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Sample records for adverse childhood experiences

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Response Data & Statistics (WISQARS) Funded Programs Press Room Social Media Publications ... experiences, both positive and negative, have a tremendous impact on future violence victimization and perpetration, and lifelong ...

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

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    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences: towards a clear conceptual meaning.

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    Kalmakis, Karen A; Chandler, Genevieve E

    2014-07-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have been associated with negative physical and psychological health outcomes, but this phenomenon lacks the clear, consistent meaning necessary for use in nursing research, theory development and practice. Concept clarification. The literature search was not limited a priori by date and included publications with abstracts in English from PubMed, CINAHL, PsychINFO and Social Abstracts. The search retrieved 128 articles published from 1970-2013. The search term 'adverse childhood experiences' was used, with similar terms permitted. A snowball approach was used to expand the search to relevant literature. The articles were read and analysed following Norris's five steps for concept clarification to refine, elucidate and operationally define the concept and the context in which it occurred. Adverse childhood experiences were defined operationally as childhood events, varying in severity and often chronic, occurring in a child's family or social environment that cause harm or distress, thereby disrupting the child's physical or psychological health and development. This concept clarification should raise awareness and understanding of the diverse nature and shared characteristics of adverse childhood experiences that are believed to influence the health of individuals as they age. This clarified concept will help expand research on health consequences of adverse childhood experiences and interventions to improve health. We recommend promoting a model of primary care that pays attention to the social and familial influences on the health of individuals worldwide. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Adverse childhood experiences and risk of paternity in teen pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anda, Robert F; Chapman, Daniel P; Felitti, Vincent J; Edwards, Valerie; Williamson, David F; Croft, Janet B; Giles, Wayne H

    2002-07-01

    Few studies have investigated risk factors that predispose males to be involved in teen pregnancies. To provide new information on such factors, we examined the relationships of eight common adverse childhood experiences to a male's risk of impregnating a teenager. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using questionnaire responses from 7399 men who visited a primary care clinic of a large health maintenance organization in California. Data included age of the youngest female ever impregnated; the man's own age at the time; his history of childhood emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; having a battered mother; parental separation or divorce; and having household members who were substance abusers, mentally ill, or criminals. Odds ratios (ORs) for the risk of involvement in a teen pregnancy were adjusted for age, race, and education. At least one adverse childhood experience was reported by 63% of participants, and 34% had at least two adverse childhood experiences; 19% of men had been involved in a teen pregnancy. Each adverse childhood experience was positively associated with impregnating a teenager, with ORs ranging from 1.2 (sexual abuse) to 1.8 (criminal in home). We found strong graded relationships (P teen pregnancy for each of four birth cohorts during the last century. Compared with males with no adverse childhood experiences, a male with at least five adverse childhood experiences had an OR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0, 3.4) for impregnating a teenager. The magnitude of the ORs for the adverse childhood experiences was reduced 64-100% by adjustment for potential intermediate variables (age at first intercourse, number of sexual partners, having a sexually transmitted disease, and alcohol or drug abuse) that also exhibited a strong graded relationship to adverse childhood experiences. Adverse childhood experiences have an important relationship to male involvement in teen pregnancy. This relationship has persisted throughout four

  5. Adverse childhood experiences of low-income urban youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Roy; Shea, Judy A; Rubin, David; Wood, Joanne

    2014-07-01

    Current assessments of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) may not adequately encompass the breadth of adversity to which low-income urban children are exposed. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize the range of adverse childhood experiences faced by young adults who grew up in a low-income urban area. Focus groups were conducted with young adults who grew up in low-income Philadelphia neighborhoods. Using the nominal group technique, participants generated a list of adverse childhood experiences and then identified the 5 most stressful experiences on the group list. The most stressful experiences identified by participants were grouped into a ranked list of domains and subdomains. Participants identified a range of experiences, grouped into 10 domains: family relationships, community stressors, personal victimization, economic hardship, peer relationships, discrimination, school, health, child welfare/juvenile justice, and media/technology. Included in these domains were many but not all of the experiences from the initial ACEs studies; parental divorce/separation and mental illness were absent. Additional experiences not included in the initial ACEs but endorsed by our participants included single-parent homes; exposure to violence, adult themes, and criminal behavior; personal victimization; bullying; economic hardship; and discrimination. Gathering youth perspectives on childhood adversity broadens our understanding of the experience of stress and trauma in childhood. Future work is needed to determine the significance of this broader set of adverse experiences in predisposing children to poor health outcomes as adults. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review.

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    Exley, Daniel; Norman, Alyson; Hyland, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  7. [Screening of adverse childhood experiences in preschoolers: scoping review].

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    Vega-Arce, Maribel; Núñez-Ulloa, Gastón

    The aim of the present article was to describe available scientific publications detailing strategies and screening tools for Adverse Childhood Experiences in preschoolers (2 to 5 years of age). A scoping review of the topic was carried out through investigative articles published in peer review journals from January 1998 to June 2017 and indexed in seven international databases (Cochrane Library, EBSCO, PubMed, Science Direct, Springer, Web of Science and Scielo). The articles were selected based on predefined criteria, using limiters and manual screening. Twenty articles published between 1999 and 2017 were selected. The screening of adverse childhood experiences is performed through opportunistic recruitment in a professional context aimed at caregivers and children, which integrates training actions, application of screening tools and reception of identified cases. Screening tools differ between interviews and questionnaires. Furthermore, we report the periodicity of the screening, the behaviors and beliefs of the professionals against it and the barriers to its implementation. This review confirms that the screening of Adverse Childhood Experiences is an emerging topic in the research field. We emphasize the need to systematize and evaluate the strategies and tools for screening Adverse Childhood Experiences, as well as to develop local approaches to respond to the needs of children exposed to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Mental Health of Veterans.

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    McGuinness, Teena M; Waldrop, Jessica R

    2015-06-01

    Many U.S. Veterans have experienced the burdens of mental illness and suicide. The current article focuses on Veterans who served from 2001-2015. Although combat exposure and suicidal ideation are linked, approximately one half of all suicides among Active Duty service members (who have served since 2001) occurred among those who never deployed. Researchers who sought additional risks for suicide found that Veterans have greater odds of adversities in childhood than the general population. Adverse childhood experiences are stressful and traumatic experiences, including abuse and neglect, as well as witnessing household dysfunction, or growing up with individuals with mental illness or substance abuse. Further, childhood physical abuse has been shown to be a significant predictor for posttraumatic stress disorder and suicide. Adverse childhood experiences confer additional risk for the mental health of service members. Psychiatric nursing implications include the importance of assessing early childhood adversity during psychosocial assessments. Providing trauma-informed strategies for treatment is an essential element of psychiatric nursing care. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

  10. Origins of Adulthood Personality: The Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, Jason M.; Schurer, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    We test whether adverse childhood experiences exposure to parental maltreatment and its indirect effect on health are associated with age 30 personality traits. We use rich longitudinal data from a large, representative cohort of young US Americans and exploit differences across siblings to control for the confounding influences of shared environmental and genetic factors. We find that maltreatment experiences are significantly and robustly associated with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and ...

  11. Adverse family experiences during childhood and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; Barkin, Shari L; McPheeters, Melissa

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the association between adverse family experiences (AFEs) during childhood and adolescent obesity and to determine populations at highest risk for AFEs. A cross-sectional analysis was performed of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, including children aged 10-17 years. Weighted estimates of 31,258,575 children were based on interviews with 42,239 caregivers. Caregiver reports of nine psychosocial risk factors measured AFEs during childhood. Adolescent overweight and obesity were derived by caregiver-reported child height and weight. Nearly one-third (30.5%) of children had experienced ≥2 AFEs, with geographic variation by state. The prevalence of obesity among children experiencing ≥2 AFEs was 20.4%, when compared with 12.5% among children with 0 AFEs. Adjusted survey regression models were controlled for child, parent, household, and neighborhood characteristics. Children with ≥2 AFEs in childhood were more likely to have obesity (AOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.47-2.17; P Adolescents in this national sample who were exposed to greater numbers of AFEs in childhood also had higher rates of overweight and obesity. Geographic variation and differential associations based on race/ethnicity identified children at greatest risk. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Post-bariatric Surgery Psychiatric Inpatient Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Kathryn; Ross, Colin A

    2017-12-01

    Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. The average score on the ACE was 5.4 (3.3); 76% of participants reported childhood emotional neglect, 70% childhood verbal abuse, and 64% childhood sexual abuse; only two participants reported no adverse childhood experiences. The participants in the study reported high levels of adverse childhood experiences compared to the general population, which is consistent with prior literature on rates of childhood trauma in post-bariatric surgery patients. The role of adverse childhood experiences in post-bariatric surgery adaptation should be investigated in future research, including in prospective studies.

  13. Adverse childhood experiences in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Daniel W; Kaufman, Joan

    2018-03-01

    Recent years have shown an uptick in studies assessing bullying and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This article reviews extant findings, and points to gaps in the literature. Children with ASD are bullied by peers at a rate three to four times that of nondisabled peers with negative impacts on academic functioning and mental health symptoms, including increased risk for suicidality. Children with ASD are also at enhanced risk for other ACES, particularly parental divorce and income insufficiency, and as observed in the general population, children with ASD who experience an increased number of ACES are at elevated risk for comorbid psychiatric and medical health problems. Children with ASD with an elevated number of ACES also experience a delay in ASD diagnosis and treatment initiation. There is no evidence of increased risk of child maltreatment within the ASD population. As bullying and other adverse experiences are common and associated with deleterious outcomes in children with ASD, there is a need for additional research on intervention strategies to prevent and mitigate the impact of these experiences. Ongoing work on the assessment of trauma experiences and PTSD symptoms in children on the spectrum is also needed.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  15. Prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Low-Income Latino Immigrant and Nonimmigrant Children.

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    Loria, Hilda; Caughy, Margaret

    2018-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children and examine differences in the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences by immigrant generational status. This is a secondary data analysis of the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health, a telephone survey of parents/caregivers of a nationally representative sample of US children. The study sample was limited to Latino children in households with an annual income ≤200% of the federal poverty level (FPL) whose parents responded to a 9-item inventory of adverse childhood experiences. Descriptive statistics estimated the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences and examined differences in prevalence by immigrant generational status. Of 22 297 children, 29% (n = 6483) were Latino (9% first generation, 57% second generation, 30% third or higher generation); 25% (n = 1692) of all Latino children were exposed to 2 or more adverse childhood experiences. Latino immigrant children had a lower prevalence (13%; n = 801) compared with nonimmigrant Latino children (40%; n = 772). The most common adverse childhood experiences were financial hardship and parent divorce/separation. The total number and mean number of adverse childhood experiences differed by child generational status, and the differences persisted after stratification by age and FPL. The prevalence of exposure to adverse childhood experiences was highest among third- or higher-generation nonimmigrant children and lowest among second-generation immigrant children. The prevalence of adverse childhood experiences in low-income Latino children is similar to the prevalence for all US children; however, the prevalence is significantly higher in nonimmigrant children. Targeted screening to address adverse childhood experiences, policy changes, and guidance regarding care practices to address adverse childhood experiences in Latino children are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. The association between adverse childhood experiences and adult traumatic brain injury/concussion: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zechen; Bayley, Mark T; Perrier, Laure; Dhir, Priya; Dépatie, Lana; Comper, Paul; Ruttan, Lesley; Lay, Christine; Munce, Sarah E P

    2018-01-12

    Adverse childhood experiences are significant risk factors for physical and mental illnesses in adulthood. Traumatic brain injury/concussion is a challenging condition where pre-injury factors may affect recovery. The association between childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion has not been previously reviewed. The research question addressed is: What is known from the existing literature about the association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion in adults? All original studies of any type published in English since 2007 on adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury/concussion outcomes were included. The literature search was conducted in multiple electronic databases. Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al.'s scoping review frameworks were used. Two reviewers independently completed screening and data abstraction. The review yielded six observational studies. Included studies were limited to incarcerated or homeless samples, and individuals at high-risk of or with mental illnesses. Across studies, methods for childhood adversity and traumatic brain injury/concussion assessment were heterogeneous. A positive association between adverse childhood experiences and traumatic brain injury occurrence was identified. The review highlights the importance of screening and treatment of adverse childhood experiences. Future research should extend to the general population and implications on injury recovery. Implications for rehabilitation Exposure to adverse childhood experiences is associated with increased risk of traumatic brain injury. Specific types of adverse childhood experiences associated with risk of traumatic brain injury include childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse, household member incarceration, and household member drug abuse. Clinicians and researchers should inquire about adverse childhood experiences in all people with traumatic brain injury as pre-injury health conditions can

  17. Associations Between Adverse Childhood Experiences and ADHD Diagnosis and Severity.

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    Brown, Nicole M; Brown, Suzette N; Briggs, Rahil D; Germán, Miguelina; Belamarich, Peter F; Oyeku, Suzette O

    Although identifying adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children with behavioral disorders is an important step in providing targeted therapy and support, little is known about the burden of ACEs among children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We described the prevalence of ACEs in children with and without ADHD, and examined associations between ACE type, ACE score, and ADHD diagnosis and severity. Using the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health, we identified children aged 4 to 17 years whose parents indicated presence and severity of ADHD, and their child's exposure to 9 ACEs. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate associations between ACEs, ACE score, and parent-reported ADHD and ADHD severity, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. In our sample (N = 76,227, representing 58,029,495 children), children with ADHD had a higher prevalence of each ACE compared with children without ADHD. Children who experienced socioeconomic hardship (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-1.59), divorce (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.16-1.55), familial mental illness (aOR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.26-1.90), neighborhood violence (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.23-1.75), and incarceration (aOR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.12-1.72) were more likely to have ADHD. A graded relationship was observed between ACE score and ADHD. Children with ACE scores of 2, 3, and ≥4 were significantly more likely to have moderate to severe ADHD. Children with ADHD have higher ACE exposure compared with children without ADHD. There was a significant association between ACE score, ADHD, and moderate to severe ADHD. Efforts to improve ADHD assessment and management should consider routinely evaluating for ACEs. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  20. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Extremity: New Evidence for Sexual Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLisi, Matt; Beauregard, Eric

    2018-03-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with a wide range of behavioral, health, and psychiatric deficits and have recently been used to study the development of serious offending careers. Unfortunately, this research paradigm has largely ignored forensic populations. This study utilized the adverse childhood experiences framework to examine the associations between exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences on sexual homicide using a sample of 616 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders from Canada 85 of whom committed sexual homicide. Epidemiological tables of odds revealed that a gradient of adverse childhood experiences was associated with sexual homicide, but that the most significant risks were for offenders who had the most extensive abuse histories. In adjusted models, exposure to violence, victimization, and total adverse childhood experiences increased the odds of sexual homicide by 334%, 249%, and 546%, respectively. These effects intensified in models adjusted for childhood enuresis, cruelty to animals, parental abandonment, deviant sexual behaviors, poor self-image, and sexual problems to 559%, 326%, and 849%, respectively. The adverse childhood experiences framework is a systematic way to organize the criminogenic developmental sequela in sexual homicide. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Social work and adverse childhood experiences research: implications for practice and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Heather; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Medical research on "adverse childhood experiences" (ACEs) reveals a compelling relationship between the extent of childhood adversity, adult health risk behaviors, and principal causes of death in the United States. This article provides a selective review of the ACE Study and related social science research to describe how effective social work practice that prevents ACEs and mobilizes resilience and recovery from childhood adversity could support the achievement of national health policy goals. This article applies a biopsychosocial perspective, with an emphasis on mind-body coping processes to demonstrate that social work responses to adverse childhood experiences may contribute to improvement in overall health. Consistent with this framework, the article sets forth prevention and intervention response strategies with individuals, families, communities, and the larger society. Economic research on human capital development is reviewed that suggests significant cost savings may result from effective implementation of these strategies.

  2. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Co-occurring Health Conditions in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Thompson, Lindsay A

    2018-01-01

    To understand how adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with co-occurring physical, mental and developmental problems during early childhood. A subsample of 19,957 children aged 2-5 years were selected from the 2011-2012 National Survey for Child Health. Outcomes included 18 health conditions organized in singular condition domains (physical, mental, and developmental), and combinations of condition domains (e.g., physical plus mental, mental plus developmental, etc.). Predictors included 8 ACEs (divorce of a parent, death of a parent, exposure to domestic violence, living with someone with a drug or alcohol abuse problem, household member with a mental illness, parent incarceration, neighborhood violence, discrimination). Multivariable logistic regression was performed controlling for demographic characteristics, having a personal doctor, health insurance coverage, and seeing a health care professional in the previous year. Experiencing 3 or more ACEs before the age of 5 years was associated with increased likelihood of nearly every co-occurring condition combination across 3 domains of health. Most notably, experiencing 3 or more ACEs was also associated with a 2-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical condition and ≥1 developmental condition, a 9-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 mental and ≥1 developmental condition, and a 7-fold increase in likelihood of having ≥1 physical, ≥1 mental, and ≥1 developmental condition. This study demonstrates that we can identify the health effects of adversity quite early in development and that management should include communication between both health care and early childhood education providers.

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences Are Linked to Age of Onset and Reading Recognition in Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Shaw

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAdverse childhood experiences (ACEs exert a psychological and physiological toll that increases risk of chronic conditions, poorer social functioning, and cognitive impairment in adulthood.ObjectiveTo investigate the relationship between childhood adversity and clinical disease features in multiple sclerosis (MS.MethodsSixty-seven participants with MS completed the ACE assessment and neuropsychological assessments as part of a larger clinical trial of cognitive remediation.ResultsAdverse childhood experience scores, a measure of exposure to adverse events in childhood, significantly predicted age of MS onset (r = –0.30, p = 0.04. ACEs were also linked to reading recognition (a proxy for premorbid IQ (r = –0.25, p = 0.04. ACE scores were not related to age, current disability, or current level of cognitive impairment measured by the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT.ConclusionChildhood adversity may increase the likelihood of earlier age of onset and poorer estimated premorbid IQ in MS.

  4. Childhood abuse and psychotic experiences - evidence for mediation by adulthood adverse life events.

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    Bhavsar, V; Boydell, J; McGuire, P; Harris, V; Hotopf, M; Hatch, S L; MacCabe, J H; Morgan, C

    2017-10-09

    We have previously reported an association between childhood abuse and psychotic experiences (PEs) in survey data from South East London. Childhood abuse is related to subsequent adulthood adversity, which could form one pathway to PEs. We aimed to investigate evidence of mediation of the association between childhood abuse and PEs by adverse life events. Data were analysed from the South East London Community Health Study (SELCoH, n = 1698). Estimates of the total effects on PEs of any physical or sexual abuse while growing up were partitioned into direct (i.e. unmediated) and indirect (total and specific) effects, mediated via violent and non-violent life events. There was strong statistical evidence for direct (OR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.19-2.1) and indirect (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 1.32-1.72) effects of childhood abuse on PEs after adjustment for potential confounders, indicating partial mediation of this effect via violent and non-violent life events. An estimated 47% of the total effect of abuse on PEs was mediated via adulthood adverse life events, of which violent life events made up 33% and non-violent life events the remaining 14%. The association between childhood abuse and PEs is partly mediated through the experience of adverse life events in adulthood. There is some evidence that a larger proportion of this effect was mediated through violent life events than non-violent life events.

  5. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) in an Integrated Pediatric Care Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal, Sukhdip K.; Bucci, Monica; Wang, Lisa Gutiérrez; Koita, Kadiatou; Marques, Sara Silvério; Oh, Debora; Harris, Nadine Burke

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events that place children at risk of negative health, mental health, and behavioral outcomes. The Center for Youth Wellness (CYW), working in partnership with the Bayview Child Health Center (BCHC), pioneered ACE screening for children and adolescents. This article describes the…

  6. Understanding and Promoting Resilience in the Context of Adverse Childhood Experiences

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    Sciaraffa, Mary A.; Zeanah, Paula D.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2018-01-01

    Brain development in the early years is especially susceptible to toxic stress caused by adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). According to epigenetics research, toxic stress has the capacity to physically change a child's brain and be hardwired into the child's biology via genes in the DNA. The compelling nature of the impact of early adversity…

  7. A Multivariate Analysis of Adverse Childhood Experiences and Health Behaviors and Outcomes among College Students

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    Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Getachew, Beth; Shah, Jean; Payne, Jackie; Pillai, Dina; Berg, Carla J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACE) prior to age 18 years and multiple health behaviors (eg, cigarette and other substance use) and outcomes (eg, obesity, depression) for a large college sample. Participants: 2,969 college students from seven universities in the state of Georgia were included…

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Suicide Attempts: The Mediating Influence of Personality Development and Problem Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Nicholas M; Jennings, Wesley G; Piquero, Alex R; Baglivio, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences, comprised of forms of maltreatment and certain dysfunctional household environments, can affect the development of a child in a variety of different ways. This multitude of developmental changes may subsequently produce compounding harmful effects on the child's life and increase acutely maladaptive outcomes, including adolescent suicidal behavior. This study uses data collected from 2007 to 2012 for 64,329 Florida Department of Juvenile Justice youth (21.67 % female, 42.88 % African American, and 15.37 % Hispanic) to examine the direct and indirect effects of adverse childhood experiences on suicide attempts. Using a generalized structural equation model, the effects of adverse childhood experience scores are estimated on suicidal behavior through pathways of certain aspects of a child's personality development (aggression and impulsivity), as well as adolescent problem behaviors (school difficulties and substance abuse). The results show that a large proportion of the relationship between childhood adversity and suicide is mediated by the aforementioned individual characteristics, specifically through the youth's maladaptive personality development. These results suggest that, if identified early enough, the developmental issues for these youth could potentially be addressed in order to thwart potential suicidal behavior.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Emily F; Edwards, Erika M; Heeren, Timothy; Hingson, Ralph W

    2008-08-01

    Our goal was to determine whether adverse childhood experiences predicted the age at which drinking was initiated and drinking motives in a representative sample of current or former drinkers in the United States. In 2006, a probability sample of 3592 US current or former drinkers aged 18 to 39 were surveyed. Multinomial logistic regression examined whether each of 10 adverse childhood experiences was associated with earlier ages of drinking onset, controlling for demographics, parental alcohol use, parental attitudes toward drinking, and peers' drinking in adolescence. We also examined whether there was a graded relationship between the number of adverse childhood experiences and age of drinking onset and whether adverse childhood experiences were related to self-reported motives for drinking during the first year that respondents drank. Sixty-six percent of respondents reported >or=1 adverse childhood experiences, and 19% reported experiencing >or=4. The most commonly reported adverse childhood experiences were parental separation/divorce (41.3%), living with a household member who was a problem drinker (28.7%), mental illness of a household member (24.8%), and sexual abuse (19.1%). Of the 10 specific adverse childhood experiences assessed, 5 were significantly associated with initiating drinking at or=21 years of age) after adjustment for confounders, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, having a mentally ill household member, substance abuse in the home, and parental discord or divorce. Compared with those without adverse childhood experiences, respondents with adverse childhood experiences were substantially more likely to report that they drank to cope during the first year that they used alcohol. Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be social).

  10. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Disordered Gambling: Assessing the Mediating Role of Emotion Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Kim, Hyoun S; Dobson, Keith S; Hodgins, David C

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as sexual and physical abuse, have been established as risk factors for the development of disordered gambling. The underlying mechanism by which ACEs influence disordered gambling, however, remains unknown. The aims of the present research were to comprehensively investigate ten types of childhood adversity and their relationships to disordered gambling in adulthood, and to test whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. A sample of community gamblers (N = 414) completed self-report measures of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and gambling severity. Results revealed a significant association between all but one type (physical abuse) of ACEs and disordered gambling. Further, the results highlighted the cumulative impact of ACEs on gambling. Specifically, individuals who experienced three or more types of ACEs were more than three times as likely to report disordered gambling as compared to individuals with no history of childhood adversity. Importantly, as hypothesized, emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and disordered gambling. Findings from this research describe the association between ACEs and gambling and indicate a causal link between childhood adversity and disordered gambling. Results suggest that treatment initiatives may do well to address both ACEs and emotion dysregulation in the treatment of problem gambling.

  11. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adulthood Aggression and Self-Esteem-A Study on Male Forensic Clients

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    Farideh Khodabandeh; Marzieh Khalilzadeh; Zahra Hemati

    2018-01-01

    Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The curr...

  12. Positive childhood experiences predict less psychopathology and stress in pregnant women with childhood adversity: A pilot study of the benevolent childhood experiences (BCEs) scale.

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    Narayan, Angela J; Rivera, Luisa M; Bernstein, Rosemary E; Harris, William W; Lieberman, Alicia F

    2018-04-01

    This pilot study examined the psychometric properties of the Benevolent Childhood Experiences (BCEs) scale, a new instrument designed to assess positive early life experiences in adults with histories of childhood maltreatment and other adversities. A counterpart to the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire, the BCEs was developed to be multiculturally-sensitive and applicable regardless of socioeconomic position, urban-rural background, or immigration status. Higher levels of BCEs were hypothesized to predict lower levels of psychopathology and stress beyond the effects of ACES in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income pregnant women. BCEs were also expected to show adequate internal validity across racial/ethnic groups and test-retest stability from the prenatal to the postnatal period. Participants were 101 pregnant women (M=29.10years, SD=6.56, range=18-44; 37% Latina, 22% African-American, 20% White, 21% biracial/multiracial/other; 37% foreign-born, 26% Spanish-speaking) who completed the BCEs and ACEs scales; assessments of prenatal depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, perceived stress, and exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) during pregnancy; and demographic information. Higher levels of BCEs predicted less PTSD symptoms and SLEs, above and beyond ACEs. The BCEs showed excellent test-retest reliability, and mean levels were comparable across racial/ethnic and Spanish-English groups of women. Person-oriented analyses also showed that higher levels of BCEs offset the effects of ACEs on prenatal stress and psychopathology. The BCEs scale indexes promising promotive factors associated with lower trauma-related symptomatology and stress exposure during pregnancy and illuminates how favorable childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Adverse Childhood Experiences with Life Course Health and Development.

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    Austin, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Several studies demonstrate an association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and poor outcomes over the life course. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System show that ACEs are common among North Carolina residents, ACEs co-occur, and cumulative ACE exposure is associated with poor health outcomes. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and mental health in young adults: a longitudinal survey

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    Aseltine Robert H

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have been consistently linked to psychiatric difficulties in children and adults. However, the long-term effects of ACEs on mental health during the early adult years have been understudied. In addition, many studies are methodologically limited by use of non-representative samples, and few studies have investigated gender and racial differences. The current study relates self-reported lifetime exposure to a range of ACEs in a community sample of high school seniors to three mental health outcomes–depressive symptoms, drug abuse, and antisocial behavior–two years later during the transition to adulthood. Methods The study has a two-wave, prospective design. A systematic probability sample of high school seniors (N = 1093 was taken from communities of diverse socioeconomic status. They were interviewed in person in 1998 and over the telephone two years later. Gender and racial differences in ACE prevalence were tested with chi-square tests. Each mental health outcome was regressed on one ACE, controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and SES to obtain partially standardized regression coefficients. Results Most ACEs were strongly associated with all three outcomes. The cumulative effect of ACEs was significant and of similar magnitude for all three outcomes. Except for sex abuse/assault, significant gender differences in the effects of single ACEs on depression and drug use were not observed. However, boys who experienced ACEs were more likely to engage in antisocial behavior early in young adulthood than girls who experienced similar ACEs. Where racial/ethnic differences existed, the adverse mental health impact of ACEs on Whites was consistently greater than on Blacks and Hispanics. Conclusion Our sample of young adults from urban, socio-economically disadvantaged communities reported high rates of adverse childhood experiences. The public health impact of childhood adversity is evident

  15. Typologies of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship to incarceration in U.S. military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jana; Waterhouse-Bradley, Bethany; Contractor, Ateka A; Armour, Cherie

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72-2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

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    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Vinnerljung, Bo; Hallqvist, Johan; Ljung, Rickard

    2013-01-01

    Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using logistic regression analysis. Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5) and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2). The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  17. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  18. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

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    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  19. Evaluation of childhood trauma with respect to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Merih; Bilici, Mustafa

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate childhood trauma in relation to criminal behavior, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds among prison inmates. In total, 200 prison inmates were included in this questionnaire-based study. Data on demographic characteristics, adverse family experiences during childhood and psychiatric backgrounds were collected via face-to-face interviews, and a psychometric evaluation was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Several historical items were more common in females than in males including family history of psychiatric disease (23.0% vs. 13.0%, p = 0.048), a personal history of psychiatric disease (51.0% vs. 29.0%, p first crime (24.9 ± 8.9 years vs. 30.3 ± 9.2 years, p first offense (β = 0.772, p first offense. In conclusion, our findings revealed a high prevalence of and significant associations among childhood trauma, dissociative experiences, adverse family experiences and psychiatric problems in a cohort of incarcerated females and males. A psychiatric background, childhood trauma characterized by sexual abuse and violent crimes were found to be predominant in female prison inmates, whereas a criminal background with a younger age at first offense and frequent previous convictions, substance use and sexual crimes were more prevalent among male prison inmates. Our findings indicate a potential link between childhood traumatization and criminal behavior in terms of subsequent offending but not in terms of severity of the subsequent offense. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [The role of genotype in the intergenerational transmission of experiences of childhood adversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Corinna; Kaess, Michael; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of childhood abuse and maltreatment is estimated to lie at about 15% in the overall German population. Previous research suggested that about one third of all individuals who had experienced childhood adversity subsequently maltreated their own children or responded insensitively to their children's needs. Empirical studies imply that interindividual differences in the responsiveness to childhood adversity can partially be explained by gene-environment interactions. This article discusses the potential interplay of genes and environment in the context of transmitting maltreating behavior and (in)sensitive parenting against the background of current challenges in genetic research. Selected studies on gene × environment interactions are presented and relevant gene polymorphisms are identified. Overall, previous studies reported interactions between polymorphisms of the serotonergic, dopaminergic, oxytocin-related, and arginine vasopressin-related systems and childhood experiences of care and abuse in the prediction of social behaviors during mother-child interactions. The results indicate a differential susceptibility toward both negative and positive environments which is dependent on genetic characteristics. Future research should thus investigate the effects of children's presumed risk gene variants toward negative as well as positive parenting. This could contribute to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the intergenerational transmission of abusive and beneficial parenting behavior and help to avoid false stigmatizations.

  1. The Role of Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Race in Intergenerational High-Risk Smoking Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pear, Veronica A; Petito, Lucia C; Abrams, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    A history of adversity in childhood is associated with cigarette smoking in adulthood, but there is less evidence for prenatal and next-generation offspring smoking. We investigated the association between maternal history of childhood adversity, pregnancy smoking, and early initiation of smoking in offspring, overall and by maternal race/ethnicity. Data on maternal childhood exposure to physical abuse, household alcohol abuse, and household mental illness, prenatal smoking behaviors, and offspring age of smoking initiation were analyzed from the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79, n = 2999 mothers) and the NLSY79 Children and Young Adults Survey (NLSYCYA, n = 6596 children). Adjusted risk ratios were estimated using log-linear regression models. We assessed multiplicative interaction by race/ethnicity for all associations and a three-way interaction by maternal exposure to adversity and race/ethnicity for the association between prenatal and child smoking. Maternal exposure to childhood physical abuse was significantly associated with 39% and 20% increased risks of prenatal smoking and child smoking, respectively. Household alcohol abuse was associated with significantly increased risks of 20% for prenatal smoking and 17% for child smoking. The prenatal smoking-child smoking relationship was modified by maternal exposure to household alcohol abuse and race. There were increased risks for Hispanic and white/other mothers as compared to the lowest risk group: black mothers who did not experience childhood household alcohol abuse. Mothers in this national sample who experienced adversity in childhood are more likely to smoke during pregnancy and their offspring are more likely to initiate smoking before age 18. Findings varied by type of adversity and race/ethnicity. These findings support the importance of a life-course approach to understanding prenatal and intergenerational smoking, and suggest that maternal early-life history is a potentially

  2. The Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adulthood Aggression and Self-Esteem-A Study on Male Forensic Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Khodabandeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are stressful or traumatic events, including abuse and neglect. The long-term effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs occurring during childhood or adolescence; may lead to a wide range of physical and psychological health issues throughout a person’s lifespan. Children with ACEs, develops poor relation skills and low self-esteem, which may increase the likelihood of interpersonal problems and physical aggression in adult life. The current study examined the correlation among adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, self-esteem, and aggressive behavior.Materials and Methods: The sample included 350 adult male clients, accused of physical aggression in forensic setting. All participants completed interviews, focusing on different types of maltreatment prior to age 18, using the modified standardized Adverse Childhood Experiences International Questioner (ACE-IQ and self-esteem level by Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale.Results: The most commonly reported adverse experience was family dysfunction, mainly violence in the family that caused problems. Strong correlations were shown to exist between various ACEs and aggressive behavior. Negative correlation detected between self–esteem and all categories subjected for ACE except sexual abuse and community violence (P=0>.05.Conclusion: Much attention has been focused on adverse childhood experiences as risk factors for a spectrum of violence-related outcomes during adulthood.

  3. Cumulative Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Satisfaction in Sex Therapy Patients: What Role for Symptom Complexity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Hébert, Martine; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2017-03-01

    Patients consulting for sexual difficulties frequently present additional personal or relational disorders and symptoms. This is especially the case when they have experienced cumulative adverse childhood experiences (CACEs), which are associated with symptom complexity. CACEs refer to the extent to which an individual has experienced an accumulation of different types of adverse childhood experiences including sexual, physical, and psychological abuse; neglect; exposure to inter-parental violence; and bullying. However, past studies have not examined how symptom complexity might relate to CACEs and sexual satisfaction and even less so in samples of adults consulting for sex therapy. To document the presence of CACEs in a sample of individuals consulting for sexual difficulties and its potential association with sexual satisfaction through the development of symptom complexity operationalized through well-established clinically significant indicators of individual and relationship distress. Men and women (n = 307) aged 18 years and older consulting for sexual difficulties completed a set of questionnaires during their initial assessment. (i) Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction Scale, (ii) Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4, (iii) Experiences in Close Relationships-12, (iv) Beck Depression Inventory-13, (v) Trauma Symptom Inventory-2, and (vi) Psychiatric Symptom Inventory-14. Results showed that 58.1% of women and 51.9% of men reported at least four forms of childhood adversity. The average number of CACEs was 4.10 (SD = 2.23) in women and 3.71 (SD = 2.08) in men. Structural equation modeling showed that CACEs contribute directly and indirectly to sexual satisfaction in adults consulting for sex therapy through clinically significant individual and relational symptom complexities. The findings underscore the relevance of addressing clinically significant psychological and relational symptoms that can stem from CACEs when treating sexual difficulties in adults seeking sex

  4. Factors Associated With Whether Pediatricians Inquire About Parents' Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; McCue Horwitz, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. We examined pediatric practice in inquiring about parents' childhood adversities as of 2013. Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents' ACEs. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child's life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice (81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents' ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents' ACE. As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents' ACEs despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development. Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACEs and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP's proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Factors Associated with Whether Pediatricians Inquire about Parents’ Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Moira; Kerker, Bonnie D.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Stein, Ruth E.K.; Garner, Andrew; O’Connor, Karen G.; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cumulative adverse childhood experiences (ACE) can have profound and lasting effects on parenting. Parents with a history of multiple ACE have greater challenges modulating their own stress responses and helping their children adapt to life stressors. This paper examines pediatric practice in inquiring about parents’ childhood adversities as of 2013. Methods Using data from the 85th Periodic Survey of the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), we restricted analyses to the 302 pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who answered questions regarding their beliefs about childhood stressors, their role in advising parents, and whether they asked about parents’ ACE. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Despite endorsing the influence of positive parenting on a child’s life-course trajectory (96%), that their advice can impact parenting skills (79%), and that screening for social-emotional risks is within their scope of practice ((81%), most pediatricians (61%) did not inquire about parents’ ACE. Pediatricians who believed that their advice influences positive parenting skills inquired about more parents’ ACE Conclusion As of 2013, few pediatricians inquired about parents’ ACE despite recognizing their negative impact on parenting behaviors and child development‥ Research is needed regarding the best approaches to the prevention and amelioration of ACE and the promotion of family and child resilience. Pediatricians need resources and education about the AAP’s proposed dyadic approach to assessing family and child risk factors and strengths and to providing guidance and management. PMID:27157045

  6. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Risk for First-Episode Major Depression During the Menopause Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, C Neill; Sammel, Mary D; Bale, Tracy L; Kim, Deborah R; Conlin, Sarah; Scalice, Stephanie; Freeman, Katharine; Freeman, Ellen W

    2017-03-01

    Stress exposures may have a differential impact on risk and resilience for depression depending on their timing across development. We sought to determine whether adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and their onset with respect to puberty contribute to the increased risk observed in first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD) during the menopause transition. Participants were from the Penn Ovarian Aging Study cohort, which is composed of women from Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, who underwent behavioral, cognitive, and endocrine evaluations approximately yearly from 1996 to 2012 and completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire at study end point (n = 243). ACEs that first occurred 2 or more years before menarche were considered prepubertal. Incident menopause MDD was defined as first observed onset of the disorder in the perimenopause to postmenopause transition using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Incident menopause MDD occurred in 48% of the 100 women who reported lifetime MDD. Women reporting ≥ 2 total ACEs were at significantly greater risk for lifetime MDD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.05, P = .034) and incident menopause MDD (aOR = 2.58, P = .03) compared to those reporting 0 ACEs; women with ≥ 2 postpubertal ACEs were 2.3 times more likely to experience incidence menopause MDD (P = .024) after controlling for race, smoking, body mass index, and employment. Experiencing only 1 ACE in the prepubertal window, regardless of additional ACEs in postpuberty, was associated with reduced risk for lifetime and incident menopause MDD. Timing and number of adverse experiences with respect to puberty differentially impacted risk and resilience for MDD across the female life span and during the menopause transition in this community cohort. © Copyright 2017 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  8. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences, gender, and HIV risk behaviors: Results from a population-based sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent HIV research suggested assessing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs as contributing factors of HIV risk behaviors. However, studies often focused on a single type of adverse experience and very few utilized population-based data. This population study examined the associations between ACE (individual and cumulative ACE score and HIV risk behaviors. We analyzed the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS from 5 states. The sample consisted of 39,434 adults. Eight types of ACEs that included different types of child abuse and household dysfunctions before the age of 18 were measured. A cumulative score of ACEs was also computed. Logistic regression estimated of the association between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors using odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for males and females separately. We found that ACEs were positively associated with HIV risk behaviors overall, but the associations differed between males and females in a few instances. While the cumulative ACE score was associated with HIV risk behaviors in a stepwise manner, the pattern varied by gender. For males, the odds of HIV risk increased at a significant level as long as they experienced one ACE, whereas for females, the odds did not increase until they experienced three or more ACEs. Future research should further investigate the gender-specific associations between ACEs and HIV risk behaviors. As childhood adversities are prevalent among general population, and such experiences are associated with increased risk behaviors for HIV transmission, service providers can benefit from the principles of trauma-informed practice.

  10. Relationship between adverse childhood experiences and homelessness and the impact of axis I and II disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Katz, Laurence Y; Distasio, Jino; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-12-01

    We investigated the links between homelessness associated with serious mental and physical healthy disparities and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in nationally representative data, with Axis I and II disorders as potential mediators. We examined data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions in 2001-2002 and 2004-2005, and included 34,653 participants representative of the noninstitutionalized US population who were 20 years old or older. We studied the variables related to 4 classes of Axis I disorders, all 10 Axis II personality disorders, a wide range of ACEs, and a lifetime history of homelessness. Analyses revealed high prevalences of each ACE in individuals experiencing lifetime homelessness (17%-60%). A mediation model with Axis I and II disorders determined that childhood adversities were significantly related to homelessness through direct effects (adjusted odd ratios = 2.04, 4.24) and indirect effects, indicating partial mediation. Population attributable fractions were also reported. Although Axis I and II disorders partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and homelessness, a strong direct association remained. This novel finding has implications for interventions and policy. Additional research is needed to understand relevant causal pathways.

  11. Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and adult attachment interview (AAI) in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S Victoria

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) tend to be interrelated rather than independently occurring. There is a graded effect associated with ACE exposure and pathology, with an increase when ACE exposure is four or more. This study examined a sample of active individuals (n=129) to determine distribution patterns and relationships between ACEs, attachment classification, unresolved mourning (U), and disclosure difficulty. The results of this study demonstrated a strong relationship between increased ACEs and greater unresolved mourning. Specifically, the group differences for individuals who experienced no ACE (n=42, 33%), those with 1-3 ACEs (n=48, 37.8%), and those with ≥4 ACEs (n=37, 29.1%) revealed a pattern in which increased group ACE exposure was associated with greater lack of resolution for past trauma/loss experiences, more adult traumatic events, and more difficulty disclosing past trauma. Despite ≥4 ACEs, 51.4% of highly exposed individuals were classified as secure in the Adult Attachment Interview. Resilience in this group may be related to a combination of attachment security, college education, and engagement in meaningful activities. Likewise, adversity may actually encourage the cultivation of more social support, goal efficacy, and planning behaviors; factors that augment resilience to adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Disability and Exposure to High Levels of Adverse Childhood Experiences: Effect on Health and Risk Behavior.

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    Austin, Anna; Herrick, Harry; Proescholdbell, Scott; Simmons, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Health disparities among persons with disabilities have been previously documented. However, there is little research specific to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in this population and how ACE exposure affects health outcomes in adulthood. Data from the 2012 North Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey were analyzed to compare the prevalence of ACEs between adults with and without disabilities and high ACE exposure (3-8 ACEs). Adjusted risk ratios of health risks and perceived poor health by disability status were calculated using predicted marginals. A higher percentage of persons with disabilities (36.5%) than those without disabilities (19.6%) reported high ACE exposure. Among those with high ACE exposure, persons with disabilities were more likely to report several ACE categories, particularly childhood sexual abuse. In adjusted analyses, persons with disabilities had an increased risk of smoking (relative risk [RR] = 1.29; 95% CI, 1.10-1.51), poor physical health (RR = 4.34; 95% CI, 3.08-6.11), poor mental health (RR = 4.69; 95% CI, 3.19-6.87), and doctor-diagnosed depression (RR = 2.16; 95% CI, 1.82-2.56) compared to persons without disabilities. The definition of disability derived from the BRFSS survey does not allow for those with disabilities to be categorized according to physical disabilities versus mental or emotional disabilities. In addition, we were unable to determine the timing of ACE exposure in relation to disability onset. A better understanding of the life course associations between ACEs and disability and the impact of exposure to multiple types of childhood adversity on disability and health is needed to inform research and services specific to this vulnerable population. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Psychotic-Like Symptoms and Stress Reactivity in Daily Life in Nonclinical Young Adults.

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    Paula Cristóbal-Narváez

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in elucidating the association of different childhood adversities with psychosis-spectrum symptoms as well as the mechanistic processes involved. This study used experience sampling methodology to examine (i associations of a range of childhood adversities with psychosis symptom domains in daily life; (ii whether associations of abuse and neglect with symptoms are consistent across self-report and interview methods of trauma assessment; and (iii the role of different adversities in moderating affective, psychotic-like, and paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors.A total of 206 nonclinical young adults were administered self-report and interview measures to assess childhood abuse, neglect, bullying, losses, and general traumatic events. Participants received personal digital assistants that signaled them randomly eight times daily for one week to complete questionnaires about current experiences, including symptoms, affect, and stress.Self-reported and interview-based abuse and neglect were associated with psychotic-like and paranoid symptoms, whereas only self-reported neglect was associated with negative-like symptoms. Bullying was associated with psychotic-like symptoms. Losses and general traumatic events were not directly associated with any of the symptom domains. All the childhood adversities were associated with stress reactivity in daily life. Interpersonal adversities (abuse, neglect, bullying, and losses moderated psychotic-like and/or paranoid reactivity to situational and social stressors, whereas general traumatic events moderated psychotic-like reactivity to situational stress. Also, different interpersonal adversities exacerbated psychotic-like and/or paranoid symptoms in response to distinct social stressors.The present study provides a unique examination of how childhood adversities impact the expression of spectrum symptoms in the real world and lends support to the notion that

  14. Adverse childhood experiences and prescription drug use in a cohort study of adult HMO patients

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    Dube Shanta R

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prescription drugs account for approximately 11% of national health expenditures. Prior research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, which include common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors, has linked them to numerous health problems. However, data about the relationship of these experiences to prescription drug use are scarce. Method We used the ACE Score (an integer count of 8 different categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. We prospectively assessed the relationship of the Score to prescription drug use in a cohort of 15,033 adult HMO patients (mean follow-up: 6.1 years and assessed mediation of this relationship by documented ACE-related health and social problems. Results Nearly 1.2 million prescriptions were recorded; prescriptions rates increased in a graded fashion as the ACE Score increased (p for trend Conclusion ACEs substantially increase the number of prescriptions and classes of drugs used for as long as 7 or 8 decades after their occurrence. The increases in prescription drug use were largely mediated by documented ACE-related health and social problems.

  15. Adverse childhood experiences among women prisoners: relationships to suicide attempts and drug abuse.

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    Friestad, Christine; Åse-Bente, Rustad; Kjelsberg, Ellen

    2014-02-01

    Women prisoners are known to suffer from an accumulation of factors known to increase the risk for several major health problems. This study examines the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and the relationship between such experiences and suicide attempts and drug use among incarcerated women in Norway. A total of 141 women inmates (75% of all eligible) were interviewed using a structured interview guide covering information on demographics and a range of ACE related to abuse and neglect, and household dysfunction. The main outcome variables were attempted suicide and adult drug abuse. Emotional, physical and sexual abuse during childhood was experienced by 39%, 36% and 19%, respectively, and emotional and physical neglect by 31% and 33%, respectively. Looking at the full range of ACE, 17% reported having experienced none, while 34% reported having experienced more than five ACEs. After controlling for age, immigrant background and marital status, the number of ACEs significantly increased the risk of attempted suicide and current drug abuse. The associations observed between early life trauma and later health risk behaviour indicate the need for early prevention. The findings also emphasize the important role of prison health services in secondary prevention among women inmates.

  16. Bullying, adverse childhood experiences and use of texting to promote behavior change.

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    Pattishall, Amy E; Ellen, Stacy B; Spector, Nancy D

    2013-12-01

    This article addresses three areas in which new research demonstrates the potential to impact the health of children and adolescents: bullying, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and texting to promote behavior change. Recent research on bullying emphasizes its impact on children with chronic medical conditions, and highlights cyber bullying as a rising issue. ACEs are now recognized as risk factors for many health issues, particularly mental health problems. Text messaging is a promising new method to communicate with parents and adolescent patients. Pediatric healthcare providers can help patients with chronic medical problems by addressing bullying at well child visits. Screening for ACEs may identify children at risk for mental health issues. Incorporating text messaging into clinical practice can improve disease management and patient education.

  17. Income Inequality and the Differential Effect of Adverse Childhood Experiences in US Children.

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    Halfon, Neal; Larson, Kandyce; Son, John; Lu, Michael; Bethell, Christina

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can affect health and development across the life course. Despite a general understanding that adversity is associated with lower income, we know less about how ACEs manifest at different income levels and how these income-related patterns affect children's health and development. Data from the 2011 to 2012 National Survey of Children's Health were used to examine the prevalence of 9 ACEs in US children, across 4 levels of household income, and in relationship to 5 parent-reported measures of child health. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between number of ACEs and children's health outcomes on the basis of the 4 income groups. When partitioned according to income strata, the proportion of children who experienced ACEs showed a steep income gradient, particularly for children who experienced ≥4 ACEs. The linear gradient across income groups was less pronounced for each specific ACE, with several ACEs (experience of divorce, drug and alcohol exposure, parental mental illness) showing high reported prevalence in all but the highest income group. Multivariate analysis showed a consistent income-related gradient for each of the health outcomes. However, higher income was not necessarily found to be a protective factor against ACEs. ACEs are distributed across the income ladder and not just concentrated below the poverty level. This suggests that a more comprehensive policy strategy that includes targeted as well as universal interventions is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Addressing Adverse Childhood Experiences Through the Affordable Care Act: Promising Advances and Missed Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Aditi; Fairbrother, Gerry; Simpson, Lisa A

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) occur when children are exposed to trauma and/or toxic stress and may have a lifelong effect. Studies have shown that ACEs are linked with poor adult health outcomes and could eventually raise already high health care costs. National policy interest in ACEs has recently increased, as many key players are engaged in community-, state-, and hospital-based efforts to reduce factors that contribute to childhood trauma and/or toxic stress in children. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has provided a promising foundation for advancing the prevention, diagnosis, and management of ACEs and their consequences. Although the ACA's future is unclear and it does not adequately address the needs of the pediatric population, many of the changes it spurred will continue regardless of legislative action (or inaction), and it therefore remains an important component of our health care system and national strategy to reduce ACEs. We review ways in which some of the current health care policy initiatives launched as part of the implementation of the ACA could accelerate progress in addressing ACEs by fully engaging and aligning various health care stakeholders while recognizing limitations in the law that may cause challenges in our attempts to improve child health and well-being. Specifically, we discuss coverage expansion, investments in the health workforce, a family-centered care approach, increased access to care, emphasis on preventive services, new population models, and improved provider payment models. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. All Unhappy Childhoods Are Unhappy in Their Own Way—Differential Impact of Dimensions of Adverse Childhood Experiences on Adult Mental Health and Health Behavior

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    Anna L. Westermair

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences have consistently been linked with poor mental and somatic health in adulthood. However, due to methodological restraints of the main lines of research using cumulative or selective models, little is known about the differential impact of different dimensions of adverse childhood experiences. Therefore, we gathered data from 396 psychiatric in-patients on the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE questionnaire, extracted dimensions using factor analysis and compared this dimensional model of adverse childhood experiences to cumulative and selective models. Household Dysfunction (violence against the mother, parental divorce, substance abuse or incarceration of a household member was associated with poor health behaviors (smoking, alcohol dependency and obesity as proxy marker for an imbalance between energy intake and physical activity and with poorer socio-economic achievement (lower education and income in adulthood. The previously reported associations of maltreatment and sexual abuse with these outcome criteria could not be corroborated. Both Maltreatment (emotional and physical neglect and abuse and Sexual Abuse predicted BPD, PTSD and suicidal behavior. However, the two ACE dimensions showed sufficiently divergent validity to warrant separate consideration in future studies: Maltreatment was associated with affective and anxiety disorders such as social phobia, panic disorder and major depressive disorder, whereas Sexual Abuse was associated with dysregulation of bodily sensations such as pain intensity and hunger/satiation. Also, we found both quantitative and qualitative evidence for the superiority of the dimensional approach to exploring the consequences of adverse childhood experiences in comparison to the cumulative and selective approaches.

  20. Sex Disparities in Adverse Childhood Experiences and HIV/STIs: Mediation of Psychopathology and Sexual Behaviors.

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    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Pugsley, River A; Cohen, Steven A

    2017-06-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important public health challenges in the US. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including abuse (emotional, physical or sexual), witnessing violence among household members, may have an effect on sexual behaviors, which increase the risk of HIV/STIs. The aim of this study was to examine the sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depression (MD), substance use disorders (SUDs), early sexual debut, and intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration as mediators in the association between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the role of PTSD, MD, SUDs, early sexual debut, and IPV perpetration as mediators in the relationships between ACEs and HIV/STIs. Differences and similarities existed in the mediational roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors. For example, among men, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.012) and sexual abuse (β = 0.0002; p = 0.006), and HIV/STIs while among women, MD fully mediated physical/psychological abuse (β = 0.0005; p abuse (β = -0.0005; p = 0.012) and HIV/STIs while among women, IPV perpetration was not a statistically significant mediator. HIV/STI prevention and intervention programs should use a life course approach by addressing adverse childhood events among men and women and consider the sex differences in the roles of psychopathology and sexual behaviors.

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Criminal Propensity Among Intimate Partner Violence Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Green, Michelle M

    2016-10-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), defined as exposure to abuse and adverse household events, are prevalent among certain offenders including those who commit intimate partner violence (IPV). However, it is not clear how ACEs relate to criminal propensity among IPV offenders, who have been shown to exhibit less antisociality and institutional violence than other offenders. We compared 99 male offenders with a current or previous offense of IPV with 233 non-IPV violent offenders and 103 nonviolent offenders undergoing institutional forensic assessment. This convenience sample allowed for use of extensive psychosocial records as well as study of institutional violence. IPV offenders had the highest mean ACE score and more extensive criminal propensity on some measures (violent and nonviolent criminal history and psychopathy) than both other groups. ACEs were associated with most measures of criminal propensity in the whole sample but with only one (actuarial risk of violent recidivism) in the subsample of IPV offenders. Finding that ACEs are prevalent among IPV offenders even in this sample with extensive mental illness demonstrates the robustness of this phenomenon. IPV offenders, though, are similar to other violent offenders in this respect, and there is insufficient evidence that ACEs represent a criminogenic need among IPV offenders specifically. Further research could draw from the batterer typology literature and attend to IPV offenders' broader criminal careers.

  2. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) questionnaire and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI): implications for parent child relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Anne; Steele, Miriam; Dube, Shanta Rishi; Bate, Jordan; Bonuck, Karen; Meissner, Paul; Goldman, Hannah; Steele, Howard

    2014-02-01

    Although Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) are linked to increased health problems and risk behaviors in adulthood, there are no studies on the association between ACEs and adults' states of mind regarding their early childhood attachments, loss, and trauma experiences. To validate the ACEs questions, we analyzed the association between ACEs and emotional support indicators and Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) classifications in terms of unresolved mourning regarding past loss or trauma and discordant states of mind in cannot classify (U/CC) interviews. Seventy-five urban women (41 clinical and 34 community) completed a questionnaire on ACEs, which included 10 categories of abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction, in addition to emotional support. Internal psychological processes or states of mind concerning attachment were assessed using the AAI. ACE responses were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=.88). In the clinical sample, 84% reported≥4 ACEs compared to 27% among the community sample. AAIs judged U/CC occurred in 76% of the clinical sample compared to 9% in the community sample. When ACEs were≥4, 65% of AAIs were classified U/CC. Absence of emotional support in the ACEs questionnaire was associated with 72% of AAIs being classified U/CC. As the number of ACEs and the lack of emotional support increases so too does the probability of AAIs being classified as U/CC. Findings provide rationale for including ACEs questions in pediatric screening protocols to identify and offer treatment reducing the intergenerational transmission of risk associated with problematic parenting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-reported drunkenness among adolescents in four sub-Saharan African countries: associations with adverse childhood experiences

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    Crichton Joanna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of alcohol is associated with acute and chronic adverse health outcomes. There is a paucity of studies that explore the determinants of alcohol use among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa and, in particular, that examine the effects of adverse childhood experiences on alcohol use. Methods The paper draws on nationally-representative data from 9,819 adolescents aged 12-19 years from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Malawi, and Uganda. Logistic regression models were employed to identify correlates of self-reported past-year drunkenness. Exposure to four adverse childhood experiences comprised the primary independent variables: living in a food-insecure household, living with a problem drinker, having been physically abused, and having been coerced into having sex. We controlled for age, religiosity, current schooling status, the household head's sex, living arrangements, place of residence, marital status, and country of survey. All analyses were conducted separately for males and females. Results At the bivariate level, all independent variables (except for coerced sex among males were associated with the outcome variable. Overall, 9% of adolescents reported that they had been drunk in the 12 months preceding the survey. In general, respondents who had experienced an adverse event during childhood were more likely to report drunkenness. In the multivariate analysis, only two adverse childhood events emerged as significant predictors of self-reported past-year drunkenness among males: living in a household with a problem drinker before age 10, and being physically abused before age 10. For females, exposure to family-alcoholism, experience of physical abuse, and coerced sex increased the likelihood of reporting drunkenness in the last 12 months. The association between adverse events and reported drunkenness was more pronounced for females. For both males and females there was a graded relationship between the number of

  4. Intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences and a history of childhood psychosomatic disorders among Japanese university students

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    Munemoto Takao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan has been witnessing a considerable increase in the number of children with psychosomatic disorders. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the risk of psychosomatic disorder in adolescents and intra- and extra-familial adverse childhood experiences (ACEs. Methods A retrospective cohort study of 1592 Japanese university students (52% male, mean age 19.9 years who completed a survey about intra- and extra-familial ACEs and the incidence of childhood psychosomatic disorders. Intra-familial ACEs included domestic violence, physical violence, emotional abuse, illness in household, parental divorce, no parental affection, and dysfunctional family. Extra-familial ACEs included physical violence or negative recognition by teachers, being bullied in elementary or junior high school, or sexual violence. Results The frequency of psychosomatic disorders among the respondents was 14.8%. Among the 7 intra-familial ACEs, emotional abuse (relative risk, RR = 1.9 and illness in household (RR = 1.7 increased the risk of psychosomatic disorders. Estimates of the relative risk for the 5 extra-familial ACEs were statistically significant and ranged from 1.5 for being bullied in elementary school or physical violence from teachers to 2.4. Students who had 3 or more intra-familial ACEs and 2 or more extra-familial ACEs had a 3.0 relative risk for psychosomatic disorder. Conclusion These results suggest that intra- and extra-familial ACEs are associated with the development of psychosomatic disorders. Therefore, sufficient evaluation of ACEs should be performed in adolescent patients with psychosomatic disorder.

  5. Chronic School Absenteeism and the Role of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

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    Stempel, Hilary; Cox-Martin, Matthew; Bronsert, Michael; Dickinson, L Miriam; Allison, Mandy A

    To examine the association between chronic school absenteeism and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among school-age children. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health including children 6 to 17 years old. The primary outcome variable was chronic school absenteeism (≥15 days absent in the past year). We examined the association between chronic school absenteeism and ACEs by logistic regression with weighting for individual ACEs, summed ACE score, and latent class analysis of ACEs. Among the 58,765 school-age children in the study sample, 2416 (4.1%) experienced chronic school absenteeism. Witnessing or experiencing neighborhood violence was the only individual ACE significantly associated with chronic absenteeism (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-2.01). Having 1 or more ACE was significantly associated with chronic absenteeism: 1 ACE (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.02-1.79), 2 to 3 ACEs (aOR 1.81, 95% CI 1.39-2.36), and ≥4 ACEs (aOR 1.79, 95% CI 1.32-2.43). Three of the latent classes were also associated with chronic absenteeism, and children in these classes had a high probability of endorsing neighborhood violence, family substance use, or having multiple ACEs. ACE exposure was associated with chronic school absenteeism in school-age children. To improve school attendance, along with future graduation rates and long-term health, these findings highlight the need for an interdisciplinary approach to address child adversity that involves pediatricians, mental health providers, schools, and public health partners. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Parental perspectives of screening for adverse childhood experiences in pediatric primary care.

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    Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Moira A; Jee, Sandra H; Manly, Jody T; Briggs, Rahil; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2018-03-01

    Pediatricians recognize a need to mitigate the negative impact that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have on health and development. However, ACEs screening and interventions in primary care pediatrics may be inhibited by concerns about parental perceptions. We assessed parent perspectives of screening for ACEs in the pediatric primary care setting, to understand their views on the potential impact of their ACEs on their parenting and to identify opportunities for pediatric anticipatory guidance. We used purposive sampling to recruit parents of children <6 years receiving care at an urban, pediatric clinic. Semistructured questions guided 1:1 interviews that were later coded by multiple researchers to verify reliability. A thematic framework approach guided analysis and identified main themes and subthemes. We reached thematic saturation after 15 parent interviews, which consistently revealed 3 interrelated themes. First, parents strongly supported ACEs screening as a bridge to needed services, and they recommended using a trauma-sensitive, person-centered approach in pediatric practices. Second, parents understood the intergenerational impact of ACEs and expressed a desire to break the cycle of adversity. Finally, parents saw their child's pediatrician as a potential change-agent who could provide support to meet their parenting goals. Parents want to discuss their ACEs and receive help and guidance from pediatricians. Furthermore, they perceive their child's pediatrician as having an important role to play in meeting their parenting goals. It is important to ensure that pediatricians have the training, skills and familiarity with available resources to meet parental expectations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Screening for Adverse Childhood Experiences in a Family Medicine Setting: A Feasibility Study.

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    Glowa, Patricia T; Olson, Ardis L; Johnson, Deborah J

    2016-01-01

    The role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in predicting later adverse adult health outcomes is being widely recognized by makers of public policy. ACE questionnaires have the potential to identify in clinical practice unaddressed key social issues that can influence current health risks, morbidity, and early mortality. This study seeks to explore the feasibility of implementing the ACE screening of adults during routine family medicine office visits. At 3 rural clinical practices, the 10-question ACE screen was used before visits with 111 consecutive patients of 7 clinicians. Clinician surveys about the use of the results and the effect on the visits were completed immediately after the visits. The presence of any ACE risk and "high-risk" ACE scores (≥4) were compared with clinician survey responses. A risk of ACEs was present in 62% of patients; 22% had scores ≥4. Clinicians were more likely to have discussed ACE issues for high-risk patients (score 0-3, 36.8%; score ≥4, 83.3%; P =. 00). Clinicians also perceived that they gained new information (score 0-3, 35.6%; score ≥4, 83.3%; P = .00). Clinical care changed for a small proportion of high-risk patients, with no change in immediate referrals or plan for follow-up. In 91% of visits where a risk of ACEs was present, visit length increased by ≤5 minutes. Incorporation of ACE screening during routine care is feasible and merits further study. ACE screening offers clinicians a more complete picture of important social determinants of health. Primary care-specific interventions that incorporate treatment of early life trauma are needed. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. Maternal adverse childhood experiences and antepartum risks: the moderating role of social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Nicole; Madigan, Sheri; Plamondon, Andre; Hetherington, Erin; McDonald, Sheila; Tough, Suzanne

    2018-03-28

    The aims of the current study were to examine the association between maternal adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and antepartum health risks, and to investigate whether social support moderated this association. It was hypothesized that ACEs would be associated with antepartum health risks; however, social support in the prenatal period would buffer mothers from the deleterious consequences of ACEs. Data from 1994 women (mean age = 31 years) and their infants were collected from a longitudinal cohort recruited in health care offices in Alberta, Canada. Pregnant women completed questionnaires related to ACEs prior to the age of 18 and prenatal social support, and a health care professional assessed the mother's antepartum health risk. ACEs included physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, exposure to domestic violence, as well as exposure to household dysfunction such as parental substance use, mental illness, or incarceration. Regression analyses demonstrated a positive association between ACEs and antepartum health risks. However, a significant interaction between maternal ACEs and social support was also observed. Specifically, women exposed to high ACEs and low social support in pregnancy had high antepartum health risks. However, among mothers who had high ACEs but also high levels of social support, there was no association between ACEs and antepartum health risk. A history of ACEs can place mothers at risk of antepartum health complications. However, a resiliency effect was observed: women with a history of ACEs were buffered from experiencing antepartum health risks if they reported high levels of social support in pregnancy.

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and suicide attempts among those with mental and substance use disorders.

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    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Segal, Steven P

    2017-07-01

    Using the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data, we examined the associations of ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with (1) lifetime suicide attempts and (2) number and age of attempts among U.S. adults aged 18+. In a case-control design, suicide attempters (5.14% of the full sample) were matched with never attempters (matched sample N=3912) on nine mental and substance use disorders. ACE rates were higher among attempters (3.30 [SE=0.07]) than their matched controls (2.19 [SE=0.06]). Results from multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that sexual abuse and parental/other family member's mental illness were associated with increased odds of having attempted suicide among both genders, and emotional neglect was also a factor for men. Population attributable risk fractions for sexual abuse were 25.75% for women and 8.56% for men. Sexual abuse and a higher number of ACEs were also related to repeated suicide attempts. A higher number of ACEs was associated with a younger first attempt age. Gay/bisexual orientation in men and the lack of college education in both genders were significant covariates. In conclusion, this study underscores that ACEs are significantly associated with lifetime suicide attempts even when mental and substance use disorders are controlled. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of Adverse Childhood Experiences on social determinants among Saudi adults.

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    Almuneef, Maha; ElChoueiry, Nathalie; Saleheen, Hassan; Al-Eissa, Majid

    2017-12-27

    Early exposure to violence has deleterious effect on the child's brain development. The aims for this project were to assess the prevalence of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and their impact on social determinants in Saudi Arabia (SA). A cross-sectional, national study conducted in all regions of SA using the World Health Organization-ACE-International Questionnaire to determine the association between ACEs and socioeconomic outcomes. A total of 10 156 participants completed the questionnaire with five main ACE categories (abuse, neglect, family dysfunction, peer and community violence). Over half of the sample (52%) experienced emotional abuse, followed by physical abuse (42%), bullying (39%), neglect (29%) and sexual abuse (21%). The most common family dysfunction was witnessing domestic violence against any household member (57%) and the least prevalent was living with a substance abuser (9%). Low educational attainment, disruption in marital life and substance abuse were significantly affected by all ACE categories. However, unemployment was marginally affected only by neglect and household dysfunction. ACEs are highly prevalent in SA and have significant negative impact on life opportunities. National preventive programs should be implemented to reduce ACE and their deleterious outcomes. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Parental Alcoholism, Adverse Childhood Experiences, and Later Risk of Personal Alcohol Abuse among Chinese Medical Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN XIAO; MA-XIA DONG; JIE YAO; WEN-XIAN LI; DONG-QING YE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the status of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the association of multiple ACEs with both parental alcoholism and later personal alcohol abuse among Chinese medical students with a view of improving adolescent health and reducing alcohol abuse among them. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 2073 Chinese medical students completed a survey on ten categories of ACEs in Anhui province of China. The association of parental alcoholism with ACEs and personal lcohol abuse was assessed by logistic regression analyses. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for each category of ACEs in the subjects whose parents (either fathers or mothers or oth) had alcohol abuse was 2 to 14 times higher than that inthose with parental alcoholism (P<0.05). Subjects with i-parental alcoholism had the highest likelihood of ACEs. Compared with the subjects without ACEs, the risk of personal alcohol abuse was increased by 2-4-folds in the subjects with ACEs, irrespective of parental alcoholism (P<0.05). The total number of ACEs (ACE score) had a graded relationship to 4 categories of personal alcohol abuse with or without parental alcoholism. The prevalence of personal alcohol abuse among the subjects with parental alcoholism was higher, which was ndependent of ACE scores. Conclusion The prevalence of ACEs is generally serious in China. Efforts should be made to prevent and treat children with ACEs and subsequently to reduce alcohol abuse and later problems.

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and gender influence treatment seeking behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Pozzi, Elena; Giacosa, Chiara; Smeraldi, Enrico

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increases the risk of adult physical and mental health disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and influences adult brain structure and function. ACE could influence the use of psychotropic drugs in adulthood, and treatment seeking behaviors. We assessed the severity of ACE in a sample of 31 healthy controls and 66 patients with OCD who were consecutively referred for hospitalization and were either drug-naïve or drug-treated. In addition, we explored the possible clinical relevance of ACE with two additional analyses: (a) a discriminant function analysis with sex and ACE as factors, and (b) a logistic regression with use of medication as dependent variable and ACE as factor. Despite comparable age, years at school, age at onset of illness, duration of illness, and severity of illness (Y-BOCS), adult drug-naïve patients reported lower exposure to ACE and later contacts with mental health professionals than drug-treated. This effect was particularly evident in female patients compared to males. The interaction of gender with factors linked with the early familial environment biased access to psychiatric care and use of medication, independent of OCD-associated factors such as severity of symptoms or duration of illness. The need for medications of patients could be higher in families where OCD symptomatology is associated with ACE. © 2014.

  13. Differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences in the development of mental health symptoms in post-war adolescents in northern Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, James; De Schryver, Maarten; Musisi, Seggane; Broekaert, Eric; Derluyn, Ilse

    2014-09-09

    Previous studies have shown a relationship between stressful war experiences and mental health symptoms in children and adolescents. To date, no comprehensive studies on the role of childhood adversities have been conducted with war-exposed adolescents living in post-war, low-resource settings in Sub-Saharan Africa. A cross-sectional study of 551 school-going adolescents aged 13-21 years old was undertaken four years post-war in northern Uganda. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires assessing demographics, stressful war experiences, childhood adversities, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms. Our analyses revealed a main effect of gender on all mental health outcomes except avoidance symptoms, with girls reporting higher scores than boys. Stressful war experiences were associated with all mental health symptoms, after adjusting for potential confounders. Childhood adversity was independently associated with depression symptoms but not PTSD, anxiety, and PTSD cluster symptoms. However, in situations of high childhood adversity, our analyses showed that stressful war experiences were less associated with vulnerability to avoidance symptoms than in situations of low childhood adversity. Both stressful war experiences and childhood adversities are risk factors for mental health symptoms among war-affected adolescents. Adolescents with histories of high childhood adversities may be less likely to develop avoidance symptoms in situations of high stressful war experiences. Further exploration of the differential roles of childhood adversities and stressful war experiences is needed.

  14. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Ford, Earl S; Croft, Janet B; Merrick, Melissa T; Rolle, Italia V; Giles, Wayne H

    2014-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the general population. Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61), sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10), living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81), witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72), and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80) during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs. Reporting ≥5 ACEs (PR =2.08, 95% CI: 1.55, 2.80) compared to none was associated with a higher likelihood of COPD among women only. ACEs are related to COPD, especially among women. These findings underscore the need for further research that examines sex-specific differences and the possible mechanisms linking ACEs and COPD. This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions.

  15. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose, Sophia Miryam; Eslinger, Jessica G; Zimmerman, Lindsey; Scaccia, Jamie; Lai, Betty S; Lewis, Catrin; Alisic, Eva

    2016-01-01

    To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability. Adults (ages 18-64) who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009). The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional) and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce). Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support) and structural (living with another adult) support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race) and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health) to the model. ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories). ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs). Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63]) and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56]) were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health. ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to

  16. Do Pediatricians Ask About Adverse Childhood Experiences in Pediatric Primary Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Bonnie D; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Szilagyi, Moira; Stein, Ruth E K; Garner, Andrew S; O'Connor, Karen G; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Horwitz, Sarah M

    2016-03-01

    The stress associated with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has immediate and long-lasting effects. The objectives of this study were to examine 1) how often pediatricians ask patients' families about ACEs, 2) how familiar pediatricians are with the original ACE study, and 3) physician/practice characteristics, physicians' mental health training, and physicians' attitudes/beliefs that are associated with asking about ACEs. Data were collected from 302 nontrainee pediatricians exclusively practicing general pediatrics who completed the 2013 American Academy of Pediatrics Periodic Survey. Pediatricians indicated whether they usually, sometimes, or never inquired about or screened for 7 ACEs. Sample weights were used to reduce nonresponse bias. Weighted descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Only 4% of pediatricians usually asked about all 7 ACEs; 32% did not usually ask about any. Less than 11% of pediatricians reported being very or somewhat familiar with the ACE study. Pediatricians who screened/inquired about ACEs usually asked about maternal depression (46%) and parental separation/divorce (42%). Multivariable analyses showed that pediatricians had more than twice the odds of usually asking about ACEs if they disagreed that they have little effect on influencing positive parenting skills, disagreed that screening for social emotional risk factors within the family is beyond the scope of pediatricians, or were very interested in receiving further education on managing/treating mental health problems in children and adolescents. Few pediatricians ask about all ACEs. Pediatric training that emphasizes the importance of social/emotional risk factors may increase the identification of ACEs in pediatric primary care. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Adverse childhood experiences, chronic diseases, and risky health behaviors in Saudi Arabian adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuneef, Maha; Qayad, Mohammed; Aleissa, Majid; Albuhairan, Fadia

    2014-11-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked with risky health behaviors and the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. This study examined associations between ACEs, chronic diseases, and risky behaviors in adults living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in 2012 using the ACE International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). A cross-sectional design was used, and adults who were at least 18 years of age were eligible to participate. ACEs event scores were measured for neglect, household dysfunction, abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional), and peer and community violence. The ACE-IQ was supplemented with questions on risky health behaviors, chronic diseases, and mood. A total of 931 subjects completed the questionnaire (a completion rate of 88%); 57% of the sample was female, 90% was younger than 45 years, 86% had at least a college education, 80% were Saudi nationals, and 58% were married. One-third of the participants (32%) had been exposed to 4 or more ACEs, and 10%, 17%, and 23% had been exposed to 3, 2, or 1 ACEs respectively. Only 18% did not have an ACE. The prevalence of risky health behaviors ranged between 4% and 22%. The prevalence of self-reported chronic diseases ranged between 6% and 17%. Being exposed to 4 or more ACEs increased the risk of having chronic diseases by 2-11 fold, and increased risky health behaviors by 8-21 fold. The findings of this study will contribute to the planning and development of programs to prevent child maltreatment and to alleviate the burden of chronic diseases in adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Case for Including Adverse Childhood Experiences in Child Maltreatment Education: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A

    2018-01-01

    Context The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. Objective To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Design Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners’ reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Main Outcome Measures Medical practitioners’ ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). Results The optimized path diagram (χ2SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable “knowledge about ACEs” as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. Conclusion This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs. PMID:29616910

  19. The Case for Including Adverse Childhood Experiences in Child Maltreatment Education: A Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Michael; Bachmann, Brittany A

    2018-03-16

    The lifelong, negative consequences of exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) for individuals and their families are well established. To demonstrate the importance of including ACE information in child maltreatment education curricula using path analysis. Survey data examined the impact of child maltreatment education programs and knowledge about ACEs on medical practitioners' reporting habits and ability to detect maltreatment. A path diagram distinguished between the direct impact of education programs on outcome measures and the indirect effect that is mediated through knowledge of ACEs. Medical practitioners' ability to detect child maltreatment and their number of referrals to Child Protective Services (CPS). The optimized path diagram (χ 2 SB(3) = 3.9, p = 0.27; RMSEA-SB = 0.017; R 2 = 0.21, where SB is Satorra-Bentler coefficient and RMSEA is root-mean-square error of approximation) revealed the mediating variable "knowledge about ACEs" as the strongest structural effect (SB-β = 0.34) on the number of CPS referrals. It was almost twice as high as the second strongest effect of formal education programs (SB-β = 0.19). For workplace training programs, the total effect when including knowledge of ACEs was almost double as strong as the direct effect alone. Even when previous child maltreatment education was controlled for, practitioners familiar with the consequences of ACEs were significantly more likely to recognize and to report abuse to CPS. This study documented the importance of specialized training programs on ACEs, and the essential role ACE knowledge plays in the effectiveness of provider education programs.

  20. Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham TJ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy J Cunningham,1 Earl S Ford,1 Janet B Croft,1 Melissa T Merrick,2 Italia V Rolle,3 Wayne H Giles1 1Division of Population Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Division of Violence Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Office on Smoking and Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Purpose: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs before age 18 have been repeatedly associated with several chronic diseases in adulthood such as depression, heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and stroke. We examined sex-specific relationships between individual ACEs and the number of ACEs with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the general population. Materials and methods: Data from 26,546 women and 19,015 men aged ≥18 years in five states of the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were analyzed. We used log-linear regression to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs for the relationship of eight ACEs with COPD after adjustment for age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, educational attainment, employment, asthma history, health insurance coverage, and smoking status. Results: Some 63.8% of women and 62.2% of men reported ≥1 ACE. COPD was reported by 4.9% of women and 4.0% of men. In women, but not in men, there was a higher likelihood of COPD associated with verbal abuse (PR =1.30, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.61, sexual abuse (PR =1.69, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.10, living with a substance abusing household member (PR =1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.81, witnessing domestic violence (PR =1.40, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.72, and parental separation/divorce (PR =1.47, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.80 during childhood compared to those with no individual ACEs

  1. Rural–urban differences in exposure to adverse childhood experiences among South Carolina adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Elizabeth; Crouch, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur in a child's life between birth and 18 years. Exposure to one or more ACE has been linked to participation in risky health behaviors and the experience of chronic health conditions in adulthood. The risk for poor outcomes increases as the number of ACEs experienced increases. This research investigates rural-urban differences in exposure to ACEs using a sample from a representative southern US state, South Carolina. Using data from the 2014-2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and residential rurality based on UICs, ACE exposure among South Carolina adults was tabulated by urban versus rural residence and selected other demographic characteristics. Using standard descriptive statistics, frequencies and proportions were calculated for each categorical variable. Multivariable regression modeling was used to examine the impact of residential rurality and selected sociodemographic characteristics on overall and specific types of ACE exposure. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. The analytic sample of 18 176 respondents comprised 15.9% rural residents. Top reported ACEs for both rural and urban residents were the same: parental divorce/separation, emotional abuse, and household substance use. Compared to urban residents, a higher proportion of rural respondents reported experiencing no ACEs (41.4% vs 38.3%, purban respondents had four or more ACEs (purban respondents to report four or more ACEs (adjusted odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.75). Despite reporting less ACE exposure than urban counterparts, almost 60% of rural residents reported at least one ACE and 15% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast to urban residents, rural residents may experience more social connections within their families and communities, which may influence ACE exposure; however, care coordination, social

  2. Adverse childhood experiences and health-related quality of life in adulthood: revelations from a community needs assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A.; Salemi, Jason L.; King, Lindsey M.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Berry, Estrellita ?Lo?; Austin, Deborah A.; Scarborough, Kenneth; Spooner, Kiara K.; Zoorob, Roger J.; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been previously linked to quality of life, health conditions, and life expectancy in adulthood. Less is known about the potential mechanisms which mediate these associations. This study examined how ACE influences adult health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a low-income community in Florida. Methods A community-based participatory needs assessment was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 with 201 residents of Tampa, Florida, USA. H...

  3. Disparities in adverse childhood experiences among sexual minority and heterosexual adults: results from a multi-state probability-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P Andersen

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences (e.g., physical, sexual and emotional abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence, parental discord, familial mental illness, incarceration and substance abuse constitute a major public health problem in the United States. The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE scale is a standardized measure that captures multiple developmental risk factors beyond sexual, physical and emotional abuse. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (i.e., sexual minority individuals may experience disproportionately higher prevalence of adverse childhood experiences.To examine, using the ACE scale, prevalence of childhood physical, emotional, and sexual abuse and childhood household dysfunction among sexual minority and heterosexual adults.Analyses were conducted using a probability-based sample of data pooled from three U.S. states' Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS surveys (Maine, Washington, Wisconsin that administered the ACE scale and collected information on sexual identity (n = 22,071.Compared with heterosexual respondents, gay/lesbian and bisexual individuals experienced increased odds of six of eight and seven of eight adverse childhood experiences, respectively. Sexual minority persons had higher rates of adverse childhood experiences (IRR = 1.66 gay/lesbian; 1.58 bisexual compared to their heterosexual peers.Sexual minority individuals have increased exposure to multiple developmental risk factors beyond physical, sexual and emotional abuse. We recommend the use of the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale in future research examining health disparities among this minority population.

  4. The serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) and childhood adversity are associated with the personality trait openness to experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Shafiqur; Guban, Peter; Wang, Mei; Melas, Philippe A; Forsell, Yvonne; Lavebratt, Catharina

    2017-11-01

    There is evidence supporting an association between the serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Five Factor Model (FFM) of human personality. 5-HTTLPR has also been found to interact with stressful life events to increase risk of psychopathology. In the present study, by taking into account stressful life events in the form of childhood adversity, we examined the association between 5-HTTLPR and FFM traits using an adult Swedish cohort (N = 3112). We found that 5-HTTLPR was significantly associated with openness (to experience). Specifically, homozygote carriers of the short allele had lower levels of openness compared to carriers of the long allele. In addition, childhood adversity was found to influence openness. These findings support a previously reported association of 5-HTTLPR with openness in a younger cohort and may provide insights into the neurobiological basis of human personality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences, Support, and the Perception of Ability to Work in Adults with Disability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Miryam Schüssler-Fiorenza Rose

    Full Text Available To examine the impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and support on self-reported work inability of adults reporting disability.Adults (ages 18-64 who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System in 2009 or 2010 and who reported having a disability (n = 13,009.The study used a retrospective cohort design with work inability as the main outcome. ACE categories included abuse (sexual, physical, emotional and family dysfunction (domestic violence, incarceration, mental illness, substance abuse, divorce. Support included functional (perceived emotional/social support and structural (living with another adult support. Logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders (age, sex and race and to evaluate whether there was an independent effect of ACEs on work inability after adding other important predictors (support, education, health to the model.ACEs were highly prevalent with almost 75% of the sample reporting at least one ACE category and over 25% having a high ACE burden (4 or more categories. ACEs were strongly associated with functional support. Participants experiencing a high ACE burden had a higher adjusted odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval] of 1.9 [1.5-2.4] of work inability (reference: zero ACEs. Good functional support (adjusted OR 0.52 [0.42-0.63] and structural support (adjusted OR 0.48 [0.41-0.56] were protective against work inability. After adding education and health to the model, ACEs no longer appeared to have an independent effect. Structural support remained highly protective, but functional support only appeared to be protective in those with good physical health.ACEs are highly prevalent in working-age US adults with a disability, particularly young adults. ACEs are associated with decreased support, lower educational attainment and worse adult health. Health care providers are encouraged to screen for ACEs. Addressing the effects of ACEs on health and support, in addition to

  7. Adverse childhood or adult experiences and risk of bilateral oophorectomy: a population-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzuola Rocca, Liliana; Smith, Carin Y; Grossardt, Brandon R; Faubion, Stephanie S; Shuster, Lynne T; Stewart, Elizabeth A; Rocca, Walter A

    2017-06-07

    Bilateral oophorectomy has commonly been performed in conjunction with hysterectomy even in women without a clear ovarian indication; however, oophorectomy may have long-term deleterious consequences. To better understand this surgical practice from the woman's perspective, we studied the possible association of adverse childhood or adult experiences with the subsequent occurrence of bilateral oophorectomy. Population-based case-control study. Olmsted County, Minnesota (USA). From an established population-based cohort study, we sampled 128 women who underwent bilateral oophorectomy before age 46 years for a non-cancerous condition in 1988-2007 (cases) and 128 age-matched controls (±1 year). Information about adverse experiences was abstracted from the medical records dating back to age 15 years or earlier archived in the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system. Adverse childhood experiences were summarised using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) score. We observed an association of bilateral oophorectomy performed before age 46 years with verbal or emotional abuse, physical abuse, any abuse, substance abuse in the household, and with an ACE score ≥1 experienced before age 19 years (OR=3.23; 95% CI 1.73 to 6.02; padult abuse are at increased risk of undergoing bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. We suggest that the association may be explained by a series of biological, emotional, and psychodynamic mechanisms. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and the Risk of Criminal Justice Involvement and Victimization Among Homeless Adults With Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Hanie; Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Roy, Laurence; Somers, Julian M; Patterson, Michelle L

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is highly prevalent among homeless individuals and is associated with negative consequences during homelessness. This study examined the effect of ACEs on the risk of criminal justice involvement and victimization among homeless individuals with mental illness. The study used baseline data from a demonstration project (At Home/Chez Soi) that provided Housing First and recovery-oriented services to homeless adults with mental illness. The sample was recruited from five Canadian cities and included participants who provided valid responses on an ACEs questionnaire (N=1,888). Fifty percent reported more than four types of ACE, 19% reported three or four types, 19% reported one or two, and 12% reported none. Rates of criminal justice involvement and victimization were significantly higher among those with a history of ACEs. For victimization, the association was significant for all ten types of ACE, and for justice involvement, it was significant for seven types. Logistic regression models indicated that the effect of cumulative childhood adversity on the two outcomes was significant regardless of sociodemographic factors, duration of homelessness, and psychiatric diagnosis, with one exception: the relationship between cumulative childhood adversity and criminal justice involvement did not remain significant when the analysis controlled for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence. Findings support the need for early interventions for at-risk youths and trauma-informed practice and violence prevention policies that specifically target homeless populations.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences among a Community of Resilient Centenarians and Seniors: Implications for a Chronic Disease Prevention Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer-Hwang, Rhonda; Torres, Xochitl; Valladares, Johanny; Pasco-Rubio, Marco; Dougherty, Molly; Kim, Wonha

    2018-03-11

    Research has linked adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with chronic disease in adults and diminished life span. Adverse biological embedding of ACEs potentially occurs through inflammatory mechanisms; inflammatory marker alterations are identified as candidate biomarkers for mediating health consequences. Lifestyle practices of residents of California's Loma Linda Blue Zone, one of five worldwide longevity hotspots, may provide insight into inflammation remediation and chronic disease prevention. Little research has been done on centenarians' early-life experiences or on ACEs in a longevity community. To interview centenarians and seniors in this region regarding their childhood experiences to inform chronic disease prevention frameworks. Qualitative study of Loma Linda Blue Zone community members. Childhood exposures and practices were assessed using focus groups and semistructured key informant interviews, with open-ended questions on general hardships and ACEs and supplemented with lifestyle and resiliency factor questions. Data were audiorecorded and transcribed. Integrative grounded theory methods guided coding and theming. Exposure to ACEs and practice of resiliency factors. Participants (7 centenarians and 29 seniors) reported exposure to multiple ACEs (domains: Economic deprivation, family dysfunction, and community violence). Community members reported practicing resiliency factors, each with anti-inflammatory properties suggesting mitigation of ACE-related toxic stress. This is one of the first studies of its kind to identify a community of resilient members despite their tremendous burden of ACEs. Embedding the identified resiliency factors into chronic disease prevention frameworks has potential for mitigating systemic inflammation, alleviating chronic disease burden, and promoting a culture of health.

  10. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  11. Animal cruelty as an indicator of family trauma: Using adverse childhood experiences to look beyond child abuse and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Melissa A; Huq, Mona Sayedul; Spencer, Terry; Applebaum, Jennifer W; Hardt, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships between adverse childhood experiences and adult mental well-being: results from an English national household survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hughes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals’ childhood experiences can strongly influence their future health and well-being. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs such as abuse and dysfunctional home environments show strong cumulative relationships with physical and mental illness yet less is known about their effects on mental well-being in the general population. Methods A nationally representative household survey of English adults (n = 3,885 measuring current mental well-being (Short Edinburgh-Warwick Mental Well-being Scale SWEMWBS and life satisfaction and retrospective exposure to nine ACEs. Results Almost half of participants (46.4 % had suffered at least one ACE and 8.3 % had suffered four or more. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs for low life satisfaction and low mental well-being increased with the number of ACEs. AORs for low ratings of all individual SWEMWBS components also increased with ACE count, particularly never or rarely feeling close to others. Of individual ACEs, growing up in a household affected by mental illness and suffering sexual abuse had the most relationships with markers of mental well-being. Conclusions Childhood adversity has a strong cumulative relationship with adult mental well-being. Comprehensive mental health strategies should incorporate interventions to prevent ACEs and moderate their impacts from the very earliest stages of life.

  13. Effect of adverse childhood experiences on physical health in adulthood: Results of a study conducted in Baghdad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameel F Al-Shawi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have revealed a powerful relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and physical and mental health in adulthood. Literature documents the conversion of traumatic emotional experiences in childhood into organic disease later in life. Objective: The aim was to estimate the effect of childhood experiences on the physical health of adults in Baghdad city. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2013 to January 2014. The study sample was drawn from Baghdad city. Multistage sampling techniques were used in choosing 13 primary health care centers and eight colleges of three universities in Baghdad. In addition, teachers of seven primary schools and two secondary schools were chosen by a convenient method. Childhood experiences were measured by applying a modified standardized ACEs-International Questionnaire form and with questions for bonding to family and parental monitoring. Physical health assessment was measured by a modified questionnaire derived from Health Appraisal Questionnaire of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The questionnaire includes questions on cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, tumor, respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Results: Logistic regression model showed that a higher level of bonding to family (fourth quartile is expected to reduce the risk of chronic physical diseases by almost the half (odds ratio = 0.57 and exposure to a high level of household dysfunction and abuse (fourth quartile is expected to increase the risk of chronic physical diseases by 81%. Conclusion: Childhood experiences play a major role in the determination of health outcomes in adulthood, and early prevention of ACEs. Encouraging strong family bonding can promote physical health in later life.

  14. Life course pathways of adverse childhood experiences toward adult psychological well-being: A stress process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S; Green, Sara; Logan-Greene, Patricia; Borja, Sharon

    2015-07-01

    Growing evidence suggests that toxic stressors early in life not only convey developmental impacts but also augment risk of proliferating chains of additional stressors that can overwhelm individual coping and undermine recovery and health. Examining trauma within a life course stress process perspective, we posit that early childhood adversity carries a unique capacity to impair adult psychological well-being both independent of and cumulative with other contributors, including social disadvantage and stressful adult experiences. This study uses data from a representative population-based health survey (N=13,593) to provide one of the first multivariate assessments of unique, cumulative, and moderated effects of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) toward explaining 3 related yet distinct measures of adult mental health: perceived well-being, psychological distress, and impaired daily activities. Results demonstrate support for each set of hypothesized associations, including exacerbation and amelioration of ACEs effects by adult stress and resilience resources, respectively. Implications for services and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Poor mental health among low-income women in the U.S.: The roles of adverse childhood and adult experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P; Janczewski, Colleen E; Nitkowski, Jenna C

    2018-06-01

    It is well established that exposure to a greater number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases the risk of poor physical and mental health outcomes. Given the predictive validity of ACE scores and other cumulative risk metrics, a similar measurement approach may advance the study of risk in adulthood. We examined the prevalence and interrelations of 10 adverse adult experiences, including household events such as intimate partner violence and extrafamilial events such as crime victimization. We also tested the relation between cumulative adult adversity and later mental health problems, and we examined whether adult adversity mediates the link between childhood adversity and mental health. Data were collected from 501 women in the Families and Children Thriving Study, a longitudinal investigation of low-income families that received home visiting services in Wisconsin. We conducted correlation analyses to assess interrelations among study measures along with multivariate analyses to test the effects of childhood and adult adversity on three outcomes: depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We then fit a structural equation model to test whether the effects of childhood adversity on mental health are mediated by adult adversity. Over 80% of participants endorsed at least one adverse adult experience. Adult adversities correlated with each other and with the mental health outcomes. Controlling for ACEs and model covariates, adult adversity scores were positively associated with depression, anxiety, and PTSD scores. Path analyses revealed that the ACE-mental health connection was mediated by adult adversity. Our findings indicate that mental health problems may be better understood by accounting for processes through which early adversity leads to later adversity. Pending replication, this line of research has the potential to improve the identification of populations that are at risk of poor health outcomes. Copyright © 2018

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and risk for suicidal behavior in male Iraq and Afghanistan veterans seeking PTSD treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Timothy D; Currier, Joseph M; McCormick, Wesley H; Drescher, Kent D

    2017-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with increased risk for suicide and appear to occur in disproportionately high rates among men who served in the U.S. military. However, research has yet to examine a comprehensive range of ACEs among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or whether these premilitary stressors may contribute to suicidal behavior in this highly vulnerable population. A sample of 217 men entering a residential program for combat-related PTSD completed measures for ACEs, combat exposure, and lifetime suicidal ideation and attempts. The majority of patients had experienced multiple types of adversity or traumas during childhood/adolescence. In particular, 83.4% endorsed at least 1 ACE category and 41.5% reported experiencing 4 or more ACEs. When accounting for effects of deployment-related stressors, we further found that accumulation of ACEs was uniquely linked with thoughts of suicide or attempts among these patients. Namely, for every 1-point increase on the ACE Questionnaire, veterans' risk of suicidal ideation and attempts increased by 23% and 24%, respectively. This brief report provides initial evidence that veterans seeking treatment for combat-related PTSD often have extensive histories of premilitary stressors that may increase suicide risk beyond probable deployment-related traumas. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Child and Adolescent Suicide Attempts, Suicidal Behavior, and Adverse Childhood Experiences in South Africa: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Boyes, Mark E; Sherr, Lorraine

    2015-07-01

    This is the first known prospective study of child suicidal behavior in sub-Saharan Africa. Aims were to determine whether (1) cumulative exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) predicts later suicidality and (2) heightened risks are mediated by mental health disorder and drug/alcohol misuse. Longitudinal repeated interviews were conducted 1 year apart (97% retention) with 3,515 adolescents aged 10-18 years in South Africa (56% female; areas from urban/rural sites within two provinces and door-to-door sampling included all homes with a resident adolescent. Measures included past-month suicide attempts, planning, and ideation, mental health disorders, drug/alcohol use, and ACE, for example, parental death by AIDS or homicide, abuse, and exposure to community violence. Analyses included multivariate logistic regression and multiple mediation tests. Past-month suicidality rates were 3.2% of adolescents attempting, 5.8% planning, and 7.2% reporting ideation. After controlling for baseline suicidality and sociodemographics, a strong, graded relationship was shown between cumulative ACE and all suicide behaviors 1 year later. Baseline mental health, but not drug/alcohol misuse, mediated relationships between ACE and subsequent suicidality. Suicide attempts rose from 1.9% among adolescents with no ACE to 6.3% among adolescents with >5 ACEs (cumulative odds ratio [OR], 2.46; confidence interval [CI], 1.00-6.05); for suicide planning, from 2.4% to 12.5% (cumulative OR, 4.40; CI, 2.08-9.29); and for suicide ideation, from 4.2% to 15.6% (cumulative OR, 2.99; CI, 1.68-5.53). Preventing and mitigating childhood adversities have the potential to reduce suicidality. Among adolescents already exposed to adversities, effective mental health services may buffer against future suicidality. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, A E; Stansfeld, S A; Smuk, M; Lain, D; van der Horst, M; Vickerstaff, S; Clark, C

    2017-06-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals' future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the life-span and sickness benefit in early adulthood. This study builds upon previous research by examining associations between childhood adversity and self-reported labour force participation among older adults (aged 55). Data was from the National Child Development Study - a prospective cohort of all English, Scottish, & Welsh births in one week in 1958. There was evidence for associations between childhood adversity and increased risk of permanent sickness at 55 years - which were largely sustained after adjustment for educational disengagement and adulthood factors (mental/physical health, qualifications, socioeconomic disadvantage). Specifically, children who were abused or neglected were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. In addition, among males, those in care, those experiencing illness in the home, and those experiencing two or more childhood adversities were more likely to be permanently sick at 55 years. Childhood factors were also associated with part-time employment and retirement at 55 years. Severe childhood adversities may represent important distal predictors of labour force exit at 55 years, particularly via permanent sickness. Notably, some adversities show associations among males only, which may inform interventions designed to extend working lives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical and mental health correlates of adverse childhood experiences among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Gringeri, Christina; Vogel-Ferguson, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    The present study used secondary data gathered from a statewide random sample of 1,073 adult women enrolled in Utah's single-parent cash assistance program and logistic regression to examine associations between self-reported physical, emotional, and sexual abuse during childhood and later life physical and mental health indicators. Results demonstrated significant associations between low-income women's self-reports of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse in childhood, and current and lifetime anxiety disorder, domestic violence, current posttraumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, physical health or mental health issues, and any mental health diagnosis. These results build on previous research to paint a fuller picture of the associations between childhood abuse and physical and mental health for low-income women in Utah. Consistent with research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, findings suggest the applicability of conceptualizing childhood abuse as a public health issue. Social workers can play an integral role in promoting and implementing broader screening practices, connecting affected individuals with long-term interventions, and applying research findings to the design and provision of services within a public health model.

  20. Longtintudinal asscociations of experience of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A.E; Stansfield, S.A; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; Van der Horst, Mariska; Vickerstaff, Sarah; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  1. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in the life-course to enhance individuals’ future capacity for extending their working lives. Childhood adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage have previously been linked to ill-health across the li...

  2. Future Directions in Childhood Adversity and Youth Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Despite long-standing interest in the influence of adverse early experiences on mental health, systematic scientific inquiry into childhood adversity and developmental outcomes has emerged only recently. Existing research has amply demonstrated that exposure to childhood adversity is associated with elevated risk for multiple forms of youth psychopathology. In contrast, knowledge of developmental mechanisms linking childhood adversity to the onset of psychopathology-and whether those mechanisms are general or specific to particular kinds of adversity-remains cursory. Greater understanding of these pathways and identification of protective factors that buffer children from developmental disruptions following exposure to adversity is essential to guide the development of interventions to prevent the onset of psychopathology following adverse childhood experiences. This article provides recommendations for future research in this area. In particular, use of a consistent definition of childhood adversity, integration of studies of typical development with those focused on childhood adversity, and identification of distinct dimensions of environmental experience that differentially influence development are required to uncover mechanisms that explain how childhood adversity is associated with numerous psychopathology outcomes (i.e., multifinality) and identify moderators that shape divergent trajectories following adverse childhood experiences. A transdiagnostic model that highlights disruptions in emotional processing and poor executive functioning as key mechanisms linking childhood adversity with multiple forms of psychopathology is presented as a starting point in this endeavour. Distinguishing between general and specific mechanisms linking childhood adversity with psychopathology is needed to generate empirically informed interventions to prevent the long-term consequences of adverse early environments on children's development.

  3. Adverse childhood experiences and intimate partner aggression in the US: sex differences and similarities in psychosocial mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Perera, Robert A; Masho, Saba W; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Six in ten people in the general population have been exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in the US. The main objective of this study was to assess sex differences in the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), substance abuse, and depression as mediators in the association between ACEs and intimate partner aggression. Data were obtained from Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Structural equation modeling was used to determine the mediational role of PTSD, substance abuse and depression in the association between ACE constructs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration/psychopathology) and intimate partner aggression. Among men, PTSD mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and intimate partner aggression. However, among men and women, substance abuse mediated the relationship between physical and psychological abuse and intimate partner aggression. IPV programs geared towards aggressors should address abuse (sexual, physical and psychological), which occurred during childhood and recent substance abuse and PTSD. These programs should be implemented for men and women. Programs aimed at preventing abuse of children may help to reduce rates of depression and PTSD in adulthood, and subsequent intimate partner aggression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight Loss Trajectories and Adverse Childhood Experience among Obese Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofey, Dana L; El Nokali, Nermeen E; Jackson Foster, Lovie J; Seiler, Emily; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth

    2018-03-08

    To examine the effect of childhood trauma and family history of psychiatric illness on weight loss trajectories of obese, female adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prospective study. PCOS and adolescent medicine outpatient clinics. Participants were, on average, 15.8 years of age, 80% Caucasian (39/49 participants), and had a body mass index of 36.8 ± 8.8. Healthy Bodies, Healthy Minds is an evidence-based one-on-one intervention consisting of 4 weekly sessions, 4 biweekly sessions, and 3 monthly booster sessions. Each session was 45-60 minutes long with 15-30 minutes of physical activity with a lifestyle coach. Paired sample t tests were used to assess group differences in pre- and post-treatment weight between participants reporting childhood trauma and body mass index-matched controls not endorsing trauma. One-way analysis of variance was performed to assess the influence of childhood trauma on weight loss between the 2 groups. Adolescents without a family history of psychiatric illness lost more weight (mean, -1.28 kg; SD, 6.89) than those who had a family history of psychiatric illness (mean, -0.64 kg; SD, 4.7) from baseline to booster session completion (6 months). However, results of independent t tests did not reveal statistically significant group differences in weight loss from baseline to booster session completion (t 21  = 0.51; P = .6). Obese adolescents with PCOS who have experienced childhood trauma can lose weight and acquire its health benefits when enrolled in an intervention addressing weight, mood, and sleep. Family history of psychiatric illness emerged as a potential predictor of lesser weight loss. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Childhood adversity and insomnia in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Raffeld, Miriam R; Slopen, Natalie; Hale, Lauren; Dunn, Erin C

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to evaluate the association between exposure to childhood adversity and insomnia, with an emphasis on the role of adversity type, timing, and accumulation (i.e., the number of specific types of adversities the child reported being exposed to). Our analytic sample comprised 9582 adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A), a nationally representative population-based sample. We examined the association between 18 different types of retrospectively reported adversities (capturing interpersonal violence, accidents and injuries, social network or witnessing events, and other adverse events) and risk of self-reported past-year insomnia. We also examined whether the age at first exposure to adversity was associated with the risk of insomnia, and whether exposure to a greater number of different types of adversities (ie, accumulation) conferred an elevated risk of insomnia. In addition, we performed a sensitivity analysis excluding adolescents with a past-year diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), or generalized anxiety disorder. Almost one-third of adolescents reported insomnia, with a higher prevalence among girls and those from racial/ethnic minority groups. Adolescents exposed to at least one childhood adversity of any type (59.41%) were more likely than their nonexposed peers to experience insomnia (across adversities, prevalence ratios (PRs) ranged from 1.31 to 1.89). Risk of insomnia differed based on the age at first exposure to adversity as well as the type of adversity. Adolescents exposed to a greater number of different types of adversities had a higher risk of insomnia compared to those experiencing fewer adversities. These results were similar, by and large, to those obtained after excluding adolescents with at least one of the four past-year psychiatric disorders. Exposure to adversity confers an elevated risk of insomnia. This association varied by type

  6. Adverse childhood experiences and health-related quality of life in adulthood: revelations from a community needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Miranda, Abraham A; Salemi, Jason L; King, Lindsey M; Baldwin, Julie A; Berry, Estrellita Lo; Austin, Deborah A; Scarborough, Kenneth; Spooner, Kiara K; Zoorob, Roger J; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2015-08-11

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) have been previously linked to quality of life, health conditions, and life expectancy in adulthood. Less is known about the potential mechanisms which mediate these associations. This study examined how ACE influences adult health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a low-income community in Florida. A community-based participatory needs assessment was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 with 201 residents of Tampa, Florida, USA. HRQoL was measured by an excessive number of unhealthy days experienced during the previous 30-day window. Mediation analyses for dichotomous outcomes were conducted with logistic regression. Bootstrapped confidence intervals were generated for both total and specific indirect effects. Most participants reported 'good to excellent health' (76%) and about a fourth reported 'fair to poor health' (24%). The mean of total unhealthy days was 9 days per month (SD ± 10.5). Controlling for demographic and neighborhood covariates, excessive unhealthy days was associated with ACE (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.43), perceived stress (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.10), and sleep disturbance (AOR = 8.86; 3.61, 21.77). Mediated effects were significant for stress (β = 0.08) and sleep disturbances (β = 0.11) as they related to the relationship between ACE and excessive unhealthy days. ACE is linked to adult HRQoL. Stress and sleep disturbances may represent later consequences of childhood adversity that modulate adult quality of life.

  7. Adverse childhood experiences among children placed in and adopted from foster care: Evidence from a nationally representative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Wildeman, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Despite good reason to believe that children in foster care are disproportionately exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), relatively little research considers exposure to ACEs among this group of vulnerable children. In this article, we use data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized children ages 0-17 in the United States, to estimate the association between foster care placement and exposure to an array of ACEs. In adjusted logistic regression models, we find that children placed in foster care or adopted from foster care, compared to their counterparts, were more likely to experience parental divorce or separation, parental death, parental incarceration, parental abuse, violence exposure, household member mental illness, and household member substance abuse. These children were also more likely to experience ACEs than children across different thresholds of socioeconomic disadvantage (e.g., children in households with incomes below the poverty line) and across different family structures (e.g., children in single-mother families). These results advance our understanding of how children in foster care, an already vulnerable population, are disproportionately exposed to ACEs. This exposure, given the link between ACEs and health, may have implications for children's health and wellbeing throughout the life course. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the associatio...

  9. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, whic...

  10. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Carver; Charles S. Carver; Sheri L Johnson; Sheri L Johnson; Michael E McCullough; Daniel E Forster; Jutta eJoormann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which w...

  11. How do foster youth experience the impact of adverse childhood events?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Anne; van der Steen, Steffie; Grietens, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Foster children have been disproportionately exposed to traumatic events (Turney & Wildeman, 2017), which are perceived as important factors contributing to problems and specific needs they experience (Berrick & Skivenes, 2012; Bruskas, 2008). Despite the growing interest in the stories of foster

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Daniel P

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. Methods To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥14 days in past 30 days in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD (≥14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Results Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1 times higher in persons with ≥5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Conclusions Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly

  13. Adverse childhood experiences and frequent insufficient sleep in 5 U.S. States, 2009: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel P; Liu, Yong; Presley-Cantrell, Letitia R; Edwards, Valerie J; Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2013-01-03

    Although adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have previously been demonstrated to be adversely associated with a variety of health outcomes in adulthood, their specific association with sleep among adults has not been examined. To better address this issue, this study examines the relationship between eight self-reported ACEs and frequent insufficient sleep among community-dwelling adults residing in 5 U.S. states in 2009. To assess whether ACEs were associated with frequent insufficient sleep (respondent did not get sufficient rest or sleep ≥ 14 days in past 30 days) in adulthood, we analyzed ACE data collected in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a random-digit-dialed telephone survey in Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Tennessee, and Washington. ACEs included physical abuse, sexual abuse, verbal abuse, household mental illness, incarcerated household members, household substance abuse, parental separation/divorce, and witnessing domestic violence before age 18. Smoking status and frequent mental distress (FMD) (≥ 14 days in past 30 days when self-perceived mental health was not good) were assessed as potential mediators in multivariate logistic regression analyses of frequent insufficient sleep by ACEs adjusted for race/ethnicity, gender, education, and body mass index. Overall, 28.8% of 25,810 respondents reported frequent insufficient sleep, 18.8% were current smokers, 10.8% reported frequent mental distress, 59.5% percent reported ≥ 1 ACE, and 8.7% reported ≥ 5 ACEs. Each ACE was associated with frequent insufficient sleep in multivariate analyses. Odds of frequent insufficient sleep were 2.5 (95% CI, 2.1-3.1) times higher in persons with ≥ 5 ACEs compared to those with no ACEs. Most relationships were modestly attenuated by smoking and FMD, but remained significant. Childhood exposures to eight indicators of child maltreatment and household dysfunction were significantly associated with frequent insufficient sleep during

  14. Family-centered prevention ameliorates the association between adverse childhood experiences and prediabetes status in young black adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E

    2017-07-01

    Individuals exposed to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are vulnerable to various health problems later in life. This study was designed to determine whether participation in an efficacious program to enhance supportive parenting would ameliorate the association between ACEs and prediabetes status at age 25. Rural African American parents and their 11-year-old children (N=390) participated in the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program or a control condition. Each youth at age 25 provided a total ACEs score and a blood sample from which overnight fasting glucose was assayed. Logistic regression equations were used to test the hypotheses. The logistic regression analyses revealed a significant interaction between total ACEs and random assignment to SAAF or control, OR=0.56, 95% CI [0.36, 0.88]. Follow-up analyses indicated that, for participants in the control condition, a 1-point increase in ACEs was associated with a 37.3% increase in risk of having prediabetes. ACEs were not associated with the likelihood of having prediabetes among participants in the SAAF condition. Control participants with high total ACEs scores were 3.54 times more likely to have prediabetes than were SAAF participants with similar scores. This study indicated that participation at age 11 in a randomized controlled trial designed to enhance supportive parenting ameliorated the association of ACEs with prediabetes at age 25. If substantiated, these findings may provide a strategy for preventing negative health consequences of ACEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Feasibility of Using Large-Scale Text Mining to Detect Adverse Childhood Experiences in a VA-Treated Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Kenric W; Ben-Ari, Alon Y; Laundry, Ryan J; Boyko, Edward J; Samore, Matthew H

    2015-12-01

    Free text in electronic health records resists large-scale analysis. Text records facts of interest not found in encoded data, and text mining enables their retrieval and quantification. The U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) clinical data repository affords an opportunity to apply text-mining methodology to study clinical questions in large populations. To assess the feasibility of text mining, investigation of the relationship between exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recorded diagnoses was conducted among all VA-treated Gulf war veterans, utilizing all progress notes recorded from 2000-2011. Text processing extracted ACE exposures recorded among 44.7 million clinical notes belonging to 243,973 veterans. The relationship of ACE exposure to adult illnesses was analyzed using logistic regression. Bias considerations were assessed. ACE score was strongly associated with suicide attempts and serious mental disorders (ORs = 1.84 to 1.97), and less so with behaviorally mediated and somatic conditions (ORs = 1.02 to 1.36) per unit. Bias adjustments did not remove persistent associations between ACE score and most illnesses. Text mining to detect ACE exposure in a large population was feasible. Analysis of the relationship between ACE score and adult health conditions yielded patterns of association consistent with prior research. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  16. Adverse childhood experiences and consumption of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents of a Brazilian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Soares, Ana Luiza Gonçalves; Santos, Ana Paula Gomes Dos; Ribeiro, Camila Garcez; Bierhals, Isabel Oliveira; Vieira, Luna Strieder; Hellwig, Natália Limões; Wehrmeister, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana M B

    2016-11-03

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents from a Brazilian cohort. The occurrence of five ACEs, the use of alcohol and tobacco and trying illicit drugs were investigated in the 1993 Pelotas birth cohort at the age of 15 (n = 4,230). A score was created for the ACEs and their association with the use of substances was evaluated. Around 25% of adolescents consumed alcohol, 6% smoked and 2.1% reported having used drugs at least once in their lives. The ACEs were associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs. A dose-response relation between the number of ACEs and the substance use was found, particularly with regard to illicit drugs. The occurrence of ACEs was positively associated with the use of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drugs among adolescents and the risk may be different for men and women. These results point to the fact that strategies for preventing the use of substances should include interventions both among adolescents and within the family environment.

  17. Stress reactivity and its effects on subsequent food intake in depressed and healthy women with and without adverse childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Kuehl, Linn K; Boeker, Anita; Schultebraucks, Katharina; Ritter, Kristin; Hellmann-Regen, Julian; Otte, Christian; Spitzer, Carsten

    2017-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACE) increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity or metabolic syndrome in adulthood. In addition, ACE may be associated with an exaggerated endocrine response to stress, which, in turn, may lead to enhanced food intake resulting in obesity and metabolic problems. We systematically examined the stress response and consecutive food intake in 32 women with MDD and ACE as determined by a clinical interview (Early Trauma Inventory), 52 women with MDD without ACE, 22 women with ACE but no current or lifetime MDD and 37 healthy women without either MDD or ACE. All participants underwent a psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) and a control condition (Placebo-TSST) before they were offered a buffet of snacks. Participants were not aware that the primary outcome variable was the amount of consumed kilocalories (kcal). The four groups did not differ in demographic variables. Stress resulted in higher cortisol release and higher blood pressure compared to the control condition. Patients with MDD without ACE had a significantly lower cortisol response to stress compared to controls. Across groups, we found higher kcal intake after stress compared to the control condition. Comparing high and low cortisol responders to stress, higher kcal intake after stress was only seen in those with low cortisol release. This study provides evidence that blunted rather than enhanced cortisol release to stress might lead to increased food intake, independent from MDD and ACE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Do sleep problems mediate the link between adverse childhood experiences and delinquency in preadolescent children in foster care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, Erin P; Rubens, Sonia L; Brawner, Thomas W; Taussig, Heather N

    2018-02-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with multiple mental and physical health problems. Yet, mechanisms by which ACEs confer risk for specific problems are largely unknown. Children in foster care typically have multiple ACEs and high rates of negative sequelae, including delinquent behaviors. Mechanisms explaining this link have not been explored in this population. Impaired sleep has been identified as a potential mechanism by which ACEs lead to delinquency in adolescents, because inadequate sleep may lead to poor executive function and cognitive control - known risk factors for delinquency. Interviews were conducted with 516 maltreated children in foster care, ages 9-11 years, and their caregivers regarding child exposure to ACEs, sleep problems, engagement in delinquent acts, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and current psychotropic medication use. ACEs data were also obtained from child welfare case records. After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, placement type (residential, kin, foster), length of time in placement, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and current psychotropic medication use, sleep partially mediated the association between ACEs and delinquency. Although delinquency is likely multiply determined in this population, improving sleep may be one important strategy to reduce delinquency. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  19. [Adverse childhood experiences and their association to personality styles in a nonmelancholic depressive sample].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farar, Johannes; Schüssler, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Do some life story patterns exist, which are associated with depression? Can some life story factors be identified, which influence or determine a special kind of personality, predisposing to depression? Retrospective, cross sectional study with nonexperimental character, using a number of 60 nonmelancholic depressed patients. First, they were asked to give an interview on their life story. Then, they were asked to fill in questionnaires about personality, parental style of raising, clinical symptoms and personality disorders. Significant correlations could be found between parental style of raising, a family history affected by depression, a dysfunctional household, the family composition, negative school experience and all investigated styles of personality. Further, clusters of personality, clusters of parental style of raising and clusters of specific life story factors could be detected. Results show a strong relation between life story factors and personality styles, predisposing to depression and emphasize the importance of considering personality, when exploring special life story factors. Vice versa, actual personality styles can point to different patterns of life story and thus, show the relevance for the diagnostic and therapeutic process.

  20. Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Debora Lee; Jerman, Petra; Silvério Marques, Sara; Koita, Kadiatou; Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip Kaur; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-02-23

    Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected. Mental and behavioral health outcomes were excluded, as were physical health outcomes that were a direct result of adversity (i.e. abusive head trauma). Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. After identifying 15940 records, 35 studies were included in this review. Selected studies indicated that exposure to childhood adversity was associated with delays in cognitive development, asthma, infection, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. Studies on household dysfunction reported an effect on weight during early childhood, and studies on maltreatment reported an effect on weight during adolescence. Maternal mental health issues were associated with elevated cortisol levels, and maltreatment was associated with blunted cortisol levels in childhood. Furthermore, exposure to childhood adversity was associated with alterations of immune and inflammatory response and stress-related accelerated telomere erosion. Childhood adversity affects brain development and multiple body systems, and the physiologic manifestations can be detectable in childhood. A history of childhood adversity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of developmental delay, asthma, recurrent infections requiring hospitalization, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. The variability in children's response to adversity suggests complex underlying mechanisms and poses a challenge in the development of uniform diagnostic guidelines. More large longitudinal studies are needed to better

  1. The relationship between family-based adverse childhood experiences and substance use behaviors among a diverse sample of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, Myriam; Grigsby, Timothy J; Rogers, Christopher J; Benjamin, Stephanie M

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that college students are an especially vulnerable subset of the population for substance use and misuse. However, despite evidence of the high prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACE) among students and the link between family-based ACE and substance use among older adults, this relationship remains understudied in college populations. Moreover, whether ACE represents a shared risk across substance use behaviors and ethnic groups is unknown. Data are student responses (n=2953) on the 2015 American College Health Association's National College Health Assessment II (ACHA-NCHA II) administered at one of the largest, most diverse public universities in California. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between individual and accumulated ACE and past 30-day alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and illicit drug use, past 12-month prescription medication misuse and polysubstance use. Between 50% and 75% of students involved in substance use were ACE exposed. There was a significant dose-response relationship between ACE and substance use and polysubstance use. Although accumulated ACE increased risk for substance use, there was considerable ethnic variability in these associations. The graded effects of ACE for substance use underscore the link between family-based stressors and these behaviors in emergent adult college students. Our findings make a compelling case for investing in health initiatives that prioritize ACE screening and access to trauma-informed care in campus communities. Continued research with college populations is needed to replicate findings and clarify the role of ethnicity and culture in trauma response and help seeking behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Association of adverse childhood experiences with lifetime mental and substance use disorders among men and women aged 50+ years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2017-03-01

    Given growing numbers of older adults with mental and substance use disorders (MSUDs), this study examined the association between ten types of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and lifetime MSUDs among those aged 50+. Data (N = 14,738 for the 50+ age group) came from the 2012 to 2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Using multivariable binary logistic regression analyses, we examined relationships between ten ACEs and six lifetime MSUDs (major depressive disorder (MDD) and anxiety, post-traumatic stress, alcohol use, drug use, and nicotine use disorders). Gender differences were examined using tests of interaction effects and gender-separate logistic regression models. Of the sample, 53.2% of women and 50.0% of men reported at least one ACE. For both genders, parental/other adult's substance abuse was the most prevalent (22.6%), followed by physical abuse, and emotional neglect. Child abuse and neglect and parental/other adult's mental illness and substance abuse had small but consistently significant associations with MSUDs (e.g., odds ratio = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.12-1.46 for parental/other adult's substance misuse and MDD). Although the relationship between total number of ACEs and MSUDs was cumulative for both men and women, the associations of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and parental separation/divorce with MSUDs were stronger among men. This study underscores the significant yet modest association between ACEs and lifetime MSUDs in late life. More research is needed to investigate why ACEs seem to have greater effects on older men and to discern the sources of gender differences in ACEs' effects.

  3. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  4. Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood. ... childhood adversity have similar levels of depression, acute and chronic health. ... to explain the pathways linking childhood adversity to physical health in adulthood.

  5. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  6. Childhood adversities and clinical symptomatology in first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana

    2017-12-01

    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rethinking childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.

  8. Recent life events and psychosis: The role of childhood adversities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansueto, Giovanni; Faravelli, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Life events are commonly reported to be related to psychosis. However, less attention has been given to the role that recent events play on psychosis, in relation to exposure to childhood adversity. The current study aimed to evaluate the relationship between recent events and psychosis, taking into account the role of early adversities. 78 psychotic patients and 156 controls were enrolled. Childhood adversity was evaluated using a validated semi-structured interview and the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Recent events were recorded using a semi-structured interview with a normative and contextual approach. The diagnosis of psychosis was made according to Jablenski's criteria. Chi-square, t-test, odds ratio, and binary logistic regression statistical analyses were performed. Psychotic patients reported an excess of recent events. The occurrence of more than one recent event increased the risk of psychosis; there was a cumulative effect between recent and childhood events on psychosis. Recent events were significantly related to psychosis, even in the absence of childhood adversity or when adjusted for it. Our findings suggested that the effect of recent events on psychosis may be amplified by previous exposure to early adversity. Recent events alone, could be also linked to psychosis independently of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Clark, C; Smuk, M; Power, C; Davidson, T; Rodgers, B

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood. Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29-5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90-11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI -7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97-27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40-38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years. Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive

  10. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strine, Tara W; Edwards, Valerie J; Dube, Shanta R; Wagenfeld, Morton; Dhingra, Satvinder; Prehn, Angela Witt; Rasmussen, Sandra; McKnight-Eily, Lela; Croft, Janet B

    2012-07-13

    Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult smoking. Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce). Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  11. The mediating sex-specific effect of psychological distress on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and current smoking among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strine Tara W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research suggests that ACEs have a long-term impact on the behavioral, emotional, and cognitive development of children. These disruptions can lead to adoption of unhealthy coping behaviors throughout the lifespan. The present study sought to examine psychological distress as a potential mediator of sex-specific associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs and adult smoking. Method Data from 7,210 Kaiser-Permanente members in San Diego California collected between April and October 1997 were used. Results Among women, psychological distress mediated a significant portion of the association between ACEs and smoking (21% for emotional abuse, 16% for physical abuse, 15% for physical neglect, 10% for parental separation or divorce. Among men, the associations between ACEs and smoking were not significant. Conclusions These findings suggest that for women, current smoking cessation strategies may benefit from understanding the potential role of childhood trauma.

  12. Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: results from the adverse childhood experiences study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Valerie J; Holden, George W; Felitti, Vincent J; Anda, Robert F

    2003-08-01

    childhood maltreatment on adult mental health should include assessments of a wide range of abusive experiences, as well as the family atmosphere in which they occur.

  13. Personality disorder, temperament, and childhood adversity: findings from a cohort of prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Yang, Min; Zhang, Tianqiang; Coid, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and childhood temperamental features are known to contribute to the development of personality disorder. The aim of this study was to examine associations between personality disorder, childhood temperament, adverse childhood experiences, and victimisation. The Prisoner Cohort Study was carried out as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD) service development programme commissioned by the Home Office. The study comprised 1396 male offenders ...

  14. Unstable child welfare permanent placements and early adolescent physical and mental health: The roles of adverse childhood experiences and post-traumatic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villodas, Miguel T; Cromer, Kelly D; Moses, Jacqueline O; Litrownik, Alan J; Newton, Rae R; Davis, Inger P

    2016-12-01

    Although researchers have found that child welfare placement disruptions are associated with elevated youth physical and mental health problems, the mechanisms that explain this association have not been previously studied. The present study built on a previous investigation of the physical and behavioral consequences of long-term permanent placement patterns among youth who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). The current investigation (n=251) aimed to (a) report the early adolescent living situations of youth with different long-term placement patterns, and (b) to delineate the roles of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and post-traumatic stress (PTS) reactions in the association between unstable long-term placement patterns and physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Information about youth's living situations, ACEs, and physical and mental health was gathered prospectively from child protective services records and biannual caregiver and youth interviews when youth were 4-14 years old. The majority of youth remained with the same caregiver during early adolescence, but youth with chronically unstable permanent placement patterns continued to experience instability. Path analyses revealed that ACEs mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and elevated mental, but not physical, health problems during late childhood. Additionally, late childhood PTS mediated the association between unstable placement patterns and subsequent escalations in physical and mental health problems during the transition to adolescence. Findings highlight the importance of long-term permanency planning for youth who enter the child welfare system and emphasize the importance of trauma-focused assessment and intervention for these youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Longitudinal associations of experiences of adversity and socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood with labour force participation and exit in later adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahy, A. E.; Stansfeld, S. A.; Smuk, M.; Lain, D.; van der Horst, M.; Vickerstaff, S.; Clark, C.

    2017-01-01

    The Extending Working Lives (EWL) agenda seeks to sustain employment up to and beyond traditional retirement ages. This study examined the potential role of childhood factors in shaping labour force participation and exit among older adults, with a view to informing proactive interventions early in

  16. Enhanced prefrontal-amygdala connectivity following childhood adversity as a protective mechanism against internalizing in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herringa, Ryan J; Burghy, Cory A; Stodola, Diane E; Fox, Michelle E; Davidson, Richard J; Essex, Marilyn J

    2016-07-01

    Much research has focused on the deleterious neurobiological effects of childhood adversity that may underlie internalizing disorders. While most youth show emotional adaptation following adversity, the corresponding neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this longitudinal community study, we examined the associations among childhood family adversity, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and their interaction on regional brain activation and amygdala/hippocampus functional connectivity during emotion processing in 132 adolescents. Consistent with prior work, childhood adversity predicted heightened amygdala reactivity to negative, but not positive, images in adolescence. However, amygdala reactivity was not related to internalizing symptoms. Furthermore, childhood adversity predicted increased fronto-amygdala connectivity to negative, but not positive, images, yet only in lower internalizing adolescents. Childhood adversity also predicted increased fronto-hippocampal connectivity to negative images, but was not moderated by internalizing. These findings were unrelated to adolescence adversity or externalizing symptoms, suggesting specificity to childhood adversity and adolescent internalizing. Together, these findings suggest that adaptation to childhood adversity is associated with augmentation of fronto-subcortical circuits specifically for negative emotional stimuli. Conversely, insufficient enhancement of fronto-amygdala connectivity, with increasing amygdala reactivity, may represent a neural signature of vulnerability for internalizing by late adolescence. These findings implicate early childhood as a critical period in determining the brain's adaptation to adversity, and suggest that even normative adverse experiences can have significant impact on neurodevelopment and functioning. These results offer potential neural mechanisms of adaptation and vulnerability which could be used in the prediction of risk for psychopathology following childhood

  17. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those drug use, and suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally.

  18. The association between childhood adversities and subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences: a cross-national analysis of 23,998 respondents from 17 countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J. J.; McLaughlin, K. A.; Saha, S.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Alonso, J.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Jonge, P.; Esan, O.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Hu, C.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Lee, S.; Lepine, J.; Lim, C. C. W.; Medina-Mora, M. E.; Mneimneh, Z.; Pennell, B.; Piazza, M.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sampson, N.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Bromet, E. J.; Kendler, K. S.; Kessler, R. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations. Methods We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23,998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models. Results Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs (OR =2.3, 95%CI=1.9–2.6). CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR= 8.5, 95%CI=3.6–20.2), whereas other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of Other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF). Conclusions Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population. PMID:28065209

  19. The association between childhood adversities and subsequent first onset of psychotic experiences: a cross-national analysis of 23 998 respondents from 17 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, J J; McLaughlin, K A; Saha, S; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S; Al-Hamzawi, A; Alonso, J; Bruffaerts, R; de Girolamo, G; de Jonge, P; Esan, O; Florescu, S; Gureje, O; Haro, J M; Hu, C; Karam, E G; Kovess-Masfety, V; Lee, S; Lepine, J P; Lim, C C W; Medina-Mora, M E; Mneimneh, Z; Pennell, B E; Piazza, M; Posada-Villa, J; Sampson, N; Viana, M C; Xavier, M; Bromet, E J; Kendler, K S; Kessler, R C

    2017-05-01

    Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations. We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23 998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models. Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-2.6]. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.6-20.2), whereas Other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF). Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood-onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population.

  20. Childhood Adversity, Daily Stress, and Marital Strain in Same-Sex and Different-Sex Marriages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Rachel; Umberson, Debra; Kroeger, Rhiannon A.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity has enduring consequences for individuals throughout life, including increased reactivity to stress that may contribute to marital strain in adulthood. Past research on gendered experiences of heterosexual spouses raises questions about how the influence of childhood adversity might differ for men and women in same-sex marriages. We analyze dyadic diary data from 756 individuals in 106 male same-sex, 157 female same-sex, and 115 different-sex marriages to consider how childhood adversity moderates the association between daily stress and marital strain. Results suggest that the negative consequences of daily stress for marital strain are amplified by past childhood adversity with variation for men and women in same- and different-sex unions, such that women and those in same-sex marriages may experience some protection from the adverse consequences of childhood adversity.

  1. Adversity in childhood and measures of aging in midlife: Findings from a cohort of british women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Heron, Jon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28-30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221). We investigated associations of childhood SEP and total psychosocial adversity, with composite measures of cognitive and physical capability at mean age 51 years. There was evidence that, compared with participants whose fathers had professional occupations, participants whose fathers had managerial/technical, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, and partly or unskilled manual occupations had, on average, lower physical and cognitive capability. There was a clear trend for increasing magnitudes of association with lowering childhood SEP. There was also evidence that greater total psychosocial adversity in childhood was associated with lower physical capability. Total psychosocial adversity in childhood was not associated with cognitive capability. Lower SEP in childhood is detrimental to cognitive and physical capability in midlife, at least in part, independently of subsequent SEP in adulthood. Greater psychosocial adversity in childhood is associated with poorer physical capability, independently of social disadvantage in childhood. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to both identify and support children experiencing socioeconomic or psychosocial of adversity as early as possible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Modifiable Resilience Factors to Childhood Adversity for Clinical Pediatric Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, Flora; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2017-05-01

    Childhood adversity is highly prevalent and associated with risk for poor health outcomes in childhood and throughout the life course. Empirical literature on resilience over the past 40 years has identified protective factors for traumatized children that improve health outcomes. Despite these empirical investigations of resilience, there is limited integration of these findings into proactive strategies to mitigate the impact of adverse childhood experiences. We review the state of resilience research, with a focus on recent work, as it pertains to protecting children from the health impacts of early adversity. We identify and document evidence for 5 modifiable resilience factors to improve children's long- and short-term health outcomes, including fostering positive appraisal styles in children and bolstering executive function, improving parenting, supporting maternal mental health, teaching parents the importance of good self-care skills and consistent household routines, and offering anticipatory guidance about the impact of trauma on children. We conclude with 10 recommendations for pediatric practitioners to leverage the identified modifiable resilience factors to help children withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity. Taken together, these recommendations constitute a blueprint for a trauma-informed medical home. Building resilience in pediatric patients offers an opportunity to improve the health and well-being of the next generation, enhance national productivity, and reduce spending on health care for chronic diseases. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Does the cortisol awakening response link childhood adversity to adult BMI?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly F; Arbel, Reout; Shapiro, Lauren S; Han, Sohyun C; Margolin, Gayla

    2018-04-26

    Childhood adversity is a risk factor for the development of obesity in adulthood. Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity, which has been associated separately with both adverse childhood experiences and obesity, has been posited as a mechanism by which stressful experiences influence body mass index (BMI); however, this mechanism has not yet been tested longitudinally. The present study uses multireporter, longitudinal data across three time points to test whether the adolescent cortisol awakening response (CAR), an index of diurnal HPA activity, mediates the association between adversity in childhood and BMI in adulthood. Eighty-two youth, mothers, and fathers reported on adverse childhood experiences from middle childhood to late adolescence. During adolescence, youth provided saliva samples three times each morning across three days, which were assayed for cortisol to calculate CAR. During early adulthood, youth reported height and weight to calculate BMI. Greater adversity predicted flatter CAR and higher young adult BMI. Flatter CAR partially mediated the association between childhood adversity and young adult BMI. Stress-related alterations to HPA activity account in part for the childhood adversity-adult obesity link. Findings are consistent with theoretical models implicating HPA alterations as linking childhood adversity to metabolic and behavioral determinants of BMI in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J; Masho, Saba W; Perera, Robert A; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A

    2015-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression models were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex and sexual orientation disparities in adverse childhood experiences and early age at sexual debut in the United States: Results from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Monique J.; Masho, Saba W.; Perera, Robert A.; Mezuk, Briana; Cohen, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to early sexual debut, which has been found to be associated with multiple adverse health outcomes. Sexual minorities and men tend to have earlier sexual debut compared to heterosexual populations and women, respectively. However, studies examining the association between ACEs and early sexual debut among men and sexual minorities are lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the sex and sexual orientation disparities in the association between ACEs and age at sexual debut. Data were obtained from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic and linear regression model were used to obtain crude and adjusted estimates and 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, income, education, insurance and marital status for the association between ACEs (neglect, physical/psychological abuse, sexual abuse, parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology) and early sexual debut. Analyses were stratified by sex and sexual orientation. Larger effect estimates depicting the association between ACEs and sexual debut were seen for women compared to men, and among sexual minorities, particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and women who have sex with women (WSW), compared to heterosexuals. Sexual health education programs with a focus on delaying sexual debut among children and adolescents should also consider addressing ACEs, such as neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse, witnessing parental violence, and parental incarceration and psychopathology. Public health practitioners, researchers and sexual health education curriculum coordinators should consider these differences by sex and sexual orientation when designing these programs. PMID:25804435

  6. Children and Caregivers' Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES): Association with Children's and Caregivers' Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sofri, Inbar; Capps Umphlet, Kristen L; Olarte, Stephanie; Venza, Jimmy

    2018-03-31

    Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE) has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver's and the child's exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver's outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP). Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control) and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver's exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  7. Correlations among self-esteem, aggression, adverse childhood experiences and depression in inmates of a female juvenile correctional facility in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Naomi; Hashimoto, Toshiaki; Toichi, Motomi

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following hypothesis: (i) Self-esteem and aggressiveness, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), and a depressive tendency interact with each other. (ii) The subjects show a strong depressive tendency, and each of the other factors exerts a main effect on, and interacts with, the depressive tendency. The subjects were 91 juveniles (all female) admitted to a female juvenile correctional facility between November 2005 and December 2006. They were aged 15-19 years, with a mean age of 17.0 (SD = 1.18) years. Self-esteem scale, aggression scale, ACE questionnaire, and depression scale were conducted. Significant main effects (R(2) = 0.50, P depression score were observed in self-esteem (beta = -0.41, P Self-esteem, aggression, ACE, and depression were found to be interrelated. Low self-esteem was also shown to exert marked effects on various factors. About half of the inmates of the facility were depressed, and the main effects of self-esteem, aggression, and the ACE score were shown to influence the depression score.

  8. Children and Caregivers’ Exposure to Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACES: Association with Children’s and Caregivers’ Psychological Outcomes in a Therapeutic Preschool Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Ziv

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACE has been found to have a profound negative impact on multiple child outcomes, including academic achievement, social cognition patterns, and behavioral adjustment. However, these links have yet to be examined in preschool children that are already experiencing behavior or social-emotional problems. Thus, the present study examined the links between the caregiver’s and the child’s exposure to ACE and multiple child and caregiver’s outcomes in a sample of 30 preschool children enrolled in a Therapeutic Nursery Program (TNP. Children are typically referred to this TNP due to significant delays in their social emotional development that often result in difficulty functioning in typical childcare, home, and community settings. Analyses revealed some contradictory patterns that may be specific to this clinical sample. Children with higher exposure to ACE showed more biased social information processing patterns and their caregivers reported lower child social skills than caregivers of children with less exposure, however their inhibitory control levels were higher (better control and staff reported that these children exhibited better social skills as well as better approaches to learning than children with less exposure. No such contradictions were found in relation to the caregiver’s exposure to ACE, as it was positively associated with a number of negative child and caregiver outcomes.

  9. Human Trafficking of Minors and Childhood Adversity in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Joan A; Baglivio, Michael T; Piquero, Alex R; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    To examine the link between human trafficking of minors and childhood adversity. We compared the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and cumulative childhood adversity (ACE score) among a sample of 913 juvenile justice-involved boys and girls in Florida for whom the Florida child abuse hotline accepted human trafficking abuse reports between 2009 and 2015 with those of a matched sample. ACE composite scores were higher and 6 ACEs indicative of child maltreatment were more prevalent among youths who had human trafficking abuse reports. Sexual abuse was the strongest predictor of human trafficking: the odds of human trafficking was 2.52 times greater for girls who experienced sexual abuse, and there was a 8.21 times greater risk for boys who had histories of sexual abuse. Maltreated youths are more susceptible to exploitation in human trafficking. Sexual abuse in connection with high ACE scores may serve as a key predictor of exploitation in human trafficking for both boys and girls.

  10. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  11. Childhood adversity, recent life stressors and suicidal behavior in Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqi You

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. METHOD: 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. RESULTS: Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population.

  12. Childhood Adversity, Recent Life Stressors and Suicidal Behavior in Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhiqi; Chen, Mingxi; Yang, Sen; Zhou, Zongkui; Qin, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the independent effects of childhood adversities and of recent negative events on suicidality have been well-documented, the combinative role of childhood and recent adversities on risk for suicidality is still underexplored, especially in the context of Chinese culture and in consideration of specific types of negative events. Method 5989 students, randomly sampled from six universities in central China, completed the online survey for this study. Suicidal behavior, life adversity during childhood and stressful events in recent school life were assessed with designed questionnaires. Results Students experiencing recent stressful life events more often reported an experience of life adversity during childhood. While recent stressful life events and childhood life adversity both were associated with an increased risk for suicidal behavior, the two exposures presented conjunctively and acted interactively to increase the risk. There was noticeable variation of effects associated with specific childhood life adversities, and sexual abuse, poor parental relationship, divorce of parents and loss of a parent were among the adversities associated with the highest increased risk. Recent conflicts with classmates, poor school performance and rupture of romantic relationships were the recent school life stressors associated with the highest increased risk. Conclusions Childhood adversity and recent school life stressors had a combinative role in predicting suicidality of young people studying in Chinese colleges. Unhappy family life during childhood and recent interpersonal conflicts in school were the most important predictors of suicidality in this population. PMID:24681891

  13. Childhood adversity and traumatic exposures during deployment as predictors of mental health in Australian military veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wu Yi; Kanesarajah, Jeeva; Waller, Michael; McGuire, Annabel C; Treloar, Susan A; Dobson, Annette J

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether the relationship between traumatic exposure on deployment and poor mental health varies by the reported level of childhood adversity experienced in Australian military veterans deployed to the Bougainville or East Timor military operations. Cross-sectional self-reported survey data were collected in 2008 from 3,564 Australian military veterans who deployed to East Timor or Bougainville on their deployment experiences, health and recall of childhood events. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association between childhood adversity, deployment exposures and mental health. The most common childhood adversity reported was 'not having a special teacher, youth worker or family friend who looked out for them while growing up'. On average, responders reported experiencing 3.5 adverse childhood experiences (SD 2.7) and averaged 5.3 (SD 4.9) traumatic exposures on deployment. Both childhood adversity and traumatic exposures on deployment were associated with higher odds of poorer mental health. However, there was no evidence that level of childhood adversity modified the association between traumatic exposure and mental health. These findings suggest that military personnel who recalled a higher level of childhood adversity may need to be monitored for poor mental health and, if required, provided with appropriate support. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication, were analyzed. Associations between pre-menarchal childhood adversities and menarche at age 11 or earlier were estimated in discrete time survival models with statistical adjustment for age at interview, ethnicity, and body mass index. Adversities investigated included physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, biological father absence from the home, other parent loss, parent mental illness, parent substance abuse, parent criminality, inter-parental violence, serious physical illness in childhood, and family economic adversity. Mean age at menarche varied across decadal birth cohorts (χ(2)₍₄₎ = 21.41, p Childhood adversities were also more common in younger than older cohorts. Of the 11 childhood adversities, 5 were associated with menarche at age 11 or earlier, with OR of 1.3 or greater. Each of these five adversities is associated with a 26% increase in the odds of early menarche (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.14-1.39). The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and early menarche was sustained after adjustment for co-occurring adversities. (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.21-2.6). Evidence from this study is consistent with hypothesized physiological effects of early childhood family environment on endocrine development. Childhood sexual abuse is the adversity most strongly associated with early menarche. However, because of the complex way that childhood adversities cluster within families, the more generalized influence of highly dysfunctional

  15. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, Alice; Valmaggia, Lucia R; Howes, Oliver D; Day, Fern; Chaddock, Christopher A; Allen, Paul; Winton-Brown, Toby T; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Chilcott, Jack; Lappin, Julia M; Murray, Robin M; McGuire, Philip

    2016-10-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and healthy volunteers. Sixty-seven young adults, comprising 47 individuals at UHR for psychosis and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited from the same geographic area and were matched for age, gender and substance use. Presynaptic dopamine function in the associative striatum was assessed using 18F-DOPA positron emission tomography. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse questionnaire. Within the sample as a whole, both severe physical or sexual abuse (T63=2.92; P=0.005), and unstable family arrangements (T57=2.80; P=0.007) in childhood were associated with elevated dopamine function in the associative striatum in adulthood. Comparison of the UHR and volunteer subgroups revealed similar incidence of childhood adverse experiences, and there was no significant group difference in dopamine function. This study provides evidence that childhood adversity is linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...

  17. Interaction between childhood adversity and functional polymorphisms in the dopamine pathway on first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Yiend, Jenny; Dazzan, Paola; David, Anthony S; Pariante, Carmine; Mondelli, Valeria; Colizzi, Marco; Murray, Robin M; Di Forti, Marta; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-04-10

    There is consistent evidence of a cumulative relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis, with number of adversities experienced increasing the probability of psychosis onset. It is possible that genetic factors moderate the association between childhood adversity and psychosis, potentially by influencing how an individual reacts biologically and/or psychologically following exposure to adversity, in such a way as to set them off on the path to psychosis. However, identifying the specific genetic variants involved and how they interact with childhood adversity remains challenging. We examined whether the association between cumulative exposure to childhood adversity and development of psychotic disorder was moderated by the COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 or DRD2 rs1076560 polymorphisms, known to affect dopamine levels. Participants were 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 geographically-matched controls drawn from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. Childhood adversity was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and blood- and cheek-derived genotype data were collected. Our findings revealed no main effect of COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 and DRD2 rs1076560 polymorphisms on psychosis case status or reports of childhood adversity. Individuals reporting a history of multiple adversities were more likely to be psychosis patients than controls, regardless of their genetic risk. There was no evidence of candidate genotype by childhood adversity interactions in relation to psychosis onset. These findings did not provide evidence of a possible role of COMT Val 158 Met, AKT1 rs2494732 or DRD2 rs1076560 genotypes in modifying the association between childhood adversity and onset of psychosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Childhood Adversity, Religion, and Change in Adult Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong Hyun

    2018-02-01

    Research indicates that childhood adversity is associated with poor mental health in adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the deleterious long-term effects of childhood adversity on adult mental health are reduced for individuals who are involved in religious practices. Using longitudinal data from a representative sample of American adults ( N = 1,635), I find that religious salience and spirituality buffer the noxious effects of childhood abuse on change in positive affect over time. By contrast, these stress-buffering properties of religion fail to emerge when negative affect serves as the outcome measure. These results underscore the importance of religion as a countervailing mechanism that blunts the negative impact of childhood abuse on adult mental health over time. I discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for views about religion, childhood adversity, and mental health.

  19. Childhood Adversity and Men’s Relationships in Adulthood: Life Course Processes and Racial Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Williams, Kristi; Thomas, Patricia A.; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prior U.S. population studies have found that childhood adversity influences the quality of relationships in adulthood, with emerging research suggesting that this association might be especially strong for black men. We theorize psychosocial and behavioral coping responses to early life adversity and how these responses may link early life adversity to strain in men’s relationships with their indeterminate partners and children across the life course, with attention to possible racial variation in these experiences and implications for later life well-being. Method: We analyze in-depth interviews with 15 black men and 15 white men. We use qualitative analysis techniques to connect childhood experiences to psychosocial processes in childhood and behavioral coping strategies associated with relationship experiences throughout adulthood. Results: Black men describe much stronger and more persistent childhood adversity than do white men. Findings further suggest that childhood adversity contributes to psychosocial processes (e.g., diminished sense of mastery) that may lead to ways of coping with adversity (e.g., self-medication) that are likely to contribute to relationship difficulties throughout the life span. Discussion: A life course perspective directs attention to the early life origins of cumulative patterns of social disadvantage, patterns that extend to later life. Our findings suggest psychosocial and behavioral pathways through which early life adversity may constrain and strain men’s relationships, possibly contributing to racial inequality in family relationships across the life span. PMID:26589348

  20. Severity of mental illness as a result of multiple childhood adversities: US National Epidemiologic Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Emma; Adamson, Gary; Stringer, Maurice; Rosato, Michael; Leavey, Gerard

    2016-05-01

    To examine patterns of childhood adversity, their long-term consequences and the combined effect of different childhood adversity patterns as predictors of subsequent psychopathology. Secondary analysis of data from the US National Epidemiologic Survey on alcohol and related conditions. Using latent class analysis to identify childhood adversity profiles; and using multinomial logistic regression to validate and further explore these profiles with a range of associated demographic and household characteristics. Finally, confirmatory factor analysis substantiated initial latent class analysis findings by investigating a range of mental health diagnoses. Latent class analysis generated a three-class model of childhood adversity in which 60 % of participants were allocated to a low adversity class; 14 % to a global adversities class (reporting exposures for all the derived latent classes); and 26 % to a domestic emotional and physical abuse class (exposed to a range of childhood adversities). Confirmatory Factor analysis defined an internalising-externalising spectrum to represent lifetime reporting patterns of mental health disorders. Using logistic regression, both adversity groups showed specific gender and race/ethnicity differences, related family discord and increased psychopathology. We identified underlying patterns in the exposure to childhood adversity and associated mental health. These findings are informative in their description of the configuration of adversities, rather than focusing solely on the cumulative aspect of experience. Amelioration of longer-term negative consequences requires early identification of psychopathology risk factors that can inform protective and preventive interventions. This study highlights the utility of screening for childhood adversities when individuals present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders.

  1. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating...

  2. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuras, Yuliya I; Assaf, Naomi; Thoma, Myriam V; Gianferante, Danielle; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Fiksdal, Alexander; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR). Healthy adults aged 18-65 ( n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females) completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R 2 = 0.21), as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R 2 = 0.22), but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R 2 = 0.12). Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  3. Blunted Diurnal Cortisol Activity in Healthy Adults with Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya I. Kuras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity, such as neglect, or physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, is prevalent in the U.S. and worldwide, and connected to an elevated incidence of disease in adulthood. A pathway in this relationship might be altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis functioning, as a result of differential hippocampal development in early life. A blunted diurnal cortisol slope is a precursor for many disorders. While studies have focused on HPA reactivity in relation to childhood adversity, there has been markedly less research on basal HPA functioning in those with low-to-moderate adversity. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that adults with low-to-moderate childhood adversity would have altered HPA axis functioning, as evidenced by a blunted diurnal cortisol slope and altered cortisol awakening response (CAR. Healthy adults aged 18–65 (n = 61 adults; 31 males and 30 females completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Participants provided at-home saliva samples on two consecutive days at wake-up, and 30 min, 1, 4, 9, and 13 h later; samples were averaged over the 2 days. We found that low-to-moderate childhood adversity predicted lower morning cortisol (β = -0.34, p = 0.007, R2 = 0.21, as well as a blunted cortisol slope (β = 2.97, p = 0.004, R2 = 0.22, but found no association with CAR (β = 0.19, p = 0.14, R2 = 0.12. Overall, we found that in healthy participants, low-to-moderate adversity in childhood is associated with altered basal HPA activity in adulthood. Our findings indicate that even low levels of childhood adversity may predispose individuals to disease associated with HPA dysregulation in later life.

  4. Prioritizing Possibilities for Child and Family Health: An Agenda to Address Adverse Childhood Experiences and Foster the Social and Emotional Roots of Well-being in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Solloway, Michele R; Guinosso, Stephanie; Hassink, Sandra; Srivastav, Aditi; Ford, David; Simpson, Lisa A

    A convergence of theoretical and empirical evidence across many scientific disciplines reveals unprecedented possibilities to advance much needed improvements in child and family well-being by addressing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), promoting resilience, and fostering nurturance and the social and emotional roots of healthy child development and lifelong health. In this article we synthesize recommendations from a structured, multiyear field-building and research, policy, and practice agenda setting process to address these issues in children's health services. Between Spring of 2013 and Winter of 2017, the field-building and agenda-setting process directly engaged more than 500 individuals and comprised 79 distinct agenda-setting and field-building activities and processes, including: 4 in-person meetings; 4 online crowdsourcing rounds across 10 stakeholder groups; literature and environmental scans, publications documenting ACEs, resilience, and protective factors among US children, and commissioning of this special issue of Academic Pediatrics; 8 in-person listening forums and 31 educational sessions with stakeholders; and a range of action research efforts with emerging community efforts. Modified Delphi processes and grounded theory methods were used and iterative and structured synthesis of input was conducted to discern themes, priorities, and recommendations. Participants discerned that sufficient scientific findings support the formation of an applied child health services research and policy agenda. Four overarching priorities for the agenda emerged: 1) translate the science of ACEs, resilience, and nurturing relationships into children's health services; 2) cultivate the conditions for cross-sector collaboration to incentivize action and address structural inequalities; 3) restore and reward for promoting safe and nurturing relationships and full engagement of individuals, families, and communities to heal trauma, promote resilience, and prevent

  5. Methods to Assess Adverse Childhood Experiences of Children and Families: Toward Approaches to Promote Child Well-being in Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam; Hudziak, James; Gombojav, Narangerel; Powers, Kathleen; Wade, Roy; Braveman, Paula

    Advances in human development sciences point to tremendous possibilities to promote healthy child development and well-being across life by proactively supporting safe, stable and nurturing family relationships (SSNRs), teaching resilience, and intervening early to promote healing the trauma and stress associated with disruptions in SSNRs. Assessing potential disruptions in SSNRs, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can contribute to assessing risk for trauma and chronic and toxic stress. Asking about ACEs can help with efforts to prevent and attenuate negative impacts on child development and both child and family well-being. Many methods to assess ACEs exist but have not been compared. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) now measures ACEs for children, but requires further assessment and validation. We identified and compared methods to assess ACEs among children and families, evaluated the acceptability and validity of the new NSCH-ACEs measure, and identified implications for assessing ACEs in research and practice. Of 14 ACEs assessment methods identified, 5 have been used in clinical settings (vs public health assessment or research) and all but 1 require self or parent report (3 allow child report). Across methods, 6 to 20 constructs are assessed, 4 of which are common to all: parental incarceration, domestic violence, household mental illness/suicide, household alcohol or substance abuse. Common additional content includes assessing exposure to neighborhood violence, bullying, discrimination, or parental death. All methods use a numeric, cumulative risk scoring methodology. The NSCH-ACEs measure was acceptable to respondents as evidenced by few missing values and no reduction in response rate attributable to asking about children's ACEs. The 9 ACEs assessed in the NSCH co-occur, with most children with 1 ACE having additional ACEs. This measure showed efficiency and confirmatory factor analysis as well as latent class analysis

  6. Population attributable fractions of psychopathology and suicidal behaviour associated with childhood adversities in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversities are strong predictors of psychopathology and suicidality. However, specific adversities are associated with different outcomes, with cross-national variations reported. The current study examined rates of adversities reported in Northern Ireland (NI), and associations between adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology and suicidal behaviour were explored. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), conducted as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (2004-2008); response rate 68.4% (n = 1,986). The on-line survey used, the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to examine psychopathology and associated risk factors in the NI population. Prevalence rates of retrospectively reported childhood adversities were calculated, with gender and age variations explored. Females were more likely to experience sexual abuse. Individuals who grew up during the worst years of the civil conflict in NI experienced elevated levels of childhood adversities. Participants who endured childhood adversities were more likely to have mental health problems but variations in risk factors were found for different disorders. Parental mental illness was associated with all disorders however, with ORs ranging from 2.20 for mood disorders to 4.07 for anxiety disorders. Population attributable fractions (PAF) estimated the reduction in psychopathology and suicidal behaviour in the population if exposure to adverse childhood events had not occurred. The highest PAF values were revealed for parental mental illness and sexual abuse. The findings indicate that a substantial proportion of psychopathology and suicide risk in NI are attributable to childhood adversities, providing support for early intervention and prevention initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Adversities and Substance Misuse Among the Incarcerated: Implications for Treatment and Practice in Correctional Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Phillip L

    2017-05-12

    Incarcerated populations have high rates of childhood adversities and substance use problems. Moreover, childhood adversities are well-documented predictors of substance misuse. To investigate the impact of childhood sexual and physical abuse, caregiver abuse of drugs or alcohol, and time spent in foster care on several substance misuse outcomes. Data comes from a sample of 16,043 incarcerated men and women in the United States Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Facilities. Bivariate analyses revealed differences by sex in childhood adversities and socioeconomic characteristics. Logistic regression analyses assessed the data for a link between childhood adversities and substance misuse after adjusting for other variables. Analyses were stratified by sex to show differences in predictors of substance misuse between men and women. Childhood adversities increased the risk of many substance misuse outcomes. The prevalence of physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care, and caretaker abuse of drugs or alcohol were greatest for inmates who reported injecting and sharing drugs. Growing up with a caregiver that used drugs or alcohol was a consistent predictor of increased risk of substance misuse for men and women. However, childhood sexual abuse increased risk for only women. Inmates who experience physical abuse, sexual abuse, foster care involvement and caretakers who use drugs and alcohol are at an increased risk of substance misuse, injecting drug use and syringe sharing. Implications suggest correctional HIV prevention and substance misuse programs must address unresolved trauma and important gender differences.

  8. Correlates of adverse childhood events among adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Stanley D; Lu, Weili; Mueser, Kim T; Jankowski, Mary Kay; Cournos, Francine

    2007-02-01

    Multiple studies have found that childhood adversity is related to a range of poor mental health, substance abuse, poor physical health, and poor social functioning outcomes in the general population of adults. However, despite the high rates of childhood adversity in schizophrenia, the clinical correlates of these events have not been systematically evaluated. This study evaluated the relationship between adverse experiences in childhood and functional, clinical, and health outcomes among adults with schizophrenia. The authors surveyed 569 adults with schizophrenia regarding adverse childhood events (including physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental mental illnesses, loss of a parent, parental separation or divorce, witnessing domestic violence, and foster or kinship care). The relationships between cumulative exposure to these events and psychiatric, physical, and functional outcomes were evaluated. Increased exposure to adverse childhood events was strongly related to psychiatric problems (suicidal thinking, hospitalizations, distress, and posttraumatic stress disorder), substance abuse, physical health problems (HIV infection), medical service utilization (physician visits), and poor social functioning (homelessness or criminal justice involvement). The findings extend the results of research in the general population by suggesting that childhood adversity contributes to worse mental health, substance abuse, worse physical health, and poor functional outcomes in schizophrenia.

  9. The impact of adverse child and adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Paulson, Robert I; Green, Carla A

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare effects of adverse childhood experiences and adverse adult experiences on recovery from serious mental illnesses. As part of a mixed-methods study of recovery from serious mental illnesses, we interviewed and administered questionnaires to 177 members of a not-for-profit health plan over a 2-year period. Participants had a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, schizophrenia, or schizoaffective disorder. Data for analyses came from standardized self-reported measures; outcomes included recovery, functioning, quality of life, and psychiatric symptoms. Adverse events in childhood and adulthood were evaluated as predictors. Child and adult exposures to adverse experiences were high, at 91% and 82%, respectively. Cumulative lifetime exposure to adverse experiences (childhood plus adult experiences) was 94%. In linear regression analyses, adverse adult experiences were more important predictors of outcomes than adverse childhood experiences. Adult experiences were associated with lower recovery scores, quality of life, mental and physical functioning and social functioning and greater psychiatric symptoms. Emotional neglect in adulthood was associated with lower recovery scores. Early and repeated exposure to adverse events was common in this sample of people with serious mental illnesses. Adverse adult experiences were stronger predictors of worse functioning and lower recovery levels than were childhood experiences. Focusing clinical attention on adult experiences of adverse or traumatic events may result in greater benefit than focusing on childhood experiences alone. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  11. Early life adverse experiences and the effect on parenting stress and schizotypal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Hugill, Melanie; Fletcher, Ian; Berry, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    A robust amount of research indicates that childhood adverse experiences can have a detrimental impact on later relational experiences and mental health as an adult. Adverse childhood experiences, such as childhood sexual abuse (CSA), or other interpersonal traumas can affect the formation of secure attachments to caregivers. These insecure attachment styles persist into adulthood, affecting all subsequent relationships including that between parent and child. This thesis firstly examines the...

  12. The lasting legacy of childhood adversity for disease risk in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Cathal; Dooley, Cara; Layte, Richard; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2015-07-01

    There has been an increased interest in the role of the childhood social environment in the etiology of adult diseases in recent years. The present study examines whether the experience of adversity during childhood increases risk for disease in later life independent of later life socioeconomic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors. The study involved a nationally representative sample of 6,912 persons aged 50 years and older who were participating in the first wave of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Childhood adversity was indexed using a 4-item measure that captured challenging and potentially noxious childhood environmental exposures including, socioeconomic disadvantage, substance abuse among parents, physical abuse, and sexual abuse. A doctor diagnosis of disease across 9 chronic disease types represented the primary outcome variables. The experience of adversity during childhood was associated with increased risk of disease in midlife and older ages across a large number of chronic disease types including cardiovascular disease, lung disease, and emotional, nervous, or psychiatric disorders. Analysis of the dose-response pattern revealed positively graded associations between the number of adverse events experienced during childhood and the occurrence of chronic disease in later life. Cox proportional hazard models revealed that the experience of adversity during childhood was associated with earlier age of onset for any physical disease type or emotional, nervous, or psychiatric disorders. These findings indicate that childhood may represent a sensitive or critical period in the development of disease and reinforces the necessity of adopting a life-course approach to the study of chronic diseases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Gender differences in the physical and psychological manifestation of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people with psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun eSweeney

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The link between childhood trauma and/or adversity and risk of psychosis is well known. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of childhood trauma and/or adversity in people who have psychotic disorders and to investigate the association between childhood trauma and/or adversity and a range of social and health measures. Participants (n=391, 42% male were specifically asked about any experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity. Respondents provided information about education, employment, physical health and health service utilisation. Univariate analyses revealed that childhood trauma and/or adversity was associated with poorer levels of self-reported physical health and social problems. This includes the experience of chronic pain, headaches, arthritis, asthma and victimisation/stigma in men. Participants with a childhood trauma and/or adversity history indicated higher rates of lifetime suicide attempts with women reporting more lifetime depressive symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed differing profiles in relation to physical and psychological health variable between males and females. Males with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were significantly more likely to report cardiovascular/stroke issues, migraines and anhedonia. Females with the experience of childhood trauma and/or adversity were more likely to report a lifetime history of elevated mood and to be married or in a defacto relationship. There has been very little research into the assessment and treatment of the effects of childhood trauma and/or adversity in adults with psychosis. Childhood trauma and/or adversity may contribute to higher rates of self-reported poor health in men and is associated with increased depression in women. Our findings suggest that interventions to address the effects of past trauma are urgently needed.

  14. Childhood adversity, social support, and telomere length among perinatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Amanda M; Kowalsky, Jennifer M; Epel, Elissa S; Lin, Jue; Christian, Lisa M

    2018-01-01

    Adverse perinatal health outcomes are heightened among women with psychosocial risk factors, including childhood adversity and a lack of social support. Biological aging could be one pathway by which such outcomes occur. However, data examining links between psychosocial factors and indicators of biological aging among perinatal women are limited. The current study examined the associations of childhood socioeconomic status (SES), childhood trauma, and current social support with telomere length in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in a sample of 81 women assessed in early, mid, and late pregnancy as well as 7-11 weeks postpartum. Childhood SES was defined as perceived childhood social class and parental educational attainment. Measures included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and average telomere length in PBMCs. Per a linear mixed model, telomere length did not change across pregnancy and postpartum visits; thus, subsequent analyses defined telomere length as the average across all available timepoints. ANCOVAs showed group differences by perceived childhood social class, maternal and paternal educational attainment, and current family social support, with lower values corresponding with shorter telomeres, after adjustment for possible confounds. No effects of childhood trauma or social support from significant others or friends on telomere length were observed. Findings demonstrate that while current SES was not related to telomeres, low childhood SES, independent of current SES, and low family social support were distinct risk factors for cellular aging in women. These data have relevance for understanding potential mechanisms by which early life deprivation of socioeconomic and relationship resources affect maternal health. In turn, this has potential significance for intergenerational transmission of telomere length. The predictive value of

  15. Association between alcohol abuse, childhood adverse events and suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Ana Politakis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Negative life events present a risk for suicidal behaviour. The occurrence of suicidal behaviour also depends on type of negative life events, time of their appearance and the support person has in their environment, and can be part of a process triggered by a stressful event. the aim of the study was to investigate adverse childhood events, parental alcoholism and alcohol abuse in association with suicidal behaviour of suicide victims. Methods: A case-control study was conducted involving 90 individuals from Slovenian population who committed suicide and 90 age-sex matched controls drawn from the living population. Data were collected by means of semi-structured interviews with key informants by the principles of psychological autopsy. Results: Alcohol abuse was reported more ofen for suicide victims than for controls. The same was true for severe deprivation in childhood and alcoholism of one or both parents. Differences between groups in separation from one or both parents, death of one or both parents, reported parental divorce in childhood or sexual abuse in childhood were not observed. Conclusions: We should conclude that negative events in childhood and alcohol abuse in adulthood of suicide victims could be related to suicidal behaviour in population with higher suicide rate. When planning measures for the prevention of suicidal behaviour, adverse events in childhood and alcohol abuse should not be neglected to plan measures to prevent such events accordingly and to raise awareness about the dangers of alcohol abuse for suicidal behaviour.

  16. Developmental psychoneuroendocrine and psychoneuroimmune pathways from childhood adversity to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Chiang, Jessica J; Horn, Sarah; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-09-01

    Childhood adversity has been repeatedly and robustly linked to physical and mental illness across the lifespan. Yet, the biological pathways through which this occurs remain unclear. Functioning of the inflammatory arm of the immune system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis are both hypothesized pathways through which childhood adversity leads to disease. This review provides a novel developmental framework for examining the role of adversity type and timing in inflammatory and HPA-axis functioning. In particular, we identify elements of childhood adversity that are salient to the developing organism: physical threat, disrupted caregiving, and unpredictable environmental conditions. We propose that existing, well-characterized animal models may be useful in differentiating the effects of these adversity elements and review both the animal and human literature that supports these ideas. To support these hypotheses, we also provide a detailed description of the development and structure of both the HPA-axis and the inflammatory arm of the immune system, as well as recent methodological advances in their measurement. Recommendations for future basic, developmental, translational, and clinical research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender differences in the effects of childhood adversity on alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-07-01

    To examine gender differences in the associations between childhood adversity and different types of substance use disorders and whether gender moderates these relationships. We analyzed data from 19,209 women and 13,898 men as provided by Wave 2 (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender moderates the associations between childhood adversity and DSM-IV defined lifetime occurrence of alcohol, drug, and polysubstance-related disorders. We used multinomial logistic regression, weighted to be representative of the US adult civilian, noninstitutionalized population, and we calculated predicted probabilities by gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pair-wise comparisons corrected for multiple comparisons using Bonferroni's method. For each type of substance use disorder, risk was increased by more exposure to childhood adversity, and women had a lower risk than men. However, moderation effects revealed that with more experiences of childhood adversity, the gender gap in predicted probability for a disorder narrowed in relation to alcohol, it converged in relation to drugs such that risk among women surpassed that among men, and it widened in relation to polysubstances. Knowledge regarding substance-specific gender differences associated with childhood adversity exposure can inform evidence-based treatments. It may also be useful for shaping other types of gender-sensitive public health initiatives to ameliorate or prevent different types of substance use disorders.

  18. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe Lyse; Pedersen, Marlene Buch; Trier, Christopher Høier; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical control persons matched by gender, age and parents' socio-economic status. Assessment included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and parts of the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Eighty-nine percent of the FEP group reported one or more adversities compared to 37% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p<0.01). The risk of psychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All associations between specific adversities and psychosis decreased when they were adjusted for other adversities. Our findings suggest that there is a large shared effect of adversities on the risk of psychosis. Contrary to the call for further research into specific adversities, we suggest a search for mechanisms in the shared effects of traumatization. Clinical implications are thorough assessment of adversities and their possible effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing and testing positive: childhood adversities and later life HIV status among Kenyan women and their partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Michael L; Raimer-Goodman, Lauren; Chen, Catherine X; Grouls, Astrid; Gitari, Stanley; Keiser, Philip H

    2017-12-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are a critical feature of lifelong health. No research assesses whether childhood adversities predict HIV-testing behaviors, and little research analyzes childhood adversities and later life HIV status in sub-Saharan Africa. We use regression models with cross-sectional data from a representative sample (n = 1974) to analyze whether adverse childhood experiences, separately or as cumulative exposures, predict reports of later life HIV testing and testing HIV+ among semi-rural Kenyan women and their partners. No significant correlation was observed between thirteen cumulative childhood adversities and reporting prior HIV testing for respondent or partner. Separately, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect predicted lower odds of reporting having previously been tested for HIV. Witnessing household violence during one's childhood predicted significantly higher odds of reporting HIV+. Sexual abuse predicted higher odds of reporting a partner tested HIV+. Preventing sexual abuse and household violence may improve HIV testing and test outcomes among Kenyan women. More research is required to understand pathways between adverse childhood experiences and partner selection within Kenya and sub-Saharan Africa, and data presented here suggest understanding pathways may help improve HIV outcomes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Role of Mindfulness in Reducing the Adverse Effects of Childhood Stress and Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Ortiz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that many children are exposed to adverse experiences in childhood. Such adverse childhood exposures may result in stress and trauma, which are associated with increased morbidity and mortality into adulthood. In general populations and trauma-exposed adults, mindfulness interventions have demonstrated reduced depression and anxiety, reduced trauma-related symptoms, enhanced coping and mood, and improved quality of life. Studies in children and youth also demonstrate that mindfulness interventions improve mental, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Taken together, this research suggests that high-quality, structured mindfulness instruction may mitigate the negative effects of stress and trauma related to adverse childhood exposures, improving short- and long-term outcomes, and potentially reducing poor health outcomes in adulthood. Future work is needed to optimize implementation of youth-based mindfulness programs and to study long-term outcomes into adulthood.

  1. Impact of childhood adversities on the short-term course of illness in psychotic spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Fischer, Yolanda; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2015-08-30

    Accumulating evidence indicates an impact of childhood adversities on the severity and course of mental disorders, whereas this impact on psychotic disorders remains to be specified. Effects of childhood adversities on comorbidity, on symptom severity of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and global functioning across four months (upon admission, 1 and 4 months after initial assessment), as well as the course of illness (measured by the remission rate, number of re-hospitalizations and dropout rate) were evaluated in 62 inpatients with psychotic spectrum disorders. Adverse experiences (of at least 1 type) were reported by 73% of patients. Patients with higher overall level of childhood adversities (n=33) exhibited more co-morbid disorders, especially alcohol/substance abuse and dependency, and higher dropout rates than patients with a lower levels of adverse experiences (n=29), together with higher levels of positive symptoms and symptoms of excitement and disorganization. Emotional and physical neglect were particularly related to symptom severity. Results suggest that psychological stress in childhood affects the symptom severity and, additionally, a more unfavorable course of disorder in patients diagnosed with psychoses. This impact calls for its consideration in diagnostic assessment and psychiatric care. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Early menarche and childhood adversities in a nationally representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Henrichs, Kimberly L; McCauley, Heather L; Miller, Elizabeth; Styne, Dennis M; Saito, Naomi; Breslau, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological evidence suggests that early menarche, defined as onset of menses at age 11 or earlier, has increased in prevalence in recent birth cohorts and is associated with multiple poor medical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. There is evidence that childhood adversities occurring prior to menarche contribute to early menarche. Methods Data collected in face-to-face interviews with a nationally representative sample of women age 18 and over (N = 3288), as part of the...

  3. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kessler, Ronald C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Hu, Chi-yi; Karam, Elie G.; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Uestuen, T. Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. Aims To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV

  4. Impact of Different Childhood Adversities on 1-Year Outcomes of Psychotic Disorder in the Genetics and Psychosis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Murray, Robin M.; David, Anthony S.; Kolliakou, Anna; O’Connor, Jennifer; Di Forti, Marta; Dazzan, Paola; Mondelli, Valeria; Morgan, Craig; Fisher, Helen L.

    2016-01-01

    While the role of childhood adversity in increasing the risk of psychosis has been extensively investigated, it is not clear what the impact of early adverse experiences is on the outcomes of psychotic disorders. Therefore, we investigated associations between childhood adversity and 1-year outcomes in 285 first-presentation psychosis patients. Exposure to childhood adversity prior to 17 years of age was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Data on illness course, symptom remission, length of psychiatric hospitalization, compliance with medication, employment, and relationship status were extracted from clinical records for the year following first contact with mental health services for psychosis. Seventy-one percent of patients reported exposure to at least 1 type of childhood adversity (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, disrupted family arrangements, or being taken into care). No robust associations were found between childhood adversity and illness course or remission. However, childhood physical abuse was associated with almost 3-fold increased odds of not being in a relationship at 1-year follow-up compared to patients who did not report such adverse experiences. There was also evidence of a significant association between parental separation in childhood and longer admissions to psychiatric wards during 1-year follow-up and 2-fold increased odds of noncompliance with medication compared to those not separated from their parents. Therefore, our findings suggest that there may be some specificity in the impact of childhood adversity on service use and social functioning among psychosis patients over the first year following presentation to mental health services. PMID:26373540

  5. Childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated: differential exposure and vulnerability by race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Susan; MacArthur, Kelly Rhea

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between childhood adversity and adult depression is well-established but less is known about the association between childhood adversity and adult depression among the incarcerated. In this paper, we examine differential exposure and vulnerability to childhood adversity by race/ethnicity and gender on adult depression among the incarcerated in the United States. We address three research questions: does exposure to childhood adverse experiences vary by race/ethnicity and gender? Is there an association between these childhood adverse events and depression and does the strength of the association vary by the specific adverse experiences? And does vulnerability to childhood adversity vary by gender and race/ethnicity? Using the 2004 Survey of Inmates in State and Federal Correctional Facilities (SI-SFCF), we measure four key childhood adverse events - parental/caretaker substance abuse, physical assault, having been placed in foster care, and sexual assault. We use ordinary least squares regression and a series of interaction effect analyses to examine differential exposure and vulnerability to the four childhood adverse experiences by race/ethnicity and gender. Incarcerated women are more likely to report parental substance abuse, but all inmates/prisoners are similarly vulnerable to this experience. For the other three adverse experiences measured, we find that there are important racial/ethnic and gender differences in both exposure and vulnerability. African American men and women are more vulnerable to the effects of physical and sexual victimization than White and Hispanic men and women. Women are much more likely to be exposed to sexual victimization, but men who report this experience are significantly more depressed. Hispanic women and White men and women are more likely to report foster care, but all inmates/prisoners who report foster care experiences are significantly more depressed than other inmates/prisoners, with the exception of

  6. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-04-12

    It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n=364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374.

  7. Childhood adversity as a predictor of non-adherence to statin therapy in adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarit Jaana Korhonen

    Full Text Available To investigate whether adverse experiences in childhood predict non-adherence to statin therapy in adulthood.A cohort of 1378 women and 538 men who initiated statin therapy during 2008-2010 after responding to a survey on childhood adversities, was followed for non-adherence during the first treatment year. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate predictors of non-adherence, defined as the proportion of days covered by dispensed statin tablets <80%. In fully adjusted models including age, education, marital status, current smoking, heavy alcohol use, physical inactivity, obesity, presence of depression and cardiovascular comorbidity, the number of women ranged from 1172 to 1299 and that of men from 473 to 516, because of missing data on specific adversities and covariates.Two in three respondents reported at least one of the following six adversities in the family: divorce/separation of the parents, long-term financial difficulties, severe conflicts, frequent fear, severe illness, or alcohol problem of a family member. 51% of women and 44% of men were non-adherent. In men, the number of childhood adversities predicted an increased risk of non-adherence (risk ratio [RR] per adversity 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.21], P for linear trend 0.013. Compared with those reporting no adversities, men reporting 3-6 adversities had a 1.44-fold risk of non-adherence (95% CI 1.12-1.85. Experiencing severe conflicts in the family (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.03-1.57] and frequent fear of a family member (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62] in particular, predicted an increased risk of non-adherence. In women, neither the number of adversities nor any specific type of adversity predicted non-adherence.Exposure to childhood adversity may predict non-adherence to preventive cardiovascular medication in men. Usefulness of information on childhood adversities in identification of adults at high risk of non-adherence deserves further research.

  8. Childhood adversities, bonding, and personality in social anxiety disorder with alcohol use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambau, Stefanie; Forstner, Andreas J; Wegener, Ingo; Mücke, Martin; Wissussek, Christine T S; Staufenbiel, Sabine M; Geiser, Franziska; Schumacher, Johannes; Conrad, Rupert

    2018-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is frequently associated with alcohol use disorders (abuse/dependence). However, there has been little research on the characteristics of this subgroup so far. In the current study we investigated individuals with SAD and comorbid alcohol use disorder (AUD) with regard to socialization experiences and personality. The sample comprised 410 individuals diagnosed with SAD by the Structured Clinical Interview of DSM-IV. 108 participants with comorbid AUD were compared to 302 participants without comorbid AUD concerning traumatic experiences during childhood and adolescence (Adverse Childhood Experiences Questionnaire; ACE), parental bonding (Parental Bonding Instrument; PBI), and personality (Temperament and Character Inventory; TCI). MANCOVA with covariates sex and depression displayed that individuals with SAD plus AUD reported significantly more traumatic events during childhood and adolescence, lower levels of maternal care, as well as lower cooperativeness. Our results highlight that adverse childhood experiences and unfavourable maternal bonding characterize individuals suffering from SAD plus AUD. These experiences might be reflected in a personality-based tendency to distance themselves from others, which corresponds to low scores on the character dimension cooperativeness. A deeper understanding of personality and specific socialization experiences is necessary to develop new treatment options in this clinically challenging subgroup. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  10. Additive Contributions of Childhood Adversity and Recent Stressors to Inflammation at Midlife: Findings from the MIDUS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Miller, Gregory E.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the joint contributions of self-reported adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and recent life events (RLEs) to inflammation at midlife, by testing 3 competing theoretical models: stress generation, stress accumulation, and early life stress sensitization. We aimed to identify potential mediators between adversity and inflammation.…

  11. History of childhood adversity is positively associated with ventral striatal dopamine responses to amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Lynn M; Wand, Gary S; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Wong, Dean F; Zhu, Shijun; Brasic, James R

    2014-06-01

    Childhood exposure to severe or chronic trauma is an important risk factor for the later development of adult mental health problems, such as substance abuse. Even in nonclinical samples of healthy adults, persons with a history of significant childhood adversity seem to experience greater psychological distress than those without this history. Evidence from rodent studies suggests that early life stress may impair dopamine function in ways that increase risks for drug abuse. However, the degree to which these findings translate to other species remains unclear. This study was conducted to examine associations between childhood adversity and dopamine and subjective responses to amphetamine in humans. Following intake assessment, 28 healthy male and female adults, aged 18-29 years, underwent two consecutive 90-min positron emission tomography studies with high specific activity [(11)C]raclopride. The first scan was preceded by intravenous saline; the second by amphetamine (AMPH 0.3 mg/kg). Consistent with prior literature, findings showed positive associations between childhood trauma and current levels of perceived stress. Moreover, greater number of traumatic events and higher levels of perceived stress were each associated with higher ventral striatal dopamine responses to AMPH. Findings of mediation analyses further showed that a portion of the relationship between childhood trauma and dopamine release may be mediated by perceived stress. Overall, results are consistent with preclinical findings suggesting that early trauma may lead to enhanced sensitivity to psychostimulants and that this mechanism may underlie increased vulnerability for drug abuse.

  12. The relationship between childhood adversity, attachment, and internalizing behaviors in a diversion program for child-to-mother violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski-Sims, Eva; Rowe, Amanda

    2017-10-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of childhood adversity in child-to-parent violence. Childhood adversity places youth at risk for internalizing behaviors (i.e. anxiety and depression) and externalizing behaviors (i.e. aggression). The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 80 youth who have been arrested for domestic battery against a mother. This study reported high prevalence rates of childhood adversity (mean score of 10 out of 17 events). Multiple regression analysis indicated that insecure attachment predicted depression among females (F(6, 73)=4.87, p<0.001), and previous experience with child maltreatment and/or witness to parental violence predicted anxiety among females (F(6, 73)=3.08, p<0.01). This study is the first study to explore childhood adversity among a sample of perpetrators of child-to-mother violence and notably adds to our understanding of the multiple pathways connecting childhood adversity, child-mother attachment, and depression and anxiety among a difficult to treat youth population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adversity in childhood linked to elevated striatal dopamine function in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Egerton, A.; Valmaggia, L. R.; Howes, O. D.; Day, F.; Chaddock, C. A.; Allen, P.; Winton-Brown, T. T.; Bloomfield, M. A. P.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Chilcott, J.; Lappin, J. M.; Murray, R. M.; McGuire, P.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity increases the risk of psychosis in adulthood. Theoretical and animal models suggest that this effect may be mediated by increased striatal dopamine neurotransmission. The primary objective of this study was to examine the relationship between adversity in childhood and striatal dopamine function in early adulthood. Secondary objectives were to compare exposure to childhood adversity and striatal dopamine function in young people at ultra high risk (UHR) of psychosis and he...

  14. Childhood adversity and conduct disorder: A developmental pathway to violence in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clare; Harris, Stephanie; Fahy, Thomas; Murphy, Declan; Picchioni, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Both childhood adversity and conduct disorder are over-represented among adult patients with schizophrenia and have been proposed as significant factors that may increase the risk of violence. It is not known how childhood adversity and conduct disorder might interact to contribute towards an increased risk of violence in schizophrenia. This study aimed to explore the relationships between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and violence among men with schizophrenia. 54 male patients with schizophrenia from a range of inpatient and outpatient mental health services were assessed for exposure to a variety of childhood adversities, conduct disorder before the age of 15 and later violent behaviour in adulthood. Exposure to domestic violence during childhood was associated with an increased propensity to violence in adulthood. Symptoms of conduct disorder were associated both with cumulative exposure to childhood adversities and with later propensity to violence. The cumulative number of childhood adversities was associated with adult propensity to violence. This association was significantly attenuated by inclusion of conduct disorder in the model. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia. Conduct disorder may mediate the association between cumulative childhood adversities and adult propensity to violence, indicating an indirect pathway. These results indicate a complex interplay between childhood adversity, conduct disorder and later violent behaviour in schizophrenia, and suggest that there may be shared aetiological risk factors on a common developmental pathway to violence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The relationship between childhood adversities and fibromyalgia in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varinen, Aleksi; Kosunen, Elise; Mattila, Kari; Koskela, Tuomas; Sumanen, Markku

    2017-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a syndrome characterized by widespread pain and a variety of somatic symptoms. The international prevalence of fibromyalgia is 2-5%, but its current prevalence in Finland is unclear. Various adversities are linked to the onset of fibromyalgia. However, there is need for more data regarding the association between childhood physical abuse and fibromyalgia. Further, the association of childhood emotional stressors and fibromyalgia is disputed. The aim of the current study is to produce more information about that relationship using data from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) Study. HeSSup is a postal study consisting of a random sample of the Finnish population. The study setting is cross-sectional. Participants in the study were asked if they have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia. Those responding affirmatively were classified as fibromyalgia patients. Six childhood adversities were enquired, and the relationship between fibromyalgia and these events were analysed by cross tabulation and logistic regression. There were associations between examined adversities and fibromyalgia before and after adjustments for demographic features and depression (being afraid of a family member: odds ratio after adjustment 1.60, 95% CI 1.28-2.01; long-lasting financial difficulties 1.45, 1.18-1.77; serious conflicts in the family 1.40, 1.14-1.72; parental divorce 1.34, 1.05-1.72; serious or chronic illnesses in the family 1.27, 1.05-1.55; alcohol problems in the family 1.25, 1.02-1.53). All six enquired adversities were associated with fibromyalgia after adjustments. These findings emphasize the importance of preventing adverse childhood experiences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; McLaughlin, Katie A; Green, Jennifer Greif; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Alhamzawi, Ali Obaid; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Benjet, Corina; Bromet, Evelyn; Chatterji, Somnath; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Demyttenaere, Koen; Fayyad, John; Florescu, Silvia; Gal, Gilad; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hu, Chi-Yi; Karam, Elie G; Kawakami, Norito; Lee, Sing; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, José; Sagar, Rajesh; Tsang, Adley; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Vassilev, Svetlozar; Viana, Maria Carmen; Williams, David R

    2010-11-01

    Although significant associations of childhood adversities with adult mental disorders are widely documented, most studies focus on single childhood adversities predicting single disorders. To examine joint associations of 12 childhood adversities with first onset of 20 DSM-IV disorders in World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in 21 countries. Nationally or regionally representative surveys of 51 945 adults assessed childhood adversities and lifetime DSM-IV disorders with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Childhood adversities were highly prevalent and interrelated. Childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning (e.g. parental mental illness, child abuse, neglect) were the strongest predictors of disorders. Co-occurring childhood adversities associated with maladaptive family functioning had significant subadditive predictive associations and little specificity across disorders. Childhood adversities account for 29.8% of all disorders across countries. Childhood adversities have strong associations with all classes of disorders at all life-course stages in all groups of WMH countries. Long-term associations imply the existence of as-yet undetermined mediators.

  17. Childhood adversity and borderline personality disorder: a focus on adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newnham, Elizabeth A; Janca, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores recent research in the field of childhood exposure to trauma and the development of borderline personality disorder in adolescence. Adolescence is a critical period of development. Exposure to trauma, specifically sexual abuse, prior to and during puberty has specific implications for personality development and heightens risk for borderline personality disorder. Elevated symptom levels in adolescence are likely to decline across adulthood, but social and vocational impairments remain. Impulsivity, difficulties in emotion regulation, and suicidality may characterize adolescent expression of borderline personality disorder, whereas negative affect and functional impairment are more stable features of the disorder. Preliminary findings in treatment models for adults have potential for benefit among adolescence. Further research is required to examine treatment effectiveness and efficiency. Greater attention to low-income and middle-income nations, which are disproportionately affected by adversity, is needed to determine cross-cultural validity and the impact of trauma in adolescent populations.

  18. The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behaviour in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Armour, Cherie; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population's psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n = 1986). The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behaviour. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. On Becoming Trauma-Informed: Role of the Adverse Childhood Experiences Survey in Tertiary Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services and the Association with Standard Measures of Impairment and Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Perri, Andrea; Deegan, Avril; Kuntz, Jennifer; Cawthorpe, David

    2018-01-01

    There is a movement toward trauma-informed, trauma-focused psychiatric treatment. To examine Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) survey items by sex and by total scores by sex vs clinical measures of impairment to examine the clinical utility of the ACE survey as an index of trauma in a child and adolescent mental health care setting. Descriptive, polychoric factor analysis and regression analyses were employed to analyze cross-sectional ACE surveys (N = 2833) and registration-linked data using past admissions (N = 10,400) collected from November 2016 to March 2017 related to clinical data (28 independent variables), taking into account multicollinearity. Distinct ACE items emerged for males, females, and those with self-identified sex and for ACE total scores in regression analysis. In hierarchical regression analysis, the final models consisting of standard clinical measures and demographic and system variables (eg, repeated admissions) were associated with substantial ACE total score variance for females (44%) and males (38%). Inadequate sample size foreclosed on developing a reduced multivariable model for the self-identified sex group. The ACE scores relate to independent clinical measures and system and demographic variables. There are implications for clinical practice. For example, a child presenting with anxiety and a high ACE score likely requires treatment that is different from a child presenting with anxiety and an ACE score of zero. The ACE survey score is an important index of presenting clinical status that guides patient care planning and intervention in the progress toward a trauma-focused system of care.

  20. Suicidality in male prisoners: influence of childhood adversity mediated by dimensions of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godet-Mardirossian, Hélène; Jehel, Louis; Falissard, Bruno

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to study the influence of childhood adversity on suicidal behavior in male prisoners. Including a random sample of 899 male prisoners (French National Mental Health Prison Survey, 2003), this paper studied suicidal ideations and suicide attempts using MINI criteria, and personality using Temperament and Character Inventory. Risk factors of suicidality were examined, and structural equations studied the influence of childhood trauma on suicidality, mediated by personality dimensions. The prisoners reported high levels of childhood adversity. More than a third reported recent suicidal ideations. Childhood adversity and dimensions of personality were associated with suicidality. Structural equations showed that childhood adversity was positively associated with suicidality, mediated by poor dimensions of character (affective stability, self-cooperativeness, and self-transcendence). In conclusion, these results confirm the importance of screening and treatment of childhood trauma among male prisoners. They suggest the importance to study dimensions of personality and tailor treatment to specific needs. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Interplay between Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Childhood Adversity in First-Presentation Psychotic Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C.; Campbell, Desmond D.; Cherny, Stacey S.; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J.; Murray, Robin M.

    2016-01-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis. PMID:27648571

  2. Interplay between Schizophrenia Polygenic Risk Score and Childhood Adversity in First-Presentation Psychotic Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Antonella; Iyegbe, Conrad; Di Forti, Marta; Sham, Pak C; Campbell, Desmond D; Cherny, Stacey S; Mondelli, Valeria; Aitchison, Katherine J; Murray, Robin M; Vassos, Evangelos; Fisher, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to number or severity of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing genetic vulnerability. Research on gene-environment interaction in psychosis has primarily focused on candidate genes, although the genetic effects are now known to be polygenic. This pilot study investigated whether the effect of childhood adversity on psychosis is moderated by the polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS). Data were utilised from the Genes and Psychosis (GAP) study set in South London, UK. The GAP sample comprises 285 first-presentation psychosis cases and 256 unaffected controls with information on childhood adversity. We studied only white subjects (80 cases and 110 controls) with PRS data, as the PRS has limited predictive ability in patients of African ancestry. The occurrence of childhood adversity was assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q) and the PRS was based on genome-wide meta-analysis results for schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Higher schizophrenia PRS and childhood adversities each predicted psychosis status. Nevertheless, no evidence was found for interaction as departure from additivity, indicating that the effect of polygenic risk scores on psychosis was not increased in the presence of a history of childhood adversity. These findings are compatible with a multifactorial threshold model in which both genetic liability and exposure to environmental risk contribute independently to the etiology of psychosis.

  3. Childhood adversity and behavioral health outcomes for youth: An investigation using state administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucenko, Barbara A; Sharkova, Irina V; Huber, Alice; Jemelka, Ron; Mancuso, David

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to measure the relative contribution of adverse experiences to adolescent behavioral health problems using administrative data. Specifically, we sought to understand the predictive value of adverse experiences on the presence of mental health and substance abuse problems for youth receiving publicly funded social and health services. Medicaid claims and other service records were analyzed for 125,123 youth age 12-17 and their biological parents. Measures from administrative records reflected presence of parental domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse, criminal justice involvement, child abuse and/or neglect, homelessness, and death of a biological parent. Mental health and substance abuse status of adolescents were analyzed as functions of adverse experiences and other youth characteristics using logistic regression. In multivariate analyses, all predictors except parental domestic violence were statistically significant for substance abuse; parental death, parental mental illness, child abuse or neglect and homelessness were statistically significant for mental illness. Odds ratios for child abuse/neglect were particularly high in both models. The ability to identify risks during childhood using administrative data suggests the potential to target prevention and early intervention efforts for children with specific family risk factors who are at increased risk for developing behavioral health problems during adolescence. This study illustrates the utility of administrative data in understanding adverse experiences on children and the advantages and disadvantages of this approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coêlho, Bruno M; Santana, Geilson L; Viana, Maria C; Andrade, Laura H; Wang, Yuan-Pang

    2018-06-11

    Childhood adversities (CAs) comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment - encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence - was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  5. Gender-related dimensions of childhood adversities in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno M. Coêlho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversities (CAs comprise a group of negative experiences individuals may suffer in their lifetimes. The goal of the present study was to investigate the cluster discrimination of CAs through psychometric determination of the common attributes of such experiences for men and women. Methods: Parental mental illness, substance misuse, criminality, death, divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, physical illness, and economic adversity were assessed in a general-population sample (n=5,037. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis determined gender-related dimensions of CA. The contribution of each individual adversity was explored through Rasch analysis. Results: Adversities were reported by 53.6% of the sample. A three-factor model of CA dimensions fit the data better for men, and a two-factor model for women. For both genders, the dimension of family maladjustment – encompassing physical abuse, neglect, parental mental disorders, and family violence – was the core cluster of CAs. Women endorsed more CAs than men. Rasch analysis found that sexual abuse, physical illness, parental criminal behavior, parental divorce, and economic adversity were difficult to report in face-to-face interviews. Conclusion: CAs embrace sensitive personal information, clustering of which differed by gender. Acknowledging CAs may have an impact on medical and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood.

  6. Harm avoidance and childhood adversities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and their unaffected first-degree relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bey, K; Lennertz, L; Riesel, A; Klawohn, J; Kaufmann, C; Heinzel, S; Grützmann, R; Kathmann, N; Wagner, M

    2017-04-01

    The etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is assumed to involve interactions between genetically determined vulnerability factors and significant environmental features. Here, we aim to investigate how the personality trait harm avoidance and the experience of childhood adversities contribute to OCD. A total of 169 patients with OCD, 157 healthy comparison subjects, and 57 unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with OCD participated in the study. Harm avoidance was assessed using the Temperament and Character Inventory, and the severity of childhood adversities was measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Both patients with OCD and relatives showed elevated levels of harm avoidance compared to controls. Furthermore, patients exhibited significantly higher scores than relatives. This linear pattern was observed throughout all subscales of harm avoidance, and remained stable after controlling for the severity of depressive and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. With regard to childhood adversities, patients with OCD reported higher levels than relatives and controls. Our results provide further evidence for a diathesis-stress model of OCD. While patients and unaffected relatives share elevated levels of harm avoidance, supporting the role of harm avoidance as an endophenotype of OCD, a heightened severity of childhood adversity was only observed in patients. The assumed biological underpinnings of these findings are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  8. Pediatric Emergency Department and Primary Care Provider Attitudes on Assessing Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Samantha; Murray, Ashlee; Mollen, Cynthia J; Wedin, Tara; Fein, Joel A; Scribano, Philip V

    2017-07-03

    The purpose of this study was to understand pediatric emergency department (ED) and primary care (PC) health care provider attitudes and beliefs regarding the intersection between childhood adversities and health care. We conducted in-depth, semistructured interviews in 2 settings (ED and PC) within an urban health care system. Purposive sampling was used to balance the sample among 3 health care provider roles. Interview questions were based on a modified health beliefs model exploring the "readiness to act" among providers. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded. Interviews continued until theme saturation was reached. Saturation was achieved after 26 ED and 19 PC interviews. Emergency department/primary care providers were similar in their perception of patient susceptibility to childhood adversity. Childhood mental health problems were the most frequently referenced adverse outcome, followed by poor childhood physical health. Adult health outcomes because of childhood adversity were rarely mentioned. Many providers felt that knowing about childhood adversity in the medical setting was important because it relates to provision of tangible resources. There were mixed opinions about whether or not pediatric health care providers should be identifying childhood adversities at all. Although providers exhibited knowledge about childhood adversity, the perceived effect on health was only immediate and tangible. The effect of childhood adversity on lifelong health and the responsibility and potential accountability health systems have in addressing these important health determinants was not recognized by many respondents in our study. Addressing these provider perspectives will be a critical component of successful transformation toward more accountable health care delivery systems.

  9. The impact of childhood adversities on anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marackova, Marketa; Prasko, Jan; Matousek, Stanislav; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Holubova, Michaela; Slepecky, Milos; Vrbova, Kristyna; Grambal, Ales

    2016-12-01

    The childhood adversities model is generally accepted as a predictor of adult psychopathology vulnerability. It stems from child development theories, but the question remains as of how well solid research supports it. The aim of this article is to give a review of the studies concerning childhood adversities and their impact on the development of anxiety disorders and major depressive disorder in adulthood. A computerized search of the MEDLINE database of publications up to 31 March 2016 was done, using the keywords "childhood adversities, abuse, maltreatment, bullying" and "anxiety disorders, depressive disorder". No backward time constraints were used. Non-original studies, conference abstracts, books and book chapters, commentaries, and dissertations were excluded. The influence of childhood adversities on later age psychopathology is examined in five categories: the negative family atmosphere, abuse, loss of a close person, the social difficulties, and problems at school (including, most importantly bullying). The majority of studies confirmed the connection between childhood adversities and anxiety and depression disorders in adulthood. The character of the adversities is not, apparently, a specific predictor for a concrete psychopathology. Multiple adversities are more frequently connected with depressive and anxiety disorders in adulthood, cumulating together in broader adverse context. Childhood adversities were found to increase vulnerability to the distress, depression, fear and anxiety later in the life. However, specific correlations between a given childhood adversity and a specific form of depression or anxiety disorder were either not found or weak. This is in line with the generally accepted view considering each of these factors a non-specific stressor increasing vulnerability to mood and affect disorders later in life.

  10. Corrigendum: Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Original article: Zilioli, S., Slatcher, R. B., Chi, P., Li, X., Zhao, J., & Zhao, G. (2016). Childhood adversity, self-esteem, and diurnal cortisol profiles across the life span. Psychological Science, 27, 1249-1265. doi:10.1177/0956797616658287.

  11. Interactive effects of genetic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphologic changes in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ku; Ham, Byung-Joo; Han, Kyu-Man

    2018-03-10

    The etiology of depression is characterized by the interplay of genetic and environmental factors and brain structural alteration. Childhood adversity is a major contributing factor in the development of depression. Interactions between childhood adversity and candidate genes for depression could affect brain morphology via the modulation of neurotrophic factors, serotonergic neurotransmission, or the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and this pathway may explain the subsequent onset of depression. Childhood adversity is associated with structural changes in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and prefrontal cortex (PFC), as well as white matter tracts such as the corpus callosum, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Childhood adversity showed an interaction with the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene Val66Met polymorphism, serotonin transporter-linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR), and FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) gene rs1360780 in brain morphologic changes in patients with depression and in a non-clinical population. Individuals with the Met allele of BDNF Val66Met and a history of childhood adversity had reduced volume in the hippocampus and its subfields, amygdala, and PFC and thinner rostral ACC in a study of depressed patients and healthy controls. The S allele of 5-HTTLPR combined with exposure to childhood adversity or a poorer parenting environment was associated with a smaller hippocampal volume and subsequent onset of depression. The FKBP5 gene rs160780 had a significant interaction with childhood adversity in the white matter integrity of brain regions involved in emotion processing. This review identified that imaging genetic studies on childhood adversity may deepen our understanding on the neurobiological background of depression by scrutinizing complicated pathways of genetic factors, early psychosocial environments, and the accompanying morphologic changes in emotion-processing neural circuitry. Copyright

  12. Childhood adversity accelerates intended reproductive timing in adolescent girls without increasing interest in infants.

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    Stephanie Clutterbuck

    Full Text Available Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1 childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2 childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3 intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies.

  13. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

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    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  14. Associations between nonauditory hallucinations, dissociation, and childhood adversity in first-episode psychosis.

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    Longden, Eleanor; House, Allan O; Waterman, Mitch G

    2016-01-01

    Although repeated associations have been found between adversity exposure (particularly exposure to childhood sexual abuse), dissociation, and auditory hallucinations in the context of psychosis, there is little comparable research examining hallucinations in other modalities. This study aimed to determine whether cumulative adversity exposure influences the likelihood of experiencing visual, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory hallucinations among psychosis patients and whether measures of dissociation are significantly associated with nonauditory hallucinations when exposure to childhood adversity and psychological distress are adjusted for. Self-report measures and a retrospective case-control design were applied to assess nonauditory hallucinations, dissociation, psychological distress, and childhood adversity exposure in a sample of first-episode psychosis patients reporting nonauditory hallucinations (n = 36) and controls from the same clinical population without nonauditory hallucinations (n = 31). Case participants reported higher levels of dissociation, psychological distress, and exposure to childhood rape than the control group. Dissociation remained significantly associated with nonauditory hallucinations when we adjusted for childhood sexual abuse, other types of childhood adversity, and a combined measure of emotional distress. Indication of a dose-response relationship was detected, in that total number of adversities was significantly associated with reporting more than one modality of nonauditory hallucination. Observed associations between auditory hallucinations and dissociation in psychosis may extend to other hallucination modalities. It is suggested that more research attention be paid to the etiology and impact of nonauditory hallucinations in psychosis samples.

  15. Adverse Childhood Environment: Relationship With Sexual Risk Behaviors and Marital Status in a Large American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kermyt G

    2017-01-01

    A substantial theoretical and empirical literature suggests that stressful events in childhood influence the timing and patterning of subsequent sexual and reproductive behaviors. Stressful childhood environments have been predicted to produce a life history strategy in which adults are oriented more toward short-term mating behaviors and less toward behaviors consistent with longevity. This article tests the hypothesis that adverse childhood environment will predict adult outcomes in two areas: risky sexual behavior (engagement in sexual risk behavior or having taken an HIV test) and marital status (currently married vs. never married, divorced, or a member of an unmarried couple). Data come from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample contains 17,530 men and 23,978 women aged 18-54 years living in 13 U.S. states plus the District of Columbia. Adverse childhood environment is assessed through 11 retrospective measures of childhood environment, including having grown up with someone who was depressed or mentally ill, who was an alcoholic, who used or abused drugs, or who served time in prison; whether one's parents divorced in childhood; and two scales measuring childhood exposure to violence and to sexual trauma. The results indicate that adverse childhood environment is associated with increased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk behaviors or taking an HIV test, and increased likelihood of being in an unmarried couple or divorced/separated, for both men and women. The predictions are supported by the data, lending further support to the hypothesis that childhood environments influence adult reproductive strategy.

  16. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels.

  17. Impact of Childhood Adversity and Vasopressin receptor 1a Variation on Social Interaction in Adulthood: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia Jia; Lou, Fenglan; Lavebratt, Catharina; Forsell, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Background Arginine vasopressin (AVP) plays a role in social behavior, through receptor AVPR1A. The promoter polymorphism AVPR1A RS3 has been associated with human social behaviors, and with acute response to stress. Here, the relationships between AVPR1A RS3, early-life stressors, and social interaction in adulthood were explored. Methods Adult individuals from a Swedish population-based cohort (n = 1871) were assessed for self-reported availability of social integration and social attachment and for experience of childhood adversities. Their DNA samples were genotyped for the microsatellite AVPR1A RS3. Results Among males, particularly those homozygous for the long alleles of AVPR1A RS3 were vulnerable to childhood adversity for their social attachment in adulthood. A similar vulnerability to childhood adversity among long allele carriers was found on adulthood social integration, but here both males and females were influenced. Limitation Data were self-reported and childhood adversity data were retrospective. Conclusions Early-life stress influenced the relationship between AVPR1A genetic variants and social interaction. For social attachment, AVPR1A was of importance in males only. The findings add to previous reports on higher acute vulnerability to stress in persons with long AVPR1A RS3 alleles and increased AVP levels. PMID:26295806

  18. Childhood adversity and social functioning in psychosis: Exploring clinical and cognitive mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmier-Claus, Jasper; Berry, Katherine; Darrell-Berry, Hannah; Emsley, Richard; Parker, Sophie; Drake, Richard; Bucci, Sandra

    2016-04-30

    Childhood adversity may increase risk of impaired social functioning across the continuum of psychosis. However, the pathways by which adversity dictates functional outcome remain underexplored. This study investigated the association between childhood adversity and social functioning, and the clinical and cognitive mediators of this relationship. Fifty-four clinical (20 chronic, 20 first episode, 14 at ultra-high risk) and 120 non-clinical participants completed standardised questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and tests of theory of mind ability. The authors used multiple group structural equation modelling to fit mediation models allowing for differential relationships between the clinical and non-clinical samples. When examining each pathway separately, depression, paranoia and anxious attachment mediated the effect of childhood adversity on social functioning. In a combined model, depression was the only significant mediating variable with greater adversity predicting lower mood across groups. Childhood adversity did not significantly predict theory of mind ability in any of the models. This is the first study to indicate that childhood adversity acts on social functioning by increasing levels of depression, suggesting a common mechanism across the spectrum of psychosis. Clinical interventions should target low mood in order to improve social functioning at all stages of psychotic disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Delayed Diagnosis and Treatment among Children with Autism Who Experience Adversity

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    Berg, Kristin L.; Acharya, Kruti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Msall, Michael E.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of family adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on timing of ASD diagnoses and receipt of therapies were measured using data from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Parametric accelerated failure time models estimated the relationship between family ACEs and both timing of ASD diagnosis and receipt of therapies among US…

  20. Confounding and Statistical Significance of Indirect Effects: Childhood Adversity, Education, Smoking, and Anxious and Depressive Symptomatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The life course perspective, the risky families model, and stress-and-coping models provide the rationale for assessing the role of smoking as a mediator in the association between childhood adversity and anxious and depressive symptomatology (ADS in adulthood. However, no previous study has assessed the independent mediating role of smoking in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood. Moreover, the importance of mediator-response confounding variables has rarely been demonstrated empirically in social and psychiatric epidemiology. The aim of this paper was to (i assess the mediating role of smoking in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and ADS in adulthood, and (ii assess the change in estimates due to different mediator-response confounding factors (education, alcohol intake, and social support. The present analysis used data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4,530, a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Seven childhood adversities (low mother's education, low father's education, low financial conditions, exposure to passive smoke, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress were used to create a childhood adversity score. Smoking status was measured at a mean age of 54.7 years (Tromsø IV, and ADS in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years (Tromsø V. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect and the proportion of mediated effect (% of childhood adversity on ADS in adulthood via smoking in adulthood. The test-retest reliability of smoking was good (Kappa: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.63; 0.71 in this sample. Childhood adversity was associated with a 10% increased risk of smoking in adulthood (Relative risk: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.18, and both childhood adversity and smoking in adulthood were associated with greater levels of ADS in adulthood (p < 0.001. Smoking in adulthood did not significantly

  1. Childhood psychosocial adversity and female reproductive timing: a cohort study of the ALSPAC mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Maria C; Anderson, Emma L; Howe, Laura D; Joinson, Carol J; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Fraser, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies of childhood psychosocial adversity and age at menarche mostly evaluated single or a few measures of adversity, and therefore could not quantify total psychosocial adversity. Limited knowledge is currently available regarding childhood psychosocial adversity in relation to age at menopause and reproductive lifespan. We examined the associations of total and specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity with age at menarche (n=8984), age at menopause (n=945), and length of reproductive lifespan (n=841), in mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used confirmatory factor analysis to characterise lack of care, maladaptive family functioning, non-sexual abuse, overprotective parenting, parental mental illness and sexual abuse. These specific components of childhood psychosocial adversity were combined into a total psychosocial adversity score using a second-order factor analysis. We used structural equation models to simultaneously conduct the factor analysis and estimate the association with the continuous outcomes of interest. Total childhood psychosocial adversity was not associated with age at menarche, age at menopause or length of reproductive lifespan. When we examined the separate psychosocial adversity constructs, sexual abuse was inversely associated with age at menarche, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.23 to -0.12) years per SD higher factor score, and with age at menopause, with a mean difference of -0.17 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.18) per SD higher factor score. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with lower age at menarche and menopause, but the latter needs to be confirmed in larger samples. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Is there a link between childhood adversity, attachment style and Scotland’s excess mortality? Evidence, challenges and potential research

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    M. Smith

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotland has a persistently high mortality rate that is not solely due to the effects of socio-economic deprivation. This “excess” mortality is observed across the entire country, but is greatest in and around the post-industrial conurbation of West Central Scotland. Despite systematic investigation, the causes of the excess mortality remain the subject of ongoing debate. Discussion Attachment processes are a fundamental part of human development, and have a profound influence on adult personality and behaviour, especially in response to stressors. Many studies have also shown that childhood adversity is correlated with adult morbidity and mortality. The interplay between childhood adversity and attachment is complex and not fully elucidated, but will include socio-economic, intergenerational and psychological factors. Importantly, some adverse health outcomes for parents (such as problem substance use or suicide will simultaneously act as risk factors for their children. Data show that some forms of “household dysfunction” relating to childhood adversity are more prevalent in Scotland: such problems include parental problem substance use, rates of imprisonment, rates of suicide and rates of children being taken into care. However other measures of childhood or family wellbeing have not been found to be substantially different in Scotland compared to England. Summary We suggest in this paper that the role of childhood adversity and attachment experience merits further investigation as a plausible mechanism influencing health in Scotland. A model is proposed which sets out some of the interactions between the factors of interest, and we propose parameters for the types of study which would be required to evaluate the validity of the model.

  3. Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Fraser, Abigail; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Howe, Laura D

    2018-02-01

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood. Approximately 23 years later, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial distensibility were assessed (mean age 51 years). We examined associations of each specific type of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity with CVD risk factors. No specific type of psychosocial adversity was consistently associated with the CVD risk factors. There was evidence that a one standard deviation greater cumulative psychosocial adversity was associated with 0.51cm greater waist circumference (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02cm, 1.00cm, p=0.04) and a lower arterial distensibility, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic position. We found no consistent evidence that any specific type of psychosocial adversity, or cumulative psychosocial adversity in childhood, is associated with CVD risk factors in adult women. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of childhood adversities on specific symptom dimensions in first-episode psychosis.

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    Ajnakina, O; Trotta, A; Oakley-Hannibal, E; Di Forti, M; Stilo, S A; Kolliakou, A; Gardner-Sood, P; Gaughran, F; David, A S; Dazzan, P; Pariante, C; Mondelli, V; Morgan, C; Vassos, E; Murray, R M; Fisher, H L

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between childhood adversity (CA) and psychotic disorder is well documented. As the adequacy of the current categorical diagnosis of psychosis is being increasingly questioned, we explored independent associations between different types of CA and specific psychotic symptom dimensions in a well-characterized sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients. This study involved 236 FEP cases aged 18-65 years who presented for the first time to psychiatric services in South London, UK. Psychopathology was assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the statistical fit of the Wallwork/Fortgang five-factor model of psychosis. CA prior to 17 years of age (physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental separation, parental death, and being taken into care) was retrospectively assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Childhood sexual abuse [β = 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-1.52], childhood physical abuse (β = 0.48, 95% CI 0.03-0.93) and parental separation (β = 0.60, 95% CI 0.10-1.11) showed significant associations with the positive dimension; while being taken into care was associated with the excited dimension (β = 0.36, 95% CI 0.08-0.65), independent of the other types of CA. No significant associations were found between parental death and any of the symptom dimensions. A degree of specificity was found in the relationships between different types of CA and psychosis symptom dimensions in adulthood, suggesting that distinct pathways may be involved in the CA-psychosis association. These potentially different routes to developing psychosis merit further empirical and theoretical exploration.

  5. Adulthood Stressors, History of Childhood Adversity, and Risk of Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Conron, Kerith J.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Over half a million U.S. women and more than 100,000 men are treated for injuries from intimate partner violence (IPV) annually, making IPV perpetration a major public health problem. However, little is known about causes of perpetration across the life course. Purpose This paper examines the role of “stress sensitization,” whereby adult stressors increase risk for IPV perpetration most strongly in people with a history of childhood adversity. Methods The study investigated a possible interaction effect between adulthood stressors and childhood adversities in risk of IPV perpetration, specifically, whether the difference in risk of IPV perpetration associated with past-year stressors varied by history of exposure to childhood adversity. Analyses were conducted in 2010 using de-identified data from 34,653 U.S. adults from the 2004–2005 follow-up wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results There was a significant stress sensitization effect. For men with high-level childhood adversity, past-year stressors were associated with an 8.8% increased risk of perpetrating compared to a 2.3% increased risk among men with low-level adversity. Women with high-level childhood adversity had a 14.3% increased risk compared with a 2.5% increased risk in the low-level adversity group. Conclusions Individuals with recent stressors and histories of childhood adversity are at particularly elevated risk of IPV perpetration; therefore, prevention efforts should target this population. Treatment programs for IPV perpetrators, which have not been effective in reducing risk of perpetrating, may benefit from further investigating the role of stress and stress reactivity in perpetration. PMID:21238860

  6. Associations between the timing of childhood adversity and adulthood suicidal behavior: A nationally-representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Chung, Yeonseung; Keyes, Katherine M; Jung, Sun Jae; Kim, Seung-Sup

    2015-11-01

    Although childhood adversities (CAs) are known to be associated with later suicidal behavior, it is uncertain whether the timing of specific CAs may influence this association. We analyzed nationally representative data for 9205 participants from the Korean Welfare Panel Study. Four different CAs (parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education and being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) were assessed and were categorized as early childhood and adolescent onset. Lifetime experiences of suicidal behaviors along with the age of the first time experience were recorded. Cox regression was used. After adjusting for age, sex, and childhood socioeconomic status, parental death before the age of 12 was associated with adulthood suicidal behavior (ideation HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13, 1.61; attempt HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.02, 2.52), while suspension of school due to financial strain was associated with suicidal behavior when it occurred at adolescence (ideation HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.22, 1.79; plan HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16, 2.48). When we also adjusted for adulthood SES, which is a potential mediator, there was no significant change except that the association between early parental death and suicidal attempt became non-significant (HR: 1.43, 95% CI: 0.92, 2.26). Experience of CA was assessed retrospectively, and the assessment of suicidal attempt was not specifically defined. There could be selection bias due to loss to the follow-up. There may be a critical period for the effect of CA on later suicidal behavior depending on the characteristics of CA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between childhood adversity, recent stressors, and depression in college students attending a South African university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, Sumaya; Mortier, Philippe; Taljaard, Lian; Roos, Janine; Stein, Dan J; Lochner, Christine

    2018-03-09

    College students are at risk of depression. This risk may be increased by the experience of childhood adversity and/or recent stressors. This study examined the association between reported experiences of childhood adversity, recent stressors and depression during the last 12 months in a cohort of South African university students. Six hundred and eighty-six first year students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa completed a health-focused e-survey that included items on childhood adversity, recent stressors and mood. Individual and population attributable risk proportions (PARP) between experiences of childhood adversity and 12-month stressful experiences and 12-month depression were estimated using multivariate binomial logistic regression analysis. About one in six students reported depression during the last 12 months. Being a victim of bullying and emotional abuse or emotional neglect during childhood were the strongest predictors of depression in the past year at both individual and population level. With regard to recent stressors, a romantic partner being unfaithful, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with some other close friend or family member and a sexual or gender identity crisis were the strongest predictors of depression. The predictor effect of recent stressors was significantly reduced in the final model that adjusted for the type and number of childhood traumatic experiences. At a population level, academic stress, serious ongoing arguments or break-ups with a close friend or family member, and serious betrayal by someone close were the variables that yielded the highest PARP. Our findings suggest a significant relationship between early adversity, recent stressors, and depression here and throughout, consistent with the broader literature on predictors of depression. This study contributes to the limited data on college students' mental health in low and middle income countries including on the African continent. The findings provide

  8. Does Employment-Related Resilience Affect the Relationship between Childhood Adversity, Community Violence, and Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welles, Seth L; Patel, Falguni; Chilton, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    Depression is a barrier to employment among low-income caregivers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and exposure to community violence (ECV) are often associated with depression. Using baseline data of 103 TANF caregivers of young children of the Building Wealth and Health Network Randomized Controlled Trial Pilot, this study investigated associations of two forms of employment-related resilience-self-efficacy and employment hope-with exposure to adversity/violence and depression, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) short form. Using contingency table analysis and regression analysis, we identified associations between ACEs and depression [OR = 1.70 (1.25-2.32), p = 0.0008] and having high levels of ECV with a 6.9-fold increased risk for depression when compared with those without ECV [OR = 6.86 (1.43-33.01), p = 0.02]. While self-efficacy and employment hope were significantly associated with depression, neither resilience factor impacted the association of ACE level and depression, whereas self-efficacy and employment hope modestly reduced the associations between ECV and depression, 13 and 16%, respectively. Results suggest that self-efficacy and employment hope may not have an impact on the strong associations between adversity, violence, and depression.

  9. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters, and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and children, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Lastly, those youth who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared to those youth whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the lifespan. PMID:27481911

  10. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Childhood adversity and adult depressive disorder: a case-controlled study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, S F; Maniam, T; Tan, S M K; Badi'ah, Y

    2010-06-01

    To describe the association between childhood adversity and depression in adult depressed patients in a Malaysian population. Fifty-two patients, who met the criteria for major depressive disorder or dysthymia according to the Structured Clinical Interview based on the revised 3rd edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, were used as cases and compared with 52 controls matched for age and sex. Cases and controls were assessed using a sexual and physical abuse questionnaire and a Parental Bonding Instrument. There was a positive relationship between childhood abuse in general and childhood physical abuse with adult depressive disorder in particular. Nearly a quarter (23%) of depressed patients reported being abused in childhood compared with none in the control group. There was no significant association between childhood loss and depression in adulthood. Low level of parental care during childhood was significantly correlated with adult depressive disorder. Clinicians should assiduously seek a history of childhood adversities in adult patients with depression. This information can influence clinical management by way of implementing secondary preventive measures. In all depressed patients, mental health professionals also need to look out for their poor attachment with parents during childhood. This may enable interventions directed at parenting skills and improved attachment relationships with their own children. These types of interventions together with pharmacotherapy may provide the optimal approach to the management of depression in adults and help prevent the cycle of depression perpetuating itself in the next generation.

  12. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; McKenna, Aine; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan

    2015-10-01

    Childhood adversities are key aetiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. The aims of this study were to identify childhood adversity profiles, and investigate the relationship between the adversity classes and psychopathology in Northern Ireland. The study utilized data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, an epidemiological survey (N=1986), which used the CIDI to examine mental health disorders and associated risk factors. Latent Class Analysis revealed 3 distinct typologies; a low risk class (n=1709; 86%), a poly-adversity class (n=122; 6.1%), and an economic adversity class (n=155; 7.8%). Logistic Regression models revealed that individuals in the economic adversity class had a heightened risk of anxiety and substance disorders, with individuals in the poly-adversity class more likely to have a range of mental health problems and suicidality. The findings indicate the importance of considering the impact of co-occurring childhood adversities when planning treatment, prevention, and intervention programmes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  14. Adverse outcomes of poor micronutrient status in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Fernando E; Gonzalez, Horacio

    2002-05-01

    The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies and excesses in children up to reproductive age are presented. A summary of risks and adverse functional and health outcomes associated with deficient and excessive intakes and nutrition status of iron, iodine, zinc, vitamins A and D, folate, vitamin B12, and riboflavin is presented. Nutrient-nutrient interactions of micronutrients, age, gender, and other host and environmental conditions, such as pregnancy, genetic conditions, overall nutrition, force of infection, and social conditions are considered as covariates in trying to define causation and outcomes due to specific micronutrients. The outcomes analyzed focus on growth and development, mental and neuromotor performance, immunocompetence, physical working capacity, morbidity, and in the case of pregnancy, overall reproductive performance. The results presented include responses to specific and multiple "experimental" interventions. A brief analysis of possible public health programs is presented, with emphasis on prevention.

  15. Childhood adversity in association with personality disorder dimensions: new findings in an old debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, M P; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Müller, M; Rössler, W

    2013-10-01

    Various studies have reported a positive relationship between child maltreatment and personality disorders (PDs). However, few studies included all DSM-IV PDs and even fewer adjusted for other forms of childhood adversity, e.g. bullying or family problems. We analyzed questionnaires completed by 512 participants of the ZInEP epidemiology survey, a comprehensive psychiatric survey of the general population in Zurich, Switzerland. Associations between childhood adversity and PDs were analyzed bivariately via simple regression analyses and multivariately via multiple path analysis. The bivariate analyses revealed that all PD dimensions were significantly related to various forms of family and school problems as well as child abuse. In contrast, according to the multivariate analysis only school problems and emotional abuse were associated with various PDs. Poverty was uniquely associated with schizotypal PD, conflicts with parents with obsessive-compulsive PD, physical abuse with antisocial PD, and physical neglect with narcissistic PD. Sexual abuse was statistically significantly associated with schizotypal and borderline PD, but corresponding effect sizes were small. Childhood adversity has a serious impact on PDs. Bullying and violence in schools and emotional abuse appear to be more salient markers of general personality pathology than other forms of childhood adversity. Associations with sexual abuse were negligible when adjusted for other forms of adversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all p... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non-clinical...

  17. Childhood Adversities Increase the Risk of Psychosis: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Control, Prospective- and Cross-sectional Cohort Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varese, Filippo; Smeets, Feikje; Drukker, Marjan; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Lataster, Tineke; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Read, John; van Os, Jim; Bentall, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence suggests that adverse experiences in childhood are associated with psychosis. To examine the association between childhood adversity and trauma (sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional/psychological abuse, neglect, parental death, and bullying) and psychosis outcome, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and Web of Science were searched from January 1980 through November 2011. We included prospective cohort studies, large-scale cross-sectional studies investigating the association between childhood adversity and psychotic symptoms or illness, case-control studies comparing the prevalence of adverse events between psychotic patients and controls using dichotomous or continuous measures, and case-control studies comparing the prevalence of psychotic symptoms between exposed and nonexposed subjects using dichotomous or continuous measures of adversity and psychosis. The analysis included 18 case-control studies (n = 2048 psychotic patients and 1856 nonpsychiatric controls), 10 prospective and quasi-prospective studies (n = 41 803) and 8 population-based cross-sectional studies (n = 35 546). There were significant associations between adversity and psychosis across all research designs, with an overall effect of OR = 2.78 (95% CI = 2.34–3.31). The integration of the case-control studies indicated that patients with psychosis were 2.72 times more likely to have been exposed to childhood adversity than controls (95% CI = 1.90–3.88). The association between childhood adversity and psychosis was also significant in population-based cross-sectional studies (OR = 2.99 [95% CI = 2.12–4.20]) as well as in prospective and quasi-prospective studies (OR = 2.75 [95% CI = 2.17–3.47]). The estimated population attributable risk was 33% (16%–47%). These findings indicate that childhood adversity is strongly associated with increased risk for psychosis. PMID:22461484

  18. Linking Adverse Childhood Effects and Attachment: A Theory of Etiology for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Melissa D; Levenson, Jill S; Bolder, Tess

    2016-01-25

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem affecting significant portions of the population. Unfortunately, an agreed upon theory of etiology remains elusive leading to challenges in developing effective prevention and treatment interventions. Recently, there is a growing body of literature examining the role of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the development of sexually violent behavior. This research has begun to explore the rates of various types of child maltreatments and family dysfunction in individuals who have been convicted of a sexual crime. These empirical inquiries have been primarily descriptive in nature and have not yet provided a cohesive theoretical model as to why the presence of ACEs might contribute to sexually abusive behavior. This article suggests that attachment theory offers an explanatory link between early adversity and sexually abusive behavior in adulthood. We first summarize important attachment theory concepts, then integrate them with research in the area of developmental psychopathology and ACEs, and finally propose a model by which attachment can be used as an explanatory theory for subsequent sexualized coping and sexually abusive behaviors. Finally, this article explores the implications for practice, policy, and research using this explanatory theory as a framework for understanding sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Altered Stress-Induced Regulation of Genes in Monocytes in Adults with a History of Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Marion; Grinberg, Marianna; Moser, Dirk; Zang, Johannes C S; Heinrichs, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Cole, Steve; Kumsta, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to serious or traumatic events early in life can lead to persistent alterations in physiological stress response systems, including enhanced cross talk between the neuroendocrine and immune system. These programming effects may be mechanistically involved in mediating the effects of adverse childhood experience on disease risk in adulthood. We investigated hormonal and genome-wide mRNA expression responses in monocytes to acute stress exposure, in a sample of healthy adults (n=30) with a history of early childhood adversity, and a control group (n=30) without trauma experience. The early adversity group showed altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, evidenced by lower ACTH and cortisol responses. Analyses of gene expression patterns showed that stress-responsive transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cytokine activity, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Differences between groups in stress-induced regulation of gene transcription were observed for genes involved in steroid binding, hormone activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Transcription factor binding motif analysis showed an increased activity of pro-inflammatory upstream signaling in the early adversity group. We also identified transcripts that were differentially correlated with stress-induced cortisol increases between the groups, enriched for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and glutamate receptor signaling. We suggest that childhood adversity leads to persistent alterations in transcriptional control of stress-responsive pathways, which-when chronically or repeatedly activated-might predispose individuals to stress-related psychopathology.

  20. Childhood adversity, adult socioeconomic status and risk of work disability: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halonen, Jaana I; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Oksanen, Tuula; Lallukka, Tea

    2017-09-01

    To examine the combined effects of childhood adversities and low adult socioeconomic status (SES) on the risk of future work disability. Included were 34 384 employed Finnish Public Sector study participants who responded to questions about childhood adversities (none vs any adversity, eg, parental divorce or financial difficulties) in 2008, and whose adult SES in 2008 was available. We categorised exposure into four groups: neither (reference), childhood adversity only, low SES only or both. Participants were followed from 2009 until the first period of register-based work disability (sickness absence >9 days or disability pension) due to any cause, musculoskeletal or mental disorders; retirement; death or end of follow-up (December 2011). We ran Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for behavioural, health-related and work-related covariates, and calculated synergy indices for the combined effects. When compared with those with neither exposure, HR for work disability from any cause was increased among participants with childhood adversity, with low SES, and those with both exposures. The highest hazard was observed in those with both exposures: HR 2.53, 95% CI 2.29 to 2.79 for musculoskeletal disability, 1.55, 95% CI 1.36 to 1.78 for disability due to mental disorders and 1.29, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.39 for disability due to other reasons. The synergy indices did not indicate synergistic effects. These findings indicate that childhood psychosocial adversity and low adult SES are additive risk factors for work disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Adverse Selection in Health Insurance Markets: A Classroom Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Adverse selection as it relates to health care policy will be a key economic issue in many upcoming elections. In this article, the author lays out a 30-minute classroom experiment designed for students to experience the kind of elevated prices and market collapse that can result from adverse selection in health insurance markets. The students…

  2. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  3. Role of childhood adversity in the development of medical co-morbidities associated with bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Frye, Mark A.; Suppes, Trisha; McElroy, Susan L.; Keck, Paul E.; Nolen, Willem A.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Grunze, Heinz; Rowe, Mike

    Objective: A role for childhood adversity in the development of numerous medical conditions in adults has been described in the general population, but has not been examined in patients with bipolar disorder who have multiple medical comorbidities which contribute to their premature mortality.

  4. The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Events, Resiliency and Health among Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigles, Bethany

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative relationship between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and health and resiliency among the general population, but has not examined these associations among children with autism. Purpose: To determine the prevalence of ACEs among children with autism and how ACEs are associated with resiliency and health.…

  5. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, Maud M.; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van den Bos, Cor; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Langeveld, Nelia E.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Bakker, Piet J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Improved survival of children with cancer has been accompanied by multiple treatment-related complications. However, most studies in survivors of childhood cancer focused on only 1 late effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess the total burden of adverse health outcomes (clinical or subclinical

  6. Childhood adverse life events, disordered eating, and body mass index in US Military service members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakalar, Jennifer L; Barmine, Marissa; Druskin, Lindsay; Olsen, Cara H; Quinlan, Jeffrey; Sbrocco, Tracy; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2018-03-02

    US service members appear to be at high-risk for disordered eating. Further, the military is experiencing unprecedented prevalence of overweight and obesity. US service members also report a high prevalence of childhood adverse life event (ALE) exposure. Despite consistent links between early adversity with eating disorders and obesity, there is a dearth of research examining the association between ALE exposure and disordered eating and weight in military personnel. An online survey study was conducted in active duty personnel to examine childhood ALE history using the Life Stressor Checklist - Revised, disordered eating using the Eating Disorder Examination - Questionnaire total score, and self-reported body mass index (BMI, kg/m 2 ). Among 179 respondents, multiple indices of childhood ALE were positively associated with disordered eating. Traumatic childhood ALE and subjective impact of childhood ALE were associated with higher BMI and these associations were mediated by disordered eating. Findings support evaluating childhood ALE exposure among service members with disordered eating and weight concerns. Moreover, findings support the need for prospective research to elucidate these relationships. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The scars of childhood adversity : Minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Gemma; van Rijsbergen, Gerard; Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily

  8. Childhood Stress and Adversity is Associated with Late-Life Dementia in Aboriginal Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, Kylie; Delbaere, Kim; Draper, Brian; Mack, Holly A; Daylight, Gail; Cumming, Robert; Chalkley, Simon; Minogue, Cecilia; Broe, Gerald A

    2017-10-01

    High rates of dementia have been observed in Aboriginal Australians. This study aimed to describe childhood stress in older Aboriginal Australians and to examine associations with late-life health and dementia. A cross-sectional study with a representative sample of community-dwelling older Aboriginal Australians. Urban and regional communities in New South Wales, Australia. 336 Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander Australians aged 60-92 years, of whom 296 were included in the current analyses. Participants completed a life course survey of health, well-being, cognition, and social history including the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), with consensus diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer disease. CTQ scores ranged from 25-117 (median: 29) and were associated with several adverse childhood indicators including separation from family, poor childhood health, frequent relocation, and growing up in a major city. Controlling for age, higher CTQ scores were associated with depression, anxiety, suicide attempt, dementia diagnosis, and, specifically, Alzheimer disease. The association between CTQ scores and dementia remained significant after controlling for depression and anxiety variables (OR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.05-2.45). In contrast, there were no significant associations between CTQ scores and smoking, alcohol abuse, diabetes, or cardiovascular risk factors. Childhood stress appears to have a significant impact on emotional health and dementia for older Aboriginal Australians. The ongoing effects of childhood stress need to be recognized as people grow older, particularly in terms of dementia prevention and care, as well as in populations with greater exposure to childhood adversity, such as Aboriginal Australians. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 600.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... this definition, hepatic necrosis would be unexpected (by virtue of greater severity) if the labeling... cerebral vascular accidents. “Unexpected,” as used in this definition, refers to an adverse experience that...

  10. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood....... It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...

  11. Childhood adversities are not a predictors of SSTR4met in alcoholics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berent Dominika

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Genome methylation may modulate synaptic plasticity, being a potential background for mental disorder. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs, known to be frequently reported by patients with alcohol dependence (AD, have been proposed as one of environmental inequities influencing DNA methylation. The study is aiming 1.To assess a promoter region methylation in gene for somatostatin receptor subtype-4 (SSTR4, a receptor for somatostatin, a neurotransmitter engaged in neuroplasticity and memory formation, in patients with AD; 2. To verify if SSTR4 promoter methylation is associated with ACEs and other selected environmental factors. Methodology: 176 patients with AD and 127 healthy controls were interviewed regarding 13 categories of ACEs; a structured self-reported questionnaire - to measure the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics; a module of Catalogue of Healthy Behavior – to assess nutritional health habits; the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – to assess drinking severity. The SSTR4 promoter region methylation status was performed via methylation-specific PCR, and the genotyping for the SSTR4 rs2567608 functional polymorphism - according to the manufacturer’s standard PCR protocol.

  12. Home visiting and the biology of toxic stress: opportunities to address early childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S

    2013-11-01

    Home visiting is an important mechanism for minimizing the lifelong effects of early childhood adversity. To do so, it must be informed by the biology of early brain and child development. Advances in neuroscience, epigenetics, and the physiology of stress are revealing the biological mechanisms underlying well-established associations between early childhood adversity and suboptimal life-course trajectories. Left unchecked, mediators of physiologic stress become toxic, alter both genome and brain, and lead to a vicious cycle of chronic stress. This so-called "toxic stress" results a wide array of behavioral attempts to blunt the stress response, a process known as "behavioral allostasis." Although behaviors like smoking, overeating, promiscuity, and substance abuse decrease stress transiently, over time they become maladaptive and result in the unhealthy lifestyles and noncommunicable diseases that are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. The biology of toxic stress and the concept of behavioral allostasis shed new light on the developmental origins of lifelong disease and highlight opportunities for early intervention and prevention. Future efforts to minimize the effects of childhood adversity should focus on expanding the capacity of caregivers and communities to promote (1) the safe, stable, and nurturing relationships that buffer toxic stress, and (2) the rudimentary but foundational social-emotional, language, and cognitive skills needed to develop healthy, adaptive coping skills. Building these critical caregiver and community capacities will require a public health approach with unprecedented levels of collaboration and coordination between the healthcare, childcare, early education, early intervention, and home visiting sectors.

  13. Childhood adversity, social support networks and well-being among youth aging out of care: An exploratory study of mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melkman, Eran P

    2017-10-01

    The goals of the present study are to examine the relationship between childhood adversity and adult well-being among vulnerable young adults formerly placed in substitute care, and to investigate how characteristics of their social support networks mediate this association. A sample of 345 Israeli young adults (ages 18-25), who had aged out of foster or residential care, responded to standardized self-report questionnaires tapping their social support network characteristics (e.g., network size or adequacy) vis-à-vis several types of social support (emotional, practical, information and guidance), experiences of childhood adversity, and measures of well-being (psychological distress, loneliness, and life satisfaction). Structural equation modelling (SEM) provided support for the mediating role of social support in the relationship between early adversity and adult well-being. Although network size, frequency of contact with its members, satisfaction with support, and network adequacy, were all negatively related to early adversity, only network adequacy showed a major and consistent contribution to the various measures of well-being. While patterns were similar across the types of support, the effects of practical and guidance support were most substantial. The findings suggest that the detrimental long-term consequences of early adversity on adult well-being are related not only to impaired structural aspects of support (e.g., network size), but also to a decreased ability to recognize available support and mobilize it. Practical and guidance support, more than emotional support, seem to be of critical importance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  16. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  17. Ameliorating the biological impacts of childhood adversity: A review of intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip K; Au, Vanessa; Koita, Kadiatou; Oh, Debora Lee; Briner, Susan; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-05-01

    Childhood adversity negatively impacts the biological development of children and has been linked to poor health outcomes across the life course. The purpose of this literature review is to explore and evaluate the effectiveness of interventions that have addressed an array of biological markers and physical health outcomes in children and adolescents affected by adversity. PubMed, CINAHL, PsychInfo, Sociological Abstracts databases and additional sources (Cochrane, WHO, NIH trial registries) were searched for English language studies published between January 2007 and September 2017. Articles with a childhood adversity exposure, biological health outcome, and evaluation of intervention using a randomized controlled trial study design were selected. The resulting 40 intervention studies addressed cortisol outcomes (n = 20) and a range of neurological, epigenetic, immune, and other outcomes (n = 22). Across institutional, foster care, and community settings, intervention programs demonstrated success overall for improving or normalizing morning and diurnal cortisol levels, and ameliorating the impacts of adversity on brain development, epigenetic regulation, and additional outcomes in children. Factors such as earlier timing of intervention, high quality and nurturant parenting traits, and greater intervention engagement played a role in intervention success. This study underlines progress and promise in addressing the health impacts of adversity in children. Ongoing research efforts should collect baseline data, improve retention, replicate studies in additional samples and settings, and evaluate additional variables, resilience factors, mediators, and long-term implications of results. Clinicians should integrate lessons from the intervention sciences for preventing and treating the health effects of adversity in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicidality and profiles of childhood adversities, conflict related trauma and psychopathology in the Northern Ireland population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Armour, Cherie; O'Neill, Siobhan; Murphy, Sam; Ferry, Finola; Bunting, Brendan

    2016-08-01

    Over 30 years of conflict in Northern Ireland (NI) has impacted on the population's mental health. However, childhood adversities may add to the psychological impact of conflict. The aims of the study were to assess co-occurrence across childhood adversities, conflict related traumas, and psychological health, then explore demographic variations between identified classes, and examine the impact of class membership on suicidal ideation and behaviour. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress, a representative epidemiological study which used the CIDI to assess psychopathology and related risk factors in the NI population (N=4340, part 2 n=1986; response rate 64%). Latent Class Analysis uncovered 4 discrete profiles; a conflict class (n=191; 9.6%), a multi-risk class endorsing elevated levels of childhood adversities, conflict related traumas and psychopathology (n=85; 4.3%), a psychopathology class (n=290; 14.6%), and a low risk class (n=1420; 71.5%). Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that individuals who grew up during the worst years of the Troubles were more likely to have experienced multiple traumas and psychopathology. Individuals in the multi-risk class were more than fifteen times more likely to endorse suicidal ideation and behaviour. The main limitations are that the study may not be fully representative of the NI population due to the exclusion criteria applied and also the possible misclassification of conflict related events. The findings indicate that treatment providers should be cognisant that those with wide ranging adversity profiles are those also likely to be reporting psychological distress and suicidality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Childhood adversity increases the risk of onward transmission from perinatal HIV-infected adolescents and youth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidman, Rachel; Nachman, Sharon; Dietrich, Janan; Liberty, Afaaf; Violari, Avy

    2018-05-01

    Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13-24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa. Both male and female participants reported on childhood adversity (using the ACE-IQ), sexual behavior, and psychosocial state. Viral load was also abstracted from their charts. We used logistic regressions to test the association between cumulative adversity and behavioral outcomes. Half the sample reported eight or more adversities. Overall, 72% experienced emotional abuse, 59% experienced physical abuse, 34% experienced sexual abuse, 82% witnessed domestic violence, and 91% saw someone being attacked in their community. A clear gradient emerged between cumulative adversities and behavioral risk. Having experienced one additional childhood adversity raised the odds of risky sexual behavior by almost 30% (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.48). Viral suppression was poor overall (31% had viral loads >400 copies/ml), but was not related to adversity. Adversity showed a robust relationship to depression and substance abuse. Childhood adversity is common, influences the current health of HIV-positive adolescents and youth, and puts their sexual partners at risk for HIV infection. Greater primary prevention of childhood adversity and increased access to support services (e.g., mental health) could reduce risk taking among HIV-positive adolescents and youth. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sexual experiences in childhood: young adults' recollections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, IngBeth; Svedin, Carl-Göran

    2002-06-01

    Childhood sexuality and children's sexual experiences have become increasingly important to study because our knowledge on the impact of sexually abusive experiences on children's developing sexuality has increased. The main aim of this paper was to study aspects of young adults' recollections of their sexual experiences before the age of 13, solitary and shared, mutual as well as coercive. Anonymous questionnaires were answered by 269 final year, senior high-school students, mean age 18.6 years; 82.9% of the students reported solitary sexual experiences and 82.5% had mutual experiences together with another child. Most of the children had their experiences together with a same-age friend. Girls had more same-sex experiences than boys did. Thirteen percent reported coercive experiences where they had been tricked, bribed, threatened, or physically forced into participation. Some children, 8.2%, had coerced another child into participation in sexual activities. The majority thought of their childhood experiences as normal. There were also 6.3% of the respondents who had had inappropriate sexual experiences with someone at least 5 years older, the majority being girls. Gender differences were evident in several respects: girls were more often coerced, they felt more guilt, and they had far less experience of masturbation, whereas boys were somewhat more active in explorative activities on their own as well as with peers. Some kind of coercive sexual experiences appears to be part of growing up for quite a few children, although in general the years before puberty seem to be years of frequent mutual sexual exploration and experimentation.

  1. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  2. Childhood trajectories of anxiousness and disruptiveness explain the association between early-life adversity and attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, B; Vitaro, F; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G

    2012-11-01

    Suicidal behavior is frequently associated with a history of childhood abuse yet it remains unclear precisely how early life adversity may increase suicide risk later in life. As such, our aim was to examine whether lifetime trajectories of disruptiveness and anxiousness trait dysregulation explain the association between childhood adversity and suicidal behavior; and moreover, to test the potential modifying effects of mental disorders on these associations. A sample of 1776 individuals from a prospective school-based cohort followed longitudinally for over 22 years was investigated. We tested the influence of disruptiveness and anxiousness trajectories from age 6 to 12 years on the association between childhood adversity (i.e. sexual and physical abuse) and history of suicide attempts (SA) using logistic regression models. Both adolescent externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders and gender were tested as potential modifiers of these associations. Four distinct longitudinal trajectories were identified for both disruptiveness and anxiousness. The high disruptiveness trajectory accounted for the association between childhood adversity and SA, but only for females. The high anxiousness trajectory also explained the association between adversity and SA; however, in this case it was not sex but mental disorders that influenced the potency of the mediating effect. More specifically, anxiousness fully explained the effect of adversity on SA in the presence of externalizing disorders, whereas in the absence of these disorders, this effect was significantly attenuated. This study provides evidence that both disruptiveness and anxiousness play an important role in explaining the relationship between childhood adversity and SA.

  3. Gender-specific association between childhood adversities and smoking in adulthood: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Filippelli, J; Lue-Crisostomo, C A

    2013-05-01

    To investigate gender-specific differences between individual adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking behaviours in adulthood; while controlling for several known risk factors, including adult health behaviours, adult mental health, adult socio-economic indicators and social support. Data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample included 19,356 individuals (11,506 females and 7850 males) aged ≥18 years who were asked questions about their ACEs. Using logistic regression, the independent factors associated with ever smoking and current smoking were determined. Childhood physical abuse was associated with ever smoking for both males and females. Neither sexual abuse nor verbal abuse were significantly associated with ever smoking for males, but they were for females [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63 and OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27, respectively]. For both genders, childhood exposure to parental separation or divorce, household drug abuse or household problem drinking, were significantly associated with ever smoking. These findings underscore the need for future research that investigates gender-specific differences, and the possible mechanisms, linking individual ACEs and smoking behaviours. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Pal, Helena J.H. van der; Heinen, Richard C.; Leeuwen, Flora E. van; Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.; Caron, Huib N.; Koning, Caro C.E.; Kremer, Leontien C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD 2 ). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD 2 in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD 2 , we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD 2 instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience

  5. Dose-Effect Relationships for Adverse Events After Cranial Radiation Therapy in Long-term Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, Irma W.E.M. van, E-mail: i.w.vandijk@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pal, Helena J.H. van der [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Heinen, Richard C. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Flora E. van [Department of Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Oldenburger, Foppe; Os, Rob M. van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ronckers, Cécile M. [Dutch Childhood Oncology Group, Long-term Effects after Childhood Cancer, The Hague (Netherlands); Schouten–van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N. [Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, Huib N. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Caro C.E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kremer, Leontien C.M. [Department of Medical Oncology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of clinical adverse events (AEs) and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT), with the aim of assessing dose-effect relationships. Methods and Materials: The retrospective study cohort consisted of 1362 Dutch childhood cancer survivors, of whom 285 were treated with CRT delivered as brain irradiation (BI), as part of craniospinal irradiation (CSI), and as total body irradiation (TBI). Individual CRT doses were converted into the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}). Survivors had received their diagnoses between 1966 and 1996 and survived at least 5 years after diagnosis. A complete inventory of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3.0 AEs was available from our hospital-based late-effect follow-up program. We used multivariable logistic and Cox regression analyses to examine the EQD{sub 2} in relation to the prevalence and severity of AEs, correcting for sex, age at diagnosis, follow-up time, and the treatment-related risk factors surgery and chemotherapy. Results: There was a high prevalence of AEs in the CRT group; over 80% of survivors had more than 1 AE, and almost half had at least 5 AEs, both representing significant increases in number of AEs compared with survivors not treated with CRT. Additionally, the proportion of severe, life-threatening, or disabling AEs was significantly higher in the CRT group. The most frequent AEs were alopecia and cognitive, endocrine, metabolic, and neurologic events. Using the EQD{sub 2}, we found significant dose-effect relationships for these and other AEs. Conclusion: Our results confirm that CRT increases the prevalence and severity of AEs in childhood cancer survivors. Furthermore, analyzing dose-effect relationships with the cumulative EQD{sub 2} instead of total physical dose connects the knowledge from radiation therapy and radiobiology with the clinical experience.

  6. Differences by Veteran/civilian status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and alcohol and drug use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Upchurch, Dawn M; Simpson, Tracy; Hamilton, Alison B; Hoggatt, Katherine J

    2018-04-01

    To examine differences by US military Veteran status and gender in associations between childhood adversity and DSM-5 lifetime alcohol and drug use disorders (AUD/DUD). We analyzed nationally representative data from 3119 Veterans (n = 379 women; n = 2740 men) and 33,182 civilians (n = 20,066 women; n = 13,116 men) as provided by the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC-III). We used weighted multinomial logistic regression, tested interaction terms, and calculated predicted probabilities by Veteran status and gender, controlling for covariates. To test which specific moderation contrasts were statistically significant, we conducted pairwise comparisons. Among civilians, women had lower AUD and DUD prevalence than men; however, with more childhood adversity, this gender gap narrowed for AUD and widened for DUD. Among Veterans, in contrast, similar proportions of women and men had AUD and DUD; with more childhood adversity, AUD-predicted probability among men surpassed that of women. Childhood adversity elevated AUD probability among civilian women to levels exhibited by Veteran women. Among men, Veterans with more childhood adversity were more likely than civilians to have AUD, and less likely to have DUD. Childhood adversity alters the gender gap in AUD and DUD risk, and in ways that are different for Veterans compared with civilians. Department of Defense, Veterans Affairs, and community health centers can prevent and ameliorate the harmful effects of childhood adversity by adapting existing behavioral health efforts to be trauma informed, Veteran sensitive, and gender tailored.

  7. Developing a Community-Wide Initiative to Address Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress: A Case Study of The Philadelphia ACE Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lee M; Lieberman, Leslie; Bloom, Sandra L; Fein, Joel A

    The Philadelphia ACE Task Force is a community based collaborative of health care providers, researchers, community-based organizations, funders, and public sector representatives. The mission of the task force is to provide a venue to address childhood adversity and its consequences in the Philadelphia metropolitan region. In this article we describe the origins and metamorphosis of the Philadelphia ACE Task Force, which initially was narrowly focused on screening for adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in health care settings but expanded its focus to better represent a true community-based approach to sharing experiences with addressing childhood adversity in multiple sectors of the city and region. The task force has been successful in developing a research agenda and conducting research on ACEs in the urban context, and has identified foci of local activity in the areas of professional training and workforce development, community education, and local practical interventions around adversity, trauma, and resiliency. In this article we also address the lessons learned over the first 5 years of the task force's existence and offers recommendations for future efforts to build a local community-based ACEs collaborative. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  9. Mediators Linking Childhood Adversities and Trauma to Suicidality in Individuals at Risk for Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie J. Schmidt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Suicidality is highly prevalent in patients at clinical high risk (CHR for psychosis. Childhood adversities and trauma are generally predictive of suicidality. However, the differential effects of adversity/trauma-domains and CHR-criteria, i.e., ultra-high risk and basic symptom criteria, on suicidality remain unclear. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms and, thus, worthwhile targets for suicide-prevention are still poorly understood. Therefore, structural equation modeling was used to test theory-driven models in 73 CHR-patients. Mediators were psychological variables, i.e., beliefs about one’s own competencies as well as the controllability of events and coping styles. In addition, symptomatic variables (depressiveness, basic symptoms, attenuated psychotic symptoms were hypothesized to mediate the effect of psychological mediators on suicidality as the final outcome variable. Results showed two independent pathways. In the first pathway, emotional and sexual but not physical adversity/trauma was associated with suicidality, which was mediated by dysfunctional competence/control beliefs, a lack of positive coping-strategies and depressiveness. In the second pathway, cognitive basic symptoms but not attenuated psychotic symptoms mediated the relationship between trauma/adversity and suicidality. CHR-patients are, thus, particularly prone to suicidality if adversity/trauma is followed by the development of depressiveness. Regarding the second pathway, this is the first study showing that adversity/trauma led to suicidality through an increased risk for psychosis as indicated by cognitive basic symptoms. As insight is generally associated with suicidality, this may explain why self-experienced basic symptoms increase the risk for it. Consequently, these mediators should be monitored regularly and targeted by integrated interventions as early as possible to enhance resilience against suicidality.

  10. Early childhood adversities and risk of eating disorders in women: A Danish register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Munk-Olsen, Trine; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies evaluating the association between early childhood adversities and eating disorders have yielded conflicting results. The aim of this study is to examine the association between a range of adversities and risk of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in 495,244 women. In this nationwide, register-based cohort study, nine types of early childhood adversity (family disruption, residential instability, placement in out-of-home care, familial death, parental somatic illness, parental psychiatric illness, parental disability, severe parental criminality, and parental substance use disorder) were defined and exposure during the first 6 years of life was determined. Hazard ratios for eating disorders were calculated using Cox regression. Few adversities were significantly associated with AN, and for each, the presence of the adversity was associated with lower risk for AN. BN, and EDNOS were positively associated with several types of adversities. AN rates were unchanged or reduced by up to 54% by adversities, whereas rates of BN and EDNOS were unchanged or increased by adversities by up to 49 and 89%, respectively. Our findings indicate that childhood adversities appear to be associated with an increased risk of BN and in particular EDNOS, whereas they seem to be either unassociated or associated with a decreased risk of AN. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L; Fisher, Helen L

    2018-02-15

    Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21-2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01-2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94-1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28-7.20, P < .001) was substantially greater than for either exposure alone, highlighting a potential interaction between neighborhood conditions and crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = -0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially

  12. Cumulative Effects of Neighborhood Social Adversity and Personal Crime Victimization on Adolescent Psychotic Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Joanne; Arseneault, Louise; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Odgers, Candice L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Little is known about the impact of urbanicity, adverse neighborhood conditions and violent crime victimization on the emergence of adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Participants were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally-representative cohort of 2232 British twins who were interviewed about adolescent psychotic experiences at age 18. Urbanicity, neighborhood characteristics, and personal victimization by violent crime were measured during childhood and adolescence via geocoded census data, surveys of over 5000 immediate neighbors of the E-Risk participants, and interviews with participants themselves. Results: Adolescents raised in urban vs rural neighborhoods were significantly more likely to have psychotic experiences (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.21–2.30, P = .002). This association remained significant after considering potential confounders including family socioeconomic status, family psychiatric history, and adolescent substance problems (OR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.01–2.03, P = .042), but became nonsignificant after considering adverse social conditions in urban neighborhoods such as low social cohesion and high neighborhood disorder (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.94–1.92, P = .102). The combined association of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal crime victimization with adolescent psychotic experiences (adjusted OR = 4.86, 95% CI = 3.28–7.20, P crime victimization (interaction contrast ratio = 1.81, 95% CI = −0.03 to 3.65) that was significant at the P = .054 level. Conclusions: Cumulative effects of adverse neighborhood social conditions and personal victimization by violent crime during upbringing partly explain why adolescents in urban settings are more likely to report psychotic experiences. Early intervention efforts for psychosis could be targeted towards victimized youth living in urban and socially adverse neighborhoods. PMID:28535284

  13. The effect of childhood adversity on 4-year outcome in individuals at ultra high risk for psychosis in the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, Tamar C.; Ising, Helga K.; Fokkema, Marjolein; Velthorst, Eva; van den Berg, David P. G.; Kerkhoven, Margot; Veling, Wim; Smit, Filip; Linszen, Don H.; Nieman, Dorien H.; Wunderink, Lex; Boonstra, Nynke; Klaassen, Rianne M. C.; Dragt, Sara; Rietdijk, Judith; de Haan, Lieuwe; van der Gaag, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with a range of mental disorders, functional impairment and higher health care costs in adulthood. In this study we evaluated if childhood adversity was predictive of adverse clinical and functional outcomes and health care costs in a sample of patients at

  14. Childhood adversities as specific contributors to the co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mario; Vandeleur, Caroline; Rodgers, Stephanie; Rössler, Wulf; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-08-30

    There is much evidence that alcohol use disorders (AUD) often co-occur with posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD), and that the comorbid condition is associated with a more severe clinical profile than that of PTSD without AUD. However, little is known about the role of childhood adversities as specific risk factors for the development of AUD in individuals presenting with PTSD. The aim of the study was to explore whether specific stressors from the spectrum of trauma and childhood adversities contribute to the development of AUD among subjects with PTSD. From a large community sample, of N=140 individuals with PTSD, N=24 (17.14%) received an additional diagnosis of AUD with an onset after the onset of PTSD. Those with comorbid PTSD/AUD and those with PTSD only were compared regarding type and features of their trauma, childhood adversities and psychiatric comorbidity. Compared to PTSD alone, PTSD/AUD was associated with higher levels of stress in terms of childhood adversities; in particular, sexual abuse below the age of 16, but also with having been brought up in a foster home. PTSD/AUD was also associated with an earlier age of adverse events. Treatment of AUD should include standardized assessments of trauma, especially of trauma experienced during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood adversity moderates the effect of ADH1B on risk for alcohol-related phenotypes in Jewish Israeli drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Wall, Melanie M; Keyes, Katherine M; Aharonovich, Efrat; Spivak, Baruch; Weizman, Abraham; Frisch, Amos; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Childhood adversity and genetic variant ADH1B-rs1229984 have each been shown to influence heavy alcohol consumption and disorders. However, little is known about how these factors jointly influence these outcomes. We assessed the main and additive interactive effects of childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and parental divorce) and the ADH1B-rs1229984 on the quantitative phenotypes 'maximum drinks in a day' (Maxdrinks) and DSM-Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) severity, adjusting for demographic variables, in an Israeli sample of adult household residents (n = 1143) evaluated between 2007 and 2009. Childhood adversity and absence of the protective ADH1B-rs1229984 A allele were associated with greater mean Maxdrinks (mean differences: 1.50; 1.13, respectively) and AUD severity (mean ratios: 0.71; 0.27, respectively). In addition, childhood adversity moderated the ADH1B-rs1229984 effect on Maxdrinks (P < 0.01) and AUD severity (P < 0.05), in that there was a stronger effect of ADH1B-rs1229984 genotype on Maxdrinks and AUD severity among those who had experienced childhood adversity compared with those who had not. ADH1B-rs1229984 impacts alcohol metabolism. Therefore, among those at risk for greater consumption, e.g. those who experienced childhood adversity, ADH1B-rs1229984 appears to have a stronger effect on alcohol consumption and consequently on risk for AUD symptom severity. Evidence for the interaction of genetic vulnerability and early life adversity on alcohol-related phenotypes provides further insight into the complex relationships between genetic and environmental risk factors. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. F7. SEX DIFFERENCES IN THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SELF-REPORTS OF CHILDHOOD ADVERSITIES AND SCHIZOTYPAL PERSONALITY TRAITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutountzidis, Diamantis; Gale, Tim; Irvine, Karen; Sharma, Shivani; Laws, Keith

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background While it has been repeatedly documented that people with schizophrenia report higher levels of adverse events in childhood (emotional, physical and sexual abuse), this has not been extensively examined in healthy individuals who score highly on schizotypal personality traits. The continuum hypothesis of psychosis and schizophrenia suggests it is important to assess the relationship in those who are healthy but who experience some psychotic-like symptoms. Of course, it is problematic to rely upon the veracity of events that anyone might recall from their childhood, but this is likely to be compounded by the presence of well-documented memory and executive problems, as well as symptoms such as delusional thinking, in some adults with psychosis. One advantage of examining healthy participants is that recall is not affected by the condition itself or memory- and executive-function problems. As there is evidence that the expression of psychotic disorders differ between males and females, the etiological mechanisms and pathways to the development and experience of psychotic symptoms may equally differ. Indeed, sex differences in the association between childhood trauma and psychotic symptoms have been noted. The aim of this present study was to investigate any links between childhood trauma and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy individuals. Based on previous research the expectation is that associations will be found between self-reports of childhood trauma and schizotypal personality traits. These associations would be expected to differ between males and females. Methods The sample consisted of 320 participants (221 females, 99 males) with a mean age of 28.24 (SD 12.76). Childhood traumatic events were assessed by three sub-scales (Physical Punishment; Emotional Abuse; and Sexual Events) of the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF; Bremner et al., 2007). Schizotypal personality traits were assessed using the Five Factor

  17. An Enduring Health Risk of Childhood Adversity: Earlier, More Severe, and Longer Lasting Work Disability in Adult Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2018-02-08

    Childhood adversity has been linked with adult health problems. We hypothesized that childhood adversity would also be associated with work limitations due to physical or nervous health problems, known as work disability. With data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) (1968-2013; n=6,045; 82,374 transitions; 129,107 person-years) and the 2014 PSID Childhood Retrospective Circumstances Study, we estimated work disability transition probabilities with multinomial logistic Markov models. Four or more adversities defined a high level. Microsimulations quantified adult work disability patterns for African American and non-Hispanic white women and men, accounting for age, education, race, sex, diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior. Childhood adversity was significantly associated with work disability. Of African American women with high adversity, 10.2% had moderate work disability at age 30 versus 4.1% with no reported adversities; comparable results for severe work disability were 5.6% versus 1.9% (both pwork disability remained significant after adjusting for diabetes, heart disease, obesity, and sedentary behavior (pwork disability throughout adult life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Associations between specific psychotic symptoms and specific childhood adversities are mediated by attachment styles: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Katarzyna; Bentall, Richard P; Shevlin, Mark; O'Sullivan, Noreen; Sellwood, William

    2014-07-30

    Accumulated evidence over the past decade consistently demonstrates a relationship between childhood adversity and psychosis in adulthood. There is some evidence of specific associations between childhood sexual abuse and hallucinations, and between insecure attachment and paranoia. Data from the National Comorbidity Survey were used in assessing whether current attachment styles influenced the association between adverse childhood experiences and psychotic symptoms in adulthood. Hallucinations and paranoid beliefs were differentially associated with sexual abuse (rape and sexual molestation) and neglect, respectively. Sexual abuse and neglect were also associated with depression. The relationship between neglect and paranoid beliefs was fully mediated via anxious and avoidant attachment. The relationship between sexual molestation and hallucinations was independent of attachment style. The relationship between rape and hallucinations was partially mediated via anxious attachment; however this effect was no longer present when depression was included as a mediating variable. The findings highlight the importance of addressing and understanding childhood experiences within the context of current attachment styles in clinical interventions for patients with psychosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Relations between childhood traumatic experiences, dissociation, and cognitive models in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, Yavuz; Besiroglu, Lutfullah; Aydin, Adem; Gulec, Mustafa; Atli, Abdullah; Boysan, Murat; Celik, Cihat

    2012-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated that obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with childhood traumatic experiences and higher levels of dissociation. Dissociative tendency may arise when individual attempt to incorporate adverse experiences into cognitive schema. We investigated the possible links among childhood trauma, dissociation, and cognitive processes. We evaluated 95 patients with OCD using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Thought-Action Fusion Scale (TAFS), Metacognitions Questionnaire (MCQ-30), White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28). The CTQ-28 total scores were not associated with Y-BOCS total, Y-BOCS insight, BDI, TAFS, MCQ-30, and WBSI scores. The TAFS Total, MCQ-30, WBSI, and BDI scores were significantly associated with DES scores. Regression analysis revealed that MCQ-30 and WBSI scores significantly predicted the DES scores. These results suggest that in spite of pathological connotation of dissociative experiences, dissociation may primarily constitute a cognitive trait which is strongly associated with cognitive processes.

  20. Anxiety among adults with a history of childhood adversity: Psychological resilience moderates the indirect effect of emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Julia C; Dobson, Keith S; Pusch, Dennis

    2017-08-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been widely identified as risk factors for increased symptoms of anxiety across the lifespan. Little is known, however, about the processes by which ACEs set the stage for increased symptoms of anxiety in adulthood. The current study evaluated whether emotion dysregulation and psychological resilience influence the association between ACEs and symptoms of anxiety. A sample of adult primary care patients (N=4006) completed self-report measures related to ACEs, symptoms of anxiety, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience. A moderated mediation analysis showed that emotion dysregulation mediated the association between ACEs and anxiety symptoms, and that the strength of this effect varied as a function of psychological resilience. Specifically, the influence of ACEs on emotional dysregulation was stronger among individuals with low levels of psychological resilience than among those with high levels of psychological resilience. These findings remained significant when controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables in the model. Cross-sectional designs preclude inferences about causality and self-report data may be susceptible to reporting biases. Other psychological variables that may be relevant to the current results, such as protective factors in childhood, were not assessed. These results have implications for the conceptualization of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience in etiological models of anxiety. They also highlight the relevance of ACEs, emotion dysregulation, and psychological resilience to the detection, treatment, and prevention of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Practitioner Review: Diagnosing childhood resilience--a systemic approach to the diagnosis of adaptation in adverse social and physical ecologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Michael

    2015-01-01

    With growing interest in resilience among mental health care providers globally, there is a need for a simple way to consider the complex interactions that predict adaptive coping when there is exposure to high levels of adversity such as family violence, mental illness of a child or caregiver, natural disasters, social marginalization, or political conflict. This article presents diagnostic criteria for assessing childhood resilience in a way that is sensitive to the systemic factors that influence a child's wellbeing. The most important characteristics of children who cope well under adversity and avoid problems like depression, PTSD, and delinquency are highlighted. A multidimensional assessment of resilience is presented that examines, first, the severity, chronicity, ecological level, children's attributions of causality, and cultural and contextual relevance of experiences of adversity. Second, promotive and protective factors related to resilience are assessed with sensitivity to the differential impact these have on outcomes depending on a child's level of exposure to adversity. These factors include individual qualities like temperament, personality, and cognitions, as well as contextual dimensions of positive functioning related to the available and accessibility of resources, their strategic use, positive reinforcement by a child's significant others, and the adaptive capacity of the environment itself. Third, an assessment of resilience includes temporal and cultural factors that increase or decrease the influence of protective factors. A decision tree for the diagnosis of resilience is presented, followed by a case study and diagnosis of a 15-year-old boy who required treatment for a number of mental health challenges. The diagnostic criteria for assessing resilience and its application to clinical practice demonstrate the potential usefulness of a systemic approach to understanding resilience among child populations. © 2014 Association for Child and

  2. The divergent impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genetic polymorphisms on executive function in adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huihui; Li, Jie; Yang, Bei; Ji, Tao; Long, Zhouting; Xing, Qiquan; Shao, Di; Bai, Huayu; Sun, Jiwei; Cao, Fenglin

    2018-02-01

    Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val 158 Met functional polymorphisms play a crucial role in the development of executive function (EF), but their effect may be moderated by environmental factors such as childhood adversity. The present study aimed at testing the divergent impact of the COMT Val 158 Met genotype on EF in non-clinical adolescents with discrete patterns of childhood adversity. A total of 341 participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the self-reported version of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function, and self-administered questionnaires on familial function. The participants' COMT Val 158 Met genotype was determined. Associations among the variables were explored using latent class analysis and general linear models. We found that Val/Val homozygotes showed significantly worse performance on behavioral shift, relative to Met allele carriers (F=5.921, p=0.015, Partial η 2 =0.018). Moreover, three typical patterns of childhood adversity, namely, low childhood adversity (23.5%), childhood neglect (59.8%), and high childhood adversity (16.7%), were found. Both childhood neglect and high childhood adversity had a negative impact on each aspect of EF and on global EF performance. Importantly, these results provided evidence for significant interaction effects, as adolescents with the Val/Val genotype showed inferior behavioral shift performance than Met carriers (F=6.647, p=0.010, Partial η 2 =0.020) in the presence of high childhood adversity. Furthermore, there were no differences between the genotypes for childhood neglect and low childhood adversity. Overall, this is the first study to show that an interaction between the COMT genotype and childhood adversity affects EF in non-clinical adolescents. These results suggest that the COMT genotype may operate as a susceptibility gene vulnerable to an adverse environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Materialistic Desires or Childhood Adversities as Explanations for Girls' Trading Sex for Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Juyoung; Morash, Merry

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether high school and younger South Korean girls trade sex with middle-aged men for benefits due to cultural emphasis on materialism/consumerism, childhood adversities, or both. This form of prostitution, referred to as "compensated dating," is common in economically developed East Asian Countries, where there is debate about its causes. Purposeful sampling was used to select a diverse group of 25 girls who described involvement in compensated dating, and a life calendar method was used to guide the interview. The rich data were subjected to thematic analysis to show the nature of prostitution involvement, precursors, and motivations. Data analysis revealed that sole reliance on materialistic desire as an explanation of prostitution obscures the influence of peer pressure and family dysfunction. Findings suggest the need for social services rather than punitive responses to girls involved in compensated dating. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  5. Childhood adversity, parental vulnerability and disorder: examining inter-generational transmission of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, A; Moran, P M; Ball, C; Jacobs, C; Baines, R; Bunn, A; Cavagin, J

    2002-11-01

    An investigation of intergenerational factors associated with psychiatric disorder in late adolescence/early adulthood was undertaken to differentiate influences from maternal disorder, maternal poor psychosocial functioning and poor parenting, on offspring. The sample comprised an intensively studied series of 276 mother-offspring pairs in a relatively deprived inner-city London area with high rates of lone parenthood and socio-economic disadvantage. The paired sample was collected over two time periods: first a consecutively screened series of mothers and offspring in 1985-90 (n = 172 pairs) and second a 'vulnerable' series of mothers and offspring in 1995-99 (n = 104 pairs). The vulnerable mothers were selected for poor interpersonal functioning and/or low self-esteem and the consecutive series were used for comparison. Rates of childhood adversity and disorder in the offspring were examined in the two groups. Maternal characteristics including psychosocial vulnerability and depression were then examined in relation to risk transmission. Offspring of vulnerable mothers had a fourfold higher rate of yearly disorder than those in the comparison series (43% vs. 11%, p maternal vulnerability and neglect/abuse of offspring provided the best model for offspring disorder. Maternal history of depression had no direct effect on offspring disorder; its effects were entirely mediated by offspring neglect/abuse. Maternal childhood adversity also had no direct effect. Results are discussed in relation to psychosocial models of risk transmission for disorder. Maternal poor psychosocial functioning needs to be identified as a factor requiring intervention in order to stem escalation of risk across generations.

  6. Influence of parental education, childhood adversities, and current living conditions on daily smoking in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestilä, Laura; Koskinen, Seppo; Martelin, Tuija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Pensola, Tiina; Pirkola, Sami; Patja, Kristiina; Aromaa, Arpo

    2006-12-01

    To assess the association of parental education, childhood living conditions and adversities with daily smoking in early adulthood and to analyse the effect of the respondent's own education, main economic activity, and current family structure on these associations. The study is based on a representative two-stage cluster sample (N = 1894, participation rate 79%) of young adults aged 18-29, in 2000, in Finland. The outcome measure is daily smoking. Parental smoking and the respondent's own education had the strongest effects on daily smoking. If both parents of the respondent were smokers, then the respondent was most likely to be a smoker too (for men OR (odds ratio) = 3.01, for women OR = 2.41 after all adjustments). Young adults in the lowest educational category had a much higher risk of daily smoking than those in the highest category (OR = 5.88 for women, 4.48 for men). For women parental divorce (OR = 2.31) and current family structure also determined daily smoking. Parental education had a strong gradient in daily smoking and the effect appeared to be mediated largely by the respondent's own educational level. Childhood living conditions are strong determinants of daily smoking. Much of their influence seems to be mediated through current living conditions, which are also determined by childhood conditions. Determinants of smoking behaviour are developed throughout the life course. The findings stress the importance of the respondent's education and parental smoking as determinants of smoking behaviour. Our results support the notion that intervention on smoking initiation and cessation should be considered throughout the life course. Parental involvement in fostering non-smoking would be important.

  7. Prevalence of Psychosomatic and Emotional Symptoms in European School-Aged Children and its Relationship with Childhood Adversities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; De Vriendt, Tineke; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood stress and psychosomatic and emotional symptoms (PES) has increased in parallel, indicating that adverse, stressful circumstances and PES in children might be associated. This study describes the prevalence of PES in European children, aged 4–11 years old, and examines...... quantitatively (i.e. the number of adversities) and qualitatively (i.e. the type of adversity). This study demonstrates the importance and the impact of the child’s family and social context on the occurrence of PES in children younger than 12 years old....... the relationship among PES, negative life events (NLE) and familial or social adversities in the child’s life. Parent-reported data on childhood adversities and PES was collected for 4,066 children from 8 European countries, who participated in the follow-up survey of IDEFICS (2009–2010), by means of the ‘IDEFICS......-demographics, family lifestyle and health of the child. Chi-square analyses were performed to investigate the prevalence of PES among survey centres, age groups and sex of the child. Odds ratios were calculated to examine the childhood adversity exposure between PES groups and logistic regression analyses were...

  8. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lauren J; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have observed an adverse association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide (OPs) and child cognition, but few studies consider the potential role of social stressors in modifying this relationship. We seek to explore the potential role of early social adversities in modifying the relationship between OPs and child IQ in an agricultural Mexican American population. Participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort study, include 329 singleton infants and their mothers followed from pregnancy through age 7. Dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations (DAPs), a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide exposure, were measured in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy and averaged. Child cognitive ability was assessed at 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition. Demographic characteristics and adversity information were collected during interviews and home visits at numerous time points from pregnancy until age 7. Among low-income Latina mothers and their children in the Salinas Valley, total adversity and specific domains of adversity including poor learning environment and adverse parent-child relationships were negatively associated with child cognition. Adverse associations between DAP concentrations and IQ were stronger in children experiencing greater adversity; these associations varied by child sex. For example, the association between prenatal OP exposure and Full-Scale IQ is potentiated among boys who experienced high adversity in the learning environment (β=-13.3; p-value child IQ differently among male and female children. These findings emphasize the need to consider plausible interactive pathways between social adversities and environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Childhood Adversity on Bullying and Cruelty to Animals in the United States: Findings from a National Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; Beaver, Kevin M.; DeLisi, Matt; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined effects of type of and cumulative burden of childhood adversities on bullying and cruelty to animals in the United States. Data were derived from Waves I and II of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Structured psychiatric interviews were…

  11. Age of onset of bipolar disorder : Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Robert M.; Altshuler, Lori L.; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L.; Frye, Mark A.; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E.; Leverich, Gabriele S.; Nolen, Willem A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Methods: Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the

  12. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  13. Poor sleep quality has an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Youn Ho; Choi, Sun Hee; Jang, Sun Jung; Baek, Ji Hyeon; Jee, Hye Mi; Kim, Mi Ae; Chae, Kyu Young; Han, Man Yong

    2017-08-01

    It is unclear as to whether sleep respiratory breathing disorder (SRBD) is a risk factor for uncontrolled asthma in children. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether SRBD may have an adverse effect on childhood asthma control and lung function measures. This was a cross-sectional study of 220 children with well-controlled (n = 108), partly controlled (n = 92), and uncontrolled asthma (n = 20) according to the Global Initiative for Asthma guideline. SRBD was assessed using the Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ). The association of SRBD with partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma was investigated on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Of 220 children with asthma, 43 (19.6%) had SRBD: well-controlled, 16.7% (18/108); partly controlled, 21.7% (20/92); and uncontrolled, 25.0% (5/20; P = 0.54). There was a significant difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV 1 /FVC; P = 0.007) and childhood asthma control test (C-ACT) score (P asthma control status, but not in PSQ score (P = 0.18). Children with obstructive sleep apnea (PSQ >0.33) had a lower C-ACT score compared with controls (PSQ ≤0.33; 19.6 ± 5.1 vs 22.0 ± 4.2, P = 0.002). PSQ score was negatively correlated with FEV 1 /FVC (r = -0.16, P = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, high PSQ score increased the odds of having partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma by 9.12 (95% CI: 1.04-79.72, P = 0.046) after adjusting for confounding factors. SRBD is an independent risk factor for partly controlled/uncontrolled asthma and has an adverse effect on lung function measures in children. Further research is warranted to determine whether the improvement of sleep quality may also enhance level of asthma control and lung function in children. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, childhood adversity and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Corinna; Heyer, Anne; Brunner, Romuald; Parzer, Peter; Völker, Julia Madeleine; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Whereas childhood adversity (CA) and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis have been suggested to play a major role in the etiology of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), no study has thus far investigated both its associations and interactions with adolescent NSSI. We investigated CA (antipathy, neglect, physical, psychological, and sexual abuse) and indices of HPA axis activity (salivary and hair cortisol) in a clinical sample of 26 adolescents engaging in NSSI and 26 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). We used standardized interviews for the assessment of CA (CECA), NSSI (SITBI-G), and axis I diagnoses (MINI-KID). Salivary cortisol sampling was surveyed using a monitoring system and instructed via telephone calls. Adolescents engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly higher cortisol awakening responses compared to HC. No differences were found with respect to the diurnal slope or hair cortisol. In the presence of CA, healthy adolescents showed flatted diurnal cortisol slopes while those engaging in NSSI exhibited significantly steeper ones. Our findings indicate that adolescents engaging in NSSI may exhibit a stronger cortisol awakening response, potentially in expectation of strain. However, elevated cortisol levels may not be maintained throughout the day, especially among adolescents with a history of CA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychological Manifestations of Early Childhood Adversity in the Context of Chronic Hematologic Malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Shen, Megan Johnson; Polizzi, Heather; Mascarenhas, John; Kremyanskaya, Marina; Holland, Jimmie; Hoffman, Ronald

    Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), a group of chronic hematologic malignancies, carry significant physical and psychological symptom burdens that significantly affect patients' quality of life. We sought to identify the relationship between early childhood adversity (ECA) and psychological distress in patients with MPNs, as ECA may compound symptom burden. Patients with MPNs were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire-subscales include abuse/neglect/chaotic home environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (i.e., Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cutoff thresholds for distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List≥ 4 or ≥ 7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥ 8), and demographic factors. A total of 117 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychological outcomes. ECA was higher based on disease subtypes with greater symptom burden (other > polycythemia vera > myelofibrosis > essential thrombocythemia) (p = 0.047) and taking an antidepressant (p = 0.011). ECA is associated with psychological distress and meets screening criteria for anxiety and depression in patients with MPNs. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories, and further understanding may enhance patient-centered care among patients with MPNs. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suicidal Ideation in Adolescence: Examining the Role of Recent Adverse Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN…

  18. PARENTAL CHILDHOOD ADVERSITY, DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS, AND PARENTING QUALITY: EFFECTS ON TODDLER SELF-REGULATION IN CHILD WELFARE SERVICES INVOLVED FAMILIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Susan J; Oxford, Monica L; Fleming, Charles B; Lohr, Mary Jane

    2018-01-01

    Parents who are involved with child welfare services (CWSI) often have a history of childhood adversity and depressive symptoms. Both affect parenting quality, which in turn influences child adaptive functioning. We tested a model of the relations between parental depression and child regulatory outcomes first proposed by K. Lyons-Ruth, R. Wolfe, A. Lyubchik, and R. Steingard (2002). We hypothesized that both parental depression and parenting quality mediate the effects of parental early adversity on offspring regulatory outcomes. Participants were 123 CWSI parents and their toddlers assessed three times over a period of 6 months. At Time 1, parents reported on their childhood adversity and current depressive symptoms. At Time 2, parents' sensitivity to their child's distress and nondistress cues was rated from a videotaped teaching task. At Time 3, observers rated children's emotional regulation, orientation/engagement, and secure base behavior. The results of a path model partly supported the hypotheses. Parent childhood adversity was associated with current depressive symptoms, which in turn related to parent sensitivity to child distress, but not nondistress. Sensitivity to distress also predicted secure base behavior. Depression directly predicted orientation/engagement, also predicted by sensitivity to nondistress. Sensitivity to distress predicted emotion regulation and orientation/engagement. Results are discussed in terms of intervention approaches for CWSI families. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  19. Age of onset of bipolar disorder: Combined effect of childhood adversity and familial loading of psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A

    2016-10-01

    Family history and adversity in childhood are two replicated risk factors for early onset bipolar disorder. However, their combined impact has not been adequately studied. Based on questionnaire data from 968 outpatients with bipolar disorder who gave informed consent, the relationship and interaction of: 1) parental and grandparental total burden of psychiatric illness; and 2) the degree of adversity the patient experienced in childhood on their age of onset of bipolar disorder was examined with multiple regression and illustrated with a heat map. The familial loading and child adversity vulnerability factors were significantly related to age of onset of bipolar and their combined effect was even larger. A heat map showed that at the extremes (none of each factor vs high amounts of both) the average age of onset differed by almost 20 years (mean = 25.8 vs 5.9 years of age). The data were not based on interviews of family members and came from unverified answers on a patient questionnaire. Family loading for psychiatric illness and adversity in childhood combine to have a very large influence on age of onset of bipolar disorder. These variables should be considered in assessment of risk for illness onset in different populations, the need for early intervention, and in the design of studies of primary and secondary prevention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Childhood adversities: Social support, premorbid functioning and social outcome in first-episode psychosis and a matched case-control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens E; Nielsen, Hanne-Grethe L; Pedersen, Marlene B; Trier, Christopher H; Haahr, Ulrik H; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    The establishment of childhood adversities as risk factors for non-affective psychosis has derived a need to consider alternative interpretations of several psychosis-related factors. This paper sought to examine premorbid adjustment trajectories and social outcome factors in relation to childhood adversities. Perceived support has been found to decrease the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder, and we wished to compare perceived support in people with first-episode psychosis to non-clinical control persons and explore its relation to childhood adversities. Every individual presenting with a non-affective first-episode psychosis (F20-29, except F21) in Region Zealand over a 2-year period was approached for participation and the 101 consenting participants were matched to 101 people with no psychiatric disorders. Comprehensive demographic data were collected. Assessment instruments included the Premorbid Assessment Scale, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The latter represented the childhood adversities in addition to parental separation and institutionalization. There were no associations between number of childhood adversities and different social or academic premorbid trajectories. Those with more adversities had lower global functioning the year prior to treatment start and reported lower rates of perceived support during childhood along with less current face-to-face contact with family members. Lack of peer support remained a significant predictor of psychosis when adversities were adjusted for; peer support diminished the risk of psychosis caused by childhood adversities by 10%. Childhood adversities may not predict specific premorbid trajectories, but have an effect on global functioning when the psychosis has begun. Perceived support, especially from peers, may be important in the development of psychosis, and those with more adversities may represent a vulnerable subgroup who need more assistance to

  1. Association of Cumulative Childhood Adversity and Adolescent Violent Offending With Suicide in Early Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Hjern, Anders; Björkenstam, Charlotte; Kosidou, Kyriaki

    2018-02-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with an increased risk of suicide in young adulthood that might be explained by maladaptive trajectories during adolescence. Although adolescent violent offending is linked with suicide, little is known about its role in the association between CA and suicide. To examine whether adolescent violent offending mediates the association between CA and suicide in early adulthood. This population-based, longitudinal cohort study with a follow-up time spanning 5 to 9 years included 476 103 individuals born in Sweden between 1984 and 1988. The study population was prospectively followed up from 20 years of age until December 31, 2013, with respect to suicide. Data analysis was performed from January 1, 1984, to December 31, 2013. Register-based CAs included parental death, parental substance abuse and psychiatric disorder, parental criminal offending, parental separation, public assistance recipiency, child welfare intervention, and residential instability. Adolescent violent offending was defined as being convicted of a violent crime between the ages of 15 and 19 years. Estimates of risk of suicide after 20 years of age (from 2004 if born in 1984 and from 2008 if born in 1988) until the end of 2013 were calculated as incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression analysis. Adjustments were made for demographics and psychiatric disorder. In addition, binary mediation analysis with logistic regression was used. A total of 476 103 individuals (231 699 [48.7%] female) were included in the study. Those with a conviction for violent offending had been exposed to all CAs to a greater extent than those with no violent offending. Cumulative CA was associated with risk of suicide in nonconvicted (adjusted IRR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-3.9) and convicted youths, who had a higher risk of suicide (adjusted IRR, 8.5; 95% CI, 4.6-15.7). Adolescent violent offending partly mediated the association between CA and suicide. Individuals

  2. Changes in sleep quality and levels of psychological distress during the adaptation to university: The role of childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Williams, Sarah E; Brindle, Ryan C; Ginty, Annie T

    2018-05-25

    Stress-related sleep disturbances are common, and poor sleep quality can negatively affect health. Previous work indicates that early-life adversity is associated with compromised sleep quality later in life, but it is unknown whether it predicts greater declines in sleep quality during stressful life transitions. We propose and test a conceptual model whereby individuals who reported experiencing greater levels of child maltreatment would experience greater psychological distress during a stressful life transition, which in turn would contribute to greater declines in sleep quality, relative to their quality of sleep before the stressful transition. Controlling for potential confounding variables (e.g., age, gender), structural equation modelling demonstrated that psychological distress experienced during a stressful transition (i.e., beginning life at university) mediated the relationship between childhood emotional neglect and changes in sleep quality. The hypothesized model demonstrated a good overall fit to the data, χ 2 (15) = 17.69, p = .279, CFI = .99, TLI = .97, SRMR = .04, RMSEA = .04 (90% CI quality (β = .31) during a stressful transition. Future research should aim to understand the specific stressors in the university environment that are most challenging to individuals who faced early-life emotional maltreatment. These findings will help inform interventions to facilitate adaptation to a new environment and improve sleep quality for these university students. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Biological Sensitivity to the Effects of Childhood Family Adversity on Psychological Well-Being in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jennifer A; Ibrahim, Mariam Hanna; Luecken, Linda J

    2017-08-01

    The theory of biological sensitivity to context may inform our understanding of why some children exposed to family adversity develop mental health problems in emerging adulthood whereas others demonstrate resilience. This study investigated the interactive effects of heart rate (HR) reactivity and childhood family adversity (maltreatment and changes in family structure) on depressive symptoms and positive affect among 150 undergraduate students (18-28 years old; 77% White, non-Hispanic; 61% female). Participants reported on childhood parental divorce or death, and child maltreatment, and current depressive symptoms and positive affect. HR reactivity was assessed in response to a laboratory interpersonal stressor. HR reactivity moderated the effects of child maltreatment on depressive symptoms and positive affect; higher maltreatment was associated with more depressive symptoms and less positive affect, but only among those with average and higher levels of HR reactivity. Results suggest that higher physiological reactivity may confer greater susceptibility to environmental contexts.

  4. Adverse reactions in voluntary whole blood donors: Experience at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole blood donation, generally considered as a safe procedure, may be sometimes associated with adverse reactions and injuries of variable severity during or after the blood donation process. There are few reports of adverse events related to blood donation in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

  5. Early Childhood Adversity and Its Associations with Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. Early childhood adversity (ECA) primes adults to become more vulnerable to depression by enhancing their reactivity to stress; this relationship is not adequately described in patients with breast cancer. Methods Breast cancer patients (Stage 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire [RFQ]-subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List [DT&PL]), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety [HADS-A]), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression [HADS-D]), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (DT&PL ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (HADS-A ≥8)/depression (HADS-D ≥8), and demographic factors. Results One hundred twenty-five participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p<.001), anxiety (p=.001), and distress (p=.006) and with meeting cut-off threshold criteria for distress (p=.024), anxiety (p=.048), and depression (p=.001). On Multivariate analysis, only depression (p=.04) and emotional issues (i.e, component of DT&PL)(p=.001) were associated with ECA. Neglect, but not Abuse and Chaotic Home Environment, was associated with depression (β=.442, p<.001), anxiety (β=.342, p=.002), and self-identified problems with family (β−.288, p=.022), emotion (β=.345, p=.004), and physical issues (β=.408, p<.001). Conclusion ECA and neglect are associated with multiple psychological symptoms but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychological burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient centered care for psychological symptoms in patients with breast cancer. PMID:26876888

  6. Prospective associations of psychosocial adversity in childhood with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adulthood: the MRC National Survey of Health and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Caleyachetty, Rishi; Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-07

    Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. We aimed to assess associations of various forms of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. Participants were from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Childhood psychosocial risk factors were reported prospectively by parents from 1950-1957, and retrospectively by participants at mean age 43 years in 1989. CVD risk factors were assessed at mean age 60-64 years in 2006-2011. Associations of a summary score of total psychosocial adversity and CVD risk in adulthood were assessed. There was no consistent evidence that cumulative psychosocial adversity, nor any specific form of psychosocial adversity in childhood, was associated with CVD risk factors in late adulthood. There was some evidence that parental death in the first 15 years was associated with higher SBP (Beta: 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.40, P=0.01) and DBP (Beta: 0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.01 to 0.32, P=0.07). We found no evidence that exposure to greater psychosocial adversity, or specific forms of psychosocial adversity during childhood is associated with adult CVD risk factors. Further large population studies are needed to clarify whether parental death is associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  7. Update on Psychological Trauma, Other Severe Adverse Experiences and Eating Disorders: State of the Research and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Kathryn; MacDonald, Danielle E

    2017-08-01

    This paper provides an updated review of the literature on the relationship between psychological trauma exposure, other severe adverse experiences, and eating disorders. Trauma exposure and other severe adverse experiences (e.g., emotional abuse) in both childhood and adulthood are associated with eating disorders. The relationship between traumatic and other adverse experiences and eating disorders appears to be mediated by emotional and behavioral dysregulation, as well as by cognitive factors such as self-criticism. Biological vulnerabilities may also be relevant to this relationship. Overall, the literature is limited by predominantly cross-sectional designs. There is clear evidence of a correlational relationship between trauma exposure and other severe adverse events, and eating disorders. Both risk and maintenance factor hypotheses have been put forth; however, prospective research testing these hypotheses remains limited. Future research should use prospective designs and focus on trauma-related symptoms (rather than trauma exposure) in order to advance research on risk and maintaining factors for eating disorders and inform treatment directions.

  8. Vertigo in childhood: a clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbek, Seyra H; Erbek, Selim S; Yilmaz, Ismail; Topal, Ozgul; Ozgirgin, Nuri; Ozluoglu, Levent N; Alehan, Fusun

    2006-09-01

    Vertigo in childhood is a complaint consisting of a wide spectrum of diagnoses. The aim of this study was to evaluate pediatric patients with vertigo with normal eardrum and middle ear findings and discuss the differential diagnoses. Patient records of 50 children under 18 years of age with vertigo as the chief complaint, examined at the Baskent University, Research and Application Centers at Konya and Adana otorhinolaryngology clinics between May 2003 and October 2005 were retrospectively reviewed. The questionnaires, laboratory tests including blood samples, audiological and vestibular tests, and final diagnoses were analyzed. Patients with perforated eardrums, otitis media with effusion, and acute upper respiratory tract infections were not included in the study. The study group consisted of 50 patients (33 females, 66%; 17 males, 34%), between 4 and 17 years of age (mean age, 11.5+/-3.9 years). Severe sensorineural hearing loss was present in one patient unilaterally (2%) and one patient bilaterally (2%). Bilateral low-frequency sensorineural hearing loss was present in one patient (2%). Electronystagmography revealed central vestibular abnormalities in three patients (6%). Canal paresis was established in six patients (12%). The Dix-Hallpike test was positive in six patients (12%). The most frequent cause of vertigo was migraine, occurring in 34% of patients (n=17). Other less-frequent etiologies of vertigo were benign paroxysmal vertigo (n=6; 12%), benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (n=6; 12%), psychogenic vertigo (n=5; 10%), epilepsy (n=3; 6%), metabolic disorders (n=3; 6%), vestibular neuritis (n=2; 4%), Meniere's disease (n=1; 2%), perilymphatic fistula (n=1; 2%), amblyopia (n=1; 2%), and unclassifiable (n=5; 10%). Migraine was found to be the most frequent presenting diagnosis in childhood vertigo, although several peripheral vestibular disorders also were diagnosed. Evaluation of vertigo in childhood should begin with a thorough neuro

  9. Childhood adversity is linked to differential brain volumes in adolescents with alcohol use disorder: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Samantha J; Dalvie, Shareefa; Cuzen, Natalie L; Cardenas, Valerie; Fein, George; Stein, Dan J

    2014-06-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies link both alcohol use disorder (AUD) and early adversity to neurobiological differences in the adult brain. However, the association between AUD and childhood adversity and effects on the developing adolescent brain are less clear, due in part to the confound of psychiatric comorbidity. Here we examine early life adversity and its association with brain volume in a unique sample of 116 South African adolescents (aged 12-16) with AUD but without psychiatric comorbidity. Participants were 58 adolescents with DSM-IV alcohol dependence and with no other psychiatric comorbidities, and 58 age-, gender- and protocol-matched light/non-drinking controls (HC). Assessments included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). MR images were acquired on a 3T Siemens Magnetom Allegra scanner. Volumes of global and regional structures were estimated using SPM8 Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM), with analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and regression analyses. In whole brain ANCOVA analyses, a main effect of group when examining the AUD effect after covarying out CTQ was observed on brain volume in bilateral superior temporal gyrus. Subsequent regression analyses to examine how childhood trauma scores are linked to brain volumes in the total cohort revealed a negative correlation in the left hippocampus and right precentral gyrus. Furthermore, bilateral (but most significantly left) hippocampal volume was negatively associated with sub-scores on the CTQ in the total cohort. These findings support our view that some alterations found in brain volumes in studies of adolescent AUD may reflect the impact of confounding factors such as psychiatric comorbidity rather than the effects of alcohol per se. In particular, early life adversity may influence the developing adolescent brain in specific brain regions, such as the hippocampus.

  10. Is the cluster risk model of parental adversities better than the cumulative risk model as an indicator of childhood physical abuse?: findings from two representative community surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Sawyer, J-L

    2014-01-01

    Screening strategies for childhood physical abuse (CPA) need to be improved in order to identify those most at risk. This study uses two regionally representative community samples to examine whether a cluster or cumulative model of risk indicators (i.e. parental divorce, parental unemployment, and parental addictions) explains a larger proportion of the variation in CPA. Data were drawn from Statistics Canada's National Population Health Survey (1994-1995) and Canadian Community Health Survey 3.1 (2005). Response rates were greater than 80% in both samples. Each survey had approximately 13,000 respondents aged 18 and over who answered questions about the above adverse childhood experiences. A gradient was shown with similar outcomes in each data set. Only 3.4% of adults who experienced none of the three risk indicators reported they had been physically abused during childhood or adolescence. The prevalence of CPA was greater among those who experienced parental divorce alone (8.3%-10.7%), parental unemployment alone (8.9%-9.7%) or parental addictions alone (18.0%-19.5%). When all three risk indicators were present, the prevalence of CPA ranged from 36.0%-41.0% and the age-sex-race adjusted odds were greater than 15 times that of individuals with none of the three risk indicators. The cluster model explained a statistically significantly larger proportion of the variation than the cumulative model although the difference between the two models was modest. For the purposes of parsimony, the cumulative model may be the better alternative. Adults who were exposed to two or more childhood risk indicators were much more likely to report that they were physically abused during their childhood than those with only one or no risk factors. Medical professionals may use this information on cumulative risk factors to more effectively target screening for potential CPA. Future research should include prospective studies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The potential protective effect of friendship on the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood: A retrospective, preliminary, three-wave population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed

    2018-01-15

    Previous studies that assessed the mediating role of social support in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress based their inferences on very small, selective samples, which makes it impossible to generalise the findings to general population. The aim of this paper was to assess the mediating role of quantity and quality of social support in adulthood in the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. The study has a three-wave design; the present analysis used longitudinal data collected from 1994 to 2008 within the framework of the Tromsø Study (N = 4530), a representative prospective cohort study of men and women. Quantity and quality of social support were measured at a mean age of 54.7 years, and psychological distress in adulthood was measured at a mean age of 61.7 years. Mediation analysis was used to assess the indirect effect of childhood adversity (via quantity and quality of social support) on psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was associated with deficits in quantity and quality of social support in adulthood (p < 0.05). Childhood adversity and deficits in quantity and quality of social support were associated with psychological distress in adulthood (p < 0.05). Quantity and quality of social support significantly (p < 0.05) mediated the association between childhood adversity and psychological distress in adulthood. Childhood adversity was assessed retrospectively and social support was measured with two items. Interventions aimed at reducing social isolation may alleviate the burden carried by survivors of childhood adversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adverse childhood events and current depressive symptoms among women in Hawaii: 2010 BRFSS, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio-Baker, Rosemay A; Hayes, Donald K; Reyes-Salvail, Florentina

    2014-12-01

    Research on the association between adverse childhood events (ACEs) and depression among women in Hawaii is scarce. ACEs have been linked to unfavorable health behaviors such as smoking and binge drinking which are more prevalent in the state compared to the US overall. The concomitant presence of ACEs with smoking or binge drinking may explain the excess depression prevalence in Hawaii compared to the national average. Using data of women residing in the state (2010 Hawaii Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey), we examined the association between ACEs count or type (household dysfunction and physical, verbal and sexual abuse) and current depressive symptoms (CDS), in addition to modification by current smoking status (smoked >100 cigarettes in a lifetime and currently smoke) and binge drinking (consumed ≥4 alcoholic beverage within the past month and in ≥1 occasion(s)). Evaluation of ACEs before age 18 consisted of 11 indicators. Eight indicators of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) were used to assess CDS. All analyses utilized logistic regression taking into account sampling design. The odds ratio of having CDS between those with versus without ACEs increased per increasing number of ACEs (1 ACE: OR = 2.11, CI = 1.16-3.81; 2 ACEs: OR = 2.90, CI = 1.51-5.58; 3 or 4 ACEs: OR = 3.94, CI = 2.13-7.32; 5+ ACEs: OR = 4.04, CI = 2.26-7.22). Household dysfunction (OR = 2.10, CI = 1.37-3.23), physical abuse (OR = 1.67, CI = 1.08-2.59), verbal abuse (OR = 3.21, CI = 2.03-5.09) and sexual abuse (OR = 1.68, CI = 1.04-2.71) were all positively associated with CDS. Verbal abuse had the strongest magnitude of association. Neither current smoking status nor binge drinking modified the relationship between ACEs count (or type) and CDS. In conclusion, the presence of ACEs among women in Hawaii was indicative of CDS in adulthood, notably verbal abuse. Further, a dose response existed between the number of ACEs and the odds for CDS. The concomitant exposure

  13. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The experience of fatherhood following childhood cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Francis; Higgins, Aiveen; Casey, Maureen; McCarthy, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the experience of becoming a father following childhood cancer survival. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five fathers and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: 'moving away from and revisiting the experience of cancer', 'making sense of fortune and loss following a life-threatening illness' and 'valuing the opportunity to be a father'. The transition to fatherhood brought unique and specific challenges to fathers. Nevertheless, all appeared to have positively adjusted to this transition. Findings recommended providing information and support to childhood survivors who wish to or who are about to become fathers.

  15. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  16. Associations among oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) DNA methylation in adulthood, exposure to early life adversity, and childhood trajectories of anxiousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, J P; Zhou, Q Q; Booij, L; Boivin, M; Côté, S M; Hébert, M; Ouellet-Morin, I; Szyf, M; Tremblay, R E; Turecki, G; Vitaro, F

    2017-08-07

    Recent models propose deoxyribonucleic acid methylation of key neuro-regulatory genes as a molecular mechanism underlying the increased risk of mental disorder associated with early life adversity (ELA). The goal of this study was to examine the association of ELA with oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) methylation among young adults. Drawing from a 21-year longitudinal cohort, we compared adulthood OXTR methylation frequency of 46 adults (23 males and 23 females) selected for high or low ELA exposure based on childhood socioeconomic status and exposure to physical and sexual abuse during childhood and adolescence. Associations between OXTR methylation and teacher-rated childhood trajectories of anxiousness were also assessed. ELA exposure was associated with one significant CpG site in the first intron among females, but not among males. Similarly, childhood trajectories of anxiousness were related to one significant CpG site within the promoter region among females, but not among males. This study suggests that females might be more sensitive to the impact of ELA on OXTR methylation than males.

  17. Why Does Military Combat Experience Adversely Affect Marital Relations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimbel, Cynthia; Booth, Alan

    1994-01-01

    Describes investigation of ways in which combat decreases marital quality and stability. Results support three models: (1) factors propelling men into combat also make them poor marriage material; (2) combat causes problems that increase marital adversity; and (3) combat intensifies premilitary stress and antisocial behavior which then negatively…

  18. The relationship between self-reported childhood adversities, adulthood psychopathology and psychological stress markers in patients with schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidenfaden, Dea; Knorr, Ulla; Soendergaard, Mia Greisen

    2017-01-01

    : To compare levels of childhood trauma in schizophrenia patients vs. healthy control persons, and to study the association between childhood adversity and the symptomatology of adulthood schizophrenia, as well as subjective and biological markers of psychological stress.  Methods: Thirty-seven patients...... of the patients was measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and analyzed by a five-factor PANSS model. Measures of perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis activity (9 AM plasma cortisol and daytime salivary cortisol output) were recorded...... was found (P = 0.009). The high CATS score group showed higher levels of perceived stress (P = 0.02), but there was no difference between the high vs. low CATS group in HPA-axis activity. Conclusion: Although causal inferences cannot be made from this cross-sectional study, the study adds support...

  19. Early Childhood Obesity Risk Factors: Socioeconomic Adversity, Family Dysfunction, Offspring Distress, and Junk Food Self-Medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsson, Erik

    2018-06-01

    To explore the sequence and interaction of infancy and early childhood risk factors, particularly relating to disturbances in the social environment, and how the consequences of such exposures can promote weight gain and obesity. This review will argue that socioeconomic adversity is a key upstream catalyst that sets the stage for critical midstream risk factors such as family strain and dysfunction, offspring insecurity, stress, emotional turmoil, low self-esteem, and poor mental health. These midstream risk factors, particularly stress and emotional turmoil, create a more or less perfect foil for calorie-dense junk food self-medication and subtle addiction, to alleviate uncomfortable psychological and emotional states. Disturbances in the social environment during infancy and early childhood appear to play a critical role in weight gain and obesity, through such mechanisms as insecurity, stress, and emotional turmoil, eventually leading to junk food self-medication and subtle addiction.

  20. Association between childhood adversities and adulthood depressive symptoms in South Korea: results from a nationally representative longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Sup; Jang, Hyobum; Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Park, Young Su; Lee, Dong-Woo

    2013-01-01

    To examine how childhood adversity (ie, parental death, parental divorce, suspension of school education due to financial strain or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain) is associated with prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms and whether this association differs by gender and by age in South Korea. Prospective cohort design. Nationally representative longitudinal survey in South Korea. 11 526 participants in South Korea. Prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms were assessed as a dichotomous variable using the Centers for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in 2006 and 2007. In the prevalence analysis, each of the four childhood adversities was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of adulthood depressive symptoms. The higher incidence of depressive symptoms was associated with suspension of school education (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.82) and parental divorce (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.71). In the age-stratified analyses, prevalence of depressive symptoms was associated with all CAs across different adulthoods, except for parental divorce and late adulthood depressive symptoms. After being stratified by gender, the association was significant for parental divorce (OR 3.76, 95% CI 2.34 to 6.03) in the prevalence analysis and for being raised in a relative's house (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.94) in the incidence analysis only among women. This study suggests that childhood adversity may increase prevalence and incidence of adulthood depressive symptoms, and the impact of parental divorce or being raised in a relative's house due to financial strain on adulthood depressive symptoms may differ by gender.

  1. The Developmental Impact of Not Integrating Childhood Peak Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlarb, Craig W.

    2007-01-01

    Much prior groundbreaking research has been done in recent years highlighting the qualities, quantities and means children have to enter transpersonal states of awareness. As important as this precedent research has been, in many ways it has yet to fully appreciate the gravity of childhood transpersonal experiences in terms of the impact on…

  2. Association between childhood adversities and long-term suicidality among South Africans from the results of the South African Stress and Health study: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruwer, Belinda; Govender, Ravi; Bishop, Melanie; Williams, David R; Stein, Dan J; Seedat, Soraya

    2014-06-11

    Suicide and suicidal behaviours are significant public health problems and a leading cause of death worldwide and in South Africa. We examined the association between childhood adversities and suicidal behaviour over the life course. A national probability sample of 4351 South African adult participants (aged 18 years and older) in the South African Stress and Health (SASH) study was interviewed as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. Respondents provided sociodemographic and diagnostic information, as well as an account of suicide-related thoughts and behaviours. Suicidality or suicidal behaviour were defined as were defined as suicide attempts and suicidal ideation in the total sample, and suicide plans and attempts among ideators. Childhood adversities included physical abuse, sexual abuse, parental death, parental divorce, other parental loss, family violence, physical illness and financial adversity. The association between suicidality and childhood adversities was examined using discrete-time survival models. More than a third of the respondents with suicidal behaviour experienced at least one childhood adversity, with physical abuse, parental death and parental divorce being the most prevalent adversities. Physical abuse, sexual abuse and parental divorce were identified as significant risk markers for lifetime suicide attempts, while physical abuse and parental divorce were significantly correlated with suicidal ideation. Two or more childhood adversities were associated with a twofold higher risk of lifetime suicide attempts. Sexual abuse (OR 9.3), parental divorce (OR 3.1) and childhood physical abuse (OR 2.2) had the strongest associations with lifetime suicide attempts. The effect of childhood adversities on suicidal tendencies varied over the life course. For example, sexual abuse was significantly associated with suicide attempts during childhood and teen years, but not during young and later adulthood. Childhood adversities

  3. Post-traumatic stress disorder, adverse childhood events and buccal cell telomere length in elderly Swiss former indentured child laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lorenz Küffer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL – a proposed marker of biological age – in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter TL.The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M=76.19, SD=6.18 and 58 healthy controls (age: M=71.85, SD=5.97. Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, mental-, and physical functioning.Forty-eight (77.42% of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma and 21 (33.87% had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend towards longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD (F(2,109 = 3.27, p = .04, η2 = 0.06, and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: -0.01 – 0.35], t = 1.90, p = .06. Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores.To our knowledge this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses and childhood adversity was not associated with BTL. Possible explanations and future research possibilities are discussed.

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of Childhood Adversity on Depressive Symptoms in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Heather A.; Butler, Melissa J.

    2003-01-01

    Examined whether cumulative trauma in childhood and adolescence is related to depressive symptoms in young adults and explored mediating factors. Results for 649 college students indicate clear differences in cumulative trauma by sociodemographic characteristics, with high trauma associated with early onset of depression and later depressive…

  5. Childhood victimization experiences of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogolyubova, Olga; Skochilov, Roman; Smykalo, Lyubov

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of childhood victimization experiences in a sample of young adults in St. Petersburg, Russia. The study sample included 743 students aged 19 to 25 from 15 universities in St. Petersburg, Russia. All of the study participants completed a reliable questionnaire assessing the following types of childhood victimization: conventional crime, child maltreatment, peer victimization, sexual victimization, and witnessing violence. Participation in the study was anonymous. High rates of victimization and exposure to violence were reported by the study participants. The majority of the sample experienced at least one type of victimization during childhood or adolescence, and poly-victimization was reported frequently. The most common type of victimization reported was peer or sibling assault (66.94%), followed by witnessing an assault without weapon (63.91%), personal theft (56.19%), vandalism (56.06%), and emotional bullying (49.99%). Sexual assault by a known adult was reported by 1.45% males and 5.16% of females. This study provides new information on the scope of childhood victimization experiences in Russia. Further research is warranted, including epidemiological research with representative data across the country and studies of the impact of trauma and victimization on mental health and well-being of Russian adults and children. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Life adverse experiences in relation with obesity and binge eating disorder: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Giovanni Luca; Innamorati, Marco; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Several studies report a positive association between adverse life experiences and adult obesity. Despite the high comorbidity between binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity, few authors have studied the link between trauma and BED. In this review the association between exposure to adverse life experiences and a risk for the development of obesity and BED in adulthood is explored. Methods Based on a scientific literature review in Medline, PubMed and PsycInfo databases, the results of 70 studies (N = 306,583 participants) were evaluated including 53 studies on relationship between adverse life experiences and obesity, 7 studies on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to obesity, and 10 studies on the association between adverse life experiences and BED. In addition, mediating factors between the association of adverse life experiences, obesity and BED were examined. Results The majority of studies (87%) report that adverse life experiences are a risk factor for developing obesity and BED. More precisely a positive association between traumatic experiences and obesity and PTSD and obesity were found, respectively, in 85% and 86% of studies. Finally, the great majority of studies (90%) between trauma and the development of BED in adulthood strongly support this association. Meanwhile, different factors mediating between the trauma and obesity link were identified. Discussion and conclusions Although research data show a strong association between life adverse experiences and the development of obesity and BED, more research is needed to explain this association. PMID:28092189

  7. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  8. Extrasensory Perception Experiences and Childhood Trauma: A Rorschach Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Pandolfo, Gianluca; La Ciura, Giulia; Zoccali, Rocco A; Muscatello, Maria R A

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated whether people who report recurrent extrasensory perception (ESP) experiences (telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition) have suffered more traumatic experiences and traumatic intrusions. Thirty-one nonclinical participants reporting recurrent ESP experiences were compared with a nonclinical sample of 31 individuals who did not report recurrent ESP phenomena. Past traumatic experiences were assessed via a self-report measure of trauma history (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire); traumatic intrusions were assessed via a performance-based personality measure (Rorschach Traumatic Content Index). Participants also completed the Anomalous Experience Inventory, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2, the Dissociative Experience Scale, and the Revised Paranormal Belief Scale. The ESP group reported higher levels of emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, and traumatic intrusions. The association between ESP experiences and trauma was partly mediated by the effects of dissociation and emotional distress. Implications for health professionals are discussed. Results also showed the reliability of the twofold method of assessment of trauma.

  9. Adult separation anxiety and unsettled infant behavior: Associations with adverse parenting during childhood and insecure adult attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhoff, Jane; Barnett, Bryanne; Eapen, Valsamma

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of Adult Separation Anxiety Disorder (ASAD) and Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA) symptoms in a sample of first-time mothers with an unsettled infant during the first postpartum year. Eighty-three primiparous women admitted to a residential parent-infant program participated in a structured clinical interview for DSM-IV diagnosis and questionnaires assessing ASA symptoms, adult attachment and childhood parenting experiences. Nurses recorded infant behavior using 24-hour charts. The prevalence of ASAD in this sample was 19.3% and women with ASAD were, on average, more likely to be diagnosed with depression and anxiety disorders, report aversive parenting experiences during childhood and show adult attachment style insecurity. Both ASAD and ASA symptoms were predicted by adult attachment anxiety, and ASAD was associated with unsettled infant behavior. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance mediated relations between parental over-control and ASAD diagnosis, and between parental abuse and ASAD diagnosis. Attachment anxiety mediated the relation between parental over-control and ASA symptoms, and attachment avoidance mediated the relations of parental over-control and parental abuse with ASA symptoms. This study highlights the prevalence of ASAD among first time mothers experiencing early parenting difficulties and the roles of childhood parenting experiences and adult attachment style in the development of the disorder. This points to the importance of introducing universal screening for ASAD in postnatal settings, and for the development of targeted interventions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling the Interplay between Childhood and Adult Adversity in Pathways to Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Craig; Reininghaus, Ulrich; Fearon, Paul; Hutchinson, Gerard; Morgan, Kevin; Dazzan, Paola; Boydell, Jane; Kirkbride, James; Doody, Gillian A; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Robin M; Craig, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence that a range of socio-environmental exposures are associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, despite the fact that such factors probably combine in complex ways to increase risk, the majority of studies have tended to consider each exposure separately. In light of this, we sought to extend previous analyses of data from the ÆSOP study on childhood and adult markers of disadvantage to examine how they combine to increase risk of psychosis, testing both mediation (path) models and synergistic effects. Method All patients with a first episode of psychosis who made contact with psychiatric services in defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK (n = 390) and a series of community controls (n = 391) were included in the ÆSOP study. Data relating to clinical and social variables, including parental separation and loss, education and adult disadvantage, were collected from cases and controls. Results There was evidence that the effect of separation from, but not death of, a parent in childhood on risk of psychosis was partially mediated through subsequent poor educational attainment (no qualifications), adult social disadvantage and, to a lesser degree, low self-esteem. In addition, there was strong evidence that separation from, but not death of, a parent combined synergistically with subsequent disadvantage to increase risk. These effects held for all ethnic groups in the sample. Conclusions Exposure to childhood and adult disadvantage may combine in complex ways to push some individuals along a predominantly socio-developmental pathway to psychosis. PMID:23590972

  11. BACKSTAGE CHILDHOOD AND THE BACKSTAGE OF CHILDHOOD: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHILDREN WORKING ON TELEVISION

    OpenAIRE

    RENATA BARRETO LACOMBE

    2004-01-01

    Análise e levantamento de questões relativas à infância contemporânea brasileira e sua relação com a mídia (mais especificamente a televisão), a partir de experiência como psicóloga com crianças que trabalham na TV. Analysis and study of questions related to Brazilian contemporary childhood and its relation to the media (more specifically to television), based on experience as a psychologist with children who work on television.

  12. Women’s Experience of Abuse in Childhood and Their Children’s Smoking and Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Galea, Sandro; Austin, S. Bryn; Corliss, Heather L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking and overweight are principal determinants of poor health for which individual-level interventions are at best modestly effective. This limited effectiveness may be partly because these risk factors are patterned by parents’ experiences preceding the individual’s birth. Purpose To determine whether women’s experience of abuse in childhood was associated with smoking and overweight in their children. Methods In 2012, data were linked from two large longitudinal cohorts of women (Nurses’ Health Study II [NHSII], N=12,666) and their children (Growing Up Today [GUTS] Study, N=16,774), 1989–2010. Odds ratios of children following higher-risk smoking trajectories and risk ratios (RR) of children’s overweight and obesity by their mother’s childhood experience of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were calculated. The extent to which mother’s smoking and overweight, socioeconomic indicators, family characteristics, and child’s abuse exposure accounted for possible associations was ascertained. Results Children of women who experienced severe childhood abuse had greater likelihood of higher-risk smoking trajectories (OR=1.40, 95% CI=1.21, 1.61), overweight (RR=1.21, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.33), and obesity (RR=1.45, 95% CI=1.21, 1.74) across adolescence and early adulthood compared with children of women who reported no abuse. Mother’s smoking and overweight and children’s abuse exposure accounted for more than half of the elevated risk of following the highest-risk smoking trajectory and overweight in children of women abused. Conclusions These findings raise the possibility that childhood abuse may not only adversely affect the health of the direct victim but may also affect health risk factors in her children decades after the original traumatic events. PMID:24512863

  13. Childhood adversity and cognitive function in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and healthy controls: evidence for an association between neglect and social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian, S; Asmal, L; Chiliza, B; Olivier, M R; Phahladira, L; Scheffler, F; Seedat, S; Marder, S R; Green, M F; Emsley, R

    2017-12-22

    Childhood adversity is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, findings to date are inconsistent and little is known about the relationship between social cognition and childhood trauma. We investigated the relationship between childhood abuse and neglect and cognitive function in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder (n = 56) and matched healthy controls (n = 52). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study assessing this relationship in patients and controls exposed to similarly high levels of trauma. Pearson correlational coefficients were used to assess correlations between Childhood Trauma Questionnaire abuse and neglect scores and cognition. For the MCCB domains displaying significant (p childhood neglect remained a significant predictor of impairment in social cognition in both patients and controls. Neglect was also a significant predictor of poorer verbal learning in patients and of attention/vigilance in controls. However, childhood abuse did not significantly predict cognitive impairments in either patients or controls. These findings are cross sectional and do not infer causality. Nonetheless, they indicate that associations between one type of childhood adversity (i.e. neglect) and social cognition are present and are not illness-specific.

  14. Social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use in a community sample of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Nicholas W J; Levy, Sheldon; Pico, Jose; Luben, Robert N; Surtees, Paul G; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2014-06-01

    Psychosocial stress is a risk factor for hypertension and has been shown to affect response to treatment for psychiatric illnesses. We investigate the relationship between a history of social adversity experience and blood pressure control following antihypertensive medication use. A total of 1,186 participants selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk study (531 men and 655 women, aged 42 to 80 years) had attended two health checks at which blood pressure measurements were taken; were taking antihypertensive medication at the second, but not the first health check; and had completed a questionnaire assessment of their social and psychological circumstances which included details of traumatic experiences in childhood and of adverse life events, long-term difficulties, and perceived stress in adulthood. Experience of recent loss events in adulthood was associated with a smaller reduction in systolic blood pressure after starting hypertension treatment (β = 1.78, 95 % confidence interval 0.15-3.40, per life event), independently of age, sex, preexisting health conditions, cigarette smoking history, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and obesity. Results from this study suggest that stress caused by recent losses may be associated with reduced effectiveness of treatment for hypertension. Subject to replication, these findings may help determine the specific physiological mechanisms by which medication treatment effectiveness is affected by stress.

  15. Long-term glucocorticoid concentrations as a risk factor for childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppe, G; van den Akker, E L T; de Rijke, Y B; Koper, J W; Jaddoe, V W; van Rossum, E F C

    2016-10-01

    Childhood obesity is an important risk factor for premature development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) at adulthood. There is need for understanding of the mechanisms underlying the MetS and obesity. Patients with Cushing's disease suffer from similar metabolic complications, leading to the hypothesis that inter-individual cortisol variation may contribute to the onset of obesity. In addition, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-gene polymorphisms resulting in differential glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity, have been associated with an adverse metabolic profile. To study associations of GC levels in scalp hair, as a marker of long-term systemic GC concentrations, and genetically determined GC sensitivity with obesity and body-fat distribution in children. We performed a cross-sectional study of cortisol and cortisone concentrations over a 3-month period, measured by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in hair of 3019 6-year-old children participating in the Generation R study. Genotyping of GR-gene polymorphisms was performed. Of all children, 4.3% was obese and 13.4% overweight. Cortisol was significantly associated with risk of obesity (odd ratio (OR): 9.4 (3.3-26.9)) and overweight (OR: 1.4 (1.0-2.0)). Cortisone was associated with risk of obesity (OR: 1.9 (1.0-3.5)). Cortisol and cortisone were significantly positively associated with body mass index, fat mass (FM) index and android/gynecoid FM ratio. GR polymorphisms were not associated with adiposity parameters. Long-term cortisol concentrations are strongly associated with an increased risk of childhood obesity and adverse body-fat distribution. Future research may reveal whether these are causal relations and may be a target for therapy.

  16. Suicidal ideation in adolescence: examining the role of recent adverse experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J; English, Diana J; Dubowitz, Howard; Narasimhan, Subasri; Everson, Mark D

    2012-02-01

    Although there is a well-known link between adverse experiences and suicidal ideation, there has been little study of the effects of recent adverse experiences on suicidal ideation in teenagers. This study examined the association between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation in a sample of 740 at-risk 16-year-old youth in the LONGSCAN studies, as well as potential mediators. 8.9% of the youth reported suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences, as a class, were associated with suicidal ideation; both recent physical abuse and recent psychological maltreatment were uniquely associated with suicidal ideation. The links between recent adverse experiences and suicidal ideation were significantly mediated by psychological distress. There were also significant main effect associations between both internalizing behavioral problems and low positive achievement expectations and suicidal ideation. Recent adverse experiences are important in understanding suicidal ideation in high risk youth. Copyright © 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederlöf, Martin; Pettersson, Erik; Sariaslan, Amir; Larsson, Henrik; Östberg, Per; Kelleher, Ian; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Lundström, Sebastian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2016-03-01

    Studies suggest associations between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences. However, recent research suggests that a general neuropsychiatric problems factor predicts adverse outcomes better than specific diagnostic entities. To examine if the alleged association between autistic traits and psychotic experiences could rather be explained by a general neuropsychiatric problems factor comprising symptoms of ADHD, tic disorder, developmental coordination disorder, and learning disorder, we conducted a prospective cohort study based on the Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden. In addition, we examined the genetic and environmental influences on the associations. A total of 9,282 twins with data on childhood autistic traits and other neuropsychiatric problems, and follow-up data on psychotic experiences at ages 15 and/or 18 years were included. First, psychotic experiences were regressed on autistic traits and second, the general neuropsychiatric problems factor was added to the model. Auditory hallucinations were analyzed separately from the other psychotic experiences. Finally, twin analyses were employed to disentangle genetic from environmental influences in the observed associations. Replicating prior research, significant associations were found between autistic traits in childhood and auditory hallucinations at ages 15 and 18. However, after controlling for the general neuropsychiatric problems factor, the associations between autistic traits and auditory hallucinations disappeared, whereas the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations persisted after controlling for autistic traits. Twin analyses revealed that the association between the general neuropsychiatric problems factor and auditory hallucinations was driven by shared genetic influences. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Psychodynamic experience enhances recognition of hidden childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental psychology has only recently provided supporting evidence for Freud's and Janet's description of unconscious phenomena. Here, we aimed to assess whether specific abilities, such as personal psychodynamic experience, enhance the ability to recognize unconscious phenomena in peers - in other words, to better detect implicit knowledge related to individual self-experience. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we collected 14 videos from seven healthy adults who had experienced a sibling's cancer during childhood and seven matched controls. Subjects and controls were asked to give a 5-minute spontaneous free-associating speech following specific instructions created in order to activate a buffer zone between fantasy and reality. Then, 18 raters (three psychoanalysts, six medical students, three oncologists, three cognitive behavioral therapists and three individuals with the same experience of trauma were randomly shown the videos and asked to blindly classify them according to whether the speaker had a sibling with cancer using a Likert scale. Using a permutation test, we found a significant association between group and recognition score (ANOVA: p = .0006. Psychoanalysts were able to recognize, above chance levels, healthy adults who had experienced sibling cancer during childhood without explicit knowledge of this history (Power = 88%; p = .002. In contrast, medical students, oncologists, cognitive behavioral therapists and individuals who had the same history of a sibling's cancer were unable to do so. CONCLUSION: This experiment supports the view that implicit recognition of a subject's history depends on the rater's specific abilities. In the case of subjects who did have a sibling with cancer during childhood, psychoanalysts appear better able to recognize this particular history.

  19. Surveillance of hepatic late adverse effects in a large cohort of long-term survivors of childhood cancer: prevalence and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Koot, Bart G. P.; Benninga, Marc A.; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Wilde, James C. H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are a growing group of young individuals with a high risk of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the prevalence and risk factors of hepatic late adverse effects, defined as elevated liver enzymes, in a large cohort of CCS. The cohort consisted of all five-year CCS

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acid and Nutrient Deficits in Adverse Neurodevelopment and Childhood Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbeln, Joseph. R.; Gow, Rachel V.

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Nutritional insufficiencies of omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) may have adverse effects on brain development and neurodevelopmental outcomes. A recent meta-analysis of ten randomized controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs reported a small to modest effect size for the efficacy of omega-3 for treating symptoms of ADHD in youth. Several controlled trials of omega-3 HUFAs combined with micronutrients (vitamins, minerals) show sizeable reductions in aggressive, antisocial, and violent behavior in youth and in young adult prisoners. Meta-analyses report efficacy for depressive symptoms in adults, and preliminary findings suggest anti-suicidal properties in adults, but studies in youth are insufficient to draw any conclusions regarding mood. Dietary adjustments to increase omega-3 and reduce omega-6 HUFA consumption are sensible recommendations for youth and adults based on general health considerations, while the evidence base for omega-3 HUFAs as potential psychiatric treatments develops. PMID:24975625

  1. The relation between an adverse psychological and social environment in childhood and the development of adult obesity: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vámosi, M; Heitmann, B L; Kyvik, K O

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is on a global-wide increase, but still the aetiology of adult obesity is poorly understood. It has been shown that overweight children suffer from adverse psychological events, but less is known about the potential effects of adverse psychological factors among normal...... weight children for later development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to systematically review current literature on associations between psychological factors in childhood and development of obesity in adulthood. A systematic search was conducted in three electronic databases MEDLINE...... (silverplatter 1977-2008), PsycINFO (1972-2008) and PsycINFO Weekly (week 1 January 2007-week 3 July 2008) to identify studies of interest. Six prospective and two retrospective studies were identified. Psychosocial factors related to adult obesity were lack of childhood care, abuse and childhood anxiety...

  2. Childhood experiences of female family-violence perpetrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiski, Pia; Flinck, Aune; Kaunonen, Marja; Paavilainen, Eija

    2018-04-01

    To explore the childhood experiences of women who have perpetrated family-violence and voluntarily sought help. The qualitative design includes in-depth, unstructured individual interviews with 19 women who have perpetrated family-violence. The categories of maltreatment exposure, parental capability, and a role of the sensitive, good girl are identified and described in this article. The findings provide guidance for nurses who encounter families at risk of female family-violence perpetration and for those developing preventive interventions for female family-violence perpetrators whose family-of-origin issues are essential in processing issues of self. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Planned Cesarean Delivery at Term and Adverse Outcomes in Childhood Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mairead; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Philip, Sam; Norman, Jane E.; McLernon, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Planned cesarean delivery comprises a significant proportion of births globally, with combined rates of planned and unscheduled cesarean delivery in a number of regions approaching 50%. Observational studies have shown that offspring born by cesarean delivery are at increased risk of ill health in childhood, but these studies have been unable to adjust for some key confounding variables. Additionally, risk of death beyond the neonatal period has not yet been reported for offspring born by planned cesarean delivery. Objective To investigate the relationship between planned cesarean delivery and offspring health problems or death in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based data-linkage study of 321 287 term singleton first-born offspring born in Scotland, United Kingdom, between 1993 and 2007, with follow-up until February 2015. Exposures Offspring born by planned cesarean delivery in a first pregnancy were compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery and with offspring delivered vaginally. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was asthma requiring hospital admission; secondary outcomes were salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, cancer, and death. Results Compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery (n = 56 015 [17.4%]), those born by planned cesarean delivery (12 355 [3.8%]) were at no significantly different risk of asthma requiring hospital admission, salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or death but were at increased risk of type 1 diabetes (0.66% vs 0.44%; difference, 0.22% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.31%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75]). In comparison with children born vaginally (n = 252 917 [78.7%]), offspring born by planned cesarean delivery were at increased risk of asthma requiring hospital admission (3.73% vs 3

  4. Association between childhood sexual abuse and adverse psychological outcomes among youth in Taipei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and negative psychological consequences in adulthood, controlling for family environments and Confucian values. The data used in this study were collected from Taipei. The final analysis sample comprised 4,084 participants aged 15-24 years. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Sociodemographic variables, household instability, and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2%. The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents was 11.8%, 16.4%, and 16.7%, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlling for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44), and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Our findings suggested that CSA was an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting, and Confucian culture factors, which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Early childhood experiences shaping vulnerability to Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Barcaccia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the literature, inflated responsibility/sensitivity to guilt play a pivotal role in both the genesis and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD. They may be learned in childhood and adolescence, through particular experiences and parental rearing styles, involving criticism, excessively high standards, and social moralization. Preliminary data on the role of dysfunctional beliefs in the development/maintenance of OCD also show that non-affected family members of OC individuals score higher than controls in domains concerning responsibility, suggesting it might represent a candidate endophenotype for the disorder. Compulsive conducts, that far from being mechanical reactions are instead clearly goal-oriented, may be triggered by the need of preventing responsibility/guilt. Therefore, useful psychological interventions aimed at not only reappraising meanings associated with the specific early experiences connected to hyper-sensitivity to guilt, but also at developing a more general compassionate and forgiving stance towards oneself, may prove particularly effective.

  7. Early childhood adversity, toxic stress, and the role of the pediatrician: translating developmental science into lifelong health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Andrew S; Shonkoff, Jack P

    2012-01-01

    Advances in a wide range of biological, behavioral, and social sciences are expanding our understanding of how early environmental influences (the ecology) and genetic predispositions (the biologic program) affect learning capacities, adaptive behaviors, lifelong physical and mental health, and adult productivity. A supporting technical report from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) presents an integrated ecobiodevelopmental framework to assist in translating these dramatic advances in developmental science into improved health across the life span. Pediatricians are now armed with new information about the adverse effects of toxic stress on brain development, as well as a deeper understanding of the early life origins of many adult diseases. As trusted authorities in child health and development, pediatric providers must now complement the early identification of developmental concerns with a greater focus on those interventions and community investments that reduce external threats to healthy brain growth. To this end, AAP endorses a developing leadership role for the entire pediatric community-one that mobilizes the scientific expertise of both basic and clinical researchers, the family-centered care of the pediatric medical home, and the public influence of AAP and its state chapters-to catalyze fundamental change in early childhood policy and services. AAP is committed to leveraging science to inform the development of innovative strategies to reduce the precipitants of toxic stress in young children and to mitigate their negative effects on the course of development and health across the life span.

  8. Emotional pain: surviving mental health problems related to childhood experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, A L; Bégat, I; Severinsson, E

    2009-09-01

    Emotional pain is described as intense by women who suffer from borderline personality disorder (BPD), and a high prevalence of reported childhood abuse was found in the literature and in research. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of women suffering from BPD with focus on emotional pain related to childhood. An explorative design was used. Data were collected from in-depth interviews consisting of women suffering from BPD (n = 13) and an interpretive content analysis was used to analyse the text. The findings revealed two main themes: 'Power' and 'Assessment of vulnerability'. The main theme 'Power' resulted in two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being forced' and 'Surviving the feeling of having to assume responsibility'. The other main theme 'Assessment of vulnerability' had two categories: 'Surviving the feeling of being victimized' and 'Surviving the feeling of not being loved'. The findings suggest that nursing care need to develop an understanding of how these women endure their emotional pain, and try to survive as fighting spirits and how struggling became their way of life.

  9. School Psychology and Childhood – a public school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Maria Cintra da Silva

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work reports an activity performed as part of coursework in Psychology class during a school semester which aimed to provide students an effective experience of what public school psychologists do, based on the critical presumptions about Psychology and also aimed to present reflections on the performance of this professional together with children. The proposal involved encounters with teachers and children and the undergraduates were responsible for the preparation and execution of activities under the supervision of professors. The Psychology students highlighted the importance of this practice for their professional training, which provided discussions on key questions such as childhood, education and the impact of School Psychology in the Brazilian educational scope.

  10. Experience of childhood abuse and later number of remaining teeth in older Japanese: a life-course study from Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Yusuke; Fujiwara, Takeo; Aida, Jun; Watt, Richard G; Kondo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Kondo, Katsunori; Osaka, Ken

    2016-12-01

    From a life-course perspective, adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) such as childhood abuse are known risk factors for adult diseases and death throughout life. ACEs could also cause poor dental health in later life because they could induce poor dental health in childhood, initiate unhealthy behaviors, and lower immune and physiological functions. However, it is not known whether ACEs have a longitudinal adverse effect on dental health in older age. This study aimed to investigate the association between experience of childhood abuse until the age of 18 and current number of remaining teeth among a sample of older Japanese adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES), a large-scale, self-reported survey in 2013 including 27 525 community-dwelling Japanese aged ≥65 years (response rate=71.1%). The outcome, current number of remaining teeth was used categorically: ≥20, 10-19, 5-9, 1-4, and no teeth. Childhood abuse was defined as having any experience of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and psychological neglect up until the age of 18 years. Ordered logistic regression models were applied. Of the 25 189 respondents who indicated their number of remaining teeth (mean age: 73.9; male: 46.5%), 14.8% had experience of childhood abuse. Distributions of ≥20, 10-19, 5-9, 1-4, and no teeth were as follows: 46.6%, 22.0%, 11.4%, 8.2%, and 11.8% among respondents with childhood abuse, while 52.3%, 21.3%, 10.3%, 6.6%, and 9.5% among respondents without childhood abuse. Childhood abuse was significantly associated with fewer remaining teeth after adjusting for covariates including socioeconomic status (odds ratio=1.14; 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.22). Childhood abuse could have a longitudinal adverse effect on later dental health in older age. This study emphasizes the importance of early life experiences on dental health throughout later life. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by

  11. Clarifying Associations between Childhood Adversity, Social Support, Behavioral Factors, and Mental Health, Health, and Well-Being in Adulthood: A Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Abelsen, Birgit; Olsen, Jan Abel

    2016-01-01

    Publisher's version, source: http://10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00727. Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES), childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs), social support and behavioral factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being i...

  12. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  13. Experiences of punishment by parents during childhood: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.

  14. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  15. [High frequency of cutaneous adverse effects under infliximab. Geneva experience, 1999-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydtaghia, Floriane; De Saussure, Philippe; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-03-16

    Geneva experience, 1999-2008 Infliximab has been used for 10 years in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the gastroenterology and hepatology department at the University Hospitals of Geneva. This retrospective study shows the follow-up of these patients treated with infliximab and reveals a high rate of cutaneous adverse events, which, although often mild, can sign a definitive intolerance to treatment.

  16. A meta-ethnographic synthesis of midwives' and nurses' experiences of adverse labour and birth events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmir, Rakime; Pangas, Jackie; Dahlen, Hannah; Schmied, Virginia

    2017-12-01

    Health professionals are frequently exposed to traumatic events due to the nature of their work. While traumatic and adverse labour and birth events experienced by women are well researched, less attention has been given to midwives' and nurses' experiences of these events and the impact it has on their lives. To undertake a meta-ethnographic study of midwives' and nurses' experiences of adverse labour and birth events. Scopus, CINHAL PLUS, MEDLINE and PUBMED databases were searched using subject headings and keywords. The search was limited to papers published in peer-reviewed journals from 2004-October 2016. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Papers had to be qualitative or have a substantial qualitative component. Studies were included if they primarily focused on midwives' or nurses' perspectives or experiences of complicated, traumatic or adverse labour and birth events. A meta-ethnographic approach was used incorporating methods of reciprocal translation guided by the work of Noblit and Hare (1988, Meta-Ethnography: Synthesizing qualitative studies (Vol. 11). Newbury Park: Sage publications). Eleven qualitative studies were included in the final sample. Four major themes were (i) feeling the chaos; (ii) powerless, responsible and a failure; (iii) "It adds another scar to my soul"; and (iv) finding a way to deal with it. Midwives and nurses feel relatively unprepared when faced with a real-life labour and birth emergency event. While many of the midwives and nurses were traumatised by the experience, some were able to view their encounter as an opportunity to develop their emergency response skills. Witnessing and being involved in a complicated or adverse labour and birth event can be traumatic for nurses and midwives. Organisational and collegial support needs to be available to enable these health professionals to talk about their feelings and concerns. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  18. The Effects of Childhood Tomboyism and Family Experiences on the Self-Esteem of College Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Volkom, Michele

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if being a tomboy in childhood is related to high self-esteem in college women. Different aspects of participants' family experiences were analyzed as well. This study revealed that feeling overprotected in childhood as well as currently was related to lower self-esteem in college women. Participants who…

  19. Prevalence and impact of childhood adversities and post-traumatic stress disorder in women with fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, E; Van Wambeke, P; Morlion, B; Weltens, N; Giao Ly, H; Tack, J; Luyten, P; Van Oudenhove, L

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the prevalence of different types of childhood adversities (CA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female patients with Fibromyalgia or Chronic Widespread Pain (FM/CWP) compared to patients with Functional Dyspepsia (FD) and achalasia. In FM/CWP, we also investigated the association between CA and PTSD on the one hand and pain severity on the other. Patient samples consisted of 154 female FM/CWP, 83 female FD and 53 female achalasia patients consecutively recruited from a tertiary care hospital. Well-validated self-report questionnaires were used to investigate CA and PTSD. Forty-nine per cent of FM/CWP patients reported at least 1 type of CA, compared to 39.7% of FD patients and 23.4% of achalasia patients (p PTSD than both FD (p PTSD comorbidity, but not CA, was associated with self-reported pain severity and PTSD severity mediated the relationship between CA and pain severity. In summary, the prevalence of CA is higher in FM/CWP compared to achalasia, but similar to FD. However, PTSD is more prevalent in FM/CWP compared to FD and associated with higher pain intensity in FM/CWP. As expected and has been shown in other functional disorders, we found elevated levels of childhood adversity in FM/CWP patients. Results of this study however suggest that the impact of childhood adversity (i.e. whether such events have led to the development of PTSD symptoms), rather than the mere presence of such adversity, is of crucial importance in FM/CWP patients. Screening for PTSD symptoms should be an essential part of the assessment process in patients suffering from FM/CWP, and both prevention and intervention efforts should take into account PTSD symptoms and their impact on pain severity and general functioning. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  20. Imported childhood malaria: the Dublin experience, 1999-2006.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy, T R

    2009-09-01

    Imported childhood malaria has never been studied in Ireland. We aimed to document the incidence and species of malaria in children presenting to paediatric hospitals in Dublin and to examine management and outcome measures.

  1. Suicidal behaviors among adolescents in juvenile detention: role of adverse life experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhav P Bhatta

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of multiple adverse life experiences (sexual abuse, homelessness, running away, and substance abuse in the family on suicide ideation and suicide attempt among adolescents at an urban juvenile detention facility in the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study sample included a total of 3,156 adolescents processed at a juvenile detention facility in an urban area in Ohio between 2003 and 2007. The participants, interacting anonymously with a voice enabled computer, self-administered a questionnaire with 100 items related to health risk behaviors. RESULTS: Overall 19.0% reported ever having thought about suicide (suicide ideation and 11.9% reported ever having attempted suicide (suicide attempt. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis those reporting sexual abuse (Odds Ratio = 2.75; 95% confidence interval  = 2.08-3.63 and homelessness (1.51; 1.17-1.94 were associated with increased odds of suicide ideation, while sexual abuse (3.01; 2.22-4.08, homelessness (1.49; 1.12-1.98, and running away from home (1.38; 1.06-1.81 were associated with increased odds of a suicide attempt. Those experiencing all four adverse events were 7.81 times more likely (2.41-25.37 to report having ever attempted suicide than those who experienced none of the adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high prevalence of adverse life experiences and their association with suicidal behaviors in detained adolescents, these factors should not only be included in the suicide screening tools at the intake and during detention, but should also be used for the intervention programming for suicide prevention.

  2. Association between childhood adversity and a diagnosis of personality disorder in young adulthood: a cohort study of 107,287 individuals in Stockholm County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Ekselius, Lisa; Burström, Bo; Kosidou, Kyriaki; Björkenstam, Charlotte

    2017-08-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) may increase the risk for later developing of personality disorder (PD). However, less is known about the association between cumulative CA and PD, and the role of childhood psychopathology and school performance. The current study examined the relationship between a range of CAs and a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood, and the roles of childhood psychopathology and school performance in this relationship. All individuals born in Stockholm County 1987-1991 (n = 107,287) constituted our cohort. Seven CAs were measured between birth and age 14: familial death, parental criminality, parental substance abuse and psychiatric morbidity, parental separation and/or single-parent household, household public assistance and residential instability. Individuals were followed from their 18th birthday until they were diagnosed with PD or until end of follow-up (December 31st 2011). Adjusted estimates of risk of PD were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Associations were observed between cumulative CA and PD. During the follow-up 770 individuals (0.7%) were diagnosed with PD. Individuals exposed to 3+ CAs had the highest risks of being diagnosed with PD (HR 3.0, 95% CI 2.4-3.7). Childhood psychopathology and low school grades further increased the risk of PD among individuals exposed to CA. Cumulative CA is strongly associated with a diagnosis of PD in young adulthood. Our findings indicate that special attention should be given in schools and health services to children exposed to adversities to prevent decline in school performance, and to detect vulnerable individuals that may be on negative life-course trajectories.

  3. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in cases involving adult recollections of childhood experiences.

  4. Relationships with clinical staff after a diagnosis of breast cancer are associated with patients' experience of care and abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Holcombe, Christopher; Clark, Louise; Krespi, Rita; Fisher, Jean; Hill, Jonathan

    2007-09-01

    Patients experiencing the crisis of the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer need to form trusting and supportive relationships with clinical staff. However, adverse childhood experiences damage the ability to form supportive relationships as adults. We tested the prediction that women recalling childhood abuse and lack of parental care would experience poorer support from clinical staff caring for them around the time of diagnosis and surgical treatment of breast cancer. Two to 4 days after surgery, women with primary breast cancer (N=355) self-reported: childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and parental care; perceived social support; support experienced from the surgeon and breast and ward nurses; and current emotional distress. Logistic regression analyses and covariance structure modeling tested the dependence of perceived professional support on childhood abuse and care and on current social support, controlling for emotional distress and age. Women who reported feeling fully supported by clinical staff were more likely to recall no abuse and good parental care. The influence of parental care, but not abuse, was explained by its association with experiencing good social support generally, which was itself associated with feeling fully supported by clinical staff. These relationships were independent of current emotional distress. Patients' ability to feel fully supported by clinical staff reflects not only how much support staff make available but also patients' experience of close relationships in childhood. We suggest that, whereas lack of parental care compromises adult supportive relationships in general, abuse specifically reduces support from clinical staff.

  5. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety

  6. What doesn't kill me…: Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mustafa; Fletcher, David; Brown, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Recent research suggests that experiencing some adversity can have beneficial outcomes for human growth and development. The purpose of this paper was to explore the adversities that the world's best athletes encounter and the perceived role that these experiences play in their psychological and performance development. A qualitative design was employed because detailed information of rich quality was required to better understand adversity-related experiences in the world's best athletes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 Olympic gold medalists from a variety of sports. Inductive thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate that the participants encountered a range of sport- and non-sport adversities that they considered were essential for winning their gold medals, including repeated non-selection, significant sporting failure, serious injury, political unrest, and the death of a family member. The participants described the role that these experiences played in their psychological and performance development, specifically focusing on their resultant trauma, motivation, and learning. Adversity-related experiences were deemed to be vital in the psychological and performance development of Olympic champions. In the future, researchers should conduct more in-depth comparative studies of Olympic athletes' adversity- and growth-related experiences, and draw on existing and alternative theoretical explanations of the growth-performance relationship. For professional practitioners, adversity-related experiences offer potential developmental opportunities if they are carefully and purposely harnessed. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Intra-Familial Stigmatization: An Adverse Outcome of a Family-Based Health Education Intervention to Reduce Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeeg, Didde; Grabowski, Dan; Christensen, Ulla

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To treat childhood obesity, health education interventions are often aimed at the whole family. However, such interventions seem to have a relatively limited effect on weight loss. The purpose of this paper is to examine how families enrolled in a family-based health education intervention manage the intervention in their daily lives and…

  8. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  9. Economic Adversity Transitions From Childhood to Older Adulthood Are Differentially Associated With Later-Life Physical Performance Measures in Men and Women in Middle and High-Income Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Phoebe W; Dos Santos Gomes, Cristiano; Auais, Mohammad; Braun, Kathryn L; Guralnik, Jack M; Pirkle, Catherine M

    2017-10-01

    This study examines the relationship between economic adversity transitions from childhood to older adulthood and older adulthood physical performance among 1,998 community-dwelling older adults from five demographically diverse sites from middle and high-income countries. The principal exposure variable was economic adversity transition. No adversity encompassed not experiencing poverty in both childhood and older adulthood, improved described having only experienced poverty in childhood, worsened captured having experienced poverty in older adulthood, and severe is having experienced poverty in both childhood and older adulthood. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used for outcome measures. Analyses of the continuous SPPB score used linear regression, while analysis of a binary outcome (SPPB < 8 vs. ≥8) used Poisson regression models with robust error variance, both adjusting for sex, education, and site location. In sex-stratified models, the SPPB < 8 prevalence rate ratio (PRR) was higher for the severe (PRR: 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.70, 4.61]), worsened (PRR: 2.40, 95% CI = [1.41, 4.09]), and improved (PRR: 1.82, 95% CI = [1.11, 3.01]) groups, compared with those with no adversity in childhood or as adults, but only for females. Findings from this study indicate that persistent economic adversity has a negative effect on older adult physical performance, especially among women.

  10. The salience of relational experiences: linking childhood interpersonal adversity, attachment style, and the subclinical psychosis phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Sheinbaum Frank, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo principal de la presente tesis doctoral fue investigar el papel de la adversidad interpersonal en la infancia y los estilos de apego adulto con respecto a la esquizotipia y otros fenotipos del espectro esquizofrénico en población no clínica. El cuerpo de la tesis se compone de siete capítulos que abordan cuestiones relacionadas con la evaluación y validez de los estilos de apego y las dimensiones de esquizotipia, las asociaciones entre estos constructos y el potencial efecto media...

  11. Exposure to childhood adversity and deficits in emotion recognition: results from a large, population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Erin C; Crawford, Katherine M; Soare, Thomas W; Button, Katherine S; Raffeld, Miriam R; Smith, Andrew D A C; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2018-03-07

    Emotion recognition skills are essential for social communication. Deficits in these skills have been implicated in mental disorders. Prior studies of clinical and high-risk samples have consistently shown that children exposed to adversity are more likely than their unexposed peers to have emotion recognition skills deficits. However, only one population-based study has examined this association. We analyzed data from children participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective birth cohort (n = 6,506). We examined the association between eight adversities, assessed repeatedly from birth to age 8 (caregiver physical or emotional abuse; sexual or physical abuse; maternal psychopathology; one adult in the household; family instability; financial stress; parent legal problems; neighborhood disadvantage) and the ability to recognize facial displays of emotion measured using the faces subtest of the Diagnostic Assessment of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) at age 8.5 years. In addition to examining the role of exposure (vs. nonexposure) to each type of adversity, we also evaluated the role of the timing, duration, and recency of each adversity using a Least Angle Regression variable selection procedure. Over three-quarters of the sample experienced at least one adversity. We found no evidence to support an association between emotion recognition deficits and previous exposure to adversity, either in terms of total lifetime exposure, timing, duration, or recency, or when stratifying by sex. Results from the largest population-based sample suggest that even extreme forms of adversity are unrelated to emotion recognition deficits as measured by the DANVA, suggesting the possible immutability of emotion recognition in the general population. These findings emphasize the importance of population-based studies to generate generalizable results. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  12. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  13. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  14. Modelling the interplay between childhood and adult adversity in pathways to psychosis: initial evidence from the AESOP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C; Reininghaus, U; Fearon, P; Hutchinson, G; Morgan, K; Dazzan, P; Boydell, J; Kirkbride, J B; Doody, G A; Jones, P B; Murray, R M; Craig, T

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that a range of socio-environmental exposures is associated with an increased risk of psychosis. However, despite the fact that such factors probably combine in complex ways to increase risk, the majority of studies have tended to consider each exposure separately. In light of this, we sought to extend previous analyses of data from the AESOP (Aetiology and Ethnicity in Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses) study on childhood and adult markers of disadvantage to examine how they combine to increase risk of psychosis, testing both mediation (path) models and synergistic effects. All patients with a first episode of psychosis who made contact with psychiatric services in defined catchment areas in London and Nottingham, UK (n = 390) and a series of community controls (n = 391) were included in the AESOP study. Data relating to clinical and social variables, including parental separation and loss, education and adult disadvantage, were collected from cases and controls. There was evidence that the effect of separation from, but not death of, a parent in childhood on risk of psychosis was partially mediated through subsequent poor educational attainment (no qualifications), adult social disadvantage and, to a lesser degree, low self-esteem. In addition, there was strong evidence that separation from, but not death of, a parent combined synergistically with subsequent disadvantage to increase risk. These effects held for all ethnic groups in the sample. Exposure to childhood and adult disadvantage may combine in complex ways to push some individuals along a predominantly sociodevelopmental pathway to psychosis.

  15. Childhood Experiences of Sibling Abuse: An investigation into learned helplessness

    OpenAIRE

    McLaurin, Shamla L.

    2005-01-01

    As various forms of interpersonal family violence receive more attention in the literature, sibling abuse is still in the background. Despite the increasing knowledge about the prevalence, causes, and effects of sibling abuse, many of us continue to relegate it to a childhood occurrence. Sibling abuse symptoms continue to go unrecognized and its demoralizing effects continue to be ignored (Wiehe, 1990). Minimization and denial of sibling abuse have also contributed to constraining the extent ...

  16. Adverse allergic reactions to linear ionic gadolinium-based contrast agents: experience with 194, 400 injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aran, S.; Shaqdan, K.W.; Abujudeh, H.H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To report the authors' experience with the administration of four gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA; gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadofosveset trisodium, gadoxetate disodium and gadobenate dimeglumine) in a large study population at a single, large academic medical centre. Materials and methods: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study in which data in the electronic incident reporting system were searched. A total of 194, 400 intravenous administrations of linear ionic GBCAs were assessed for the incidence of adverse reactions and risk factors from 1 January 2007 to 14 January 2014. The severity of reactions (mild, moderate, and severe), patient type (outpatients, inpatients, and emergency), examination type, and treatment options were also investigated. Results: In total, 204/194400 (0.1%) patients (mean age 45.7 ± 14.9) showed adverse reactions, consisting of 6/746 (0.80%), 10/3200 (0.31%), 14/6236 (0.22%) and 174/184218 (0.09%), for gadofosveset trisodium, gadoxetate disodium, gadobenate dimeglumine, and gadopentetate dimeglumine, respectively. An overall significant difference was found between different GBCAs regarding the total number of reactions (p < 0.0001). When comparing the GBCAs together, significant differences were found between gadofosveset trisodium versus gadopentetate dimeglumine (p < 0.0001), gadofosveset trisodium versus gadobenate dimeglumine (p = 0.0051), gadoxetate disodium versus gadopentetate dimeglumine (p < 0.0001) and gadopentetate dimeglumine versus gadobenate dimeglumine (p = 0.0013). Rate of reaction was higher in females (F: 146/113187, 0.13%/M: 58/81213, 0.07%; p < 0.0001). Rate of reactions was higher in outpatient (180/158885, 0.11%), emergency (10/10413, 0.10%), and inpatients (14/25102, 0.05%), respectively (p < 0.0001). Most of the patients had mild symptoms 171/204 (83.8%). Abdomen–pelvis, liver, and thoracic examinations had highest rates of reactions (0.17 versus 0

  17. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  18. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  19. Genetic Risk by Experience Interaction for Childhood Internalizing Problems: Converging Evidence across Multiple Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendlinski, Matthew K.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2011-01-01

    Background: Identifying how genetic risk interacts with experience to predict psychopathology is an important step toward understanding the etiology of mental health problems. Few studies have examined genetic risk by experience interaction (GxE) in the development of childhood psychopathology. Methods: We used both co-twin and parent mental…

  20. Childhood physical and sexual abuse experiences associated with post-traumatic stress disorder among pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Sixto E; Pineda, Omar; Chaves, Diana Z; Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Simon, Gregory E; Rondon, Marta B; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the extent to which childhood physical and/or sexual abuse history is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) during early pregnancy and to explore the extent to which the childhood abuse-PTSD association is mediated through, or modified by, adult experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV). In-person interviews collected information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 2,928 women aged 18-49 years old prior to 16 weeks of gestation. PTSD was assessed using the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Compared to women with no childhood abuse, the odds of PTSD were increased 4.31-fold for those who reported physical abuse only (95% CI, 2.18-8.49), 5.33-fold for sexual abuse only (95% CI, 2.38-11.98), and 8.03-fold for those who reported physical and sexual abuse (95% CI, 4.10-15.74). Mediation analysis showed 13% of the childhood abuse-PTSD association was mediated by IPV. Furthermore, high odds of PTSD were noted among women with histories of childhood abuse and IPV compared with women who were not exposed to either (OR = 20.20; 95% CI, 8.18-49.85). Childhood abuse is associated with increased odds of PTSD during early pregnancy. The odds of PTSD were particularly elevated among women with a history of childhood abuse and IPV. Efforts should be made to prevent childhood abuse and mitigate its effects on women's mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Adverse Life Experience and Psychological Distress in Adolescence: Moderating and Mediating Effects of Emotion Regulation and Rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyes, Mark E; Hasking, Penelope A; Martin, Graham

    2016-10-01

    The current study tested whether emotion regulation and rumination moderated and/or mediated the relationship between accumulated adverse life experience and psychological distress in adolescence. In class, Australian high school students (n = 2637, 12-18 years, 68% female) from 41 schools completed well-validated measures of adverse life experience, emotion regulation, rumination and psychological distress, and were followed up 1 year later (n = 1973, 75% retention rate). Adjusting for age, gender and baseline psychological distress, adverse life experience predicted psychological distress 1 year later. Expressive suppression and rumination were positively associated with psychological distress. Cognitive reappraisal was negatively associated with psychological distress and moderated the relationship between adverse life experience and psychological distress. This relationship was also partially mediated by cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression and rumination. Promoting cognitive reappraisal and minimizing expressive suppression and rumination may be useful strategies to improve mental health for adolescents who have experienced adverse life events. Future research should examine whether adolescents who have experienced adverse life events can be trained in effective emotion regulation strategies and whether this training can prevent development of psychological maladjustment. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Traumatic experiences in childhood and psychopathy: a study on a sample of violent offenders from Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Craparo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The link between early traumatic experiences of abuse/neglect and criminal behaviour has been widely demonstrated. Less is known, however, about the relationship between these experiences and the development of psychopathic personality. Objective: This study investigated childhood relational trauma in a group of violent offenders from Italy. We hypothesised a higher level of early relational trauma associated with higher scores on psychopathy. Method: Twenty-two offenders convicted for violent crimes aged 22–60 (M=38, SD=11 participated in this study. Participants were selected by the Italian justice system for an experimental research programme aiming at the evaluation of psychopathic personality traits among violent offenders. Within the group, 14 participants (64% had committed murder, 4 (18% had committed rape, and 4 (18% were convicted child sex offenders. The Traumatic Experience Checklist was used to assess childhood relational trauma; the Hare Psychopathy Checklist—Revised (PCL-R was used to assess psychopathy. Results: There was a high prevalence of childhood experiences of neglect and abuse among the offenders. Higher levels of childhood relational trauma were found among participants who obtained high scores on the PCL-R. There was also a significant negative association between age of first relational trauma and psychopathy scores. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that an early exposure to relational trauma in childhood can play a relevant role in the development of more severe psychopathic traits.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Article Tools online

  3. Links between Family Gender Socialization Experiences in Childhood and Gendered Occupational Attainment in Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Katie M; Crouter, Ann C; McHale, Susan M

    2015-10-01

    Gendered occupational segregation remains prevalent across the world. Although research has examined factors contributing to the low number of women in male-typed occupations - namely science, technology, engineering, and math - little longitudinal research has examined the role of childhood experiences in both young women's and men's later gendered occupational attainment. This study addressed this gap in the literature by examining family gender socialization experiences in middle childhood - namely parents' attitudes and work and family life - as contributors to the gender typicality of occupational attainment in young adulthood. Using data collected from mothers, fathers, and children over approximately 15 years, the results revealed that the associations between childhood socialization experiences (∼10 years old) and occupational attainment (∼26 years old) depended on the sex of the child. For sons but not daughters, mothers' more traditional attitudes towards women's roles predicted attaining more gender-typed occupations. In addition, spending more time with fathers in childhood predicted daughters attaining less and sons acquiring more gender-typed occupations in young adulthood. Overall, evidence supports the idea that childhood socialization experiences help to shape individuals' career attainment and thus contribute to gender segregation in the labor market.

  4. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Childhood neoplasms presenting at autopsy: A 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Victoria A; Booth, John; Palm, Liina; Ashworth, Michael; Jacques, Thomas S; Sebire, Neil J

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the review are to establish the number of undiagnosed neoplasms presenting at autopsy in a single centre and to determine the incidence and most common causes of sudden unexpected death due to neoplasia in infancy and childhood (SUDNIC). Retrospective observational study of paediatric autopsies performed on behalf of Her Majesty's Coroner over a 20-year period (1996-2015; n = 2,432). Neoplasms first diagnosed at autopsy were identified from an established database and cases meeting the criteria for sudden unexpected death were further categorised. Thirteen previously undiagnosed neoplasms were identified, including five haematological malignancies, two medulloblastomas, two neuroblastomas, two cardiac tumours and two malignancies of renal origin. Eight cases met the criteria for SUDNIC (0.33% of autopsies), the commonest group of which were haematological malignancies (n = 3). Neoplasms presenting as unexpected death in infancy and childhood and diagnosed at autopsy are rare. The findings suggest that haematological malignancies are the commonest cause of SUDNIC and highlight the importance of specialist autopsy in cases of sudden unexpected death. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Higher glucose, insulin and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in childhood predict adverse cardiovascular risk in early adulthood: the Pune Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Katre, Prachi A; Joshi, Suyog M; Kumaran, Kalyanaraman; Bhat, Dattatray S; Lubree, Himangi G; Memane, Nilam; Kinare, Arun S; Pandit, Anand N; Bhave, Sheila A; Bavdekar, Ashish; Fall, Caroline H D

    2015-07-01

    The Pune Children's Study aimed to test whether glucose and insulin measurements in childhood predict cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood. We followed up 357 participants (75% follow-up) at 21 years of age who had undergone detailed measurements at 8 years of age (glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR and other indices). Oral glucose tolerance, anthropometry, plasma lipids, BP, carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and arterial pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured at 21 years. Higher fasting glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR at 8 years predicted higher glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, BP, lipids and IMT at 21 years. A 1 SD change in 8 year variables was associated with a 0.10-0.27 SD change at 21 years independently of obesity/adiposity at 8 years of age. A greater rise in glucose-insulin variables between 8 and 21 years was associated with higher cardiovascular risk factors, including PWV. Participants whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the highest quartile (n = 31) had a more adverse cardiovascular risk profile compared with those whose HOMA-IR measurement remained in the lowest quartile (n = 28). Prepubertal glucose-insulin metabolism is associated with adult cardiovascular risk and markers of atherosclerosis. Our results support interventions to improve glucose-insulin metabolism in childhood to reduce cardiovascular risk in later life.

  7. Childhood abuse in the etiological continuum underlying psychosis from first-episode psychosis to psychotic experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemany, S; Ayesa-Arriola, R; Arias, B; Fatjó-Vilas, M; Ibáñez, M I; Ortet, G; Crespo-Facorro, B; Fañanás, L

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the prevalence of child abuse across the continuum of psychosis. The sample consisted of 198 individuals divided in three groups: (1) 48 FEP patients, (2) 77 individuals scoring high in Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE), classified as "High CAPE" group and (3) 73 individuals scoring low, classified as "Low CAPE" group. Childhood abuse was assessed using self-report instruments. Chi(2) tests and logistic regression models controlling by sex, age and cannabis were used to perform three comparisons: (i) FEP vs. Low CAPE; (ii) FEP vs. High CAPE and (iii) High CAPE vs. Low CAPE. The frequency of individuals exposed to childhood abuse for FEP, High CAPE and Low CAPE groups were 52.1%, 41.6% and 11%, respectively. FEP and High CAPE group presented significantly higher rates of childhood abuse compared to Low CAPE group, however, no significant differences were found between FEP and High CAPE groups regarding the frequency of childhood abuse. There is an increasing frequency of childhood abuse from low subclinical psychosis to FEP patients. However, childhood abuse is equally common in FEP and at risk individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing communication about paediatric medicines: lessons from a qualitative study of parents' experiences of their child's suspected adverse drug reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Janine; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Nunn, Anthony J; Peak, Matthew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Smyth, Rosalind L; Turner, Mark A; Young, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for linking children

  9. Enhancing communication about paediatric medicines: lessons from a qualitative study of parents' experiences of their child's suspected adverse drug reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Arnott

    Full Text Available There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines.To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction.Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions. Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method.Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction.Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and clinicians in their reasoning for

  10. Enhancing Communication about Paediatric Medicines: Lessons from a Qualitative Study of Parents' Experiences of Their Child's Suspected Adverse Drug Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Janine; Hesselgreaves, Hannah; Nunn, Anthony J.; Peak, Matthew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Smyth, Rosalind L.

    2012-01-01

    Background There is little research on parents' experiences of suspected adverse drug reactions in their children and hence little evidence to guide clinicians when communicating with families about problems associated with medicines. Objective To identify any unmet information and communication needs described by parents whose child had a suspected adverse drug reaction. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews with parents of 44 children who had a suspected adverse drug reaction identified on hospital admission, during in-patient treatment or reported by parents using the Yellow Card Scheme (the UK system for collecting spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions). Interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone; most interviews were audiorecorded and transcribed. Analysis was informed by the principles of the constant comparative method. Results Many parents described being dissatisfied with how clinicians communicated about adverse drug reactions and unclear about the implications for their child's future use of medicines. A few parents felt that clinicians had abandoned their child and reported refusing the use of further medicines because they feared a repeated adverse drug reaction. The accounts of parents of children with cancer were different. They emphasised their confidence in clinicians' management of adverse drug reactions and described how clinicians prospectively explained the risks associated with medicines. Parents linked symptoms to medicines in ways that resembled the established reasoning that clinicians use to evaluate the possibility that a medicine has caused an adverse drug reaction. Conclusion Clinicians' communication about adverse drug reactions was poor from the perspective of parents, indicating that improvements are needed. The accounts of parents of children with cancer indicate that prospective explanation about adverse drug reactions at the time of prescription can be effective. Convergence between parents and

  11. Experience of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jindong Ding; Heitmann, B. L.; Kyle, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The etiology of adult obesity is still poorly understood, even if often simply attributed to too much food and too little exercise. A few studies have suggested that adverse psychological factors may predispose the development of adult obesity among normal weight children Aims The aim...... of this study was to examine if separation from parents, parental loss and living in a "children's home" during childhood could be associated with development of adult obesity Key Methods: A total of 146 complete adult twin pairs discordant for BMI (one had a normal BMI and the co-twin a BMI > 30 kg/m) were...... separation from mother and paternal death was related to less discordance. However, none of these differences were significant. Conclusion: The present study did not demonstrate independent effects of major life events during childhood and development of obesity in adulthood....

  12. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  13. Current psychiatric disorders in patients with epilepsy are predicted by maltreatment experiences during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudda, Kirsten; Illies, Dominik; Herzig, Cornelia; Schröder, Katharina; Bien, Christian G; Neuner, Frank

    2017-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been shown to be a risk factor for the development of psychiatric disorders. Although the prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in epilepsy patients, it is unknown if childhood maltreatment experiences are elevated compared to the normal population and if early maltreatment is a risk factor for current psychiatric comorbidities in epilepsy patients. This is the main purpose of this study. Structured interviews were used to assess current Axis I diagnoses in 120 epilepsy patients from a tertiary Epilepsy Center (34 TLE patients, 86 non-TLE patients). Childhood maltreatment in the family and peer victimization were assessed with validated questionnaires. Patients' maltreatment scores were compared with those of a representative matched control group. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the potential impact of childhood maltreatment on current psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy patients. Compared to a matched control group, epilepsy patients had higher emotional and sexual maltreatment scores. Patients with a current psychiatric diagnosis reported more family and peer maltreatment than patients without a psychiatric disorder. Family maltreatment scores predicted the likelihood of a current psychiatric disorder. TLE patients did not differ from non-TLE patients according to maltreatment experiences and rates of current psychiatric disorders. Our findings suggest that in epilepsy patients emotional and sexual childhood maltreatment is experienced more often than in the normal population and that early maltreatment is a general risk factor for psychiatric comorbidities in this group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical experience of adverse drug reaction in gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Hyae; Hong, Ju Hee; Lee, Yeon Su; Cha, Kyung Soo; Chang, Suk Il; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Yeong Soo

    1992-01-01

    Gadopentetate dimenglumine(Gd-DTPA) has low toxicity and good tolerance and it is said that the observed adverse drug reaction of Gd-DTPA is compatible to those of iodinated nonionic contrast media. The overall incidence of adverse drug reaction of Gd-DTPA is even lower than those of iodinated nonionic contrast media. Then, the possibility of potential adverse drug reaction of these contrast media is not fully known and recently, many authors have a growing interest in this point. We have taken 2501 cases of MRI and executed 1467 case of Gd-DTPA enhancement scanning(58.7%) and experienced 12 cases of adverse drug reaction(11 cases: mild reaction, 1 case: severs anaphylactic shock) and the overall incidence of our adverse drug reaction of Gd-DTPA was 0.8%. In conclusion, the adverse drug reaction of Gd-DTPA is not rare and the severe adverse drug reaction of Gd-DTPA may occur. So, the possibility of adverse drug reaction after Gd-DTPA injection should always be kept in mind, especially when the patient has a history of reaction to contrast material, allergy(particularly asthma) and cardiac disease. For the safe use of Gd-DTPA, well trained personnel and nearby emergent care facilities should be available

  15. Meanings of Good Nonresidential Fathering: The Recollections of Young Adults with a Childhood Experience of Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wages, Alan, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the meanings of good nonresidential fathering from the recollections of young adults with a childhood experience of divorce. An additional purpose was to identify barriers and contributions to good nonresidential fathering from the viewpoint of young adults. A phenomenological perspective was used to…

  16. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  17. Positive Childhood Experiences: Resilience and Recovery from Personality Disorder in Early Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodol, Andrew E.; Bender, Donna S.; Pagano, Maria E.; Shea, M. Tracie; Yen, Shirley; Sanislow, Charles A.; Grilo, Carlos M.; Daversa, Maria T.; Stout, Robert L.; Zanarini, Mary C.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Gunderson, John G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective--Recent follow-along studies of personality disorders have shown significant improvement in psychopathology over time. The purpose of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between positive childhood experiences related to resiliency and remission from personality disorder. Method--Five hundred twenty patients with…

  18. Environmental factors that distinguish between clinical and healthy samples with childhood experiences of abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infurna, Maria Rita; Giannone, Francesca; Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Lo Cascio, Maria; Parzer, Peter; Kaess, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with a wide range of problems in adulthood. However, specific environmental factors (either positive or negative) influence mental health outcomes in maltreated children. The present study investigated the effect of environmental factors by comparing a group of clinical participants with experiences of abuse/neglect with a healthy group with similar patterns of experiences. Environmental factors selected were: separation from parents, financial hardship, parental psychiatric disorders, and low social involvement. The study included 55 mixed clinical participants and 23 healthy participants. All participants were investigated using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse (CECA) interview. The two groups were specifically matched with regard to patterns of childhood maltreatment. The findings indicated that psychopathological outcome was associated with a greater presence of negative environmental factors (p < 0.001). In particular, lack of social support seemed to be the only one predictor (OR = 27.86). This study is the first to investigate the influence of specific environmental factors in two groups with similar childhood experiences of abuse/neglect but different mental health outcomes. These findings suggest that efforts should be made to incorporate both familial and external sources of social support in promoting mental health for maltreated children. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Negative body experience in women with early childhood trauma : Associations with trauma severity and dissociation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Wilhelmina; Hoek, Maike; Bosscher, Ruud J.; van Duijn, Marijtje A. J.; Schoevers, Robert A.; van Busschbach, Jooske T.

    2017-01-01

    Background:A crucial but often overlooked impact of early life exposure to trauma is its farreaching effect on a person's relationship with their body. Several domains of body experience may be negatively influenced or damaged as a result of early childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of this study

  20. Exploring the Relations between Childhood Experiences in Nature and Young Adults' Environmental Attitudes and Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a research study with young adults who explored the connections between their early childhood experiences in nature and their attitudes and actions towards the environment in adulthood. Drawing on E. Wilson's (1984) work, environmental or ecological consciousness is theorised to connect to ecological identity…

  1. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  2. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Sultan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.   Results: Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3% experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80% developed vasovagal reaction (VVR, 133 (25% had nausea, 63 (12% fainted, 35 (6% developed hyperventilation, 9 (2% had delayed syncope, and 9 (2% developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than < 30 years and weighing < 70 kg were significantly associated with VVR, hyperventilation, and nausea (p < 0.005. Undergraduates and Urdu speaking donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p < 0.05.   Conclusion: The prevalence of adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.

  3. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-03-01

    Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.  . We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrolled. Professionally trained donor attendants drew blood and all donors were observed during and following donation for possible adverse events for 20 minutes. Blood donors were asked to report if they suffered from any delayed adverse consequences.  . Out of 41,759 blood donors, 537 (1.3%) experienced adverse reactions. The incidence was one in every 78 donations. The mean age of donors who experienced adverse events was 26.0±6.8 years, and all were male. Out of 537 donors, 429 (80%) developed vasovagal reaction (VVR), 133 (25%) had nausea, 63 (12%) fainted, 35 (6%) developed hyperventilation, 9 (2%) had delayed syncope, and 9 (2%) developed hematoma. Arterial prick, nerve injury, cardiac arrest, and seizures were not observed. Donors aged less than donors also had a significant association with fainting and nausea, respectively (p adverse events was low at our tertiary center. A VVR was the predominant adverse reaction and was associated with age and weight. Our study highlights the importance of these parameters in the donation process. A well-trained and experienced phlebotomist and pre-evaluation counseling of blood donors could further minimize the adverse reactions.

  4. Language development of internationally adopted children: Adverse early experiences outweigh the age of acquisition effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhlin, Natalia; Hein, Sascha; Doyle, Niamh; Hart, Lesley; Macomber, Donna; Ruchkin, Vladislav; Tan, Mei; Grigorenko, Elena L

    2015-01-01

    We compared English language and cognitive skills between internationally adopted children (IA; mean age at adoption=2.24, SD=1.8) and their non-adopted peers from the US reared in biological families (BF) at two time points. We also examined the relationships between outcome measures and age at initial institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and age at adoption. On measures of general language, early literacy, and non-verbal IQ, the IA group performed significantly below their age-peers reared in biological families at both time points, but the group differences disappeared on receptive vocabulary and kindergarten concept knowledge at the second time point. Furthermore, the majority of children reached normative age expectations between 1 and 2 years post-adoption on all standardized measures. Although the age at adoption, age of institutionalization, length of institutionalization, and time in the adoptive family all demonstrated significant correlations with one or more outcome measures, the negative relationship between length of institutionalization and child outcomes remained most robust after controlling for the other variables. Results point to much flexibility and resilience in children's capacity for language acquisition as well as the potential primacy of length of institutionalization in explaining individual variation in IA children's outcomes. (1) Readers will be able to understand the importance of pre-adoption environment on language and early literacy development in internationally adopted children. (2) Readers will be able to compare the strength of the association between the length of institutionalization and language outcomes with the strength of the association between the latter and the age at adoption. (3) Readers will be able to understand that internationally adopted children are able to reach age expectations on expressive and receptive language measures despite adverse early experiences and a replacement of their first

  5. 21 CFR 314.80 - Postmarketing reporting of adverse drug experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... specificity. For example, under this definition, hepatic necrosis would be unexpected (by virtue of greater... only listed cerebral vascular accidents. “Unexpected,” as used in this definition, refers to an adverse...

  6. A longitudinal twin study of the association between childhood autistic traits and psychotic experiences in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Mark J.; Robinson, Elise B.; Happ?, Francesca; Bolton, Patrick; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-01-01

    Background: This twin study investigated whether autistic traits during childhood were associated with adolescent psychotic experiences. Methods: Data were collected from a community sample of approximately 5000 twin pairs, which included 32 individuals with diagnosed autism spectrum conditions (ASC). Parents rated autistic traits in the twins at four points between ages 8–16 years. Positive, negative, and cognitive psychotic experiences were assessed at age 16 years using self- and parent-re...

  7. Adverse Reactions in Allogeneic Blood Donors: A Tertiary Care Experience from a Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Sadia; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Irfan, Syed Mohammed; Ahmed, Syed Ijlal; Hasan, Syeda Faiza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fragmented blood transfusion services along with an unmotivated blood donation culture often leads to blood shortage. Donor retention is crucial to meet the increasing blood demand, and adverse donor reactions have a negative impact on donor return. The aim of this study was to estimate adverse donor reactions and identify any demographic association.   Methods: We conducted a prospective study between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of 41,759 healthy donors were enrol...

  8. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  9. Does Mental Illness Stigma Contribute to Adolescent Standardized Patients' Discomfort With Simulations of Mental Illness and Adverse Psychosocial Experiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Mark D.; Johnson, Samantha; Niec, Anne; Pietrantonio, Anna Marie; High, Bradley; MacMillan, Harriet; Eva, Kevin W.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Adolescent mental illness stigma-related factors may contribute to adolescent standardized patients' (ASP) discomfort with simulations of psychiatric conditions/adverse psychosocial experiences. Paradoxically, however, ASP involvement may provide a stigma-reduction strategy. This article reports an investigation of this hypothetical…

  10. Disclosure of adverse events: a data linkage study reporting patient experiences among Australian adults aged ≥ 45 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Merrilyn; Harrison, Reema; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Kelly, Patrick; Manias, Elizabeth; Jorm, Christine; Iedema, Rick

    2018-04-26

    Objective Since Australia initiated national open disclosure standards in 2002, open disclosure policies have been adopted in all Australian states and territories. Yet, research evidence regarding their adoption is limited. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency with which patients who report an adverse event had information disclosed to them about the incident, including whether they participated in a formal open disclosure process, their experiences of the process and the extent to which these align with the current New South Wales (NSW) policy. Methods A cross-sectional survey about patient experiences of disclosure associated with an adverse event was administered to a random sample of 20000 participants in the 45 and Up Study who were hospitalised in NSW, Australia, between January and June 2014. Results Of the 18993 eligible potential participants, completed surveys were obtained from 7661 (40% response rate), with 474 (7%) patients reporting an adverse event. Of those who reported an adverse event, a significant majority reported an informal or bedside disclosure (91%; 430/474). Only 79 patients (17%) participated in a formal open disclosure meeting. Most informal disclosures were provided by nurses, with only 25% provided by medical practitioners. Conclusions Experiences of open disclosure may be enhanced by informing patients of their right to full disclosure in advance of or upon admission to hospital, and recognition of and support for informal or bedside disclosure for appropriate types of incidents. A review of the open disclosure guidelines in relation to the types of adverse events that require formal open disclosure and those more suitable to informal bedside disclosure is indicated. Guidelines for bedside disclosure should be drafted to assist medical practitioners and other health professionals facilitate and improve their communications about adverse events. Alignment of formal disclosure with policy requirements may also be

  11. Gay men from heterosexual marriages: attitudes, behaviors, childhood experiences, and reasons for marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2002-01-01

    In the current study, the attitudes, behaviors and experiences of 26 gay or bisexual men who were married to a woman are examined. Data are provided on childhood family background and experiences, sexual practices with men, reasons for entering marriage, and the "coming out" process. The frequency of childhood sexual experiences was associated with unsafe sexual practices with other men in adulthood. Attitudes toward lesbians and gay men were more negative now than at the time of marriage. The two most frequent reasons for marriage were that it seemed natural, and a desire for children and family life. The results support the hypothesis that internalised homophobia is a factor that leads men into mixed-orientation marriages. Cognitive consistency theory is used to explain the eventual marriage breakdown.

  12. Globalising Early Childhood Teacher Education: A Study of Student Life Histories and Course Experience in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farell, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Globalisation in early childhood teacher education is examined in light of a study of the life histories and course experience of students in early childhood teacher education in Queensland, Australia. Contemporary teacher education is embedded in global economies, new technologies and marketisation, which, in turn, may contribute to students…

  13. Readers as Place-Makers: The Experience of Place in the Literacy Life-Worlds of Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This study explored five adults' experiences of place within their middle childhood literacy life-worlds. Middle childhood, the stage of development in which children often acquire reading independence, is also characterized by significant increases in children's geographic accessibility and independence. The findings propose that in the literacy…

  14. Childhood Experiences of Sexual Abuse and Later Parenting Practices among Non-Offending Mothers of Sexually Abused and Comparison Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihyun; Trickett, Penelope K.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The primary goal of this study was to explore the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and parenting practices among non-offending mothers of sexually abused girls. Guided by a developmental-ecological perspective of parenting, several models with different potential pathways starting from the mothers' childhood experiences of…

  15. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  16. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  17. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Satisfaction with Life, Meaning in Life, Sad Childhood Experiences, and Psychological Symptoms among Turkish Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömert, Itır Tarı; Özyeşil, Zümra Atalay; Burcu Özgülük, S

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the contributions of sad childhood experiences, depression, anxiety, and stress, existence of a sense of meaning, and pursuit of meaning in explaining life satisfaction of young adults in Turkey. The sample comprised 400 undergraduate students ( M age = 20.2 yr.) selected via random cluster sampling. There were no statistically significant differences between men and women in terms of their scores on depression, existence of meaning, pursuit of meaning, and life satisfaction scores. However, there were statistically significant differences between men and women on the sad childhood experiences, anxiety and stress. In heirarchical regression analysis, the model as a whole was significant. Depression and existence of meaning in life made unique significant contributions to the variance in satisfaction in life. Students with lower depression and with a sense of meaning in life tended to be more satisfied with life.

  19. Trajectory of Adolescent Obesity: Exploring the Impact of Prenatal to Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David Y C; Lanza, H Isabella; Anglin, M Douglas

    2014-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal associations of prenatal exposures as well as childhood familial experiences with obesity status from ages 10 to 18. Hierarchical generalized linear modeling (HGLM) was applied to examine 5,156 adolescents from the child sample of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79). Higher maternal weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, lower maternal education, and lack of infant breastfeeding were contributors to elevated adolescent obesity risk in early adolescence. However, maternal age, high birth weight of child, and maternal annual income exhibited long-lasting impact on obesity risk over time throughout adolescence. Additionally, childhood familial experiences were significantly related to risk of adolescent obesity. Appropriate use of family rules in the home and parental engagement in children's daily activities lowered adolescent obesity risk, but excessive television viewing heightened adolescent obesity risk. Implementation of consistent family rules and parental engagement may benefit adolescents at risk for obesity.

  20. Memory development: implications for adults recalling childhood experiences in the courtroom

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Adults frequently provide compelling, detailed accounts of early childhood experiences in the courtroom. Judges and jurors are asked to decide guilt or innocence based solely on these decades-old memories using 'common sense' notions about memory. However, these notions are not in agreement with findings from neuroscientific and behavioural studies of memory development. Without expert guidance, judges and jurors may have difficulty in properly adjudicating the weight of memory evidence in ca...

  1. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Susan J; Abuhaloob, Lamis; Richards, Derek; Hector, Mark P; Freeman, Ruth

    2017-10-25

    Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. PROSPERO CRD42016047304.

  2. The relationship between childhood body weight and dental caries experience: an umbrella systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J. Carson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity and dental caries are global public health problems which can impact in childhood and throughout the life course. In simple terms, childhood dental caries and body weight are linked via the common risk factor of diet. An association between dental caries and obesity has been described in a number of studies and reviews. However, similarly, a relationship has also been noted between low body weight and caries experience in children. This protocol will provide the framework for an umbrella review to address the following question: Does the available evidence support a relationship between dental caries experience and body weight in the child population? Methods This review protocol outlines the process to carry out an umbrella systematic review which will synthesise previous reviews of childhood dental caries experience and body weight. An umbrella review methodology will be used to examine the methodological and reporting quality of existing reviews. Discussion The final umbrella review aims to aggregate the available evidence in order to provide a summary for policymakers and to inform healthcare interventions. Systematic review registration PROSPERO CRD42016047304

  3. Predicting Bullying: Exploring the Contributions of Childhood Negative Life Experiences in Predicting Adolescent Bullying Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Nadine M; Morris, Robert G; Piquero, Alex R

    2016-07-01

    Although there has been much interest in research on aggression and in particular bullying, a relatively less charted area of research has centered on articulating a better understanding of the mechanisms and processes by which persons are at increased risk for bullying. Furthermore, those studies that have investigated the linkages between childhood experiences and bullying perpetration have been limited with respect to definitional and operational issues, reliance on cross-sectional data, and the lack of assessing competing explanations of bullying perpetration. Using five waves of data from a community-based longitudinal sample of children followed through age 18 (N = 763), the current study examines the extent to which childhood negative life events in a variety of domains predict adolescent bullying. Results show that early childhood experiences, particularly those within the family and school domains, may alter life trajectories and can act as predictors for later adolescent bullying, thereby underscoring the potential importance that relatively minor experiences can have over the long term. Implications for future research based on these analyses are examined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Three lifestyle-related issues of major significance for public health among the Inuit in contemporary Greenland: a review of adverse childhood conditions, obesity, and smoking in a period of social transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Larsen, Christina V L

    2018-01-01

    Greenland is a country in transition from a colonial past with subsistence hunting and fishing to an urban Nordic welfare state. Epidemiological transition from infectious to chronic diseases has been evident since the 1950s. Ninety percent of the population is Inuit. We studied three public health issues based on published literature, namely adverse childhood experiences, addictive behavior, and suicide; diet and obesity; and smoking. Alcohol consumption was high in the 1970s and 1980s with accompanying family and social disruption. This is still a cause of poor mental health and suicides in the generations most affected. The diet is changing from a traditional diet of fish and marine mammals to imported food including food items rich in sugar and fat from domestic animals, and the level of physical activity is decreasing with an ensuing epidemic rise in obesity. The prevalence of smoking is high at around 60% among both men and women and is only slowly decreasing. Smoking shows large social variation, and tobacco-related diseases are widespread. The diseases and conditions outlined above all contribute towards a low life expectancy at birth-69 years for men and 74 years for women in 2011-2015-compared with 78 and 84 years for men and women, respectively, on average in the European countries. The translation of government public health programs into local activities needs strengthening, and it must be realized that the improvement of public health is a long-term process.

  8. Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy predicts psychotic experiences via behaviour problems in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Kim S; Williams, Gail M; Najman, Jakob M; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to stressful life events during pregnancy has been associated with later schizophrenia in offspring. We explore how prenatal stress and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in childhood associate to increase the risk of later psychotic experiences. Participants from the Mater University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP), an Australian based, pre-birth cohort study were examined for lifetime DSM-IV positive psychotic experiences at 21 years by a semi-structured interview (n = 2227). Structural equation modelling suggested psychotic experiences were best represented with a bifactor model including a general psychosis factor and two group factors. We tested for an association between prenatal stressful life events with the psychotic experiences, and examined for potential moderation and mediation by behaviour problems and cognitive ability in childhood. Prenatal stressful life events predicted psychotic experiences indirectly via behaviour problems at child age five years, and this relationship was not confounded by maternal stressful life events at child age five. We found no statistical evidence for an interaction between prenatal stressful life events and behaviour problems or cognitive ability. The measurable effect of prenatal stressful life events on later psychotic experiences in offspring manifested as behaviour problems by age 5. By identifying early abnormal behavioural development as an intermediary, this finding further confirms the role of prenatal stress to later psychotic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood leukaemia and lymphoma: African experience supports a role for environmental factors in leukaemogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher KO; Foroni, Letizia; Luzzatto, Lucio; Saliu, Idris; Levine, Arthur; Greaves, Mel F

    2014-01-01

    Major differences exist in the nature of leukaemia and lymphoma in low-income African children compared to those in the high-income countries. These include the absence of the peak incidence of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in under-five-year olds that characterizes the disease in high-income countries. Conversely, chloroma association with acute myelogenous leukaemia (CA-AML/AMML) and Burkitt’s lymphoma (BL) are rare in the high-income countries. This report describes clinical and laboratory as well as epidemiological features of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma reported betwen 1982 and 1984 in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The observed pattern of distribution of childhood haematological malignancies in the city is more consistent with the observations of Ludwik Gross’s experiments on environmental influences, such as malnutrition and infections, animal leukaemogenesis, and mirroring the consequences of the primordial pressures that have shaped human genetics and pathophysiology. PMID:25435906

  10. Clarifying associations between childhood adversity, social support, behavioral factors, and mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashhood Ahmed Sheikh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that socio-demographic factors, childhood socioeconomic status (CSES, childhood traumatic experiences (CTEs, social support and behavioural factors are associated with health and well-being in adulthood. However, the relative importance of these factors for mental health, health, and well-being has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which CTEs affect mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood are not clear. Using data from a representative sample (n=12,981 of the adult population in Tromsø, Norway, this study examines (i the relative contribution of structural conditions (gender, age, CSES, psychological abuse, physical abuse, and substance abuse distress to social support and behavioural factors in adulthood ; (ii the relative contribution of socio-demographic factors, CSES, CTEs, social support, and behavioural factors to three multi-item instruments of mental health (SCL-10, health (EQ-5D, and subjective well-being (SWLS in adulthood; (iii the impact of CTEs on mental health, health, and well-being in adulthood, and; (iv the mediating role of adult social support and behavioural factors in these associations. Instrumental support (24.16%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in mental health, while gender (21.32%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in health, and emotional support (23.34%, p<0.001 explained most of the variation in well-being. Psychological abuse was relatively more important for mental health (12.13%, health (7.01%, and well-being (9.09%, as compared to physical abuse, and substance abuse distress. The subjective assessment of childhood financial conditions was relatively more important for mental health (6.02%, health (10.60%, and well-being (20.60%, as compared to mother’s and father’s education. CTEs were relatively more important for mental health, while, CSES was relatively more important for health and well-being. Respondents exposed to all three types of CTEs

  11. Psychiatric and somatic health in relation to experience of parental divorce in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angarne-Lindberg, Teresia; Wadsby, Marie

    2012-01-01

    The outcome of studies about the experience of parental divorce and its effects on mental and physical health differs, a result possibly caused by the use of different questionnaires and instruments, varying length of time since the divorce and divergent drop-out of participants. To study the presence of psychiatric records and number of diagnosed somatic and mental healthcare visits in a group of young adults with childhood experience of parental divorce in comparison to a group without this experience. The presence of records at public psychiatric clinics and 10 years of administrative healthcare data (somatic and mental) were checked for both groups. Significantly more persons from the divorce group appeared in child and adolescent psychiatric care; this was most pronounced in females. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in the number of persons seeking adult psychiatry or in the number of psychiatric consultations. Experience of parental divorce was not found to be an indicator of larger somatic health problems. Experience of parental divorce in childhood is not an indicator of adult psychiatric or somatic need of care.

  12. Family Adversity and Resilience Measures in Pediatric Acute Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Donna M; Randell, Kimberly A; Dowd, M Denise

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) impact health across the life course. The purpose of this study was to identify caregiver ACEs, current adversity, and resilience in families seeking care in pediatric acute care settings. Study aims included identifying demographic characteristics, current adversities, and resilience measures associated with caregiver ACEs ≥4. A cross-sectional survey study design was used and a convenience sample (n = 470) recruited at emergency and urgent care settings of a large Midwest pediatric hospital system. Measures were self-reported. The original 10-item ACEs questionnaire measured caregiver past adversity. Current adversity was measured using the 10-item IHELP. The six-item Brief Resiliency Scale measured resilience, and WHO-5 Well-Being Index was used to measure depressive affect. Compared to participants with ACEs score of 0-3 participants with ACEs ≥4 were more likely to have multiple current adversities, increased risk of depression, and lower resilience. Caregivers using pediatric acute care settings carry a high burden of ACEs and current adversities. Caregiver ACEs are associated with current child experiences of adversity. Caregivers socioeconomic status and education level may not be an accurate indicator of a family's risks or needs. Pediatric acute care settings offer opportunities to access, intervene, and prevent childhood adversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schauer Margarete

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  14. Improved outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia in an Eastern European country: Lithuanian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairiene, Igne; Pasauliene, Ramune; Lipunova, Nadezda; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Rageliene, Lina; Rascon, Jelena

    2017-10-01

    The reported treatment outcomes of children treated for cancer in Eastern European countries are inferior to those in Northern/Western Europe. We hypothesized that recent survival rates could be comparable to the current standards and performed a population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in Lithuania, a small Eastern European country. Children  80% in high-income countries. The difference in survival rates between Northern/Western and Eastern European countries as well as between high- and middle-/low-income countries is as much as 20%. Recently, the 5-year event-free survival rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has reached > 60% in high-income countries. The survival rates for myeloproliferative diseases were the lowest in Eastern European countries. • The reported inferior survival rates were calculated based on outcome data of patients treated until 2007. The recent survival rates in Eastern European countries are unknown. What is New: • Being a small Eastern European country, Lithuania has experienced good economic growth during the last decade. We hypothesized that economic growth and gain of experience could result in better survival rates of children treated for cancer in our country in recent years. • A population-based analysis of treatment outcome of childhood AML treated in Lithuania in the recent years was performed for the first time. The survival rates of childhood AML in Lithuania are comparable to those of other high-inco