms. Childhood adversity was associated with reduced adjustment, social support and resilience. It was also strongly associated with increased distress and somatoform complaints. Resilient coping was not only associated with lower distress, it also buffered the effects of childhood adversity on distress. Our study corroborates the buffering effect of resilience in a representative German sample. High trait resilient subjects show less distress and somatoform symptoms despite reported childhood adversities in comparison to those with low resilient coping abilities. PMID:28296938

  4. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L


    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  5. Childhood adversity and adult depression: The protective role of psychological resilience. (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, have been identified as salient risk factors for adult depression. However, not all individuals who experience ACEs go on to develop depression. The extent to which resilience- or the ability to demonstrate stable levels of functioning despite adversity- may act as a buffer against depression among individuals with a history of ACEs has not been adequately examined. To address the associations between ACEs, depression, and resilience, 4006 adult participants were recruited from primary care clinics. Participants completed self-report questionnaires including: the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire, a retrospective measure of childhood adversity; the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, a measure of the presence and severity of the major symptoms of depression; and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale, a measure of psychological resilience. Results from regression analyses indicated that, while controlling for a range of demographic variables, both ACEs and resilience independently predicted symptoms of depression, F(9, 3040)=184.81, R(2)=0.354. Further, resilience moderated the association between ACEs and depression, F(10, 3039)=174.36, presilience relative to those with high resilience. This research provides important information regarding the relationships among ACEs, resilience, and depression. Results have the potential to inform the development of treatments aimed to reduce symptoms of depression among primary care patients with a history of childhood adversity.

  6. Gender differences in the physical and psychological manifestation of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney


    Full Text Available The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n=391, 42% male were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health and health service utilisation. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma and victimisation/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a defacto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  7. Gender Differences in the Physical and Psychological Manifestation of Childhood Trauma and/or Adversity in People with Psychosis. (United States)

    Sweeney, Shaun; Air, Tracy; Zannettino, Lana; Galletly, Cherrie


    The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n = 391, 42% male) were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health, and health service utilization. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma, and victimization/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a de facto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  8. 医学生心理健康状况与儿童期不良经历的关系探讨%Study on the relationship between adult mental health status and adverse childhood experiences among medical college students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马金凤; 戴江红; 茹建国; 刘维; 刘继文


    Objective To examine the status of mental health and explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental health status among medical college students. Methods 475 medical college students were chosen by stratified cluster sampling and investigated by Symptom Checklist-90(SCL-90) and adverse childhood experiences ( ACEs) questionnaires. Results The prevalence rate of mental problem among the medical college students was 35. 58%. There were no statistical significant differences in the prevalence rates of mental problem under different background variables. Single factor analysis showed that the risk were adult mental problems in medical college students with physical abuse, emotional abuse and sex abuse in childhood were respectively 2.42 (95%CI:1.38-4.23) , 2.65(95%CI: 1.79-3.92) and 1. 66(95%CI:1. 07-2. 58)times than the ones without such experiences; The risk of adult mental problems in medical college students whose family had domestic violence or who had families with substance abuse experience in childhood were respectively 1. 97 ( 95% CI; 1. 31-2. 96) and 1. 69 (95%CI:1. 13-2. 54)times than the ones without such experiences. Logistic regression analysis showed that adverse childhood experiences increased risk for adult mental problems, with adjusted odds ratios from 1. 89 to 6. 97. Conclusions Different adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems. Adverse childhood experiences are important risk factors for adult mental problems and they should not be ignored in preventing from psychological disorders and keeping mental health of them.%目的 了解医学生的心理健康状况及其人口学特征,探讨其与儿童期不良经历之间的关系,为进一步研究并开展有效的预防和治疗心理状况问题提供依据.方法 采用症状自评量表(symptom checklist90,SCL-90)和儿童期不良经历(adverse childhood experiences,ACEs)量表,使用分层整群抽样的方法,对475

  9. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte


    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care.

  10. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chi-yi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.


    Background Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. Aims To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disord

  11. Multiple adverse experiences and child cognitive development. (United States)

    Guinosso, Stephanie A; Johnson, Sara B; Riley, Anne W


    During childhood and adolescence, children's social environments shape their cognitive development. Children exposed to multiple adversities in their social environment are more likely to have poorer cognitive outcomes. These findings have prompted interest among pediatric and public health communities to screen and connect youth to appropriate interventions that ameliorate the detrimental effects of adverse exposures. Such intervention efforts can be improved with a stronger conceptual understanding of the relationship between multiple adverse exposures and child cognitive development. This includes disentangling adverse exposures from other risk factors or underlying mechanisms, specifying mechanisms of action, and determining when adverse exposures are most detrimental. This review summarizes findings from the literature on each of these areas and proposes a conceptual model to guide further research and intervention.

  12. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study. (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M; David, Anthony S; Kolliakou, Anna; O'Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L


    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services.

  13. 童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系%Association between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteristics and male alcohol depen-dence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增训; 史振春; 曹枫林


    Objective To explore the correlation between adverse childhood experiences, personality characteris⁃tics and alcohol dependence. Methods A total of 102 patients with alcohol-dependence (Patients group) and 106 volun⁃teers (control group) were rated by the adverse childhood experience scale (ACEs) and the big five personality scale (BFP). Results The prevalence of ACEs are significant higher in patients group than in control group, especially regard⁃ing emotional abuse, physical neglect, witness violence and substance abuse. The patients group has lower scores of de⁃light, conscientiousness and higher scores of psychoticism. Psychoticism and parents abuse alcohol in childhood were the risk factors of alcohol dependence. Conclusions There is a correlation between alcohol dependence with their ACEs, per⁃sonality characteristics and parents abused substance. The psychoticism increase the risk of alcohol dependence.%目的:探讨童年期逆境经历、人格特征与成年男性酒精依赖的关系。方法应用童年期逆境问卷(adverse childhood experience scale,ACEs)及大五人格问卷(big five personality,BFP),对103例酒精依赖患者(患者组)及106名健康志愿者(对照组)进行童年期逆境经历及人格特征的评估,比较两组间的差异。结果患者组中经历高童年期逆境者构成比为42.2%,高于对照组的16.0%(P<0.01);其中患者组的情感虐待、躯体忽视、目击暴力和物质滥用的发生率高于对照组(均P<0.05)。在人格特征方面,患者组在宜人性、尽责性维度得分低于对照组(均P<0.01),神经质维度得分高于对照组(P<0.01)。多因素Logistic回归分析示,家庭成员物质滥用(OR=8.397,95%CI:3.022~23.328)及人格特征中神经质维度(OR=1.135,95%CI:1.052~1.224)与酒精依赖有关联(P<0.01)。结论童年期逆境经历、人格特征与酒精依赖之间存在一定关系,童年期

  14. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S


    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

  15. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.


    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  16. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities. (United States)

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana


    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (pwell-being.

  17. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience. (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R


    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  18. Childhood adversities and adolescent depression : A matter of both risk and resilience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Nederhof, Esther


    Childhood adversities have been proposed to modify later stress sensitivity and risk of depressive disorder in several ways: by stress sensitization, stress amplification, and stress inoculation. Combining these models, we hypothesized that childhood adversities would increase risk of early, but not

  19. The Prevalence of Childhood Adversity among Healthcare Workers and Its Relationship to Adult Life Events, Distress and Impairment (United States)

    Maunder, Robert G.; Peladeau, Nathalie; Savage, Diane; Lancee, William J.


    Objective: We investigated the prevalence of childhood adversity among healthcare workers and if such experiences affect responses to adult life stress. Methods: A secondary analysis was conducted of a 2003 study of 176 hospital-based healthcare workers, which surveyed lifetime traumatic events, recent life events, psychological distress, coping,…

  20. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian


    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  1. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  2. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar


    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  3. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia. (United States)

    Rajkumar, Ravi Philip


    Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n = 62) were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  4. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.


    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  5. Neuroticism mediates the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality. (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Sullivan, Sarah G; Hitchcock, Carla A; Stein, Murray B


    This study investigated the relationship of childhood adversity and adult sleep quality in 327 college students (91 males), with a mean age of 18.9 years (SD = 2.1) and also examined whether neuroticism significantly mediated the observed association. Regression findings indicate that the relationship between childhood adversity and adult sleep quality is significant, and that there is a stronger association in men. Furthermore, a bootstrapping approach to testing the significance of the indirect effect (i.e., mediation) indicated that neuroticism mediated this relationship in both men and women. These data suggest that otherwise healthy young adults with a history of childhood adversity are at increased risk for sleep disturbance. Neuroticism may represent a potential target for change in future insomnia interventions, particularly in adults with a history of childhood adversity.

  6. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.


    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  7. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)


    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  8. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators. (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra


    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder.

  9. Childhood Participation Experiences in the Memory (United States)

    Gómez, M.; Morata, T.; Trilla, J.


    This article is based on the findings of a broader research project entitled "Childhood Participation and Citizenship Building," which examined the medium-term effects of intense experiences of participation in childhood within both the school environment and those of leisure-time and community education. The results presented in this…

  10. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span. (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang


    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span.

  11. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar


    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  12. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study. (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan


    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes.

  13. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger. (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah


    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  14. Psychological Defense Styles, Childhood Adversities and Psychopathology in Adulthood (United States)

    Nickel, R.; Egle, U. T.


    Objective: The present study explores the link between reported sexual and/or physical abuse and psychological defense styles, as well as the association of both with psychological distress in adulthood. In two patient samples that differ in psychological distress and somatization, we examine whether the adversities reported and immature defense…

  15. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  16. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing. (United States)

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David


    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed.

  17. Childhood, experience and performance: first approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vinicius Sales dos Santos


    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses some preliminary results of a Master thesis aimed to examine the experiences of children of four years within a public institution of early childhood education. The study of interpretative character seeks its theoretical basis in the sociology of childhood and childhood pedagogy and child education. From the methodological point of view, the research is based on a case study (ANDREW, 1991; SARMENTO, 2003 assuming a logic of ethnographic research (NUT, 2004; GREEN, DIXON, ZAHALIRICK, 2005, the main data collection instruments data, participant observation, photographs and drawings articulated with orality; Interviews with children, among others. It also discusses the notion of childhood experience as the possibility of analysis of the forms of sociability of children

  18. The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Events, Resiliency and Health among Children with Autism (United States)

    Rigles, Bethany


    Previous research has shown a negative relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and health and resiliency among the general population, but has not examined these associations among children with autism. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ACEs among children with autism and how ACEs are associated with resiliency and health.…

  19. Childhood adversity subtypes and depressive symptoms in early and late adolescence. (United States)

    St Clair, Michelle C; Croudace, Tim; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Herbert, Joe; Goodyer, Ian M


    Within a longitudinal study of 1,005 adolescents, we investigated how exposure to childhood psychosocial adversities was associated with the emergence of depressive symptoms between 14 and 17 years of age. The cohort was classified into four empirically determined adversity subtypes for two age periods in childhood (0-5 and 6-11 years). One subtype reflects normative/optimal family environments (n = 692, 69%), while the other three subtypes reflect differential suboptimal family environments (aberrant parenting: n = 71, 7%; discordant: n = 185, 18%; and hazardous: n = 57, 6%). Parent-rated child temperament at 14 years and adolescent self-reported recent negative life events in early and late adolescence were included in models implementing path analysis. There were gender-differentiated associations between childhood adversity subtypes and adolescent depressive symptoms. The discordant and hazardous subtypes were associated with elevated depressive symptoms in both genders but the aberrant parenting subtype only so in girls. Across adolescence the associations between early childhood adversity and depressive symptoms diminished for boys but remained for girls. Emotional temperament was also associated with depressive symptoms in both genders, while proximal negative life events related to depressive symptoms in girls only. There may be neurodevelopmental factors that emerge in adolescence that reduce depressogenic symptoms in boys but increase such formation in girls.

  20. Peptic ulcer and childhood adversities experienced by working-aged people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Markku PT Sumanen; Markku J Koskenvuo; Lauri H; Kari J Mattila


    AIM: To study the association between self-reported peptic ulcer and childhood adversities.METHODS: The Health and Social Support Study (HeSSup) population consisted of a stratified random sample drawn from the Finnish Population Register in four age groups: 20-24, 30-34, 40-44 and 50-54. The survey was carried out by postal questionnaire during 1998, with a response rate of 40.0%. A follow-up questionnaire was sent during 2003 to all those who responded to the first.Altogether 19 626 individuals returned the follow-up questionnaire; a response rate of 75.8%. The subjects were asked whether a doctor had told them that they have or have had peptic ulcer. The analyses covered those who responded affirmatively to both the baseline and the follow-up enquiries ( n = 718). Those not reporting a peptic ulcer in either of the two questionnaires ( n = 17 677) were taken as controls. The subjects were further requested (through six questions) to think about their childhood adversities.RESULTS: The most common adversities mentioned were long-lasting financial difficulties in the family,serious conflicts in the family, and a family member seriously or chronically ill. All the adversities reported,except parental divorce, were more common among peptic ulcer patients than among controls ( Pvaried values between < 0.001 and 0.003). Age- and sexadjusted odds ratios (OR) of childhood adversities in the multivariate logistic analysis for self-reported peptic ulcer varied between 1.45 and 2.01. Adjusting for smoking, heavy drinking, stress and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use had no further influence (ORsbetween 1.22 and 1.73).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that childhood adversities maintain a connection with and have a predictive role in the development of peptic ulcer.

  1. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions. (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn


    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact.

  2. Job Demands and Job Control as Predictors of Depressive Symptoms: Moderating Effects of Negative Childhood Socioemotional Experiences. (United States)

    Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Joensuu, Matti; Lipsanen, Jari; Raitakari, Olli T; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa


    There have been calls to know more about vulnerability factors that may predispose to adverse health outcomes at work. We examined if childhood adverse experiences would affect vulnerability to psychosocial stress factors at work. A nationally representative sample of 1546 Finnish men and women was followed up from childhood to adulthood. Childhood adverse experiences consisted of socioeconomic and emotional factors. Job demands and job control were measured 21 years later, and depressive symptoms were measured 21 and 27 years after the childhood measurements. Job demands predicted depressive symptoms over 6 years, and the association was modified by childhood emotional adversity. Participants with three or more emotional adversities in childhood had more depressive symptoms in response to high job demands compared with participants with zero or one emotional adversities in childhood (Betas = -1.40 and -2.01, ps job control and depressive symptoms. Although modest in effect size, these findings provide a developmental viewpoint for understanding the role of childhood experiences in work-related stress factors. Such knowledge can enhance understanding of individual differences in vulnerability to the demands of working life. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. 医学生人际关系敏感与儿童期不良经历:负性情绪的关系模型%Interpersonal sensitivity and adverse childhood experiences among medical college students: the mediating role of negative emotions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 曹枫林; 崔乃雪


    目的 探讨医学生儿童期不良经历、负性情绪与人际关系敏感的关系模型.方法 以某综合性大学492名医科新生为研究对象,采用儿童期不良经历问卷(ACEQ)、抑郁-焦虑-压力量表(The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale,DASS-21)及症状自评量表(SCL-90)的人际关系敏感因子对其进行测试,分析人际关联敏感、儿童期不良经历、负性情绪的关系模型.结果 男生ACEQ平均秩次显著高于女生;非独生子女抑郁、人际关系敏感平均秩显著高于独生子女;农村医学生的抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感平均秩次显著高于非农村;父亲文化程度不同的子女在ACEQ、抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感方面比较差异有统计学意义;不同母亲文化程度的子女在抑郁、焦虑、人际关系敏感有差异.ACEQ评分=0、1、2、≥3组之间抑郁、焦虑、压力、人际关系敏感得分方面比较差异有统计学意义.双变量相关分析表明,各量表、各因子间均呈不同程度的相关.结构方程模型结果显示,在儿童期不良经历与人际关系敏感之间负性情绪起完全中介作用.结论 医学生儿童期不良经历对成年期负性情绪和人际关系敏感有重要影响,负性情绪在儿童期不良经历与人际关系敏感之间起完全中介作用.%Objective To explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences,negative emotions and interpersonal sensitivity.Methods Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire (ACEQ),Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21) and the Interpersonal Sensitivity Subscale of Symptom Check-List (SCL-90) were applied to investigate the 492 new enrolled medical students.Results Boys got higher ACEQ scores than girls; Compared with only-child,non-only-child scored higher in depression,interpersonal sensitivity; Compared with students from non-rural areas,those from rural areas got higher scores in depression,anxiety stress

  4. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P


    . It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood...

  5. The impact of the experience of childhood poverty on adult health-risk behaviors in Japan: a mediation analysis


    Umeda, Maki; Oshio, Takashi; Fujii, Mayu


    Background The experience of childhood poverty has a long-lasting, adverse impact on physical health outcomes in adulthood. We examined the mediating effects of adult socioeconomic status (SES) and social support on the association between childhood poverty and adult health-risk behaviors. Methods Cross-sectional data collected from Japanese community residents (N = 3836) were used. A binary indicator of the experience of childhood poverty was constructed by utilizing retrospectively assessed...

  6. Cumulative childhood adversity, educational attainment, and active life expectancy among U.S. adults. (United States)

    Montez, Jennifer Karas; Hayward, Mark D


    Studies of the early-life origins of adult physical functioning and mortality have found that childhood health and socioeconomic context are important predictors, often irrespective of adult experiences. However, these studies have generally assessed functioning and mortality as distinct processes and used cross-sectional prevalence estimates that neglect the interplay of disability incidence, recovery, and mortality. Here, we examine whether early-life disadvantages both shorten lives and increase the number and fraction of years lived with functional impairment. We also examine the degree to which educational attainment mediates and moderates the health consequences of early-life disadvantages. Using the 1998-2008 Health and Retirement Study, we examine these questions for non-Hispanic whites and blacks aged 50-100 years using multistate life tables. Within levels of educational attainment, adults from disadvantaged childhoods lived fewer total and active years, and spent a greater portion of life impaired compared with adults from advantaged childhoods. Higher levels of education did not ameliorate the health consequences of disadvantaged childhoods. However, because education had a larger impact on health than did childhood socioeconomic context, adults from disadvantaged childhoods who achieved high education levels often had total and active life expectancies that were similar to or better than those of adults from advantaged childhoods who achieved low education levels.

  7. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen


    fulfilling ICD-10 criteria for schizophrenia and 39 healthy control persons filled out the comprehensive Childhood Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS). Data were analyzed after a data-driven dichotomization into two groups of either high or low CATS score in patients and controls, respectively. The psychopathology......Background: Childhood adversity is a well-established risk factor for the development of schizophrenia. In particular, there is evidence that childhood adversity increases the occurrence of positive symptoms, possibly through glucocorticoid influences on dopaminergic neurotransmission. Aims......: To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...

  8. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse. (United States)

    Easton, Scott D


    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  9. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergink, Veerle; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Hillegers, M H J


    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born...... in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated...... risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most...

  10. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.


    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  11. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Merz; S. Jak


    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  12. Childhood adverse life events and parental psychopathology as risk factors for bipolar disorder. (United States)

    Bergink, V; Larsen, J T; Hillegers, M H J; Dahl, S K; Stevens, H; Mortensen, P B; Petersen, L; Munk-Olsen, T


    Childhood adverse events are risk factors for later bipolar disorder. We quantified the risks for a later diagnosis of bipolar disorder after exposure to adverse life events in children with and without parental psychopathology. This register-based population cohort study included all persons born in Denmark from 1980 to 1998 (980 554 persons). Adversities before age 15 years were: familial disruption; parental somatic illness; any parental psychopathology; parental labour market exclusion; parental imprisonment; placement in out-of-home care; and parental natural and unnatural death. We calculated risk estimates of each of these eight life events as single exposure and risk estimates for exposure to multiple life events. Main outcome variable was a diagnosis of bipolar disorder after the age of 15 years, analysed with Cox proportional hazard regression. Single exposure to most of the investigated adversities were associated with increased risk for bipolar disorder, exceptions were parental somatic illness and parental natural death. By far the strongest risk factor for bipolar disorder in our study was any mental disorder in the parent (hazard ratio 3.53; 95% confidence interval 2.73-4.53) and the additional effects of life events on bipolar risk were limited. An effect of early adverse life events on bipolar risk later in life was mainly observed in children without parental psychopathology. Our findings do not exclude early-life events as possible risk factors, but challenge the concept of adversities as important independent determinants of bipolar disorder in genetically vulnerable individuals.

  13. Offenders in emerging adulthood: School maladjustment, childhood adversities, and prediction of aggressive antisocial behaviors. (United States)

    Wallinius, Märta; Delfin, Carl; Billstedt, Eva; Nilsson, Thomas; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Hofvander, Björn


    Early psychosocial adversities and maladjustment, such as childhood maltreatment and school adjustment problems, have been linked to an increased risk of aggressive antisocial behaviors. Yet, clinical studies of subjects at the highest risk of persistence in such behaviors are rare, especially during the life-changing transition years of emerging adulthood. This study describes early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors in a large, nationally representative cohort of Swedish, male violent offenders in emerging adulthood (age range = 18-25 years; N = 270). First, data on psychosocial background characteristics and aggressive antisocial behaviors (including age at onset) are provided. Second, early predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors are tested in bivariate and multivariate interactive models. The offenders demonstrated a diversity of early onset adversities and disruptive behaviors, in line with established risk factors for subsequent criminality and adverse outcomes in a variety of life domains. Severe school adjustment problems, especially bullying others and early onset truancy, were important and interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors over the lifetime, whereas childhood adversities such as parental substance or alcohol abuse and repeated exposure to violence at home during childhood were interrelated predictors of aggressive antisocial behaviors, albeit with less statistical importance. The findings stress the importance of early identification of individuals in the risk zone of developing severe and persistent aggressive antisocial behaviors and of early preventive interventions directed toward families with high-risk profiles. The findings also provide initial guidelines on which psychosocial background risk factors that need to be considered first-hand in early interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Impact of early psychosocial factors (childhood socioeconomic factors and adversities on future risk of type 2 diabetes, metabolic disturbances and obesity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Teresa


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors and socioeconomic status (SES have a notable impact on health disparities, including type 2 diabetes risk. However, the link between childhood psychosocial factors, such as childhood adversities or parental SES, and metabolic disturbances is less well established. In addition, the lifetime perspective including adult socioeconomic factors remains of further interest. We carried out a systematic review with the main question if there is evidence in population- or community-based studies that childhood adversities (like neglect, traumata and deprivation have considerable impact on type 2 diabetes incidence and other metabolic disturbances. Also, parental SES was included in the search as risk factor for both, diabetes and adverse childhood experiences. Finally, we assumed that obesity might be a mediator for the association of childhood adversities with diabetes incidence. Therefore, we carried out a second review on obesity, applying a similar search strategy. Methods Two systematic reviews were carried out. Longitudinal, population- or community-based studies were included if they contained data on psychosocial factors in childhood and either diabetes incidence or obesity risk. Results We included ten studies comprising a total of 200,381 individuals. Eight out of ten studies indicated that low parental status was associated with type 2 diabetes incidence or the development of metabolic abnormalities. Adjustment for adult SES and obesity tended to attenuate the childhood SES-attributable risk but the association remained. For obesity, eleven studies were included with a total sample size of 70,420 participants. Four out of eleven studies observed an independent association of low childhood SES on the risk for overweight and obesity later in life. Conclusions Taken together, there is evidence that childhood SES is associated with type 2 diabetes and obesity in later life. The database on the role of

  15. Female murderers: Examination of the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and anger expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İrem Akduman


    Full Text Available Adverse childhood period and abuse experiences may lead to some problems later in life. One of these problems is aggressive behavior, which is thought to be a reflection of the child’s increasing anger (Page, 2004; Olive, 2007.  Based on the fact that negative childhood experiences can lead to aggressive emotions, investigating the relationship between traumatic childhood experiences and female convicts’ aggression expression styles was considered important. Sample of the research consists of 77 females who are homicide convicts selected from correctional institutes in three different cities. Data gathered from the participants were examined by using the Turkish versions of The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and The State-Trait Anger Scale. A positive and meaningful relationship between childhood trauma experiences and trait anger levels of participants was observed. In addition, there was a significant relationship between childhood trauma experiences and domestic violence as well as perceived problematic relationship with family members during childhood. Trait anger and internal anger were also found to be significantly related to perceived problematic relationship with family members during childhood.   Results of the analyses were discussed in detail.

  16. Associations of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with C-reactive protein: A cross-sectional population-based study. (United States)

    Lin, Joy E; Neylan, Thomas C; Epel, Elissa; O'Donovan, Aoife


    Mounting evidence highlights specific forms of psychological stress as risk factors for ill health. Particularly strong evidence indicates that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma exposure increase risk for physical and psychiatric disorders, and there is emerging evidence that inflammation may play a key role in these relationships. In a population-based sample from the Health and Retirement Study (n=11,198, mean age 69 ± 10), we examine whether childhood adversity, adulthood trauma, and the interaction between them are associated with elevated levels of the systemic inflammatory marker high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, education, and year of data collection, as well as other possible confounds in follow-up sensitivity analyses. In our sample, 67% of individuals had experienced at least one traumatic event during adulthood, and those with childhood adversity were almost three times as likely to have experienced trauma as an adult. Childhood adversities and adulthood traumas were independently associated with elevated levels of hsCRP (β=0.03, p=0.01 and β=0.05, ptrauma alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [-0.003, -0.12], p=0.04, but not compared to those with childhood adversity alone, Estimate=-0.06, 95% CI [0.03, -0.16], p=0.19. There was no interaction between childhood and adulthood trauma exposure. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine adulthood trauma exposure and inflammation in a large population-based sample, and the first to explore the interaction of childhood adversity and adulthood trauma with inflammation. Our study demonstrates the prevalence of trauma-related inflammation in the general population and suggests that childhood adversity and adulthood trauma are independently associated with elevated inflammation.

  17. Relation between childhood experiences and adults' self-esteem: A sample from Baghdad (United States)

    AlShawi, Ameel F; Lafta, Riyadh K


    Background: Adverse childhood experiences are associated with significant functional impairments and loss of life in adolescence and adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into psychological disorders later in life. The family is one of the most critical risks and resilient factors for mental health in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Objective: To estimate the effect of childhood experiences on self-esteem during adulthood in a sample from Baghdad city. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Baghdad city during the period from January 2013 through to January 2014. Multistage sampling techniques were used to choose 13 primary healthcare centers and eight colleges from three universities in Baghdad. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ) form. Results: A total of 1040 subjects were surveyed and 1000 responded giving a response rate of 96.2%. The results revealed that 82.7% of the participants were confident within themselves, 14.9% (149) reported to feel a failure, while 28.3% of subjects expressed feeling useless at times. The score for family bonding is expected to significantly increase the score for self-esteem by a mean of 21.48. University, diploma and higher education are expected to significantly decrease the self-esteem score by a mean of − 6.31 compared to those with less than secondary school education. Parents education show statistically insignificant association with the mean score for self-esteem. Conclusion: The findings of this study give an insight into the essential role of childhood experiences in building self-esteem and adaptation later in their life. National health programs are suggested for intervention targeting early adverse childhood experiences and their consequences. PMID:25745597

  18. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  19. Adverse family experiences and obesity in children and adolescents in the United States. (United States)

    Lynch, Brian A; Agunwamba, Amenah; Wilson, Patrick M; Kumar, Seema; Jacobson, Robert M; Phelan, Sean; Cristiani, Valeria; Fan, Chun; Finney Rutten, Lila J


    While exposure to adverse family experiences (AFEs), subset of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), has been associated with childhood obesity, less is known about the impact of exposures to each type of AFE. Using 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data, we evaluated associations between exposure to individual AFEs and overweight/obesity status in children 10years or older, adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Caregivers reported their child's height, weight, and exposure to nine AFEs; body mass index (BMI) was classified by Center for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) guidelines. At Mayo Clinic, we calculated frequencies and weighted estimates of socio-demographic factors and AFEs. Unadjusted and adjusted weighted multinomial logistic regression models were employed to assess the independent associations of each AFE and the different AFE composite scores with BMI category. Exposure to two or more AFEs was independently associated with increased odds of overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13, 1.56) and obese (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.21, 1.73) status after adjustment for age, household income, parents' education-level, race and sex. Death of parent (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.18, 2.15) and hardship due to family income (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.06, 1.50) were independently associated with obesity status with adjustment for other AFEs and socio-demographic factors. Our results suggest that, in addition to cumulative exposure to AFEs, exposure to certain childhood experiences are more strongly associated with childhood obesity than others. Death of parent and hardship due to family income are individual AFEs, which are strongly predictive of obesity.

  20. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)


    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  1. The Flip Side of the Boomerang Generation: The Role of Childhood Adversity and Social Support on Housing Stress and Independent Living of Millennials in Young Adulthood


    Curry, Susanna


    Background and Aims. There currently is a growing understanding of the physical and mental health consequences of childhood adversity, yet much less is known about how childhood adversity relates to adult housing outcomes. Some social supports present in the transition to adulthood may buffer young people from housing challenges. This study examines the relationship between childhood adversity, social support in the transition to adulthood, and housing stress and living arrangements in adulth...

  2. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz


    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  3. Vagal regulation and internalizing psychopathology among adolescents exposed to childhood adversity. (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Alves, Sonia; Sheridan, Margaret A


    Childhood adversity (CA) is strongly associated with youth psychopathology. Identifying factors that reduce vulnerability following CA is critical for developing preventive interventions. Vagal tone and vagal reactivity following psychosocial stressors might influence psychopathology among youths exposed to CA. We acquired heart period and impedance cardiography data to calculate respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and preejection period (PEP) from 157 adolescents aged 13-17 years at rest and during the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Internalizing and externalizing symptoms and multiple forms of CA were assessed. Resting RSA and RSA reactivity interacted with CA in predicting internalizing but not externalizing psychopathology; CA was unassociated with internalizing problems in adolescents with high resting RSA and RSA reactivity. No interactions were observed with PEP. High resting RSA predicted greater vagal rebound and accelerated heart rate recovery following the TSST, highlighting one potential mechanism underlying low internalizing symptoms following CA among youths with high vagal tone.

  4. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil. (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José


    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes.

  5. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  6. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences. (United States)


    ... FDA Form 3500A (Adverse Reaction Report) for each adverse drug experience not reported under paragraph... resubmit to FDA adverse drug experience reports forwarded to the applicant by FDA; however, applicants must... applicant shall report to FDA adverse drug experience information, as described in this......

  7. Adverse experiences with nitric acid at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, W.S.; Craig, D.K.; Vitacco, M.J.; McCormick, J.A.


    Nitric acid is used routinely at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in many processes. However, the site has experienced a number of adverse situations in handling nitric acid. These have ranged from minor injuries to personnel to significant explosions. This document compiles many of these events and includes discussions of process upsets, fires, injuries, and toxic effects of nitric acid and its decomposition products. The purpose of the publication is to apprise those using the acid that it is a potentially dangerous material and can react in many ways as demonstrated by SRS experience. 10 refs.

  8. 童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其性别差异的研究%Associations between adverse childhood experiences with early puberty timing and possible gender difference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 孙莹; 陶芳标; 童世庐


    Objective To explore the association of adverse childhood events with early puberty timing and possible gender differences.Methods Data was gathered through questionnaires,physical and secondary sexual characteristics,examination with breast stage in girls and testicular volume in boys measured under informed consent among children in grade 3 to grade 5 from a largescale primary school.Information regarding adverse childhood experiences (ACEs),time of screening and physical activity was included in the questionnaire.Age limits on secondary sexual characteristics for defining early puberty established under the "China Puberty Research Collaboration Project" were used to classify early puberty timing.Body mass index was calculated and used to classify both overweight and obesity,in each gender.Results Among the 1 744 children aged 8.2-12.2 years old (957 boys),the prevalence rates of early puberty timing among boys and girls were 7.5% and 14.6%,respectively,with gender differences (x2= 11.671,P< 0.001).Boys who reported having experienced serious adverse family events and girls with physical abuse were more likely to develop early puberty.Results from multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that family life events were associated with a higher risk of early puberty timing in boys (odds ratio:2.531,95% CI:1.276-5.020) while experience related to physical abuse appeared a risk factor of early puberty timing in girls (odds ratio:2.453,95%CI:1.588-3.788).Conclusion Physical abuse and adverse family life events seemed to be associated with early puberty timing,suggesting further longitudinal study should be carried out to understand the nature of these findings and gender differences.%目的 探讨童年期不良经历与青春发动时相提前的关联及其可能的性别差异.方法 以安徽省某九年一贯制小学3~5年级自愿参加的男女生为研究对象,进行问卷调查、体格和第二性征发育(男生睾丸容积和女生

  9. Exploring the relationship between childhood adversity and oral health: An anecdotal approach and integrative view. (United States)

    Kirkengen, Anna Luise; Lygre, Henning


    During the past two decades, increasing recognition has been given to a relationship between oral health and systemic diseases. Associated systemic conditions include cardiovascular disease, diabetes, low birth weight and preterm births, respiratory diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, osteoporosis, and, in particular among oral conditions, periodontal disease. Low-grade inflammation is a common denominator linking these disorders. Applying an anecdotal approach and an integrative view, the medical and dental histories of two women document increasing ill health subsequent to incidences of maltreatment and sexual abuse, including oral penetration, at an early age. Comprehensive oral rehabilitation was required in both cases. These cases open for medical insight with regard to their implicit patho-physiology, when integrated with current evidence from neuroscience, endocrinology, and immunology, converging in the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In cases such as those presented in this paper, primary care physicians (family doctors, General Practitioners) and dentists may be the first to identify an etiological pattern. This report underlines the importance of increased and enhanced multidisciplinary research cooperation among health professionals. Our hypothesis is that childhood adversity may affect all aspects of human health, including adult oral health.

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Adversely Associated with Childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (United States)

    Yu, Ching-Jung; Du, Jung-Chieh; Chiou, Hsien-Chih; Feng, Chun-Cheng; Chung, Ming-Yi; Yang, Winnie; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Chien, Ling-Chu; Hwang, Betau; Chen, Mei-Lien


    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood neurobehavioral conditions. Evidence of the negative effects of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) on mental health has not been convincing, although a few studies have found an association between high SSB levels and attention problems in children. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that SSB consumption is associated with ADHD among children. Doctor-diagnosed ADHD cases (n = 173) and non-ADHD controls (n = 159) between age 4 to 15 were recruited. SSB consumption, socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics of the children, as well as of their mothers’ characteristics during pregnancy, were collected using a questionnaire. Blood lead levels and polymorphisms of two commonly verified dopaminergic-related genes (the D4 dopamine receptor gene DRD4 and the dopamine transporter gene DAT1) were also analyzed. There was a dose-response relationship between SSB consumption and ADHD. After covariates were adjusted, children who consumed SSBs at moderate levels and high levels had 1.36 and 3.69 odds, respectively, of having ADHD, compared with those who did not consume SSBs (p for trend < 0.05). Similar results were obtained when females were excluded. Our findings highlighted the adverse correlation between SSB consumption and ADHD and indicated a dose-response effect even after covariates were adjusted. PMID:27384573

  11. Cognitive bias and unusual experiences in childhood. (United States)

    Hassanali, Nedah; Ruffell, Tamatha; Browning, Sophie; Bracegirdle, Karen; Ames, Catherine; Corrigall, Richard; Laurens, Kristin R; Hirsch, Colette; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Maddox, Lucy; Jolley, Suzanne


    Cognitive therapy is recommended for children with psychotic-like, or unusual, experiences associated with distress or impairment (UEDs; UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013 [1]). Accurate models of the psychological underpinnings of childhood UEDs are required to effectively target therapies. Cognitive biases, such as the jumping to conclusions data-gathering bias (JTC), are implicated in the development and maintenance of psychosis in adults. In this study, we aimed to establish the suitability for children of a task developed to assess JTC in adults. Eighty-six participants (aged 5-14 years) were recruited from Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service (CAMHS) and community (school) settings, and completed the probabilistic reasoning ('Beads') task, alongside measures of intellectual functioning, general psychopathology, and UEDs. Self-reported reasoning strategy was coded as 'probabilistic' or 'other'. Younger children (5-10 years) were more likely than older children (11-14 years) to JTC (OR = 2.7, 95 % CI = 1.1-6.5, p = 0.03); and to use non-probabilistic reasoning strategies (OR = 9.4, 95 % CI = 1.7-48.8, p = 0.008). Both UED presence (OR = 5.1, 95 % CI = 1.2-21.9, p = 0.03) and lower IQ (OR = 0.9, 95 % CI = 0.9-1.0, p = 0.02) were significantly and independently associated with JTC, irrespective of age and task comprehension. Findings replicate research in adults, indicating that the 'Beads' task can be reliably employed in children to assess cognitive biases. Psychological treatments for children with distressing unusual experiences might usefully incorporate reasoning interventions.

  12. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life. (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Jak, Suzanne


    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in their association with satisfaction in the romantic relationship, the quality of adult family ties and the perceived quality of the social network, i.e. loneliness in adulthood. Based on data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N=3980) structural equation models were estimated to predict adult relationships and loneliness with childhood experiences. Positive attachment experiences with parents, such as reliability, closeness and supportiveness during childhood were associated with greater satisfaction in the romantic relationship, stronger family ties and less loneliness, whereas stressful childhood experiences, such as conflicts and violence negatively predicted the quality of adult relationships. Life span theoretical perspectives, such as attachment theory are discussed as useful unifying framework to study social relationships, their interconnectedness and association with outcome during all phases of life.

  13. Prevalence of Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptoms in European School-Aged Children and its Relationship with Childhood Adversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang


    The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... conducted to investigate: (a) the contribution of the number and (b) the specific types of experienced adversities on the occurrence of PES. 45.7% of the children experienced at least one PES, with low emotional well-being during the last week being most frequently reported (38.2%). No sex differences were...

  14. Planned Repeat Cesarean Section at Term and Adverse Childhood Health Outcomes: A Record-Linkage Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairead Black


    Full Text Available Global cesarean section (CS rates range from 1% to 52%, with a previous CS being the commonest indication. Labour following a previous CS carries risk of scar rupture, with potential for offspring hypoxic brain injury, leading to high rates of repeat elective CS. However, the effect of delivery by CS on long-term outcomes in children is unclear. Increasing evidence suggests that in avoiding exposure to maternal bowel flora during labour or vaginal birth, offspring delivered by CS may be adversely affected in terms of energy uptake from the gut and immune development, increasing obesity and asthma risks, respectively. This study aimed to address the evidence gap on long-term childhood outcomes following repeat CS by comparing adverse childhood health outcomes after (1 planned repeat CS and (2 unscheduled repeat CS with those that follow vaginal birth after CS (VBAC.A data-linkage cohort study was performed. All second-born, term, singleton offspring delivered between 1 January 1993 and 31 December 2007 in Scotland, UK, to women with a history of CS (n = 40,145 were followed up until 31 January 2015. Outcomes assessed included obesity at age 5 y, hospitalisation with asthma, learning disability, cerebral palsy, and death. Cox regression and binary logistic regression were used as appropriate to compare outcomes following planned repeat CS (n = 17,919 and unscheduled repeat CS (n = 8,847 with those following VBAC (n = 13,379. Risk of hospitalisation with asthma was greater following both unscheduled repeat CS (3.7% versus 3.3%, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.05-1.33 and planned repeat CS (3.6% versus 3.3%, adjusted HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.42 compared with VBAC. Learning disability and death were more common following unscheduled repeat CS compared with VBAC (3.7% versus 2.3%, adjusted odds ratio 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.29, and 0.5% versus 0.4%, adjusted HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.00-2.25, respectively. Risk of obesity at age 5 y and risk of cerebral

  15. Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Recent Adverse Experiences (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D.


    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN…

  16. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge? (United States)

    Vist, Torill


    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  17. Exploring Connections between Childhood and Adult Literacy Experiences. (United States)

    Baghban, Marcia

    Three famous writers--Eudora Welty, Madeleine L'Engle, and Jack London--used their silent reading experiences to survive not only their childhoods, but also to become adult chroniclers of human lives. Pulitzer-prize winning author Eudora Welty credits an extended period of silent reading when she was 7 years old (and home from school for nearly a…

  18. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations? (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan


    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  19. Spontaneous adverse drug reaction monitoring in oncology: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Kaur


    Full Text Available Background: Adverse drug reaction (ADR monitoring is slowly developing as an important aspect of healthcare. The aim of the study was to study the pattern of adverse drug reactions in the Oncology department of a tertiary care hospital. Materials And Methods: This was a prospective study conducted in the Oncology department of a tertiary care hospital in which ADRs were reported spontaneously. The ADRs were noted from 1st January, 2007 to 30th June, 2011. Following were noted: demographics, premedication (if any, diagnosis, chemotherapy (regimen, cycles, medication history, and alteration in the treatment or co morbidities, ADRs (severity and management. Adverse drug reactions were noted by patient interview, collaborating with information on file, recording changes in the prescribing chart and investigations, consulting the doctor on duty. Results: During this study period, there were total of 14,475 visits of patients from which 2500 ADRs were recorded. Maximum number of ADRs were noted with platinum compounds (25.52% followed by pyrimidine antagonists (19.88%. The most common malignancy reported in our hospital was Carcinoma breast (20% followed by leukemia (12% and Ca ovary (12%. Alopecia (27.76% was the most common ADR followed by anemia (7.48%, thrombocytopenia (6.96% and constipation (6.16%. Conclusion: Alopecia is the most common ADR and platinum compounds were responsible for the maximum number of ADRs. The most common carcinoma reported during this period was carcinoma breast.

  20. Childhood Adversity and Adult Onset of Hypertension and Heart Disease in São Paulo, Brazil


    Parrish, Canada; Surkan, Pamela J; Martins, Silvia S.; Gattaz, Wagner F.; Andrade, Laura Helena; Viana, Maria Carmen


    Using data from the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey and logistic regression models, we studied how childhood neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and family violence were related to adult hypertension and heart disease. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, child physical abuse was associated with hypertension and heart disease, whereas family violence was associated with hypertension. Efforts to curb child physical abuse could potentially reduce subsequent hypertension and...

  1. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia


    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  2. Epigenetic Vestiges of Early Developmental Adversity: Childhood Stress Exposure and DNA Methylation in Adolescence (United States)

    Essex, Marilyn J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Hertzman, Clyde; Lam, Lucia L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Neumann, Sarah M. A.; Kobor, Michael S.


    Fifteen-year-old adolescents (N = 109) in a longitudinal study of child development were recruited to examine differences in DNA methylation in relation to parent reports of adversity during the adolescents' infancy and preschool periods. Microarray technology applied to 28,000 cytosine-guanine dinucleotide sites within DNA derived from buccal…

  3. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review. (United States)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan


    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association.

  4. Extrasensory Perception Experiences and Childhood Trauma: A Rorschach Investigation. (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Ciura, Giulia; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A


    This study investigated whether people who report recurrent extrasensory perception (ESP) experiences (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition) have suffered more traumatic experiences and traumatic intrusions. Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire); traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure (Rorschach Traumatic Content Index). Participants also completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Dissociative Experience Scale, and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Implications for health professionals are discussed. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma.

  5. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences. (United States)


    ... derived from commercial marketing experience, postmarketing clinical investigations, postmarketing... literature, and from foreign marketing experience. (d) Scientific literature. (1) A 15-day Alert report based... Privacy Act System 09-20-0136, “Epidemiologic Studies and Surveillance of Disease Problems.”...

  6. Impact of Coastal Pollution on Childhood Disabilities and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The Case of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juma Rahman


    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this review was to explore the situation of coastal water pollution and its impact on child health and pregnancy outcomes in Bangladesh. Background: Globally coastal pollution is of greater significance than inland’s for its huge resources and contribution to livelihood. As a result it has been a source of increased Global Burden of Disease by means of consumption of seafood, involvement in risky jobs, and exposure to water related disastrous events. Almost sixty percent of the world’s population is at risk of costal contamination and developing countries like Bangladesh, geographically located at the tip of the Bay of Bengal, are facing significant challenges by this form of pollution. Method: This study was based on a critical review of published literature and unpublished documents from 1972 to 2011 retrieved from databases of scientific publications, from public-access search engines, reports from government, international organizations, and non-government agencies, and personal communications. Discussion: Huge noxious pollutants including heavy metals, oil spill and redionucleotides were found in the Bay of Bengal, those have enormous adverse impacts on child health and pregnancy outcomes. This review focuses on children and pregnant women because of their vulnerable physiological conditions to the impacts of environmental factors. The physiological systems of children and fetuses are developing fast and usually are sensitive to disruptions induced by environmental pollutants and exposures in utero increase the risk of future toxic insults. Conclusion: The coastal zone of Bangladesh is one of the vulnerable zones in the world which is predicted to disappear due to climate change impacts. This areas face huge weather-related disasters due to continuous changing coastal-configuration and man-made pollutions. However, these observations are indecisive due to limitations of supportive evidence. Therefore, further

  7. Tracing Differential Pathways of Risk: Associations among Family Adversity, Cortisol, and Cognitive Functioning in Childhood (United States)

    Suor, Jennifer H.; Sturge-Apple, Melissa L.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante; Manning, Liviah G.


    Guided by family risk and allostasis theoretical frameworks, the present study utilized a prospective longitudinal design to examine associations among family risk experiences, basal cortisol patterns, and cognitive functioning in children. The sample included 201 low-income children living within a midsize city in the Northeastern United States.…

  8. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health. (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P


    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  9. The Recruit Assessment Program (RAP) Experience With Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Questions (United States)


    recruits in San Diego. It differs from previous versions in that it asks additional education questions, such as history of homeschooling , school...Albuquerque, New Mexico . 17. Landis JR, Koch GG. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics. 1977;33(1):159–174. 18...Protection Conference, August 11–17, 2003, Albuquerque, New Mexico . 14 15 Table 4. Top 10 RAP Questions Fort Jackson, SC, Participants “Skipped or

  10. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia


    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  11. Adverse drug reaction reporting by patients in the Netherlands - Three years of experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Langen, Joyce; van Hunsel, Florence; Passier, Anneke; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; van Grootheest, Kees


    Background: There has been discussion about the acceptance of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported by patients to spontaneous reporting systems. Lack of experience with patient reporting in real life was one of the main drawbacks in this debate. This study covers 3 years of experience with patient

  12. Grandparents' experiences of childhood cancer, part 1: doubled and silenced. (United States)

    Moules, Nancy J; Laing, Catherine M; McCaffrey, Graham; Tapp, Dianne M; Strother, Douglas


    In this study, the authors examined the experiences of grandparents who have had, or have, a grandchild with childhood cancer. Sixteen grandparents were interviewed using unstructured interviews, and the data were analyzed according to hermeneutic-phenomenological tradition, as guided by the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. Interpretive findings indicate that grandparents suffer and worry in many complex ways that include a doubled worry for their own children as well as their grandchildren. According to the grandparents in this study, this worry was, at times, silenced in efforts to protect the parents of the grandchild from the burden of concern for the grandparent. Other interpretations include the nature of having one's universe shaken, of having lives put on hold, and a sense of helplessness. The grandparents in this study offer advice to other grandparents as well as to the health care system regarding what kinds of things might have been more helpful to them as one level of the family system, who, like other subsystems of the family, are also profoundly affected by the event of childhood cancer.

  13. Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to

  14. Sensory-processing sensitivity moderates the association between childhood experiences and adult life satisfaction. (United States)

    Booth, Charlotte; Standage, Helen; Fox, Elaine


    There are few studies testing the differential susceptibility hypothesis (DSH: hypothesizing that some individuals are more responsive to both positive and negative experiences) with adult personality traits. The current study examined the DSH by investigating the moderating effect of sensory-processing sensitivity (SPS) on childhood experiences and life satisfaction. A total of 185 adults completed measures of SPS, positive/negative childhood experiences and life satisfaction. SPS did moderate the association between childhood experiences and life satisfaction. Simple slopes analysis compared those reporting high and low SPS (+/-1 SD) and revealed that the difference was observed only for those who reported negative childhood experiences; with the high SPS group reporting lower life satisfaction. There was no difference observed in those reporting positive childhood experiences, which supported a diathesis-stress model rather than the DSH.

  15. Modeling the Interplay Between Psychological Processes and Adverse, Stressful Contexts and Experiences in Pathways to Psychosis : An Experience Sampling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klippel, Annelie; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Chavez-Baldini, UnYoung; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Kempton, Matthew; Valmaggia, Lucia; Calem, Maria; So, Suzanne; Beards, Stephanie; Hubbard, Kathryn; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Wichers, Marieke; McGuire, Philip; Murray, Robin; Garety, Philippa; van Os, Jim; Wykes, Til; Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich


    Several integrated models of psychosis have implicated adverse, stressful contexts and experiences, and affective and cognitive processes in the onset of psychosis. In these models, the effects of stress are posited to contribute to the development of psychotic experiences via pathways through affec

  16. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study


    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya


    Objective Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided soci...

  17. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study


    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R.; Stein, Dan J.; Seedat, Soraya


    Objective: Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. Methods: A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided so...

  18. Negative childhood experiences and mental health: theoretical, clinical and primary prevention implications. (United States)

    Read, John; Bentall, Richard P


    After decades of ignoring or minimising the prevalence and effects of negative events in childhood, researchers have recently established that a broad range of adverse childhood events are significant risk factors for most mental health problems, including psychosis. Researchers are now investigating the biological and psychological mechanisms involved. In addition to the development of a traumagenic neurodevelopmental model for psychosis, the exploration of a range of psychological processes, including attachment and dissociation, is shedding light on the specific aetiologies of discrete phenomena such as hallucinations and delusions. It is argued that the theoretical, clinical and primary prevention implications of our belated focus on childhood are profound.

  19. Ethical, Practical, and Scientific Considerations of Randomized Experiments in Early Childhood Special Education. (United States)

    White, Karl R.; Pezzino, James


    The paper summarizes and presents counter arguments against positions claiming that randomized experiments in early childhood are unnecessary, impractical, or unethical. It is concluded that more frequent use of randomized experiments in early childhood special education would provide more effective program evaluation data for resource allocation…

  20. Mentalizing and its role as a mediator in the relationship between childhood experiences and adult functioning: Exploring the empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macintosh Heather Beth


    Full Text Available The introduction of the concept of mentalizing into psychoanalytic discourse has provided researchers with an important tool for beginning to understand the mechanisms mediating the relationships between childhood experiences and later psychological functioning. Researchers have made strong statements regarding the strength of this mediational relationship in their movement toward the building of novel and efficacious intervention approaches. The goal of this systematic review was to critically examine the empirical evidence for these statements. Five unique studies were identified that assessed the relationships between the variables of attachment and/or childhood adversity, mentalizing and adult functioning. Some preliminary evidence for the role of mentalizing as an important mediator variable was identified. However, researchers were cautioned to continue to engage in further empirical study to ensure that theoretical explorations do not overstate or move too far beyond the empirical research findings.

  1. Rural-Urban Migration and Experience of Childhood Abuse in the Young Thai Population. (United States)

    Jirapramukpitak, Tawanchai; Abas, Melanie; Harpham, Trudy; Prince, Martin


    Evidence suggests that certain migrant populations are at increased risk of abusive behaviors. It is unclear whether this may also apply to Thai rural-urban migrants, who may experience higher levels of psychosocial adversities than the population at large. The study aims to examine the association between migration status and the history of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse among young Thai people in an urban community. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 1052 young residents, aged 16-25 years. Data were obtained concerning: 1) exposures-migration (defined as an occasion when a young person, born in a more rural area moves for the first time into Greater Bangkok) and age at migration. 2) outcomes-child abuse experiences were assessed with an anonymous self report adapted from the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). There were 8.4%. 16.6% and 56.0% reporting sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, respectively. Forty six percent of adolescents had migrated from rural areas to Bangkok, mostly independently at the age of 15 or after to seek work. Although there were trends towards higher prevalences of the three categories of abuse among early migrants, who moved to Bangkok before the age of 15, being early migrants was independently associated with experiences of physical abuse (OR 1.9 95%CI 1.1-3.2) and emotional abuse (OR 2.0, 95%CI 1.3-3.0) only. Our results suggest that rural-urban migration at an early age may place children at higher risk of physical and emotional abuse. This may have policy implications for the prevention of childhood abuse particularly among young people on the move.

  2. Experiences of punishment by parents during childhood: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Olivera


    Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.

  3. Psychopathology, adversity, and creativity: diversifying experiences in the development of eminent African Americans. (United States)

    Damian, Rodica Ioana; Simonton, Dean Keith


    Symptoms associated with mental illness have been hypothesized to relate to creative achievement because they act as diversifying experiences. However, this theory has only been tested on predominantly majority-culture samples. Do tendencies toward mental illness still predict eminent creativity when they coexist with other diversifying experiences, such as early parental death, minority-status, or poverty? These alternative diversifying experiences can be collectively referred to as examples of developmental adversity. This conjecture was tested on a significant sample of 291 eminent African Americans who, by the nature of their status as long-term minorities, would experience more developmental adversity. Replicating majority-culture patterns, African American artists showed higher mental illness rates than African American scientists. Yet the absolute percentages were significantly lower for the African Americans, regardless of profession. Furthermore, mental illness predicted higher eminence levels only for the African American artists, an effect that diminished when controlling for developmental adversity. Because the latter predicted eminence for both artists and scientists, the "madness-to-genius" link probably represents just 1 of several routes by which diversifying experiences can influence eminence. The same developmental ends can be attained by different means. This inference warrants further research using other eminent creators emerging from minority culture populations.

  4. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment (United States)

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming


    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  5. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David


    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  6. Early Childhood Settings and Funded Two-Year-Old Children: Experiences from Four Settings in England (United States)

    Phair, Heleanna; Davis, Geraldine


    In 2013 funding was introduced to support disadvantaged two-year-old children to attend early childhood settings in England. This study explores the experiences of four early childhood settings as they worked with these funded children for the first time. Using interviews and observations within the settings, findings demonstrate some adjustment…

  7. More than "Just" Changing Diapers: The Experiences of Preservice Early Childhood Teachers in Infant Field Placements (United States)

    Beck, Lisa Marie Powell


    Despite the fact that early childhood preservice teachers are typically being prepared to work with children from birth through age 8, preservice field experiences with infants continue to be largely missing in early childhood teacher preparation programs Since the education and care of infants often takes place in vastly different settings than…

  8. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment (United States)

    May, Joanne C.


    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  9. Adversities in childhood and adult psychopathology in the South Africa Stress and Health Study: associations with first-onset DSM-IV disorders. (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R; Seedat, Soraya; Moomal, Hashim; Herman, Allen; Stein, Dan J


    Extensive epidemiologic research from the United States demonstrates that childhood adversities (CAs) are predictive of several psychiatric outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and externalizing disorders. To date, this has not been explored in a national sample of adults in South Africa. The present study examined the joint predictive effects of 11 retrospectively reported CAs on the first onset of DSM-IV disorders in the South Africa Stress and Health Study (SASH), a nationally representative sample of adults. We utilized substantively plausible regression models of joint CA effects that account for the comorbidity between individual CAs; outcomes included DSM-IV anxiety disorders, mood disorders, substance use disorders, and externalizing disorders measured with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The results indicated that experiences of CA varied by race, and many CAs were correlated with one another. The best-fitting model for first onset of any disorder included separate indicators for each type of CA, in addition to indicator variables for the number of other CAs reported. Results disaggregated by class of disorder showed that the majority of CAs with significant odds ratios only predicted anxiety disorder. Results disaggregated by life course stage of first onset showed that significant effects of CAs can be observed at each stage of the life course. This study contributes to a growing body of research on the social determinants of mental health in South Africa. Our findings illustrate the importance of utilizing a model that accounts for the clustering and accumulation of CAs, and suggest that a variety of CAs predict onset of mental disorders, particularly anxiety disorders, at several stages of the life course.

  10. When the safe place does not protect: reports of victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric institutions. (United States)

    Dos Santos Mesquita, Cristina; da Costa Maia, Ângela


    Psychiatric patients report higher levels of victimisation and are at risk for further victimisation in different contexts, such as psychiatric institutions. Studies in this field tend to focus on hospital staff as victims, experiencing classic forms of victimisation (e.g. physical assault, threats, verbal abuse), through qualitative studies. This is a quantitative retrospective study that aims to know the occurrence of psychiatric victimisation and other adverse experiences in Portuguese psychiatric patients. Ninety-five psychiatric patients, between 20 and 79 years old (M - 45.18, SD - 13.06), with a history of psychiatric hospitalisation answered the Experiences in Psychiatric Institution Inventory. Participants were recruited in four psychiatric hospitals. Inpatients were approached during their hospitalisation; outpatients were approached in scheduled appointment days. Only 23 (24.2%) participants reported no victimisation. Total Experiences of Self varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.75, SD - 1.72), Total Witnessed Experiences varied from 0 to 7 (M - 1.17, SD - 1.64), and Total Global Experiences varied from 0 to 14 (M - 2.92, SD - 3.01). These results show that victimisation and adverse experiences in psychiatric contexts are frequent and go beyond classic forms of victimisation. A deeper knowledge of these experiences and their impact in the mental health of psychiatric patients may promote quality of care provided and lead to more effective treatments, thus reducing the number and length of hospitalisations, and the financial burden for public health services.

  11. Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158met Polymorphism Interacts With Early Experience to Predict Executive Functions in Early Childhood (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Sulik, Michael; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Petrill, Stephen; Bartlett, Christopher; Greenberg, Mark


    Numerous studies demonstrate that the Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism, which confers less efficient catabolism of catecholamines, is associated with increased focal activation of prefrontal cortex (PFC) and higher levels of executive function abilities. By and large, however, studies of COMT Val158Met have been conducted with adult samples and do not account for the context in which development is occurring. Effects of early adversity on stress response physiology and the inverted U shape relating catecholamine levels to neural activity in PFC indicate the need to take into account early experience when considering relations between genes such as COMT and executive cognitive ability. Consistent with this neurobiology, we find in a prospective longitudinal sample of children and families (N=1292) that COMT Val158Met interacts with early experience to predict executive function abilities in early childhood. Specifically, the Valine variant of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism, which confers more rather than less efficient catabolism of catecholamines is associated with higher executive function abilities at child ages 48 and 60 months and with faster growth of executive function for children experiencing early adversity, as indexed by cumulative risk factors in the home at child ages 7, 15, 24, and 36 months. Findings indicate the importance of the early environment for the relation between catecholamine genes and developmental outcomes and demonstrate that the genetic moderation of environmental risk is detectable in early childhood. PMID:26251232

  12. [High frequency of cutaneous adverse effects under infliximab. Geneva experience, 1999-2008]. (United States)

    Seydtaghia, Floriane; De Saussure, Philippe; Hadengue, Antoine


    Geneva experience, 1999-2008 Infliximab has been used for 10 years in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the gastroenterology and hepatology department at the University Hospitals of Geneva. This retrospective study shows the follow-up of these patients treated with infliximab and reveals a high rate of cutaneous adverse events, which, although often mild, can sign a definitive intolerance to treatment.

  13. Adverse events associated with ultrasonic scalers: A manufacturer and user facility device experience database analysis


    Rajagopal Athmarao Thennukonda; Bhavani Rekha Natarajan


    Background: The present study was conducted to determine the frequency and type of adverse events (AEs) associated with ultrasonic scaler reported to the Food and Drug Administration manufacturer and user facility device experience (MAUDE) database. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed the ultrasonic scaler units (USU) related AEs reported to MAUDE from October 1, 1995, to September 31, 2015. Analyses of details collected are presented. Results: MAUDE received a total of 667 un...

  14. Imported childhood malaria: the Dublin experience, 1999-2006.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy, T R


    Imported childhood malaria has never been studied in Ireland. We aimed to document the incidence and species of malaria in children presenting to paediatric hospitals in Dublin and to examine management and outcome measures.

  15. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.


    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  16. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.


    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  17. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk. (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula


    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features.

  18. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in juvenile detention: role of adverse life experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P Bhatta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

  19. Case-term Adverse Outcomes of Chronic Hepatitis C, Extrahepatic Manifestations of a Young Man Infected in Early Childhood

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    S. V. Baramzina


    Full Text Available In the present article discusses the clinical case of unfavorable course of chronic hepatitis C with the outcome of cirrhosis and development of extrahepatic manifestations of a young man of 20 years as a result of infection in early childhood.

  20. Young Children's Opportunities for Unstructured Environmental Exploration of Nature: Links to Adults' Experiences in Childhood (United States)

    Laird, Shelby Gull; McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Allen, Sydnye


    Outdoor environmental education and provision of unstructured exploration of nature are often forgotten aspects of the early childhood experience. The aim of this study was to understand how adults' early experiences in nature relate to their attitudes and practices in providing such experiences for young children. This study surveyed 33 parents…

  1. Understanding the Multicultural Experience in Early Childhood Education. (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.; Spodek, Bernard, Ed.

    Chapters in this book are organized into sections devoted to (1) the nature of multiculturalism in children, (2) educational practices and materials, and (3) issues in preparing early childhood educators. The first four chapters in section 1 focus, respectively, on Mexican-American culture; the roots, culture, and learning styles of Black…

  2. Exploring School Stress in Middle Childhood: Interpretations, Experiences, and Coping (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.


    With increased academic and social challenges at school, middle childhood can be a particularly stressful time. The present study explored how a sample of children from a supportive learning environment interpreted, experienced and reported coping with everyday stress at school. Using a phenomenological approach, third graders attending an…

  3. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking (United States)

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue


    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  4. Personality Traits as a Function of Beliefs and Childhood Experience. (United States)

    Catlin, George

    The origins of personality traits and emotions have long been a subject of investigation and controversy. Beginning with Freud, an argument has been made from a wide variety of perspectives that early childhood relationships to parents are a primary factor in shaping personality. Within a cognitive paradigm, people's beliefs about themselves and…

  5. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)


    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  6. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza


    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  7. Positive childhood experiences and ideal cardiovascular health in midlife: Associations and mediators. (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Chen, Ying; Guida, Jennifer L; Albert, Michelle A; Williams, David R


    In 2010, the American Heart Association introduced a new conceptual framework to encourage a focus on primary prevention and provided a definition for "ideal cardiovascular health". In this study we examined the relationship between positive childhood experience and ideal cardiovascular health in mid-life, and the extent to which education, depression, and social support mediate this association. Data are from participants in the Midlife and Aging in the United States study who completed a clinic-based assessment of health (N=1255, aged 34-84years, 2004-2005). We created a positive childhood experiences index based on retrospective report of eight childhood experiences, and calculated a continuous ideal cardiovascular health score for each participant following the American Heart Association's definition of ideal, intermediate and poor cardiovascular health across seven health metrics (analyses conducted in 2015-2016). Positive childhood experiences were associated with ideal cardiovascular health: compared to individuals in the lowest quartile, respondents in the second, third, and fourth quartile of positive childhood experiences scored 0.42 (standard error (SE)=0.18), 0.92 (SE=0.18) and 1.04 (SE=0.18) units higher on ideal cardiovascular health, adjusting for age, sex, and race. Respondent's education, depression status, and social support fully mediated the direct effect of positive childhood experiences on ideal cardiovascular health, with the largest indirect effect for education. These results suggest that positive childhood experiences are associated with ideal cardiovascular health in midlife. Strategies to promote cardiovascular wellbeing may benefit from a focus on social interventions early in life; educational attainment, major depression, and social support may represent key points of intervention.




    We examined the role of maternal depressive symptoms reported during childhood as a predictor of an important personality trait, Openness to Experience (O), in middle adulthood. Participants were 95 adults (38 previously malnourished, 57 control, mean age 42.1 years) who had been followed longitudinally since childhood by the Barbados Nutrition Study. Maternal depressive symptoms had been measured when the participants were 5–11 years of age by the General Adjustment and Morale...

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Assessment Method for Childhood Maltreatment Experiences: The Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC) (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Harkema-Schouten, Petra; Bernstein, David


    Objective: We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the reliability and validity of the Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC, Lobbestael, Arntz, Kremers, & Sieswerda, 2006), a retrospective, semi-structured interview for childhood maltreatment. The ITEC aims to yield dimensional scores for severity of experiences of different…

  10. The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Lester, Barry M; DeGarmo, David S; Lagasse, Linda L; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary


    The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

  11. Transgenerational aspects of former Swiss child laborers: do second generations suffer from their parents’ adverse early-life experiences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas L. Küffer


    Full Text Available Background: Recent research suggests that childhood adversity exerts a lasting impact not only on the affected individuals but also on their offspring. Little is known about the role of parental rearing behavior in the transgenerational conveyance of parental childhood adversity and filial psychological health. Objective: Hence, it was the aim of the current study to investigate the relationship between parental rearing behavior of former Swiss indentured child laborers (“Verdingkinder” and psychological health of their adult offspring. Methods: We applied a two-generation control-group design with two parental samples (n=16, former “Verdingkinder,” Mage=76.13, SD=6.81 and n=19, parental controls, Mage=72.63, SD=5.96 and their offspring (n=21, former “Verdingkinder” offspring, Mage=52.91, SD=5.90, and n=29 offspring controls, Mage=44.55, SD=7.71. Parental rearing behavior, childhood trauma, and psychological health were assessed with questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Bayesian analyses, where Bayes factors (BF of 3 or higher were considered as substantial evidence for the tested hypotheses. Results: We found that “Verdingkinder” offspring reported more physical abuse (BF10=5.197 and higher total childhood trauma exposure (BF10=2.476. They described both their fathers (BF10=14.246 and mothers (BF10=24.153 as less emotional and their mothers as more punitive (BF10=18.725. An increased sense of reflection, for instance, one's ability to take different perspectives, was found in the offspring controls (BF10=5.245. Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that lower perceived familial emotionality was associated with higher psychopathology (all BF10=10.471 and higher pessimism (all BF10=5.396. Discussion: Our data provide cross-sectional evidence of a meaningful transgenerational relationship between parental childhood adversity, dysfunctional rearing behavior, and psychological health of offspring. Prospective studies are

  12. Genetic Risk by Experience Interaction for Childhood Internalizing Problems: Converging Evidence across Multiple Methods (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew K.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill


    Background: Identifying how genetic risk interacts with experience to predict psychopathology is an important step toward understanding the etiology of mental health problems. Few studies have examined genetic risk by experience interaction (GxE) in the development of childhood psychopathology. Methods: We used both co-twin and parent mental…

  13. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers (United States)

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine


    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  14. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo


    Full Text Available Background: The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective: This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method: Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11 participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64% had committed murder, 4 (18% had committed rape, and 4 (18% were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy. Results: There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  15. Childhood adversity as a moderator of the relationship between emotional reactivity and the occurrence of anxiety and depression in a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Łukasz Dragan


    The obtained results are only partially explained within the temperamental risk factor model. A different pattern of relationships between the intensity of the temperamental trait and the occurrence of anxiety and depression depending on the amount of reported adversity may result from the cumulative effect of the negative consequences of this type of experience.

  16. Adverse Prenatal, Perinatal and Neonatal Experiences in Children with Anxiety Disorders. (United States)

    Johnco, Carly; Lewin, Adam B; Salloum, Alison; Murphy, Tanya K; Crawford, Erika A; Dane, Brittney F; McBride, Nicole M; Storch, Eric A


    This study examined the incidence of adverse prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal experiences amongst children with anxiety disorders, and the relationship to clinical symptomology and functional impairment in treatment-seeking children (N = 107) with a primary anxiety disorder. Anxious children had higher rates of reported maternal prescription medication use during pregnancy, maternal smoking and illness during pregnancy and neonatal complications (including neonatal intensive care and feeding issues) compared with population base rates and non-affected children. Almost one-third had early problems with sleep. Developmental problems were common with more than half having at least one area of delay. More than three quarters of anxious children had a first-degree family member with a psychiatric history. There were several associations between neonatal complications and subsequent clinical symptomology, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depressive comorbidity, anxiety severity and functional impairment. Findings suggest higher rates of perinatal complications in anxious children.

  17. Experience of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.


    Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... identified from the Danish Twin Registry. The twins gave an interview and a physical examination in 2006. The Childhood Family Relationship Questionnaire (CFRQ) was used to assess life events Results: Before age 17, 20.8% of the participants had been separated from mother, 26.1% had been separated from...

  18. Sporotrichosis in childhood: clinical and therapeutic experience in 25 patients. (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Saúl, Amado; Paredes-Solis, Vanessa; Fierro, Leonel; Rosales, Alejandra; Palacios, Carolina; Araiza, Javier


    Sporotrichosis in an uncommon mycoses in childhood and is generally associated with injuries received as a consequence of farm work. We undertook a retrospective study of sporotrichosis in children and adolescents seen over a 10-year period, focusing on their clinical, epidemiologic, and mycologic features as well as treatment. We included 25 children with a mean age of 9.3 years. Most of those affected were schoolchildren (84%) from rural areas. The main clinical variety of sporotrichosis seen was the lymphocutaneous form (64%), followed by the fixed cutaneous form (36%), and one instance of the disseminated cutaneous form. Most lesions were located on the upper limbs (40%) and the face (36%). Sporothrix schenckii was isolated in all patients and 24 of 25 had a positive sporotrichin skin test. Nineteen patients were treated and cured clinically and mycologically with potassium iodide, three were cured with itraconazole and one with heat therapy.

  19. Private sector contribution to childhood immunization: Sri Lankan experience

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    Agampodi S


    Full Text Available Background : The main service provider for childhood immunization in Sri Lanka is the government sector. However, utilization of private sector for childhood immunization is increasing rapidly. Existing national immunization data does not routinely include statistics on private sector immunization delivery adequately. Objective : To estimate the proportion of children immunized in the private sector; describe socio-demographic characteristics of private sector users and compare these with government sector users. Materials and Methods : A community-based crosssectional descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested interviewer-administered structured questionnaire. This was done in the Colombo municipal council area using the WHO 30 cluster methodology. The total number of households in the sample was 553. Results : Out of the 5,028 total immunizations reported in the present study, around one-third (2,544 was obtained through the private sector. Nineteen percent (104 of children were exclusively immunized from the private sector. The distribution of usual immunization provider was - government sector 72.3% (400 and private sector 27.7% (153. Significant differences were observed (P < 0.001 between private and government sector users with regard to family income, social class, ethnicity, religion and educational level of the mother. The age-appropriate immunization among the 12- to 23-month age group was 92.3% (144 in the government sector, whereas it was 95% (38 in the private sector. Among the 24- to 35-month age group, it was 91.7% (121 and 92.7% (76 respectively. The age-adjusted immunization coverage rates were almost same among the government and private sector users except for the measles vaccine, where the private sector users had significantly (P = 0.016 higher coverage. Conclusions :Utilization of private sector immunization services is high in the Colombo municipal council area.

  20. Consequences of early adverse rearing experience (EARE) on development: insights from non-human primate studies (United States)

    Zhang, Bo


    Early rearing experiences are important in one's whole life, whereas early adverse rearing experience (EARE) is usually related to various physical and mental disorders in later life. Although there were many studies on human and animals, regarding the effect of EARE on brain development, neuroendocrine systems, as well as the consequential mental disorders and behavioral abnormalities, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Due to the close genetic relationship and similarity in social organizations with humans, non-human primate (NHP) studies were performed for over 60 years. Various EARE models were developed to disrupt the early normal interactions between infants and mothers or peers. Those studies provided important insights of EARE induced effects on the physiological and behavioral systems of NHPs across life span, such as social behaviors (including disturbance behavior, social deficiency, sexual behavior, etc), learning and memory ability, brain structural and functional developments (including influences on neurons and glia cells, neuroendocrine systems, e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, etc). In this review, the effects of EARE and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms were comprehensively summarized and the possibility of rehabilitation was discussed. PMID:28271667

  1. "Getting sick has been good to me, not bad": understanding the experience of growth in face of adversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Hoppe


    In the literature and public opinion chronic illness is mostly presented as a negative experience. However, this article shows that people can experience their illness also in a positive way. Posttraumatic growth and adversity-activated-development are concepts, which derive from psychology and desc

  2. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults]. (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier


    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  3. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John


    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  4. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W


    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  5. Psychological processes underlying the association between childhood trauma and psychosis in daily life:an experience sampling study


    Reininghaus, Ulrich; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte Emily Juliette; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita; Kempton, Matthew; Calem, Maria De Almeida Ribeiro; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Hubbard, Kathryn Mary Frances; Dazzan, Paola; Beards, Stephanie Frances Richmond; Fisher, Helen; Mills, John Gregory; McGuire, Philip; Craig, Tom K.J; Garety, Philippa Anne; Van Os, Johannas


    Background: Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Method: We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure str...

  6. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

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    Mayumi eNishi


    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  7. Flagging clinical adverse experiences: reducing false discoveries without materially compromising power for detecting true signals. (United States)

    Mehrotra, Devan V; Adewale, Adeniyi J


    Comparative analyses of safety/tolerability data from a typical phase III randomized clinical trial generate multiple p-values associated with adverse experiences (AEs) across several body systems. A common approach is to 'flag' any AE with a p-value less than or equal to 0.05, ignoring the multiplicity problem. Despite the fact that this approach can result in excessive false discoveries (false positives), many researchers avoid a multiplicity adjustment to curtail the risk of missing true safety signals. We propose a new flagging mechanism that significantly lowers the false discovery rate (FDR) without materially compromising the power for detecting true signals, relative to the common no-adjustment approach. Our simple two-step procedure is an enhancement of the Mehrotra-Heyse-Tukey approach that leverages the natural grouping of AEs by body systems. We use simulations to show that, on the basis of FDR and power, our procedure is an attractive alternative to the following: (i) the no-adjustment approach; (ii) a one-step FDR approach that ignores the grouping of AEs by body systems; and (iii) a recently proposed two-step FDR approach for much larger-scale settings such as genome-wide association studies. We use three clinical trial examples for illustration.

  8. Suffering and compassion: The links among adverse life experiences, empathy, compassion, and prosocial behavior. (United States)

    Lim, Daniel; DeSteno, David


    Experiencing past adversity traditionally has been linked to negative life outcomes. However, emerging evidence suggests that heterogeneity exists with respect to links between adversity and resilience, with adversity often enhancing cooperation in the face of joint suffering. Here, the authors present 2 studies designed to examine if the severity of past adversity is associated with an enduring propensity for empathy-mediated compassion, and, if so, whether the resulting compassion directly is, in turn, linked to behavior meant to relieve the suffering of others. Using both MTurk and laboratory-based paradigms, the authors find that increasing severity of past adversity predicts increased empathy, which in turn, is linked to a stable tendency to feel compassion for others in need. In addition, they demonstrate that the resulting individual differences in compassion appear to engender behavioral responses meant to assist others (i.e., charitable giving, helping a stranger).

  9. Gay men from heterosexual marriages: attitudes, behaviors, childhood experiences, and reasons for marriage. (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J


    In the current study, the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of 26 gay or bisexual men who were married to a woman are examined. Data are provided on childhood family background and experiences, sexual practices with men, reasons for entering marriage, and the "coming out" process. The frequency of childhood sexual experiences was associated with unsafe sexual practices with other men in adulthood. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were more negative now than at the time of marriage. The two most frequent reasons for marriage were that it seemed natural, and a desire for children and family life. The results support the hypothesis that internalised homophobia is a factor that leads men into mixed-orientation marriages. Cognitive consistency theory is used to explain the eventual marriage breakdown.

  10. Early Childhood Educators' Knowledge, Beliefs, Education, Experiences and Children's Language- and Literacy-Learning Opportunities: What Is the Connection? (United States)

    Schachter, Rachel E.; Spear, Caitlin F.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; Logan, Jessica A. R.


    In this study, we investigated how multiple types of knowledge and beliefs, along with holding an early childhood-related degree and teaching experience were linked to amounts of early childhood educators' language and literacy instruction. Quantile regression was used to estimate associations between these variables along a continuum of language…

  11. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education (United States)

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana


    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  12. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences? (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.


    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  13. First Year Teaching Experiences of Early Childhood Urban Teachers. (United States)

    Guyton, Edith

    The first-year teaching experiences of urban teachers were studied to conceptualize the reality faced by urban teachers and to determine the implications of the urban environment for teacher education. Subjects were four graduates of a teacher education program that gave no particular attention to the urban context beyond placement for student…

  14. Loss and the Experience of Emotional Distress in Childhood (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie K.; Weems, Carl F.; Costa, Natalie M.; Carrion, Victor G.


    The objective of this study was to investigate loss and the experience of emotional distress through a series of three studies. In Study 1, results indicated that when controlling for the total number of traumas experienced, children with loss traumas did not differ significantly from children with other types of traumas in terms of the level of…

  15. Adverse events of gastric electrical stimulators recorded in the Manufacturer and User Device Experience (MAUDE) Registry. (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Klaus


    The role of gastric electrical stimulation for patients with refractory symptoms of gastroparesis remains controversial. Open label studies suggest benefit while randomized controlled trials did not demonstrate differences between active and sham intervention. Using a voluntary reporting system of the Federal Drug Administration, we examined the type and frequency of adverse events.

  16. Transpersonal experiences in childhood: an exploratory empirical study of selected adult groups. (United States)

    Hunt, H T; Gervais, A; Shearing-Johns, S; Travis, F


    A questionnaire was developed to assess adult recall for a range of transpersonal experiences throughout childhood and adolescence (mystical experience, out-of-body experience, lucid dreams, archetypal dreams, ESP), as well as nightmares and night terrors as indicators of more conflicted, negative states. In two exploratory studies this questionnaire was administered to subjects with high estimated levels of early transpersonal experiences and practising meditators, with respective undergraduate controls. A cognitive skills/precocity model of early transpersonal experience was contrasted with a vulnerability of self model by comparisons of these groups on questionnaire categories, imaginative absorption, neuroticism, and visual-spatial skills, with some support found for both models depending on experience type, age of estimated recall, and adult meditative practice.

  17. Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: A population-based study

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    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh


    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES, childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs, social support and behavioural factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n=12,981 of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress to social support and behavioural factors in adulthood ; (ii the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioural factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10, health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS in adulthood; (iii the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv the mediating role of adult social support and behavioural factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%, health (7.01%, and well-being (9.09%, as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%, health (10.60%, and well-being (20.60%, as compared to mother’s and father’s education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  18. Do Single Experiences of Childhood Abuse Increase Psychopathology Symptoms in Adulthood? (United States)

    Rehan, Wail; Antfolk, Jan; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka


    Experiencing emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse in childhood increases the risk (compared with baseline) of developing psychopathological symptoms in adulthood. In the present study, we explored the effects of experiencing only a single abusive event on adulthood psychopathology, and compared this with the risk in individuals with no abusive experiences and with the risk in individuals with several abusive experiences. We used a Finnish population-based sample of 10,980 adult participants (3,766 male and 7,214 female twins and their siblings). The participants reported abuse experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and current psychopathology symptoms using the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). We found that in both men and women even single experiences of emotional and sexual abuse were associated with increased psychopathology symptoms compared with no abuse experiences. Single experiences of physical abuse did not, however, increase the risk in either women or men. As expected, experiences of repeated abuse (of all abuse types) increased the risk of psychopathology symptoms compared with experiences of single abuse. When we isolated individuals who only had a single experience of any type of abuse (i.e., emotional, physical, or sexual) to control for possible co-morbidity, no increased risk was found. This study shows that individuals who report experiencing single events of abuse of a specific abuse type have an increased risk of displaying psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. This increase is, however, mainly due to co-morbidity of abuse types.

  19. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

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    Schauer Margarete


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  20. Schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder: similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma. (United States)

    Kingdon, David G; Ashcroft, Katie; Bhandari, Bharathi; Gleeson, Stefan; Warikoo, Nishchint; Symons, Matthew; Taylor, Lisa; Lucas, Eleanor; Mahendra, Ravi; Ghosh, Soumya; Mason, Anthony; Badrakalimuthu, Raja; Hepworth, Claire; Read, John; Mehta, Raj


    This study investigated similarities and differences in the experience of auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma in schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (BPD). Patients with clinical diagnoses of schizophrenia or BPD were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM-IV. Axes 1 and 2 and auditory hallucinations, paranoia, and childhood trauma were assessed. A total of 111 patients participated; 59 met criteria for schizophrenia, 33 for BPD, and 19 for both. The groups were similar in their experiences of voices, including the perceived location of them, but they differed in frequency of paranoid delusions. Those with a diagnosis of BPD, including those with schizophrenia comorbidity, reported more childhood trauma, especially emotional abuse. BPD and schizophrenia frequently coexist, and this comorbidity has implications for diagnostic classification and treatment. Levels of reported childhood trauma are especially high in those with a BPD diagnosis, whether they have schizophrenia or not, and this requires assessment and appropriate management.

  1. Relationships between experiences of parental violence during childhood and women's self-esteem. (United States)

    Downs, W R; Miller, B A


    The interrelationships between experience of parental verbal aggression and physical violence during childhood and the development of low self-esteem during adulthood were explored separately for the father-daughter and mother-daughter relationships. Data were collected from 472 women between the ages of 18 and 45 during in-depth interviews drawn from five sources: outpatient alcoholism treatment, DWI (Driving While Intoxicated) education programs, shelter for battered women, outpatient mental health treatment, and randomly from the community. Control variables included respondents' alcohol problems and help-seeking behavior, parental alcohol problems, number of changes in childhood family (e.g., divorce), and respondents' race and social class. Controlling for these variables, experiences of father-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women. Conversely, controlling for these variables, experiences of mother-to-daughter verbal aggression, moderate violence, and severe violence were not found related to lower self-esteem in adulthood for women.

  2. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

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    Júnia M. Serra-Negra


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  3. The Unexpected Effects of Beneficial and Adverse Social Experiences during Adolescence on Anxiety and Aggression and Their Modulation by Genotype (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Richter, S. Helene; Schreiber, Rebecca S.; Kloke, Vanessa; Kaiser, Sylvia; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Sachser, Norbert


    Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior, while the phase of adolescence has largely been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT) genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice) were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with challenge during

  4. Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

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    Karina Luiza da Silva Fernandes


    Full Text Available This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images freely or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of different age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use geometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.

  5. "They're Battle Scars, I Wear Them Well": A Phenomenological Exploration of Young Women's Experiences of Building Resilience Following Adversity in Adolescence (United States)

    Shepherd, Claire; Reynolds, Frances Ann; Moran, Jamie


    This phenomenological study explored young women's accounts of building resilience following chains of adverse life experiences in adolescence. Six participants were interviewed, aged 20-25 years. Most had, or were receiving, a university education. They described their recovery from adversity as starting with certain pivotal moments, followed by…

  6. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey


    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…

  7. Life Satisfaction among Ethnic Minorities in the Netherlands: Immigration Experience or Adverse Living Conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroome, Thomas; Hooghe, Marc


    Previous studies have shown that immigrants' levels of life satisfaction tend to be lower than among natives. We do not know, however, whether this is due to the immigration experience as such, or rather is a result of the fact that on average this group is faced with less prosperous living conditio

  8. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters. (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer


    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  9. Systemic Retinoid Treatment in Childhood Psoriasis: Experience of 19 Mayıs Univer

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    Müge Güler Özden


    Full Text Available Background and Design: Severe psoriasis in childhood has a significant morbidity and can warrant the use of systemic agents, although there are very little information in this group. We aimed to show the results of acitretin treatment in children with severe psoriasis, in this study.Material and Method: We have retrospectively reviewed the notes of all 18 children treated with acitretin at Ondokuz Mayıs University Hospital. Patients’ responses to treatment, total treatment durations and acitretine dosage were recorded. Additionally, the laboratory results during the whole follow-up period and bone surveys for 3 patients who received long term treatment were evaluated.Results: Of the 18 patients reviewed, 2 (%11.1 responded with clearance of psoriasis, 10 (%55.5 responded well with small residual plaques. Two patients needed two courses of acitretine (11 and 12 months, 1 patient needed three courses for 15 months and 1 needed 5 courses for 24 months. Two patients stopped treatment due to mucocutaneous side effects at 4th and 5th months. There were no other adverse events.Conclusion: We propose that when carefully monitored, acitretine is a safe and efficacious treatment option for severe psoriasis in children.

  10. Developing Identities in the Workplace: Students' Experiences of Distance Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Tate, Alice


    In Aotearoa New Zealand, many early childhood teachers gain their teaching qualification via distance study while working in an early childhood centre. Early childhood teachers work in a team environment, and it is important to understand more about how distance students negotiate changes in their workplace practice as their professional knowledge…

  11. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O


    weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... disorders. In addition, depression in adolescence tended to be related to adult obesity but among young girls only. Learning difficulties and scholastic proficiencies below average were also risk factors. The current literature suggests that specific psychosocial factors in childhood may act as determinants...

  12. Conceptions of childhood and identity in Neuquén Mapuche children’s school experiences

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    Andrea Szulc


    Full Text Available Elementary schools continue to play a central role today in mapuche rural communities, at neuquén —Argentina—, sometimes, as the only government enclave. In the school context, thus, the hegemonic definition of identity is reinforced, as well as the school’s model of childhood. such identity relegates mapuche culture and subordinates it to the national, provincial and catholic identity. Anthropologi- cal research carried out since 2001 has been showing how some mapuche children and adolescents question school’ conceptions.This article presents a brief description of the educational system in this region, and explores the school experiences of mapuche children, examining the disputes over conceptions of childhood and mapuche identity introduced by children’ resistance practices. Considering mainly original ethnographic materials, the analysis reveals how through this controversial attitude not only they have strengthened their self recognition as mapuche but also they havebeen «succesfull» in the educational system.

  13. The Experiences of Israeli Early Childhood Educators Working With Children of Ethiopian Background

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    Esther Firstater


    Full Text Available This study offers an in-depth examination of the experiences of early childhood educators, focusing on their work with Ethiopian immigrant children and their families. We aim to describe and analyze the teachers’ insider views vis-à-vis the challenges faced by these children and their parents in the Israeli preschool system. Using narrative methodology, the analysis of findings is based upon 20 stories written by 10 early childhood educators. It reveals that for these teachers, the chief struggle is their relationship with the parents of their Ethiopian pupils, one characterized by difficulties, frustrations, and burdens. The engagement with parents of Ethiopian children exhibited a range of possibilities: from the expression of patronizing, hierarchical viewpoints, to a search for ad hoc ways of coping with a persistent cultural gap, to the attainment of genuine, successful partnerships. Lack of sufficient knowledge and understanding of the unique cultural attributes of the Ethiopian community appears to be the basis for the teachers’ view of the parents as lacking faith in them and in the educational system as a whole. In addition, suggestions are made about implications for educational practice and for policies that might assist teachers in ameliorating these challenges via the development of, and professional training in, skills which help coping with the problems and dilemmas unique to the multicultural classroom.

  14. Substance Abuse during Adulthood Subsequent to the Experience of Physical Abuse and Psychological Distress during Childhood

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    S Longman-Mills


    Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated if there was a significant relationship between physical abuse during childhood and experiencing psychological distress and substance abuse among university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a questionnaire to collect retrospective data from 382 university students (103 males and 279 females about their substance use patterns, level of psychological distress and their exposure to physical abuse. The data were then analysed using bivariate statistics. Results: Most (61.8% participants met the criteria for being physically abused, however, only 27.2% recognized the experience as abuse. Another 38.9% of the students reported moderate to severe psychological distress. There was a significant relationship between being physically abused and experiencing higher levels of psychological distress (p < 0.001. Cannabis was the most frequently utilized illicit drug (10.3% while alcohol was the most frequently utilized licit drug (37.4%. Drug abuse was found to be significantly associated with being physically abused during childhood (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Even though the results obtained are not generalizable, this study has provided important preliminary information, that experiencing physical abuse increases the likelihood of having higher levels of psychological distress and becoming a substance abuser during adulthood; thereby identifying an overlooked area to target anti-drug use interventions.

  15. Proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experiences as Causes of Criminal Behaviour, Senate of Canada, Third Session, Thirtieth Parliament, 1977-78. Issue No. 12. (United States)

    Senate Committee of Canada (Ontario). Standing Senate Committee on Health, Welfare and Science.

    Experiences in prenatal life and early childhood that may cause personality disorders or criminal behavior in later life are examined in these proceedings of the Subcommittee on Childhood Experience as Causes of Criminal Behavior of the Standing Committee on Health, Welfare and Science. This issue, the twelveth in a series of 19 hearings dating…

  16. Preparing culturally and linguistically diverse preservice Early Childhood teachers for field experience

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    Melinda Miller


    Full Text Available This article reports on an action research project focussed on preparing culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD preservice early childhood teachers for field experience. A series of targeted workshops delivered over one semester was designed to support the students to develop intercultural competence in relation to knowledge, attitude, skills and behaviours that contribute to success on field placement. Findings indicate that short-term initiatives targeted specifically to students’ identified needs and strengths can help to build intercultural competence for both students and teacher educators. For the participants, access to communication strategies, opportunities for rehearsal of teaching practice, and peer and academic support contributed to shifts in attitude, and the development of skills and new knowledge. New learnings for the teacher educators included challenging assumptions about CALD students’ sense of community and belonging in the university context.

  17. Grandparents' experiences of childhood cancer, part 2: the need for support. (United States)

    Moules, Nancy J; McCaffrey, Graham; Laing, Catherine M; Tapp, Dianne M; Strother, Douglas


    In this study, the authors examined the experiences of grandparents who have had, or have, a grandchild with childhood cancer. Sixteen grandparents were interviewed using unstructured interviews, and the data were analyzed according to a hermeneutic-phenomenological tradition, as guided by the philosophical hermeneutics of Hans-Georg Gadamer. In Part 1 of this report, interpretive findings around worry, burden, silence, the nature of having one's universe shaken, of having lives put on hold, and a sense of helplessness were addressed. In Part 2, the authors discuss interpretations related to the notions of support, burden, protection, energy, standing by, buffering, financial shouldering, and relationship. The study concludes with implications that the grandparents in the study bring to pediatric nurses in their practices with families in pediatric oncology.

  18. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 and non-clinical psychotic experiences in childhood.

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    Anna-Maija Tolppanen

    Full Text Available Non-clinical psychotic experiences are common and distressing. It has been hypothesized that early life vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for psychosis-related outcomes, but it is not known if circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD during childhood are associated with psychosis-related outcomes or whether the two different forms of 25(OHD, (25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2, have similar associations with psychosis-related outcomes.We investigated the association between serum 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2 concentrations and psychotic experiences in a prospective birth cohort study. Serum 25(OHD(3 and 25(OHD(2 concentrations were measured at mean age 9.8 years and psychotic experiences assessed at mean age 12.8 years by a psychologist (N = 3182.Higher 25(OHD(3 concentrations were associated with lower risk of definite psychotic experiences (adjusted odds ratio: OR (95% confidence interval: CI 0.85 (0.75-0.95. Higher concentrations of 25(OHD(2 were associated with higher risk of suspected and definite psychotic experiences (adjusted odds ratio: OR (95% confidence interval: CI 1.26 (1.11, 1.43. Higher 25(ODD(2 concentrations were also weakly associated with definite psychotic experiences (adjusted OR (95% CI 1.17 (0.96, 1.43, though with wide confidence intervals including the null value.Our findings of an inverse association of 25(OHD(3 with definite psychotic experiences is consistent with the hypothesis that vitamin D may protect against psychosis-related outcomes.

  19. The Development of Father-Child Attachment: Associations between Adult Attachment Representations, Recollections of Childhood Experiences and Caregiving (United States)

    McFarland-Piazza, Laura; Hazen, Nancy; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Boyd-Soisson, Erin


    The association between fathers' adult attachment representations and their recollections of childhood experiences with their caregiving quality with their eight-month-old infants and with father-infant attachment classification was examined in a longitudinal study of 117 fathers and their infants. Sensitive caregiving was related to…

  20. The Long-Run Impacts of Early Childhood Education: Evidence from a Failed Policy Experiment. NBER Working Paper No. 17085 (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Smith, Justin D.


    We investigate short and long-term effects of early childhood education using variation created by a unique policy experiment in British Columbia, Canada. Our findings imply starting Kindergarten one year late substantially reduces the probability of repeating the third grade, and meaningfully increases in tenth grade math and reading scores.…

  1. Do Specific Early-Life Adversities Lead to Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? A Study from the 2007 The Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey


    Bentall, Richard P; Wickham, Sophie; Shevlin, Mark; Varese, Filippo


    Previous studies have reported associations between childhood adversities, eg, loss of a parent, being raised in institutional care, sexual and other kinds of abuse by adults and bullying by peers, and psychosis in adulthood. However, the mechanisms by which these adversities lead to psychotic experiences are poorly understood. From models of the psychological processes involved in positive symptoms, it was predicted that childhood sexual abuse would be specifically associated with auditory h...

  2. Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Alcohol Abuse - Findings from Adverse Childhood Experience Study in Republic of Macedonia


    Izabela Filov; Marija Raleva; Dimitrinka Jordanova Peshevska; Dinesh Sethi; Gordana Ristevska-Dimitrоvska; Kadri Hazdi Hamza; Ana Poprizova


    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to determine the relationship between of the problem of alcohol abuse and child maltreatment.  METHOD: The ACE study was administered by the University Clinic of Psychiatry, Department for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. The ACE study used a representative sample of students in year four of secondary school (aged 18 and above) and first- and second-year university students. The sample consisted of 664 secondary school students (258 males and 406 female...

  3. Relationships between middle childhood outdoor experiences and an adult individual's knowledge of the environment (United States)

    Gillette, Brandon A.

    During the last several decades, the nature of childhood has changed. There is not much nature in it anymore. Numerous studies in environmental education, environmental psychology, and conservation psychology show that the time children spend outdoors encourages healthy physical development, enriches creativity and imagination, and enhances classroom performance. Additional research shows that people's outdoor experiences as children, and adults can lead to more positive attitudes and behavior towards the environment, along with more environmental knowledge with which to guide public policy decisions. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the effect of middle childhood (age 6-11) outdoor experiences on an individual's current knowledge of the environment. This correlational study evaluated the following potential relationships: 1) The effect of "outdoorsiness" (defined as a fondness or enjoyment of the outdoors and related activities) on an individual's environmental knowledge; 2) The effect of gender on an individual's level of outdoorsiness; 3) The effect of setting (urban, suburban, rural, farm) on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; 4) The effect of formal [science] education on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge; and 5) The effect of informal, free-choice learning on an individual's level of outdoorsiness and environmental knowledge. Outdoorsiness was measured using the Natural Experience Scale (NES), which was developed through a series of pilot surveys and field-tested in this research study. Participants included 382 undergraduate students at the University of Kansas with no preference or bias given to declared or undeclared majors. The information from this survey was used to analyze the question of whether outdoor experiences as children are related in some way to an adult's environmental knowledge after accounting for other factors of knowledge acquisition such as formal education

  4. Factors linking childhood experiences to adult romantic relationships among African Americans. (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Simons, Ronald L; Landor, Antoinette M; Bryant, Chalandra M; Beach, Steven R H


    It is well known that a high-quality relationship with a romantic partner is related to a variety of positive outcomes associated with health and well-being. Establishing such relationships is an important developmental task for young adults, and past research indicates that there is a link between experiences in the family of origin and the success of later intimate relationships. It has been suggested that this association can be explained by the acquisition of social competencies (e.g., emotions, schemas, traits) that are acquired during childhood in the family of origin and, in turn, influence interaction with adult romantic partners. The current study builds on this foundation by identifying particular competencies expected to explain the association between childhood exposure to supportive and harsh parenting and later patterns of interaction with romantic partners. Specifically, we examine anger management, attachment style, hostile attribution bias, and self-control as potential mediators using prospective, longitudinal data from a sample of 345 African American young adults. Results from structural equation modeling indicate that each of the mediators in our study accounts for a significant portion of the effect of parenting on the quality of adult romantic relationships, although the constructs linking parenting to warm interactions with romantic partners are somewhat different from those that link parenting to hostile interactions with romantic partners. Even after accounting for the effect of the mediators, there is still a direct effect of parenting on both warm/loving and hostile/aggressive interactions with romantic partner. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  5. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning. (United States)

    Nicklaus, Sophie


    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account.

  6. Second-Line Immunosuppressive Treatment of Childhood Nephrotic Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience

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    J. Kim


    Full Text Available Objective: Most cases of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in childhood are responsive to corticosteroids. However, there is a small group of children that demonstrate steroid resistance (steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome; SRNS, steroid dependence, or that frequently relapse (frequent-relapse steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome; FR-SSNS which are more clinically difficult to treat. Therefore, second-line immunosuppressants, such as alkylating agents, calcineurin inhibitors, antimetabolites and, more recently, rituximab, have been used with varying success. The objective was to evaluate the response rates of various second-line therapies in the treatment of childhood nephrotic syndrome. Study Design: A retrospective chart review of pediatric subjects with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome was conducted at a single tertiary care center (2007-2012. Drug responses were classified as complete response, partial response, and no response. Results: Of the 188 charts reviewed, 121 children were classified as SSNS and 67 children as SRNS; 58% were classified as FR-SSNS. Sixty-five subjects were diagnosed with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis via biopsy. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 21 years. The combined rate of complete and partial response for mycophenolate mofetil (MMF was 65% (33/51 in SSNS and 67% (6/9 in SRNS. For tacrolimus, the response rate was 96% (22/23 for SSNS and 77% (17/22 for SRNS. Eighty-three percent (5/6 of SSNS subjects treated with rituximab went into complete remission; 60% relapsed after B-cell repletion. Eight refractory subjects were treated with combined MMF/tacrolimus/corticosteroid therapy with a 75% response rate. Conclusion: Our experience demonstrates that older medications can be replaced with newer ones such as MMF, tacrolimus, and rituximab with good outcomes and better side effect profiles. The treatment of refractory cases with combination therapy is promising.

  7. Patients views and experiences in online reporting adverse drug reactions: findings of a national pilot study in Japan

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    Yamamoto M


    Full Text Available Michiko Yamamoto,1 Kiyoshi Kubota,2 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,3 Akira Dobashi,3 Masayuki Hashiguchi,4 Hirohisa Doi,1 Machi Suka,5 Mayumi Mochizuki4 1Education Center for Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Showa Pharmaceutical University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Pharmacoepidemiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan; 3Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan; 4Division for Evaluation and Analysis of Drug Information, Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Public Health and Environmental Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan Background: Patients have been allowed to report adverse drug reactions (ADRs directly to the government in some countries, which would contribute to pharmacovigilance.Objective: We started a pilot study to determine whether web-based patient ADR reporting would work in Japan. This article aims to describe the characteristics of the patient reporters, and to clarify patient views and experiences of reporting.Methods: Patients who submitted online ADR reports were contacted to respond to an ADR reporting questionnaire; only consenting reporters were included. Subjects with multiple responses were excluded from analysis. The questionnaire consisted of both closed and open questions. Questionnaire responses were examined using Pearson’s chi-squared test.Results: A total of 220 web-based ADR reports were collected from January to December 2011; questionnaires were sent to 190 reporters, excluding those who gave multiple reports and those that refused to be contacted. Responses were obtained from 94 individuals (effective response rate: 49.5%. The median respondent age was 46.0 years. Sixty-three respondents found out about this pilot study on the Internet (67.0%. The numbers of respondents claiming that they had difficulty recalling the time/date of ADR occurrence were 16 patient

  8. The role of situation assessment and flight experience in pilots' decisions to continue visual flight rules flight into adverse weather. (United States)

    Wiegmann, Douglas A; Goh, Juliana; O'Hare, David


    Visual flight rules (VFR) flight into instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) is a major safety hazard in general aviation. In this study we examined pilots' decisions to continue or divert from a VFR flight into IMC during a dynamic simulation of a cross-country flight. Pilots encountered IMC either early or later into the flight, and the amount of time and distance pilots flew into the adverse weather prior to diverting was recorded. Results revealed that pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather earlier in the flight flew longer into the weather prior to diverting and had more optimistic estimates of weather conditions than did pilots who encountered the deteriorating weather later in the flight. Both the time and distance traveled into the weather prior to diverting were negatively correlated with pilots' previous flight experience. These findings suggest that VFR flight into IMC may be attributable, at least in part, to poor situation assessment and experience rather than to motivational judgment that induces risk-taking behavior as more time and effort are invested in a flight. Actual or potential applications of this research include the design of interventions that focus on improving weather evaluation skills in addition to addressing risk-taking attitudes.

  9. Everyday Environmental Education Experiences: The Role of Content in Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Cutter-Mackenzie, Amy; Edwards, Suzy


    In recent years discussions surrounding early childhood curriculum has focused on the movement from developmental to sociocultural theory. A further area worthy of investigation involves the role of content in early childhood education, specifically the relationship between content, context and pedagogy. The paper draws on teacher vignettes to…

  10. The Si Huan Playgroup: An Initiative to Provide Non-Formal Early Childhood Education Experiences to Children of Migrants in Beijing (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Nyland, Chris; Gao, Yang; Ng, Josephine; Zeng, Xiaodong


    This paper is about an experiment in non-formal early childhood education for migrant children in Beijing. The Si Huan Playgroup was set up by a group of volunteers in 2004 and is built on ideas of early childhood pedagogy, equity, life-long learning and non-formal education. Non-formal education has implications for policy makers as this is a…

  11. Mismatch or allostatic load? Timing of life adversity differentially shapes gray matter volume and anxious temperament (United States)

    Kuhn, Manuel; Scharfenort, Robert; Schümann, Dirk; Schiele, Miriam A.; Münsterkötter, Anna L.; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael; Pauli, Paul; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Zwanzger, Peter


    Traditionally, adversity was defined as the accumulation of environmental events (allostatic load). Recently however, a mismatch between the early and the later (adult) environment (mismatch) has been hypothesized to be critical for disease development, a hypothesis that has not yet been tested explicitly in humans. We explored the impact of timing of life adversity (childhood and past year) on anxiety and depression levels (N = 833) and brain morphology (N = 129). Both remote (childhood) and proximal (recent) adversities were differentially mirrored in morphometric changes in areas critically involved in emotional processing (i.e. amygdala/hippocampus, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, respectively). The effect of adversity on affect acted in an additive way with no evidence for interactions (mismatch). Structural equation modeling demonstrated a direct effect of adversity on morphometric estimates and anxiety/depression without evidence of brain morphology functioning as a mediator. Our results highlight that adversity manifests as pronounced changes in brain morphometric and affective temperament even though these seem to represent distinct mechanistic pathways. A major goal of future studies should be to define critical time periods for the impact of adversity and strategies for intervening to prevent or reverse the effects of adverse childhood life experiences. PMID:26568620

  12. Are Specific Early-Life Adversities Associated With Specific Symptoms of Psychosis? (United States)

    Wickham, Sophie; Bentall, Richard


    Abstract Epidemiological studies have suggested that there may be associations between specific adversities and specific psychotic symptoms. There is also evidence that beliefs about justice may play a role in paranoid symptoms. In this study, we determined whether these associations could be replicated in a patient sample and whether beliefs about a just world played a specific role in the relationship between adversity and paranoia. We examined associations between childhood trauma, belief in justice, and paranoia and hallucinatory experiences in 144 individuals: 72 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and 72 comparison controls. There was a dose-response relationship between cumulative trauma and psychosis. When controlling for comorbidity between symptoms, childhood sexual abuse predicted hallucinatory experiences, and experiences of childhood emotional neglect predicted paranoia. The relationship between neglect and paranoia was mediated by a perception of personal injustice. The findings replicate in a patient sample previous observations from epidemiological research. PMID:27065105

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links ... 4 Shapiro, S. (1992). Suicidality and the sequelae of childhood victimization. In S. ... and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  14. Applied anthropology in Colombia. Perspectives and purposes on the basis of an experience in childhood and migrations


    María Claudia Duque-Páramo


    This paper puts forward a notion of applied anthropology incorporating both a critical analysis of cultural diversity and intervention and policy formulation, which help to solve the problems communities we work with face. In order to do this, at a first time we revise several concepts and purposes on applied anthropology in the North American and Colombian contexts. Then, an experience on migrations and childhood is reported, including research, intervention and networking. Finally, a thir...



    Mallers, Melanie H.; Charles, Susan T.; Neupert, Shevaun D.; Almeida, David M.


    Adults who report having had high quality relationships with their parents during childhood have better overall mental health and are at decreased risk for mental disorders compared to those who report low parental relationship quality. Researchers have predominantly focused on the relationship with the mother, oftentimes excluding the unique role that fathers may play in the long-term development of their offspring. The current study examined the unique associations of recalled childhood exp...

  16. Childhood emotional experience within the family relation to the current partnership and the desire to have children

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    Tretjakova I.


    Full Text Available The paper studied the relationship between emotional experience in childhood and the quality of the existing partnerships. With a questionnaire, specifically designed by I. Tretjakova, 221 respondents aged 20–40 years were interviewed. The study leads to the conclusion that a positive emotional experience in childhood helps to develop emotionally healthy environment in marriage (including unregistered or civil partnership, and creates the desire to have children, and vice versa, emotionally negative experience in childhood disturbs the creation of an emotionally favourable environment for marriage and causes conflicts in relationships, provokes desire to divorce, but it cannot be stated that more interpersonal problems are the cause of lower birth rates than there are at fewer marital problems. The study confirms that a stable marriage can be an important factor contributing to the woman's desire to have children Thus it can be assumed that development of emotion regulation skills could be a contributing factor in order to form successful partnerships and promote birth of more children in the family context.

  17. Associations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity and other childhood disorders with psychotic experiences and disorders in adolescence. (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Koglin, Ute; Lincoln, Tania M


    Prodromal symptoms of psychosis are associated with an increased risk of transition, functional impairment, poor mental health, and unfavorable developmental prospects. Existing interventions targeting the prodrome are non-satisfactory. It may thus be more promising to attempt to identify risk factors in the premorbid phase preceding the prodrome to increase the chances of successful preventive approaches. Here, we investigate whether childhood mental disorders in general and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) specifically indicate a risk for subsequent psychotic experiences and disorders. We used a sample from the prospective Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N = 5528). When the participants were 7 years old, mental disorders were assigned according to the DSM-IV. In standardized interviews, psychotic experiences were assessed at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18. We examined the associations of each of the childhood mental disorders alone and in combination with psychotic experiences at age 12 and psychotic disorders at age 18 using logistic regression. Compared to participants without a disorder, participants with a mental disorder had a higher risk of psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 1.70, 95 % CI 1.28-2.27) and of psychotic disorders at age 18 (OR 2.31, 95 % CI 1.03-5.15). Particularly, the ADHD combined subtype at age 7 was strongly associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.26, 95 % CI 1.74-6.10). As expected, childhood mental disorders are risk indicators of psychotic experiences and disorders. To improve prevention, health care professionals need to screen for psychotic experiences in children with non-psychotic disorders.

  18. Disclosure of errors and adverse events in surgery: A cross-sectional survey of attitudes and experiences of surgical trainees in Nigeria

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    Abdulrasheed Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: The patient-surgeon relationship is based on trust, loyalty, and respect. When errors and adverse events occur, they can test the foundation of that relationship with lasting consequences for both the patient and the surgeon. Disclosure of errors and adverse events is a requisite skill in surgical education. Materials and Methods: Surgical trainees′ perception of the disclosure of errors and adverse events was evaluated using a questionnaire at the revision course of the West African College of Surgeons in September 2012. The questionnaire addressed three domains: Types of errors that should be disclosed, barriers to disclosure, and experience with disclosure. Results: Nearly all the residents, 60 (95.2%, agreed that adverse events should be disclosed. Most of the respondents, 40 (66.7%, either agreed or strongly agreed that "adverse events and errors in surgery are one of the most serious problems in health care." Only 18 residents (28.5% either disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement "It might make me less likely to disclose an error or adverse event to a patient if I think I might get sued." Almost all the residents, 58 (92.1%, have not had a formal training in disclosure of adverse events and errors. Conclusion: The majority of the residents agreed that errors and adverse events should be disclosed. Most of the residents also reported that they have not had a formal training in disclosure. Training residents in disclosure is clearly warranted, as such training will provide them with a valuable skill that they will use throughout their careers.

  19. Ground experiments for finding principles and working out methods for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness on the human organism (United States)

    Kakurin, L. I.; Gregoryev, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. M.; Tishler, V. A.


    A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures to prevent the adverse effects of weightlessness is presented. It is concluded that: physical training is most effective but no single method by itself produces the full effect, and an adjustment of regimes to one another enhances the effect. The approved complex of prophylactic procedures affected basic changes occurring in hypokinesia: deficit of muscular activity, no or reduced BP hydrostatic component, reduced volume of blood circulation, reduced hydration level, and the application of various prophylactic complexes during 49 day antiorthostatic hypodynamia eliminated or reduced the adverse effects of weightlessness in simulation.

  20. A study on adverse drug reactions to non-ionic contrast medium in an Indian population: a 1-year experience

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    Subhrojyoti Bhowmick


    Conclusions: This pilot study reveals that adverse reactions to NICM are rare and severe reactions are less common among the patients of Indian origin. However, a larger multicentric study across the country should be carried out to understand the safety profile of these CM better among the Indian population. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2014; 3(6.000: 1066-1071

  1. Experiences of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Visually Impaired Adults in Norway: Prevalence and Characteristics (United States)

    Kvam, Marit Hoem


    This study compared the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among visually impaired children and sighted children in Norway. Visually impaired women and men aged 18-65 who lost their sight before age 18 reported sexual abuse with contact before age 18 more often than did the sighted group, and the abuse of the visually impaired children was more…

  2. Childhood Experience and the Onset of Menarche: A Test of a Sociobiological Model. (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.; And Others


    Used data from a longitudinal study of 16-year-old girls to test predictions about psychosocial factors in the onset of menarche. Found that family conflict and father's absence in childhood predicted an earlier age of menarche, and these factors in combination with weight showed some evidence of an additive influence on menarche. (Author/GLR)

  3. Influence of Sex on Suicidal Phenotypes in Affective Disorder Patients with Traumatic Childhood Experiences.

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    Alexandra Bernegger

    Full Text Available In the current study, we aimed to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on suicidal behaviour phenotypes in a group of patients with diagnosed affective disorder (unipolar or bipolar affective disorder.Patients with and without a history of childhood abuse, measured by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, were assessed to explore risks for suicidal behaviour (including suicide attempt, self-harm and non-suicidal self-injury. The tested sample consisted of 258 patients (111 males and 147 females, in-patients and out-patients at the Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna and University Hospital Tulln, Lower Austria. Psychiatric diagnoses were derived from the SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry interview. In addition, patients were administered the Lifetime Parasuicidal Count (LPC, Suicidal Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ-R, and Viennese Suicide Risk Assessment Scale (VISURIAS questionnaires.In contrast to male suicide attempters, female suicide attempters showed both significantly higher total CTQ scores (p<0.001, and higher CTQ subscores (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, as well as emotional and physical neglect in comparison to the non-suicidal control group. Besides, females with a history of self-harming behaviour (including suicidal intention and Non-Suicidal-Self Injury (NSSI had significantly higher CTQ total scores (p<0.001 than the control group.These findings suggest gender differences in suicidal behaviour after being exposed to childhood trauma.

  4. Spectrum of Childhood and Adolescent Ovarian Tumors in India: 25 Years Experience at a Single Institution

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    Ruchi Rathore


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumour in children and adolescent girls form an uncommon but important part of gynaecological malignancies. They account for 1% of all the childhood malignancies and 8% of all abdominal tumours in children. Since the ovarian cysts are thought to arise from mature follicles, these tumours were considered to be infrequent in the paediatric population. AIM: The rarity of this condition prompted us to conduct this study and share our experience on the incidence and clinicopathological features of different ovarian tumours in girls up to 20 years of age observed in last 25 years at a single tertiary care hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at a tertiary hospital, Delhi. All ovarian tumours up to the age of 20 years in the past 25 years (1990-2014 were included for the purpose of studying the clinicopathological aspects of ovarian tumours in this age group. Descriptive statistics for prevalence and age-wise prevalence was done. Chi-square test, to find an association between the age, laterality and size with malignancy was performed. RESULTS: We received a total of 1102 cases of ovarian tumours over the period of 25 years  (1990 to 2014, of which 112 (10% cases were seen in girls up to 20 years of age. The mean age of the patients was 15.3 ± 4 years. The most common presenting complaint was pain abdomen (46.4 % There was a statistically significant correlation found between size and malignancy status of tumours in our study (p = 0.00. Of 112 cases of ovarian tumours, 39/112 (34.8% were malignant and 73/112 (65.2% were benign. Mature  cystic teratoma (27.6% was the most common type of benign tumour in this age group and immature teratomas were the most common type of malignant ovarian neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Premenarchal girls with ovarian masses may have varied presentations. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting complaint of young adolescent girls with

  5. Early Childhood Staff and Families' Perceptions: Diverse Views about Important Experiences for Children Aged 3-5 Years in Early Childhood Settings (United States)

    Hadley, Fay


    There is a growing body of literature about the potential for early childhood settings to serve as community hubs to develop relationships with families. However, there is limited information about the ways in which families and early childhood staff interface in defining what constitutes "quality" within settings. Researchers have…

  6. Constructs of Childhood: Enduring or Open to Change? Early Years Students' Reflections on First Hand Experiences of Childhood and Early Years Education in a Different Country and Culture (United States)

    McGillivray, Gill


    It can be argued that globalisation brings change for children and their families in the guise of increased poverty and inequality; for example, for the world's poorest populations and communities. Students undertaking Early Childhood Studies degrees in the United Kingdom are likely to encounter modules with a focus on childhood in a variety of…

  7. Applied anthropology in Colombia. Perspectives and purposes on the basis of an experience in childhood and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Claudia Duque-Páramo


    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a notion of applied anthropology incorporating both a critical analysis of cultural diversity and intervention and policy formulation, which help to solve the problems communities we work with face. In order to do this, at a first time we revise several concepts and purposes on applied anthropology in the North American and Colombian contexts. Then, an experience on migrations and childhood is reported, including research, intervention and networking. Finally, a third moment articulates the elements discussed in a final reflection on the relationship between theory and practice in the field of applied anthropology

  8. The relationship between sensory processing patterns, alexithymia, traumatic childhood experiences, and quality of life among patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders. (United States)

    Serafini, Gianluca; Gonda, Xenia; Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Engel-Yeger, Batya


    Several studies documented the involvement of sensory perception in emotional processes. The long-term consequences of traumatic experiences and alexithymia have been demonstrated as well. However, the role of extreme sensory processing patterns, traumatic childhood experiences, and alexithymia has not been thoroughly examined in major affective disorders. The present study aimed to: (1) compare unipolar/bipolar patients with regard to their sensory processing patterns, alexithymia, childhood traumatic experiences and quality of life; (2) examine the correlations between sensory processing patterns and childhood traumatic experiences; (3) investigate the relative contribution of diagnostic groups (unipolar/bipolar), sensory processing patterns, alexithymia, and childhood traumatic experiences in predicting quality of life. The sample included 336 participants, 197 with unipolar and 139 with bipolar disorder. All participants completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP), Toronto Alexithymia Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and Short Form 12 Health Survey version 2 (SF-12). Bipolar patients showed significantly higher physical neglect, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect compared with unipolar patients. Both in unipolar and bipolar groups, lower registration of sensory input as well as hypersensitivity correlated with enhanced childhood trauma events. Reduced sensory sensitivity accounted for 11% of the variance in physical health composite score (PCS) of SF-12 whereas reduced depression accounted for 8% of the variance in mental health composite score (MCS). Furthermore, elevated MCS was predicted by depression, physical and emotional neglect. Sensory processing patterns and childhood traumatic experiences may specifically characterize individuals with major affective disorders and play a role in the prediction of their quality of life.

  9. Caries experience among adults exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing irradiation in childhood - the Tinea Capitis Cohort

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    Yuval eVered


    Full Text Available While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aims were to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure.The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of Tinea Capitis and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters and health behavior variables were obtained through a face to face interview.An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT.Mean caries experience levels (DMFT were 18.6+7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4+7.2 for the non-irradiated (p=0.002. Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI 1.19-2.50. A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1Gy (95% CI 1.40-3.50 and 1.05 per 1cGy (95% CI 1.01-1.09, respectively.Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4Gy might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs.

  10. Childhood systemic lupus erythematosus in Latin America. The GLADEL experience in 230 children. (United States)

    Ramírez Gómez, L A; Uribe Uribe, O; Osio Uribe, O; Grisales Romero, H; Cardiel, M H; Wojdyla, D; Pons-Estel, B A; Catoggio, Luis J; Soriano, Enrique R; Imamura, Patricia M; Manni, Jorge A; Grimaudo, Sebastián; Sarano, Judith; Maldonado-Cocco, José A; Arriola, Maria S; Gómez, Graciela; García, Mercedes A; Marcos, Ana Inés; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Scherbarth, Hugo R; Marino, Pilar C; Motta, Estela L; Drenkard, Cristina; Gamron, Susana; Buliubasich, Sandra; Onetti, Carlos M; Caeiro, Francisco; Alvarellos, Alejandro; Saurit, Verónica; Gentiletti, Silvana; Quagliatto, Norberto; Gentiletti, Alberto A; Machado, Daniel; Abdala, Marcelo; Palatnik, Simón; Berbotto, Guillermo A; Battagliotti, Carlos A; Sato, Emilia; Sella, Elaine M C; Souza, AlexandreW S; Costallat, Lilian T Lavras; Bertolo, Manoel Barros; Coimbra, Ibsen Bellini; Borba Neto, Eduardo Ferreira; Bonfá, Eloisa; Tavares, João Carlos; Brenol; Xavier, Ricardo; Mucenic, Tamara; Cavalcanti, Fernando de Souza; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Da Silva, Nilzio Antonio; de O e Silva, Ana Carolina; Pacheco, Tatiana Ferracine; Molina-Restrepo, José Fernando; Molina-López, Javier; Iglesias-Gamarra, Antonio; Iglesias-Rodríguez, Antonio; Egea-Bermejo, Eduardo; Guzmán-Moreno, Renato A; Restrepo-Suárez, José F; Guibert-Toledano, Marlene; Reyes-Llerena, Gil Alberto; Massardo, Loreto; Gareca, Néstor; Jacobelli, Sergio; Neira, Oscar J; Guzmán, Leonardo R; Garcia-Kutzbach, Abraham; Castellanos, Claudia; Cajas, Erwin; Pascual-Ramos, Virginia; Barile-Fabris, Leonor A; Miranda-Limón, Juan Manuel; Amigo, Mary-Carmen; Silveira, Luis H; De La Torre, Ignacio García; Orozco-Barocio, Gerardo; Estrada-Contreras, Magali L; del Pozo, Maria Josefina Sauza; Aranda Baca, Laura E; Quezada, Adelfia Urenda; Huerta-Yáñez, Guillermo F; Acevedo-Vásquez, Eduardo M; Alfaro-Lozano, José Luis; Cucho-Venegas, Jorge M; Segami, Maria Inés; Chung, Cecilia P; Alva-Linares, Magaly; Abadi, Isaac; Chacón-Díaz, Rosa; Al Snih Al Snih, Soham; Esteva-Spinetti, Maria H; Vivas, Jorge


    To evaluate disease characteristics of childhood onset SLE in Latin America and to compare this information with an adult population in the same cohort of GLADEL. A protocol was designed as a multicenter, multinational, inception cohort of lupus patients to evaluate demographic, clinical, laboratory and serological variables, as well as classification criteria, disease activity, organ damage and mortality. Descriptive statistics, chi square, Fisher's exact test, Student's t test and multiple logistic regression were used to compare childhood and adult onset SLE. 230 patients were <18 years and 884 were adult SLE patients. Malar rash, fever, oral ulcers, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia and some neurologic manifestations were more prevalent in children (p<0.05). On the other hand, myalgias, Sjögren's syndrome and cranial nerve involvement were more frequently seen in adults (p<0.05). Afro-Latin-American children had a higher prevalence of fever, thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia. White and mestizo children had a higher prevalence of malar rash. Mestizo children had a higher prevalence of cerebrovascular disease and cranial nerve involvement. Children met SLE ACR criteria earlier with higher mean values than adults (p: 0.001). They also had higher disease activity scores (p: 0.01), whereas adults had greater disease damage (p: 0.02). In Latin America, childhood onset SLE seems to be a more severe disease than adults. Some differences can be detected among ethnic groups.

  11. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment



    "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted ...

  12. Natural Environments and Childhood Experiences Promoting Physical Activity, Examining the Mediational Effects of Feelings about Nature and Social Networks. (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna


    The importance of natural environments (NEs) for physical activity (PA) has been studied extensively. However, there is scant evidence to explain the motivational processes underlying the NE-PA relation. The aim of this study was to investigate the NE-PA relation using an ecological framework, focusing on perception of NEs, childhood experiences and possible intra- and inter-individual mediators. Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional survey among 2168 adults from all over Norway. In addition, the coverage of NEs by municipalities was retrieved from national registers. Logistic regression showed that, unlike the self-reported proximity to NEs, higher ratings of perceived supportiveness of NEs for PA predicted participation in NE-based PA for at least 60 min/week or 150 min/week, before and after controlling for socio-demographic characteristics. Reporting frequent experiences in nature during childhood was also an important predictor of higher levels of NE-based PA. Furthermore, a mediational analysis showed that the effect of both predictors was mediated by "feelings about nature" and "social networks". These findings indicate that to encourage the use of local NE for PA, not only should environmental perceptions be taken into account, positive feelings towards nature alongside opportunities to share activity in nature with others should also be promoted.

  13. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

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    Gul Eryilmaz


    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II. Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS<8, YMRS<5 and 50 healthy subjects were evaluated by SCID-I and SCID-NP. We excluded all first and second-axis comorbidities. All patients and healthy subjects were examined with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-53, and Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder scale (Y-BOCS. Results In pairwise comparisons between the BD-II and control groups, the total CTQ, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, DES, and total Y-BOCS scores in the BD-II group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.05. There were five cases with DES scores over 30 (15.2% and one case (2% in the control group. DES was weakly correlated with total CTQ and Y-BOCS in patients diagnosed with BD-II (r = 0.278, p < 0.05 and r = 0.217, p < 0.05, respectively. While there was no correlation between total CTQ and Y-BOCS, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale was found to be related to Y-BOCS (r = 0.330, p < 0.05. Discussion These results suggest that there is a relation between childhood traumas and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or that dissociative symptoms are more associated with anxiety than obsessive symptoms, which prevents the increase of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in BD-II.

  14. Dr. DING Hong-shan's Experience of Tuina in Treating Childhood Cerebral Palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Kai-yun


    @@ My late father Dr. DING Hong-shan was a senior Chinese medical doctor and learnt thumb-massage therapy from his forefathers. In his decades of years of clinical practice, upon the physiological nature of the children's tender constitution, he created a "one-hand and three-acupoint Tuina" (the thumb, forefinger and middle finger of one hand simultaneously massaging three acupoints or three meridians) in combination with thumb-massage therapy. It is suitable for childhood limb diseases, especially for infantile cerebral palsy. It is now introduced as follows.

  15. Childhood poverty, early motherhood and adult social exclusion. (United States)

    Hobcraft, J; Kiernan, K


    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the current political agenda. The key new issue that this research addresses is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? Subsidiary questions relate to the magnitude of these associations, the particular levels of childhood poverty that prove most critical, and whether, as often assumed, only teenage mothers are subsequently disadvantaged, or are those who have their first birth in their early twenties similarly disadvantaged? The source of data for this study is the National Child Development Study. We examine outcomes at age 33 for several domains of adult social exclusion: welfare, socio-economic, physical health, emotional well-being and demographic behaviour. We control for a wide range of childhood factors: poverty; social class of origin and of father; mother's and father's school leaving age; family structure; housing tenure; mother's and father's interest in education; personality attributes; performance on educational tests; and contact with the police by age 16. There are clear associations for the adult outcomes with age at first birth, even after controlling for childhood poverty and the other childhood background factors. Moreover, we demonstrate that the widest gulf in adult outcomes occurs for those who enter motherhood early (before age 23), though further reinforced by teenage motherhood for most adult outcomes. We also show that any experience of childhood poverty is clearly associated with adverse outcomes in adulthood, with reinforcement for higher levels of childhood poverty for a few outcomes.

  16. Personal strengths and traumatic experiences among institutionalized children given up at birth (Les Enfants de Duplessis--Duplessis' children): I: Early experiences. (United States)

    Perry, J Christopher; Sigal, John J; Boucher, Sophie; Paré, Nikolas; Ouimet, Marie Claude


    We examined childhood and early adult strengths and adverse experiences of a group of orphans given up at or near birth and raised in Quebec institutions into early adulthood. A follow-up interview of 81 adults (41 women, 40 men) at a mean age of 59.2 years included retrospective assessments of childhood experiences. Most participants reported multiple early adverse experiences, including, in descending order, unfair rules and excessive punishment, physical abuse, emotional neglect, witnessing violence, verbal abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and serious illness. Adverse experiences were mainly due to lay caretakers, not peers or nuns. Twelve childhood strengths, such as self-protectiveness and athletic talent, were scored at each of four age periods, yielding a median score equivalent to one strength at each period. Over half had significant childhood attachments, but of limited intimacy. Childhood variables correlated with their respective variables in later adulthood. Overall, these older adults reported a high prevalence of adverse or traumatic childhood experiences, counterbalanced by modest levels of individual strengths and attachment relationships. Institutionalization of children--if unavoidable--must build in effective safeguards against adverse experiences.

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity of chronic daily headache: focus on traumatic experiences in childhood, post-traumatic stress disorder and suicidality. (United States)

    Juang, Kai Dih; Yang, Chin-Yi


    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual (DSM-5) reclassified some mental disorders recently. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is in a new section termed "trauma- and stressor-related disorder". Community-based studies have shown that PTSD is associated with a notably high suicidal risk. In addition to previous findings of comorbidity between chronic daily headache (CDH) and both depressive disorders and anxiety disorders, recent data suggest that frequency of childhood maltreatment, PTSD, and suicidality are also increased in CDH. CDH patients with migraine aura are especially at risk of suicidal ideation. Research suggests that migraine attack, aura, frequency, and chronicity may all be related to serotonergic dysfunction. Vulnerability to PTSD and suicidality are also linked to brain serotonin function, including polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). In the present review, we focus on recent advances in knowledge of traumatic experiences in childhood, PTSD, and suicidality in relation to migraine and CDH. We hypothesize that vulnerability to PTSD is associated with migraine attack, migraine aura, and CDH. We further postulate that these associations may explain some of the elevated suicidal risks among patients with migraine, migraine aura, and/or CDH. Field studies are required to support these hypotheses.

  18. Experiences of primary health care nurses in implementing integrated management of childhood illnesses strategy at selected clinics of Limpopo Province

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    E. N. Vhuromu


    Full Text Available Treatment of the under five years is a national priority as an attempt in curbing deaths and deformities affecting children. Primary health care was implemented in the clinics in order to help in the treatment of illnesses affecting the community, including children. As a result of childhood illnesses; the World Health Organization (WHO and United Nation Children's Fund (UNICEF came up with Integrated Management of Childhood illnesses (IMCI strategy to enhance treatment of such illnesses in developing countries. Primary health care nurses (PHCNS in Limpopo province were also trained to implement the strategy. This study is intended to explore and describe the experiences of PHCNS in implementing the IMCI strategy at selected clinics in Vhembe District in the Limpopo Province. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. In-depth interviews were conducted with PHCNS who are IMCI trained and have implemented the strategy for a period of not less than two years. Data analysis was done through using Tesch’s method of open coding for qualitative analysis. Findings revealed that PHCNS had difficulty in rendering IMCI services due to lack of resources and poor working conditions. Recommendations address the difficulties experienced by PHCNS when implementing the IMCI strategy.

  19. Investigating the Experiences of Childhood Cancer Patients and Parents Participating in Optional Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Studies in the UK (United States)

    Errington, Julie; Malik, Ghada; Evans, Julie; Baston, Jenny; Parry, Annie; Price, Lisa; Johnstone, Hina; Peters, Selena; Oram, Victoria; Howe, Karen; Whiteley, Emma; Tunnacliffe, Jane


    Background While the majority of childhood cancer clinical trials are treatment related, additional optional research investigations may be carried out that do not directly impact on treatment. It is essential that these studies are conducted ethically and that the experiences of families participating in these studies are as positive as possible. Methods A questionnaire study was carried out to investigate the key factors that influence why families choose to participate in optional nontherapeutic research studies, the level of understanding of the trials involved, and the experiences of participation. Results A total of 100 participants from six UK centers were studied; 77 parents, 10 patients >16 years, and 13 patients aged 8–15 years. Ninety‐seven percent of parents and 90% of patients felt that information provided prior to study consent was of the right length, with 52% of parents and 65% of patients fully understanding the information provided. Seventy‐four percent of parents participated in research studies in order to “do something important”, while 74% of patients participated “to help medical staff”. Encouragingly, <5% of participants felt that their clinical care would be negatively affected if they did not participate. Positive aspects of participation included a perception of increased attention from medical staff. Negative aspects included spending longer periods in hospital and the requirement for additional blood samples. Ninety‐six percent of parents and 87% of patients would participate in future studies. Conclusions The study provides an insight into the views of childhood cancer patients and their parents participating in nontherapeutic clinical research studies. Overwhelmingly, the findings suggest that participation is seen as a positive experience. PMID:26928983

  20. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches


    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan


    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  1. Caries Experience among Adults Exposed to Low to Moderate Doses of Ionizing Radiation in Childhood – The Tinea Capitis Cohort (United States)

    Vered, Yuval; Chetrit, Angela; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D.; Amitai, Tova; Mann, Jonathan; Even-Nir, Hadas; Sadetzki, Siegal


    While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aim was to assess the association between childhood exposure to low–moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure. The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of tinea capitis) and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters, and health behavior variables were obtained through a face-to-face interview. An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status) and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT. Mean caries experience levels (DMFT) were 18.6 ± 7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4 ± 7.2 for the non-irradiated (p = 0.002). Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year, and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI: 1.19–2.50). A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1 Gy (95% CI: 1.40–3.50) and 1.05 per 1 cGy (95% CI: 1.01–1.09), respectively. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2–0.4 Gy) might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs. PMID:26942172

  2. Does adherence to epilepsy quality measures correlate with reduced epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations? A retrospective experience. (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Morgan, Clinton D; Pomerantz, Daniel J; Kennedy, Vanessa E; Azar, Nabil; Haas, Kevin; Lagrange, Andre; Gallagher, Martin; Singh, Pradumna; Abou-Khalil, Bassel W; Arain, Amir M


    In 2011, the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) established eight epilepsy quality measures (EQMs) for chronic epilepsy treatment to address deficits in quality of care. This study assesses the relationship between adherence to these EQMs and epilepsy-related adverse hospitalizations (ERAHs). A retrospective chart review of 475 new epilepsy clinic patients with an ICD-9 code 345.1-9 between 2010 and 2012 was conducted. Patient demographics, adherence to AAN guidelines, and annual number of ERAHs were assessed. Fisher's exact test was used to assess the relationship between adherence to guidelines (as well as socioeconomic variables) and the presence of one or more ERAH per year. Of the eight measures, only documentation of seizure frequency, but not seizure type, correlated with ERAH (relative risk [RR] 0.343, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.176-0.673, p = 0.010). Among patients in the intellectually disabled population (n = 70), only review/request of neuroimaging correlated with ERAH (RR 0.128, 95% CI 0.016-1.009, p = 0.004). ERAHs were more likely in African American patients (RR 2.451, 95% CI 1.377-4.348, p = 0.008), Hispanic/Latino patients (RR 4.016, 95% CI 1.721-9.346, p = 0.016), Medicaid patients (RR 2.217, 95% CI 1.258-3.712, p = 0.009), and uninsured patients (RR 2.667, 95% CI 1.332-5.348, p = 0.013). In this retrospective series, adherence to the eight AAN quality measures did not strongly correlate with annual ERAH.

  3. 78 FR 61372 - Advisory Commission of Childhood Vaccines; Request for Nominations for Voting Members (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Commission of Childhood Vaccines... nominations of qualified candidates to fill three vacancies on the Advisory Commission on Childhood Vaccines... childhood vaccination products that result in fewer or no significant adverse reactions; surveying...

  4. Self Reported Childhood Difficulties, Adult Multimorbidity and Allostatic Load. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Norwegian HUNT Study.

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    Margret Olafia Tomasdottir

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity receives increasing scientific attention. So does the detrimental health impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACE. Aetiological pathways from ACE to complex disease burdens are under investigation. In this context, the concept of allostatic overload is relevant, denoting the link between chronic detrimental stress, widespread biological perturbations and disease development. This study aimed to explore associations between self-reported childhood quality, biological perturbations and multimorbidity in adulthood.We included 37 612 participants, 30-69 years, from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study, HUNT3 (2006-8. Twenty one chronic diseases, twelve biological parameters associated with allostatic load and four behavioural factors were analysed. Participants were categorised according to the self-reported quality of their childhood, as reflected in one question, alternatives ranging from 'very good' to 'very difficult'. The association between childhood quality, behavioural patterns, allostatic load and multimorbidity was compared between groups.Overall, 85.4% of participants reported a 'good' or 'very good' childhood; 10.6% average, 3.3% 'difficult' and 0.8% 'very difficult'. Childhood difficulties were reported more often among women, smokers, individuals with sleep problems, less physical activity and lower education. In total, 44.8% of participants with a very good childhood had multimorbidity compared to 77.1% of those with a very difficult childhood (Odds ratio: 5.08; 95% CI: 3.63-7.11. Prevalences of individual diseases also differed significantly according to childhood quality; all but two (cancer and hypertension showed a significantly higher prevalence (p<0.05 as childhood was categorised as more difficult. Eight of the 12 allostatic parameters differed significantly between childhood groups.We found a general, graded association between self-reported childhood difficulties on the one hand and multimorbidity, individual

  5. Can an experience of a punishment episode in childhood period be connected with depressive or anxiety conditions in adulthood?

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    Saša Poljak Lukek


    Full Text Available Punishment, when understood as parents' response to undesirable behavior of a child and representing gradual restricting of such behavior, is an essential part of parents' role in the family. In the context of the paradigm of affective regulation, anxiety and depression states represent another unsuccessful attempt of trying to get closer and to find a connection in the relationship. This study, conducted on 197 participants, addressed the connection between punishment in upbringing and behavior disturbances in adulthood. Depressive states in adulthood were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of corporal punishment, punishment and restitution, and psychological aggression form both parents. Anxiety states were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of psychological aggression from both parents and with the experience of corporal punishment, and punishment and restitution of the mother. The participants who attained the criteria for diagnosis of depression were more exposed to corporal punishment at the age of 10 years (from both parents, punishment and restitution (from the father and psychological aggression (from the father compared to the participants without the diagnosis of depression. The paradigm of affective regulation is presented as a possible explanation of the connection between experiences of punishment as a way of upbringing in childhood and later mood disorders in adulthood. Punishment during upbringing that is not accompanied by parents' maintaining of the connection with the child can present the first experience of negative affection, which is the core of anxiety and depressive states. The mood disorders in adulthood can be understood as another failure when trying to reestablish the balance between external information and internal experiences that were primarily disturbed by the experience of punishment when growing up.

  6. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study. (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina


    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence.

  7. The Everyday Costs of Poverty in Childhood: A Review of Qualitative Research Exploring the Lives and Experiences of Low-Income Children in the UK (United States)

    Ridge, Tess


    This review of 10 years of qualitative research with disadvantaged children in the UK shows that despite some gaps in the knowledge base, there is now a substantive body of evidence exploring children's lives and experiences from their own perspectives. The review reveals that poverty penetrates deep into the heart of childhood, permeating every…

  8. Adult attachment as mediator between recollections of childhood and satisfaction with life. (United States)

    Hinnen, Chris; Sanderman, Robbert; Sprangers, Mirjam A G


    In accordance with attachment theory, the present study investigates whether internal working models of attachment mediated the association between childhood memories and satisfaction about life in adulthood. A convenient sample of 437 participants completed questionnaires assessing a broad range of childhood memories, working models of attachment and life satisfaction. After controlling for demographics, relational status and living condition, Baron and Kenny's mediation criteria were met for the association between memories about childhood, adult attachment and life satisfaction. That is, family warmth and harmony and parental support were associated with attachment security while parental rejection and adverse childhood events (e.g., abuse, parental psychopathology) were associated with an insecure attachment style. More securely attached individuals were in turn more satisfied about their current life than insecurely attached individuals. Sobel test confirmed these findings. These finding are in accordance with attachment theory and highlight the importance of this theory for understanding how early childhood experiences may impact adult life.

  9. Arithmetic memory networks established in childhood are changed by experience in adulthood. (United States)

    Martinez-Lincoln, Amanda; Cortinas, Christina; Wicha, Nicole Y Y


    Adult bilinguals show stronger access to multiplication tables when using the language in which they learned arithmetic during childhood (LA+) than the other language (LA-), implying language-specific encoding of math facts. However, most bilinguals use LA+ throughout their life, confounding the impact of encoding and use. We tested if using arithmetic facts in LA- could reduce this LA- disadvantage. We measured event related brain potentials while bilingual teachers judged the correctness of multiplication problems in each of their languages. Critically, each teacher taught arithmetic in either LA+ or LA-. Earlier N400 peak latency was observed in both groups for the teaching than non-teaching language, showing more efficient access to these facts with use. LA+ teachers maintained an LA+ advantage, while LA- teachers showed equivalent N400 congruency effects (for incorrect versus correct solutions) in both languages. LA- teachers also showed a late positive component that may reflect conflict monitoring between their LA+ and a strong LA-. Thus, the LA- disadvantage for exact arithmetic established in early bilingual education can be mitigated by later use of LA-.

  10. Enriched Childhood Experiences Moderate Age-related Motor and Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan J. Metzler


    Full Text Available Aging is associated with deterioration of skilled manual movement. Specifically, aging corresponds with increased reaction time, greater movement duration, segmentation of movement, increased movement variability, and reduced ability to adapt to external forces and inhibit previously learned sequences. Moreover, it is thought that decreased lateralization of neural function in older adults may point to increased neural recruitment as a compensatory response to deterioration of key frontal and intra-hemispheric networks, particularly of callosal structures. However, factors that mediate age-related motor decline are not well understood. Here we show that music training in childhood is associated with reduced age-related decline of bimanual and unimanual motor skills in a MIDI keyboard motor learning task. Compared to older adults without music training, older adults with more than a year of music training demonstrated proficient bimanual and unimanual movement, evidenced by enhanced speed and decreased movement errors. Further, this group demonstrated significantly better implicit learning in the weather prediction task, a non-motor task. The performance of older adults with music training in those tasks was comparable to young adults. Older adults, however, displayed greater verbal ability compared to young adults irrespective of a past history of music training. Our results indicate that music training early in life may reduce age-associated decline of neural motor and cognitive networks.

  11. Attachment relationship between a father and a child in early childhood: Experiences in relationship with a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajana Brajović


    Full Text Available Internalized working model of attachment, which affects quality of interactions with others, can remain relatively stable throughout a person's life. Attachment relationship seems to have some universal characteristics regardless of the form of the relationship (romantic partners relationship or parent-infant relationship. We were trying to develop a questionnaire of the attachment relationship between a father and his child in early childhood, that could offer comparable results and would be relatively easy to answer and validate. The questionnaire presented in this paper was adapted from the Experiences in Close Relationships – Revised (ECR-R; Fraley, Waller and Brennan, 2000 with regard to the relationship between a father and a child. This adapted inventory is a self-report questionnaire for fathers and is used for establishing father's perceptions of anxiety and avoidance in the attachment relationship with his child in early childhood. Analysis of 32 statements adapted from the ECR-R proved a 22 item form of the questionnaire (12 items on the anxiety and 10 items on the avoidance subscale to be adequate. Principal component analysis of 22 items showed a two-component solution. Reliability of both subscales of the adapted instrument for 22 item solution proved to be acceptably high. In the future, criteria validity of the adapted instrument should be tested and some changes in the content of the existing items as well as some of the excluded items should be considered, and the revised version of the adapted ECR-R should be aplied to the representative sample of fathers. A version of the adapted ECR-R for mothers of children could also be formed.

  12. Parents' Experiences with Childhood Deafness: Implications for Family-Centered Services (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Traub, Randi J.; Turnbull, Ann P.


    In response to the need for family-centered follow-up, this study examined parents' experiences with deafness after early identification. Qualitative inquiry methods were used to explore and describe the perceptions and experiences of nine parents of children identified with severe to profound deafness. Parents participated in face-to-face…

  13. Perception of infant cues : the role of childhood experiences and oxytocin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhandari, Ritu


    In the present thesis we report our findings assessing individual differences in perception of infant signals due to early-life experiences and variability in the oxytocinergic system. We found that the perception of infant cues differs between individuals with fewer versus more experiences of emoti

  14. The daily of an school of early childhood education: sharing experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Broering


    Full Text Available Assuming the difficulty of talking about the experience and want to say without a model, this report presents the experience lived and shared by professionals, children and families of the "Creche Municipal Nossa Senhora Aparecida" known as nursery school "Pantanal".

  15. 早期负性经历的表观遗传学研究进展%The Progress of Epigenetics in Early Adverse Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚亚丽; 李昌琪


    Epigenetics is a branch of genetics ,with no changes of DNA sequence, the genetic expression changes are through mitosis and meiosis. Current researches are focused on DNA methylation, histone code, chromatin remodeling and regulation of non-coding RNA and so on. Early adverse experiences points to negative life events experienced by an individual in the early years after born, it also includes before bo. Numerous studies show that Early adverse experiences will affect the adult behaviors of individuals. This paper will survey all kinds of epigenetie mechanisms in the early negative experiences.%表观遗传学(epigenetics)是指不涉及DNA序列改变、可以通过有丝分裂和减数分裂进行遗传的基因表达变化的遗传学分支领域.目前研究主要集中在DNA甲基化、组蛋白密码、染色质重塑和非编码RNA调控等方面.早期负性经历是指个体出生早年所经历的不良生活事件,还包括个体出生前所经历的负性生活事件.大量研究表明早期负性经历对个体成年后的行为会造成明显影响.本文将综述早期负性经历中表观遗传的各种机制.

  16. Comparison of MRI and renal cortical scintigraphy findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovanlikaya, Arzu; Okkay, Nese; Cakmakci, Handan E-mail:; Oezdogan, Oezhan; Degirmenci, Berna; Kavukcu, Salih


    Objective: The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children remains a clinical challenge. It may cause permanent renal scar formation and results in the chronic renal failure if prompt diagnosis and treatment are delayed. The purpose of this study is to compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS) findings in childhood acute pyelonephritis and to determine pyelonephritic foci in the acute phase. Materials and method: Twenty children (15 females and five males) with symptoms dysuria, enuresis, costovertebral pain, fever of 37.5 degree sign C or more and/or positive urine culture were imaged by unenhanced turbo spin echo T2, spin echo T1-weighted, pre- and post-gadolinium inversion recovery MRI and RCS. Both imaging techniques were read independently by two radiologists and nuclear medicine specialists. Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in detecting acute pyelonephritic foci and scar lesions were calculated. Furthermore, in order to calculate the reliability of MRI over RCS in differentiating scar tissue and acute pyelonephritic foci, follow-up MRI studies were done in six patients after treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Results: Sensitivity and specificity of MRI in the detection of pyelonephritic lesions were found to be 90.9 and 88.8%, respectively. There is no statistically significant difference in lesion detection between the two diagnostic modalities (P>0.05). Conclusion: Post-gadolinium MR images show significant correlation with RCS in the determination of renal pathology. Moreover, the ability of discriminating acute pyelonephritic foci and renal scar in early stages of disease is the superiority of MRI.

  17. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults. (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos


    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency.

  18. Plasticity in early language acquisition: the effects of prenatal and early childhood experience. (United States)

    Gervain, Judit


    Early experience with speech and language, starting in the womb, has been shown to shape perceptual and learning abilities, paving the way for language development. Indeed, recent studies suggest that prenatal experience with speech, which consists mainly of prosodic information, already impacts how newborns perceive speech and produce communicative sounds. Similarly, the newborn brain already shows specialization for speech processing, resembling that of the adult brain. Yet, newborns' early preparedness for speech is broad, comprising many universal perceptual abilities. During the first years of life, experience narrows down speech perception, allowing the child to become a native listener and speaker. Concomitantly, the neural correlates of speech and language processing become increasingly specialized.

  19. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristóbal-Narváez

    Full Text Available The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social in daily life.A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780 that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs.The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype.The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype and lend further

  20. The Interaction between Childhood Bullying and the FKBP5 Gene on Psychotic-Like Experiences and Stress Reactivity in Real Life (United States)

    Rosa, Araceli; Ballespí, Sergi; de Castro-Catala, Marta; Peña, Elionora; Kwapil, Thomas R.; Barrantes-Vidal, Neus


    Aim The present study employed Experience Sampling Methodology to examine whether the interaction between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability (i) is associated with the expression of psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect, and (ii) moderates psychotic-like, paranoid, and affective reactivity to different forms of momentary stress (situational and social) in daily life. Methods A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for bullying with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse and were prompted randomly eight times daily for one week to complete assessments of their current experiences, affect, and stress appraisals. Participants were genotyped for three FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs3800373, rs9296158, and rs1360780) that have been linked to hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. Multilevel analyses were conducted to examine the effect of the interaction between childhood bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype derived from these three SNPs. Results The interaction between bullying and the FKBP5 haplotype was associated with positive, but not negative, psychotic-like experiences, paranoia, and negative affect. The bullying x FKBP5 interaction also moderated the association of a social stress appraisal (specifically, being alone because people do not want to be with you) with psychotic-like experiences and negative affect in daily life. Simple slopes analyses indicated that, in all cases, the associations were significantly increased by exposure to bullying in participants with the risk haplotype, but not for those with the non-risk haplotype. Discussion The present study provides the first evidence of the interplay between childhood bullying and FKBP5 variability in the real-world expression of psychosis proneness and social stress reactivity. The findings underscore the importance of investigating how gene-environment interactions are involved in mechanistic pathways to the extended psychosis phenotype

  1. Adolescents with a Childhood Experience of Parental Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of Mental Health and Adjustment (United States)

    Storksen, Ingunn; Roysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjorn; Tambs, Kristian


    This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression,…

  2. Adverse social experiences in adolescent rats result in enduring effects on social competence, pain sensitivity and endocannabinoid signaling

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    Peggy Schneider


    Full Text Available Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid system. From postnatal day (pd 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR, previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor protein levels and CP55,940 stimulated 35SGTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1 receptor signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence.

  3. Adverse Social Experiences in Adolescent Rats Result in Enduring Effects on Social Competence, Pain Sensitivity and Endocannabinoid Signaling (United States)

    Schneider, Peggy; Bindila, Laura; Schmahl, Christian; Bohus, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Lutz, Beat; Spanagel, Rainer; Schneider, Miriam


    Social affiliation is essential for many species and gains significant importance during adolescence. Disturbances in social affiliation, in particular social rejection experiences during adolescence, affect an individual’s well-being and are involved in the emergence of psychiatric disorders. The underlying mechanisms are still unknown, partly because of a lack of valid animal models. By using a novel animal model for social peer-rejection, which compromises adolescent rats in their ability to appropriately engage in playful activities, here we report on persistent impairments in social behavior and dysregulations in the endocannabinoid (eCB) system. From postnatal day (pd) 21 to pd 50 adolescent female Wistar rats were either reared with same-strain partners (control) or within a group of Fischer 344 rats (inadequate social rearing, ISR), previously shown to serve as inadequate play partners for the Wistar strain. Adult ISR animals showed pronounced deficits in social interaction, social memory, processing of socially transmitted information, and decreased pain sensitivity. Molecular analysis revealed increased CB1 receptor (CB1R) protein levels and CP55, 940 stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding activity specifically in the amygdala and thalamus in previously peer-rejected rats. Along with these changes, increased levels of the eCB anandamide (AEA) and a corresponding decrease of its degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) were seen in the amygdala. Our data indicate lasting consequences in social behavior and pain sensitivity following peer-rejection in adolescent female rats. These behavioral impairments are accompanied by persistent alterations in CB1R signaling. Finally, we provide a novel translational approach to characterize neurobiological processes underlying social peer-rejection in adolescence. PMID:27812328

  4. Measuring trauma and stressful events in childhood and adolescence among patients with first-episode psychosis: initial factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist. (United States)

    Cristofaro, Sarah L; Cleary, Sean D; Ramsay Wan, Claire; Broussard, Beth; Chapman, Colby; Haggard, Patrick J; Jananeh, Sara; Myers, Neely L; Compton, Michael T


    Past trauma and stressful events, especially in childhood and adolescence, are common among individuals with serious mental illnesses like schizophrenia. Traumatic experiences are thought to be a socio-environmental risk factor not only for poorer outcomes, but also potentially for the onset of these disorders. Because improved measurement tools are needed, we developed and studied, among 205 first-episode psychosis patients, the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and initial validity of the Trauma Experiences Checklist (TEC), our measure of trauma and stressful events during childhood/adolescence. We assessed validity of subscales using correlations with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Parental Harsh Discipline, Violence Exposure, and TEC-Informant Version scores. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in two internally consistent subscales (Cronbach's α=0.79 and 0.80, respectively), interpersonal abuse and family stress, and violence, death, and legal involvement. Scores from the former subscale were substantially associated with CTQ-SF physical, emotional, and sexual abuse (r=0.42-0.57, all p<0.001) and Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001). On the other hand, violence, death, and legal involvement scores were most highly correlated with Violence Exposure (r=0.49, p<0.001), and not with most CTQ-SF subscales. The TEC is a potentially useful tool in assessing diverse traumatic life events across various social contexts during childhood and adolescence.

  5. Adolescents with a childhood experience of parental divorce: a longitudinal study of mental health and adjustment. (United States)

    Størksen, Ingunn; Røysamb, Espen; Moum, Torbjørn; Tambs, Kristian


    **This is a prospective Norwegian study of a group of adolescents with an experience of parental divorce or separation (n=413) and a comparison group without this experience (n=1758). Mean age at T1 was 14.4 years and mean age at T2 was 18.4 years. Parental divorce was prospectively associated with a relative change in anxiety and depression, subjective well-being, self-esteem, and school problems. Considering boys separately, parental divorce was prospectively associated only with school problems. Among the girls, divorce was prospectively associated with all variables. The effect of divorce on relative change was partially mediated by paternal absence.

  6. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences (United States)

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.


    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  7. Educative Experiences and Early Childhood Science Education: A Deweyan Perspective on Learning to Observe (United States)

    Howes, Elaine V.


    This paper is a report of work conducted at an urban elementary professional development school in the eastern US. John Dewey's explication of "educative experiences" is applied to describe curriculum involving small animals as a basis for teaching science inquiry processes, particularly the process of observation. The analysis is qualitative and…

  8. Associations with Teacher Education, Experience, and Program Characteristics in Quality Early Childhood Programming (United States)

    Lawrence, Debra L.


    Researchers have investigated the impact of teacher education and experience on child care quality; however, findings have been inconsistent. This study used archived data originating from Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS program. The sample included 617 infant or toddler classrooms with 1356 teachers and 887 preschool classrooms with 1915 teachers.…

  9. The Fate of Early Experience Following Developmental Change: Longitudinal Approaches to Individual Adaptation in Childhood. (United States)

    Sroufe, L. Alan; And Others


    Examined Bowlby's proposition that early experiences and the adaptations to which they give rise influence later development, even beyond the influence of current circumstances or very recent adaptation. Groups whose adaptation were similar during preschool years but consistently different earlier were defined and compared. Results supported…

  10. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S


    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously

  11. Peer Relationship Adversities and Children's Aggression During Late Childhood: The Mediating Roles of Self-conception and Peer Beliefs%童年晚期同伴关系不利与儿童的攻击行为:自我概念与同伴信念的中介作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪林芹; 魏星; 陈亮; 张文新


    采用整群抽样法选取1806名小学儿童(平均年龄11.27±0.36岁)为被试,考察同伴拒绝、侵害两种同伴关系不利与儿童攻击行为间的关系、以及儿童的自我概念与同伴信念在其中的中介作用.结果发现,(1)同伴拒绝、侵害与儿童的身体攻击、关系攻击显著正相关,与儿童的自我概念、同伴信念显著负相关,自我概念、同伴信念与两类攻击显著相关.(2)同伴拒绝、关系侵害对身体攻击和关系攻击具有正向预测作用;身体侵害仅对身体攻击具有正向预测作用,对关系攻击无显著影响.(3)儿童的身体自我概念、社交自我概念及同伴信念在同伴拒绝、同伴侵害与攻击的联系中具有中介作用.本研究结果表明,同伴拒绝对儿童的身体攻击、关系攻击主要表现为直接效应,不同类型的侵害经历与儿童攻击间的联系存在类型特定性.%The development and control of childhood aggression have been among topics that received the most attentions from researchers for more than half a century, and in research on aggression, exploration of the correlated risk factors and mechanisms of aggression is one of the most important tasks. Research indicated that peer rejection and peer victimization, forms of peer relationship adversities, were predictive of children's aggression. There are correlations between peer rejection and victimization, so in investigating associations between peer relationship adversities and children's aggression, it is important to include both the two forms of peer relationship adversities in the statistical models so that the unique associations may be tested. There are physical and relational forms in both aggression and peer victimization, and recent theoretical perspectives recognize the specificity of associations between certain types of peer experience and children's adjustment. Accordingly, research on the associations between peer victimization and aggression

  12. The Public Health Burden of Early Adversity (United States)

    Schlueter, Lisa J.; Watamura, Sarah Enos


    Severe and chronic stress in early childhood has enormous physical and mental health costs across an individual's lifespan. Unfortunately, exposure to early life adversity is common, and costs accrue to individuals and society. This article highlights several promising approaches to buffer children from the negative health consequences associated…

  13. Is there Complex Trauma Experience typology for Australian's experiencing extreme social disadvantage and low housing stability? (United States)

    Keane, Carol A; Magee, Christopher A; Kelly, Peter J


    Traumatic childhood experiences predict many adverse outcomes in adulthood including Complex-PTSD. Understanding complex trauma within socially disadvantaged populations has important implications for policy development and intervention implementation. This paper examined the nature of complex trauma experienced by disadvantaged individuals using a latent class analysis (LCA) approach. Data were collected through the large-scale Journeys Home Study (N=1682), utilising a representative sample of individuals experiencing low housing stability. Data on adverse childhood experiences, adulthood interpersonal trauma and relevant covariates were collected through interviews at baseline (Wave 1). Latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify distinct classes of childhood trauma history, which included physical assault, neglect, and sexual abuse. Multinomial logistic regression investigated childhood relevant factors associated with class membership such as biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years and number of times in foster care. Of the total sample (N=1682), 99% reported traumatic adverse childhood experiences. The most common included witnessing of violence, threat/experience of physical abuse, and sexual assault. LCA identified six distinct childhood trauma history classes including high violence and multiple traumas. Significant covariate differences between classes included: gender, biological relationship of primary carer at age 14 years, and time in foster care. Identification of six distinct childhood trauma history profiles suggests there might be unique treatment implications for individuals living in extreme social disadvantage. Further research is required to examine the relationship between these classes of experience, consequent impact on adulthood engagement, and future transitions though homelessness.

  14. 'Negotiating the dance of disclosure': a grounded theory study of psychologists’ experiences of childhood sexual abuse disclosures from clients in adult mental health


    Ross, Emma Margaret Helen


    Hearing disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a clinical reality for many therapists. Psychologists within mental health services are working increasingly with clients who have traumatic histories, including the presence of CSA. Recently there has been a drive towards improving services for adult survivors of CSA, with an emphasis on asking health and social care service-users about abuse. Recent research has demonstrated that the experience of talking about CSA in psy...

  15. The experience of cash transfers in alleviating childhood poverty in South Africa: mothers' experiences of the Child Support Grant. (United States)

    Zembe-Mkabile, Wanga; Surender, Rebecca; Surrender, Rebecca; Sanders, David; Jackson, Debra; Doherty, Tanya


    Cash transfer (CT) programmes are increasingly being used as policy instruments to address child poverty and child health outcomes in developing countries. As the largest cash-transfer programme in Africa, the South African Child Support Grant (CSG) provides an important opportunity to further understand how a CT of its kind works in a developing country context. We explored the experiences and views of CSG recipients and non-recipients from four diverse settings in South Africa. Four major themes emerged from the data: barriers to accessing the CSG; how the CSG is utilised and the ways in which it makes a difference; the mechanisms for supplementing the CSG; and the impact of not receiving the grant. Findings show that administrative factors continue to be the greatest barrier to CSG receipt, pointing to the need for further improvements in managing queues, waiting times and coordination between departments for applicants trying to submit their applications. Many recipients, especially those where the grant was the only source of income, acknowledged the importance of the CSG, while also emphasising its inadequacy. To maximise their impact, CT programmes such as the CSG need to be fully funded and form part of a broader basket of poverty alleviation strategies.

  16. Childhood risk factors for developing fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivieri P


    Full Text Available Patrick Olivieri,1 Bruce Solitar,2,* Michel Dubois3,*1NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Rheumatology, 3Department of Pain Management, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Fibromyalgia is a disease process without an obvious etiology. While some evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood contribute to its development, specific evidence has been equivocal.Methods: A total of 36 patients with fibromyalgia from the greater New York area were recruited and surveyed using the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, and questions from the section on adverse childhood experiences were administered. The results were compared to those obtained from over 400,000 people surveyed by the Centers for Disease control each year, and were monitored for statistically significant differences.Results: A statistically significant difference was noted among the control group, suggesting that individuals reported growing up with someone who was depressed when the respondents were between the ages of 0 and 18 years old. Moreover, respondents reported that they were hit by their parents in some way, were insulted or cursed at by their parents, and had been forced to have sex with someone at least 5 years older than them or with an adult. No correlation was found with the following variables and the development of fibromyalgia: growing up with divorced or separated parents; growing up with someone sentenced to serve time in jail; or having parents that abused each other. Additionally, statistically significant differences were found for the following categories: lack of emotional support; life dissatisfaction; fair or poor health; physical, mental or emotional disability; and being divorced or not married.Discussion: Using this well-validated survey, it became clear that at least six specific adverse childhood

  17. Paternal and maternal bonding styles in childhood are associated with the prevalence of chronic pain in a general adult population: the Hisayama Study


    Anno, Kozo; Shibata, Mao; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Iwaki, Rie; Kawata, Hiroshi; Sawamoto, Ryoko; Kubo, Chiharu; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Sudo, Nobuyuki; Hosoi, Masako


    Background Previous research has suggested that extraordinary adverse experiences during childhood, such as abuse, are possible risk factors for the development of chronic pain. However, the relationship between the perceived parental bonding style during childhood and chronic pain has been much less studied. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 760 community-dwelling Japanese adults were asked if they had pain that had been present for six months or more. They completed the Parental Bondin...

  18. 人格障碍研究与童年期经历相关研究综述%Summary of Researches into Personality Disorders and Childhood Experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Personality disorders research has been a hot topic in the field of psychology research in recent years.The relationship of personality disorders and childhood experience is one of main research orientation.This paper outlines the definition and classification of personality disorders,summarizes the main measurement tools,and reviews the correlation research of personality disorders and parental rearing patterns,childhood abuse experience,attachment.Finally,the paper summaries and outlooks the correlation research of personality disorders of childhood experiences.%人格障碍是近年来心理学界的研究热点,人格障碍与童年期经历的关系是主要的研究取向之一,通过概括人格障碍的定义和分类方法,总结了主要测量工具,综述了人格障碍与父母教养方式、依恋、虐待的相关研究等文献资料,在此基础上对人格障碍与童年期经历相关研究进行总结和展望。

  19. Tales from the frontline: the experiences of early childhood practitioners working with an 'embedded' research team. (United States)

    Wong, Sandie


    In late 2006, SDN Children's Services, an Australian not-for-profit provider of services for children, families and communities, engaged a research team that was 'embedded' within the organisation for 1 year. This action represented a significant investment of resources, such as staff time and organisational funds, and demonstrates SDN's strong commitment to research and evaluation as a means of supporting organisational learning and development. This paper highlights the innovative nature of the approach by positioning the role of the embedded researcher within the current theoretical and socio-political context. It also provides evidence of the success of the approach by reporting on the findings of a study that investigated staff's experiences of being involved in this type of collaborative investigation of their work. I argue that the employment of an embedded researcher can have positive benefits both for the organisation and the practitioners--but who the researchers are really matters.

  20. Childhood and Adult Trauma Experiences of Incarcerated Persons and Their Relationship to Adult Behavioral Health Problems and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shi


    Full Text Available Rates of childhood and adult trauma are high among incarcerated persons. In addition to criminality, childhood trauma is associated with the risk for emotional disorders (e.g., depression and anxiety and co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and drug abuse and antisocial behaviors in adulthood. This paper develops rates of childhood and adult trauma and examines the impact of age-of-onset and type-specific trauma on emotional problems and behavior for a sample of incarcerated males (N~4,000. Prevalence estimates for types of trauma were constructed by age at time of trauma, race and types of behavioral health treatment received while incarcerated. HLM models were used to explore the association between childhood and adult trauma and depression, anxiety, substance use, interpersonal problems, and aggression problems (each model estimated separately and controlling for age, gender, race, time incarcerated, and index offense. Rates of physical, sexual, and emotional trauma were higher in childhood than adulthood and ranged from 44.7% (physical trauma in childhood to 4.5% (sexual trauma in adulthood. Trauma exposure was found to be strongly associated with a wide range of behavioral problems and clinical symptoms. Given the sheer numbers of incarcerated men and the strength of these associations, targeted intervention is critical.

  1. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

  2. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States. (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N


    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  3. Troubled Childhood May Boost Bipolar Risk (United States)

    ... of childhood adversity in the development of the mental illness. Although the study doesn't establish a cause- ... published in the October issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry . SOURCE: University of Manchester, news release, ...

  4. Childhood Schizophrenia (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  5. Childhood obesity


    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon


    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  6. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H;


    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  7. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine


    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  8. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  9. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens


    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  10. The experience of childhood trauma and its influence on the course of illness in first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Jens Einar; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trauelsen, Anne Marie;


    Persons with schizophrenia spectrum disorders often report high levels of childhood trauma, which often exacerbates symptoms and impede the process of recovery. However, little is known about how these traumas are experienced by service users and how they are integrated in their life stories...

  11. Dissociative experiences in bipolar disorder II: Are they related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms?


    Gul Eryilmaz; Sermin Kesebir; Işil Göğcegöz Gül; Eylem Özten; Kayihan Oğuz Karamustafalioğlu


    Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of dissociative symptoms and whether they are related to childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive symptoms in bipolar disorder type II (BD-II). Methods Thirty-three euthymic patients (HDRS

  12. Molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia with emphasis on chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, P.A.; Smith, M.T.; Wood, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Emeryville, CA (United States)


    Developing markets in the Pacific Basin depend heavily on the production and export of consumer goods. The generation of hazardous waste as a by-product of industrial production can be linked to adverse health outcomes, such as childhood leukemia, in ways that are presently unknown. In California, exposures resulting from hazardous waste disposal are of concern in the etiology of childhood cancer. Approximately 63% of the 57 hazardous waste sites that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) included in the national priority list under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) statute were in the six-county San Francisco Bay area. This area includes California`s Silicon Valley, where a disproportionate majority of these sites are located. Although only one study links hazardous waste disposal to childhood leukemia evidence is accumulating that in utero and maternal pesticide exposures as well as chemical exposures during childhood are important in the etiology of childhood leukemia. This study investigates whether children with leukemia have common genetic changes, whether children with genetic changes experience common chemical exposures, and whether the occurrences of these genetic changes correspond to the same temporal sequence as exposure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and report on the status of research activity. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. The Relationship between AIDS High Risk Behaviors and Childhood Status,Perception of Gender Orientation and Rare Experiences/Psychology among Chinese Gays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Beichuan(张北川); HU Tiezhong(胡铁中); LI Xiufang(李秀芳); SHI Tongxin(史同新); LIU Dianchang(刘殿昌)


    Objectives : To probe some more important factorsaffecting the HIV epidemic by surveying the relationshipbetween AIDS high risk behaviors and childhood status,attitude/perception to gender of male/sex orientation andrare experiences/Psy-chology among Chinese gays.Methods: Data were collected from 240 Chinese gays whowere attracted by their same gender.Results: The extent of sex among Mainland China gays issimilar to that of industrialized countries, and behaviorsthat exacerbate the HIV epidemic are universal.Perceptions "being a girl is better", "Dislike toys likeswords or pistols in early childhood were predictors topassive anal intercourse in adulthood. Those gay men whobegan sexual intercourse younger than 16 years old tendedto have more sex partners and suffered more pain. Thosedisliked gender of male or self-regarded as female tended tohave more passive anal intercourse and related to childhoodcross-gender experience/psychology while those were raised as girls by their parentsdid not take on the above characters. Individuals whoexperienced sex coercion and drug abuse were the twosubgroups with the greatest high-risk behaviors. Individualswho had sex with females had the greatest number of malesex partners and were more prone to group sex. Individualswith pedophilia or gerontophilia had more casual sexpartners. Psychological problems encountered by Chinesegays related to suicide attempts and commitment.Conclusion:The prospect of an extensive AIDS epidemic among Chinese gays does exist and some subgroups of gays play more important roles in the epidemic.some high risk behaviors among adult gays can be foreseen explicitly by the predictors taking on in childhood,and closely relate to attitude/perception,to gender of male,to some rare experience/psychology.

  14. The attention to the child's inner experience and adult style - contribution of engagement scales to improve teaching practices in early childhood education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Portugal


    Full Text Available In early childhood education, the quality of adult-child relationships is a key element in terms of building a sense of security, self-esteem, curiosity and desire to learn, willingness and ability to communicate with others. The child and adult engagement scales are instruments that, as a whole, support the understanding of the child's inner experience and the relational adjustment of the adult to the situation experienced by the child. In this article, considering situations described by practitioners, it is intended to highlight the importance of these instruments in supporting reflection and improvement of educational practices.

  15. Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment Experience, Cognitive Bias and Depression%童年虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韦玮; 陆邵佳; 位照国; 彭红军; 李凌江


    目的:探讨童年期受虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系.方法:利用童年创伤问卷将入组的重症抑郁症患者及健康成人分为童年虐待组和无童年虐待组,所有被试均完成功能失调性态度量表及认知偏差问卷.结果:在功能失调性态度得分、抑郁-歪曲得分上,诊断有显著主效应,仅认知哲学评分中,童年创伤无主效应.完美化因子评分中,童年创伤与诊断有显著交互作用,伴童年虐待的抑郁症患者显著升高.多元回归分析显示,功能失调性态度总分与抑郁-歪曲得分是抑郁程度的显著预测因子.结论:抑郁症患者及伴童年虐待者均比健康人有更严重的认知偏差,伴童年虐待的抑郁症对完美化的追求更明显.负性认知偏差是抑郁症的有力预测因子.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment experience,cognitive bias and depression.Methods:Patients of major depression and healthy adults were assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).And then the patients were divided into the depression group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment; and the healthy adults were divided into the control group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment.All subjects were assessed cogntive biases with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales(DAS)and The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ).Results:The main effect of depression diagnosis existed in the total score of DAS and all structure factors,as well as the score of depression-distortion.The main effects of childhood maltreatment were found in the score of depression-distortion,as well as the total score of DAS and 7 structure factors,except "Cognitive-philosophy" factor.Multiple regression analysis showed that the total score of DAS and the score of depression-distortion were powerful predictors of depression.Conclusion:Both depressive patients and the people with childhood maltreatment have

  16. The contributions of early adverse experiences and trajectories of respiratory sinus arrhythmia on the development of neurobehavioral disinhibition among children with prenatal substance exposure. (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Degarmo, David; Fisher, Phil; Abar, Beau; Lester, Barry M; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A


    Neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) is a complex condition reflecting a wide range of problems involving difficulties with emotion regulation and behavior control. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a physiological correlate of emotion regulation that has been studied in a variety of at-risk populations; however, there are no studies of RSA in children with ND. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants. Baseline RSA and RSA reactivity to an attention-demanding task were assessed at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years. ND was assessed at ages 8/9, 11, and 13/14 years via behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction composite measures. Greater exposure to early adversity was related to less RSA reactivity at 3 years, increases in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years, and increased behavioral dysregulation from ages 8/9 to 13/14. RSA reactivity was examined as a moderator of the association between early adversity and changes in ND. A significant Early Adversity × RSA Reactivity quadratic interaction revealed that children with decelerations in RSA reactivity exhibited increases in behavioral dysregulation, regardless of their exposure to early adversity. However, greater exposure to early adversity was related to greater increases in behavioral dysregulation, but only if children exhibited accelerations in RSA reactivity from ages 3 to 6 years. The results contribute to our understanding of how interactions across multiple levels of analysis contribute to the development of ND.

  17. Childhood Environment and Mental Wellbeing at Age 60-64 Years: Prospective Evidence from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Stafford

    Full Text Available Mental wellbeing, conceptualised as positive affect, life satisfaction and realisation of needs that contribute to psychological growth, captures more than the absence of mental ill health. Several nations now aim to monitor and improve mental wellbeing. Whilst many studies document associations between adverse childhood experiences and mental disorders in adulthood, possible links between childhood experiences and adult mental wellbeing have so far received less attention.Using data from 1976 men and women in the MRC National Survey for Health and Development, we investigated prospective associations between childhood socioeconomic and psychosocial environments and the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale, designed to capture both hedonic and eudaimonic facets of wellbeing, at age 60-64.Whilst there was no evidence that childhood socioeconomic circumstances were related to later wellbeing independently of other childhood experiences, elements of childrearing and parenting, parental health and adjustment, and childhood illness were related. More advantaged socioeconomic position was associated with greater wellbeing but this did not explain the links between these childhood exposures and adult wellbeing, suggesting alternative explanatory pathways should be considered.Childhood illness and family psychosocial environment are associated with mental wellbeing in early older age, with effects sizes that are larger or comparable to socioeconomic circumstances in adulthood. Initiatives to improve the nation's mental wellbeing that include programmes targeted to supporting families and children may additionally have benefits that continue into older age.

  18. Sobre brinquedos e infância: aspectos da experiência e da cultura do brincar On toys and childhood: aspects of the experience and culture of playing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Barbosa Lins de Almeida


    Full Text Available Partindo do paradigma do pensador Walter Benjamin, um dos mais proeminentes do século XX, cujo materialismo evoca a categoria da infância desvinculada da ótica ideológica de uma visão complacente, este trabalho busca capturar o pensar sobre tal experiência por intermédio da leitura e da subseqüente discussão sobre textos de cerca de 80 anos, os quais surpreendem pela sua contemporaneidade. Assim, o presente trabalho inicia-se de uma reflexão crítica sobre a infância oriunda da leitura dos luminosos textos de Walter Benjamin sobre a cultura da criança. Ao revisitá-los, espera-se contribuir em direção à elucidação do grande enigma dos valores da infância, sendo esta fundamental à compreensão da modernidade.Based on the paradigm of philosopher Walter Benjamin, whose materialism evokes the category of childhood detached from an ideological and indulgent view, the present paper aims at capturing the experience of childhood through the reading and subsequent discussion of Walter Benjamin's surprisingly contemporary 80-year-old texts on children's culture. By revisiting such articles, It expects to further elucidate the enigma of childhood values as well as to provide a view on how such values help promote a more comprehensive account of modernity.

  19. “Management of Overweight during Childhood: A Focus Group Study on Health Professionals’ Experiences in General Practice,”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Ledderer, Loni; Jarbol, Dorte E


    controlled trial (RCT) comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcribed data were analysed using systematic text condensation followed by thematic analysis. Results. Health...... professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier...... to addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised...

  20. The Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescent Depression%童年期创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫翠风; 王惠萍; 尉秀峰; 李涛; 林聪聪; 贾婧萍


    Objective :To investigate the effect of traumatic experiences in childhood on the incidence of depression in adolescents .Methods :SDS and HRSD were measured in 200 adolescents with depression ,and 136 patients were se‐lected for questionnaire survey .130 healthy high school students were selected as the control group .Results :The ado‐lescent depression attacked before more trauma ,and traumatic childhood experiences and adolescent depression inci‐dence were positively correlated (r = 6 .42 ,P < 0 .01) .Conclusion :Childhood traumatic experience is very big ,it is the main factor leading to depression .Therefore ,it is significant to reduce the psychological trauma in childhood .%目的:了解青少年抑郁患者童年期的创伤性经历对青少年抑郁症发病的影响。方法:对200名青少年抑郁症患者进行抑郁自评量表(SDS)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HRSD)测量,选取符合抑郁发作诊断标准、抑郁程度在重度以上的患者136名进行问卷调查,组成研究组。同时,选取130名心理健康的高中学生作为对照组。采用儿童期创伤性经历问卷对两组被试分别进行调查,并采用回归方式对数据进行分析。结果:青少年抑郁发病前有较多的创伤经历,童年期的创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的发病率呈正相关(r =6.42,P <0.01)。结论:童年期创伤性经历对青少年心理健康影响非常大,是导致青少年罹患抑郁发作的主要因素。

  1. Close Friends' Psychopathology as a Pathway From Early Adversity to Young Adulthood Depressive Symptoms. (United States)

    Raposa, Elizabeth B; Hammen, Constance L; Brennan, Patricia A


    Past research has highlighted the negative impact of early adverse experiences on childhood social functioning, including friendship selection, and later mental health. The current study explored the long-term effects of early adversity on young adults' close friends' psychological symptoms and the impact of these close friendships on later depressive symptoms. A prospective longitudinal design was used to examine 816 youth from a large community-based sample, who were followed from birth through age 25. Participants' mothers provided contemporaneous information about adversity exposure up to age 5, and participants completed questionnaires about their own depressive symptoms at age 20 and in their early 20s. Youth also nominated a best friend to complete questionnaires about his or her own psychopathology at age 20. Individuals who experienced more early adversity by age 5 had best friends with higher rates of psychopathology at age 20. Moreover, best friends' psychopathology predicted target youth depressive symptoms 2 to 5 years later. Results indicate that early adversity continues to affect social functioning throughout young adulthood and that best friendships marked by elevated psychopathology in turn negatively affect mental health. Findings have implications for clinical interventions designed to prevent the development of depressive symptoms in youth who have been exposed to early adversity.

  2. Social Inequalities in Young Children’s Lifestyle Behaviors and Childhood Overweight : The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Childhood overweight and obesity is a major public health concern. Adverse health and psychosocial outcomes associated with childhood overweight include elevated blood pressure and hypertension, type 2 diabetes, asthma, sleeping disorders, low self-esteem, and decreased

  3. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Yahaya


    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%. At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual- and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse.

  4. The association between childhood maltreatment experiences and the onset of maltreatment perpetration in young adulthood controlling for proximal and distal risk factors. (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L


    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6,935 low-income children with (n=4,470) or without (n=2,465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through 11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit.

  5. The role of childhood traumatization in the development of borderline personality disorder in Hungary

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    Katalin Merza


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: There is a growing body of evidence suggesting the role of childhood abuse in the etiology of borderline personality disorder (BPD. Studies found that complex traumatization related to BPD include emotional/physical/sexual abuse and neglect. This study examines self-reported experiences of childhood traumatization in Hungarian inpatients with a diagnosis of borderline personality disorder and reveal which etiological factors are most strongly associated with the development of BPD. Methods: Traumatic childhood experiences of 80 borderline inpatients, 73 depressed inpatients and 51 healthy controls were assessed with the Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire and the Sexual Abuse Scale of Early Trauma Inventory. Results: Adverse childhood experiences (neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, witnessing trauma were more prevalent among borderline patients than among depressed and healthy controls. Borderline patients reported severe sexual abuse, characterized by incest, penetration and repetitive abuse. Sexually abused borderline patients experienced more physical and emotional abuse than borderlines who were not sexually abused. The strongest predictors of borderline diagnosis were sexual abuse, intrafamilial physical abuse and neglect by the caretakers. Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that a reported childhood history of abuse and neglect are both common and highly discriminating for borderline patients in Hungary as well.

  6. Age at Arrival and Life Chances Among Childhood Immigrants. (United States)

    Hermansen, Are Skeie


    This study examines the causal relationship between childhood immigrants' age at arrival and their life chances as adults. I analyze panel data on siblings from Norwegian administrative registries, which enables me to disentangle the effect of age at arrival on adult socioeconomic outcomes from all fixed family-level conditions and endowments shared by siblings. Results from sibling fixed-effects models reveal a progressively stronger adverse influence of immigration at later stages of childhood on completed education, employment, adult earnings, occupational attainment, and social welfare assistance. The persistence of these relationships within families indicates that experiences related to the timing of childhood immigration have causal effects on later-life outcomes. These age-at-arrival effects are considerably stronger among children who arrive from geographically distant and economically less-developed origin regions than among children originating from developed countries. The age-at-arrival effects vary less by parental education and child gender. On the whole, the findings indicate that childhood immigration after an early-life formative period tends to constrain later human capital formation and economic opportunities over the life course.

  7. What can we learn from consumer reports on psychiatric adverse drug reactions with antidepressant medication? : Experiences from reports to consumer association



    Background According to the World Health Organization (WHO) the cost of adverse drug reactions   (ADRs) in the general population is high and under-reporting by health professionals   is a well-recognized problem. Another way to increase ADR reporting is to let the   consumers themselves report directly to the authorities. In Sweden it is mandatory   for prescribers to report serious ADRs to the Medical Products Agency (MPA), but there   are no such regulations for consumers. The non-profit a...

  8. Early Childhood Trauma (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010


    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  9. Narrative Processes across Childhood (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe


    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  10. Roots & shoots remembered: A qualitative study of the influence of childhood place-based experiences on the lives of young adults (United States)

    Macht, Katrina G.

    This dissertation is a qualitative interview study that explored the memories of 10 former students, now young adults, long removed from their intermediate school (grades 4 -- 6) experiences. The purpose of the study was to learn what impact involvement in the school's Roots & Shoots program had on later attitudes and behaviors. Specifically, the study focused on the relationship between distant childhood experiences and current dispositions towards the environment and civic responsibility. The results from the study were based on data collected from interviews, written reflections, and email correspondence, with 10 young adults who attended the intermediate school between 1997 and 2007. At the time of the study, the participants' ages ranged from 18 to 26. They were interviewed, both individually and in a focus group setting, as well as asked to write reflections based on follow-up questions. Their responses were analyzed, using constant comparative thematic analysis. Each former student contributed significant data to the research, and all of their voices are included in this dissertation. While their perceptions' of the program's influence ranged along a continuum, all but one of the participants agreed that the most significant aspects of the program were its place-based, justice-oriented, service-learning dimensions. They linked their experiences in the school's outdoor classroom to current attitudes and beliefs about nature and society. The data revealed that it was the outdoor experiences in a local environment that both planted the seeds for ecological literacy and inspired lifelong civic engagement.

  11. Childhood Cancer Statistics (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  12. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankin J


    from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously impinging on resources and economic costs. Keywords: pediatric obesity, psychological comorbidity, mental health, ADHD, depression, anxiety, obesity stigma, teasing, bullying

  13. Childhood Emergencies (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  14. Childhood Craniopharyngioma (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  15. Dysregulated responses to emotions among abstinent heroin users: correlation with childhood neglect and addiction severity. (United States)

    Gerra, G; Somaini, L; Manfredini, M; Raggi, M A; Saracino, M A; Amore, M; Leonardi, C; Cortese, E; Donnini, C


    The aim of this paper was to investigate the subjective responses of abstinent heroin users to both neutral and negative stimuli and the related hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal reactions to emotional experience in relationship to their perception of childhood adverse experiences. Thirty male abstinent heroin dependents were included in the study. Emotional responses and childhood neglect perception were measured utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Y-1 and the Child Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neutral and unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System and the Self-Assessment Manikin procedure have been used to determine ratings of pleasure and arousal. These ratings were compared with normative values obtained from healthy volunteers used as control. Blood samples were collected before and after the experimental sessions to determine both adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol plasma levels. Basal anxiety scores, cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were higher in abstinent heroin users than in controls. Tests showed that anxiety scores did not change in controls after the vision of neutral slides, whilst they did in abstinent heroin addicts, increasing significantly; and increased less significantly after the unpleasant task, in comparison to controls. Abstinent heroin users showed significantly higher levels of parent antipathy and childhood emotional neglect perception than controls for both the father and the mother. Plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol levels did not significantly increase after unpleasant slide set viewing among addicted individuals, because of the significantly higher basal levels characterizing the addicted subjects in comparison with controls. Multiple regression correlation showed a significant relationship between childhood neglect perception, arousal reaction, impaired hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response and addiction severity. Early adverse experiences


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An Early childhood dance program is a way to open the door to social competence, tradition learning and cultural integration besides achieving motor skills. The past few decades have demonstrated that dance education and the use of symbolic movement in early childhood, greatly enhance young children's learning. While a great amount of attention has been devoted to understanding how a variety of learning modes function in young children, an understanding of the benefits of dance education has not received strong recognition in the equation [3]. I suggest that movement and dance are the first communicative "language" that enables learning. Creating new contexts in and through dance for learning offers young children opportunities to understand and negotiate their community and the surrounding world.DANSUL CA CONDIŢIE ÎN FORMAREA COMPETENŢELOR SOCIALE, TRADIŢIONALE ŞI CULTURALE ÎN PERIOADA COPILĂRIEI TIMPURII Un program de dans specific copilăriei timpurii, pe lângă faptul că dezvoltă abilităţile motorii, este o modalitate de a forma competenţe sociale prin învăţarea tradiţiilor şi de integrare culturală. Ultimele decade au demonstrat că educaţia prin dans şi utilizarea mişcărilor simbolice în copilăria timpurie au un impact pozitiv asupra învăţării. În timp ce o mare parte de atenţie a fost acordată înţelegerii funcţionării variabilelor moduri de învăţare la copii, înţelegerea beneficiilor educaţiei prin dans nu s-a bucurat de aceeaşi recunoaştere din partea cercetătorilor. Sugerăm că mişcarea şi dansul sunt primele limbaje de comunicare care autorizează învăţarea. Crearea noilor contexte în şi prin dans oferă copiilor oportunităţi de a înţelege şi a negocia atât în cadrul comunităţii lor, cât şi în afara acesteia.

  17. Skill of frontline workers implementing integrated management of neonatal and childhood illness: experience from a district of West Bengal, India. (United States)

    Biswas, Akhil B; Mukhopadhyay, Dipta K; Mandal, Nirmal K; Panja, Tanamy K; Sinha, Nirmalya; Mitra, Kaninika


    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Purulia district, West Bengal, India, to assess the skill of 155 frontline workers implementing Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness (IMNCI) and the logistic support thereof. The skills of counting respiratory rate, assessing immunization status in both age groups, assessment of breastfeeding in young infants and plotting of weight in a growth chart in case of children aged 2-59 months were acquired by majority of workers. Around two-thirds workers synthesized correct classification and nearly 60% gave appropriate management of at least one subgroup. In 30-40% cases, carers received feeding advices. Around 50% casesheets were complete and timely report submission rate was nearly 70%. Necessary equipments were available with majority of workers except the utensils for preparation of ORS. The supply of essential drugs varied from 33.5 to 71.6%. These findings suggest that IMNCI program offered a scope for capacity-building and infrastructure strengthening of the health system.

  18. 早期经验对繁衍策略形成与发展的影响%Experience in Childhood and the Development of Reproductive Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Belsky


    很多发展心理学家探讨了早期经验与心理行为发展的关系,但这些发展心理学家较少以进化理论为指导来探讨不同发展阶段的心理行为特点.比如,配偶选择、性交往与父母教养等成果颇丰的研究领域均缺少以进化理论为基础的理论解释.与主流的发展心理学研究不同,Draper和Harpending(1982),Ellis (2004),Chisholm(1996)和Belsky等(1991)以进化理论为基础探讨了早期经验与繁衍策略对儿童心理行为发展的影响.进化观点认为儿童在家庭中获得的早期经验会影响身体发育与未来的繁衍策略.Ellis(2004)已经证实女性青春期确实与早期家庭经验有关.%Even though a great deal of mainstream developmental psychology is devoted to understanding whether and how experiences in childhood shape psychological and behavioural development later in life, little theoretical attention has been paid to why such cross-time influences should characterize human development. This is especially true with respect to the well-studied determinants of mating, pair bonding and parenting. Theoretically, Draper and Harpending (1982), Belsky et al. (1991), Ellis (2004) and Chisholm (1996) have all addressed this lacuna,stimulating research on linkages between childhood experience and reproductive strategy, which is summarised in this paper. Concern for experiential effects on pubertal timing distinguishes this line of inquiry from more traditional developmental studies because an evolutionary perspective suggests that experiences in the family might affect somatic development. Fifteen years since BSD advanced their "uncanny" prediction, it seems clear that this pubertal timing, at least in females, is related to selected aspects of early family experience (Ellis, 2004).

  19. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion


    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen


    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  20. Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress. (United States)

    Boyce, W T; Barr, R G; Zeltzer, L K


    This paper provides a conceptual overview of recent research on the developmental psychobiology of childhood stress. We propose that the construct of temperament can be regarded as an organizing principle in children's responses to environmental adversity, and we review three physiologic "windows" through which such responses can be usefully examined. It is concluded that individual differences between children in their psychobiologic reactivity to stressors may constitute an important and novel point of departure for future studies of stress and childhood morbidity.

  1. Negative childhood experiences alter a prefrontal-insular-motor cortical network in healthy adults: A preliminary multimodal rsfMRI-fMRI-MRS-dMRI study (United States)

    Duncan, Niall W.; Hayes, Dave J.; Wiebking, Christine; Tiret, Brice; Pietruska, Karin; Chen, David Q.; Rainville, Pierre; Marjańska, Malgorzata; Mohammid, Omar; Doyon, Julien; Hodaie, Mojgan; Northoff, Georg


    Research in humans and animals has shown that negative childhood experiences (NCE) can have long-term effects on the structure and function of the brain. Alterations have been noted in grey and white matter, in the brain’s resting state, on the glutamatergic system, and on neural and behavioural responses to aversive stimuli. These effects can be linked to psychiatric disorder such as depression and anxiety disorders that are influenced by excessive exposure to early life stressors. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of NCEs on these systems. Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI), aversion task fMRI, glutamate magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) were combined with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in healthy subjects to examine the impact of NCEs on the brain. Low CTQ scores, a measure of NCEs, were related to higher resting state glutamate levels and higher resting state entropy in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CTQ scores, mPFC glutamate and entropy, correlated with neural BOLD responses to the anticipation of aversive stimuli in regions throughout the aversion-related network, with strong correlations between all measures in the motor cortex and left insula. Structural connectivity strength, measured using mean fractional anisotropy, between the mPFC and left insula correlated to aversion-related signal changes in the motor cortex. These findings highlight the impact of NCEs on multiple inter-related brain systems. In particular, they highlight the role of a prefrontal-insular-motor cortical network in the processing and responsivity to aversive stimuli and its potential adaptability by NCEs. PMID:26287448

  2. Chronic adverse events and quality of life after radiochemotherapy in anal cancer patients. A single institution experience and review of the literature

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    Fakhrian, K. [Universitaetsklinikum Bochum, Marienhospital Herne (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Molls, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Dinkel, A. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy; Schuster, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Inst. of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Klinikum Rechts der Isar (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncoalogy; Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern, Linz (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    Purpose: To report on chronic adverse events (CAE) and quality of life (QOL) after radiochemotherapy (RCT) in patients with anal cancer (AC). Patients and methods: Of 83 patients who had received RCT at our department between 1988 and 2011, 51 accepted the invitation to participate in this QOL study. CAE were evaluated using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) v. 4.0 and QOL was assessed with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (FACT-C) questionnaire. Results: CAE could be evaluated in 49 patients. There was a tendency toward a higher rate of grade 3 CAE in female patients, i.e. 18 out of 37 (49 %) vs. 2 out of 12 (17 %) male patients (p = 0.089). The most common grade 3 CAE were dyspareunia and vaginal symptoms (itching, burning and dryness) in 35 and 22 % of female patients, respectively, followed by stool incontinence in 13 % of all patients (6 out of 49). Both FACT-C and CAE information were available for 42 patients, allowing evaluation of the impact of CAE on QOL. The median total FACT-C score was 110 (40-132) out of a possible maximum of 136. The absence of grade 3 CAE (115 vs. 94, p = 0.001); an interval of {>=} 67 months after the end of the treatment (111 vs. 107, p = 0.010), no stool incontinence vs. grade 3 stool incontinence (111 vs. 74, p = 0.009), higher education (114 vs. 107, p = 0.013) and no dyspareunia vs. grade 3 dyspareunia (116 vs. 93, p = 0.012) were significantly associated with a higher median FACT-C score. Conclusion: The majority of AC patients treated with RCT have acceptable overall QOL scores, which are comparable to those of the normal population. Patients with grade 3 CAE - particularly dyspareunia and fecal incontinence - have a poorer QOL compared to patients without CAE. In order to improve long-term QOL, future strategies might aim at a reduction in dose to the genitalia and more intensive patient support measures. (orig.)

  3. Nursing experience of adverse reactions of children DPT vaccine strengthening vaccination%儿童白百破疫苗加强接种所发生不良反应的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective:To summarize the nursing experience of adverse reactions of children DPT vaccine strengthening vaccination.Methods:8952 children were given DPT vaccine vaccination.4174 cases were given DPT vaccine based immune vaccination according to the planned immunization program.4778 cases were given strengthening vaccination.The immunization age was that the first vaccination on three months after the baby born,again 1 time of vaccination on four months and five months. The children when 1 year old was given strengthening vaccination.Results:8952 cases were inoculated DPT vaccine,347 cases had adverse reactions,the adverse reactions occurred rate was 3.9%,including 220 cases were local reaction,127 cases were systemic reaction.38 cases had adverse reactions in the based immune group,the adverse reactions occurred rate was 0.91%,including 20 cases were local reaction,18 cases were systemic reaction.309 cases had adverse reactions in the strengthening immunization group,the adverse reactions occurred rate was 6.5%,including 200 cases were local reaction,109 cases were systemic reaction.The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(P<0.05).Conclusion:The adverse reactions occurred rate of children DPT vaccine strengthening vaccination is higher than that of the based immune group.The vaccination education before strengthening vaccination and adverse reactions prevention education are very important.%目的:总结儿童白百破疫苗加强接种发生不良反应的护理经验.方法:白百破三联疫苗接种儿童8 952例,其中按计划免疫程序进行吸附白百破三联疫苗基础免疫接种的4 174例,加强接种4 778例.免疫年龄:婴儿出生后满3个月首次接种,在满4个月和满5个月时再各接种1次.满1岁时再进行加强接种.结果:接种白百破三联疫苗8 952例,不良反应347例,不良反应发生率3.9%,其中局部反应220例,全身反应127例.基础免疫组不良反应38例,不良反应发生率0

  4. An Ecological Exploration of Young Children's Digital Play: Framing Children's Social Experiences with Technologies in Early Childhood (United States)

    Arnott, Lorna


    This article outlines an ecological framework for describing children's social experiences during digital play. It presents evidence from a study that explored how 3- to 5-year-old children negotiated their social experiences as they used technologies in preschool. Utilising a systematic and iterative cycle of data collection and analysis,…

  5. Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Their Work Environments: Shaping (Im)possible Ways of Being an Educator? (United States)

    Cumming, Tamara


    The purpose of this article is to explore the complex interrelations between educators' work environments and their experiences as an entryway for thinking differently about workforce stability and sustainability. Concepts of macro- and micropolitics (drawn from the work of Deleuze and Guattari) are used to explore one educator's experiences in…

  6. "Building the Natural Society of the Future": The Peckham Experiment (1943) as an Anarchist Account of Childhood and Education (United States)

    Charkin, Emily


    "The Peckham Experiment" (Innes H. Pearse and Lucy H. Crocker, Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1985) is a book about the Peckham Health Centre (1935-1950), which was a scientific experiment and community centre set up to identify and foster conditions of good health for local working-class families in South London. The book was…

  7. Before Student Teaching: How Undergraduate Students in Early Childhood Teacher Preparation Programs Describe Their Early Classroom-Based Experience (United States)

    Maynard, Christine; La Paro, Karen M.; Johnson, Amy V.


    Classroom-based experiences, alternatively known as practica, are an integral component of undergraduate teacher preparation programs, which provide students essential opportunities to apply knowledge in practice. Though much is known about student teaching, much less is known about students' earlier classroom-based experiences. This…

  8. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi


    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat and Bla g1 (cockroach allergens were found in the children’s bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  9. Stress load during childhood affects psychopathology in psychiatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Tzvetan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood stress and trauma have been related to adult psychopathology in different psychiatric disorders. The present study aimed at verifying this relationship for stressful experiences during developmental periods by screening stress load across life in adult psychiatric inpatients with different diagnoses compared to healthy subjects. In addition, a relationship between the amount of adverse experiences and the severity of pathology, which has been described as a 'building block' effect in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, was explored for non-traumatic events in psychiatric disorders other than PTSD. Methods 96 patients with diagnoses of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, schizophrenia, drug addiction, or personality disorders (PD and 31 subjects without psychiatric diagnosis were screened for adverse experiences in childhood (before the age of six years, before onset of puberty, and in adulthood using the Early Trauma Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Effects of stress load on psychopathology were examined for affective symptoms, PTSD, and severity of illness by regression analyses and comparison of subgroups with high and low stress load. Results High stress load in childhood and before puberty, but not in adulthood, was related to negative affect in all participants. In patients, high stress load was related to depressive and posttraumatic symptoms, severity of disorder, and the diagnoses of MDD and PD. Conclusion Results support the hypothesis of stress-sensitive periods during development, which may interact with genetic and other vulnerability factors in their influence on the progress of psychiatric disorders. A 'dose' effect of stress load on the severity of psychopathology is not restricted to the relationship between traumata and PTSD.

  10. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met polymorphism and early life adversity affect hippocampal volume. (United States)

    Carballedo, Angela; Morris, Derek; Zill, Peter; Fahey, Ciara; Reinhold, Elena; Meisenzahl, Eva; Bondy, Brigitta; Gill, Michael; Möller, Hans-Jürgen; Frodl, Thomas


    The interaction between adverse life events during childhood and genetic factors is associated with a higher risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD). One of the polymorphisms found to be associated with MDD is the Val66MET polymorphism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The aim of our two-center study was to determine how the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and childhood adversity affect the volumetric measures of the hippocampus in healthy individuals and people with MDD. In this two-center study, 62 adult patients with MDD and 71 healthy matched controls underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We used manual tracing of the bilateral hippocampal structure with help of the software BRAINS2, assessed childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and genotyped Val66Met BDNF SNP (rs6265). MDD patients had smaller hippocampal volumes, both in the left and right hemispheres (F = 5.4, P = 0.022). We also found a significant interaction between BDNF allele and history of childhood adversity (F = 6.1, P = 0.015): Met allele carriers in our samples showed significantly smaller hippocampal volumes when they did have a history of childhood adversity, both in patients and controls. Our results highlight how relevant stress-gene interactions are for hippocampal volume reductions. Subjects exposed to early life adversity developed smaller hippocampal volumes when they carry the Met-allele of the BDNF polymorphism.

  11. Childhood adversity, mental ill-health and aggressive behavior in an African orphanage: Changes in response to trauma-focused therapy and the implementation of a new instructional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Elisabeth


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of orphans in Sub-Saharan Africa is constantly rising. While it is known that family or community care is preferable over institutional care of African orphans, little is known about the quality of care in orphanages and possibilities of improvement. Study 1 Methods Exposure to traumatic stress, experiences of violence in the home, school and orphanage, as well as mental ill-health and aggression of 38 children (mean age of M = 8.64 years living in an orphanage in rural Tanzania were assessed at two time points. The severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (PTSD, depressive symptoms, and internalizing and externalizing problems were used as indicators of mental ill-health. Results Violence experienced in the orphanage correlated more strongly with all indicators of mental ill-health than violence in the former home, school or neighborhood at time point 1. Additionally, violence experienced in the orphanage had a positive relationship with the aggressive behavior of the children at time point 2. Study 2 Methods With the help of the pre-post assessment of Study 1, the implementation of a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment (KIDNET for trauma-related illness were evaluated. Results In response to both, a change in the instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, a massive decline in experienced violence and in the severity of PTSD-symptoms was found, whereas depressive symptoms and internalizing and externalizing problems exhibited little change. Conclusions These studies show that violence, especially in the orphanage, can severely contribute to mental ill-health in orphans and that mental health can be improved by implementing a new instructional system and psychotherapeutic treatment in an orphanage. Moreover, the results indicate that the experience of violence in an orphanage also plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior of the orphans.

  12. Research Review: The Neurobiology and Genetics of Maltreatment and Adversity (United States)

    McCrory, Eamon; De Brito, Stephane A.; Viding, Essi


    The neurobiological mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens vulnerability to psychopathology remain poorly understood. It is likely that a complex interaction between environmental experiences (including poor caregiving) and an individual's genetic make-up influence neurobiological development across infancy and childhood, which in…

  13. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem


    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  14. Childhood obesity. (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni


    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  15. It's Special and It's Specific: Understanding the Early Childhood Education Experiences and Expectations of Young Indigenous Australian Children and Their Parents (United States)

    Martin, Karen L.


    Whilst early childhood education is regarded as important for young Indigenous Australians and it has been a feature of policy since the 1960s, it does not receive the same attention as compulsory schooling for Indigenous Australian students. A serious lack of large-scale research contributes to the devaluing of early childhood education for young…

  16. Race, Isolation, and Exclusion: What Early Childhood Teacher Educators Need to Know about the Experiences of Pre-Service Teachers of Color (United States)

    Cheruvu, Ranita; Souto-Manning, Mariana; Lencl, Tara; Chin-Calubaquib, Marisa


    Historically, in the United States, early childhood teacher education has been a discursive space dominated by White, English-monolingual, middle class perspectives. By and large, this space has remained unexamined even as the field acknowledges the need for more early childhood teachers of color. This study seeks to gain insights into the…

  17. Processes of Categorisation and the Politics of Belonging in Early Childhood Education and Care: An Infant's Experience in Multi-Age Family Day Care (United States)

    Stratigos, Tina


    Belonging is emerging as an important concept for early childhood education and care. However, it is one that requires further theorisation beyond everyday or romanticised understandings. The politics of belonging provides a potentially productive focus for thinking about belonging in early childhood education and care because of its attention to…

  18. Childhood Play and Environmental Interests: Panacea or Snake Oil? (United States)

    Vadala, Carin E.; Bixler, Robert D.; James, J. Joy


    Both wildland recreationists and conservationists report that wildland childhood play is an important socialization experience. However, researchers know little about the details of play experiences during the formative childhood years. In this article, the authors describe the content and physical and social components of childhood play as…

  19. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren


    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  20. Nursing experience of cervical cancer after treatment in patients with adverse reactions%宫颈癌腔内后装治疗护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金萍; 刘翠平


    Objective:To take effective nursing measures , reduce cervical cancer after treatment in patients with adverse reactions and complications, make the patient safety smooth completion of treatment .Methods:From 2011-2013, 78 cases of cervical cancer patients with iridium -192 lumen loading after treatment in the process of psychological counseling , diet nursing , the observation in the process of treatment and rehabilitation of the patients with guidance .Results:The complete treatment plan with proper care , the desired therapeutic effect.Conclusion:The correct implementation of iridium -192 cavity after treatment in patients with effective nursing care , the whole life cycle of a complete treatment .%目的:采取有效地护理措施,减少宫颈癌后装治疗患者不良反应及并发症的发生,使患者安全顺利完成治疗。方法:2011~2013年对78例宫颈癌患者]~192腔内后装治疗过程中心理疏导、饮食护理,治疗过程中的病情观察、有效护理,对患者的康复指导,使患者积极配合治疗,提高治疗信心。结果:通过正确护理措施的实施,78例患者均顺利完成治疗计划,达到预期治疗效果,淡化病人角色,提高生存质量。结论:正确实施]-192腔内后装治疗患者的有效护理,有利于减少和避免不良反应及并发症的发生,患者生存率高,耐受好,顺利完成整个周期的治疗。

  1. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  2. Experiência e observação: de Rousseau ao Referencial Curricular Nacional para a Educação Infantil Experience and observation: from Rousseau to the National Curriculum Reference for Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Soares dos Santos Batista


    them in the National Curriculum Reference for Early Childhood Education, with the purpose of highlighting the criticism present in the defense of children's experiences and of their observation in the school daily life. It concludes, based on reflections about Rousseau's texts and about those of the authors of the Critical Theory, that in the above-mentioned document, faced with the polysemy of the formative experience, emphasis is given to the curriculum aspect, to the instrumentalization of teachers' action, to experiences and learning labeled as essential, to the experience that the teacher affords to the children, and to the mapping of subjectivities through observation and systematic recording. If Rousseau asks us to observe the child, as well as to offer and value significant experiences, it is because somehow, making use of a theoretical-methodological resource, he is addressing concrete educators who, after almost three centuries, are still entangled by concepts and social representations of childhood, oblivious to the experience that legitimizes the construction of these same concepts and representations.

  3. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy. (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi


    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  4. Growing up in a Mainstream World: A Retrospective Enquiry into the Childhood Experiences of Young Adults with a Physical Disability (United States)

    Lumsdaine, Sally; Thurston, Mhairi


    Children with disabilities are at greater risk of developing mental health problems than their peers, yet the emotional well-being of this group is largely overlooked and there is scant literature about children with a mobility disability. This study examined the retrospective experiences of growing up with mobility disability. The sample…

  5. Life History Insights into the Early Childhood and Education Experiences of Froebel Trainee Teachers 1952-1967 (United States)

    Hoskins, Kate; Smedley, Sue


    Drawing on life-history interview data collected as part of a research project funded by the Froebel Trust, this paper explores the family backgrounds and educational experiences reported by nine women who attended Froebel College located in London in the United Kingdom (UK), in the 1950s and 1960s. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of habitus and…

  6. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  7. Childhood Obesity (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.


    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  8. Childhood obesity. (United States)

    Strauss, R


    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  9. Treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL): summary of ten years' experience in Italy. ALL Steering Committee of the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP). (United States)

    Paolucci, G; Masera, G; Vecchi, V; Marsoni, S; Pession, A; Zurlo, M G


    Between 1976 and 1986, 2,093 children with ALL were enrolled in three consecutive generations of trials conducted by the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP). A 50% event-free survival at 5 years was achieved overall in this population, approximately accounting for more than 50% of the entire childhood ALL population in Italy. Participation in the group protocols increased from the original seven founding centers to the current 37 institutions. Results in the standard population (non-T immunophenotype, non-FAB L3, and less than 50,000 white blood cells (WBC/ml) were considerably better with more recent, more aggressive protocols. The two major results in this population (N = 540) were a relatively low incidence (8% at 5 years) of central nervous system (CNS) relapse in the "good"-risk population (less than 10,000 WBC, ages 3-6 years, and FAB L1), without the use of cranial irradiation, and a projected 4-year disease-free interval for bone-marrow relapse of 80% in the "average"-risk group, where a three-drug reinduction program was adopted after consolidation. Overall, the event-free survival of the most recent generation (protocol 82, median follow-up time of 38 months) is 66% at 4 years (95% confidence limits [CL] 61-71). Based on these 10 years of experience, the general strategy of the group for the 90s is outlined and discussed.

  10. Caregivers' voices: The experiences of caregivers of children who sustained serious accidental and non-accidental head injury in early childhood. (United States)

    Wharewera-Mika, Julie; Cooper, Erana; Kool, Bridget; Pereira, Susana; Kelly, Patrick


    Head injury is a leading cause of mortality and acquired neurological impairment in children. Head-injured children may have neurobehavioural deficits that persist for years following injury. Head injury can result in significant and persistent caregiver burden, including mental health issues, family stress and disorganisation, and unmet social and healthcare service needs. Few studies have examined the healthcare and social service needs of children and their families following head injury sustained at an early age. This qualitative study aims to describe the experiences of caregivers of children who sustained a serious head injury (particularly non-accidental head injury) before the age of 2 years. Caregivers were interviewed up to 15 years following the initial injury. Semi-structured interviews with 21 caregivers of 15 children (aged 3-15 years at the time of interview) were completed. Thematic analysis of interview data generated three key themes: impact, support and information. The study's findings reveal the broad impact of serious childhood head injury on caregivers, specifically the significant distress and burden brought about through lack of information, challenges in accessing support and inconsistent care. Recommendations for developing a quality 'model of care' and improving ease of access to supports for caregivers are provided.

  11. The correlation and difference of childhood traumatic experiences in personality disorders%人格障碍与童年创伤经历的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天宏; 肖泽萍; 王兰兰; 戴云飞


    目的 研究人格障碍患者童年创伤经历的相关性和差异性.方法 采用系统抽样法抽取1511例就诊者.用人格障碍诊断问卷第四版(SDQ+4)对其中1402例进行筛查,结果阳性的986例被试用轴Ⅱ人格障碍临床访谈(SCID-Ⅱ)和童年期创伤性经历问卷进行研究.结果 儿童期创伤经历问卷(CTQ)总分与3群人格障碍呈正相关,以B群的相关性最强(r=0.312,P<0.01).CTQ5个因子在偏相关分析中,B群与情感虐待、躯体虐待、性虐待及情感忽视呈正相关,A群与情感虐待相关(r=0.139,P<0.01),C群则与各种童年创伤经历均无显著相关性;人格障碍及对照组之间在情感虐待、躯体虐待、性虐待及情感忽视上存在显著差异(P<0.01);情感虐待和情感忽视均进入A群和B群人格障碍的回归方程(标准偏回归系数分别为A群0.135和0.119,B群0.200和0.084),情感忽视进入C群人格障碍的回归方程(标准偏回归系数为0.103).结论 童年时期的创伤虐待是人格障碍易感的危险因素,对B群人格障碍的影响最为显著.不同群的人格障碍在童年创伤经历上各有特点.%Objective To explore the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and personali-ty disorders. Methods 1511 clients were sampled randomly from Shanghai Psychological Counseling Center. Per-sonality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ+4) was administered to 1402 clients to screen personality disorders. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire(CTQ) and Blind semi-structure interviews using Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Ⅳ Axis Ⅱ (SCID-Ⅱ) were conducted to screened subjects whose PDQ + 4 test was defined as positive. Re-suits Correlation analysis revealed that the total score of CTQ had a strong association with all the of personality disorders. Using partial correlations,the significant relationships between Cluster-B personality disorders and all the CTQ factors except physical neglect were demonstrated. Emotional abuse

  12. Trajectories of childhood internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and psychotic-like experiences in adolescence: A prospective population-based cohort study. (United States)

    Lancefield, Kristin S; Raudino, Alessandra; Downs, Johnny M; Laurens, Kristin R


    Adolescent internalizing and externalizing psychopathology is strongly associated with adult psychiatric morbidity, including psychotic disorders. This study examined whether internalizing or externalizing trajectories (continuity/discontinuity of symptoms) from middle childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic-like experiences (PLEs). Prospective data were collected from a community sample of 553 children (mean age = 10.4 years; 50% male) and their primary caregivers. Participants completed questionnaire reports of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and PLEs at baseline, and again approximately 2 years later. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of adolescent PLEs with four trajectories of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology (persistent, incident, remitting, and none), controlling for a range of potential confounders and sampling bias. Significant associations were identified between adolescent PLEs and the incident internalizing (adjusted odds ratio [adj. OR] = 2.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.60-5.49) and externalizing psychopathology (adj. OR = 2.14; 95% CI = 1.11-4.14) trajectories, as well as the persistent internalizing (adj. OR = 1.90; 95% CI = 1.13-3.18) and externalizing (adj. OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.02-3.19) trajectories. Children with remitting psychopathology trajectories were no more likely to present later PLEs than those who never experienced psychopathology. While for many individuals symptoms and illness remit during development without intervention, this study provides important insights regarding potential targets and timing for delivery of early intervention and prevention programs.

  13. Experience developing national evidence-based clinical guidelines for childhood pneumonia in a low-income setting - making the GRADE?


    Agweyu Ambrose; Opiyo Newton; English Mike


    Abstract Background The development of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines has gained wide acceptance in high-income countries and reputable international organizations. Whereas this approach may be a desirable standard, challenges remain in low-income settings with limited capacity and resources for evidence synthesis and guideline development. We present our experience using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach for the recent revisio...

  14. The Experience and Inspiration of India to Promote Compensatory Education Program in Early Childhood Education%印度发展学前补偿教育项目的经验及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    印度发展学前补偿教育项目的经验主要包括:重视学前教育在个体和社会发展中的重要价值;通过法律和法规的形式确定学前补偿教育项目的地位和实施;不断扩大对学前补偿教育项目的财政投入;各级政府积极承担和履行管理学前补偿教育项目的责任;提高学前补偿教育项目工作人员的素质和待遇。这些经验对于我国发展农村学前教育具有重要的借鉴意义。%The experience of India to promote the programs of early childhood compensatory education can be summarized as follows: a positive perception of the value of early childhood education to the individual and social development;to establish the nature and status of early childhood education by laws and regulations; Government strengthens the management, continues to expand the financial support and increase the teacher's quality and treatment for the early childhood compensatory education programs,in order to promote the development of disadvantage children. These experiences have an important reference and inspiration for the development of our disadvantaged rural early childhood education.

  15. Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. (United States)

    Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Surette, Renata J


    Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

  16. Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescents Depression%童年创伤与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 柳雨希; 陈西庆; 王惠萍; 李文静


    目的:研究童年创伤经历与青少年抑郁症的关系。方法:采用童年期创伤问卷( CTQ-SF)、一般情况调查表对52例青少年抑郁症患者及正常对照组48例进行测查。结果:青少年抑郁症患者情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视4因素进入Logistic回归方程。情感虐待(Waldχ2=9.163,P<0.01),情感忽视(Wald χ2=4.750,P<0.05),性虐待(Waldχ2=4.519,P<0.05),躯体忽视(Wald χ2=4.602,P<0.05)。结论:青少年抑郁症患者童年期的情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视是抑郁症发病的危险因素。%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and ado-lescents depression patients.Methods:52 adolescents depression patients and 48 healthy adolescents of the control group were investigated with general questionnaire and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.Re-sults:Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect of the adolescents depres-sion patients entered the logistic regression equation.Logistic regression analysis showed that the adoles-cents depression patients could be accounted for by emotional abuses( Waldχ2 =9.163,P<0.01),emo-tional neglect(Wald χ2 =4.750,P<0.05),sexual abuses(Wald χ2 =4.519,P<0.05),physical neg-lect(Waldχ2 =4.602,P<0.05).Conclusion: Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect may be the risk factors for the development of adolescents depression patients.

  17. 管理者早年大饥荒经历与公司财务政策%Managers’ Famine Experience in Childhood and Corporate Financial Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵民伟; 晏艳阳


    为解决管理者特质与其经历的内生性问题,本文借鉴自然实验的思想,以我国1959-1961年发生的大饥荒为外生随机事件,研究其管理者早期大饥荒经历对公司财务行为的影响。我们发现在童年或青少年时期经历过大饥荒的管理者,会选择更为保守的债务政策,并显著降低了公司的负债水平,在债务期限结构上偏好于更灵活的短期债务而避免长期负债,并且这种现象更容易发生在约束机制较弱的企业和国有控股企业。%On the basis of natural experiment to solve the problem of endogeneity of manager's specialty and experience, we taking the great China famine which occurred in 1959 -1961 as exogenous random events, study its effect on the relationship between managers'behavior and the corporate financial policy.We find that managers who experienced the great famine in childhood or adolescence will choose the more conservative debt policy, significantly reduced the companies'debt level, and prefer the more flexible short-term debts on the debt maturity.In addition, the phenomena we found are more likely to occur in the weak constraint-mechanism corporates and state -owned corporates.

  18. Altered social cohesion and adverse psychological experiences with chronic food insecurity in the non-market economy and complex households of Burkina Faso. (United States)

    Nanama, Siméon; Frongillo, Edward A


    Food insecurity negatively impacts outcomes in adults and children including parenting practices, child development, educational achievement, school performance, diet, and nutritional status. Ethnographic and quantitative research suggests that food insecurity affects well-being not only through the lack food, poor diet, and hunger, but also through social and psychological consequences that are closely linked to it. These studies are limited in number, and have mostly been carried out in contexts with market economies where household access to food depends almost solely on income. This study considers the social and psychological experiences closely linked to food insecurity in northern Burkina Faso, a context marked by subsistence farming, chronic food insecurity with a strong seasonal pattern, and a complex social structure. A total of 33 men and women from ten households were interviewed in February 2001 using semi-structured interview guides. Data were analyzed following the principles of thematic analysis. Food insecurity is closely linked with consequences such as concern, worries, and anxiety that ultimately lead to weight and sleep loss. Food insecurity results in feelings of alienation (e.g., shame) and deprivation (e.g., guilt), and alters household cohesion leading to disputes and difficulties keeping children at home. Decisions made by household members to manage and cope with food insecurity are shaped by their fear of alienation and other cultural and social norms. These findings, although derived from data collected 10 years ago before the 2008 food and fuel crises, remain valid in the study context, and emphasize the importance of social and psychological consequences closely linked to food insecurity and their negative impact on the well-being at both individual and household levels in contexts of non-market economy and chronic food insecurity. Attention to these non-nutritional consequences will improve the design, implementation, and evaluation

  19. Adverse outcomes after colposcopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colposcopy is an essential part of the National Health Service Cervical Screening Programme (NHSCSP. It is used for both diagnosis and treatment of pre-cancerous cells of the cervix. Despite colposcopy being a commonly performed and relatively invasive procedure, very little research has explored the potential long-term impacts of colposcopic examination upon patient quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify any potential reduction in women's quality of life following a colposcopy procedure. More specifically, the degree of female sexual dysfunction and the excess risk of adverse events in those undergoing colposcopy will be explored. If such risks are identified, these can be communicated to women before undergoing colposcopy. It will also assist in identifying whether there are particular sub-groups at greater risk and if so, this may lead to a re-evaluation of current recommendations concerning colposcopically directed treatments. Methods/design Cohort study using postal surveys to assess sexual function and quality of life in women who have attended for colposcopy (cases, compared with those who have not attended colposcopy (controls. The prevalence and excess risk of female sexual dysfunction will be determined. Logistic regression will identify the predictors of adverse outcomes. Discussion There are more than 400,000 colposcopy appointments each year in England, of which 134,000 are new referrals. There is some evidence that there may be long-term implications for women treated under colposcopy with respect to adverse obstetric outcomes, persisting anxiety, increased rates of sexual dysfunction and reduced quality of life. Reliably establishing whether such adverse outcomes exist and the excess risk of adverse events will facilitate informed decision-making and patient choice.

  20. Experiences with community engagement and informed consent in a genetic cohort study of severe childhood diseases in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlamba Albert M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of community engagement to addressing ethical challenges for international biomedical research is well described, but there is relatively little documented experience of community engagement to inform its development in practice. This paper draws on experiences around community engagement and informed consent during a genetic cohort study in Kenya to contribute to understanding the strengths and challenges of community engagement in supporting ethical research practice, focusing on issues of communication, the role of field workers in 'doing ethics' on the ground and the challenges of community consultation. Methods The findings are based on action research methods, including analysis of community engagement documentation and the observations of the authors closely involved in their development and implementation. Qualitative and quantitative content analysis has been used for documentation of staff meetings and trainings, a meeting with 24 community leaders, and 40 large public and 70 small community group meetings. Meeting minutes from a purposive sample of six community representative groups have been analysed using a thematic framework approach. Results Field workers described challenges around misunderstandings about research, perceived pressure for recruitment and challenges in explaining the study. During consultation, leaders expressed support for the study and screening for sickle cell disease. In community meetings, there was a common interpretation of research as medical care. Concerns centred on unfamiliar procedures. After explanations of study procedures to leaders and community members, few questions were asked about export of samples or the archiving of samples for future research. Conclusions Community engagement enabled researchers to take account of staff and community opinions and issues during the study and adapt messages and methods to address emerging ethical challenges. Field

  1. Memories of traumatic events in childhood fade after experiencing similar less stressful events: results from two natural experiments. (United States)

    Weems, Carl F; Russell, Justin D; Banks, Donice M; Graham, Rebecca A; Neill, Erin L; Scott, Brandon G


    The long-term stability of youth reports of traumatic events is largely unknown. Translational animal research suggests that there may be an alteration of memories for traumatic events via memory reconsolidation processes, whereas clinical research suggests memory alteration may occur through augmentation by negative emotions. In this report, 2 natural experiments test reconsolidation model and augmentation model predictions about the course of traumatic memories in youth. Data are from 2 prospective studies that assessed reports of an initial traumatic event (Hurricane Katrina) and tested recall both pre and post a similar event (Hurricane Gustav). In the 1st (Sample 1; n = 94, initial Grade 9 followed to 11), youth were assessed at 4 time points: Times 1-3 were 13, 20, and 26 months post-Katrina and then Time 4 was 5 months post-Hurricane Gustav. In the 2nd (Sample 2; n = 141, Grades 4 through 8), youth were assessed at 12 months pre-Gustav (Time 1; 24 months post-Katrina) and then again at 1 month (Time 2) and 8 months (Time 3) post-Gustav. Those with relatively high Gustav exposure showed more stability in their reports of Katrina exposure events, whereas in those with low Gustav exposure, reports of Katrina events decreased. Time spans between recall, age, gender, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, or cognitive/learning ability did not explain changes in the reports. The study provides the 1st long-term data on the consistency of youth reports of disaster-related experiences and provides initial evidence for the ecological validity of memory reconsolidation theory applied to traumatic events in youth.

  2. Childhood pancreatitis. (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K


    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  3. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  4. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index


    Roenholdt, Stine; Beck, Nina N.; Karsberg, Sidsel H.; Elklit, Ask


    Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants bo...

  5. Childhood Obesity Facts (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  6. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons. (United States)

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C


    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations.

  7. Adverse reactions to cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra A


    Full Text Available Adverse reaction to cosmetics constitute a small but significant number of cases of contact dermatitis with varied appearances. These can present as contact allergic dermatitis, photodermatitis, contact irritant dermatitis, contact urticaria, hypopigmentation, hyperpigmentotion or depigmentation, hair and nail breakage. Fifty patients were included for the study to assess the role of commonly used cosmetics in causing adverse reactions. It was found that hair dyes, lipsticks and surprisingly shaving creams caused more reaction as compared to other cosmetics. Overall incidence of contact allergic dermatitis seen was 3.3% with patients own cosmetics. Patch testing was also done with the basic ingredients and showed positive results in few cases where casual link could be established. It is recommended that labeling of the cosmetics should be done to help the dermatologists and the patients to identify the causative allergen in cosmetic preparation.

  8. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin


    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  9. [The experience of a 'weak and sick childhood' far from home: the experience of the Maritime Asylum, Mar del Plata (1893-1920)]. (United States)

    Alvarez, Adriana


    The objective of this work is to analyze the daily life of 'tubercular children'" coming from the city of Buenos Aires. They were hospitalized in the Maritime Asylum located in the seaside city of Mar del Plata, 400 kilometers from the capital. In 1893, in the Charitable Society of the Federal Capital, the idea arose of founding a hospital and maritime asylum for children ill with osseous tuberculosis in general, weak and convalescing children and the treatment of patients with extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. This paper attempts to advance the understanding of two inter-related topics: on the one hand, the characteristics of the institutionalized meddling of the Charitable Society, and, on the other, the experience that these tubercular children had in this institution.

  10. Astrocitomas do cerebelo na infância: experiência em 25 casos Cerebellar astrocytomas in childhood: experience on 25 cases

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    Nilton Domingos Cabral


    Full Text Available É relatada a experiência do Serviço de Neurocirurgia do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP com o tratamento neurocirurgia de 25 crianças com astrocytoma do cerebelo no período de 1982 a 1994. São analisados incidência, quadro clínico, localização, forma de apresentação, anatomia patológica, recidivas e tratamento. A série incluiu crianças até 10 anos com pico de incidência (7 casos aos 7 anos. Os sintomas iniciais mais frequentes foram: cefaléia, vômitos e distúrbios da marcha. Não houve mortalidade cirúrgica. Os autores concluem que a ressecção cirúrgica radical é a melhor forma de tratamento para estes tumores e que a radioterapia somente está indicada para tumores histologicamente malignos.The experience with the surgical treatment of cerebellar astrocytomas in 25 children is reported. The clinical presentation, incidence, CT-scan diagnostic studies, pathology, recurrence and treatment aspects are discussed. The series included children until 10 years old with peak (7 cases in the 7th year of age. The more frequent opening symptoms were: headache, vomit and gait disturbances. No surgical mortality occurred in the series. The autors conclude that surgical radical resection is the best therapeutics for this type of tumor and that radiotherapy is indicated only for tumors with malignant histology.

  11. Childhood maltreatment and obesity: systematic review and meta-analysis. (United States)

    Danese, A; Tan, M


    Obesity is a prevalent global-health problem associated with substantial morbidity, impairment and economic burden. Because most readily available forms of treatment are ineffective in the long term, it is essential to advance knowledge of obesity prevention by identifying potentially modifiable risk factors. Findings from experimental studies in non-human primates suggest that adverse childhood experiences may influence obesity risk. However, observations from human studies showed heterogeneous results. To address these inconsistencies, we performed Medline, PsycInfo and Embase searches till 1 August 2012 for articles examining the association between childhood maltreatment and obesity. We then conducted a meta-analysis of the identified studies and explored the effects of various possible sources of bias. A meta-analysis of 41 studies (190 285 participants) revealed that childhood maltreatment was associated with elevated risk of developing obesity over the life-course (odds ratio=1.36; 95% confidence interval=1.26-1.47). Results were not explained by publication bias or undue influence of individual studies. Overall, results were not significantly affected by the measures or definitions used for maltreatment or obesity, nor by confounding by childhood or adult socioeconomic status, current smoking, alcohol intake or physical activity. However, the association was not statistically significant in studies of children and adolescents, focusing on emotional neglect, or adjusting for current depression. Furthermore, the association was stronger in samples including more women and whites, but was not influenced by study quality. Child maltreatment is a potentially modifiable risk factor for obesity. Future research should clarify the mechanisms through which child maltreatment affects obesity risk and explore methods to remediate this effect.

  12. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P


    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  13. Neighborhood adversity, child health, and the role for community development. (United States)

    Jutte, Douglas P; Miller, Jennifer L; Erickson, David J


    Despite medical advances, childhood health and well-being have not been broadly achieved due to rising chronic diseases and conditions related to child poverty. Family and neighborhood living conditions can have lasting consequences for health, with community adversity affecting health outcomes in significant part through stress response and increased allostatic load. Exposure to this "toxic stress" influences gene expression and brain development with direct and indirect negative consequences for health. Ensuring healthy child development requires improving conditions in distressed, high-poverty neighborhoods by reducing children's exposure to neighborhood stressors and supporting good family and caregiver functioning. The community development industry invests more than $200 billion annually in low-income neighborhoods, with the goal of improving living conditions for residents. The most impactful investments have transformed neighborhoods by integrating across sectors to address both the built environment and the social and service environment. By addressing many facets of the social determinants of health at once, these efforts suggest substantial results for children, but health outcomes generally have not been considered or evaluated. Increased partnership between the health sector and community development can bring health outcomes explicitly into focus for community development investments, help optimize intervention strategies for health, and provide natural experiments to build the evidence base for holistic interventions for disadvantaged children. The problems and potential solutions are beyond the scope of practicing pediatricians, but the community development sector stands ready to engage in shared efforts to improve the health and development of our most at-risk children.

  14. Experiences of training and implementation of integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI in South Africa: a qualitative evaluation of the IMCI case management training course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollins Nigel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI is a strategy to reduce mortality and morbidity in children under-5 years by improving management of common illnesses at primary level. IMCI has been shown to improve health worker performance, but constraints have been identified in achieving sufficient coverage to improve child survival, and implementation remains sub-optimal. At the core of the IMCI strategy is a clinical guideline whereby health workers use a series of algorithms to assess and manage a sick child, and give counselling to carers. IMCI is taught using a structured 11-day training course that combines classroom work with clinical practise; a variety of training techniques are used, supported by comprehensive training materials and detailed instructions for facilitators. Methods We conducted focus group discussions with IMCI trained health workers to explore their experiences of the methodology and content of the IMCI training course, whether they thought they gained the skills required for implementation, and their experiences of follow-up visits. Results Health workers found the training interesting, informative and empowering, and there was consensus that it improved their skills in managing sick children. They appreciated the variety of learning methods employed, and felt that repetition was important to reinforce knowledge and skills. Facilitators were rated highly for their knowledge and commitment, as well as their ability to identify problems and help participants as required. However, health workers felt strongly that the training time was too short to acquire skills in all areas of IMCI. Their increased confidence in managing sick children was identified by health workers as an enabling factor for IMCI implementation in the workplace, but additional time required for IMCI consultations was expressed as a major barrier. Although follow-up visits were described as very helpful, these were often delayed

  15. Could spirituality and religion promote stress resilience in survivors of childhood trauma? (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Koenig, Harold G


    Trauma is a precursor to many mental health conditions that greatly impact victims, their loved ones, and society. Studies indicate that neurobiological associations with adverse childhood experiences are mediated by interpersonal relationships and play a role in adult behavior, often leading to cycles of intergenerational trauma. There is a critical need to identify cost effective community resources that optimize stress resilience. Faith-based communities may promote forgiveness rather than retaliation, opportunities for cathartic emotional release, and social support, all of which have been related to neurobiology, behavior, and health outcomes. While spirituality and religion can be related to guilt, neurotic, and psychotic disorders, they also can be powerful sources of hope, meaning, peace, comfort, and forgiveness for the self and others. This article provides an overview of religion and spirituality as they relate to the neurobiology of resilience in victims of childhood trauma.

  16. Vaccine adverse events. (United States)

    Follows, Jill


    Millions of adults are vaccinated annually against the seasonal influenza virus. An undetermined number of individuals will develop adverse events to the influenza vaccination. Those who suffer substantiated vaccine injuries, disabilities, and aggravated conditions may file a timely, no-fault and no-cost petition for financial compensation under the National Vaccine Act in the Vaccine Court. The elements of a successful vaccine injury claim are described in the context of a claim showing the seasonal influenza vaccination was the cause of Guillain-Barré syndrome.

  17. The Childhood Abuse Experience of College Students and Its Relationship with Family Factors%大学生儿童期虐待经历及其与家庭因素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛怡; 薛云珍; 李文涛; 曹艳梅


    目的:本文通过对2653名大一新生进行儿童期虐待问卷调查,描述大学生儿童期虐待经历的状况,并探究虐待经历与家庭因素的相互关系。方法采用儿童期虐待问卷及一般信息调查表进行调查。结果大学生儿童期情感虐待、躯体虐待、性虐待、情感忽视及躯体忽视的发生率分别为:64.8%、17.38%、22.58%、80.44%及70%。父母婚姻状况稳定是避免儿童期虐待的保护因素,父母虐待经历及父母赌博是儿童期虐待的危险因素。结论儿童期虐待现象是普遍存在的,家庭因素对其有重要预测作用。%Objective To describe the current situation of 2653 freshmen'childhood abuse experience,and explore the relationship between family factors and childhood abuse experience.Methods Collected data through childhood abuse questionnaire and general in-formation questionnaire investigation.Results The incidences of childhood emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect were:64.8%,17.38%,22.58%,80.44%,and 70%.There were significant gender differences on child a-buse,in addition to the emotional abuse,boys scored higher than girls;Parents'marital stability was the protection factor to avoid child a-buse,parental abuse experience and parents gambling were risk factors for child abuse.Conclusion Childhood abuse phenomenon is widespread,and family factors play important role on it.

  18. 童年期创伤经历与自尊对新兵抑郁的影响%Effects of childhood traumatic experience and self -esteem on depression in recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红政; 陈海燕; 雷美英; 王周然; 王创


    目的:了解童年期创伤经历对新兵抑郁的影响,探讨自尊在童年期创伤经历与抑郁关系中的作用。方法运用自尊量表(SES)、童年期创伤经历问卷(CTQ -SF)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对1925名男性新兵进行问卷调查。结果控制年龄后,情感虐待、情感忽视和躯体忽视预测抑郁的回归系数为正;自尊在抑郁上的回归系数为负,在儿童期创伤经历各个因子和抑郁症状之间调节作用不显著,但其中介作用显著。结论童年期创伤经历显著影响新兵抑郁,并能通过自尊间接作用于抑郁,但自尊不能改变童年期创伤经历对抑郁的影响。%Objective To investigate the impact of childhood traumatic experience on depression in recruits , and the moderating and mediating effects of self -esteem.Methods A sample of 1 925 male recruits was assessed with Self -Esteem Scale (SES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -28 item Short Form (CTQ -SF) and Self -Rating Depression Scale (SDS).Results After age controlled, the standard regression coefficients of emotional abuse , emotional neglect, physical neglect to depression were significantly positive .The standard regression coefficient of self -esteem to depression was significantly negative.The self -esteem could not moderate the correlation between childhood traumatic experience and depression, but partially mediated the correlation between emotional abuse , emotional neglect, or physical neglect and depression.Conclusion Childhood traumatic experience is significant predictor of depression , and could also indirectly affect depression through self -esteem; but self -esteem could not change the correlation between childhood traumatic ex -perience and depression.

  19. Childhood trauma and complex posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in older adults: A study of direct effects and social-interpersonal factors as potential mediators. (United States)

    Krammer, Sandy; Kleim, Birgit; Simmen-Janevska, Keti; Maercker, Andreas


    Childhood traumatic events may lead to long-lasting psychological effects and contribute to the development of complex posttraumatic sequelae. These might be captured by the diagnostic concept of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) as an alternative to classic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). CPTSD comprises a further set of symptoms in addition to those of PTSD, namely, changes in affect, self, and interpersonal relationships. Previous empirical research on CPTSD has focused on middle-aged adults but not on older adults. Moreover, predictor models of CPTSD are still rare. The current study investigated the association between traumatic events in childhood and complex posttraumatic stress symptoms in older adults. The mediation of this association by 2 social-interpersonal factors (social acknowledgment as a survivor and dysfunctional disclosure) was investigated. These 2 factors focus on the perception of acknowledgment by others and either the inability to disclose traumatic experiences or the ability to do so only with negative emotional reactions. A total of 116 older individuals (age range = 59-98 years) who had experienced childhood traumatic events completed standardized self-report questionnaires indexing childhood trauma, complex trauma sequelae, social acknowledgment, and dysfunctional disclosure of trauma. The results showed that traumatic events during childhood were associated with later posttraumatic stress symptoms but with classic rather than complex symptoms. Social acknowledgment and dysfunctional disclosure partially mediated this relationship. These findings suggest that childhood traumatic stress impacts individuals across the life span and may be associated with particular adverse psychopathological consequences.

  20. War trauma, child labor, and family violence: life adversities and PTSD in a sample of school children in Kabul. (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Elbert, Thomas; Missmahl, Inge; Bette, Jean-Paul; Neuner, Frank


    The extent of cumulative adverse childhood experiences such as war, family violence, child labor, and poverty were assessed in a sample of school children (122 girls, 165 boys) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Strong gender differences were found with respect to both the frequency of such experiences and the association of different types of stressors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Boys reported higher overall amounts of traumatic events, specifically experiences of violence at home. This was reflected in a 26% prevalence of probable PTSD in boys compared to 14% in girls. Child labor emerged as a common phenomenon in the examined sample and was furthermore associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing family violence for girls. The results suggest that the interplay of multilevel stressors in Afghan children contributes to a higher vulnerability for the development of PTSD.

  1. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory


    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  2. Breaking through the Glass Doors: Men Working in Early Childhood Education and Care with Particular Reference to Research and Experience in Austria and New Zealand (United States)

    Koch, Bernhard; Farquhar, Sarah


    This article proposes that there exist "glass doors" impeding men from entering and participating in ECEC work. Across developed countries, men's participation as carers and teachers in early childhood education and care (ECEC) services tends to be viewed as highly desirable and much has been written about the importance of men in ECEC.…

  3. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization. (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.


    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  4. "I never had the money for blood testing" – Caretakers' experiences of care-seeking for fatal childhood fevers in rural Uganda – a mixed methods study

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    Kaija Judith


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main killer diseases of children all manifest as acute febrile illness, yet are curable with timely and adequate management. To avoid a fatal outcome, three essential steps must be completed: caretakers must recognize illness, decide to seek care and reach an appropriate source of care, and then receive appropriate treatment. In a fatal outcome some or all of these steps have failed and it remains to be elucidated to what extent these fatal outcomes are caused by local disease perceptions, inappropriate care-seeking or inadequate resources in the family or health system. This study explores caretakers' experiences of care-seeking for childhood febrile illness with fatal outcome in rural Uganda to elucidate the most influential barriers to adequate care. Methods A mixed methods approach using structured Verbal/Social autopsy interviews and in-depth interviews was employed with 26 caretakers living in Iganga/Mayuge Demographic Surveillance Site who had lost a child 1–59 months old due to acute febrile illness between March and June 2006. In-depth interviews were analysed using content analysis with deductive category application. Results Final categories of barriers to care were: 1 "Illness interpretation barriers" involving children who received delayed or inappropriate care due to caretakers' labelling of the illness, 2 "Barriers to seeking care" with gender roles and household financial constraints hindering adequate care and 3 "Barriers to receiving adequate treatment" revealing discontents with providers and possible deficiencies in quality of care. Resource constraints were identified as the underlying theme for adequate management, both at individual and at health system levels. Conclusion The management of severely ill children in this rural setting has several shortcomings. However, the majority of children were seen by an allopathic health care provider during the final illness. Improvements of basic health care

  5. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W


    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  6. [Experiences and recommendations of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) concerning clinical investigation of medical devices and the evaluation of serious adverse events (SAE)]. (United States)

    Renisch, B; Lauer, W


    An integral part of the conformity assessment process for medical devices is a clinical evaluation based on clinical data. Particularly in the case of implantable devices and products of risk class III clinical trials must be performed. Since March 2010 applications for the authorization of clinical trials as well as for the waiver of the authorization requirement must be submitted centrally in Germany to the appropriate federal authority, the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) or the Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). In addition to authorization, approval by the responsible ethics committee is also required under law in order to begin clinical testing of medical devices in Germany. In this paper, the legal framework for the clinical testing of medical devices as well as those involved and possible procedures including evaluation criteria for the initial application of a trial and subsequent amendments are presented in detail. In addition, the reporting requirements for serious adverse events (SAEs) are explained and possible consequences of the evaluation are presented. Finally, a summary of application and registration numbers for all areas of extensive experience of the BfArM as well as requests and guidance for applicants are presented.

  7. Effects of Childhood Experience of Violence Between Parents and/or Parent-to-Child Violence on Young Israeli Adults' Global Self-Esteem. (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev


    The study examines long-term effects of family violence in childhood (violence between parents and/or parent-to-child violence) on adult self-esteem. Data were derived from a sample of 352 university students. Findings show that young adults not exposed to family violence in childhood report the highest self-esteem; lower self-esteem reports were by those experiencing one type of family violence; the lowest self-esteem was reported by those who experienced two types of family violence. In the latter two groups, self-esteem was also affected by frequency of violence. A linkage was identified between the family violence types examined: The more frequent one type of violence, the more frequent the other type. Theoretical and practical implications for the study of effects of family violence on child development are discussed.

  8. 宣桂琪主任辨治小儿哮喘与提高疗效的思路%Doctor Xuan Guiqi's Experience in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Asthma and the Thinking of Improving Efficacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宣晓波; 宣桂琪


    [Objective]To summarize Doctor Xuan Guiqi's experience in the treatment of childhood asthma and the idea of improving the curative efficacy. [Methods]By learning from Doctor Xuan and clearing up medical cases, the author finishes the summary on doctor Xuan's clinical experience on child-hood asthma based on the syndrome differentiation and clinical medication.[Results]The childhood asthma is divided into acute and chronic, the former is divided into cold asthma, heat asthma and wind-phlegm types. At the same time, we strengthen pertinence treatment of clearing heat and removing toxi-city, Qi spasmolytics, dispel ing wind and desensitization, activating blood and eliminating stasis, promoting Qi and regulating middle-jiao and relieving dyspepsia.[Conclusions] Doctor Xuan Guiqi's experience in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma can significantly improve the clinical efficacy , and it is meaningful to clinic.%  [目的]总结宣桂琪主任对于小儿哮喘的临床治疗经验及提高疗效的思路。[方法]笔者通过跟师学习、整理医案,从辨证分型和临床用药等方面分析和总结宣主任治疗小儿哮喘的临床经验。[结果]宣主任将小儿哮喘分为急性哮喘与慢性哮喘进行辨治,其中前者又分寒哮、热哮、风痰哮三型,同时加强清热解毒、理气解痉、祛风脱敏、活血祛瘀、理气调中、消导积滞等针对性治疗,显著提高了哮喘的疗效。[结论]宣桂琪主任对小儿哮喘分型辨治及根据不同病因病机的针对性治疗显著提高了临床疗效,具有临床启示意义。

  9. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation (United States)

    Andras, Peter; Lazarus, John; Roberts, Gilbert


    Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher) or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies. PMID:18053138

  10. Environmental adversity and uncertainty favour cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus John


    Full Text Available Abstract Background A major cornerstone of evolutionary biology theory is the explanation of the emergence of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. There is an unexplained tendency in the plant and animal world – with examples from alpine plants, worms, fish, mole-rats, monkeys and humans – for cooperation to flourish where the environment is more adverse (harsher or more unpredictable. Results Using mathematical arguments and computer simulations we show that in more adverse environments individuals perceive their resources to be more unpredictable, and that this unpredictability favours cooperation. First we show analytically that in a more adverse environment the individual experiences greater perceived uncertainty. Second we show through a simulation study that more perceived uncertainty implies higher level of cooperation in communities of selfish individuals. Conclusion This study captures the essential features of the natural examples: the positive impact of resource adversity or uncertainty on cooperation. These newly discovered connections between environmental adversity, uncertainty and cooperation help to explain the emergence and evolution of cooperation in animal and human societies.

  11. A case study on the impact of childhood experience on individual abnormal psychology in university period%童年经历对大学阶段个体异常心理发生影响个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白树虎; 谭经伟


    This study based on the actual cases of psychological counseling, described the college students' abnormal psychology case, analyzed the common correlation between college students abnormal psychology and his childhood experiences. The case study shows that the physical, psychological and social factors of the childhood experience make the university students vulnerable to the abnormal psychology.%本研究在心理咨询实际案例的基础上,对大学生异常心理采取个案研究的方式,通过描述异常心理大学生个案,进行分析,来呈现大学生常见异常心理与其童年经历的相关性,从而从个体异常心理史的角度更清晰地看到大学生心理异常的成因。本个案研究表明,童年经历的生理、心理和社会综合因素使得大学生对异常心理易感。

  12. 幼儿音乐教学中情感体验现状及对策研究%The present situation and countermeasure of emotional experience in the early childhood music teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



      Music education is an important part in the course of early childhood education, and let childhood get emotional experience is the value of music education, also the orientation of kindergarten art curriculum. Through the analysis of the problems in children's emotional experience in children's music teaching, and put forward improvement measures, to offer relevant personage as a reference.%  音乐教学是幼儿教育课程重要组成部分,而让幼儿从中获得情感体验是音乐教育的价值所在,也是幼儿艺术课程的定位。通过分析幼儿音乐教学中儿童情感体验中存在的问题,并针对性的提出改进措施,以供相关人士作为参考。

  13. Adverse drug reactions in tuberculosis patients due to directly observed treatment strategy therapy: Experience at an outpatient clinic of a teaching hospital in the city of Imphal, Manipur, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarjit Sinha


    Full Text Available Background: As to the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs due to directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS, there is no report available in patients receiving antituberculosis (anti-TB chemotherapy in Manipur, India. One of the main reasons for non-adherence to anti-TB therapy (ATT is ADRs, even under DOTS. Aims: This study aimed to determine the incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy with a TB population of Manipur, India. Setting and Design: A prospective institution-based cohort study, and performed during July 2009-December 2010. Materials and Methods: The study included 102 diagnosed TB patients on anti-TB treatment under DOTS. Every patient was followed-up for the duration he/she received the treatment. Statistical Analysis: Frequency of different ADRs was assessed and p value was determined. Results: Incidence of TB was more among males than female (76.47% against 23.53%. Seventy-one patients (69.01% showed one or more ADR. Incidence of ADRs based on affected organ was: Gastrointestinal (GI disorders in 38 patients (53.52%, generalized weakness in 12 patients (16.9%, liver dysfunction in 11 patients (15.49%, allergic skin reactions in six patients (8.45%, neurological system disorders in two patients (2.82%, and fever in two patients (2.82%. However, 30.99% did not experience any ADRs. Conclusion: Incidence of ADRs due to DOTS therapy was 69.01%. Majority of cases suffered from GI symptoms. This highlighted the importance of developing strategies to ameliorate ADRs both to improve the quality of patient care and to control TB safely.

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  15. The impact of social disparity on prefrontal function in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Sheridan

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC develops from birth through late adolescence. This extended developmental trajectory provides many opportunities for experience to shape the structure and function of the PFC. To date, a few studies have reported links between parental socioeconomic status (SES and prefrontal function in childhood, raising the possibility that aspects of environment associated with SES impact prefrontal function. Considering that behavioral measures of prefrontal function are associated with learning across multiple domains, this is an important area of investigation. In this study, we used fMRI to replicate previous findings, demonstrating an association between parental SES and PFC function during childhood. In addition, we present two hypothetical mechanisms by which SES could come to affect PFC function of this association: language environment and stress reactivity. We measured language use in the home environment and change in salivary cortisol before and after fMRI scanning. Complexity of family language, but not the child's own language use, was associated with both parental SES and PFC activation. Change in salivary cortisol was also associated with both SES and PFC activation. These observed associations emphasize the importance of both enrichment and adversity-reduction interventions in creating good developmental environments for all children.

  16. Childhood cancer survivor care: development of the Passport for Care. (United States)

    Poplack, David G; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M; Horowitz, Marc E


    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed.

  17. Do race, neglect, and childhood poverty predict physical health in adulthood? A multilevel prospective analysis. (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz


    Childhood neglect and poverty often co-occur and both have been linked to poor physical health outcomes. In addition, Blacks have higher rates of childhood poverty and tend to have worse health than Whites. This paper examines the unique and interacting effects of childhood neglect, race, and family and neighborhood poverty on adult physical health outcomes. This prospective cohort design study uses a sample (N=675) of court-substantiated cases of childhood neglect and matched controls followed into adulthood (M(age)=41). Health indicators (C-Reactive Protein [CRP], hypertension, and pulmonary functioning) were assessed through blood collection and measurements by a registered nurse. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear models to control for clustering of participants in childhood neighborhoods. Main effects showed that growing up Black predicted CRP and hypertension elevations, despite controlling for neglect and childhood family and neighborhood poverty and their interactions. Multivariate results showed that race and childhood adversities interacted to predict adult health outcomes. Childhood family poverty predicted increased risk for hypertension for Blacks, not Whites. In contrast, among Whites, childhood neglect predicted elevated CRP. Childhood neighborhood poverty interacted with childhood family poverty to predict pulmonary functioning in adulthood. Gender differences in health indicators were also observed. The effects of childhood neglect, childhood poverty, and growing up Black in the United States are manifest in physical health outcomes assessed 30 years later. Implications are discussed.

  18. Maternal use of folic acid supplements during pregnancy, and childhood respiratory health and atopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Elstgeest, Liset E. M.; Soholtens, Salome; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; de Jongste, Johan C.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.


    Previous studies have suggested possible adverse side-effects of maternal use of folic acid-containing supplements (FACSs) during pregnancy on wheeze and asthma in early childhood. We investigated the association between maternal use of FACSs and childhood respiratory health and atopy in the first 8

  19. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion


    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  20. Challenges in coding adverse events in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Maund, Emma; Gøtzsche, Peter C


    Misclassification of adverse events in clinical trials can sometimes have serious consequences. Therefore, each of the many steps involved, from a patient's adverse experience to presentation in tables in publications, should be as standardised as possible, minimising the scope for interpretation...

  1. Adverse Reactions to Hallucinogenic Drugs. (United States)

    Meyer, Roger E. , Ed.

    This reports a conference of psychologists, psychiatrists, geneticists and others concerned with the biological and psychological effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and other hallucinogenic drugs. Clinical data are presented on adverse drug reactions. The difficulty of determining the causes of adverse reactions is discussed, as are different…

  2. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and childhood abuse categories in a national representative sample for a specific age group: associations to body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidsel H. Karsberg


    Full Text Available Background: Studies of specific groups such as military veterans have found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is linked to adverse health outcomes including unhealthy weight. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between PTSD symptoms, experiences of childhood trauma and weight in a community sample. Methods: A stratified random probability survey was conducted in Denmark by the Danish National Centre for Social Research between 2008 and 2009 with 2,981 participants born in 1984, achieving a response rate of 67%. The participants were interviewed with a structured interview with questions pertaining PTSD symptomatology, exposure to childhood abuse, exposure to potentially traumatizing events, height, and weight. Underweight was defined by a body mass index (BMI <18.5, overweight was defined by a BMI ≥25 and <30 and obesity was defined by a BMI ≥30. Results: PTSD symptomatology and childhood abuse were significantly associated with both underweight and overweight/obesity. Childhood emotional abuse was especially associated with underweight, whereas sexual abuse and overall abuse were particularly associated with overweight/obesity. Conclusion: These findings indicate that health care professionals may benefit from assessing PTSD and childhood abuse in the treatment of both overweight and underweight individuals.

  3. Resilience characteristics mitigate tendency for harmful alcohol and illicit drug use in adults with a history of childhood abuse: a cross-sectional study of 2024 inner-city men and women. (United States)

    Wingo, Aliza P; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh


    Resilience refers to abilities to cope adaptively with adversity or trauma. A common psychological sequella of childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences is substance use problems. There are, however, very limited data on relationships among resilience traits, childhood abuse, and alcohol or drug use problems. Hence, we aimed to examine associations between resilience characteristics and lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use in 2024 inner-city adults with high rates of childhood abuse and other trauma exposure. In this cross-sectional study, resilience was assessed with the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, childhood abuse with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, lifetime alcohol and illicit drug use with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Associations between resilience and substance use were examined with linear regression models, adjusting for trauma load, age, and sex. We found that resilience characteristics mitigated tendency for lifetime alcohol use problems both as a main effect (β = -0.11; p = 0.0014) and an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.06; p = 0.0115) after trauma severity, age, and sex were controlled for. Similarly, resilience reduced lifetime illicit drug use both as a main effect (β = -0.03; p = 0.0008) and as an interaction with severity of childhood abuse (β = -0.01; p = 0.0256) after trauma load, age, and sex were adjusted for. Our findings add to a nascent body of literature suggesting that resilience characteristics mitigate risks not only for PTSD, major depression, and suicidality, but also for substance use problems in adults exposed to childhood abuse or other traumatic experiences.

  4. Interview Investigation of Insecure Attachment Styles as Mediators between Poor Childhood Care and Schizophrenia-Spectrum Phenomenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Sheinbaum

    Full Text Available Insecure attachment styles have received theoretical attention and some initial empirical support as mediators between childhood adverse experiences and psychotic phenomena; however, further specificity needs investigating. The present interview study aimed to examine (i whether two forms of poor childhood care, namely parental antipathy and role reversal, were associated with subclinical positive and negative symptoms and schizophrenia-spectrum personality disorder (PD traits, and (ii whether such associations were mediated by specific insecure attachment styles.A total of 214 nonclinical young adults were interviewed for subclinical symptoms (Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States, schizophrenia-spectrum PDs (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Disorders, poor childhood care (Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Interview, and attachment style (Attachment Style Interview. Participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory-II and all the analyses were conducted partialling out the effects of depressive symptoms.Both parental antipathy and role reversal were associated with subclinical positive symptoms and with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Role reversal was also associated with subclinical negative symptoms. Angry-dismissive attachment mediated associations between antipathy and subclinical positive symptoms and both angry-dismissive and enmeshed attachment mediated associations of antipathy with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits. Enmeshed attachment mediated associations of role reversal with paranoid and schizotypal PD traits.Attachment theory can inform lifespan models of how adverse developmental environments may increase the risk for psychosis. Insecure attachment provides a promising mechanism for understanding the development of schizophrenia-spectrum phenomenology and may offer a useful target for prophylactic intervention.

  5. Observation and nursing experience of adverse reactions of children vaccinated with chicken pox vaccine%儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应观察及护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    objective: to investigate the children chickenpox vaccine adverse reactions and the nursing countermeasures. Methods: retrospectiveanalysis of 226 cases of children had chickenpox vaccine in our adverse reactions and the nursing measures. Results: all children within a few hours after inoculation, there are different degree of mild fever, swelling pain, mild skin rashes, mild chicken pox adverse reaction, nursing measures, reduce the adverse reaction. Conclusion: the adverse reactions of vaccinated children appear in the corresponding nursing measures, can effectively reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions, and improve the success rate of the vaccination is chickenpox vaccine ascending children's health.%目的:探讨儿童接种水痘疫苗的不良反应及护理对策.方法:回顾分析我院已经接种水痘疫苗的儿童226例的不良反应及护理措施.结果:所有儿童在接种结束后的几小时内,出现有不同程度上的轻微发热、局部红肿疼痛、轻微皮疹、轻度水痘不良反应,采取护理措施后,不良反应减少.结论:针对接种后的儿童出现的不良反应进行相应的护理措施,能够有效的减少不良反应的发生,提高接种是水痘疫苗的成功率,提升儿童的身体健康.

  6. Childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood: mental health and socioeconomic status as explanatory factors and buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E Mock


    Full Text Available Experiences of traumatic events in childhood have been shown to have long-term consequences for health in adulthood. With data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey we take a life course perspective of cumulative disadvantage and examine the potential role of mental health and socioeconomic status in adulthood as multiple mediators of the link between childhood trauma and chronic illness in adulthood. Mental health and socioeconomic status are also tested as buffers against the typically adverse consequences of childhood trauma. The results suggest mental health and socioeconomic status partially explain the association of childhood trauma with chronic illness in adulthood, with mental health showing a stronger effect. In addition, an analysis of the interactions suggested higher socioeconomic status is a potential protective factor for those with a history of trauma. Results also suggest cumulative disadvantage following trauma may lead to chronic illness and suggest the need for public health expenditures on resources such as counseling and income supports to prevent or reduce psychological harm and chronic illness resulting from traumatic events.

  7. Resilience and Stuttering: Factors that Protect People from the Adversity of Chronic Stuttering (United States)

    Craig, Ashley; Blumgart, Elaine; Tran, Yvonne


    Purpose: Chronic disorder can impose a significant negative mental health burden. This research was conducted to explore factors that may protect people from the adversity of chronic stuttering. Method: The study employed a population group cohort design. Participants included 200 adults who have stuttered since childhood, and the sample was…

  8. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment. (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley


    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  9. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak


    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  10. Life adversity is associated with smoking relapse after a quit attempt. (United States)

    Lemieux, Andrine; Olson, Leif; Nakajima, Motohiro; Schulberg, Lauren; al'Absi, Mustafa


    Multiple cross-sectional studies have linked adverse childhood events and adult adversities to current smoking, lifetime smoking, and former smoking. To date, however, there have been no direct observational studies assessing the influence of adversities on smoking relapse. We prospectively followed 123 participants, 86 of whom were habitual smokers, from pre-quit ad libitum smoking to four weeks post-quit. Thirty-seven non-smokers were also tested in parallel as a comparison group. Subjects provided biological samples for confirmation of abstinence status and self-report history of adversities such as abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, incarceration, and child-parent separation. They also completed mood and smoking withdrawal symptom measures. The results indicated that within non-smokers and smokers who relapsed within the first month of a quit attempt, but not abstainers, females had significantly higher adversity scores than males. Cigarette craving, which was independent from depressive affect, increased for low adversity participants, but not those with no adversity nor high adversity. These results demonstrate that sex and relapse status interact to predict adversity and that craving for nicotine may be an important additional mediator of relapse. These results add further support to the previous cross-sectional evidence of an adversity and smoking relationship. Further studies to clarify how adversity complicates smoking cessation and impacts smoking behaviors are warranted.

  11. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia. (United States)

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S


    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation.

  12. Deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood and emerging psychopathology. (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Zeanah, Charles H


    Current frameworks for understanding the link between early adverse childhood experiences and later negative life outcomes, including psychopathology, focus on the mediating negative impact on brain and biological systems in the developing child resulting broadly from stress and trauma. Although this approach is useful, we argue that the framework could be functionally extended by distinguishing the effects of two different types of abnormal input, both deviations from the expectable environment in early childhood. Specifically, we review the consequences of inadequate input (eg, neglect/deprivation) and harmful input (eg, abuse/trauma) on brain and biological development. We then review evidence on the differential links between each type of abnormal input to four selected domains of psychopathology (indiscriminate social behavior, posttraumatic stress disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct problems), and consider potential mechanisms for inadequate and harmful input to lead to these outcomes. We conclude that the careful consideration of the type of deviation from the expected environment, while acknowledging the practical difficulties in assessing this, is likely to lead to clearer understanding of the mechanism of risk for psychopathology, and that tailored approaches to prevention and intervention may be informed by considering the unique consequences of inadequate and harmful input when experienced in early childhood.

  13. Is childhood bullying involvement a precursor of eating disorder symptoms? A prospective analysis (United States)

    Copeland, William E.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Zucker, Nancy; Wolke, Dieter; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Costello, E. Jane


    Objective Bullying is a common childhood experience with enduring psychosocial consequences. The aim of this study was to test whether bullying increases risk for eating disorder symptoms. Method Ten waves of data on 1420 participants between ages 9 and 25 were used from the prospective population-based Great Smoky Mountains Study. Structured interviews were used to assess bullying involvement and symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as well as associated features. Bullying involvement was categorized as not involved, bully only, victim only, or both bully and victim (bully-victims). Results Within childhood/adolescence, victims of bullying were at increased risk for symptoms of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as well as associated features. These associations persisted after accounting for prior eating disorder symptom status as well as preexisting psychiatric status and family adversities. Bullies were at increased risk of symptoms of bulimia and associated features of eating disorders, and bully-victims had higher levels of anorexia symptoms. In terms of individual items, victims were at risk for binge eating and bully-victims had more binge eating and use of vomiting as a compensatory behavior. There was little evidence in this sample that these effects differed by sex. Childhood bullying status was not associated with increased risk for persistent eating disorder symptoms into adulthood (ages 19, 21, and 25). Discussion Bullying predicts eating disorder symptoms for both bullies and victims. Bullying involvement should be a part of risk assessment and treatment planning for children with eating problems. PMID:26337405

  14. Factorial validity of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire in Italian psychiatric patients. (United States)

    Innamorati, Marco; Erbuto, Denise; Venturini, Paola; Fagioli, Francesca; Ricci, Federica; Lester, David; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio


    Early adverse experiences are associated with neurobiological changes and these may underlie the increased risk of psychopathology. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF) is the most commonly used instrument for assessing childhood maltreatment. Thus, the aim of our study was to investigate the factorial validity of an Italian version of the CTQ-SF in a sample of psychiatric inpatients by means of confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. The sample was composed of 471 psychiatric in-patients and out-patients (206 males and 265 females) aged 16-80 years (mean age=34.4 years [SD=16.3]) consecutively admitted to two psychiatric departments. All patients were administered the Italian version of the CTQ-SF. We tested five different factor models which lacked good fit, while the exploratory factor analysis supported the adequacy of a solution with three factors (Emotional Neglect/Abuse, Sexual Abuse, Physical Neglect/Abuse). The three factors had satisfactory internal consistency (ordinal Cronbach alphas >0.90). Our study supports results from previous research indicating the lack of structural invariance of the CTQ-SF in cross-cultural adaptations of the test, and the fact that, when measuring different types of childhood maltreatment, the difference between abuse and neglect may be not valid.

  15. Psychosocial status of childhood cancer survivors who develop one or more secondary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Korenjak


    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood cancer survivors can develop physical, emotionaland psychosocial adversities, a secondary malignancy (SM beingone of the most serious among them. Th e aim of our research was tostudy whether the development of SM was related to the psychosocialfunctioning of survivors, especially whether any psychic trauma fromthe first experience would be aggravated by SM. Patients and methods.Seventy – five childhood cancer survivors with SM were matched with75 survivors who did not develop SM, by sex, age, living environment,diagnosis, year of diagnosis and treatment of the first malignancy. They were compared regarding education, employment, marital status and, in the 35 women, childbirth data. Seventeen childhood survivors with an SM had had psychological evaluations at diagnosis of both their first and secondary cancers; the results of the two were compared. Results. Th ere were no differences in the schooling, education, social, marital status or birth specifics between survivors with SM and their controls, nor were there marked differences in measures of social or psychological status. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of these 75 subjects was not found to be related to the development of SM. Psychological evaluations showed no marked differences between those conducted aft er the first and the secondary malignancies.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes. (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina


    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  17. Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) is a computerized information database designed to support the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program for all...

  18. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janicki-Deverts, D.; Cohen, S.; Doyle, W.J.; Marsland, A.L.; Bosch, J.


    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimen

  19. Relationship between Childhood Abuse Experience,Parent Attachment and Depression in Adolescents%儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎黎; 杨峘; 梁炜; 张亚林; 杨世昌


    目的 探讨儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁情绪之间的关系.方法 选取河南省新乡市、济源市城区2所中学的736名第7、8、9级初中生为研究对象进行评估.采用儿童期虐待问卷(CTQ)、青少年依恋问卷(IPPA)和儿童抑郁障碍自评量表(DSRSC)分别评估初中生的儿童期受虐经历、亲子依恋关系和抑郁情绪.采用分层回归进行中介作用分析.结果 男性青少年儿童期受虐总分高于女性(分别为33.29±7.89和31.05±6.01,t=4.343,P=0.000),两性母亲依恋(男:59.89±15.86,女:61.45±16.48,t=-1.303,P=0.193)、父亲依恋(男:59.32±17.17,女:60.28±16.95,t=-0.764,P=0.445)、抑郁总分(男:7.68±5.27,女:7.31±4.21,t=1.057,P=0.291)比较差异均无统计学意义.儿童期虐待与青少年抑郁呈正相关(r=0.408,P=0.000),与母亲依恋(r=-0.544,P=0.000)和父亲依恋(r=-0.417,P=0.000)均呈负相关;母亲依恋与父亲依恋呈正相关(r=0.604,P=0.000),均与抑郁情绪呈负相关(r=-0.426,-0.426,Pa=0.000).男性和女性青少年中,亲子依恋均在儿童期虐待经历和抑郁间起部分中介作用.结论 青少年男性受虐高于女性,两性的亲子依恋和抑郁无显著差异;亲子依恋在儿童期虐待经历和抑郁间起部分中介作用,提示提高亲子依恋质量可部分减少虐待对青少年情绪的影响.%Objective To explore the relationship between childhood abuse experience,parent and peer attachment and depression in adolescents.Methods A total of 736 junior students from the 7th,8th and 9th grades of 2 public schools in Xinxiang City and Jiyuan City Henan province completed the questionnaires.Childhood Trauma Questionnaire(CTQ),Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment(IPPA) and Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children(DSRSC) were employed the childhood abuse experience,parent attachment quality and depressive mood in adolescents,respectively.The hierarchical regression analysis was used to examine the relationship

  20. Prevalence of Negative Life Events and Chronic Adversities in European Pre- and Primary-School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse;


    - and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS’). Results: The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children......Background: Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children’s health. Methods: As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood...... adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4–11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project (‘Identification and prevention of Dietary...

  1. Early Life Adversity, Genomic Plasticity, and Psychopathology (United States)

    Turecki, Gustavo; Ota, Vanessa Kiyomi; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Jackowski, Andrea; Kaufman, Joan


    Child maltreatment is associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, and a range of health problems later in life. The aim of this paper is to review emerging data on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the etiology of stress-related psychiatric disorders with a focus on future avenues of investigation. Epigenetic processes are described, key findings in the field presented, clinical implications of the research discussed, methodological issues, and future avenues of research considered. Research suggests that adverse early experiences can lead to changes in gene expression through epigenetic mechanisms that can alter stress reactivity, brain function, and behavior. While these changes are frequently long lasting, they can be reversed through pharmacological and environmental manipulations. The complexity of the epigenome is not fully understood. Future studies should investigate epigenetic marks other than methylcytosine, and assess the efficacy of interventions to reverse epigenetic processes associated with early-life adversity. PMID:26361201

  2. 大肠癌术后应用卡培他滨联合奥沙利铂治疗的不良反应护理体会%Colorectal Postoperative Capecitabine Gemcitabine Plus Oxaliplatin Treatment Nursing Experience Adverse Reactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳莉; 廖明芬


      Objective: To investigate patients with colorectal cancer postoperative capecitabine gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin chemotherapy adverse reactions nursing strategy. Method: 32 cases of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer patients due to adverse reactions accordingly care. Result:32 patients completed a total of 192 cycles of chemotherapy,adverse reactions mainly peripheral neurotoxicity,hand-foot syndrome,gastrointestinal reactions,bone marrow suppression,most Ⅰ or Ⅱ remission after symptomatic treatment and care to survive the chemotherapy period of daily living. Conclusion: The appropriate and effective care measures to prevent or mitigate adverse events,to ensure the smooth progress of chemotherapy.%  目的:探讨大肠癌患者术后应用卡培他滨联合奥沙利铂化疗不良反应的护理对策。方法:对32例卡培他滨联合奥沙利铂治疗大肠癌术后患者所致不良反应进行相应护理。结果:32例患者共完成192周期化疗,不良反应主要表现为周围神经毒性、手足综合征、消化道反应、骨髓抑制等,多数为Ⅰ度或Ⅱ度,经对症处理及护理后缓解,顺利度过化疗期,生活自理。结论:恰当有效的护理措施可以预防或减轻不良反应的发生,确保化疗顺利进行。

  3. Psychological factors in childhood headaches. (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric


    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention.

  4. Aesthetic Discourses in Early Childhood Settings: Dewey, Steiner, and Vygotsky (United States)

    Lim, Booyeun


    Early childhood, when young children are already capable of undergoing aesthetic experience, must be the starting point for aesthetic education. Despite increasing attention to the significant values of the arts in early childhood classrooms, no theoretical framework to support aesthetic education has been established. This article introduces the…

  5. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante


    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  6. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry. (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W


    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  7. Early adverse events, HPA activity and rostral anterior cingulate volume in MDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD, elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. METHODS/RESULTS: Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  8. Technologically Constructed Childhoods: Moving beyond a Reproductive to a Productive and Critical View of Curriculum Development (United States)

    Fleer, Marilyn


    Many countries around the world have in place national early childhood curriculum documents for supporting educators, including Australia. It is timely for the field of early childhood education to consider the contemporary experiences of children from the twenty-first century in relation to how early childhood curriculum is framed. For instance,…

  9. Minimization of Childhood Maltreatment Is Common and Consequential: Results from a Large, Multinational Sample Using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macdonald, K; Thomas, M.L.; Sciolla, A.F.; Schneider, B.; Pappas, K.; Bleijenberg, G.; Bohus, M.; Bekh, B.; Carpenter, L.; Carr, A.; Dannlowski, U.; Dorahy, M.; Fahlke, C.; Finzi-Dottan, R.; Karu, T.; Gerdner, A.; Glaesmer, H.; Grabe, H.J.; Heins, M.; Kenny, D.T.; Kim, D.; Knoop, H.; Lobbestael, J.; Lochner, C.; Lauritzen, G.; Ravndal, E.; Riggs, S.; Sar, V.; Schafer, I.; Schlosser, N.; Schwandt, M.L.; Stein, M.B.; Subic-Wrana, C.; Vogel, M.; Wingenfeld, K.


    Childhood maltreatment has diverse, lifelong impact on morbidity and mortality. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) is one of the most commonly used scales to assess and quantify these experiences and their impact. Curiously, despite very widespread use of the CTQ, scores on its Minimization-De

  10. Nursing Experience of 852 Cases of Adverse Reaction of Chemotherapy in Children with Malignant Solid Tumors%852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 王倩


    Objective To investigate the care of children with solid malignancies 852 cases of adverse reactions to chemotherapy. Methods 852 cases occur ed during summarizes adverse reactions to chemotherapy in children with cancer care measures. Results 852 cases of cancer in children, with varying degrees of adverse ef ects during chemotherapy, through ef ective nursing intervention to reduce the pain caused by chemotherapy, reduce complications and improve quality of life, and to the successful completion of chemotherapy plan . Conclusion During chemotherapy cor ect and timely treatment and care can ef ectively reduce the incidence of complications, so that children can successful y complete chemotherapy program.%目的:探讨852例实体恶性肿瘤患儿化疗不良反应的护理。方法分析总结852例恶性肿瘤患儿化疗期间出现不良反应的护理措施。结果852例恶性肿瘤患儿,在化疗期间出现不同程度的不良反应,通过有效的护理干预,降低因化疗而带来的痛苦,减少并发症的发生,提高生活质量,并能顺利完成化疗计划。结论化疗期间正确及时的治疗与护理能有效减少并发症的发生,使患儿能顺利完成化疗计划。

  11. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders. (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne


    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  12. Pathways from Childhood Abuse to Prospective Revictimization: Depression, Sex to Reduce Negative Affect, and Forecasted Sexual Behavior


    Miron, Lynsey R.; Orcutt, Holly K.


    Research suggests that adverse events in childhood, such as childhood physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, confer risk for later sexual assault. Psychological distress, coping strategies, and sexual behavior may help explain the path from childhood abuse to revictimization. The present study explored how the use of sex to regulate negative affect (SRNA) operates independently, and in combination with other psychosocial factors to increase college women’s (N = 541) risk of experiencing prosp...

  13. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian


    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  14. Young men's suicidal behavior, depression, crime, and substance use risks linked to childhood teasing. (United States)

    Kerr, David C R; Gini, Gianluca; Capaldi, Deborah M


    The consequences in adulthood of bullying, teasing, and other peer victimization experiences in childhood rarely have been considered in prospective studies. Studies of peer victimization are mixed regarding whether negative outcomes are explained by pre-existing child vulnerabilities. Furthermore, replication of prior studies with broader definitions and other methods and demographic groups is needed. Based on mother, father, and teacher reports at ages 10-12 years, we classified American boys (n=206) from higher delinquency neighborhoods as perpetrators of teasing, victims, perpetrator-victims, or uninvolved (n=26, 35, 29, and 116, respectively). Family income, parent and child depressive symptoms, and child antisocial behavior served as controls. Boys were assessed to age 34 years for suicide-attempt history (including death) and adult (ages 20-32 years) suicidal ideation, depressive symptoms, alcohol use, patterned tobacco and illicit drug use, and arrest. Relative to uninvolved boys, means or odds were higher for: suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims; all three groups for depressive symptoms and clinically significant symptoms; arrest for perpetrators and perpetrator-victims; number of arrests and violent arrest among perpetrator-victims; and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators and perpetrator-victims. With childhood vulnerabilities controlled, however, odds remained higher only for suicide attempt among perpetrator-victims, and criminal arrest and patterned tobacco use among perpetrators. Overall, childhood involvement in teasing predicted serious adverse outcomes in adulthood, in some cases beyond childhood risks. Programs that prevent peer victimization and identify already involved individuals for additional services may have positive impacts on the diverse public health problems of suicide, crime, depression, and tobacco use.

  15. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.


    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  16. Childhood Overweight and Obesity (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  17. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.


    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  18. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K


    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  19. Effects of childhood maltreatment on the neural correlates of stress- and drug cue-induced cocaine craving. (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Smitherman, Sonet; Young, Jonathan; Kilts, Clinton D


    Childhood adversity negatively influences all stages of the addiction process and is associated with persistent alterations in neuroendocrine, autonomic and brain responses to stress. We sought to characterize the impact of childhood abuse and neglect on the neural correlates of stress- and drug cue-induced drug craving associated with cocaine addiction. Cocaine-dependent men with (n = 20) and without (n = 18) moderate to severe childhood maltreatment histories underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during script-guided mental imagery of personalized stress, drug use and neutral experiences. Compared to the neutral script, the stress and drug use scripts activated striatal, prefrontal, posterior cingulate, temporal and cerebellar regions consistent with prior studies of induced states of stress and drug craving. For the stress script, maltreated men exhibited reduced activation of the anterior precuneus and supplementary motor area (SMA); the interaction of maltreatment severity and stress-induced craving responses predicted lesser rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation. For the drug use script, maltreated men exhibited greater left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. The interaction of maltreatment severity and craving responses was associated with greater activation of the visual cortex and SMA, whereas a maltreatment-by-anxiety interaction effect included lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation. The outcomes indicate an association of childhood maltreatment with a heightened appetitive anticipatory response to drug cues and a diminished engagement of regulatory and controlled action selection processes in response to stress- or drug cue-induced drug craving and anxiety responses for cocaine-dependent men. These findings provide novel insights into possible brain mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens risk for relapse in drug-dependent individuals.

  20. Dynamic Insurance and Adverse Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); V.A. Karamychev (Vladimir)


    textabstractWe take a dynamic perspective on insurance markets under adverse selection and study a generalized Rothschild and Stiglitz model where agents may differ with respect to the accidental probability and their expenditure levels in case an accident occurs. We investigate the nature of dynami

  1. Women, poverty and adverse maternal outcomes in Nairobi, Kenya


    Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Ngilangwa David P


    Abstract Background The link between poverty and adverse maternal outcomes has been studied largely by means of quantitative data. We explore poor urban Kenyan women's views and lived experiences of the relationship between economic disadvantage and unpleasant maternal outcomes. Method Secondary analysis of focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews data with women in two slums in Nairobi, Kenya. Results Urban poor women in Nairobi associate poverty with adverse maternal outco...

  2. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabatini R


    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  3. Child Poverty and the Promise of Human Capacity: Childhood as a Foundation for Healthy Aging. (United States)

    Wise, Paul H


    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies. Strong and varied evidence base documents the effect of child poverty and related early life experiences and exposures on the major threats to adult health and healthy aging. Studies using a variety of methodologies, including longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies, have reported significant findings regarding cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, certain cancers, mental health conditions, osteoporosis and fractures, and possibly dementia. These relationships can operate through alterations in fetal and infant development, stress reactivity and inflammation, the development of adverse health behaviors, the conveyance of child chronic illness into adulthood, and inadequate access to effective interventions in childhood. Although the reviewed studies document meaningful relationships between child poverty and adult outcomes, they also reveal that poverty, experiences, and behaviors in adulthood make important contributions to adult health and aging. There is strong evidence that poverty in childhood contributes significantly to adult health. Changes in the content, financing, and advocacy of current child health programs will be required to address the childhood influences on adult health and disease. Policy reforms that reduce child poverty and mitigate its developmental effects must be integrated into broader initiatives and advocacy that also attend to the health and

  4. Relation of antisocial personality disorders to childhood traumatic experiences and shame in prisoners%服刑人员的反社会人格障碍及与羞耻感、童年期创伤经历的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶; 徐凯文; 王雨吟; 钱铭怡; 曹广健; 刘忠兆; 李世杰; 钟杰


    Objective: To examine the proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners,and to test the relationship among childhood traumatic experiences,shame and antisocial personality disorders,and to establish a structural model of them. Methods; Totally 2690 prisoners,including 2410 males and 280 females,were selected and assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4 + ), Shame Experience Scale (SES) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results; The proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners was 45.8%. There was a positive correlation among the scores of antisocial personality disorders,CTQ and SES( r =0.08 -0.33 ,P <0.01). Structural equation model showed that shame had a part-mediating effect between childhood traumatic experiences and antisocial personality disorders (GFI =0.94,AGR =0.88.NFI =0.93.RMSEA = 0.1). Conclusion; There is a high proportion of antisocial personality disorders in prisoners. The development of antisocial personality disorders in persons may be related to their child abuse and neglect, and also related to the shame induced by child abuse and neglect.%目的:考察服刑人员反社会人格障碍的比例,并探讨反社会人格障碍与羞耻感、童年期创伤经历之间的关系,建立三者之间关系的结构方程模型.方法:采用方便取样,选取2800名服刑人员,获有效问卷2690份,其中男性2410人,女性280人.用人格障碍诊断问卷第四版(PDQ-4+)、童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ)和羞耻量表(SES)进行测查.结果:服刑人员中反社会人格障碍所占的比例为45.8%.反社会人格障碍、羞耻感各分量表和童年期创伤经历问卷各分量表得分之间呈正相关(r =0.08 -0.33;P<0.01).结构方程模型分析显示,羞耻感在反社会人格障碍和童年期创伤经历之间起部分中介作用(GFI =0.94,AGFI=0.88,NFI=0.93,RMSEA =0.1).结论:服刑人员中,反社会人格障碍者的比例较高.反社会人格障碍的形

  5. Medulloblastoma in childhood-King Edward Memorial hospital surgical experience and review: Comparative analysis of the case series of 365 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatraya Muzumdar


    Full Text Available Aim: Medulloblastoma is one of the most common posterior fossa tumors in childhood. The treatment-related side effects as well as predictive outcome still remain as a major challenge. The improved understanding of the disease and advances in molecular biology is changing the treatment paradigms from Chang′s staging system to molecular risk stratification. However, surgery still remains as an important mainstay of therapy and is formidable. The role of radical surgery has always been a crucial factor in the outcome of these patients, the best survival being reported in patients who had total excision of the tumor and with no metastasis. Patient and Methods: An analysis of 365 patients (age<18 years of medulloblastoma who underwent treatment at the Seth G.S. Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial hospital (KEM, Mumbai over a 25- year period (1985-2000 and 2001-2010 is presented. The clinical profile, radiological features, pathology and surgical nuances are discussed. Results: The most common age group affected was between 3 and 12 years. 75.3% presented with headaches, vomiting and 63.2% with papilledema. Sitting position was used in majority of cases. A total of 8 patients underwent shunting; all of them were in the postoperative period (5.19%. 92.2% (142 cases had classical medulloblastoma, 5.1% (8 cases had desmoplastic variant, 1.9% (3 cases had anaplastic changes and 0.6% (1 case had glial differentiation. The 5-year and 10-year progression free survival rate was 73 and 41% for average risk disease while for high risk disease rate it was 34%. The mortality rate was 2%. The quality of life was enhanced in patients who survived 5-10 years after treatment. Conclusion: Surgery for medulloblastoma is formidable. The option of sitting position for medulloblastoma surgery is still viable. A vigilant neuroanesthesiologist and a safe surgery are necessary to achieve a good postoperative result. Radiological characteristics are helpful

  6. Reliability and validity of Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire in the community population%儿童期虐待史问卷在社区人群中的信度和效度检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹤展; 张亚林; 吴建玲; 周云飞; 李龙飞; 赵幸福


    BACKGROUND: The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) compiled by the Institute of Psychiatry, University of London, has been verified to have good reliability and validity in the assessment of foreign community adults and patients with affective disorder,but the application of CECA.Q in China still needs verification of reliability and validity in various population.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the reliability and validity of CECA.Q in community population.DESIGN: The subjects were randomized selected; the principle for the analysis of scale reliability and validity was followed.SETTING: Mental Health Institute of Central South University.PARTICIPANTS: From September 2003 to February 2004, 608 adults were selected from two communities of Hunan Changsha city and Henan Xinxiang city as the common community population group, totally 608scales of CECA.Q were sent out, 8 invalid ones were excluded, and finally 600 subjects finished the investigation. Sixty adult inpatients with depressive disease were randomly selected from Henan Provincial Psychiatric Hospital as the depression group.METHODS: The common community population and patients with depressive disease were investigated with CECA.Q, which was a self-rating scale mainly to retrospectively survey whether the adults had suffered from physical, sexual or mental abuse in their childhood, and the mental abuse had two factors of antipathy and neglect, and each included 8 items. The answers for the items were quantified into 5 grades. The subjects evaluated whether their parents had given any abuse to them; the higher the score was, the greater the mental abuse they suffered. Of the community population, 40 cases were the positive samples with the history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood evaluated by CECA.Q, and they were then assessed with Bifulco provided childhood experience of care and abuse (CECA) together with 40 cases randomly selected from 560 samples with negative evaluation. A total

  7. Homework as the Job of Childhood (United States)

    Corno, Lyn; Xu, Jianzhong


    The authors undertook a series of empirical studies to examine how students experience homework at various grade levels. The research casts a different light on the century-old practice of doing homework, suggesting it is the quintessential job of childhood. Homework creates a situation where the child must complete assigned tasks under minimal…

  8. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann


    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  9. Optimizing inhalation therapy in childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Reina


    Childhood asthma is a common chronic disease, featured by inflammation of the airways and episodic bronchoconstriction. Exercise is an important trigger for bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children. They experience this symptom, limiting participation in play and sports, as the most bothersome aspe

  10. 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历关系的研究%A study on patients suffered from depression and personality comorbided disorder and childhood maltreatment experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉萍; 李绍敏; 阮玖琼; 闫景新; 高晓翠


    Objective To explore the relation between childhood maltreated Experiences and depressive disorder subjects with personality dimmers.Methods 98 depressive disorder patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed with structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ(SCID-Ⅱ) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 Short Form (CTQ-SF).Results Depressive disorder subjects with personality disorders scored significantly higher than normal control in emotional abuse,sex abuse,physical neglect,emotionalneglect domains and in all domains (97.52,90.98,98.32,93.72,94.96 vs 69.66,69.98,66.26,68.74,68.12 ) with the exception of physical abuse.Whereas depressive disorder subjects without personality disorders only scored significantly higher in emotional neglect,emotional abuse domains and compared with normal control ( 85.40,83.15 vs 66.83,67.82).Conclusion Subjects with personality disorders experienced more severe traumaticevents during their early life.Childhood maltreatment experiences have influence on thedevelopment of depression disorders and personality disorders.%目的 研究抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历的关系.方法 采用DSM-IV定式临床会谈量表(SCID-Ⅱ)和童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ-SF)对98例抑郁障碍患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群对照.结果 CTQ-SF除躯体虐待外,抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者情感虐待、性虐待、躯体忽视、情感忽视因子分和总分(分别为97.52分,90.98分,98.32分,93.72分,94.96分)均高于正常对照组(分别为69.66分,69.98分,66.26分,68.74分,68.12分),差异有显著性(P<0.01).非共病人格障碍组的则只有情感忽视和情感虐待(分别为85.40分,83.15分)高于正常对照组(分别为66.83分,67.82分),差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者的童年期创伤性经历较正常对照组严重;童年期被虐待经历与抑郁障碍共患人格障碍有关.

  11. DNA Methylation, Behavior and Early Life Adversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moshe Szyf


    The impact of early physical and social environments on life-long phenotypes is well known.Moreover,we have documented evidence for gene-enviromnent interactions where identical gene variants are associated with different phenotypes that are dependent on early life adversity.What are the mechanisms that embed these early life experiences in the genome? DNA methylation is an enzymaticallycatalyzed modification of DNA that serves as a mechanism by which similar sequences acquire cell type identity during cellular differentiation and embryogenesis in the same individual.The hypothesis that will be discussed here proposes that the same mechanism confers environmental-exposure specific identity upon DNA providing a mechanism for embedding environmental experiences in the genome,thus affecting long-term phenotypes.Particularly important is the environment early in life including both the prenatal and postnatal social environments.

  12. Childhood maltreatment and stress-related psychopathology: the epigenetic memory hypothesis (United States)

    Lutz, Pierre-Eric; Almeida, Daniel; Fiori, Laura M.; Turecki, Gustavo


    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is all too frequent among western societies, with an estimated prevalence of 10 to 15%. CM associates with increased risk of several psychiatric disorders, and therefore represents a worrying public and socio-economic burden. While associated clinical outcomes are well characterized, determining by which mechanisms early-life adverse experiences affect mental health over the lifespan is a major challenge. Epigenetic mechanisms, in particular DNA methylation, represent a form of molecular memory that may modify brain function over extended periods of time, as well as serve as a bio-marker of behavioral phenotypes associated with CM. Here, we review human studies suggesting that DNA methylation is a crucial substrate mediating neurobiological consequences of CM throughout life, thereby potentiating maladaptive behavioral patterns and psychopathological risk. PMID:25564388

  13. Implications of Childhood Experiences for the Health and Adaptation of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals: Sensitivity to Developmental Process in Future Research (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret


    The empirical literature on lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals has predominantly focused on sexual-orientation disparities between LGB and heterosexual individuals on health and adaptation, as well as on the role of gay-related or minority stress in the health and adaptation of LGB individuals. Aside from demographic control variables, the initial predictor is a marker of sexual orientation or LGB-related experience (e.g., minority stress). Missing are potential strengths and vulnerabilities that LGB individuals develop over time and bring to bear on their sexual identity development and other LGB-related experiences. Those strengths and vulnerabilities may have profound consequences for the sexual identity development, health, and adaptation of LGB individuals. Here, I focus on one such set of strengths and vulnerabilities derived from attachment. I conclude by emphasizing the importance of attachment in the lives of LGB individuals and the need to identify other developmental processes that may be equally consequential. PMID:26900586

  14. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar


    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  15. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  16. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  17. Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  18. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  19. Stages of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  20. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (United States)

    ... your child has any of the following: Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...