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Sample records for adverse bone effects

  1. PTH prevents the adverse effects of focal radiation on bone architecture in young rats

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    Chandra, Abhishek; Lan, Shenghui; Zhu, Ji; Lin, Tiao; Zhang, Xianrong; Siclari, Valerie A.; Altman, Allison R.; Cengel, Keith A.; Liu, X. Sherry; Qin, Ling

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a common treatment regimen for cancer patients. However, its adverse effects on the neighboring bone could lead to fractures with a great impact on quality of life. The underlying mechanism is still elusive and there is no preventive or curative solution for this bone loss. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a current therapy for osteoporosis that has potent anabolic effects on bone. In this study, we found that focal radiation from frequent scans of the right tibiae in 1-month-old rats by micro-computed tomography severely decreased trabecular bone mass and deteriorated bone structure. Interestingly, PTH daily injections remarkably improved trabecular bone in the radiated tibiae with increases in trabecular number, thickness, connectivity, structure model index and stiffness, and a decrease in trabecular separation. Histomorphometric analysis revealed that radiation mainly decreased the number of osteoblasts and impaired their mineralization activity but had little effects on osteoclasts. PTH reversed these adverse effects and greatly increased bone formation to a similar level in both radiated and non-radiated bones. Furthermore, PTH protects bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from radiation-induced damage, including a decrease in number and an increase in adipogenic differentiation. While radiation generated the same amount of free radicals in the bone marrow of vehicle-treated and PTH-treated animals, the percentage of apoptotic bone marrow cells was significantly attenuated in the PTH group. Taken together, our data demonstrate a radioprotective effect of PTH on bone structure and bone marrow and shed new light on a possible clinical application of anabolic treatment in radiotherapy. PMID:23466454

  2. Evidence for the adverse effect of starvation on bone quality: a review of the literature.

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    Kueper, Janina; Beyth, Shaul; Liebergall, Meir; Kaplan, Leon; Schroeder, Josh E

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation's possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200-800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  3. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

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    Janina Kueper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in several case series and descriptive reports addressing the medical issues of these individuals. A severe effect of severely diminished food intake and frequently concomitant calcium- and Vitamin D deficiencies was subsequently proven in both animal models and the most common cause of starvation in developed countries is anorexia nervosa. This review attempts to summarize the literature available on the impact of the metabolic response to Starvation on overall bone health and bone quality.

  4. Long-term therapy in COPD: any evidence of adverse effect on bone?

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    Arnulf Langhammer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Arnulf Langhammer1, Siri Forsmo2, Unni Syversen3,41HUNT Research Centre, Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Verdal, Norway; 2Department of Public Health and General Practice, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 3Department of Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Department of Endocrinology, St. Olav’s University Hospital, Trondheim, NorwayAbstract: Patients with COPD have high risk for osteoporosis and fractures. Hip and vertebral fractures might impair mobility, and vertebral fractures further reduce lung function. This review discusses the evidence of bone loss due to medical treatment opposed to disease severity and risk factors for COPD, and therapeutic options for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in these patients. A review of the English-language literature was conducted using the MEDLINE database until June 2009. Currently used bronchodilators probably lack adverse effect on bone. Oral corticosteroids (OCS increase bone resorption and decrease bone formation in a dose response relationship, but the fracture risk is increased more than reflected by bone densitometry. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS have been associated with both increased bone loss and fracture risk. This might be a result of confounding by disease severity, but high doses of ICS have similar effects as equipotent doses of OCS. The life-style factors should be modified, use of regular OCS avoided and use of ICS restricted to those with evidenced effect and probably kept at moderate doses. The health care should actively reveal risk factors, include bone densitometry in fracture risk evaluation, and give adequate prevention and treatment for osteoporosis.Keywords: COPD, corticosteroids, bronchodilators, bone mineral density, osteoporosis, fractures

  5. Evidence for the Adverse Effect of Starvation on Bone Quality: A Review of the Literature

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    Janina Kueper; Shaul Beyth; Meir Liebergall; Leon Kaplan; Schroeder, Josh E.

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition and starvation’s possible adverse impacts on bone health and bone quality first came into the spotlight after the horrors of the Holocaust and the ghettos of World War II. Famine and food restrictions led to a mean caloric intake of 200–800 calories a day in the ghettos and concentration camps, resulting in catabolysis and starvation of the inhabitants and prisoners. Severely increased risks of fracture, poor bone mineral density, and decreased cortical strength were noted in sev...

  6. Adverse Biological Effect of TiO2 and Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles Used in Bone Repair and Replacement

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    Jiangxue Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The adverse biological effect of nanoparticles is an unavoidable scientific problem because of their small size and high surface activity. In this review, we focus on nano-hydroxyapatite and TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs to clarify the potential systemic toxicological effect and cytotoxic response of wear nanoparticles because they are attractive materials for bone implants and are widely investigated to promote the repair and reconstruction of bone. The wear nanoparticles would be prone to binding with proteins to form protein-particle complexes, to interacting with visible components in the blood including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and to being phagocytosed by macrophages or fibroblasts to deposit in the local tissue, leading to the formation of fibrous local pseudocapsules. These particles would also be translocated to and disseminated into the main organs such as the lung, liver and spleen via blood circulation. The inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and signaling pathway are elaborated to analyze the potential toxicological mechanism. Inhibition of the oxidative stress response and signaling transduction may be a new therapeutic strategy for wear debris–mediated osteolysis. Developing biomimetic materials with better biocompatibility is our goal for orthopedic implants.

  7. Peripubertal aromatase inhibition in male rats has adverse long-term effects on bone strength and growth and induces prostatic hyperplasia.

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    Bajpai, Anurag; Simm, Peter J; McPherson, Stephen J; Russo, Vincenzo C; Azar, Walid J; Wark, John D; Risbridger, Gail P; Werther, George A

    2010-10-01

    Aromatase inhibitors have been increasingly used in boys with growth retardation to prolong the duration of growth and increase final height. Multiple important roles of oestrogen in males point to potential adverse effects of this strategy. Although the deleterious effects of aromatase deficiency in early childhood and adulthood are well documented, there is limited information about the potential long-term adverse effects of peripubertal aromatase inhibition. To address this issue, we evaluated short-term and long-term effects of peripubertal aromatase inhibition in an animal model. Peripubertal male Wistar rats were treated with aromatase inhibitor letrozole or placebo and followed until adulthood. Letrozole treatment caused sustained reduction in bone strength and alteration in skeletal geometry, lowering of IGF1 levels, inhibition of growth resulting in significantly lower weight and length of treated animals and development of focal prostatic hyperplasia. Our observation of adverse long-term effects after peripubertal male rats were exposed to aromatase inhibitors highlights the need for further characterisation of long-term adverse effects of aromatase inhibitors in peripubertal boys before further widespread use is accepted. Furthermore, this suggests the need to develop more selective oestrogen inhibition strategies in order to inhibit oestrogen action on the growth plate, while beneficial effects in other tissues are preserved.

  8. Adverse Effects of Hormonal Contraception

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    Sabatini R

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available contraception acceptability, compliance and continuation. Despite the safety profile of current COCs, fears of adverse metabolic and vascular effects caused by estrogen component, and possible neoplastic effects of these formulations remain. Misperceptions and concerns about side-effects, especially those affecting the menstrual cycle and increased body weight, are often given as reason for discontinuation. Besides, severe adverse effects exist; perhaps they are very rare, but it might be that other cases were underestimated or ignored. It is important to take into account that COCs, as all medications, have some contraindications, which is mandatory to consider. The „pill“ could be not for everyone. In any case, also mild or moderate adverse effects of COCs may impair the woman’s quality of life. It is well known that even small increases in frequency of adverse effects, in COCs-users, could have a general critical health impact because of their widespread use, which is currently expanding to potential risk groups. To avoid adverse events by COC use the exclusion of patients with known risk factors including patient history and family history is necessary. Furthermore the patient should be informed about possible side effects and side effects during OC use should be carefully monitored. Finally the risk benefit analysis for oral contraceptive pills which are worldwide used since more than 50 years for healthy patients is positive. Most women will benefit from additional noncontraceptive benefits such as improvement of acne vulgaris, dysmenorrhoea, stabilization of menstrual bleeding pattern, less ovarian cysts and finally a lower risk for ovarian and breast cancer, which persists even after withdrawl of COC for several years.

  9. Supplementation with fish oil and genistein, individually or in combination, protects bone against the adverse effects of methotrexate chemotherapy in rats.

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    Rethi Raghu Nadhanan

    Full Text Available Cancer chemotherapy has been shown to induce long-term skeletal side effects such as osteoporosis and fractures; however, there are no preventative treatments. This study investigated the damaging effects of anti-metabolite methotrexate (MTX subcutaneous injections (0.75 mg/kg BW for five days and the potential protective benefits of daily oral gavage of fish oil at 0.5 mL/100 g BW (containing 375 mg of n-3 PUFA/100 g BW, genistein (2 mg/100 g BW, or their combination in young adult rats. MTX treatment alone significantly reduced primary spongiosa height and secondary spongiosa trabecular bone volume. Bone marrow stromal cells from the treated rats showed a significant reduction in osteogenic differentiation but an increase in adipogenesis ex vivo. Consistently, stromal cells had significantly higher mRNA levels of adipogenesis-related proliferator activator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ and fatty acid binding protein (FABP4. MTX significantly increased the numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and marrow osteoclast precursor cell pool while significantly enhancing the mRNA expression of receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL, the RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the bone. Supplementary treatment with fish oil and/or genistein significantly preserved trabecular bone volume and osteogenesis but suppressed MTX-induced adipogenesis and increases in osteoclast numbers and pro-osteoclastogenic cytokine expression. Thus, Fish oil and/or genistein supplementation during MTX treatment enabled not only preservation of osteogenic differentiation, osteoblast number and bone volume, but also prevention of MTX treatment-induced increases in bone marrow adiposity, osteoclastogenic cytokine expression and osteoclast formation, and thus bone loss.

  10. Adverse effects of antihypertensive drugs.

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    Husserl, F E; Messerli, F H

    1981-09-01

    Early essential hypertension is asymptomatic and should remain so throughout treatment. In view of the increasing number of available antihypertensive agents, clinicians need to become familiar with the potential side effects of these drugs. By placing more emphasis on non-pharmacological treatment (sodium restriction, weight loss, exercise) and thoroughly evaluating each case in particular, the pharmacological regimen can be optimally tailored to the patient's needs. Potential side effects should be predicted and can often be avoided; if they become clinically significant they should be rapidly recognised and corrected. These side effects can be easily remembered in most instances, as they fall into 3 broad categories: (a) those caused by an exaggerated therapeutic effect; (b) those due to a non-therapeutic pharmacological effect; and (c) those caused by a non-therapeutic, non-pharmacological effect probably representing idiosyncratic reactions. This review focuses mainly on adverse effects of the second and third kind. Each group of drugs in general shares the common side effects of the first two categories, while each individual drug has its own idiosyncratic side effects.

  11. [Cutaneous adverse effects of TNFalpha antagonists].

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    Failla, V; Sabatiello, M; Lebas, E; de Schaetzen, V; Dezfoulian, B; Nikkels, A F

    2012-01-01

    The TNFalpha antagonists, including adalimumab, etanercept and infliximab, represent a class of anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs. Although cutaneous adverse effects are uncommon, they are varied. There is no particular risk profile to develop cutaneous adverse effects. The principal acute side effects are injection site reactions and pruritus. The major long term cutaneous side effects are infectious and inflammatory conditions. Neoplastic skin diseases are exceptional. The association with other immunosuppressive agents can increase the risk of developing cutaneous adverse effects. Some adverse effects, such as lupus erythematosus, require immediate withdrawal of the biological treatment, while in other cases temporary withdrawal is sufficient. The majority of the other cutaneous adverse effects can be dealt without interrupting biologic treatment. Preclinical and clinical investigations revealed that the new biologics, aiming IL12/23, IL23 and IL17, present a similar profile of cutaneous adverse effects, although inflammatory skin reactions may be less often encountered compared to TNFalpha antagonists.

  12. [Cardiovascular pharmacotherapy. Risks and adverse effects].

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    Voigt, N; Heijman, J; Dobrev, D

    2014-03-01

    Adverse side effects of drugs are a significantly underestimated problem in modern medicine. In this review article, we summarize common adverse side effects of cardiovascular drugs. In particular, we highlight the factors promoting these adverse side effects in patients, including reduced hepatic or renal clearance in elderly patients that often requires dosage adjustment. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs (e.g. through the cytochrome P450 system or P-glycoproteins) can modify the plasma concentration of many compounds, thereby also increasing the likelihood of unwanted side effects. The most prominent cardiac side effects include arrhythmias, e.g. atrioventricular (AV) block, drug-induced long-QT syndrome and torsade de pointes and altered inotropy. Non-cardiac side effects are subsequently discussed grouped by drug class. A better understanding of the risks and side effects of cardiovascular drugs is expected to reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with adverse side effects.

  13. [Muscle-related adverse effects of statins].

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    Pohjola-Sintonen, Sinikka; Julkunen, Heikki

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects on muscles occur in approximately 5 to 10% of patients taking statins. Drug interactions, associated diseases, agedness, low body weight, high statin dose and hereditary factors increase the risk of adverse effects. In most cases the muscle effects are mild and disappear upon discontinuation of the medication. Rhabdomyolysis is a severe though rare complication that can possibly result in renal damage. A totally different muscle-related adverse effect, necrotizing myopathy, has recently been linked to the use of statins. Its characteristic feature is progression of the symptoms in spite of discontinuation of the statin.

  14. Adverse effects of oral antiviral therapy in chronic hepatitis B

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    Kayaaslan, Bircan; Guner, Rahmet

    2017-01-01

    Oral nucleoside/nucleotide analogues (NAs) are currently the backbone of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection treatment. They are generally well-tolerated by patients and safe to use. To date, a significant number of patients have been treated with NAs. Safety data has accumulated over the years. The aim of this article is to review and update the adverse effects of oral NAs. NAs can cause class adverse effects (i.e., myopathy, neuropathy, lactic acidosis) and dissimilar adverse effects. All NAs carry a “Black Box” warning because of the potential risk for mitochondrial dysfunction. However, these adverse effects are rarely reported. The majority of cases are associated with lamivudine and telbivudine. Adefovir can lead to dose- and time-dependent nephrotoxicity, even at low doses. Tenofovir has significant renal and bone toxicity in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, bone and renal toxicity in patients with CHB are not as prominent as in HIV infection. Entecavir and lamivudine are not generally associated with renal adverse events. Entecavir has been claimed to increase the risk of lactic acidosis in decompensated liver disease and high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores. However, current studies reported that entecavir could be safely used in decompensated cirrhosis. An increase in fetal adverse events has not been reported with lamivudine, telbivudine and tenofovir use in pregnant women, while there is no adequate data regarding entecavir and adefovir. Further long-term experience is required to highlight the adverse effects of NAs, especially in special patient populations, including pregnant women, elderly and patients with renal impairment. PMID:28261380

  15. Adverse motor effects induced by antiepileptic drugs.

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    Zaccara, G; Cincotta, M; Borgheresi, A; Balestrieri, F

    2004-09-01

    Cognitive effects of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have been already extensively reported. In contrast, motor disturbances, frequently induced by these drugs, have not received similar attention. We review subjective and objective adverse motor effects of traditional and new AEDs. We discuss the methodological issues caused by the heterogeneous sources of information on drug adverse effects (controlled clinical studies, open studies, and case reports). We describe specific disturbances (vestibulocerebellar, dyskinesias, parkinsonism, tics, myoclonus, and tremor) as the effects of different AEDs on distinct motor circuitries. Finally, we summarize the role of sophisticated technical studies which provide a valuable insight into the specific or subtle effects of AEDs on the central nervous system.

  16. Tetany: Possible adverse effect of bevacizumab

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    S R Anwikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bevacizumab a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody was approved in 2004 by US FDA for metastatic colorectal cancer. It is reported to cause potentially serious toxicities including severe hypertension, proteinuria, and congestive heart failure. Aim: To correlate adverse event tetany with the use of bevacizumab. Materials and Methods : World Health Organization′s Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden, for reporting of adverse drug reactions from all over the world, identified 7 cases with tetany-related symptoms to bevacizumab from four different countries. These 7 patients reported to UMC database developed adverse events described as musculoskeletal stiffness (1, muscle spasm (1, muscle cramps (1, lock jaw or jaw stiffness (4, and hypertonia (1, with hypocalcaemia. Results: After detailed study of the possible mechanism of actions of bevacizumab and factors causing tetany, it is proposed that there is a possibility of tetany by bevacizumab, which may occur by interfering with calcium metabolism. Resorption of bone through osteoclasts by affecting VEGF may interfere with calcium metabolism. Another possibility of tetany may be due to associated hypomagnesaemia, hypokalemia, or hyponatremia. Conclusions: Tetany should be considered as a one of the signs. Patient on bevacizumab should carefully watch for tetany-related symptoms and calcium and magnesium levels for their safety.

  17. Psychiatric Adverse Effects of Dermatological Drugs

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    Mine Özmen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dermatological drugs, mostly corticosteroids and isotretinoin, cause different psychiatric adverse effects. During steroid therapy, a wide range of psychiatric conditions, from minor clinical symptoms like insomnia and anxiety to serious psychiatric syndromes like psychosis and delirium might be seen. In medical literature, a causal connection is usually suggested between “isotretinoin”, which is used for treatment of acne vulgaris and depression and suicide attempts. However, there are no statistically significant double-blind randomized studies that support this connection. Clinicians must know patient’s psychiatric history before using any dermatological treatment known as causing psychiatric adverse effects, and psychiatric consultation should be established whenever necessary.

  18. [Laser trabeculoplasty: therapeutic options and adverse effects].

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    Wacker, T; Eckert, S

    2010-01-01

    Laser trabeculoplasty is a simple method for treating glaucoma and ocular hypertension and has few adverse effects. There are different laser systems for reducing the intraocular pressure of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Complications include transient intraocular pressure elevation, iritis, and anterior synechiae.

  19. The adverse effects of hormonal therapy.

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    Bush, T L

    1986-02-01

    Estrogen therapy must be cycled with progestin therapy in women with intact uteri in order to prevent uterine cancer. However, these women cannot be expected to benefit (with regard to cardiovascular disease) from any estrogen-induced changes in the lipoprotein profile, as progestins will either negate or overwhelm any estrogen effects. However, such women will definitely benefit from estrogen's effects with regard to menopausal symptoms and bone loss. These clearly beneficial effects of estrogen-progestin therapy are not outweighed by any known risks. However, in women without uteri (approximately 30 per cent of women), unopposed estrogen therapy in the menopause may protect against cardiovascular disease, as well as have beneficial effects on bone metabolism and menopausal symptoms. In this special case, the beneficial effects of unopposed estrogen therapy clearly outweigh any known risk.

  20. Psychiatric adverse effects of pediatric corticosteroid use.

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    Drozdowicz, Linda B; Bostwick, J Michael

    2014-06-01

    Corticosteroids, highly effective drugs for myriad disease states, have considerable neuropsychiatric adverse effects that can manifest in cognitive disorders, behavioral changes, and frank psychiatric disease. Recent reviews have summarized these effects in adults, but a comprehensive review on corticosteroid effects in children has not been published since 2005. Here, we systematically review articles published since then that, we find, naturally divide into 3 main areas: (1) chronic effects of acute prenatal and neonatal exposure associated with prematurity and congenital conditions; (2) immediate behavioral effects of acute exposure via oncological protocols; and (3) acute behavioral effects of sporadic use in children and adolescents with other conditions. PsycInfo, MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus were queried to identify articles reporting psychiatric adverse effects of corticosteroids in pediatric patients. Search terms included corticosteroids, adrenal cortex hormones, steroid psychosis, substance-induced psychoses, glucocorticoids, dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, prednisone, adverse effects, mood disorders, mental disorders, psychosis, psychotic, psychoses, side effect, chemically induced, emotions, affective symptoms, toxicity, behavior, behavioral symptoms, infant, child, adolescent, pediatric, paediatric, neonatal, children, teen, and teenager. Following guidelines for systematic reviews from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis, we have found it difficult to draw specific conclusions that are more than general impressions owing to the quality of the available studies. We find a mixed picture with neonates exposed to dexamethasone, with some articles reporting eventual deficits in neuropsychiatric functioning and others reporting no effect. In pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, corticosteroid use appears to correlate with negative psychiatric and behavioral effects. In children treated with corticosteroids for noncancer conditions

  1. Metabolic and adverse effects of diuretics.

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    Wilcox, C S

    1999-11-01

    Diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed drugs. They enjoy a very high clinical reputation for safety and efficacy. However, more than 3 decades of clinical investigation have disclosed a number of abnormalities in fluid electrolyte handling, metabolism, and other adverse effects that can complicate therapy with diuretic drugs. Some of these complications are a direct extension of the wanted action of the drug. These include extracellular fluid volume depletion, associated orthostatic hypotension, and prerenal azotemia. Others are not a direct action of the diuretic, but can be explained as an intranephronal compensation to the diuretic action. These include hypokalemia, in part to increased potassium secretion secondary to the enhanced tubular fluid flow and aldosterone secretion induced by diuretic administration. Metabolic abnormalities are usually mild. Hyperglycemia and carbohydrate intolerance have been related to diuretic-induced hypokalemia, which inhibits insulin secretion by the beta cells, and reductions in extracellular fluid volume and cardiac output. This is compounded by increases in catecholamines from sympathetic nerve activity which decrease peripheral glucose utilization. A mild increase in serum cholesterol concentration is seen frequently during initiation of diuretic therapy, but during steady state therapy after 6 to 12 months, values usually return to baseline. Knowledge of the more common adverse effects induced by diuretics helps the physician in predicting patients at risk and taking effective steps to anticipate or treat adverse responses.

  2. Adverse effects of statins - myths and reality.

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    Šimić, Iveta; Reiner, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Statins reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity as well as cardiovascular events in patients with a very high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and also in subjects with high or moderate risk by reducing the levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although they are considered to be drugs with a very good safety profile, because of their wide use there are many concerns that their adverse effects might compromise their proven beneficial effects. Therefore this article reviews all the data and provides an evidence- based insight what are the proven adverse effects of statins and what are the "myths" about them. The most important side effects include myopathy and rhabdomyolysis. Another side effect is increased activity of liver tests which occurs occasionally and is reversible. However, recent studies even suggest that statin therapy can improve hepatic steatosis. It is beyond any doubt that statins do slightly increase the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with two or more components of metabolic syndrome but the cardiovascular benefits of such a treatment by far exceed this risk. Statin therapy has also been associated with some adverse renal effects, eg. acute renal failure, but recent data suggest even a possible protective effect of these drugs on renal dysfunction. Concerns that statins might increase cancer have not been proven. On the contrary, several studies have indicated a possible benefit of these drugs in patients with different types of cancer. Early concerns about cognitive dysfunction and memory loss associated with statins use could not be proven and most recent data even suggest a possible beneficial effect of statins in the prevention of dementia. Systematic reviews and clinical guidelines suggest that the cardiovascular benefits of statins by far out-weight non-cardiovascular harms in patients with cardiovascular risk.

  3. Management of adverse effects of mood stabilizers.

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    Murru, Andrea; Popovic, Dina; Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Hidalgo, Diego; León-Caballero, Jordi; Vieta, Eduard

    2015-08-01

    Mood stabilizers such as lithium and anticonvulsants are still standard-of-care for the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). This systematic review aimed to assess the prevalence of their adverse effects (AEs) and to provide recommendations on their clinical management. We performed a systematic research for studies reporting the prevalence of AEs with lithium, valproate, lamotrigine, and carbamazepine/oxcarbazepine. Management recommendations were then developed. Mood stabilizers have different tolerability profiles and are eventually associated to cognitive, dermatological, endocrine, gastrointestinal, immunological, metabolic, nephrogenic, neurologic, sexual, and teratogenic AEs. Most of those can be transient or dose-related and can be managed by optimizing drug doses to the lowest effective dose. Some rare AEs can be serious and potentially lethal, and require abrupt discontinuation of medication. Integrated medical attention is warranted for complex somatic AEs. Functional remediation and psychoeducation may help to promote awareness on BD and better medication management.

  4. Beneficial and adverse effects of chemopreventive agents

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    Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2003-03-01

    The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.

  5. Migraine treatment: a chain of adverse effects.

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    Veloso, Tiago Sousa; Cambão, Mariana Seixas

    2015-01-01

    This clinical vignette presents a 14 years old female, with a past medical history relevant only for migraine with typical aura of less than monthly frequency, complaining of a severe unilateral headache with rising intensity for the previous 4 h, associated with nausea, vomiting, photophobia and phonophobia. This episode of migraine with aura in a patient with recurrent migraine was complicated by side effects of medical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures (extrapyramidal symptoms, delirium, post-lumbar puncture headache, hospital admission) all of which could have been prevented-quaternary prevention. This case illustrates several important messages in migraine management: (1) use of acetaminophen is not based in high-quality evidence and better options exist; (2) among youngsters, domperidone should be preferred over metoclopramide because it does not cross the blood-brain barrier; (3) moderate to severe migraine crisis can be managed with triptans in teenagers over 12 years old; (4) it is important to recognize adverse drug effects; (5) harmful consequences of medical interventions do occur; (6) the school community must be informed about chronic diseases of the young.

  6. Effects of obesity on bone metabolism

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    Cao Jay J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity is traditionally viewed to be beneficial to bone health because of well-established positive effect of mechanical loading conferred by body weight on bone formation, despite being a risk factor for many other chronic health disorders. Although body mass has a positive effect on bone formation, whether the mass derived from an obesity condition or excessive fat accumulation is beneficial to bone remains controversial. The underline pathophysiological relationship between obesity and bone is complex and continues to be an active research area. Recent data from epidemiological and animal studies strongly support that fat accumulation is detrimental to bone mass. To our knowledge, obesity possibly affects bone metabolism through several mechanisms. Because both adipocytes and osteoblasts are derived from a common multipotential mesenchymal stem cell, obesity may increase adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation while decrease osteoblast differentiation and bone formation. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation. The increased circulating and tissue proinflammatory cytokines in obesity may promote osteoclast activity and bone resorption through modifying the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin pathway. Furthermore, the excessive secretion of leptin and/or decreased production of adiponectin by adipocytes in obesity may either directly affect bone formation or indirectly affect bone resorption through up-regulated proinflammatory cytokine production. Finally, high-fat intake may interfere with intestinal calcium absorption and therefore decrease calcium availability for bone formation. Unraveling the relationship between fat and bone metabolism at molecular level may help us to develop therapeutic agents to prevent or treat both obesity and osteoporosis. Obesity, defined as having a body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, is a condition in which excessive body fat accumulates to a degree that adversely

  7. Adverse effects of cow's milk in infants.

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    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2007-01-01

    The feeding of cow's milk has adverse effects on iron nutrition in infants and young children. Several different mechanisms have been identified that may act synergistically. Probably most important is the low iron content of cow's milk. It makes it difficult for the infant to obtain the amounts of iron needed for growth. A second mechanism is the occult intestinal blood loss, which occurs in about 40% of normal infants during feeding of cow's milk. Loss of iron in the form of blood diminishes with age and ceases after 1 year of age. A third factor is calcium and casein provided by cow's milk in high amounts. Calcium and casein both inhibit the absorption of dietary nonheme iron. Infants fed cow's milk receive much more protein and minerals than they need. The excess has to be excreted in the urine. The high renal solute load leads to higher urine concentration during the feeding of cow's milk than during the feeding of breast milk or formula. When fluid intakes are low and/or when extrarenal water losses are high, the renal concentrating ability of infants may be insufficient for maintaining water balance in the face of high water use for excretion of the high renal solute. The resulting negative water balance, if prolonged, can lead to serious dehydration. There is strong epidemiological evidence that the feeding of cow's milk or formulas with similarly high potential renal solute load places infants at an increased risk of serious dehydration. The feeding of cow's milk to infants is undesirable because of cow's milk's propensity to lead to iron deficiency and because it unduly increases the risk of severe dehydration.

  8. A Traditional Chinese Medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong Suppresses Pain through Modulation of Cytokines and Prevents Adverse Reactions of Morphine Treatment in Bone Cancer Pain Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Treating cancer pain continues to possess a major challenge. Here, we report that a traditional Chinese medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong (XAT can effectively suppress pain and adverse reactions following morphine treatment in patients with bone cancer pain. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30 were used for patient’s self-evaluation of pain intensity and evaluating changes of adverse reactions including constipation, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia, respectively, before and after treatment prescriptions. The clinical trials showed that repetitive oral administration of XAT (200 mL, bid, for 7 consecutive days alone greatly reduced cancer pain. Repetitive treatment with a combination of XAT and morphine (20 mg and 30 mg, resp. produced significant synergistic analgesic effects. Meanwhile, XAT greatly reduced the adverse reactions associated with cancer and/or morphine treatment. In addition, XAT treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in blood. These findings demonstrate that XAT can effectively reduce bone cancer pain probably mediated by the cytokine mechanisms, facilitate analgesic effect of morphine, and prevent or reduce the associated adverse reactions, supporting a use of XAT, alone or with morphine, in treating bone cancer pain in clinic.

  9. A Traditional Chinese Medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong Suppresses Pain through Modulation of Cytokines and Prevents Adverse Reactions of Morphine Treatment in Bone Cancer Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Yan; Sun, Kefu; He, Xueming; Li, Jinxuan; Dong, Yanbin; Zheng, Bin; Tan, Xiao; Song, Xue-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Treating cancer pain continues to possess a major challenge. Here, we report that a traditional Chinese medicine Xiao-Ai-Tong (XAT) can effectively suppress pain and adverse reactions following morphine treatment in patients with bone cancer pain. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were used for patient's self-evaluation of pain intensity and evaluating changes of adverse reactions including constipation, nausea, fatigue, and anorexia, respectively, before and after treatment prescriptions. The clinical trials showed that repetitive oral administration of XAT (200 mL, bid, for 7 consecutive days) alone greatly reduced cancer pain. Repetitive treatment with a combination of XAT and morphine (20 mg and 30 mg, resp.) produced significant synergistic analgesic effects. Meanwhile, XAT greatly reduced the adverse reactions associated with cancer and/or morphine treatment. In addition, XAT treatment significantly reduced the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the endogenous anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 in blood. These findings demonstrate that XAT can effectively reduce bone cancer pain probably mediated by the cytokine mechanisms, facilitate analgesic effect of morphine, and prevent or reduce the associated adverse reactions, supporting a use of XAT, alone or with morphine, in treating bone cancer pain in clinic.

  10. [Haematological adverse effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaira, Silvina

    2008-01-01

    Almost all clases of psychiatric drugs (typical and atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, mood stabilizers, benzodiazepines) have been reported as possible causes of haematological toxicity. This is a review of the literature in which different clinical situations involving red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and impaired coagulation are detailed and the drugs more frequently involved are listed. The haematological adverse reactions detailed here include: aplastic anemia, haemolitic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, thrombocytosis, thrombocytopenia, disordered platelet function and impaired coagulation. The haematologic toxicity profile of the drugs more frequently involved: lithium, clozapine, carbamazepine, valproic acid and SSRI antidepressants is mentioned.

  11. THE ADVERSE-EFFECT POLICY FOR AGRICULTURAL LABOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DELLON, HOWARD N.

    THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY UNDERLYING THE REGULATION OF FOREIGN WORKER IMPORTATIONS INTO THE UNITED STATES FOR AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYMENT IS THAT EMPLOYMENT OF SUCH WORKERS WILL NOT BE PERMITTED IF IT WILL HAVE AN ADVERSE EFFECT ON DOMESTIC WORKERS. THE "ADVERSE-EFFECT" POLICY HAS BEEN FOLLOWED SINCE THE ENACTMENT OF PUBLIC LAW 78 IN 1951 WHICH GOVERNED…

  12. Assessing long-term and rare adverse effects of medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijnhoven, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical studies in the development of new medicines are primarily designed to investigate efficacy. Knowledge of adverse effects is therefore limited at the time of approval of new medicines. In this thesis several studies were conducted to investigate long-term and rare adverse effects of medicine

  13. Nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walenga, Jeanine M; Thethi, Indermohan; Lewis, Bruce E

    2012-11-01

    The topic of adverse effects of drugs is now receiving due attention in both the lay and medical communities. For drugs of the coagulation disorder class, such as anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, the obvious adverse effects are bleeding from a dose too high and thrombosis from a dose too low. However, these drugs have other potential adverse effects that are not directly related to blood coagulation, yet cannot be dismissed due to their medical importance. There has been a recent advancement of several new drugs in this category and this number will soon grow as more drugs are reaching the end of their clinical trials. This article will discuss the nonhemostatic adverse effects of anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs. As the adverse effects of bleeding and thrombosis will be excluded, this article will be in contrast to the typical discussions on the anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug classes.

  14. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Watson, Leala K; Ernst, Edzard

    2013-02-01

    This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aims to evaluate critically the evidence regarding the adverse effects of herbal medicines (HMs). Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant SRs, with 50 SRs of 50 different HMs meeting our inclusion criteria. Most had only minor weaknesses in methods. Serious adverse effects were noted only for four HMs: Herbae pulvis standardisatus, Larrea tridentate, Piper methysticum and Cassia senna. The most severe adverse effects were liver or kidney damage, colon perforation, carcinoma, coma and death. Moderately severe adverse effects were noted for 15 HMs: Pelargonium sidoides, Perna canaliculus, Aloe vera, Mentha piperita, Medicago sativa, Cimicifuga racemosa, Caulophyllum thalictroides, Serenoa repens, Taraxacum officinale, Camellia sinensis, Commifora mukul, Hoodia gordonii, Viscum album, Trifolium pratense and Stevia rebaudiana. Minor adverse effects were noted for 31 HMs: Thymus vulgaris, Lavandula angustifolia Miller, Boswellia serrata, Calendula officinalis, Harpagophytum procumbens, Panax ginseng, Vitex agnus-castus, Crataegus spp., Cinnamomum spp., Petasites hybridus, Agave americana, Hypericum perforatum, Echinacea spp., Silybum marianum, Capsicum spp., Genus phyllanthus, Ginkgo biloba, Valeriana officinalis, Hippocastanaceae, Melissa officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Cnicus benedictus, Salvia hispanica, Vaccinium myrtillus, Mentha spicata, Rosmarinus officinalis, Crocus sativus, Gymnema sylvestre, Morinda citrifolia and Curcuma longa. Most of the HMs evaluated in SRs were associated with only moderately severe or minor adverse effects.

  15. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Fazio P

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  16. Adverse effects of stress on microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    The complex communities of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract impact the health status of an animal. The health of an animal as well as production traits are also affected by exposure to stress. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dehorning stress on the gut ...

  17. Effect of epimedium pubescen flavonoid on bone mineral status and bone turnover in male rats chronically exposed to cigarette smoke

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    Gao Shu-guang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epimedii herba is one of the most frequently used herbs in formulas that are prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis in China and its main constituent is Epimedium pubescen flavonoid (EPF. However, it is unclear whether EPF during chronic exposure to cigarette smoke may have a protective influence on the skeleton. The present study investigated the effect of EPF on bone mineral status and bone turnover in a rat model of human relatively high exposure to cigarette smoke. Methods Fifty male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups: controls, passive smoking groups and passive smoking rats administered EPF at three dosage levels (75, 150 or 300 mg/kg/day in drinking water for 4 months. A rat model of passive smoking was prepared by breeding male rats in a cigarette-smoking box. Bone mineral content (BMC, bone mineral density (BMD, bone turnover markers, bone histomorphometric parameters and biomechanical properties were examined. Results Smoke exposure decreased BMC and BMD, increased bone turnover (inhibited bone formation and stimulated its resorption, affected bone histomorphometry (increased trabecular separation and osteoclast surface per bone surface; decreased trabecular bone volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, cortical thickness, bone formation rate and osteoblast surface per bone surface, and reduced mechanical properties. EPF supplementation during cigarette smoke exposure prevented smoke-induced changes in bone mineral status and bone turnover. Conclusion The results suggest that EPF can prevent the adverse effects of smoke exposure on bone by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting bone turnover and bone resorption.

  18. Misuse of topical corticosteroids: A clinical study of adverse effects

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    Vivek Kumar Dey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Misuse of topical corticosteroids is a widespread phenomenon among young people in India, especially women. The practice is associated with significant adverse effects and poor awareness of these effects among the general public. Aim: This study was conducted to examine the misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids among the people in Bastar region in Chhattisgarh state of India. Materials and Methods: Data collected from patients presenting with at least one of the adverse effects of topical corticosteroids as the chief complaint, from November 2010 to October 2011. Results: Out of the 6723 new patients, 379 (5.63% had presented with misuse and adverse effects of topical corticosteroids, of whom 78.89% were females. More than 65% of the patients were in the age group 10-29 years. The main reason for using the topical corticosteroids was to lighten skin colour and treat melasma and suntan. Acne (37.99% and telangiectasia (18.99% were the most common adverse effects noted. Conclusions: Misuse of topical corticosteroids has a huge impact on dermatological practice, leading to a significant proportion of visits to the dermatologist. This hydra-headed problem needs multi-dimensional interventions, involving educational, legal and managerial approaches with cooperation from different sectors of society.

  19. Mechanisms of Hexachlorobenzene-induced Adverse Immune Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezendam, Janine

    2004-01-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is an environmental pollutant that can induce adverse immune effects in humans and rats. Brown Norway rats (BN) appeared to be very susceptible to HCB-induced immune effects. Oral exposure causes inflammatory skin and lung lesions, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes (LN) and ele

  20. Toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis: Rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin

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    Upadya Gatha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ciprofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibacterial agents with relatively few side effects. Serious adverse reactions reported with ciprofloxacin are rare with an incidence of 0.6%. Recently we came across two rare adverse effects of ciprofloxacin, viz. toxic epidermal necrolysis and agranulocytosis. To our knowledge, a total of seven cases have been reported in the literature documenting an association between oral ciprofloxacin administration and toxic epidermal necrolysis. One case of granulocytopenia, four of pancytopenia and fifteen of leucopenia worldwide have been reported. With the use of ciprofloxacin becoming more and more widespread, these two rare but fatal complications of ciprofloxacin should be borne in mind.

  1. Late adverse effects of whole cranial irradiation in childhood hematological disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Someya, Masanori; Nakata, Kensei; Nagakura, Hisayasu; Oouchi, Atsushi; Sakata, Kohichi; Hareyama, Masato [Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the late adverse effects of childhood hematological disorders treated with chemotherapy and radiotherapy including whole cranial irradiation at Sapporo Medical University Hospital. Twenty-eight patients were treated with chemotherapy and 18-24 Gy of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 14 patients were treated with 3-12.8 Gy of total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) for ALL, acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), malignant lymphoma, and aplastic anemia (AA). Age at diagnosis ranged from 2 to 15 years old, and 28 were males and 14 were females. All patients were disease-free more than 2 years after diagnosis. Of 42 patients, 4 patients had decreased height (less than -2 S.D.), 3 patients required hormone replacement therapy, 2 patients had mental retardation, 3 patients had leukoencephalopathy, and 1 patient had a second malignancy. Except for the cases of decreased height, 3 of 7 late adverse effects were occurred in patients who had relapse of disease, and the risk of the adverse effects seemed to be higher for those patients whose doses of PCI were 22 Gy or more, or who received an additional craniospinal irradiation due to relapse of disease, and 18 Gy of PCI did not increase the risk of adverse effects. (author)

  2. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    interactions with conventional drugs. Only one case was associated with misidentification. Adverse effects were reported for 39 of the 66 botanical substances searched. Of the total references, 86.6% were associated with 14 plants, including Glycine max/soybean (19.3%), Glycyrrhiza glabra/liquorice (12...

  3. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo;

    2015-01-01

    .2%), Camellia sinensis/green tea ( 8.7%) and Ginkgo biloba/gingko (8.5%). Considering the length of time examined and the number of plants included in the review, it is remarkable that: (i) the adverse effects due to botanical ingredients were relatively infrequent, if assessed for causality; and (ii...

  4. Effects of Inactivity and Exercise on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Everett L.; Gilligan, Catherine

    1987-01-01

    Research has shown that bone tissue responds to the forces of gravity and muscle contraction. The benefits of weight-bearing exercise in preventing or reversing bone mass loss related to osteoporosis is reviewed. The effects of weightlessness and immobilization, and the possible effects of athletic amenorrhea, on bone mineral density are…

  5. Energy Drink Consumption: Beneficial and Adverse Health Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carried out to identify and discuss the published articles that examined the beneficial and adverse health effects related to energy drink. It is concluded that although energy drink may have beneficial effects on physical performance, these products also have possible detrimental health consequences. Marketing of energy drinks should be limited or forbidden until independent research confirms their safety, particularly among adolescents.

  6. Adverse effects and intoxications related to medicinal/harmful plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja VONČINA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Many wild plants around us have beneficial effects on our body and can be used as food. People are more and more interested in the medicinal plants. Many of them began gathering and preparing plants for the relief of symptoms of diseases or as a food dietary. Due to the lack of knowledge of plants, mistaking plants that contain toxins for medical plants may happen and cause adverse effects or even poisoning. The Poison Control Centre in Ljubljana keeps records of patients who have been admitted to the department because of adverse effects from the ingestion of certain plants. We analysed 64 cases, which were registered by the Poison Control Centre between January 2000 and December 2013. The aim of the present study was to determine which plants cause the most intoxications in Slovenia.

  7. Optimising the retrieval of information on adverse drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Su

    2013-12-01

    Pharmaceutical interventions have brought about many benefits to health, improving the population's well-being and life expectancy. However, these interventions are not without potential harmful side-effects and yet searching for the evidence on adverse effects is challenging. This article summarises a PhD whose main aim was to develop a better understanding of the implications of using different sources and approaches to identifying relevant data on adverse effects. The author is Su Golder, who has recently completed her PhD at the University of York and who has already published several articles on specific aspects of her research, including this journal. This article is the first in the Dissertations into Practice series to report on a PhD study, and it summarises her research in a way which emphasises the implications for practice.

  8. Long-term adverse effects of novel antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, P S; Gupta, S

    2000-11-01

    The introduction of novel antipsychotics for the treatment of patients with serious psychiatric illness has alleviated the burden of managing some of the side effects of conventional agents. However, the novel agents may also cause adverse events. The long-term adverse events of concern include weight gain, diabetes, tardive dyskinesia (TD), and those associated with hyperprolactinemia. Recent studies with the novel agents have prompted clinicians to revisit antipsychotic-induced weight gain. Clinically significant weight gain puts patients at risk for coronary heart disease, hypertension, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, and some types of cancer. More recently, case reports of glucose abnormalities and diabetes have emerged, indicating that some novel antipsychotics may be associated with altered glucose metabolism or insulin sensitivity. The novel antipsychotics may also have a lower propensity for causing TD than the conventional antipsychotics. Side effects associated with hyperprolactinemia include galactorrhea, gynecomastia, and menstrual and sexual dysfunction. All of these adverse events can cause patients to become non-compliant and may thus predispose them to relapse. In this review, the authors summarize the literature on the long-term side effects of the novel antipsychotics and examine the severity of the problem, with recommendations for management. When selecting treatments, clinicians should consider the side-effect profiles of the various antipsychotic agents.

  9. Ocular surface adverse effects of ambient levels of air pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Augusto Miranda Torricelli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized today that outdoor air pollution can affect human health. Various chemical components that are present in ambient pollution may have an irritant effect on the mucous membranes of the body, particularly those of the respiratory tract. Much less attention has been focused on the adverse effect on the ocular surface, despite the fact that this structure is even more exposed to air pollution than the respiratory mucosa since only a very thin tear film separates the corneal and conjunctival epithelia from the air pollutants. So far, clinical data are the more widespread tools used by ophthalmologists for assessing possible aggression to the ocular surface; however, clinical findings alone appears not to correlate properly with the complaints presented by the patients pointing out the need for further clinical and laboratory studies on the subject. The purpose of this study is to review signs and symptoms associated with chronic long-term exposure to environmental air pollutants on the ocular structures currently defined as the ocular surface and to review clinical and laboratory tests used to investigate the adverse effects of air pollutants on such structures. We also review previous studies that investigated the adverse effects of air pollution on the ocular surface and discuss the need for further investigation on the subject.

  10. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  11. European guidelines on managing adverse effects of medication for ADHD

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, J.; Banaschewski, Tobias; Buitelaar, J; Coghill, D.; Danckaerts, M.; Dittmann, R. W.; Döpfner, M.; Hamilton, R; Hollis, C.; Holtmann, M.; Hulpke-Wette, M.; Lecendreux, M.; Rosenthal, E; Rothenberger, A; Santosh, P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The safety of ADHD medications is not fully known. Concerns have arisen about both a lack of contemporary-standard information about medications first licensed several decades ago, and signals of possible harm arising from more recently developed medications. These relate to both relatively minor adverse effects and extremely serious issues such as sudden cardiac death and suicidality. A guidelines group of the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders (EUNETHYDIS) has t...

  12. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Sermin Genc; Zeynep Zadeoglulari; Fuss, Stefan H.; Kursad Genc

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s dise...

  13. Iron and manganese contamination: sources, adverse effects and control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyanarayana, Y V V; Saraf, Renu

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the problem of iron and manganese contamination, the adverse effects and available control methods. The presence of iron and manganese in water causes serious commercial and health problems. Various treatment methods are available to treat water contaminated with these elements. However, catalytic media is an excellent choice particularly increasing given the preference for non-chemical water treatment. INDION ISR and BIRM are the most popularly used synthetically manufactured catalytic media.

  14. Some adverse effects of antipsychotics: prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lader, M

    1999-01-01

    Antipsychotic medication causes a wide range of adverse effects, which can be serious and may further imperil both the physical and psychological health of schizophrenic patients. The range of side effects patients commonly encounter includes weight gain, endocrine disturbances, sedation, anticholinergic effects, hypotension, seizures, and extrapyramidal symptoms. Less common and unpredictable reactions are blood dyscrasias, cardiotoxicity, sudden death, and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Antipsychotic drugs differ significantly regarding their propensity to cause these reactions. Patients should undergo comprehensive health checks before an antipsychotic is prescribed, and drug therapy should be individualized to take account of any preexisting symptoms. Side effects and the wider implications of drug treatment, such as effects on occupational and social functioning, should be discussed with the patient before initiating therapy. Patients should be regularly monitored for side effects during treatment and switched to alternative therapy if side effects are serious and/or persistent.

  15. Adverse effect profile of trichlormethiazide: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishida Yayoi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichlormethiazide, a thiazide diuretic, was introduced in 1960 and remains one of the most frequently used diuretics for treating hypertension in Japan. While numerous clinical trials have indicated important side effects of thiazides, e.g., adverse effects on electrolytes and uric acid, very few data exist on serum electrolyte levels in patients with trichlormethiazide treatment. We performed a retrospective cohort study to assess the adverse effects of trichlormethiazide, focusing on serum electrolyte and uric acid levels. Methods We used data from the Clinical Data Warehouse of Nihon University School of Medicine obtained between Nov 1, 2004 and July 31, 2010, to identify cohorts of new trichlormethiazide users (n = 99 for 1 mg, n = 61 for 2 mg daily dosage and an equal number of non-users (control. We used propensity-score matching to adjust for differences between users and control for each dosage, and compared serum chemical data including serum sodium, potassium, uric acid, creatinine and urea nitrogen. The mean exposure of trichlormethiazide of 1 mg and 2 mg users was 58 days and 64 days, respectively. Results The mean age was 66 years, and 55% of trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose were female. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the mean age was 68 years, and 43% of users were female. There were no statistically significant differences in all covariates (age, sex, comorbid diseases, past drugs, and current antihypertensive drugs between trichlormethiazide users and controls for both doses. In trichlormethiazide users of the 2 mg dose, the reduction of serum potassium level and the elevation of serum uric acid level were significant compared with control, whereas changes of mean serum sodium, creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were not significant. In trichlormethiazide users of the 1 mg dose, all tests showed no statistically significant change from baseline to during the exposure period in

  16. Pharmacogenomics of statins: understanding susceptibility to adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitzmiller JP

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Joseph P Kitzmiller,1 Eduard B Mikulik,1 Anees M Dauki,2 Chandrama Murkherjee,1 Jasmine A Luzum3 1Department of Biological Chemistry and Pharmacology, College of Medicine, 2College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 3Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Michigan College of Pharmacy, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Abstract: Statins are a cornerstone of the pharmacologic treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease is a predominant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Statins are among the most commonly prescribed classes of medications, and their prescribing indications and target patient populations have been significantly expanded in the official guidelines recently published by the American and European expert panels. Adverse effects of statin pharmacotherapy, however, result in significant cost and morbidity and can lead to nonadherence and discontinuation of therapy. Statin-associated muscle symptoms occur in ~10% of patients on statins and constitute the most commonly reported adverse effect associated with statin pharmacotherapy. Substantial clinical and nonclinical research effort has been dedicated to determining whether genetics can provide meaningful insight regarding an individual patient’s risk of statin adverse effects. This contemporary review of the relevant clinical research on polymorphisms in several key genes that affect statin pharmacokinetics (eg, transporters and metabolizing enzymes, statin efficacy (eg, drug targets and pathways, and end-organ toxicity (eg, myopathy pathways highlights several promising pharmacogenomic candidates. However, SLCO1B1 521C is currently the only clinically relevant pharmacogenetic test regarding statin toxicity, and its relevance is limited to simvastatin myopathy. Keywords: cholesterol, myopathy, lipids, muscle toxicity, pharmacokinetics, pharmacogenetics

  17. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

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    F. Saverio Bersani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications.

  18. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  19. The adverse effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Boroumand Rezazadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of thyroid disorders on reproductive health of the women of childbearing age, pregnancy outcome, fetal health, and neurodevelopment of the infant, providing comprehensive assessment of the treatments used for preventing hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism seems to be essential. Therefore, evaluating the efficacy of different treatments of the thyroid disorders would be beneficial in better managing and controlling the disease during pregnancy. Hypothyroidism (a deficiency of thyroid hormone is a common thyroid disorder, which might increase the incidence rate of miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, placental abruption, and preterm delivery. Hyperthyroidism, which is not a common disorder during the pregnancy not only leads to similar adverse effects as hypothyroidism but also can result in stillbirth and intrauterine growth restriction. Levothyroxine is the preferred treatment of hypothyroidism and the only drug therapy recommended for treating hyperthyroidism during pregnancy. In this study, we aimed to briefly review the adverse effects of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism during pregnancy and review the effects of recent suggested treatments for controlling thyroid disorders on pregnancy outcomes.

  20. Adverse effects of bisphenol A on male reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfo, Faustin Pascal Tsagué; Jubendradass, Rajamanickam; Nantia, Edouard Akono; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Mathur, Premendu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    BPA is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, resulting mainly from manufacturing,use or disposal of plastics of which it is a component, and the degradation of industrial plastic-related wastes. Growing evidence from research on laboratory animals, wildlife, and humans supports the view that BPA produces an endocrine disrupting effect and adversely affects male reproductive function. To better understand the adverse effects caused by exposure to BPA, we performed an up-to-date literature review on the topic, with particular emphasis on in utero exposure, and associated effects on spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and accessory organs.BPA studies on experimental animals show that effects are generally more detrimental during in utero exposure, a critical developmental stage for the embryo. BPA has been found to produce several defects in the embryo, such as feminization of male fetuses, atrophy of the testes and epididymides, increased prostate size, shortening of AGD, disruption of BTB, and alteration of adult sperm parameters (e.g.,sperm count, motility, and density). BPA also affects embryo thyroid development.During the postnatal and pubertal periods and adulthood, BPA affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis by modulating hormone (e.g., LH and FSH,androgen and estrogen) synthesis, expression and function of respective receptors(ER, AR). These effects alter sperm parameters. BPA also induces oxidative stress in the testis and epididymis, by inhibiting antioxidant enzymes and stimulating lipid peroxidation. This suggests that employing antioxidants may be a promising strategy to relieve BPA-induced disturbances.Epidemiological studies have also provided data indicating that BPA alters male reproductive function in humans. These investigations revealed that men occupationally exposed to BPA had high blood/urinary BPA levels, and abnormal semen parameters. BPA-exposed men also showed reduced libido and erectile ejaculatory difficulties; moreover, the

  1. Effects of denosumab on bone mineral density and bone turnover in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensel, Terri M; Iranikhah, Maryam M; Wilborn, Teresa W

    2011-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a degenerative bone disease affecting approximately 10 million American adults. Several options are available to prevent development of the disease or slow and even stop its progression. Nonpharmacologic measures include adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, fall prevention, and avoidance of tobacco and excessive alcohol intake. Current drug therapy includes bisphosphonates, calcitonin, estrogen or hormone therapy, selective estrogen receptor modulators, and teriparatide. Denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-K B ligand (RANKL) inhibitor, was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Patients treated with denosumab experienced significant gains in bone mineral density, rapid reductions in markers of bone turnover, and a reduced risk for new vertebral fracture. Compared with placebo, patients receiving denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously once every 6 months experienced gains in bone mineral density of 6.5-11% when treated for 24-48 months. One trial demonstrated the superiority of denosumab compared with alendronate, but the differences were small. The most common adverse reactions to denosumab include back pain, pain in extremities, musculoskeletal pain, and cystitis. Serious, but rare, adverse reactions include the development of serious infections, dermatologic changes, and hypocalcemia. The recommended dosing of denosumab is 60 mg every 6 months as a subcutaneous injection in the upper arm, upper thigh, or abdomen. Although beneficial effects on bone mineral density and fracture rate have been established in clinical trials, the risks associated with denosumab must be evaluated before therapy initiation. Of concern is the risk of infection, and denosumab should likely be avoided in patients taking immunosuppressive therapy or at high risk for infection. Therefore, bisphosphonates will likely remain as first-line therapy. Denosumab should be considered in

  2. Adverse effects of outdoor pollution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Marzia; Baldacci, Sandra; Maio, Sara; Cerrai, Sonia; Sarno, Giuseppe; Viegi, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    With fewer newborns and people living longer, older people are making up an increasing fraction of the total population. Epidemiological evidence shows that older-age-related health problems affect a wide and expanding proportion of the world population. One of the major epidemiological trends of this century is the rise of chronic diseases that affect more elderly than younger people. A total of 3.7 million premature deaths worldwide in 2012 are attributable to outdoor air pollution; the susceptibility to adverse effects of air pollution is expected to differ widely between people and within the same person, and also over time. Frailty history, a measure of multi-system decline, modifies cumulative associations between air pollution and lung function. Moreover, pre-existing diseases may determine susceptibility. In the elderly, due to comorbidity, exposure to air pollutants may even be fatal. Rapid and not-well-planned urbanization is associated with high level of ambient air pollution, mainly caused by vehicular exhausts. In general, there is sufficient evidence of the adverse effects related to short-term exposure, while fewer studies have addressed the longer-term health effects. Increased pollution exposures have been associated with increased mortality, hospital admissions/emergency-room visits, mainly due to exacerbations of chronic diseases or to respiratory tract infections (e.g., pneumonia). These effects may also be modulated by ambient temperature and many studies show that the elderly are mostly vulnerable to heat waves. The association between heat and mortality in the elderly is well-documented, while less is known regarding the associations with hospital admissions. Chronic exposure to elevated levels of air pollution has been related to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis (CB), asthma, and emphysema. There is also growing evidence suggesting adverse effects on lung function related to long-term exposure

  3. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  4. Adverse testicular effects of Botox® in mature rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breikaa, Randa M. [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Mosli, Hisham A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Nagy, Ayman A. [Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta (Egypt); Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B., E-mail: abnaim.pharma@gmail.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2014-03-01

    Botox® injections are taking a consistently increasing place in urology. Intracremasteric injections, particularly, have been applied for cryptorchidism and painful testicular spasms. Studies outlining their safety for this use are, however, scanty. Thus, the present study aimed at evaluating possible testicular toxicity of Botox® injections and their effect on male fertility. Mature rats were given intracremasteric Botox® injections (10, 20 and 40 U/kg) three times in a two-week interval. Changes in body and testes weights were examined and gonadosomatic index compared to control group. Semen quality, sperm parameters, fructose, protein, cholesterol and triglycerides contents were assessed. Effects on normal testicular function were investigated by measuring testosterone levels and changes in enzyme activities (lactate dehydrogenase-X and acid phosphatase). To draw a complete picture, changes in oxidative and inflammatory states were examined, in addition to the extent of connective tissue deposition between seminiferous tubules. In an attempt to have more accurate information about possible spermatotoxic effects of Botox®, flowcytometric analysis and histopathological examination were carried out. Botox®-injected rats showed altered testicular physiology and function. Seminiferous tubules were separated by dense fibers, especially with the highest dose. Flowcytometric analysis showed a decrease in mature sperms and histopathology confirmed the findings. The oxidative state was, however, comparable to control group. This study is the first to show that intracremasteric injections of Botox® induce adverse testicular effects evidenced by inhibited spermatogenesis and initiation of histopathological changes. In conclusion, decreased fertility may be a serious problem Botox® injections could cause. - Highlights: • Botox® injections are the trend nowadays, for both medical and non-medical uses. • They were recently suggested for cryptorchidism and

  5. Neurological Adverse Effects after Radiation Therapy for Stage II Seminoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbeskov Lauritsen, Liv; Meidahl Petersen, Peter; Daugaard, Gedske

    2012-01-01

    We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT). They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost....../or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate...... their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic....

  6. Exogenous glucocorticoids and adverse cerebral effects in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsted, Sara K.; Born, A P; Paulson, Olaf B;

    2011-01-01

    of the glucocorticoid receptor, which is associated with unfavorable cellular outcomes. Prenatal treatment with glucocorticoids can compromise brain growth and is associated with periventricular leukomalacia, attentions deficits and poorer cognitive performance. In the neonatal period exposure to glucocorticoids...... reduces neurogenesis and cerebral volume, impairs memory and increases the incidence of cerebral palsy. Cerebral effects of glucocorticoids in later childhood have been less thoroughly studied, but apparent brain atrophy, reduced size of limbic structures and neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported....... Glucocortioids affect several cellular structures and functions, which may explain the observed adverse effects. Glucocorticoids can impair neuronal glucose uptake, decrease excitability, cause atrophy of dendrites, compromise development of myelin-producing oligodendrocytes and disturb important cellular...

  7. Aloe vera: A review of toxicity and adverse clinical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoqing; Mei, Nan

    2016-04-01

    The Aloe plant is employed as a dietary supplement in a variety of foods and as an ingredient in cosmetic products. The widespread human exposure and its potential toxic and carcinogenic activities raise safety concerns. Chemical analysis reveals that the Aloe plant contains various polysaccharides and phenolic chemicals, notably anthraquinones. Ingestion of Aloe preparations is associated with diarrhea, hypokalemia, pseudomelanosis coli, kidney failure, as well as phototoxicity and hypersensitive reactions. Recently, Aloe vera whole leaf extract showed clear evidence of carcinogenic activity in rats, and was classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). This review presents updated information on the toxicological effects, including the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, and adverse clinical effects of Aloe vera whole leaf extract, gel, and latex.

  8. Does cannabidiol protect against adverse psychological effects of THC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond J.M. eNiesink

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The recreational use of cannabis can have persistent adverse effects on mental health. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC is the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, and most, if not all, of the effects associated with the use of cannabis are caused by THC. Recent studies have suggested a possible protective effect of another cannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD. A literature search was performed in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Science using the keyword ‘cannabidiol.’ After removing duplicate entries, 1295 unique titles remained. Based on the titles and abstracts, an initial selection was made. The reference lists of the publications identified in this manner were examined for additional references. Cannabis is not a safe drug. Depending on how often someone uses, the age of onset, the potency of the cannabis that is used and someone's individual sensitivity, the recreational use of cannabis may cause permanent psychological disorders. Most recreational users will never be faced with such persistent mental illness, but in some individuals cannabis use leads to undesirable effects: cognitive impairment, anxiety, paranoia and increased risks of developing chronic psychosis or drug addiction. Studies examining the protective effects of CBD have shown that CBD can counteract the negative effects of THC. However, the question remains of how the laboratory results translate to the types of cannabis that are encountered by real-world recreational users.

  9. Artificial Gravity: Effects on Bone Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, M.; Zwart, S /R.; Baecker, N.; Smith, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of microgravity on the human body is a significant concern for space travelers. Since mechanical loading is a main reason for bone loss, artificial gravity might be an effective countermeasure to the effects of microgravity. In a 21-day 6 head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR) pilot study carried out by NASA, USA, the utility of artificial gravity (AG) as a countermeasure to immobilization-induced bone loss was tested. Blood and urine were collected before, during, and after bed rest for bone marker determinations. Bone mineral density was determined by DXA and pQCT before and after bed rest. Urinary excretion of bone resorption markers (n-telopeptide and helical peptide) were increased from pre-bed rest, but there was no difference between the control and the AG group. The same was true for serum c-telopeptide measurements. Bone formation markers were affected by bed rest and artificial gravity. While bone-specific alkaline phosphatase tended to be lower in the AG group during bed rest (p = 0.08), PINP, another bone formation marker, was significantly lower in AG subjects than CN before and during bed rest. PINP was lower during bed rest in both groups. For comparison, artificial gravity combined with ergometric exercise was tested in a 14-day HDBR study carried out in Japan (Iwase et al. J Grav Physiol 2004). In that study, an exercise regime combined with AG was able to significantly mitigate the bed rest-induced increase in the bone resorption marker deoxypyridinoline. While further study is required to more clearly differentiate bone and muscle effects, these initial data demonstrate the potential effectiveness of short-radius, intermittent AG as a countermeasure to the bone deconditioning that occurs during bed rest and spaceflight. Future studies will need to optimize not only the AG prescription (intensity and duration), but will likely need to include the use of exercise or other combined treatments.

  10. Exercise can prevent and even reverse adverse effects of androgen suppression treatment in men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, D A; Taaffe, D R; Spry, N; Newton, R U

    2007-01-01

    Side effects accompanying androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), including sarcopenia, loss of bone mass and reduction in muscle strength, can compromise physical function, particularly in older patients. Exercise, specifically resistance training, may be an effective and cost-efficient strategy to limit or even reverse some of these adverse effects during and following therapy. In this review, we discuss common morphological and physiological ADT-related side effects or 'Androgen Deprivation and Sarcopenia-Related Disorders' and the existing clinical trials incorporating physical exercise in prostate cancer patients receiving active therapy. Further, training concepts and guidelines are provided for prescribing resistance exercise programs for this population.

  11. The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Sermin; Zadeoglulari, Zeynep; Fuss, Stefan H; Genc, Kursad

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  12. The Adverse Effects of Air Pollution on the Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Genc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ambient air pollution is a serious and common public health concern associated with growing morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the last decades, the adverse effects of air pollution on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems have been well established in a series of major epidemiological and observational studies. In the recent past, air pollution has also been associated with diseases of the central nervous system (CNS, including stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been demonstrated that various components of air pollution, such as nanosized particles, can easily translocate to the CNS where they can activate innate immune responses. Furthermore, systemic inflammation arising from the pulmonary or cardiovascular system can affect CNS health. Despite intense studies on the health effects of ambient air pollution, the underlying molecular mechanisms of susceptibility and disease remain largely elusive. However, emerging evidence suggests that air pollution-induced neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, microglial activation, cerebrovascular dysfunction, and alterations in the blood-brain barrier contribute to CNS pathology. A better understanding of the mediators and mechanisms will enable the development of new strategies to protect individuals at risk and to reduce detrimental effects of air pollution on the nervous system and mental health.

  13. Monoclonal Antibody Therapy and Renal Transplantation: Focus on Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs are commonly utilized in renal transplantation as induction therapy (a period of intense immunosuppression immediately before and following the implant of the allograft, to treat steroid-resistant acute rejections, to decrease the incidence and mitigate effects of delayed graft function, and to allow immunosuppressive minimization. Additionally, in the last few years, their use has been proposed for the treatment of chronic antibody-mediated rejection, a major cause of late renal allograft loss. Although the exact mechanism of immunosuppression and allograft tolerance with any of the currently used induction agents is not completely defined, the majority of these medications are targeted against specific CD proteins on the T or B cells surface (e.g., CD3, CD25, CD52. Moreover, some of them have different mechanisms of action. In particular, eculizumab, interrupting the complement pathway, is a new promising treatment tool for acute graft complications and for post-transplant hemolytic uremic syndrome. While it is clear their utility in renal transplantation, it is also unquestionable that by using these highly potent immunosuppressive agents, the body loses much of its innate ability to mount an adequate immune response, thereby increasing the risk of severe adverse effects (e.g., infections, malignancies, haematological complications. Therefore, it is extremely important for clinicians involved in renal transplantation to know the potential side effects of monoclonal antibodies in order to plan a correct therapeutic strategy minimizing/avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  14. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Background. While high-protein consumption-above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)-is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutritional supplements in humans. Design. Review. Subjects. Healthy adult male and female subjects. Method. In order to identify relevant studies, the electronic databases, Medline and Google Scholar, were searched using the terms:"high protein diet," "protein overconsumption," "protein overuse," and "high meat diet." Papers not in English were excluded. Further studies were identified by citations in retrieved papers. Results. 32 studies (21 experimental human studies and 11 reviews) were identified. The adverse effects associated with long-term high protein/high meat intake in humans were (a) disorders of bone and calcium homeostasis, (b) disorders of renal function, (c) increased cancer risk, (d) disorders of liver function, and (e) precipitated progression of coronary artery disease. Conclusions. The findings of the present study suggest that there is currently no reasonable scientific basis in the literature to recommend protein consumption above the current RDA (high protein diet) for healthy adults due to its potential disease risks. Further research needs to be carried out in this area, including large randomized controlled trials.

  15. Neurological AdverseEffects after Radiation Therapyfor Stage II Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Ebbeskov Lauritsen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report 3 cases of patients with testicular cancer and stage II seminoma who developed neurological symptoms with bilateral leg weakness about 4 to 9 months after radiation therapy (RT. They all received RT to the para-aortic lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy (36 Gy + 4 Gy as a boost against the tumour bed with a conventional fractionation of2 Gy/day, 5 days per week. RT was applied as hockey-stick portals, also called L-fields. In 2 cases, the symptoms fully resolved. Therapeutic irradiation can cause significant injury to the peripheral nerves of the lumbosacral plexus and/or to the spinal cord. RT is believed to produce plexus injury by both direct toxic effects and secondary microinfarction of the nerves, but the exact pathophysiology of RT-induced injury is unclear. Since reported studies of radiation-induced neurological adverse effects are limited, it is difficult to estimate their frequency and outcome. The treatment of neurological symptoms due to RT is symptomatic.

  16. Enzymes approved for human therapy: indications, mechanisms and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A

    2015-02-01

    Research and drug developments fostered under orphan drug product development programs have greatly assisted the introduction of efficient and safe enzyme-based therapies for a range of rare disorders. The introduction and regulatory approval of 20 different recombinant enzymes has enabled, often for the first time, effective enzyme-replacement therapy for some lysosomal storage disorders, including Gaucher (imiglucerase, taliglucerase, and velaglucerase), Fabry (agalsidase alfa and beta), and Pompe (alglucosidase alfa) diseases and mucopolysaccharidoses I (laronidase), II (idursulfase), IVA (elosulfase), and VI (galsulfase). Approved recombinant enzymes are also now used as therapy for myocardial infarction (alteplase, reteplase, and tenecteplase), cystic fibrosis (dornase alfa), chronic gout (pegloticase), tumor lysis syndrome (rasburicase), leukemia (L-asparaginase), some collagen-based disorders such as Dupuytren's contracture (collagenase), severe combined immunodeficiency disease (pegademase bovine), detoxification of methotrexate (glucarpidase), and vitreomacular adhesion (ocriplasmin). The development of these efficacious and safe enzyme-based therapies has occurred hand in hand with some remarkable advances in the preparation of the often specifically designed recombinant enzymes; the manufacturing expertise necessary for commercial production; our understanding of underlying mechanisms operative in the different diseases; and the mechanisms of action of the relevant recombinant enzymes. Together with information on these mechanisms, safety findings recorded so far on the various adverse events and problems of immunogenicity of the recombinant enzymes used for therapy are presented.

  17. Hidden Suffering and the Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Fulford

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To understand suffering is to understand what it means to be human. Suffering focuses our attention on our vulnerability, which we would rather ignore or deny. As health care professionals (HCP we need to be able to listen, to attune and be empathic to the suffering patient. If we act as an “enlightened witness” we provide a safe place for a suffering patient to grieve their loss and be vulnerable. This is skilled and demanding work, it is also important to tend to our own needs through a practice of self-care and reflection to prevent burn-out and compassion fatigue. The topic of adverse childhood experiences (ACE, which are common in the general population, are addressed in the second part of this paper. Their effects are profound, and increase with the degree of maltreatment. The maltreatment and suffering of these children usually remains hidden into adulthood beneath years of shame and denial. One aspect of our job in health care is to help patients acknowledge, experience, and bear the reality of life with all its pleasures and heartache. In order to do this well, we need to keep in touch with our own humanity, but also continue to take care of ourselves.

  18. Adverse effects from environmental mercury loads on breeding common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, David C; Savoy, Lucas J; DeSorbo, Christopher R; Yates, David E; Hanson, William; Taylor, Kate M; Siegel, Lori S; Cooley, John H; Bank, Michael S; Major, Andrew; Munney, Kenneth; Mower, Barry F; Vogel, Harry S; Schoch, Nina; Pokras, Mark; Goodale, Morgan W; Fair, Jeff

    2008-02-01

    Anthropogenic inputs of mercury (Hg) into the environment have significantly increased in the past century. Concurrently, the availability of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic systems has increased to levels posing risks to ecological and human health. We use the common loon (Gavia immer) as an upper trophic level bioindicator of aquatic Hg toxicity in freshwater lakes. Multiple endpoints were selected to measure potential negative impacts from MeHg body burdens on behavior, physiology, survival and reproductive success. A robust spatio-temporal dataset was used that included nearly 5,500 loon Hg measurements over an 18-year period. We measured significant changes related to elevated MeHg body burdens, including aberrant incubation behavior, lethargy, and wing area asymmetry. Mercury body burdens in adult loons increased an average of 8.4% per year. Increasing Hg body burdens reduced the number of fledged chicks per territorial pair, with highest risk loons producing 41% fewer fledged young than our reference group. Our multiple endpoints establish adverse effect thresholds for adult loons at 3.0 ug/g (wet weight) in blood and 40.0 ug/g (fresh weight) in feathers. Mercury contamination in parts of Maine and New Hampshire is a driving stressor for creating breeding population sinks. Standardized monitoring programs are needed to determine if population sinks occur elsewhere and to track aquatic ecosystem responses to changes in Hg emissions and deposition.

  19. Effects of Erythropoietin on the Bone Microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, SJ; Havens, AM; Shiozawa, Y; Y. Jung; Taichman, RS

    2011-01-01

    It has well been established that blood and bone share a unique, regulatory relationship with one another, though the specifics of this relationship still remain unanswered. Erythropoietin (Epo) is known primarily for its role as a hematopoietic hormone. However, after the discovery of Epo receptor (Epo-R) outside the hematopoietic tissues, Epo has been avidly studied for its possible non-hematopoietic effects. It has been proposed that Epo interacts with bone both directly, by activating bon...

  20. Sources of patients' knowledge of the adverse effects of psychotropic medication and the perceived influence of adverse effects on compliance among service users attending community mental health services.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Agyapong, Vincent I O

    2009-12-01

    Noncompliance with medication has been a complex issue with patients with severe mental illness during the last few decades, and adverse effects of medication have been identified as a major contributor to noncompliance.

  1. Effects of Spaceflight on Bone: The Rat as an Animal Model for Human Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halloran, B.; Weider, T.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1999-01-01

    The loss of weight bearing during spaceflight results in osteopenia in humans. Decrements in bone mineral reach 3-10% after as little as 75-184 days in space. Loss of bone mineral during flight decreases bone strength and increases fracture risk. The mechanisms responsible for, and the factors contributing to, the changes in bone induced by spaceflight are poorly understood. The rat has been widely used as an animal model for human bone loss during spaceflight. Despite its potential usefulness, the results of bone studies performed in the rat in space have been inconsistent. In some flights bone formation is decreased and cancellous bone volume reduced, while in others no significant changes in bone occur. In June of 1996 Drs. T. Wronski, S. Miller and myself participated in a flight experiment (STS 78) to examine the effects of glucocorticoids on bone during weightlessness. Technically the 17 day flight experiment was flawless. The results, however, were surprising. Cancellous bone volume and osteoblast surface in the proximal tibial metaphysis were the same in flight and ground-based control rats. Normal levels of cancellous bone mass and bone formation were also detected in the lumbar vertebrae and femoral neck of flight rats. Furthermore, periosteal bone formation rate was found to be identical in flight and ground-based control rats. Spaceflight had little or no effect on bone metabolism! These results prompted us to carefully review the changes in bone observed in, and the flight conditions of previous spaceflight missions.

  2. Metabolic and renal adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuny, Clàudia; Deyà-Martínez, Ángela; Chiappini, Elena; Galli, Luisa; de Martino, Maurizio; Noguera-Julian, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Worldwide, the benefits of combined antiretroviral (ARV) therapy in morbidity and mortality due to perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection are beyond question and outweigh the toxicity these drugs have been associated with in HIV-infected children and adolescents to date. In puberty, abnormal body fat distribution is stigmatizating and leads to low adherence to ARV treatment. The other metabolic comorbidities (mitochondrial toxicity, dyslipidemias, insulin resistance and low bone mineral density) and renal toxicity, albeit nonsymptomatic in most children, are increasingly being reported and potentially put this population at risk for early cardiovascular or cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease, diabetes, pathologic fractures or premature renal failure in the third and fourth decades of life. Evidence from available studies is limited because of methodological limitations and also because of several HIV-unrelated factors influencing, to some degree, the development of these conditions. Current recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of metabolic and renal adverse effects in HIV-children and adolescents are based on adult studies, observational pediatric studies and experts' consensus. Healthy lifestyle habits (regarding diet, exercise and refraining from toxic substances) and wise use of ARV options are the only preventive tools for the majority of patients. Should abnormal findings arise, switches in one or more ARV drugs have proved useful. Specific therapies are also available for some of these comorbidities, although the experience in the pediatric age is still very scarce. We aim to summarize the epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of metabolic and renal adverse effects in vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents.

  3. Exploring gamma radiation effect on exoelectron emission properties of bone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakaria, M.; Dekhtyar, Y.; Bogucharska, T.; Noskov, V. [Riga Technical Univ., Biomedical Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute (Latvia)

    2006-07-01

    Gamma radiation is used for radiation therapy to treat carcinogenic diseases including bone cancer. Ionising radiation kills carcinogenic calls. However, there are side effects of the gamma radiation on the bone surface electron structure. One of the effects is in the form of altering electron density of states of bone that, with time, influences biomedical reactions on bone life condition. (authors)

  4. Effect of Anti-inflammatory Treatment on Depression, Depressive Symptoms, and Adverse Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Karl Ole; Benros, Michael E; Nordentoft, Merete

    2014-01-01

    adverse effects of anti-inflammatory interventions. DATA SOURCES: Trials published prior to December, 31, 2013, were identified searching Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Clinicaltrials.gov, and relevant review articles. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized placebo......-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and adverse effects of pharmacologic anti-inflammatory treatment in adults with depressive symptoms, including those who fulfilled the criteria for depression. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Data were extracted by 2 independent reviewers. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD......IMPORTANCE: Several studies have reported antidepressant effects of anti-inflammatory treatment; however, the results have been conflicting and detrimental adverse effects may contraindicate the use of anti-inflammatory agents. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the antidepressant and possible...

  5. Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on bone material properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnilä, Mikko A J; Zioupos, Peter; Herlin, Maria; Miettinen, Hanna M; Simanainen, Ulla; Håkansson, Helen; Tuukkanen, Juha; Viluksela, Matti; Jämsä, Timo

    2010-04-19

    Dioxins are known to decrease bone strength, architecture and density. However, their detailed effects on bone material properties are unknown. Here we used nanoindentation methods to characterize the effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on nanomechanical behaviour of bone matrix. Pregnant rats were treated with a single intragastric dose of TCDD (1 microg/kg) or vehicle on gestational day 11. Tibias of female offspring were sampled on postnatal day (PND) 35 or 70, scanned at mid-diaphysis with pQCT, and evaluated by three-point bending and nanoindentation. TCDD treatment decreased bone mineralization (p<0.05), tibial length (p<0.01), cross-sectional geometry (p<0.05) and bending strength (p<0.05). Controls showed normal maturation pattern between PND 35 and 70 with decreased plasticity by 5.3% and increased dynamic hardness, storage and complex moduli by 26%, 13% and 12% respectively (p<0.05), while similar maturation was not observed in TCDD-exposed pups. In conclusion, for the first time, we demonstrate retardation of bone matrix maturation process in TCDD-exposed animals. In addition, the study confirms that developmental TCDD exposure has adverse effects on bone size, strength and mineralization. The current results in conjunction with macromechanical behaviour suggest that reduced bone strength caused by TCDD is more associated with the mineralization and altered geometry of bones than with changes at the bone matrix level.

  6. Cell Biology of Thiazide Bone Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Gerardo; Riccardi, Daniela

    2008-09-01

    The thiazide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter (NCC) is the major pathway for salt reabsorption in the mammalian kidney. The activity of NCC is not only related to salt metabolism, but also to calcium and magnesium homeostasis due to the inverse relationship between NCC activity and calcium reabsorption. Hence, the thiazide-type diuretics that specifically block NCC have been used for years, not only for treatment of hypertension and edematous disease, but also for the management of renal stone disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that chronic thiazide treatment is associated with higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of bone fractures, which can only partly be explained in terms of their effects on the kidney. In this regard, we have recently shown that NCC is expressed in bone cells and that inhibition of NCC in bone, either by thiazides or by reduction of NCC protein with specific siRNA, is associated with increased mineralization in vitro. These observations open a field of study to begin to understand the cell biology of the beneficial effects of thiazides in bone.

  7. Effects of lead shot ingestion on bone mineralization in a population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Álvarez-Lloret, Pedro, E-mail: pedroalvarez@geol.uniovi.es [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Departament of Geology, University of Oviedo, C/Jesús Arias de Velasco, s/n, 33005 Oviedo (Spain); Rodríguez-Navarro, Alejandro B. [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, University of Granada, Avd. Fuentenueva s/n, 18002 Granada (Spain); Romanek, Christopher S. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ferrandis, Pablo [Department of Plant Production and Agricultural Technology, E.T.S. Ingenieros Agrónomos, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 02071 Albacete (Spain); Martínez-Haro, Mónica [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain); IMAR-Instituto do Mar, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Mateo, Rafael [Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, IREC (CSIC, UCLM, JCCM), Ronda de Toledo s/n, 13005 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    The effect of lead (Pb) toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in a wild population of red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa) inhabiting a farmland area contaminated with Pb-shot from recreational hunting activities in Albacete, a southeastern province of Spain. Femora from 40 specimens of red-legged partridge were analyzed for Pb by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GF-AAS), and for bone composition by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The FTIR and DRX data of bone were analyzed in detail to determine possible alterations in bone mineral chemistry and crystallinity due to Pb toxicity. Results showed a marked decrease in the degree of mineralization as Pb concentrations in bone tissue increased while XRD analyses showed that the crystallinity of apatite crystals increased with the Pb load in bone. These load-dependent effects are indicative that Pb contamination altered bone remodeling by reducing new bone mineral formation and demonstrate that bone quality is a sensitive indicator of adverse effects on wild bird populations exposed to Pb pollution. - Highlights: •The effect of Pb toxicity on bone mineralization was investigated in partridges. •Lead exposure decreased bone mineralization degree. •Demonstrated usefulness of FTIR and DRX to evaluate alterations in bone chemistry and crystallinity by Pb exposure.

  8. No negative effects of bone impaction grafting with bone and ceramic mixtures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.J.C.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Welten, M.L.M.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Schreurs, B.W.; Buma, P.

    2005-01-01

    Reconstructing large loaded bone defects with ceramic bone graft extenders is tempting considering the expected future donor bone shortage. However, whether there are negative effects is unknown. Standardized large defects in the acetabulum of goats were created and subsequently reconstructed with m

  9. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  10. Factors modifying stress from adverse effects of immunosuppressive medication in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberger, J.; Geckova, A.M.; van Dijk, J.P.; Roland, R.; Groothoff, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: The adverse effects of immunosuppression appear in the majority of patients with a negative impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. The group of adverse symptoms manifested as changes in appearance, mood and energy are often more stressful than serious metabolic changes bec

  11. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  12. Effects of Tai Ji Exercise on Bone Structure and Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Hong; David Lawson

    2005-01-01

    To evaluated the effects of the 24 movements Tai Ji exercise on bone structure and function. Broadband Ultrsonic Attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS), bone formation marker Osteocalcin (OSTN) and bone resorption markers urinary Pyridum crosslinks (PYR and D-PYR) were studied before and after four months of Tai Ji exercise. Improved bone structure and increased bone density in menopausal women were reflected by BUA results. The increased BUA appears to be associated with increased bone formation rather than decreased bone resorption.

  13. Genetic inhibition of CETP, ischemic vascular disease and mortality, and possible adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Trine Holm; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Schou, Jesper;

    2012-01-01

    This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib.......This study tested whether genetic variation in the CETP gene is consistent with a protective effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition on risk of ischemic events and on total mortality, without the adverse effects reported for torcetrapib....

  14. The Effect of Estrogen on the Restoration of Bone Mass and Bone Quality in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of estrogen on its ability to restore the bone mass and bone quality in ovariectomized rats by examining the changes of bone morphology and histomorphometry, 3month-old rats were divided randomly into 4 groups: normal control, ovariectomized (OVX), shamoperated (Sham-O) and OVX plus estrogen (OVX+E2). Treatment initiated from the day 8 weeks after operation and continued for 12 weeks. Bone morphology and histomorphometry were examined afterwards. Results showed that comparing to control group, the trabecular bone in OVX appeared thinner and reduced in the amount. The connectivity between trabecula was decreased and the structure disordered. The free-end of trabecula was increased. The cavity of bone marrow enlarged. After treatment with estrogen, above changes improved remarkably by different degree, although did not reach the normal face. The bone histomorphometry results damonstrated that estrogen treatment increased bone mass and the amount of trabecula by 129% and 132% respectively (P<0. 05). The activity of bone resorption decreased significantly and the rate of bone formation increased to 203 %. These results suggest that treatment of ovariectomized rats with estrogen can not only increase bone mass, also improve the bone structure and enhance the property of bone mechanics.

  15. Adverse effects of pharmacological therapy for nicotine addiction in smokers following a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrueco, Miguel; Otero, María José; Palomo, Luis; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos; Torrecilla, Miguel; Romero, Pedro; Riesco, Juan Antonio

    2005-06-01

    This multicenter, community-based, prospective, longitudinal study evaluated the safety of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion, and combined therapy of NRT and bupropion for smokers seeking to quit, when these therapies were used under real-world conditions following a smoking cessation program. Participants were smokers aged 18 years or older who attended five smoking cessation clinics. Evaluations were made at 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. We investigated the possible existence of adverse effects as well as the severity of each adverse effect and its influence on the treatment course. The study included 904 smokers: 370 received NRT, 413 received bupropion, and 121 received combined therapy. At 15, 30, 60, and 90 days, adverse effects were reported by 43.8%, 33.1%, 22.3%, and 5.7% of subjects, respectively. Adverse effects were significantly more frequent in subjects receiving combined therapy or bupropion alone than in NRT-treated subjects at the 15-, 30-, and 60-day follow-ups. A total of 83 smokers (9.3%) withdrew from treatment and 116 (12.8%) stopped temporarily because of adverse effects. No differences were found in the percentages of discontinuation among the different treatment options. Adverse effects rarely were severe (n=10). Nevertheless, 41 subjects (4.5%) discontinued drug therapy indefinitely and 55 (6.1%) discontinued it temporarily because of mild adverse effects. Pharmacological therapies for smoking cessation are safe as long as they are appropriately prescribed and supervised by clinicians according to clinical practice guidelines. Adverse effects are primarily mild. Nonetheless, mild adverse effects may be perceived by patients as a serious enough problem to cause them to discontinue treatment.

  16. The effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones studied by vibrational spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lani, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Baliouskas, Gerasimos; Tzaphlidou, Margaret

    2014-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is utilized to examine the effects of increased calcium, vitamin D, and combined calcium-vitamin D supplementation on osteoporotic rabbit bones with induced inflammation. The study includes different bone sites (femur, tibia, humerus, vertebral rib) in an effort to explore possible differences among the sites. We evaluate the following parameters: mineral-to-matrix ratio, carbonate content, and non-apatitic species (labile acid phosphate and labile carbonate) contribution to bone mineral. Results show that a relatively high dose of calcium or calcium with vitamin D supplementation increases the bone mineralization index significantly. On the other hand, vitamin D alone is not as effective in promoting mineralization even with high intake. Mature B-type apatite was detected for the group with calcium supplementation similar to that of aged bone. High vitamin D intake led to increased labile species concentration revealing bone formation. This is directly associated with the suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines linked to induced inflammation. The latter is known to adversely alter bone metabolism, contributing to the aetiopathogenesis of osteoporosis. Thus, a high intake of vitamin D under inflammation-induced osteoporosis does not promote mineralization but suppresses bone resorption and restores metabolic balance.

  17. Childhood adversity specificity and dose-response effect in non-affective first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trauelsen, Anne Marie; Bendall, Sarah; Jansen, Jens Einar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reviews conclude that childhood and adolescence sexual, physical, emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect are all risk factors for psychosis. However, studies suggest only some adversities are associated with psychosis. Dose-response effects of several adversities on risk...... of psychosis have not been consistently found. The current study aimed to explore adversity specificity and dose-response effects of adversities on risk of psychosis. METHOD: Participants were 101 persons with first-episode psychosis (FEP) diagnosed with ICD-10 F20 - F29 (except F21) and 101 non......% of the control group. Childhood and adolescent sexual, physical, emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, separation and institutionalization were about four to 17 times higher for the FEP group (all ppsychosis increased two and a half times for each additional adversity. All...

  18. Long term adverse effects related to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: clinical impact of mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maagaard, Anne; Kvale, Dag

    2009-01-01

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) has provided excellent clinical efficacy in HIV infection, and individuals treated for HIV might therefore expect normal duration of life. However, this enthusiasm might be moderated by some devastating long-term adverse effects that are frequently observed in HIV-infected individuals, phenomena that may be even more pronounced as the HIV-infected populations become older and therefore perhaps more susceptible to some of these adverse effects. We here review the clinical impact of mitochondrial toxicity giving rise to many of the adverse effects caused by ART.

  19. Managing patients with side effects and adverse events to immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Asgardoon, Mohammad Hossein; Shaghaghi, Shiva; Negahdari, Babak; Mohammadi, Javad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has not only served as a lifesaving approach for the prevention and treatment of infections in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, but has also been used as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and to provide passive immunity for some infectious diseases. Most of the adverse effects associated with immunoglobulin therapy are mild, transient and self-limiting. However, serious side effects also occur. Therefore, to minimize the adverse events of immunoglobulin therapy, specialist review of patient clinical status and immunoglobulin products, in addition to selection of appropriate treatment strategy for the management of patients with associated side effects and adverse events, are crucial.

  20. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonkoff, Jack P; Garner, Andrew S

    2012-01-01

    Advances in fields of inquiry as diverse as neuroscience, molecular biology, genomics, developmental psychology, epidemiology, sociology, and economics are catalyzing an important paradigm shift in our understanding of health and disease across the lifespan. This converging, multidisciplinary science of human development has profound implications for our ability to enhance the life prospects of children and to strengthen the social and economic fabric of society. Drawing on these multiple streams of investigation, this report presents an ecobiodevelopmental framework that illustrates how early experiences and environmental influences can leave a lasting signature on the genetic predispositions that affect emerging brain architecture and long-term health. The report also examines extensive evidence of the disruptive impacts of toxic stress, offering intriguing insights into causal mechanisms that link early adversity to later impairments in learning, behavior, and both physical and mental well-being. The implications of this framework for the practice of medicine, in general, and pediatrics, specifically, are potentially transformational. They suggest that many adult diseases should be viewed as developmental disorders that begin early in life and that persistent health disparities associated with poverty, discrimination, or maltreatment could be reduced by the alleviation of toxic stress in childhood. An ecobiodevelopmental framework also underscores the need for new thinking about the focus and boundaries of pediatric practice. It calls for pediatricians to serve as both front-line guardians of healthy child development and strategically positioned, community leaders to inform new science-based strategies that build strong foundations for educational achievement, economic productivity, responsible citizenship, and lifelong health.

  1. The Useage of Opioids and their Adverse Effects in Gastrointestinal Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansari, MahmoudReza; Sohrabi, MasourReza; Zamani, Farhad

    2013-01-01

    Opium is one of the oldest herbal medicines currently used as an analgesic, sedative and antidiarrheal treatment. The effects of opium are principally mediated by the μ-, κ- and δ-opioid receptors. Opioid substances consist of all natural and synthetic alkaloids that are derived from opium. Most of their effects on gastrointestinal motility and secretion result from suppression of neural activity. Inhibition of gastric emptying, increase in sphincter tone, changes in motor patterns, and blockage of peristalsis result from opioid use. Common adverse effects of opioid administration include sedation, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, dependency and tolerance, and respiratory depression. The most common adverse effect of opioid use is constipation. Although stool softeners are frequently used to decrease opioid-induced bowel dysfunction, however they are not efficacious. Possibly, the use of specific opioid receptor antagonists is a more suitable approach. Opioid antagonists, both central and peripheral, could affect gastrointestinal function and visceromotor sensitivity, which suggests an important role for endogenous opioid peptides in the control of gastrointestinal physiology. Underlying diseases or medications known to influence the central nervous system (CNS) often accelerate the opioid’s adverse effects. However, changing the opioid and/or route of administration could also decrease their adverse effects. Appropriate patient selection, patient education and discussion regarding potential adverse effects may assist physicians in maximizing the effectiveness of opioids, while reducing the number and severity of adverse effects. PMID:24829664

  2. [Effects of SERMs on bone health. Mechanisms of bone mass control by selective estrogen receptor modulator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yuuki; Kato, Shigeaki

    2010-03-01

    The bone mass, which is controlled by the balances between bone formation and bone resorption can be reduced by estrogen deficiency in post-menopausal osteoporosis. Reduced bone mass can be recovered by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) , however, HRT has various side effects. Although SERMs can rescue the bone mass with less side effect compared to HRT, the precise mechanisms of this effect is still elusive. From the results of the analyses for osteoclast specific estrogen receptor (ER) alphaknockout mice and the genome wide approach of ERalphabinding site, estrogen and SERMs can, at least in part, protect the bone mass by inducing the expression of Fas ligand and controling the life span of osteoclasts. More precise molecular mechanisms of the effect of SERM, especially in tissue/cell type specificity, may help to investigate new SERM, which is more specific and effective to treat post-menopausal osteoporosis.

  3. A man who wanted to commit suicide by hanging himself : an adverse effect of ciprofloxacin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, A.I.A.; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Berkmortel, H. van den; Kramers, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this case report, we describe a man who developed recurrent depression and suicidal ideation with a serious plan to commit suicide as definite adverse effect of ciprofloxacin, which had been prescribed for recurrent prostatitis.

  4. Sleep board review questions: medications and their adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhiraja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. Question: Which of the following medications is not matched with a characteristic side effect? 1. Pramipexole -Pathological gambling 2. Eszopiclone - Unpleasant taste 3. Modafinil - Headache 4. Mirtazapine - Weight Loss

  5. Late adverse effects of radiation therapy for rectal cancer - a systematic overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birgisson, Helgi; Paahlman, Lars; Gunnarsson, Ulf [Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Glimelius, Bengt [Dept. of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden); Dept. of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose. The use of radiation therapy (RT) together with improvement in the surgical treatment of rectal cancer improves survival and reduces the risk for local recurrences. Despite these benefits, the adverse effects of radiation therapy limit its use. The aim of this review was to present a comprehensive overview of published studies on late adverse effects related to the RT for rectal cancer. Methods. Meta-analyses, reviews, randomised clinical trials, cohort studies and case-control studies on late adverse effects, due to pre- or postoperative radiation therapy and chemo-radiotherapy for rectal cancer, were systematically searched. Most information was obtained from the randomised trials, especially those comparing preoperative short-course 5x5 Gy radiation therapy with surgery alone. Results. The late adverse effects due to RT were bowel obstructions; bowel dysfunction presented as faecal incontinence to gas, loose or solid stools, evacuation problems or urgency; and sexual dysfunction. However, fewer late adverse effects were reported in recent studies, which generally used smaller irradiated volumes and better irradiation techniques; although, one study revealed an increased risk for secondary cancers in irradiated patients. Conclusions. These results stress the importance of careful patient selection for RT for rectal cancer. Improvements in the radiation technique should further be developed and the long-term follow-up of the randomised trials is the most important source of information on late adverse effects and should therefore be continued.

  6. Effectiveness and adverse effects of hormonal therapy for prostate cancer: Japanese experience and perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikio Namiki; Satoru Ueno; Yasuhide Kitagawa; Takashi Fukagai; Hideyuki Akaza

    2012-01-01

    Recently,novel anti-androgens and inhibitors of androgen biosynthesis have been developed through the elucidation of mechanisms of castration resistance of prostate cancer.We believe that these new developments will improve hormonal therapy.On the other hand,there has been an increase in criticism of hormonal therapy,because hormonal therapy is supposed to induce adverse effects such as cardiovascular disease.In this review,we have introduced the Japanese experience of hormonal therapy,because we believe that there may be ethnic differences between Caucasians and Asian people in the efficacy and adverse effects of hormonal therapy.First,we showed that primary hormonal therapy can achieve long-term control of localized prostate cancer in some cases and that quality of life of patients receiving hormonal therapy is rather better than previously thought.Neoadjuvant and adjuvant hormonal therapy in cases undergoing radical prostatectomy or radiotherapy are very useful for high-risk or locally advanced prostate cancer.Further clinical trials are required to confirm the efficacy of neoadjuvant or adjuvant hormonal therapy.We showed that the death from cardiovascular diseases in Japanese patients receiving hormonal therapy was not higher than that in the general population.However,efforts should be made to decrease the adverse effects of hormonal therapy,because life-style change may increase the susceptibility to adverse effects by hormonal therapy even in Japan.Managements of endocrine and metabolic dysfunction,such as diabetes mellitus,are essential.New hormonal compounds such as selective androgen receptor modulators capable of specifically targeting prostate cancer are expected to be developed.

  7. Hysterectomy with ovarian conservation: effect on bone mineral density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lareon, G.; Baillon, L. [Westmead Hospital, Westmead, NSW, (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Ultrasound

    1997-09-01

    Full text: There are conflicting data on the long-term effects of hysterectomy with ovarian conservation on bone mineral density (BMD). Accordingly, we performed a cross-sectional study on 58 women with premenopausal hysterectomy and ovarian conservation (group 1) and 59 women with natural menopause (group 2). No subjects had disorders or medications known to interfere with bone metabolism. Patients underwent bone densitometry of the lumbar spine and hip using a Norland XR-36. By chi-squared and one-way ANOVA, there were no differences in age: 55.4{+-} 11.0 y (1)v 57.6{+-} 9.8 y (2); exercise, alcohol or smoking consumption, family history of osteoporosis, height: 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (1) v 1.61 {+-} 0.08m (2); weight 67.7 {+-} 11.3kg (1) v 68.3 kg {+-} 12.5 kg (2); body mass index: 30.95 (1 ) v 26.26 (2). Lumbar spine BMD was also similar for the two groups [0.95 {+-} 0.18g/cm{sup 2} (1) v 0.94{+-} 0.21 g/cm{sup 2} (2)]. However, hysterectomy patients had a significantly lower hip BMD: 0.63 {+-} 0.16 g/cm{sup 2} v 0.76 {+-} 0.18 g/cm{sup 2} (p>0.001). Multivariate logistic regression showed that spine BMD was influenced by age, family history, height and weight (R{sup 2} = 0.37), but not prior hysterectomy. Hip BMD was related to age, hysterectomy, smoking and weight (R{sup 2} = o 45). We conclude that prior hysterectomy with ovarian conservation has an adverse effect on hip but not spine BMD.

  8. Hepatic late adverse effects after antineoplastic treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renee L.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Van den Hof, Malon; Bresters, Dorine; Koot, Bart G. P.; Castellino, Sharon M.; Loke, Yoon; Leclercq, Edith; Post, Piet N.; Caron, Huib N.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival rates have greatly improved as a result of more effective treatments for childhood cancer. Unfortunately the improved prognosis has resulted in the occurrence of late, treatment-related complications. Liver complications are common during and soon after treatment for childhood ca

  9. Abuse potential and adverse cognitive effects of mitragynine (kratom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Nurul H M; Suhaimi, Farah W; Vadivelu, Raja K; Hassan, Zurina; Rümler, Anne; Rotter, Andrea; Amato, Davide; Dringenberg, Hans C; Mansor, Sharif M; Navaratnam, Visweswaran; Müller, Christian P

    2016-01-01

    Mitragynine is the major psychoactive alkaloid of the plant kratom/ketum. Kratom is widely used in Southeast Asia as a recreational drug, and increasingly appears as a pure compound or a component of 'herbal high' preparations in the Western world. While mitragynine/kratom may have analgesic, muscle relaxant and anti-inflammatory effects, its addictive properties and effects on cognitive performance are unknown. We isolated mitragynine from the plant and performed a thorough investigation of its behavioural effects in rats and mice. Here we describe an addictive profile and cognitive impairments of acute and chronic mitragynine administration, which closely resembles that of morphine. Acute mitragynine has complex effects on locomotor activity. Repeated administration induces locomotor sensitization, anxiolysis and conditioned place preference, enhances expression of dopamine transporter- and dopamine receptor-regulating factor mRNA in the mesencephalon. While there was no increase in spontaneous locomotor activity during withdrawal, animals showed hypersensitivity towards small challenging doses for up to 14 days. Severe somatic withdrawal signs developed after 12 hours, and increased level of anxiety became evident after 24 hours of withdrawal. Acute mitragynine independently impaired passive avoidance learning, memory consolidation and retrieval, possibly mediated by a disruption of cortical oscillatory activity, including the suppression of low-frequency rhythms (delta and theta) in the electrocorticogram. Chronic mitragynine administration led to impaired passive avoidance and object recognition learning. Altogether, these findings provide evidence for an addiction potential with cognitive impairments for mitragynine, which suggest its classification as a harmful drug.

  10. The (Adverse) Effects of Expanding Higher Education: Evidence from Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedisano, Veruska

    2011-01-01

    Over the period 1995-1998 Italy experienced an expansion of its higher education supply with the aim of reducing regional differences in educational attainment. This paper evaluates the effects of this policy on enrolment, drop out and academic performance. The paper combines differences across provinces in the number of campuses constructed with…

  11. Effect of chronic metabolic acidosis on bone density and bone architecture in vivo in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Jürg A; Hulter, Henry N; Imboden, Peter; Krapf, Reto

    2014-03-01

    Chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) might result in a decrease in vivo in bone mass based on its reported in vitro inhibition of bone mineralization, bone formation, or stimulation of bone resorption, but such data, in the absence of other disorders, have not been reported. CMA also results in negative nitrogen balance, which might decrease skeletal muscle mass. This study analyzed the net in vivo effects of CMA's cellular and physicochemical processes on bone turnover, trabecular and cortical bone density, and bone microarchitecture using both peripheral quantitative computed tomography and μCT. CMA induced by NH4Cl administration (15 mEq/kg body wt/day) in intact and ovariectomized (OVX) rats resulted in stable CMA (mean Δ[HCO3(-)]p = 10 mmol/l). CMA decreased plasma osteocalcin and increased TRAP5b in intact and OVX animals. CMA decreased total volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) after 6 and 10 wk (week 10: intact normal +2.1 ± 0.9% vs. intact acidosis -3.6 ± 1.2%, P metabolic acidosis induces a large decrease in cortical bone mass (a prime determinant of bone fragility) in intact and OVX rats and impairs bone microarchitecture characterized by a decrease in trabecular number.

  12. Adverse effects of thalidomide administration in patients with neoplastic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Eleutherakis-Papaiakovou, Vagelis

    2004-10-01

    Thalidomide, a glutamic acid derivative, was withdrawn from clinical use in 1962 due to its severe teratogenic effects. Its recent reinstitution in clinical practice was related to its benefits in leprosy and multiple myeloma. Moreover, the antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory properties of thalidomide have led to its evaluation in several malignant diseases, including myelofibrosis, renal cell cancer, prostate cancer, and Kaposi sarcoma. However, thalidomide use is associated with several side effects: somnolence and constipation are the most common, while deep vein thrombosis and peripheral neuropathy are the most serious. A combination of thalidomide with steroids or chemotherapy is being evaluated in several phase 2 studies. While it is not yet clear whether these combinations will enhance efficacy, they appear to increase the toxicity of thalidomide, and thalidomide analogs are being developed to minimize this toxicity. Ongoing studies will clarify the potential advantages of these agents in the treatment of neoplastic diseases.

  13. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used...... in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were...... published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its...

  14. Aspects on reducing gastrointestinal adverse effects associated with radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksson, R.; Bergstroem, P.; Franzen, L. [Umea University Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology; Lewin, F. [Soedersjukhuset (South Hospital), Stockholm (Sweden); Wagenius, G. [Soedersjukhuset (South Hospital), Uppsala (Sweden)

    1999-08-01

    Patients receiving cancer therapy are afflicted with a diversity of side effects. Radiotherapy for cancer affecting the head and neck, oesophagus and pelvis is associated with a marked toxicity, specifically encountered as mucosal toxicity. Pain and diarrhoea as well as nausea and vomiting are the most common symptoms, with subsequent problems such as malnutrition and decreased quality of life. These side effects need to be reduced if we are to optimize radiotherapy and to cure patients. Because there is no straightforward way of obviating these side effects, every effort to prevent aggravation and to induce healing of mucosal changes is of prime importance. Numerous agents including antimicrobials, local and systemic analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-diarrhoeal drugs, and mucosal protectors alone or in combination with dietetic care have been used and/or are under evaluation in order to palliate the symptoms and increase the quality of life for the patients subjected to radiotherapy. In this article we summarize some aspects within the field that were discussed at the Annual Meeting of the Swedish Society for Oncology in Gaevle, 1997. (orig.)

  15. Endocrine disrupting chemicals – probability of adverse environmental effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some information about current state of knowledge of the risk due to exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs. Endocrine disruptors are defined as chemicals substances with either agonist or antagonist endocrine effects in human and wildlife. Exposure to EDCs in animals models correlate positively with an increased incidence of malformations of genital tract, on neoplasmas, obesity, alternations on male and female reproduction and changes in neuroendocrinology and behavior. Results from animal models, human clinical observations and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant risk to public health.

  16. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S. Blaner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A, as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered.

  17. Possible sertraline-induced extrapyramidal adverse effects in an adolescent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang LF

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lian-fang Wang,1 Jin-wen Huang,1 Si-yang Shan,2 Jia-hong Ding,3 Jian-bo Lai,1,2 Yi Xu,1,4 Shao-hua Hu1,4 1Department of Psychiatry, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 2Faculty of Clinical Medicine, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Key Laboratory of Mental Disorder’s Management in Zhejiang Province, National Clinical Research Center for Mental Health Disorders, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Sertraline has been considered to be a relatively safe selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for adolescents for a long time. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old Chinese boy with depression who experienced extrapyramidal-like effects, for example, facial spasm, upper limb dystonia, akathisia, and other disturbed behaviors, while being treated with sertraline 200 mg per day. His movement symptoms were significantly alleviated after the discontinuation of sertraline and the administration of scopolamine. This finding indicates that albeit infrequent, sertraline may cause severe extrapyramidal symptoms in adolescent patients, suggesting that clinicians should be alert to the neurological side effects of sertraline in young patients. Keywords: adolescents, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, sertraline, extrapyramidal symptoms

  18. The Adverse Effects of Alcohol on Vitamin A Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322

  19. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Ross

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: This review describes the health effects of beryllium exposure in the workplace and the environment. Aim: To collate information on the consequences of occupational and environmental exposure to beryllium on physiological function and well being. Materials and Methods: The criteria used in the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized articles were tabulated. Years 2001-10 gave the greatest match (45.9% for methodological parameters, followed by 27.71% for 1991-2000. Years 1971-80 and 1981-90 were not significantly different in the information published and available whereas years 1951-1960 showed a lack of suitable articles. Some articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures need to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element, making its biological monitoring in the workplace essential.

  20. The effect of lead in bone densitometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Marija; McNeill, Fiona E.; Webber, Colin E.; Chettle, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is presently considered the standard technique for diagnosis of osteoporosis. It has been suggested that the presence of lead interferes with the accurate measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) by DXA because of the increased attenuation and that an accurate measurement of BMD cannot be determined unless the patient's bone lead content of patients is known. We performed DXA measurements on plaster of Paris phantoms and a Hologic Spine phantom in combination with polyester resin doped with various concentrations of lead. At lead levels which correspond to bone concentrations in occupationally exposed individuals, the suggested increase in densitometric BMD was not detected. Numerical calculations show that the effect of the lead depends upon the two energies of the X-ray beam of a particular device. The discrepancy between the actual and the densitometric BMD increases linearly and is about 0.3% at 100 ppm. Such change cannot be detected by the Hologic QDR 4500A, the device used for this experiment.

  1. Adverse effects of advanced glycation end products on embryonal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu,Yuji

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs, which are known to accumulate in patients with diabetes, autoimmune diseases, or those who smoke, on embryonal development. Pronuclear (PN embryos were obtained by flushing the fallopian tubes of rats after superovulation and mating. The cleavage rate and blastocyst yield were evaluated at 24, 72, 96, and 120 h of culture. Glyoxal, an AGE-forming aldehyde, suppressed embryonal development at every stage from PN to blastocyst in a concentration-dependent manner. The cleavage rate of the embryo was also signifi cantly decreased by treatment with glyoxal at concentrations of 1 mM or higher. The blastocyst yield was significantly decreased by treatment with glyoxal at concentrations of 0.5 mM or higher. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (L-NAC at 1 mM significantly suppressed the glyoxal-induced embryonal toxicity. BSA-AGEs at 5 microg/ml or higher concentration signifi cantly reduced the cleavage rate and blastocyst yield compared to those for BSA-treated embryos. L-NAC at 1 mM significantly suppressed BSAAGE-induced embryonal toxicity. Because AGEs are embryo-toxic, AGE contamination may influence the pregnancy rate of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer. AGEs, which are increased in women under pathological conditions, may also be involved in their infertility.

  2. Assessment of Aerobic Exercise Adverse Effects during COPD Exacerbation Hospitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Knaut

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Aerobic exercise performed after hospital discharge for exacerbated COPD patients is already recommended to improve respiratory and skeletal muscle strength, increase tolerance to activity, and reduce the sensation of dyspnea. Previous studies have shown that anaerobic activity can clinically benefit patients hospitalized with exacerbated COPD. However, there is little information on the feasibility and safety of aerobic physical activity performed by patients with exacerbated COPD during hospitalization. Objective. To evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on vital signs in hospitalized patients with exacerbated COPD. Patients and Methods. Eleven COPD patients (63% female, FEV1: 34.2 ± 13.9% and age: 65 ± 11 years agreed to participate. Aerobic exercise was initiated 72 hours after admission on a treadmill; speed was obtained from the distance covered in a 6-minute walk test (6MWT. Vital signs were assessed before and after exercise. Results. During the activity systolic blood pressure increased from 125.2 ± 13.6 to 135.8 ± 15.0 mmHg (p=0.004 and respiratory rate from 20.9 ± 4.4 to 24.2 ± 4.5 rpm (p=0.008 and pulse oximetry (SpO2 decreased from 93.8 ± 2.3 to 88.5 ± 5.7% (p<0.001. Aerobic activity was considered intense, heart rate ranged from 99.2 ± 11.5 to 119.1 ± 11.1 bpm at the end of exercise (p=0.092, and patients reached on average 76% of maximum heart rate. Conclusion. Aerobic exercise conducted after 72 hours of hospitalization in patients with exacerbated COPD appears to be safe.

  3. Potential adverse effects of omega-3 Fatty acids in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenox, C E; Bauer, J E

    2013-01-01

    Fish oil omega-3 fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, are used in the management of several diseases in companion animal medicine, many of which are inflammatory in nature. This review describes metabolic differences among omega-3 fatty acids and outlines potential adverse effects that may occur with their supplementation in dogs and cats with a special focus on omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil. Important potential adverse effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation include altered platelet function, gastrointestinal adverse effects, detrimental effects on wound healing, lipid peroxidation, potential for nutrient excess and toxin exposure, weight gain, altered immune function, effects on glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and nutrient-drug interactions.

  4. Interactive effects of social adversity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia activity on reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-related cardiac activity has been linked to aggression. However, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to reactive-proactive aggression. In the current study, 84 male and female college students self-reported reactive and proactive aggression, and were assessed for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of PNS-related cardiac activity, during rest and when they contemplated an emotion-evoking decision-making task. Regression analyses showed that (a) resting RSA was positively linked to reactive aggression in conditions of high social adversity, and (b) RSA reactivity was positively associated with reactive but negatively associated with proactive aggression, in conditions of low social adversity. Main effects were not found for psychophysiological functioning or psychosocial adversity, suggesting the importance of their interaction. Findings support a biosocial basis for aggression and add additional support for the distinctions between reactive and proactive aggression.

  5. Changes in total body bone mineral density following a common bone health plan with two versions of a unique bone health supplement: a comparative effectiveness research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dapilmoto Monika

    2011-04-01

    baseline was significantly greater than the increase from baseline in AlgaeCal 1. Increased compliance was associated with greater increases in BMD in both groups. No adverse effects were reported in either group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01114685

  6. The Effects of Obesity on Murine Cortical Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sophi

    This dissertation details the effects of obesity on the mechanical properties and structure of cortical bone. Obesity is associated with greater bone mineral content that might be expected to protect against fracture, which has been observed in adults. Paradoxically however, the incidence of bone fractures has been found to increase in overweight and obese children and adolescents. Femora from adolescent and adult mice fed a high-fat diet are investigated for changes in shape, tissue structure, as well as tissue-level and whole-bone mechanical properties. Results indicate increased bone size, reduced size-independent mechanical properties, but maintained size-dependent mechanical properties. Other changes in cortical bone response to obesity are observed with advancing age. This study indicates that bone quantity and bone quality play important compensatory roles in determining fracture risk, and that fracture risk may not be lessened for adults as previously thought.

  7. Bone repair: Effects of physical exercise and LPS systemic exposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Jonatas E; Branco, Luiz G S; Issa, João Paulo M

    2016-08-01

    Bone repair can be facilitated by grafting, biochemical and physical stimulation. Conversely, it may be delayed lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Physical exercise exerts beneficial effects on the bone, but its effect on bone repair is not known. We investigated the effect of exercise on the LPS action on bone healing through bone densitometry, quantitative histological analysis for bone formation rate and immunohistochemical markers in sedentary and exercised animals. Rats ran on the treadmill for four weeks. After training the rats were submitted to a surgical procedure (bone defect in the right tibia) and 24h after the surgery LPS was administered at a dose of 100μg/kg i.p., whereas the control rats received a saline injection (1ml/kg, i.p.). Right tibias were obtained for analysis after 10days during which rats were not submitted to physical training. Physical exercise had a positive effect on bone repair, increasing bone mineral density, bone mineral content, bone formation rate, type I collagen and osteocalcin expression. These parameters were not affected by systemic administration of LPS. Our data indicate that physical exercise has an important osteogenic effect, which is maintained during acute systemic inflammation induced by exposure to a single dose of LPS.

  8. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  9. Room for improvement? A survey of the methods used in systematic reviews of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Heather M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the methods for conducting systematic reviews of efficacy are well established, there is much less guidance on how systematic reviews of adverse effects should be performed. Methods In order to determine where methodological research is most needed to improve systematic reviews of adverse effects of health care interventions, we conducted a descriptive analysis of systematic reviews published between 1994 and 2005. We searched the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE and The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR to identify systematic reviews in which the primary outcome was an adverse effect or effects. We then extracted data on many of the elements of the systematic review process including: types of interventions studied, adverse effects of interest, resources searched, search strategies, data sources included in reviews, quality assessment of primary data, nature of the data analysis, and source of funding. Results 256 reviews were included in our analysis, of which the majority evaluated drug interventions and pre-specified the adverse effect or effects of interest. A median of 3 resources were searched for each review and very few reviews (13/256 provided sufficient information to reproduce their search strategies. Although more than three quarters (185/243 of the reviews sought to include data from sources other than randomised controlled trials, fewer than half (106/256 assessed the quality of the studies that were included. Data were pooled quantitatively in most of the reviews (165/256 but heterogeneity was not always considered. Less than half (123/256 of the reviews reported on the source of funding. Conclusion There is an obvious need to improve the methodology and reporting of systematic reviews of adverse effects. The methodology around identification and quality assessment of primary data is the main concern.

  10. Adverse effects associated with intravenous pentamidine isethionate as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, U; Nielsen, T L

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the adverse effects of intravenous pentamidine isethionate, a retrospective study was carried out over a four-year period. Twenty-one acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients received intravenous pentamidine as treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). This was 13......% of the total number of patients with PCP in the department during that period. Four patients died during treatment and were not evaluated for side effects. Thirteen patients (13/17 = 76%) suffered from one or more minor side effects. The most common of these were gastrointestinal discomfort, pancreatitis......, nephro- and hepatotoxicity. Five patients (5/17 = 29%) experienced a major adverse effect. These were cardiac arrest (one patient), severe hypoglycaemia (one patient) and severe pancreatitis (three patients). In two patients, discontinuation of treatment was necessary due to adverse reactions. As long...

  11. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Mostaan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants' meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods.

  12. Adverse effects of BCG vaccine 1173 P2 in Iran: A meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostaan, Saied; Yazdanpanah, Bahador; Moukhah, Rasool; Hozouri, Hamid Reza; Rostami, Manouchehr; Khorashadizadeh, Mohsen; Zerehsaz, Javad; Mahabadi, Ramin Pirhajati; Saadi, Arya; Khanahmad, Hossein; Pooya, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Although in the last two decades the World Health Organization (WHO) has introduced tuberculosis as “a threat to global”, the vaccination with the Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only way for the prevention of this fatal infectious disease. Despite of the efficacy of BCG vaccine especially against infants’ meningitis, it has still some limitations due to a variety of adverse effects. Many studies have evaluated the side effects of different strains of BCG vaccines in different countries. In Iran, some studies have been done so far to evaluate the adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain which is used for BCG vaccination. Each of these studies have used different standardization and sampling methods. This review will survey all studies that have been published about adverse effects of 1173 P2 strain of BCG vaccine in Iran using data mining methods. PMID:27376038

  13. Identifying systematic reviews of the adverse effects of health care interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McIntosh Heather M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to carry out a methodological research survey of systematic reviews of adverse effects we needed to retrieve a sample of systematic reviews in which the primary outcome is an adverse effect or effects. Methods We carried out searches of the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR for systematic reviews of adverse effects published between 1994 to 2005. The search strategies used a combination of text words in the title and abstract, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH and subheadings/qualifiers. In addition, DARE records in progress were hand searched. No language restrictions were placed on any of the searches. The performance, in terms of sensitivity and precision, of the search strategies and their combinations were tested in DARE and CDSR. Results In total 3635 records were screened of which 257 met our inclusion criteria. The precision of the searches in CDSR was low (0% to 3%, and no one search strategy could retrieve all the relevant records in either DARE or CDSR. Hand searching the records from DARE and CDSR not retrieved by our searches indicated that we had missed relevant systematic reviews in both DARE and CDSR. The sensitivities of many of the search combinations were comparable to those found when searching for primary studies in which adverse effects are secondary outcomes. Conclusion Searching major databases of systematic reviews, for systematic reviews of adverse effects, proved more difficult than anticipated due to a lack of standard terminology used by the authors, inadequate indexing and the variations in the search interfaces of the databases. At present hand searching all records in DARE and CDSR seems to be the only way to ensure retrieval of all systematic reviews of adverse effects in these databases.

  14. Finasteride adverse effects and post-finasteride syndrome; implications for dentists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Paunica

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor widely used in present in the therapeutic approach of androgenic alopecia. Adverse effects consist in variable sign and symptoms, the most common being represented by mental troubles (reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions, depression, physical impairments (loss of muscle tone and/or mass and sexual complains (loss of libido and sexual potency. An increasing number of studies identify and describe even a post-finasteride syndrome (persistent adverse affects three months or more after finasteride cessation or new adverse effects including but not limited at the skin level or oral cavity (marginal periodontium. We intend to present in this study several oral adverse effects encountered during finasteride administration, represented by mild and moderate signs which generally responded to topical procedures without to require the stop of the drug administration. New studies on large samples will further document the existing relation between the described oral adverse effects and the implied pathophysiological mechanisms. For this moment, we are taking into account as possible mechanisms- a direct action of finasteride administration, possible indirect consequences due to hormonal interferences, or coexisting factors with finasteride administration that were not detected.

  15. Prevalence of Adverse Effects Post-Brachytherapy on Women with Uterine Cervix Cancer in Durango, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Higmar; Yañez, Elvia; Deras, Diana C.; Reyes, Francianella

    2010-12-01

    This work aimed at determining the local prevalence of adverse effects on women with CaCu that recieved LDR brachytherapy treatment at CECAN. The data was extracted from the patient's and medical physics' departement records. Non Gaussian statistics was used due to dose distribution characteristics. A total of 103 patients were studied with average age of 55±13 years and Ia-IV FIGO clinical clasification. The observed prevalence is higher than that reported by other studies. It was observed that patients with proctitis were prescribed a slightly higher dose than those without adverse effects (90% confidence). Patients with proctitis also presented higher age (95% confidence) when compared with the mean of the studied population. The inverse applies to the group with other adverse effects, its average age is lower than the mean (90% confidence).

  16. Data mining in pharmacovigilance – to reduce Adverse Drug Effects(ADRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miral Kothari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industry provides the medicines in different formats. It can be tablets, capsules, liquid or injectables. Every drug in any form may cause adverse effect varies from person to person. Before putting any drug in the market, the drugs are being tested for adverse effects on large scale. Pharacovigilance is a science which is purely related with discovery, understanding and anticipation of the Adverse Drug Effect (ADEs. Pharmaceutical experts and industries much rely on data mining algorithms or techniques to understand the huge data collected from healthcare professionals and patients and make the use of that data for further research and development of new drug. In this paper, author has tried to implement Bayesian Classification method of data mining to assist the research person in decision making

  17. Adverse health effects of cigarette smoke: aldehydes Crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde, hexanal and malonaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Sleijffers A; Schenk E; Rambali B; Wolterink G; Werken G van de; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; Amsterdam JGC van; TOX

    2006-01-01

    Crotonaldehyde in cigarette smoke can be concluded to induce airway damage in humans. This is one conclusion derived from the existing data found in the literature and reported here in the discussion on adverse health effects and possible addictive effects due to the exposure of crotonaldehyde, buty

  18. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH ANTIBODY DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aghamohammadi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG infusion is an effective treatment for children with humoral immunodeficiencies, already be complicated by systemic ad¬verse effects. In order to determine the adverse effects of intravenous immunoglobulin inpatients with antibody deficiency, 45 immunodeficientpatients receiving intravenous immunoglobulin were studied during a 36-month period at Children's Medical Center. The investigated group included 25 patients with common variable immunodeficiency, 14 patients with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and 6 patients with IgG subclass defi¬ciency. A total of fifty adverse effects occurred through 955 infusions (5.2%. The most frequent immediate adverse effects were mild (40 infusions out of 955 in 22 cases, including: chills, flushing, fever, nausea and headache. Three patients experienced mod¬erate effects (10 infusions out of 955 such as rash, severe headache, joint pain and chest tightness. None of the effects was anaphylactic type. It can be concluded that intravenous immunoglobulin is generally a well-tolerated medical agent for patients with antibody deficiency, but all patients should be monitored by a physician who is familiar with its indications, risks, adverse effects and their appropriate management.

  19. 40 CFR 159.184 - Toxic or adverse effect incident reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., an incident which allegedly caused serious but non-fatal effects to human beings and domestic animals...-target organism—for example, both humans and domestic animals are involved—all appropriate available... onset of symptoms. (F) Was adverse effect the result of suicide/homicide or attempted...

  20. Global Warming and the Green Paradox: A review of adverse effects of climate policies

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick van der Ploeg; Cees Withagen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the possible adverse effects of well-intended climate policies. A weak Green Paradox arises if the announcement of a future carbon tax or a sufficiently fast rising carbon tax encourages fossil fuel owners to extract reserves more aggressively, thus exacerbating global warming. We argue that such policies may also encourage more fossil fuel to be locked in the crust of the earth, which can offset the adverse effects of the weak Green Paradox. We show that a subsidy on cl...

  1. Unrecognized renal insufficiency and chemotherapy-associated adverse effects among breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotan, Eyal; Leader, Avi; Lishner, Michael; Gottfried, Maya; Pereg, David

    2012-10-01

    Several studies have shown that more than half of cancer patients have unrecognized renal insufficiency (RI), which is a reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with normal serum creatinine. The aim of this study was to determine whether unrecognized RI is associated with an increased risk for chemotherapy-associated adverse effects in breast cancer patients treated with combined doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide treatment. GFR was estimated for 95 breast cancer patients from January 2005 to August 2009 using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. Unrecognized RI was defined as GFR less than 75 ml/min/1.73 m and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of GFR on clinical outcomes. In total, 49 (52%) patients experienced at least one of the following chemotherapy-associated adverse effects during the course of treatment: an episode of neutropenic fever with hospital admission, a delay in chemotherapy treatment for a medical reason, a need for dose adjustment because of toxicity of the chemotherapeutic drugs, and the need for use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The incidence of these adverse effects occurred more frequently in patients with GFR less than 75 compared with patients with GFR at least 75 (64 vs. 42%, odds ratio 5.29, 95% confidence interval 2.10-13.33) and remained statistically significant after adjustment for age, BMI, and initial doses of chemotherapeutic drugs (odds ratio 3.56, 95% confidence interval 1.08-11.67). Neutropenic fever, dose delay, and dose adjustment as separate outcomes occurred more frequently in the GFR less than 75 group but lost statistical significance after adjustment. Our results demonstrate that unrecognized RI is associated with an increased risk for chemotherapy-associated adverse events in this patient population. Further prospective studies are required to determine whether a dose reduction in patients with unrecognized RI reduces adverse effects

  2. No effect of Osteoset, a bone graft substitute, on bone healing in humans: a prospective randomized double-blind study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petruskevicius, Juozas; Nielsen, Mette Strange; Kaalund, Søren;

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects of a newly marketed bone substitute, Osteoset, on bone healing in a tibial defect in humans. 20 patients undergoing an ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction with bone-patella tendon-bone graft were block-randomized into 2 groups of 10 each. In the treatment group...

  3. Adverse psychological outcomes in long-term survivors of hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study (BMTSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Can-Lan; Francisco, Liton; Baker, K Scott; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Forman, Stephen J; Bhatia, Smita

    2011-10-27

    Little information exists regarding long-term psychological health of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors. Using resources offered by the Bone Marrow Transplant Survivor Study (BMTSS), we evaluated adverse psychological outcomes in 1065 long-term HCT survivors and a healthy comparison group composed of siblings. Psychological health status was evaluated using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Twenty-two percent of the HCT survivors reported adverse psychological outcomes, compared with 8% of the siblings. Exposure to prednisone was associated with psychological distress across all domains (anxiety, depression, and somatic distress). Fifteen percent of the HCT survivors reported somatic distress, representing an almost 3-fold higher risk comparing to siblings. Among survivors, in addition to low annual household income and self-reported poor health, having severe/life-threatening conditions and presence of active chronic GVHD were associated with a 2-fold increased risk for somatic distress. Seven percent of the HCT survivors expressed suicidal ideation; patients with higher scores on depression subscale were most vulnerable. This study demonstrates that somatic distress is the biggest challenge faced by survivors long after HCT. These results identify vulnerable subpopulations and provide patients, families, and healthcare providers with necessary information to plan for post-HCT needs many years after HCT.

  4. A replication of the study ‘Adverse effects of spinal manipulation: a systematic review’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuchin Peter

    2012-09-01

    the application of SMT and related adverse effects.

  5. Disuse exaggerates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, Theresa E.; Kennedy, Angela M.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis. However, comorbidity factors may play an important role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-related bone fractures. Suboptimal mechanical loading of the skeleton, an established risk factor for bone loss, may occur in some alcohol abusers due to reduced physical activity, muscle atrophy, or both. The effect of alcohol consumption and reduced physical activity on bone metabolism has not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to determine whether mechanical disuse alters bone metabolism in a rat model for chronic alcohol abuse. METHODS: Alcohol was administered in the diet (35% caloric intake) of 6-month-old male rats for 4 weeks. Rats were hindlimb-unloaded the final 2 weeks of the experiment to prevent dynamic weight bearing. Afterward, cortical bone histomorphometry was evaluated at the tibia-fibula synostosis. RESULTS: At the periosteal surface of the tibial diaphysis, alcohol and hindlimb unloading independently decreased the mineralizing perimeter, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. In addition, alcohol, but not hindlimb unloading, increased endocortical bone resorption. The respective detrimental effects of alcohol and hindlimb unloading to inhibit bone formation were additive; there was no interaction between the two variables. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced weight bearing accentuates the detrimental effects of alcohol on cortical bone in adult male rats by further inhibiting bone formation. This finding suggests that reduced physical activity may be a comorbidity factor for osteoporosis in alcohol abusers.

  6. Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmberger, Thomas K.; Hoffmann, Ralf-Thorsten

    The typical clinical signs in bone tumours are pain, destruction and destabilization, immobilization, neurologic deficits, and finally functional impairment. Primary malignant bone tumours are a rare entity, accounting for about 0.2% of all malignancies. Also benign primary bone tumours are in total rare and mostly asymptomatic. The most common symptomatic benign bone tumour is osteoid osteoma with an incidence of 1:2000.

  7. Effect of enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain) on bone defects in rabbit tibias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelini, Roberto; Scarano, Antonio; Piattelli, Maurizio; Andreana, Sebastiano; Covani, Ugo; Quaranta, Alessandro; Piattelli, Adriano

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of an enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain, Biora, AB, Malmö, Sweden) on bone healing. Ten New Zealand rabbits, weighing about 2.5 kg, were used. One 8-mm bone defect was created in each tibia. The defect on the right leg was filled with Emdogain, whereas the defect on the opposite leg was left unfilled as control. A total of 20 defects were created. Five rabbits each were killed at 4 and 8 weeks with an overdose of Tanax. Block sections containing the defects were retrieved and the specimens processed for light microscopy examination. The slides were stained with acid and basic fuchsin and toluidine blue. Histologically, no differences were noted in both groups at each observation period; in the test group, remnants of the implanted Emdogain were not present at 4 weeks. Newly formed bone was detectable in both groups at all observation times. At 8 weeks, both groups showed mature bone, and in the test group the material implanted was not visible. No inflammatory cells were visible in both groups. In conclusion, our results indicate that Emdogain implanted in bone defects is fully resorbed after 4 to 8 weeks and does not adversely affect bone formation.

  8. Post-Finasteride Adverse Effects in Male Androgenic Alopecia: A Case Report of Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Paunica, Stana; Constantin, Vlad D; Balalau, Cristian; Manea, Mirela; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride has proved to be relatively safe and effective in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. However, literature data report several endocrine imbalances inducing various adverse effects, which often persist after treatment cessation in the form of post-finasteride syndrome. Here we present the case of a 52-year-old man receiving finasteride (1 mg/day) who developed an uncommon adverse effect represented by generalized vitiligo 2 months after finasteride discontinuation. Associated adverse effects encountered were represented by mild sexual dysfunction (as determined by the International Index of Erectile Function, IIEF) and moderate depressive symptoms (according to DSM-V criteria), all of these manifestations aggregating within/as a possible post-finasteride syndrome. Further studies should develop and compare several therapeutic approaches, taking into account not only compounds that decrease the circulating dihydrotestosterone level but also those that could block the dihydrotestosterone receptors (if possible, compounds with selective tropism towards the skin). In addition, the possibility of predicting adverse effects of finasteride (according to hand preference and sexual orientation) should be taken into account.

  9. The effects of bone marrow aspirate, bone graft, and collagen composites on fixation of titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Sandri, Monica

    2012-01-01

    contamination, and non union as well as the potential risk of disease transmission. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites (HA/Collagen) have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. This study attempted to determine the effects of newly developed HA/Collagen-composites with and without bone...... marrow aspirate (BMA) on enhancement of bone implant fixation. Method: Titanium alloy implants were inserted into bilateral femoral condyles of eight skeletally mature sheep, four implants per sheep. The implant had a circumferential gap of 2 mm. The gap was filled with: HA/Collagen; HA/Collagen...... and histomorphometry between autograft and allograft groups. The implants in both the HA/Collagen and HA/Collagen-BMA groups were mostly surrounded by fibrous tissue. Thus, mechanical testing of these samples was impossible. The histomorphometry results showed significantly more new bone and bone ongrowth...

  10. Potassium fertilization mitigates the adverse effects of drought on selected Zea mays cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present study, the role of potassium (K) in mitigating the adverse effects of drought stress (DS) on 2 maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars, ‘Shaandan 9’ (S9; drought-tolerant) and ‘Shaandan 911’ (S911; drought-sensitive), was assessed. K application increased dry matter (DM) across all growth stage...

  11. Is enough attention being given to the adverse effects of corticosteroid therapy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hougardy, DMC; Peterson, GM; Bleasel, MD; Randall, CTC

    2000-01-01

    Background: Although the corticosteroids are valuable anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents, they also possess many potential adverse effects, especially with continued use. In particular, long-term corticosteroid exposure carries a significant risk of osteoporosis. Aim: To review the use o

  12. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, J. A.; Wells, G. A.; Christensen, Robin Daniel Kjersgaard

    2011-01-01

    Background Biologics are used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and many other conditions. While the efficacy of biologics has been established, there is uncertainty regarding the adverse effects of this treatment. Since serious risks such as tuberculosis (TB) reactivation, serious...

  13. Adverse renal effects of hydrochlorothiazide in rats with myocardial infarction treated with an ACE inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Bart; Hamming, Inge; Szymanski, Mariusz K.; Navis, Gerjan; van Goor, Harry; Buikema, Hendrik; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Schoemaker, Regien G.

    2009-01-01

    Diuretics, when added to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) treatment, can augment the response to ACE inhibitors, but may have adverse effects on renal function, which negatively affect prognosis. While in heart failure rats combined therapy initially improved cardiac functio

  14. Trastuzumab-associated cardiac adverse effects in the herceptin adjuvant trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suter, Thomas M.; Procter, Marion; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Muscholl, Michael; Bergh, Jonas; Carlomagno, Chiara; Perren, Timothy; Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Bighin, Claudia; Klijn, Jan G. M.; Ageev, Fail T.; Hitre, Erika; Groetz, Juergen; Iwata, Hiroji; Knap, Malgorzata; Gnant, Michael; Muehlbauer, Susanne; Spence, Alison; Gelber, Richard D.; Piccart-Gebhart, Martine J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this analysis was to investigate trastuzumab- associated cardiac adverse effects in breast cancer patients after completion of ( neo) adjuvant chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Patients and Methods The Herceptin Adjuvant ( HERA) trial is a three- group, multicenter, o

  15. Adverse Effect of Child Abuse Victimization among Substance-Using Women in Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Yeon; Magura, Stephen; Laudet, Alexandre; Whitney, Shirley

    1999-01-01

    Study examined adverse effects of childhood sexual/physical abuse among substance-abusing women with children. Several significant differences between abused and nonabused women were found in service outcomes. Abused women had more problems relating to drug use and psychiatric/psychological adjustment at follow-up. Findings support a need for…

  16. Management of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects in the treatment of colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansman, FGA; Sleijfer, DT; de Graaf, JC; Coenen, JLLM; Brouwers, JRBJ

    2001-01-01

    The anticancer agents fluorouracil, raltitrexed, irinotecan and oxaliplatin show limited efficacy in the treatment of colorectal cancer and may be associated with substantial toxicity. Therefore, the prevention and reduction of chemotherapy-induced adverse effects is of major significance, in accord

  17. The use of exercise interventions to overcome adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergren, Peter Busch; Kistorp, Caroline; Bennedbæk, Finn Noe;

    2016-01-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) induces severe hypogonadism and is associated with several adverse effects that negatively affect health and quality of life in patients with prostate cancer. ADT changes body composition characterized by an increase in fat mass and a reduction in muscle mass an...

  18. Classification of Chemical Substances and Adverse Effects of Chemical Substances on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Söyleriz, Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    In this study, classification of chemical substances and adverse effects of chemical substances on human health in European Union and Turkey are assessed. Method In this study, national and international legislation and practices in the countries of the European Union are reviewed.

  19. Alkaloids in the human food chain - Natural occurrence and possible adverse effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koleva, I.; Beek, van T.A.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Dusemund, B.; Rietjens, I.

    2012-01-01

    Alkaloid-containing plants are an intrinsic part of the regular Western diet. The present paper summarizes the occurrence of alkaloids in the food chain, their mode of action and possible adverse effects including a safety assessment. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are a reason for concern because of their

  20. The Impact of Perceived Adverse Effects on Medication Changes in Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Smedt, Ruth H. E.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M.; Denig, Petra

    2010-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of patient safety and well-being, we quantified the likelihood and type of medication changes observed after 5 possible adverse effects (AE) perceived by heart failure (HF) patients. Methods and Results: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using 18 months follo

  1. A Serious Adverse Effect of Pseudoephedrine Used For Common Cold Treatment : Ventricular Arrhythmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Aypak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Common cold is one of the frequently seen disease in childhood. Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH is a sympathomimetic drug which is widely used for treatment of common cold as a decongestant on children. The aim of this case report is, to draw attention to serious adverse effects of PEH treatment. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(3.000: 506-510

  2. Adverse effects of extra-articular corticosteroid injections: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Brinks (Tineke); B.W. Koes (Bart); A.C. Volkers (Aloysius); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. To estimate the occurrence and type of adverse effects after application of an extra-articular (soft tissue) corticosteroid injection. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was made based on a PubMed and Embase search covering the period 1956 to January 2010. Case re

  3. Risk of serious adverse effects of biological and targeted drugs in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Simon; Eric Furst, Daniel; Boers, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine possible differences in serious adverse effects among the 10 currently approved biological and targeted synthetic DMARDs (b/ts-DMARDs) for RA. METHODS: Systematic review in bibliographic databases, trial registries and websites of regulatory agencies identified randomized...... differences in rates of SAEs. Our data suggest caution should be taken when deciding among available drugs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO CRD42014014842....

  4. Recombinant human growth hormone treatment, using two dose regimens in children with chronic renal failure--a report on linear growth and adverse effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Holmberg, Christer; Rönnholm, Kai A R

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the efficiency and the adverse effects of 2 or 4 IU/m2/day of growth hormone (GH) in the first year and 4 IU/m2/day in the second. Of 29 growth-retarded children with chronic renal failure (CRF) (aged 3.4-15.1 years), 23 completed the first year of therapy, and 16...... overt insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In conclusion, glucose metabolism should be monitored in children with CRF during rhGH-treatment. GH therapy in our patients resulted in a significant increase in height velocity with no inappropriate bone age progression and few serious adverse effects, all...

  5. Adverse effects of the antimalaria drug, mefloquine: due to primary liver damage with secondary thyroid involvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine is a clinically important antimalaria drug, which is often not well tolerated. We critically reviewed 516 published case reports of mefloquine adverse effects, to clarify the phenomenology of the harms associated with mefloquine, and to make recommendations for safer prescribing. Presentation We postulate that many of the adverse effects of mefloquine are a post-hepatic syndrome caused by primary liver damage. In some users we believe that symptomatic thyroid disturbance occurs, either independently or as a secondary consequence of the hepatocellular injury. The mefloquine syndrome presents in a variety of ways including headache, gastrointestinal disturbances, nervousness, fatigue, disorders of sleep, mood, memory and concentration, and occasionally frank psychosis. Previous liver or thyroid disease, and concurrent insults to the liver (such as from alcohol, dehydration, an oral contraceptive pill, recreational drugs, and other liver-damaging drugs may be related to the development of severe or prolonged adverse reactions to mefloquine. Implications We believe that people with active liver or thyroid disease should not take mefloquine, whereas those with fully resolved neuropsychiatric illness may do so safely. Mefloquine users should avoid alcohol, recreational drugs, hormonal contraception and co-medications known to cause liver damage or thyroid damage. With these caveats, we believe that mefloquine may be safely prescribed in pregnancy, and also to occupational groups who carry out safety-critical tasks. Testing Mefloquine's adverse effects need to be investigated through a multicentre cohort study, with small controlled studies testing specific elements of the hypothesis.

  6. From the exposome to mechanistic understanding of chemical-induced adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, Beate I; Hackermüller, Jörg; Polte, Tobias; Scholz, Stefan; Aigner, Achim; Altenburger, Rolf; Böhme, Alexander; Bopp, Stephanie K; Brack, Werner; Busch, Wibke; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc; Covaci, Adrian; Eisenträger, Adolf; Galligan, James J; Garcia-Reyero, Natalia; Hartung, Thomas; Hein, Michaela; Herberth, Gunda; Jahnke, Annika; Kleinjans, Jos; Klüver, Nils; Krauss, Martin; Lamoree, Marja; Lehmann, Irina; Luckenbach, Till; Miller, Gary W; Müller, Andrea; Phillips, David H; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Schwikowski, Benno; Tan, Yu-Mei; Trump, Saskia; Walter-Rohde, Susanne; Wambaugh, John F

    2017-02-01

    The exposome encompasses an individual's exposure to exogenous chemicals, as well as endogenous chemicals that are produced or altered in response to external stressors. While the exposome concept has been established for human health, its principles can be extended to include broader ecological issues. The assessment of exposure is tightly interlinked with hazard assessment. Here, we explore if mechanistic understanding of the causal links between exposure and adverse effects on human health and the environment can be improved by integrating the exposome approach with the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) concept that structures and organizes the sequence of biological events from an initial molecular interaction of a chemical with a biological target to an adverse outcome. Complementing exposome research with the AOP concept may facilitate a mechanistic understanding of stress-induced adverse effects, examine the relative contributions from various components of the exposome, determine the primary risk drivers in complex mixtures, and promote an integrative assessment of chemical risks for both human and environmental health.

  7. Systematic Review of Adverse Effects: A Further Step towards Modernization of Acupuncture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a further step towards the modernization of acupuncture, the objective of this review was to figure out the frequency and severity of adverse complications and events in acupuncture treatment reported from 1980 to 2013 in China. All first-hand case reports of acupuncture-related complications and adverse events that could be identified in the scientific literature were reviewed and classified according to the type of complication and adverse event, circumstance of the event, and long-term patient outcome. The selected case reports were published between 1980 and 2013 in 3 databases. Relevant papers were collected and analyzed by 2 reviewers. Over the 33 years, 182 incidents were identified in 133 relevant papers. Internal organ, tissue, or nerve injury is the main complications of acupuncture especially for pneumothorax and central nervous system injury. Adverse effects also included syncope, infections, hemorrhage, allergy, burn, aphonia, hysteria, cough, thirst, fever, somnolence, and broken needles. Qualifying training of acupuncturists should be systemized and the clinical acupuncture operations should be standardized in order to effectively prevent the occurrence of acupuncture accidents, enhance the influence of acupuncture, and further popularize acupuncture to the rest of the world.

  8. Preventive Effects of Folic Acid Supplementation on Adverse Maternal and Fetal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Min Woo Kim; Ki Hoon Ahn; Ki-Jin Ryu; Soon-Cheol Hong; Ji Sung Lee; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Min-Jeong Oh; Hai-Joong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplement...

  9. Deferasirox, an oral iron chelator, prevents hepatocarcinogenesis and adverse effects of sorafenib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Takami, Taro; Uchida, Koichi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Saeki, Issei; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-05-01

    Although sorafenib is expected to have a chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, there are limitations to its use because of adverse effects, including effects on liver function. We have reported that the iron chelator, deferoxamine can prevent liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions. We investigated the influence of administering a new oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX), on the effects of sorafenib. We used the choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet-induced rat liver fibrosis and HCC model. We divided rats into four groups: CDAA diet only (control group), CDAA diet with sorafenib (sorafenib group), CDAA diet with DFX (DFX group), and CDAA diet with DFX and sorafenib (DFX + sorafenib group). Liver fibrosis and development of preneoplastic lesions were assessed. In addition, we assessed adverse effects such as changes in body and liver weight, skin damage (eruption, dryness, and hair loss), which is defined as hand-foot skin syndrome, in the sorafenib and DFX + sorafenib groups. The combination of DFX + sorafenib markedly prevented liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions better than the other treatments. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased adverse effects compared with the sorafenib group. In conclusion, the combination therapy with DFX and sorafenib may be a useful adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence after curative treatment of HCC.

  10. Deferasirox, an oral iron chelator, prevents hepatocarcinogenesis and adverse effects of sorafenib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoki; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Takami, Taro; Uchida, Koichi; Fujisawa, Koichi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Saeki, Issei; Terai, Shuji; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Although sorafenib is expected to have a chemopreventive effect on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence, there are limitations to its use because of adverse effects, including effects on liver function. We have reported that the iron chelator, deferoxamine can prevent liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions. We investigated the influence of administering a new oral iron chelator, deferasirox (DFX), on the effects of sorafenib. We used the choline-deficient l-amino acid-defined (CDAA) diet-induced rat liver fibrosis and HCC model. We divided rats into four groups: CDAA diet only (control group), CDAA diet with sorafenib (sorafenib group), CDAA diet with DFX (DFX group), and CDAA diet with DFX and sorafenib (DFX + sorafenib group). Liver fibrosis and development of preneoplastic lesions were assessed. In addition, we assessed adverse effects such as changes in body and liver weight, skin damage (eruption, dryness, and hair loss), which is defined as hand-foot skin syndrome, in the sorafenib and DFX + sorafenib groups. The combination of DFX + sorafenib markedly prevented liver fibrosis and preneoplastic lesions better than the other treatments. Furthermore, the combination therapy significantly decreased adverse effects compared with the sorafenib group. In conclusion, the combination therapy with DFX and sorafenib may be a useful adjuvant therapy to prevent recurrence after curative treatment of HCC. PMID:27257345

  11. Functional correlates of the therapeutic and adverse effects evoked by thalamic stimulation for essential tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, William S.; Jo, Hang Joon; Testini, Paola; Cho, Shinho; Felmlee, Joel P.; Welker, Kirk M.; Klassen, Bryan T.; Min, Hoon-Ki

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is an established neurosurgical therapy for movement disorders including essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. While typically highly effective, deep brain stimulation can sometimes yield suboptimal therapeutic benefit and can cause adverse effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that intraoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to detect deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity that would correlate with the therapeutic and adverse effects of stimulation. Ten patients receiving deep brain stimulation of the ventralis intermedius thalamic nucleus for essential tremor underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation applied at a series of stimulation localizations, followed by evaluation of deep brain stimulation-evoked therapeutic and adverse effects. Correlations between the therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (3 months postoperatively) and deep brain stimulation-evoked changes in functional and effective connectivity were assessed using region of interest-based correlation analysis and dynamic causal modelling, respectively. Further, we investigated whether brain regions might exist in which activation resulting from deep brain stimulation might correlate with the presence of paraesthesias, the most common deep brain stimulation-evoked adverse effect. Thalamic deep brain stimulation resulted in activation within established nodes of the tremor circuit: sensorimotor cortex, thalamus, contralateral cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei (FDR q < 0.05). Stimulation-evoked activation in all these regions of interest, as well as activation within the supplementary motor area, brainstem, and inferior frontal gyrus, exhibited significant correlations with the long-term therapeutic effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (P < 0.05), with the strongest correlation (P < 0.001) observed within the contralateral cerebellum. Dynamic causal

  12. Rational therapy for diabetes: early recognition of adverse effects and avoidance of disruptive false alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Itamar; Eldor, Roy

    2012-05-01

    Corresponding to the uncontrolled diabetes pandemic, significant effort has been invested in developing new therapeutic options. Nevertheless, all medicines have possible adverse effects. Recently, a trend of 'scrutinizing' novel hypoglycaemic drug side effects based on scant scientific data has emerged. With recent publications highlighting possible dangers of rosiglitazone, insulin glargine, sitagliptin, exenatide and, most recently, pioglitazone, it seems that all means are valid and that every database is suitable, even if specifically defined as inadequate for the purpose of data analysis. The use of such data may lead authors to draw erroneous conclusions that may be granted unwarranted impact upon publication in leading scientific journals and eventually lead patients and misinformed physicians to wrongly change beneficial medication regimes. Adherence to strict scientific methodology, ongoing large clinical trials and creating adjudicated patient databases may facilitate early recognition of adverse effects while avoiding disruptive false alarms.

  13. Effect of cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin on repairing large segmental bone defects and preventing infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游洪波; 陈安民

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the possibility of repairing long segmental bone defects and preventing infection with cefazolin loaded bone matrix gelatin (C-BMG). Methods: C-BMG was made from putting cefazolin into BMG by vacuum absorption and lyophilization techniques. The sustaining period of effective drug concentration in vitro and in vivo was detected. The time of inhibiting bacteria, and the drug concentration in local tissues ( bone and muscle) and plasma after implantation of C-BMG were examined by high performance liquid chromatography.Results: The effective inhibition time to staphylococcus aureus of C-BMG was 22 days in vitro; while 14 days in vivo. The cefazolin concentration in local tissues was higher in early stage, and later it kept a stable and low drug release. C-BMG showed an excellent ability to repair segmental long bone defects.Conclusions: C-BMG can gradually release cefazolin with effective drug concentration and has excellent ability to repair segmental bone defects. It can be used to repair segmental long bone defects and prevent infection after operation.

  14. Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Bone Mineral Content and Bone Mass Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolsoom Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A few studies in animals and a study in humans showed a positive effect of probiotic on bone metabolism and bone mass density. Most of the investigated bacteria were Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium . The positive results of the probiotics were supported by the high content of dietary calcium and the high amounts of supplemented probiotics. Some of the principal mechanisms include (1 increasing mineral solubility due to production of short chain fatty acids; (2 producing phytase enzyme by bacteria to overcome the effect of mineral depressed by phytate; (3 reducing intestinal inflammation followed by increasing bone mass density; (4 hydrolysing glycoside bond food in the intestines by Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria. These mechanisms lead to increase bioavailability of the minerals. In conclusion, probiotics showed potential effects on bone metabolism through different mechanisms with outstanding results in the animal model. The results also showed that postmenopausal women who suffered from low bone mass density are potential targets to consume probiotics for increasing mineral bioavailability including calcium and consequently increasing bone mass density.

  15. The Effects of Tualang Honey on Bone Metabolism of Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis which is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration with a consequent increase in bone fragility can be associated with various stimuli such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Postmenopausal women are more prone to osteoporosis due to reduction in estrogen which may further lead to elevation of oxidative stress and lipid accumulation which will promote osteoblasts apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are elevated following estrogen deficiency. These cytokines are important determinants of osteoclasts differentiation and its bone resorption activity. The main treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis is estrogen replacement therapy (ERT. Despite its effectiveness, ERT, however, can cause many adverse effects. Therefore, alternative treatment that is rich in antioxidant and can exert an anti-inflammatory effect can be given to replace the conventional ERT. Tualang honey is one of the best options available as it contains antioxidant as well as exerting anti-inflammatory effect which can act as a free radical scavenger, reducing the oxidative stress level as well as inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine. This will result in survival of osteoblasts, reduced osteoclastogenic activity, and consequently, reduce bone loss. Hence, Tualang honey can be used as an alternative treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with minimal side effects.

  16. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis.

  17. Effects of multi-deficiencies-diet on bone parameters of peripheral bone in ovariectomized mature rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaqif El Khassawna

    Full Text Available Many postmenopausal women have vitamin D and calcium deficiency. Therefore, vitamin D and calcium supplementation is recommended for all patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis. We used an experimental rat model to test the hypothesis that induction of osteoporosis is more efficiently achieved in peripheral bone through combining ovariectomy with a unique multi-deficiencies diet (vitamin D depletion and deficient calcium, vitamin K and phosphorus. 14-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats served as controls to examine the initial bone status. 11 rats were bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX and fed with multi-deficiencies diet. Three months later the treated group and the Sham group (n = 8 were euthanized. Bone biomechanical competence of the diaphyseal bone was examined on both, tibia and femur. Image analysis was performed on tibia via µCT, and on femur via histological analysis. Lower torsional stiffness indicated inferior mechanical competence of the tibia in 3 month OVX+Diet. Proximal metaphyseal region of the tibia showed a diminished bone tissue portion to total tissue in the µCT despite the increased total area as evaluated in both µCT and histology. Cortical bone showed higher porosity and smaller cross sectional thickness of the tibial diaphysis in the OVX+Diet rats. A lower ALP positive area and elevated serum level of RANKL exhibited the unbalanced cellular interaction in bone remodeling in the OVX+Diet rat after 3 month of treatment. Interestingly, more adipose tissue area in bone marrow indicated an effect of bone loss similar to that observed in osteoporotic patients. Nonetheless, the presence of osteoid and elevated serum level of PTH, BGP and Opn suggest the development of osteomalacia rather than an osteoporosis. As the treatment and fracture management of both osteoporotic and osteomalacia patients are clinically overlapping, this study provides a preclinical animal model to be utilized in local supplementation of minerals, drugs

  18. Effects of folk medicinal plant extract Ankaferd Blood Stopper® on early bone healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabri Cemil İşler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Several haemostatic agents are available for clinical use. Ankaferd Blood Stopper® (ABS, a mixture of five medicinal plant extracts, has been used historically as a haemostatic agent. The aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the effects of ABS on early bone healing using a rat tibia defect model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of 8 animals each. After deep anesthesia with ketamine, bone defects (3 mm diameter and 2 mm deep were created in the right and left tibiae of all animals and either treated with 1 cc of ABS (Group 1 or left untreated (Group 2; control. Surgical areas were closed primarily. The animals were sacrificed on the 7th postoperative day and bone samples were collected from the tibias. The samples were examined histopathologically for infection, necrosis, fibrosis, new bone formation and foreign body reaction. The histomorphometric results were analyzed statistically by the chi square test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in both groups in terms of inflammation, necrosis and new bone formation (p=0.001, p=0.0001, p=0.001. No foreign body reaction was observed in the experimental group. ABS application decreased fibrosis in the experimental group, but there were no statistically significant differences from the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Histopathologically, it was observed that the application of ABS decreased the occurrence of inflammation and necrosis, while increasing new bone formation in early bone healing period. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary for evaluating the benefits and possible adverse effects of the application of this herbal product on wound healing.

  19. The effect of bone marrow aspirate, bone graft and collagen composites on fixation of bone implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babiker, Hassan; Ding, Ming; Overgaard, Søren

    2007-01-01

    to be sought. Hydroxyapatite and collagen composites have the potential in mimicking and replacing skeletal bones. Aim: This study attempted to determine the effect of hydroxyapatite/collagen composites in the fixation of bone implants. The composites used in this study is produced by Institute of Science...... of the Biomedical Laboratories, University of Southern Denmark, Odense. The observation period was 5 weeks. The sheeps were euthanized and both of femurs were harvested and sectioned in two parts by using a water-cooled diamond band saw. Specimens for mechanical testing were always taken from the most superficial...

  20. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency.

  1. Adverse Health Effects and Unhealthy Behaviors among Medical Students Using Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Abdo Radman Al-Dubai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7 years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7. Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P<0.005. The average hours spent on Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  2. Adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Al-Shagga, Mustafa Ahmed Mahdi; Yadav, Hematram; Arokiasamy, John T

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the relationships between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students using Facebook. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors with Facebook use. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a private university in Malaysia among 316 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire was used. It included questions on sociodemographics, pattern of Facebook use, social relationship, unhealthy behaviors, and health effects. Mean age was 20.5 (±2.7) years. All students had a Facebook account. The average daily Facebook surfing hours were 2.5 (±1.7). Significant associations were found between average hours of Facebook surfing and the following factors: isolation from family members and community, refusing to answer calls, musculoskeletal pain, headache, and eye irritation (P Facebook were significantly associated with holding urination and defecation while online, surfing Facebook until midnight, and postponing, forgetting, or skipping meals (P Facebook were associated with adverse health effects and unhealthy behaviors among medical students, as well as social isolation from the family and community.

  3. Systemic and Nonrenal Adverse Effects Occurring in Renal Transplant Patients Treated with mTOR Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Zaza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I, sirolimus and everolimus, are immunosuppressive drugs largely used in renal transplantation. The main mechanism of action of these drugs is the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, a regulatory protein kinase involved in lymphocyte proliferation. Additionally, the inhibition of the crosstalk among mTORC1, mTORC2, and PI3K confers the antineoplastic activities of these drugs. Because of their specific pharmacological characteristics and their relative lack of nephrotoxicity, these inhibitors are valid option to calcineurine inhibitors (CNIs for maintenance immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients with chronic allograft nephropathy. However, as other immunosuppressive drugs, mTOR-I may induce the development of several adverse effects that need to be early recognized and treated to avoid severe illness in renal transplant patients. In particular, mTOR-I may induce systemic nonnephrological side effects including pulmonary toxicity, hematological disorders, dysmetabolism, lymphedema, stomatitis, cutaneous adverse effects, and fertility/gonadic toxicity. Although most of the adverse effects are dose related, it is extremely important for clinicians to early recognize them in order to reduce dosage or discontinue mTOR-I treatment avoiding the onset and development of severe clinical complications.

  4. Dose-dependent effects of genistein on bone nomeostasis in rats' mandibular subchondral bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-qi LI; Xiang-hui XING; Hui WANG; Xi-li WENG; Shi-bin YU; Guang-ying DONG

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of genistein on bone homeostasis in mandibular subchondral bone of rats.Methods:Female SD rats were administered with genistein (10 and 50 mg/kg) or placebo by oral gavage for 6 weeks.Then the animals were sacrificed,and histomorphology and micro-structure of mandibular condyle were examined using HE staining and micro-CT analysis,respectively.The expression levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP),osteocalcin (OC),osteoprotegerin (OPG),the receptor activator of nuclear factor KB ligand (RANKL) and estrogen receptors (Ers) in mandibular condyle were detected using real-time PCR.Cultured osteoblasts were prepared from rat mandibular condyle for in in vitro study.The cells were treated with genistein (10-7 or 10-4 mol/L) for 48 h.The expression of the bone homeostasis-associated factors and estrogen receptors (Ers) was detected using realtime PCR,and ER silencing was performed.Results:At both the low- and high-doses,genistein significantly increased the bone mineral density (BMD) and bone volume,and resulted in thicker subchondral trabecular bone in vivo.In both in vivo and in vitro study,the low-dose genistein significantly increased the expression of ALP,OC and OPG,but decreased the expression of RANKL and the RANKL/OPG ratio.The high-dose genistein decreased the expression of all these bone homeostasis-associated factors.Both the low and high doses of genistein significantly increased the expression of Erβ,while Erα expression was increased by the low dose genistein and decreased by the high dose genistein.Erβ silencing abrogated most of the effects of genistein treatment.Conclusion:In rat mandibular condylar subchondral bone,low-dose genistein increases bone formation and inhibit bone resorption,while excess genistein inhibits both bone formation and resorption.The effects of genistein were predominantly mediated through Erβ.

  5. Effects of osteoporosis therapies on bone biomechanics

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Anti-fracture therapies for the treatment of osteoporosis have been shown clinically to reduce the incidence of fracture; however, standard clinical measurements of bone density cannot sufficiently explain these large reductions. Therefore, the overall goal of this research is to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms through which anti-fracture therapies improve bone strength -- a critical determinant of fracture risk -- which should lead to improved assessment of treatment efficac...

  6. Potential adverse effects of discontinuing psychotropic drugs. Part 3: Antipsychotic, dopaminergic, and mood-stabilizing drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Robert H

    2010-08-01

    Abrupt discontinuation of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier, and often more severe, illness episodes than are seen with gradual discontinuation. Antipsychotic drugs can cause various abnormal motor syndromes, but abruptly stopping them has been associated with the seemingly paradoxical development of similar motor syndromes, such as withdrawal dyskinesias, parkinsonian symptoms, dystonias, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Dopamine-releasing and dopamine-agonist drugs are used to treat some of the motor syndromes caused by antipsychotic drugs, but their abrupt discontinuation can also be associated with abnormal syndromes. When antipsychotic drugs, lithium, or certain anticonvulsant drugs are used for treatment of bipolar disorder, rapid versus gradual discontinuation is more likely to lead to greater mood instability and manic relapse. If necessary, these medications should be gradually tapered to minimize all types of adverse discontinuation effects. Patients should be educated about the possible adverse effects of abrupt medication discontinuation.

  7. Professional sport activity and micronutrients: effects on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, R; Martini, G; Merlotti, D; Valleggi, F; De Paola, V; Gennari, L

    2005-01-01

    Osteoporosis is the most prevalent metabolic bone disease among developed countries. Although bone mass and density are certainly determined by various concurrent factors such as genetics, hormones, life-style and the environment, and although the genetic program has a critical role in growth and in bone peak development, for their realization an adequate nutritional intake of nutrients and regular exercise are always necessary and may represent a way to prevent osteoporosis and fractures. Exercise and especially high-impact sport activity during growth and adolescence increases bone mineral density (BMD) in weight-loaded skeletal regions. Aerobics, weight bearing and resistance exercises may also be effective in increasing BMD in post-menopausal women. Even though most of the research on nutritional components has focused almost exclusively on calcium and vitamin D, there is now considerable interest in the effects of a variety of other nutrients on bone status.

  8. Predicting Nonauditory Adverse Radiation Effects Following Radiosurgery for Vestibular Schwannoma: A Volume and Dosimetric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayhurst, Caroline; Monsalves, Eric; Bernstein, Mark; Gentili, Fred [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Heydarian, Mostafa; Tsao, May [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Schwartz, Michael [Radiation Oncology Program and Division of Neurosurgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Prooijen, Monique van [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Millar, Barbara-Ann; Menard, Cynthia [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kulkarni, Abhaya V. [Division of Neurosurgery, Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto (Canada); Laperriere, Norm [Radiation Oncology Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Zadeh, Gelareh, E-mail: Gelareh.Zadeh@uhn.on.ca [Gamma Knife Unit, Division of Neurosurgery, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To define clinical and dosimetric predictors of nonauditory adverse radiation effects after radiosurgery for vestibular schwannoma treated with a 12 Gy prescription dose. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed our experience of vestibular schwannoma patients treated between September 2005 and December 2009. Two hundred patients were treated at a 12 Gy prescription dose; 80 had complete clinical and radiological follow-up for at least 24 months (median, 28.5 months). All treatment plans were reviewed for target volume and dosimetry characteristics; gradient index; homogeneity index, defined as the maximum dose in the treatment volume divided by the prescription dose; conformity index; brainstem; and trigeminal nerve dose. All adverse radiation effects (ARE) were recorded. Because the intent of our study was to focus on the nonauditory adverse effects, hearing outcome was not evaluated in this study. Results: Twenty-seven (33.8%) patients developed ARE, 5 (6%) developed hydrocephalus, 10 (12.5%) reported new ataxia, 17 (21%) developed trigeminal dysfunction, 3 (3.75%) had facial weakness, and 1 patient developed hemifacial spasm. The development of edema within the pons was significantly associated with ARE (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, only target volume is a significant predictor of ARE (p = 0.001). There is a target volume threshold of 5 cm3, above which ARE are more likely. The treatment plan dosimetric characteristics are not associated with ARE, although the maximum dose to the 5th nerve is a significant predictor of trigeminal dysfunction, with a threshold of 9 Gy. The overall 2-year tumor control rate was 96%. Conclusions: Target volume is the most important predictor of adverse radiation effects, and we identified the significant treatment volume threshold to be 5 cm3. We also established through our series that the maximum tolerable dose to the 5th nerve is 9 Gy.

  9. Vaginal douching (vd practice and adverse health effects of 15-49 years married women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Ege

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTİVE: The purpose of the study is to explore the vaginal douching practice and adverse health effects of the 15-49 age, married women in Konya. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The population of this descriptive- cross-sectional study is 15-49 age, married women who recruited in the number 15 health-center region. The sample consisted of 183 women who were selected with systematic sampling method. A questionnaire designed with researcher based on literature which was 30 questions include fertility characteristics, VD practice and adverse health effects was used to collect data. The data were collected by the researcher with home visiting between April-May 2005. Descriptive statistics and X² test were used to analysis data. RESULTS: The mean age of women in the study group is 33.5±7.86, 87. 4 % has primary school education, 68.3 % middle income, 54.6 % practice VD. The mean year of VD practice is 12.9±8.8 and 65.1 % douche at least once a week. The reasons of the women’s VD practices are religious practice (45.4 %, cleaning (41.5% and preventing pregnancy(13.1% and, 68.9 % of women don’t know harmfull efects of VD. There was no difference between history of sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency and VD in the X² test. There was a difference between contraceptive method used and VD. CONCLUSION: Sterility, extopic pregnancy, abortus, low birth weigh, symptoms of genito-urinary infection and its frequency were not related to VD. We suggest that the women have been educated about adverse health effects of VD and analytic researches may be planned for causal relationship between adverse health effects and VD.

  10. Salicylic acid ameliorates the adverse effect of salt stress on strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Karlidag,Huseyin; Yildirim,Ertan; Turan, Metin

    2009-01-01

    Strawberry is considered as a salinity sensitive species and is adversely affected in response to the salt stress in terms of growth and yield. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) application on physiology, growth, chlorophyll and mineral content of strawberry grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. Strawberry plants were treated with SA at different concentrations (0.0, 0.25, 0.50 and 1.00 mM). Salinity treatments were establishe...

  11. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  12. Possible adverse effect of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhauser, Carlos; Wróbel, Katarzyna; Wróbel, Kazimierz; Malacara, Juan Manuel; Nava, Laura Eugenia; Gómez, Leobardo; González, Rita

    2002-04-01

    Our aim was to investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium. We measured chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and hemoglobin levels in tannery workers and unexposed persons. We studied three groups of subjects. Group 1 included 15 non-smoking male tannery workers highly exposed to chromium from tanning and retanning departments. Group 2 included 14 non-smoking male tannery workers with moderate chromium exposure from dying, drying and finishing departments. Group 3 included 11 healthy, non-smoking male subjects without direct chromium exposure. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in groups 1 and 2 with respect to group 3 (mean values respectively: 0.43; 0.25 and 0.13 microg x l(-1)). Urine chromium levels in group 1 were higher than those in controls (mean values: 1.78 and 1.35 microg x l(-1)). In group 1 an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urine iron (-0.524), urine chromium and hemoglobin (-0.594) and between the urine chromium to iron ratio and hemoglobin (-0.693, p<0.05). The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine test could be recommended for diagnosis of chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism. Further studies are needed to quantify the relationship between urine chromium and hemoglobin metabolism.

  13. A strategy for regulatory action when new adverse effects of a licensed product emerge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Jeffrey K; Price, Deirdre; Ferner, Robin E

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory agencies grant product licences (marketing authorizations) for medicinal products in the light of evidence that the balance between benefit and harm in the population is favourable. Here we consider a framework for allowing regulatory agencies to make rational decisions when reviewing product licences in the light of new information about harms that change that balance. The regulator can revoke the product licence, restrict the product's availability or change the 'label' in different ways. We examine the features of the adverse effect that may be relevant in making the decision: namely, individual differences in susceptibility; the possibility of monitoring; and the availability of protective strategies. The balance of benefit and harm, and the time-course and dose relation of the adverse effect play important roles in the decision-making process. We set out how these factors can help determine the logical response to new information on the balance between benefit and harm, and provide a series of relevant examples. We believe that when regulatory agencies have to decide how to amend the product licence of a drug when new serious adverse effects cause concern, they would find it useful to adopt a framework of this kind, using different strategies for different cases. Our proposed framework could also be useful in risk management planning during drug development.

  14. EVALUATION OF THE RELATIVE INCIDENCE OF ADVERSE EFFECTS LEADING TO TREATMENT DISCONTINUATION OF RECOMMENDED ANTIHYPERTENSIVE DRUGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Sani Ibn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the incidence of adverse effects leading to treatment discontinuation of antihypertensive drugs within the same therapeutic class. Individual medical records were searched to identify those hypertensive patients who had been commenced on antihypertensive therapy during a 24-month period and who had subsequently for a reason(s discontinued the therapy. The results showed variation in discontinuation rates for drugs within same class, and that might be related to the relative frequency of specific adverse effects. Cough was the reason cited for discontinuation of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, with linosopril appearing to be better tolerated than captopril (39% vs 48% ; peripheral oedema with calcium channel blockers, with amlodipine appearing to be better tolerated than nifedipine (29% vs 38% and bradycardia with beta adrenergic receptor blockers, with propranolol better tolerated than atenolol (0% vs 48%. Diuretics showed the lowest discontinuation rate (3.3% mainly due to hypokalemia, with thiazide better tolerated than frusemide (11% vs 43%. Prescribers should verify their use of antihypertensive drugs to ensure that they prescribe drugs with lower adverse effect rates, in order that patients with hypertension continue using the medication in the long term, thereby reducing the risk of developing cardiovascular complications associated with uncontrolled blood pressure.

  15. Natural products for treatment of osteoporosis: The effects and mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Yang, Hao; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Cuicui; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Lingling; Chen, Bo

    2016-02-15

    Osteoporosis is a systemic metabolic bone disease characterized by a reduction in bone mass, bone quality, and microarchitectural deterioration. An imbalance in bone remodeling that is caused by more osteoclast-mediated bone resorption than osteoblast-mediated bone formation results in such pathologic bone disorder. Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) have long been used to prevent and treat osteoporosis and have received extensive attentions and researches at home and abroad, because they have fewer adverse reactions and are more suitable for long-term use compared with chemically synthesized medicines. Here, we put the emphasis on osteoblasts, summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from TCM with potential anti-osteoporosis effects and their molecular mechanisms on promoting osteoblast-mediated bone formation. It could be concluded that TCM with kidney-tonifying, spleen-tonifying, and stasis-removing effects all have the potential effects on treating osteoporosis. The active ingredients derived from TCM that possess effects on promoting osteoblasts proliferation and differentiation include flavonoids, glycosides, coumarins, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, monoterpenoids, diterpenoids), phenolic acids, phenols and others (tetrameric stilbene, anthraquinones, diarylheptanoids). And it was confirmed that the bone formation effect induced by the above natural products was regulated by the expressions of bone specific matrix proteins (ALP, BSP, OCN, OPN, COL I), transcription factor (Runx2, Cbfa1, Osx), signal pathways (MAPK, BMP), local factors (ROS, NO), OPG/RANKL system of osteoblasts and estrogen-like biological activities. All the studies provided theoretical basis for clinical application, as well as new drug research and development on treating osteoporosis.

  16. Frequency-dependent effect of nitric oxide donor nitroglycerin on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimalawansa, S; Chapa, T; Fang, L; Yallampalli, C; Simmons, D; Wimalawansa, S

    2000-06-01

    Recently, we showed that supplementation with nitric oxide (NO) via donor nitroglycerin (NG) alleviated the ovariectomy and corticosteroid-induced bone loss in rats. In humans, high doses or frequent applications of NG (i.e., for angina) lead to rapid loss of its efficacy in relieving angina. To examine whether there is a similar effect on the loss of efficacy of NG on bone, we examined the frequency-dependent effects of NG on bone mineral density (BMD), bone mass, trabecular bone volumes (BV/TV), and blood pressure in rats. Thirty 7-month-old female Brown Norway rats underwent ovariectomy, and an additional six rats were sham-operated. The ovariectomized rats were treated either with vehicle (ovariectomized control), 17beta-estradiol (E2; positive control), or 0.2 mg NG (via dermal application) once, twice, or three times a day. Before and at the end of the 10-week treatment period, BMD of the lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometric (DXA) scanning and expressed as a percentage change. BMD in ovariectomized rats was significantly lower (-2.5 +/- 2.0%) compared with the sham-operated rats (+6.3 +/- 5.3%; p < 0.01). Estrogen therapy completely abolished the ovariectomy-induced potential bone loss (+5.9 +/- 3.4%). Application of NG once daily also completely prevented (+6.2 +/- 2.8%; p < 0.01) the ovariectomy-induced bone loss (i.e., it was as effective as estrogen). However, the beneficial effects of NG on BMD were significantly reduced with increased frequency of application of NG (+1.9 +/- 2.1%, twice a day and -0.2 +/- 3.3% three times a day). Estrogen or once daily administration of NG preserved femur weights, BV/TV, and decreased urinary deoxypyridinoline levels as expected. However, a higher level of serum osteocalcin and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were maintained only with once daily administration of NG. There were no adverse effects of these doses of NG on blood pressure, but a tendency to lower blood pressure was

  17. The effect of MMF dose and trough levels on adverse effects in pediatric heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Nida; Lamour, Jacqueline M; Hsu, Daphne T

    2015-09-01

    Limited pharmacokinetic and safety data exist for MMF in pediatric HTR. Previously targeted MPA-TL are 1.5-3.0 μg/mL. The objective of this study was to assess the outcomes targeting MPA-TL of 0.8-2.0 μg/mL in pediatric HTR. MPA-TL were retrospectively collected 2-12 months post-transplant. Acute rejection, infection, leukopenia, and GI complaints were then correlated with MPA-TL. A total of 355 MPA-TL from 22 HTR were included. Median age was 2.5 yr. Primary indication for transplant was dilated cardiomyopathy (64%). Mean MPA-TL was 1.7 ± 0.9 μg/mL. African American patients received significantly higher doses (702 ± 235 mg/m(2) ) compared with other races (p = 0.035). Leukopenia was less common in patients with SUB MPA vs. others (p = 0.01). MMF was discontinued for GI complaints in one patient and leukopenia in two patients. One SUB patient had acute rejection, and one SUP patient had infection. One-yr survival was 100%. Targeting a lower range for MPA-TL was not associated with significant rejection or infection. Despite lower MPA-TL, MMF was discontinued in 3/22 patients for adverse effects.

  18. Are adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs different in symptomatic partial and idiopathic generalized epilepsies? The Portuguese-Brazilian validation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, H H; Alonso, N B; Vidal-Dourado, M; Carbonel, T D; de Araújo Filho, G M; Caboclo, L O; Yacubian, E M; Guilhoto, L M

    2011-11-01

    We report the results of administration of the Portuguese-Brazilian translation of the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) to 100 patients (mean age=34.5, SD=12.12; 56 females), 61 with symptomatic partial epilepsy (SPE) and 39 with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) (ILAE, 1989) who were on a stable antiepileptic drug (AED) regimen and being treated in a Brazilian tertiary epilepsy center. Carbamazepine was the most commonly used AED (43.0%), followed by valproic acid (32.0%). Two or more AEDs were used by 69.0% of patients. The mean LAEP score (19 questions) was 37.6 (SD=13.35). The most common adverse effects were sleepiness (35.0%), memory problems (35.0%), and difficulty in concentrating (25.0%). Higher LAEP scores were associated with polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.005), female gender (P0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (Depression: r=0.637, P<0.001; Anxiety: r=0.621, P<0.001) dimensions. LAEP overall scores were similar in people with SPE and IGE and were not helpful in differentiating adverse effects in these two groups. Clinical variables that influenced global LAEP were seizure frequency (P=0.050) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in the last month (P=0.031) in the IGE group, and polytherapy with three or more AEDs (P=0.003 and P=0.003) in both IGE and SPE groups.

  19. Therapeutic effect of bone cement injection in the treatment of intraosseous ganglion of the carpal bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kunlun; Shao, Xinzhong; Tian, Dehu; Bai, Jiangbo; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Yingze

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to treat intraosseous ganglia of the carpal bones with injectable bone cement grafting. Between January 2012 and December 2013, 4 patients (3 men and 1 woman) presenting with wrist pain and activity limitation were diagnosed with intraosseous ganglion of the carpal bones by radiography. The patients were treated with minimal invasive curettage and bone cement injection surgery. All patients were followed up for a mean time of 17 months (range, 12-22 months). The wrist pain was significantly reduced in all patients following surgery. In addition, the activity range and grip strength were also improved compared with the preoperative parameters. Subsequent to treatment, the Mayo wrist score and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score presented mean values of 78.8 (range, 75-80) and 11 (range, 7.7-15.0), respectively. These results suggested that the patients showed a good recovery. All patients were satisfied with the postoperative results and returned to work within 4 weeks. In conclusion, bone cement injection is an effective and safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of intraosseous ganglia of the carpal bone.

  20. Effects of Ligustrazine on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfates in Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任天华; 刘文励; 孙汉英; 戴琪琳; 孙岚

    2003-01-01

    To explore the effects of ligustrazine on bone marrow heparan sulfates (HS) expression in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) mice, the syngeneic BMT mice were orally given 2 mg ligustrazine twice a day. On the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day after BMT, peripheral blood cells and bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were counted, and the expression levels of HS in bone marrow and on the stromal cell surfaces were detected by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry assay respectively. In ligustrazine-treated group, the white blood cells (WBC) and BMNC on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day and platelets (PLT) on the 7th, 10th day were all significantly more than those in control group (P<0.05). The bone marrow HS expression levels in ligustrazine-treated group were higher than those in control group (P<0. 05) on the 7th, 10th, 14th, 18th day. However, the HS expression levels on the stromal cell surfaces showed no significant difference between the two groups on the 18th day (P>0. 05). It was concluded that ligustrazine could up-regulate HS expression in bone marrow, which might be one of the mechanisms contributing to ligustrazine promoting hematopoietic reconstitution after BMT.

  1. Gonadal steroid–dependent effects on bone turnover and bone mineral density in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joel S.; Lee, Hang; Leder, Benjamin Z.; Goldstein, David W.; Hahn, Christopher W.; Hirsch, Sarah C.; Linker, Alex; Perros, Nicholas; Servais, Andrew B.; Taylor, Alexander P.; Webb, Matthew L.; Youngner, Jonathan M.; Yu, Elaine W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Severe gonadal steroid deficiency induces bone loss in adult men; however, the specific roles of androgen and estrogen deficiency in hypogonadal bone loss are unclear. Additionally, the threshold levels of testosterone and estradiol that initiate bone loss are uncertain. METHODS. One hundred ninety-eight healthy men, ages 20–50, received goserelin acetate, which suppresses endogenous gonadal steroid production, and were randomized to treatment with 0, 1.25, 2.5, 5, or 10 grams of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. An additional cohort of 202 men was randomized to receive these treatments plus anastrozole, which suppresses conversion of androgens to estrogens. Thirty-seven men served as controls and received placebos for goserelin and testosterone. Changes in bone turnover markers, bone mineral density (BMD) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and BMD by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) were assessed in all men. Bone microarchitecture was assessed in 100 men. RESULTS. As testosterone dosage decreased, the percent change in C-telopeptide increased. These increases were considerably greater when aromatization of testosterone to estradiol was also suppressed, suggesting effects of both testosterone and estradiol deficiency. Decreases in DXA BMD were observed when aromatization was suppressed but were modest in most groups. QCT spine BMD fell substantially in all testosterone-dose groups in which aromatization was also suppressed, and this decline was independent of testosterone dose. Estradiol deficiency disrupted cortical microarchitecture at peripheral sites. Estradiol levels above 10 pg/ml and testosterone levels above 200 ng/dl were generally sufficient to prevent increases in bone resorption and decreases in BMD in men. CONCLUSIONS. Estrogens primarily regulate bone homeostasis in adult men, and testosterone and estradiol levels must decline substantially to impact the skeleton. TRIAL REGISTRATION. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00114114

  2. Sex-Specific and Strain-Dependent Effects of Early Life Adversity on Behavioral and Epigenetic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programing effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes have yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism...

  3. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechan...

  4. Adverse Effects of Risperidone in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in a Naturalistic Clinical Setting at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitharon Boon-yasidhi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate adverse effects associated with risperidone in 45 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD, aged 2–15 years, who were treated at Siriraj Hospital, Thailand, between the years 2006 and 2007. Adverse effects were assessed by parent interview, using a semistructure questionnaire, and medical records review. The mean ± SD age of the children at starting risperidone was 8.15±2.98 years. The mean ± SD of risperidone dose was 0.94±0.74 mg/day and the mean ± SD duration of treatment was 36.8±27.8 months. Adverse effects were reported in 39 children (86.7%. Common adverse effects included increased appetite, somnolence, and rhinorrhea and most of the adverse effects were tolerable. Tardive dyskinesia or other serious adverse events were not found in this study. The child’s mean ± SD weight gain was 4.18±2.82 kg/year, which exceeded developmentally expected norms. The results from this study suggest that risperidone treatment in children with ASD is associated with frequent mild and tolerable adverse effects. However, excessive weight gain could be found to be a concerning adverse effect and weight monitoring is warranted when risperidone is being prescribed.

  5. Presentation and management of docetaxel-related adverse effects in patients with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho MY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maria Y Ho, John R MackeyDivision of Medical Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, CanadaAbstract: The taxane chemotherapeutic agent docetaxel has been utilized in the management of breast cancer in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic setting. Although well tolerated by the majority of patients, docetaxel toxicity may limit the dose which can be administered. Adverse events include infusion reactions, febrile neutropenia, fatigue, fluid retention, pneumonitis, cutaneous and nail toxicity, epiphora and lacrimal duct stenosis, gastrointestinal complications, and neuropathies. In this review, we explore these complications and how they can be effectively managed to improve patient quality of life during and following docetaxel therapy.Keywords: toxicity, chemotherapy, adverse events

  6. Adverse Renal Effects of Novel Molecular Oncologic Targeted Therapies: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenar D. Jhaveri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel targeted anti-cancer therapies have resulted in improvement in patient survival compared to standard chemotherapy. Renal toxicities of targeted agents are increasingly being recognized. The incidence, severity, and pattern of renal toxicities may vary according to the respective target of the drug. Here we review the adverse renal effects associated with a selection of currently approved targeted cancer therapies, directed to EGFR, HER2, BRAF, MEK, ALK, PD1/PDL1, CTLA-4, and novel agents targeted to VEGF/R and TKIs. In summary, electrolyte disorders, renal impairment and hypertension are the most commonly reported events. Of the novel targeted agents, ipilumumab and cetuximab have the most nephrotoxic events reported. The early diagnosis and prompt recognition of these renal adverse events are essential for the general nephrologist taking care of these patients.

  7. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on the bone specific biomarkers in HIV infected individuals under treatment with efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etminani-Esfahani Maryam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It was reported that antiretroviral drugs such as efavirenz can increase the catabolism of vitamin D in HIV infected individuals. We have not found any study that evaluated effects of vitamin D supplementation on the bone specific biomarkers in HIV positive patients under treatment with antiretroviral regimen containing efavirenz. Findings Vitamin D deficiency was detected in 88.4 % of included patients. Baseline osteocalcin, but not collagen telopeptidase, serum levels were lower than normal range in all of these individuals. Both bone biomarkers’ concentrations increased significantly (p  Conclusion In the HIV-infected patients under treatment with efavirenz, vitamin D deficiency is prevalent. After supplementation with single dose of 300,000 IU vitamin D in this population, the activation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts stimulates bone formation and resorption respectively with favorable bone formation without any adverse event. Significant percent of HIV infected individuals are vitamin d deficient that could benefit from vitamin D supplementation.

  8. The effects of static magnetic fields on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Ding, Chong; Ren, Li; Zhou, Yimin; Shang, Peng

    2014-05-01

    All the living beings live and evolve under geomagnetic field (25-65 μT). Besides, opportunities for human exposed to different intensities of static magnetic fields (SMF) in the workplace have increased progressively, such SMF range from weak magnetic field (1 T). Given this, numerous scientific studies focus on the health effects and have demonstrated that certain magnetic fields have positive influence on our skeleton systems. Therefore, SMF is considered as a potential physical therapy to improve bone healing and keep bones healthy nowadays. Here, we review the mechanisms of effects of SMF on bone tissue, ranging from physical interactions, animal studies to cellular studies.

  9. Effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on the proliferation of bone marrow CD34~+ cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on the marrow CD34+ cells by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells(BMMSC),VarioMACS was used to sort bone marrow CD34+ cells,and then the purity of CD34+ cell was tested by FCM. Marrow mononuclear cells from abortion fetal bone marrow were isolated,and BMMSC were

  10. Divergent effects of obesity on bone health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gower, Barbara A; Casazza, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Historically, obesity was thought to be advantageous for maintaining healthy bones due to the greater BMD observed in overweight individuals. However, recent observations of increased fracture in some obese individuals has led to concern that common metabolic complications of obesity, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and inflammation may be associated with poor bone health. In support of this hypothesis, greater visceral fat, a hallmark of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, is associated with lower BMD. Research is needed to determine if and how visceral fat and/or poor metabolic health are causally associated with bone health. Clinicians should consider adding a marker metabolic health, such as waist circumference or fasting plasma glucose concentration, to other known risk factors for osteoporosis and fracture. PMID:24063845

  11. Effect of mining and utilizing bone coal on environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The average air -ray dose rates measured from the field, road, bone coal, bone coal cinder and bone coalcinder bricks in the three bone coal mines in westZhejiang Province, are 3.8 102,4.1 102, 7.1 102, 4.0 102and 7.1 102 nGy/h, respectively. The mean contents of238U, 226Ra,232Th and 40K in the bone coal of the three bone coalmines are 2.0 103, 2.1 103, 3.9 101 and6.1 102 Bq/kg, respectively, in the bone coal cinder(BCC)are 1.6 103, 1.6 103, 2.3 101and 4.5 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and in the bone coalcinder brick(BCCB) are 1.2 103, 1.2 103,2.4 101 and 4.0 102 Bq/kg, respectively, and those in thereference soil are 3.4 102, 1.0 102, 4.9 101and 4.9 102 Bq/kg, respectively. Theannual mean of effective dose equivalentfor public living in house buildings made with BCCB near thethree mines is 6.8 mSv.

  12. Effect of thermodisinfection on mechanic parameters of cancellous bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölsch, Christian; Kellotat, Andreas; Rickert, Markus; Ishaque, Bernd; Ahmed, Gafar; Pruss, Axel; Jahnke, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Revision surgery of joint replacements is increasing and raises the demand for allograft bone since restoration of bone stock is crucial for longevity of implants. Proceedings of bone grafts influence the biological and mechanic properties differently. This study examines the effect of thermodisinfection on mechanic properties of cancellous bone. Bone cylinders from both femoral heads with length 45 mm were taken from twenty-three 6-8 months-old piglets, thermodisinfected at 82.5 °C according to bone bank guidelines and control remained native. The specimens were stored at -20 °C immediately and were put into 21 °C Ringer's solution for 3 h before testing. Shear and pressure modulus were tested since three point bending force was examined until destruction. Statistical analysis was done with non-parametric Wilcoxon, t test and SPSS since p mechanic properties of cancellous bone and the reduction of mechanic properties should not relevantly impair clinical use of thermodisinfected cancellous bone.

  13. Effect of Teriparatide, Vibration and the Combination on Bone Mass and Bone Architecture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Spinal Cord Injury Effect of Teriparatide, Vibration and the Combination on Bone Mass and Bone Architechture in Chronic... Spinal Cord Injury 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0951 Mass and Bone Architecture in Chronic Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Severe bone loss commonly occurs in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury who are

  14. A newly developed snack effective for enhancing bone volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayashi Hidetaka

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of primary osteoporosis is higher in Japan than in USA and European countries. Recently, the importance of preventive medicine has been gradually recognized in the field of orthopaedic surgery with a concept that peak bone mass should be increased in childhood as much as possible for the prevention of osteoporosis. Under such background, we have developed a new bean snack with an aim to improve bone volume loss. In this study, we examined the effects of a newly developed snack on bone volume and density in osteoporosis model mice. Methods Orchiectomy (ORX and ovariectomy (OVX were performed for C57BL/6J mice of twelve-week-old (Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbar, ME, USA were used in this experiment. We prepared and given three types of powder diet e.g.: normal calcium diet (NCD, Ca: 0.9%, Clea Japan Co., Tokyo, Japan, low calcium diet (LCD, Ca: 0.63%, Clea Japan Co., and special diet (SCD, Ca: 0.9%. Eighteen weeks after surgery, all the animals were sacrified and prepared for histomorphometric analysis to quantify bone density and bone mineral content. Results As a result of histomorphometric examination, SCD was revealed to enhance bone volume irrespective of age and sex. The bone density was increased significantly in osteoporosis model mice fed the newly developmental snack as compared with the control mice. The bone mineral content was also enhanced significantly. These phenomena were revealed in both sexes. Conclusion It is shown that the newly developed bean snack is highly effective for the improvement of bone volume loss irrespective of sex. We demonstrated that newly developmental snack supplements may be a useful preventive measure for Japanese whose bone mineral density values are less than the ideal condition.

  15. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee: Recommended ("Best") Practices for Determining, Communicating, and Using Adverse Effect Data from Nonclinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlin, Roy; Bolon, Brad; Burkhardt, John; Francke, Sabine; Greaves, Peter; Meador, Vince; Popp, James

    2016-02-01

    Recommendations (best practices) are provided by the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's Adversity Working Group for making consistent interpretations of test article-related effects as "adverse" and assigning a "no observed adverse effect level" (NOAEL) in nonclinical toxicity studies. Adverse is a term indicating "harm" to the test animal, while nonadverse indicates lack of harm. Adverse findings in the study reports should be defined in relation to effects on the test species used and within the context of the given study. Test article-related effects should be described on their own merits, and decisions to consider them as adverse or nonadverse should be justified. Related effects may be discussed together; in particular, markers of toxicity that are not in and of themselves adverse ideally should be discussed in conjunction with the causal toxicity to determine adversity. Adverse findings should be identified in subreports (clinical data, pathology data, etc.) if sufficient information is available, and/or in the final study report as individual or grouped findings, but study NOAELs should be established at the level of the overall study report. Interpretations such as "not biologically relevant" or "not toxicologically important" should be avoided unless defined and supported by scientific rationale. Decisions defining adverse findings and the NOAEL in final study reports should combine the expertise of all contributing scientific disciplines. Where possible, use of NOAELs in data tables should be linked to explanatory text that places them in context. Ideally, in nonclinical summary documents, NOAELs from multiple studies are considered together in defining the most important adverse responses in the most sensitive species. These responses are then considered along with an understanding of their likely mechanisms, as well as other information such as variability in species sensitivity, comparative pathology, reversibility and progression, kinetics, and

  16. Adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer: a focus on metabolic and cardiovascular complications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lauren Collins; Shehzad Basaria

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignancy in men.Prostate being an androgen responsive tissue,androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is used in the management of locally advanced (improves survival) and metastatic (improves pain and quality of life) PCa.Over the past two decades,the use of ADT has significantly increased as it is also being used in patients with localized disease and those experiencing biochemical recurrences,though without any evidence of survival advantage.Hypogonadism resulting from ADT is associated with decreased muscle mass and strength,increased fat mass,sexual dysfunction,vasomotor symptoms,decreased quality of life,anemia and bone loss.Insulin resistance,diabetes and cardiovascular disease have recently been added to the list of these complications.As the majority of men with PCa die of conditions other than their primary malignancy,recognition and management of these adverse effects is paramount.Here we review data evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular complications of ADT.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants: environmental contamination, human body burden and potential adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lucio G; Giordano, Gennaro; Tagliaferri, Sara; Caglieri, Andrea; Mutti, Antonio

    2008-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are an important class of flame retardants, widely used in a variety of consumer products. In the past several years, PBDEs have become widespread environmental pollutants, and have been detected in water, soil, air, animals and human tissues. Exposure occurs in particular through the diet and the indoor environment. Infants and toddlers have the highest body burden, due to exposure via maternal milk and through house dust. Tetra-, penta- and hexa-BDEs are the congeners most commonly found in humans. Recent concerns on possible adverse health effects of PBDEs are focusing on their potential endocrine disrupting effects and on developmental neurotoxicity.

  18. Effect of autologous bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration or not in the treatment of peri-implant defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, F V; Suaid, F F; Ruiz, K G S; Rodrigues, T L; Carvalho, M D; Nociti, F H; Sallum, E A; Casati, M Z

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of bone marrow-derived cells associated with guided bone regeneration in the treatment of dehiscence bone defects around dental implants. Iliac-derived bone marrow cells were harvested from dogs and phenotypically characterized with regard to their osteogenic properties. After teeth extraction, three implant sites were drilled, dehiscences created and implants placed. Dehiscences were randomly assigned to: bone marrow-derived cells, bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration, and control (no treatment). After 3 months, implants with adjacent tissues were processed histologically, bone-to-implant contact, bone fill within the threads, new bone area in a zone lateral to the implant, new bone height, and new bone weight at the bottom of the defect were determined. Phenotypic characterization demonstrated that bone marrow-derived cells presented osteogenic potential. Statistically higher bone fill within the threads was observed in both bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration bone marrow-derived cell groups compared with the control group (P0.05). For the other parameters (new bone area, bone-to-implant contact, new bone height and new bone weight), only the bone marrow-derived cells+guided bone regeneration group presented higher values compared with the non-treated control (Pregeneration, although the combined approach seems to be relevant, especially to bone formation out of the implant threads.

  19. The effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's preferences for prescribed contraceptive products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Stephanie A; Viney, Rosalie C; Gu, Yuanyuan; Hole, Arne R; Fiebig, Denzil G; Street, Deborah J; Haas, Marion R; Weisberg, Edith; Bateson, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    Recent rapid growth in the range of contraceptive products has given women more choice, but also adds complexity to the resultant decision of which product to choose. This paper uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to investigate the effect of adverse information and positive promotion on women's stated preferences for prescribed contraceptive products. In November 2007, 527 Australian women aged 18-49 years were recruited from an online panel. Each was randomly allocated to one of three information conditions. The control group only received basic information on contraceptive products. One treatment group also received adverse information on the risks of the combined oral pill. The other group received basic information and promotional material on the vaginal ring, newly introduced into Australia and on the transdermal patch, which is unavailable in Australia. Respondents completed 32 choice sets with 3 product options where each option was described by a product label: either combined pill, minipill, injection, implant, hormonal IUD, hormonal vaginal ring, hormonal transdermal patch or copper IUD; and by the attributes: effect on acne, effect on weight, frequency of administration, contraceptive effectiveness, doctor's recommendation, effect on periods and cost. Women's choices were analysed using a generalized multinomial logit model (G-MNL) and model estimates were used to predict product shares for each information condition. The predictions indicated that adverse information did not affect women's preferences for products relative to only receiving basic information. The promotional material increased women's preferences for the transdermal patch. Women in all groups had a low preference for the vaginal ring which was not improved by promotion. The findings highlight the need for researchers to pay attention to setting the context when conducting DCEs as this can significantly affect results.

  20. Adverse Effects and Safety of 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors (Finasteride, Dutasteride): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshburg, Jason M.; Kelsey, Petra A.; Therrien, Chelsea A.; Gavino, A. Carlo; Reichenberg, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride, both 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are considered first-line treatment for androgenetic hair loss in men and used increasingly in women. In each case, patients are expected to take the medications indefinitely despite the lack of research regarding long-term adverse effects. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of these medications has led the United States National Institutes of Health to add a link for post-finasteride syndrome to its Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center. Herein, the authors report the results of a literature search reviewing adverse events of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as they relate to prostate cancer, psychological effects, sexual health, and use in women. Several large studies found no increase in incidence of prostate cancer, a possible increase of high-grade cancer when detected, and no change in survival rate with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use. Currently, there is no direct link between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use and depression; however, several small studies have led to depression being listed as a side effect on the medication packaging. Sexual effects including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido and ejaculate were reported in as many as 3.4 to 15.8 percent of men. To date, there are very few studies evaluating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use in women. Risks include birth defects in male fetuses if used in pregnancy, decreased libido, headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, and isolated reports of changes in menstruation, acne, and dizziness. Overall, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were well-tolerated in both men and women, but not without risk, highlighting the importance of patient education prior to treatment. PMID:27672412

  1. In-hospital gastric protection with proton pump inhibitors: adverse effects beyond (overutilization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Montanari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs have provided important benefits in the management of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, peptic ulcer disease and in the prevention of non steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and aspirin-related ulcer complications. PPIs are also the most commonly used medications for stress ulcer prophylaxis, despite little evidence to support their use in non-intensive care unit. Discussion: Considering the widespread use of PPIs, these agents’ overall safety profile is unquestionable. However, there is growing evidence that PPIs use may be associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, pneumonia, hip fractures, vitamin B12 deficiency. Overall, until now, none of these adverse effects have discouraged the PPIs treatment. Recently attention has been placed on a more important potential adverse effect of PPIs, their interaction with clopidogrel to which they are associated for the prophylaxis of gastrointestinal bleeding. Preliminary results of laboratory tests suggest that omeprazole reduces clopidogrel’s antiplatelet effect. The interaction seems to involve the competitive inhibition of the CYP2C19 isoenzyme. The effect appears to be clinically important, as some retrospective studies have shown an increase in adverse cardiovascular outcomes when PPIs and clopidogrel are used concomitantly. Some studies indicate that pantoprazole and esomeprazole are not associated with impaired response to clopidogrel. However, the available data for PPIs other than omeprazole do not allow definitive conclusions to be drawn about whether is a class effect. Conclusions: Specifically designed and randomized clinical studies are needed to define the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel. Moreover, alternative treatment strategies with histamine- 2 receptor antagonists that are not dependent on cytochrome p450 2C19 should be tested in future studies.

  2. Are the adverse effects of glitazones linked to induced testosterone deficiency?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jankowska E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adverse side-effects of the glitazones have been frequently reported in both clinical and animal studies, especially with rosiglitazone (RGZ and pioglitazone (PGZ, including congestive heart failure, osteoporosis, weight gain, oedema and anaemia. These led to consideration of an evidence-based hypothesis which would explain these diverse effects, and further suggested novel approaches by which this hypothesis could be tested. Presentation of hypothesis The literature on the clinical, metabolic and endocrine effects of glitazones in relation to the reported actions of testosterone in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease is reviewed, and the following unifying hypothesis advanced: "Glitazones induce androgen deficiency in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus resulting in pathophysiological changes in multiple tissues and organs which may explain their observed clinical adverse effects." This also provides further evidence for the lipocentric concept of diabetes and its clinical implications. Testing of the hypothesis Clinical studies to investigate the endocrine profiles, including measurements of TT, DHT, SHBG, FT and estradiol, together with LH and FSH, in both men and women with T2DM before and after RGZ and PGZ treatment in placebo controlled groups, are necessary to provide data to substantiate this hypothesis. Also, studies on T treatment in diabetic men would further establish if the adverse effects of glitazones could be reversed or ameliorated by androgen therapy. Basic sciences investigations on the inhibition of androgen biosynthesis by glitazones are also warranted. Implications of the hypothesis Glitazones reduce androgen biosynthesis, increase their binding to SHBG, and attenuate androgen receptor activation, thus reducing the physiological actions of testosterone, causing relative and absolute androgen deficiency. This hypothesis explains the adverse effects of glitazones on the heart and

  3. Polytraumatization and Trauma Symptoms in Adolescent Boys and Girls: Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Events and Moderating Effects of Adverse Family Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris Kristina; Gustafsson, Per E.; Svedin, Carl Goran

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative effect of interpersonal and noninterpersonal traumatic life events (IPEs and nIPEs, respectively) on the mental health of adolescents and to determine if the adverse impacts of trauma were moderated by adverse family circumstances (AFC). Adolescents (mean age 16.7 years) from the…

  4. Evidence behind FDA alerts for drugs with adverse cardiovascular effects: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackham, Daniel M; C Herink, Megan; Stevens, Ian G; Cardoza, Natalie M; Singh, Harleen

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) periodically publishes Drug Safety Communications and Drug Alerts notifying health care practitioners and the general public of important information regarding drug therapies following FDA approval. These alerts can result in both positive and negative effects on patient care. Most clinical trials are not designed to detect long-term safety end points, and postmarketing surveillance along with patient reported events are often instrumental in signaling the potential harmful effect of a drug. Recently, many cardiovascular (CV) safety announcements have been released for FDA-approved drugs. Because a premature warning could discourage a much needed treatment or prompt a sudden discontinuation, it is essential to evaluate the evidence supporting these FDA alerts to provide effective patient care and to avoid unwarranted changes in therapy. Conversely, paying attention to these warnings in cases involving high-risk patients can prevent adverse effects and litigation. This article reviews the evidence behind recent FDA alerts for drugs with adverse CV effects and discusses the clinical practice implications.

  5. Vitamin D mitigates the adverse effects of obesity on breast cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Srilatha; Krishnan, Aruna V; Williams, Jasmaine; Aggarwal, Abhishek; Albertelli, Megan A; Horst, Ronald L; Feldman, Brian J; Feldman, David

    2016-04-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer (BCa), insulin resistance, and vitamin D deficiency, and all contribute to increased synthesis of mammary estrogens, the drivers of estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) BCa growth. As both dietary vitamin D and calcitriol treatments inhibit breast estrogen synthesis and signaling, we hypothesized that vitamin D would be especially beneficial in mitigating the adverse effects of obesity on ER+BCa. To assess whether obesity exerted adverse effects on BCa growth and whether vitamin D compounds could reduce these unfavorable effects, we employed a diet-induced obesity (DIO) model in ovariectomized C57BL/6 mice. Breast tumor cells originally from syngeneic Mmtv-Wnt1 transgenic mice were then implanted into the mammary fat pads of lean and obese mice. DIO accelerated the initiation and progression of the mammary tumors. Treatments with either calcitriol or dietary vitamin D reduced the adverse effects of obesity causing a delay in tumor appearance and inhibiting continued tumor growth. Beneficial actions of treatments with vitamin D or calcitriol on BCa and surrounding adipose tissue included repressed Esr1, aromatase, and Cox2 expression; decreased tumor-derived estrogen and PGE2; reduced expression of leptin receptors; and increased adiponectin receptors. We demonstrate that vitamin D treatments decreased insulin resistance, reduced leptin, and increased adiponectin signaling and also regulated the LKB1/AMPK pathway contributing to an overall decrease in local estrogen synthesis in the obese mice. We conclude that calcitriol and dietary vitamin D, acting by multiple interrelated pathways, mitigate obesity-enhanced BCa growth in a postmenopausal setting.

  6. Melatonin Effects on Hard Tissues: Bone and Tooth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wen He

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin is an endogenous hormone rhythmically produced in the pineal gland under the control of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and the light/dark cycle. This indole plays an important role in many physiological processes including circadian entrainment, blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction, ovarian physiology, immune function, etc. Recently, the investigation and applications of melatonin in the hard tissues bone and tooth have received great attention. Melatonin has been investigated relative to bone remolding, osteoporosis, osseointegration of dental implants and dentine formation. In the present review, we discuss the large body of published evidence and review data of melatonin effects on hard tissues, specifically, bone and tooth.

  7. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries.

  8. Injected nanoparticles: the combination of experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Maria A; Tarasova, Olga S; Riikonen, Joakim; Raula, Janne; Lobach, Anatoly S; Borzykh, Anna A; Smirin, Boris V; Kauppinen, Esko I; Eletskii, Alexander V; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Salonen, Jarno; Tavi, Pasi; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Järvinen, Kristiina

    2014-05-01

    When nanocarriers are used for drug delivery they can often achieve superior therapeutic outcomes over standard drug formulations. However, concerns about their adverse effects are growing due to the association between exposure to certain nanosized particles and cardiovascular events. Here we examine the impact of intravenously injected drug-free nanocarriers on the cardiovasculature at both the systemic and organ levels. We combine in vivo and in vitro methods to enable monitoring of hemodynamic parameters in conscious rats, assessments of the function of the vessels after sub-chronic systemic exposure to nanocarriers and evaluation of the direct effect of nanocarriers on vascular tone. We demonstrate that nanocarriers can decrease blood pressure and increase heart rate in vivo via various mechanisms. Depending on the type, nanocarriers induce the dilation of the resistance arteries and/or change the responses induced by vasoconstrictor or vasodilator drugs. No direct correlation between physicochemical properties and cardiovascular effects of nanoparticles was observed. The proposed combination of methods empowers the studies of cardiovascular adverse effects of the nanocarriers.

  9. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 1. General concepts and specific precepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Considers in detail the general concepts and principles relevant to the adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Explains the molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Includes chapters on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 1 of this two-volume work focuses on the general concepts and principles relevant to late effects and on the dynamic interplay of molecular, cytologic and histopathologic events that lead to altered physiologic and metabolic functions and their clinical manifestations. Chapters are also included on legal issues, economic aspects, nursing, psychological issues and quality of life.

  10. CONTRAST ADVERSE EFFECT STUDY OF ASPIRIN AND CLOPIDOGREL IN STROKE PATIENTS USING COMBINATION AND INDIVIDUAL MEDICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Giri Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and hemorrhage are the conditions which may lead to stroke. As stroke is a medical emergency, treated with medications such as aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole. In the present study the combination and individual adverse effects of aspirin and clopidogrel medication were studied. The study during was around nine months in one of the private hospital at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. Adverse effects evaluation was based on WHO guide lines and Naranjo’s Algorithm. Total 69 stroke patients were taken in to studies. 46 (66.66% were males and 23 (33.33% were females. The number of ischemic stroke patients was 39(56.5% and hemorrhage stroke was 30(43.4%. Among 41 patients, 19 patients was on Aspirin (46.34%, 10 patients was on clopidogral (24.34% and 12 patients was on combinations medication (29.26%. Adverse effects reported among the antiplatelate users were 6 patients. Among these 6 patients 4 patients were observed with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGI the overall percentage was 66.66% and 2 patients were observed with Vomiting, the overall percentage was 33.33%. In this study, the relative risk reduction for secondary stroke prevention was 37% with use of a combination of extended- release dipyridamole and aspirin. Importantly, the risk of major bleeding attributable to the combination therapy was no greater than that seen with aspirin alone. The benefit of clopidogrel over aspirin for the prevention of vascular events was a relative risk reduction of 8.7%.In addition, there was less major bleeding in the clopidogrel group, yielding a relative net benefit of about 10%. This study revels clopidogrel is the safe drug when compared with Aspirin and as well as combination therapy.

  11. Effects of microgravity on bone and calcium homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zérath, E.

    Mechanical function is known to be of crucial importance for the maintenance of bone tissue. Gravity on one hand and muscular effort on the other hand are required for normal skeletal structure. It has been shown by numerous experimental studies that loss of total-body calcium, and marked skeletal changes occur in people who have flown in space. However, most of the pertinent investigations have been conducted on animal models, including rats and non-human primates, and a reasonably clear picture of bone response to spaceflight has emerged during the past few years. Osteopenia induced by microgravity was found to be associated with reduction in both cortical and trabecular bone formation, alteration in mineralization patterns, and disorganization of collagen, and non-collagenous protein metabolism. Recently, cell-culture techniques have offered a direct approach of altered gravity effects at the osteoblastic-cell level. But the fundamental mechanisms by which bone and calcium are lost during spaceflight are not yet fully known. Infrequenccy and high financial cost of flights have created the necessity to develop on-Earth models designed to mimic weightlessness effects. Antiorthostatic suspension devices are now commonly used to obtain hindlimb unloading in rats, with skeletal effects similar to those observed after spaceflight. Therefore, actual and ``simulated'' spaceflights, with investigations conducted at whole body and cellular levels, are needed to elucidate pathogeny of bone loss in space, to develop effective countermeasures, and to study recovery processes of bone changes after return to Earth.

  12. Modeling of biological doses and mechanical effects on bone transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieger, Romain; Jennane, Rachid; 10.1016/j.jtbi.2011.01.003

    2012-01-01

    Shear stress, hormones like parathyroid and mineral elements like calcium mediate the amplitude of stimulus signal which affects the rate of bone remodeling. The current study investigates the theoretical effects of different metabolic doses in stimulus signal level on bone. The model was built considering the osteocyte as the sensing center mediated by coupled mechanical shear stress and some biological factors. The proposed enhanced model was developed based on previously published works dealing with different aspects of bone transduction. It describes the effects of physiological doses variations of Calcium, Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin E2 on the stimulus level sensed by osteocytes in response to applied shear stress generated by interstitial fluid flow. We retained the metabolic factors (Parathyroid Hormone, Nitric Oxide, and Prostaglandin E2) as parameters of bone cell mechanosensitivity because stimulation/inhibition of induced pathways stimulates osteogenic response in vivo. We t...

  13. Effect of Epimedium-derived Phytoestrogen on Bone Turnover and Bone Microarchitecture in OVX-induced Osteoporotic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songlin PENG; Renyun XIA; Huang FANG; Feng LI; Anmin CHEN; Ge ZHANG; Ling QIN

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the preventive effect of epimedium-defivod phytoestrogen (PE) on osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX) in rats, 11-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly di- vided into Sham, OVX and PE groups. One week after OVX, daily oral administration of PE (0.4 g·kg-1·day·-1) started in PE group, and rats in Sham and OVX groups were given vehicle accordingly. The administrations lasted for 12 weeks. The biological markers including serum osteocalcin (OC) and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) for bone turnover were evaluated at the end of the 12th week. On the 13th week, all the rats were sacrificed. The right proximal tibiae were removed, subjected to micro CT for determination of trabeonlar bone structure and then bone histomorphometry was per- formed to assess bone remodeling. The OVX rats were in a high bone turnover status as evidenced by increased bone formation markers and bone resorption markers. Treatment with PE could suppress the high bone turnover rate in OVX rats. Micro CT data revealed that PE treatment could ameliorate the deterioration of the micro-architecture of proximal tibiae induced by OVX, as demonstrated by greater bone volume, increased trabecular thickness and less trahecular separation in PE group in comparison with OVX group. The static and dynamic parameters of bone histomorphometry indi- cated that there were significant increases in bone formation variables and significant decreases in bone resorption variables between PE and OVX groups. The findings suggest that PE has a beneficial effect on trabecular bone in OVX rat model and this effect is possibly associated with stimulation of bone formation as well as inhibition of bone resorption.

  14. Adverse Effects Associated with Protein Intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance for Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Delimaris, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Background. While high-protein consumption—above the current recommended dietary allowance for adults (RDA: 0.8 g protein/kg body weight/day)—is increasing in popularity, there is a lack of data on its potential adverse effects. Objective. To determine the potential disease risks due to high protein/high meat intake obtained from diet and/or nutritional supplements in humans. Design. Review. Subjects. Healthy adult male and female subjects. Method. In order to identify relevant studies, the e...

  15. Adverse effects of perioperative paracetamol, NSAIDs, glucocorticoids, gabapentinoids and their combinations: a topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, O; Wetterslev, J; Kontinen, V K

    2014-01-01

    with the most common perioperative non-opioid analgesics: paracetamol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glucocorticoids (GCCs), gabapentinoids and their combinations. The review is based on data from systematic reviews with meta-analyses of analgesic efficacy and/or adverse effects...... of perioperative non-opioid analgesics, and randomised trials and cohort/retrospective studies. Generally, data on AE are sparse and related to the immediate post-operative period. For paracetamol, the incidence of AEs appears trivial. Data are inconclusive regarding an association of NSAIDs with mortality...

  16. Autoimmune hepatitis as an adverse effect of long-term methotrexate therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamilia Ksouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is one of the most commonly used medicines in the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. The drug can produce steatosis and cirrhosis. Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare and serious adverse effect. We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who developed autoimmune hepatitis after a long-term use of MTX for psoriatic arthritis. Hepatitis was completely resolved 4 months after stopping this drug. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of a drug-induced autoimmunity are unclear and complex. This report confirms the need to monitor liver enzymes carefully in patients using long-term treatment with MTX for psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis.

  17. [Access of torsades de pointes in Legionnaires' disease: an uncommon adverse effect of erythromycin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikowsky, F; Haziza, F; Guidet, B; Vassal, T; Offenstadt, G

    1991-01-01

    We report the case of a 77-year-old man with legionnaires's disease who, immediately after an intravenous infusion of one gram of erythromycin presented with wave burst arrhythmia with widening of the QT space. The blood level of erythromycin at the time of this adverse reaction was the same as the peak observed in young subjects after intravenous administration of this drug. Fourteen similar cases were found in the literature. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that erythromycin may exert on the cardiac muscle fibres an electrophysiological effect similar to that of class I antiarrhythmic agents.

  18. Renal function and symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, G P; Lundström, S; Sjøgren, P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Renal impairment and the risk of toxicity caused by accumulation of opioids and/or active metabolites is an under-investigated issue. This study aimed at analysing if symptoms/adverse effects in opioid-treated patients with cancer were associated with renal function. METHODS: Cross...... and cognitive dysfunction were assessed (EORTC QLQ-C30). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI Creatinine) equations. RESULTS: Mild to severe low GFR was observed...

  19. Effects of Obesity on Bone Mass and Quality in Ovariectomized Female Zucker Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Feresin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and osteoporosis are two chronic conditions that have been increasing in prevalence. Despite prior data supporting the positive relationship between body weight and bone mineral density (BMD, recent findings show excess body weight to be detrimental to bone mass, strength, and quality. To evaluate whether obesity would further exacerbate the effects of ovariectomy on bone, we examined the tibiae and fourth lumbar (L4 vertebrae from leptin receptor-deficient female (Leprfa/fa Zucker rats and their heterozygous lean controls (Leprfa/+ that were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (Ovx. BMD of L4 vertebra was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and microcomputed tomography was used to assess the microstructural properties of the tibiae. Ovariectomy significantly (P<0.001 decreased the BMD of L4 vertebrae in lean and obese Zucker rats. Lower trabecular number and greater trabecular separation (P<0.001 were also observed in the tibiae of lean- and obese-Ovx rats when compared to sham rats. However, only the obese-Ovx rats had lower trabecular thickness (Tb.Th (P<0.005 than the other groups. These findings demonstrated that ovarian hormone deficiency adversely affected bone mass and quality in lean and obese rats while obesity only affected Tb.Th in Ovx-female Zucker rats.

  20. Effect of oral hypoglycaemic agents on bone metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Siddhartha Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM and osteoporosis are the two important public health problems in India. The burden of both these conditions is expected to increase in the near future in view of changing lifestyle habits and ageing population. Indians are at risk of osteoporosis due to their low body mass index (BMI, genetic predisposition and nutritional factors. The diseases type 1 DM and type 2 DM (T2DM are associated with increased fracture risk in the disease population, in spite of difference in the bone mineral density (BMD. An increase in fracture risk is also reported among older patients with T2DM despite frequently reported normal or increased BMD. Administration of insulin stimulates osteoblast activity and bone mineral apposition rates. The impact of endogenous insulin production, insulin sensitivity, and exogenous insulin administration as an anabolic agent for bone in T2DM has not been clarified. Biguanides and sulphonylureas do not appear to have adverse effects on BMD. Preclinical evidence suggests that incretin-based drugs may be beneficial for bone, but clinical evidence to support this hypothesis is not yet available. Thiazolidinedione (TZD group of agents have been implicated in causing osteoporosis in various animal studies and some human studies available till date. The debate regarding this is issue is still ongoing. Randomized controlled studies with larger sample size preferably involving multiple centres, multiple ethnicities are required to answer these queries.

  1. Tolazoline reversal of xylazine in bison (Bison bison): Mitigation of adverse effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Steven J.; Williams, Beth; Quist, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Tolazoline is a mixed alpha-1 and -2 adrenergic antagonist used to reverse the sedative, analgesic and muscle-relaxing effects of xylazine, a potent alpha adrenergic agonist. Tolazoline has been used in cattle and is superior to yohimbine, another alpha adrenergic antagonist, in this species. In white-tailed deer, tolazoline shortened recovery times and reversed xylazine-induced bradycardia, respiratory depression, and bloat following xylazine-ketamine anesthesia (Kreeger et al. 1986). We have used it for a number of years in moose without any detected adverse reactions. Caulkett et al. (2000) used tolazoline in wood bison to reverse the xylazine-induced effects of xylazine-tiletamine/zolazepam anesthesia and did not report any ill effects. However, the reported side effects of tolazoline in horses (species for which the drug was developed and is labeled) include abdominal discomfort, gastrointestinal hypermotility, diarrhea, tachycardia, ventricular dysrhythmia, hypertension and apprehensiveness.

  2. Sterol superlattice affects antioxidant potency and can be used to assess adverse effects of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsher, Michelle; Chong, Parkson Lee-Gau

    2008-11-01

    We have developed a fluorescence method to examine how membrane sterol lateral organization affects the potency of antioxidants, and used this information to evaluate possible adverse effects of lipid-soluble antioxidants seen in recent clinical studies. In the presence of an antioxidant, the lag time (tau) produced during free radical-induced sterol oxidation in lipid vesicles reflects the potency of the antioxidant. The ascorbic acid-induced tau value varies with sterol mol% in a biphasic manner, showing a minimum at the critical sterol mole fraction for maximal superlattice formation (C r), in ascorbic acid concentrations antioxidant potency. In contrast, the biphasic change in tau at C r was observed only at doses of ascorbyl palmitate antioxidant than its water-soluble counterpart as judged by the tau value, it can easily perturb sterol lateral organization by insertion into membrane bilayers, which could impose detrimental effects on cells. The threshold antioxidant concentration (C th) to abolish biphasic change in tau at C r may vary with antioxidant and could be used to assess potential adverse effects of other lipid-soluble antioxidants.

  3. Therapeutic and adverse effects of flunixin-meglumine in adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we elucidated the difference in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sensitivities between young and adult cats on therapeutic and adverse effects. In the prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using flunixin-meglumine, young (12 months old) cats of both sexes were given LPS (0.3 µg/kg, i.v.), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered 30 min before the LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pre-treatment with flunixin in both adult and young cats. In addition, flunixin showed almost the same antipyretic effects in both young and adult cats. The animals were administered flunixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days, and sacrificed 24 hr later to examine the gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. In adult cats, flunixin caused many severe lesions in the small intestine. In contrast, very few gastrointestinal lesions were produced by flunixin in young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of flunixin, plasma concentrations of flunixin were analysed using a high performance liquid chromatography. There were no significant differences in plasma concentration of flunixin between young and adult cats from 0.5 to 4 hr after the injection. These results demonstrated that NSAIDs could be used more safely in young than in adult cats from the points of gastrointestinal adverse effects. Furthermore, this difference in gastrointestinal lesions between adult and young cats was not related with the plasma concentration of flunixin.

  4. Uncertainty quantification of adverse human health effects from continuously released contaminant sources in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Antonio; de Barros, Felipe P. J.; Fiori, Aldo

    2016-10-01

    We propose a computationally efficient probabilistic modeling methodology to estimate the adverse effects on humans of exposure to contaminated groundwater. Our work is aligned with the standard suggested by the regulatory agencies and allows to propagate uncertainty from hydrogeological, toxicological and behavioral parameters to the final health risk endpoint. The problem under consideration consists of a contaminated aquifer supplying water to a population. Contamination stems from a continuous source that feeds a steady plume which constitutes the hazard source. This scenario is particularly suited for NAPL pollutants. The erratic displacement of the contaminant plume in groundwater, due to the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity, is characterized within the Lagrangian stochastic framework which enables the complete probabilistic characterization of the contaminant concentration at an environmentally sensitive location. Following the probabilistic characterization of flow and transport, we quantify the adverse health effects on humans. The dose response assessment involves the estimation of the uncertain effects of the exposure to a given contaminant while accounting for the exposed individual's metabolism. The model integrates groundwater transport, exposure and human metabolism in a comprehensive probabilistic framework which allows the assessment of the risk probability through a novel simple analytical solution. Aside from its computational efficiency, the analytical features of the framework allows the assessment of uncertainty arising from the hydrogeological parameters.

  5. ADVERSE EFFECT VERSUS QUALITY CONTROL OF THE FUENZALIDA-PALACIOS ANTIRABIES VACCINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOGUEIRA Yeda L.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the components of the Fuenzalida-Palacios antirabies vaccine, which is till used in most developing countries in human immunization for treatment and prophylaxis. This vaccine is prepared from newborn mouse brains at 1% concentration. Even though the vaccine is considered to have a low myelin content, it is not fully free of myelin or of other undesirable components that might trigger adverse effects after vaccination. The most severe effect is a post-vaccination neuroparalytic accident associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the present study we demonstrate how the vaccines produced and distributed by different laboratories show different component patterns with different degrees of impurity and with varying protein concentrations, indicating that production processes can vary from one laboratory to another. These differences, which could be resolved using a better quality control process, may affect and impair immunization, with consequent risks and adverse effects after vaccination. We used crossed immunoelectrophoresis to evaluate and demonstrate the possibility of quality control in vaccine production, reducing the risk factors possibly involved in these immunizing products.

  6. Cyproheptadine for prevention of neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh; Ghaeli, Padideh; Khalili, Hossein; Alimadadi, Abbas; Jafari, Sirous; Akhondzadeh, Shahin; Khazaeipour, Zahra

    2013-03-01

    Cyproheptadine prevention of the neuropsychiatric adverse effects of an antiretroviral regimen including efavirenz has been evaluated in a randomized clinical trial. Twenty-five patients (16 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 36±9 years) in a cyproheptadine group, and 26 patients (17 males and 9 females with mean±SD ages of 34±7 years) in a control group completed the trial. Sexual contact and injection drug use were the main routs of HIV infection in both groups. The patients' neuropsychiatric adverse effects were evaluated based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation, and Somatization Subscale of Symptom Checklist 90 at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Cyproheptadine significantly decreased the scores of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Beck Depression Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory, Positive and Negative Suicide Ideation of the patients after 4 weeks in comparison with control group. All of the scores increased in control group following antiretroviral therapy. Although short duration of the patients' follow-up was a major limitation of the study, the results of the study showed that cyprohepradine is effective in prevention of depression, anxiety, hallucination, aggressive behaviors, emotional withdrawal, poor rapport, poor impulse control, active social avoidance, suicidal ideation, and improved sleep quality of HIV-positive patients after initiation of antiretroviral therapy including efavirenz.

  7. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  8. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  9. Effects of Implant-Associated Osteomyelitis on Cefuroxime Bone Pharmacokinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Mikkel; Bue, Mats; Koch, Janne;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prolonged antibiotic therapy that is often needed for successful management of osteomyelitis may be related to incomplete penetration of antibiotics into the target site. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of implant-associated osteomyelitis on cefuroxime...... penetration into bone.  Methods: Implant-associated osteomyelitis using a Staphylococcus aureus strain was induced in the right tibia in ten pigs. After five days and following administration of 1500 mg of cefuroxime, measurements of cefuroxime were obtained using microdialysis for eight hours in the implant...... cavity up to MICs of 2 mg/L compared with the other tissues, but the time was shorter for higher MICs.  Conclusions: Cefuroxime penetration into infected cancellous bone was incomplete but comparable with that in healthy bone. The destructive bone processes associated with acute osteomyelitis reduced...

  10. Comparison of gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between adult and young cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Kenji; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Satoh, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    This study elucidated differences in predisposition to the gastrointestinal adverse effects of ketoprofen between young and adult cats. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously (2.0 mg/kg, s.c.) once a day for 3 days. The animals were sacrificed 24 hr after final injection to allow examination of gastrointestinal mucosal lesions. Ketoprofen caused gastric lesions in adult cats (>6 months) but not in young cats (Ketoprofen caused more severe small intestinal lesions in adult cats than in young cats. In the study of prevention of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hyperthermia using ketoprofen, young and adult cats of both sexes were administered LPS (0.3 μg/kg, intravenously), and body temperature was measured 24 hr later. Ketoprofen was administered subcutaneously 30 min before LPS injection. LPS-induced hyperthermia was almost completely inhibited by pretreatment with ketoprofen in both adult and young cats. In the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen, plasma concentrations were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. No significant differences were observed in plasma concentrations of two mirror-image R(-) and S(+) ketoprofen between young and adult cats from 0.5-4 hr after injection. As observed in a previous study using flunixin, the degree of gastrointestinal damage was unrelated to plasma concentrations of ketoprofen. The results of this study demonstrated that ketoprofen is safer for use in young cats than in adult cats from the viewpoint of gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  11. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  12. Noise monitoring and adverse health effects in residents in different functional areas of Luzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Xia; Lei, Zhang-Heng; Zhang, Chun-Lian; Xiong, Wei; Gan, Zhong-Lin; Hu, Ping; Zhang, Qing-Bi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the noise pollution situation and the resulting adverse effect on residents' health in Luzhou, China, to provide data for noise pollution prevention policies and interventions. Four different functional areas (commercial, construction, residential, and transportation hub areas) were chosen to monitor noise level for 3 months. The survey was performed by questionnaire on the spot on randomly selected individuals; it collected data on the impact of noise on residents' health (quality of sleep, high blood pressure, subjective feeling of nervous system damage, and attention) as well as the knowledge of noise-induced health damage, the degree of adaptation to noise, and their solutions. The noise levels of residential, commercial, transportation, and construction areas exceeded the national standards (P noise; 64.57% of residents have adapted to the current noise environment. Most of them have to close the doors and windows to reduce noise. The noise pollution situation in Luzhou, China, is serious, especially the traffic noise pollution. Residents pay less attention to it and adopt single measures to reduce the noise. We should work toward the prevention and control of traffic noise and improve the residents' awareness to reduce the adverse health effects of noise.

  13. Therapeutic potential of cannabinoids in counteracting chemotherapy-induced adverse effects: an exploratory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadhadi, Sattar; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Dehpour, Ahmad-Reza; Rahimian, Reza

    2015-03-01

    Cannabinoids (the active constituents of Cannabis sativa) and their derivatives have got intense attention during recent years because of their extensive pharmacological properties. Cannabinoids first developed as successful agents for alleviating chemotherapy associated nausea and vomiting. Recent investigations revealed that cannabinoids have a wide range of therapeutic effects such as appetite stimulation, inhibition of nausea and emesis, suppression of chemotherapy or radiotherapy-associated bone loss, chemotherapy-induced nephrotoxicity and cardiotoxicity, pain relief, mood amelioration, and last but not the least relief from insomnia. In this exploratory review, we scrutinize the potential of cannabinoids to counteract chemotherapy-induced side effects. Moreover, some novel and yet important pharmacological aspects of cannabinoids such as antitumoral effects will be discussed.

  14. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  15. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...

  16. Primary Hyperparathyroidism: Effects on Bone Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanocco, Kyle A; Yeh, Michael W

    2017-03-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is the most common cause of chronic hypercalcemia. With the advent of routine calcium screening, the classic presentation of renal and osseous symptoms has been largely replaced with mild, asymptomatic disease. In hypercalcemia caused by PHPT, serum parathyroid hormone levels are either high, or inappropriately normal. A single-gland adenoma is responsible for 80% of PHPT cases. Less frequent causes include 4-gland hyperplasia and parathyroid carcinoma. Diminished bone mineral density and nephrolithiasis are the major current clinical sequelae. Parathyroidectomy is the only definitive treatment for PHPT, and in experienced hands, cure rates approach 98%.

  17. Adverse Cardiovascular Effects of Nitrous Oxide: It is not all about Hyperhomocysteinaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ata Mahmoodpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors. In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations

  18. Clinical effect of small dose of iodine-131 combined with methimazole in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and its effect on patients with bone turnover markers and bone mineral density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tie-Yong Qian; Yi-Fing Chen; Wei-Feng Yao; Hui Wan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of small dose of iodine-131 combined with methimazole in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and its effect on patients with bone turnover markers and bone mineral density.Methods:A total of 156 patients with hyperthyroidism who were treated in Wuxi No.2 People's Hospital from January 2013 to January 2014 were selected as research subjects. All of the patients were randomly assigned into observation group (n=78) and control group (n=78). All of the patients in the two groups were treated with methimazole orally, and the observation group was received small dose of iodine-131 on the basis of methimazole. The course of treatment is one year, and follow-up visit was done in 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Before and after treatment, the function of thyroid (FT3, FT4, TSH, TT3, TT4), bone turnover markers (CT, BGP, ALP, PINP,β-CTX), and bone mineral density (L2-4 lumbar, radius, hip, and the whole body) of two groups were observed and analyzed. The clinical effect, one-year recurrence rate and incidence of adverse reactions of two groups were compared.Results: Before treatment, there were no statistical differences between the two groups. After treatment, the levels of FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, CT, BGP, ALP, PINP andβ-CTX of two groups were decreased, along with the treatment time extension decreased more significantly, and the levels of observation group at each time point were lower than the control group at the same period. The levels of TSH of two groups were increased, along with the treatment time extension increased more significantly, and the levels of observation group at each time point were higher than the control group at the same period. The bone mineral density of the two groups were higher than before treatment, and the observation group was higher than the control group. The total effective rate of the observation group was higher than the control group, and the one-year recurrence rate was lower than the

  19. Adverse effects of drug therapies on male and female sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Th; Bader, M; Uckert, S; Staehler, M; Becker, A; Stief, C G

    2006-12-01

    Sexual dysfunctions (SD) are adverse effects of common drug therapies that have rarely been considered in investigations so far. Possibly it is barely known that many widespread and frequently prescribed medications and drug therapies can have significant impact on vascular and nerval processes as well as on endocrinologic and psychoneuroendocrinologic systems and therefore can influence sexual functions. Impotence and disorders of the erectile function can mainly be caused by antidopaminergic mechanisms, whereas ejaculatory disorders and anorgasmia often can be explained by antiserotoninergic effects. Anticholinergic and adrenoloytic agents can also cause a particular impairment of erectile functions. The following considerations will show that the detection and treatment of SD (also in women!) should be given much more attention since drug-induced SDs occur predominantly in indications where a SD itself can be a symptom of the disease.

  20. Exercise in the heat: strategies to minimize the adverse effects on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrados, N; Maughan, R J

    1995-01-01

    Exercise in the heat is usually associated with reduced performance; both dehydration and hyperthermia adversely affect mental and physical performance. For athletes from temperate climates, the negative effects of heat had humidity can be attenuated by a period of acclimatization. This requires up to 10-14 days. Endurance-trained individuals already show some of the adaptations that accompany acclimatization, but further adaptation occurs with training in the heat. Prior dehydration has a negative effect even on exercise of short duration where sweat losses are small. The athlete must begin exercise fully hydrated and regular ingestion of fluids is beneficial where the exercise duration exceeds 40 min. Dilute carbohydrate-electrolyte (sodium) drinks are best for fluid replacement and also supply some substrate for the exercising muscles. Post-exercise rehydration requires electrolyte as well as volume replacement. In extreme conditions, neither acclimatization nor fluid replacement will allow hard exercise to be performed without some risk of heat illness.

  1. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang eLiu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available EExposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation.

  2. Air pollution and adverse cardiac remodeling: clinical effects and basic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yonggang; Goodson, Jamie M; Zhang, Bo; Chin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution has long been known to trigger cardiovascular events, primarily through activation of local and systemic inflammatory pathways that affect the vasculature. Detrimental effects of air pollution exposure on heart failure and cardiac remodeling have also been described in human populations. Recent studies in both human subjects and animal models have provided insights into the basic physiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms that play a role in adverse cardiac remodeling. This review will give a brief overview of the relationship between air pollution and cardiovascular disease, describe the clinical effects of air pollution exposure on cardiac remodeling, describe the basic mechanisms that affect remodeling as described in human and animal systems and will discuss future areas of investigation.

  3. Te Inclusions in CZT Detectors: New Method for Correcting Their Adverse Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Babalola, S.; Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; Egarievwe, S.U.; Hawrami, R.; Hossain, A.; Yang, G.; James, R.B.

    2009-10-25

    Both Te inclusions and point defects can trap the charge carriers generated by ionizing particles in CdZnTe (CZT) detectors. The amount of charge trapped by point defects is proportional to the carriers’ drift time and can be corrected electronically. In the case of Te inclusions, the charge loss depends upon their random locations with respect to the electron cloud. Consequently, inclusions introduce fluctuations in the charge signals, which cannot be easily corrected. In this paper, we describe direct measurements of the cumulative effect of Te inclusions and its influence on the response of CZT detectors of different thicknesses and different sizes and concentrations of Te inclusions. We also discuss a means of partially correcting their adverse effects.

  4. Influence of certain factors on the manifestations of the adverse effects of metrizamide myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y.L.; Du Boulay, G.H.; Paul, E.

    1986-07-01

    Although metrizamide is now being superseded by other contrast media, the mechanisms of its side effects may be of fundamental importance. One hundered and four consecutive patients with suspected cervical cord or root lesion were studied prospectively for factors which might influence the side effects of metrizamide myelography. Elderly patients were more prone to develop mental confusion. An earlier onset of dizziness and/or vertigo was associated with the lumbar route of intrathecal injection. Perhaps surprisingly, phenobarbitone prophylaxis shortened the duration of confusion and delayed the onset of headaches. Other factors, viz. sex, excess intracranial flow of metrizamide and myelographic blockage were not shown to have a signifiant influence on the adverse reactions.

  5. Amodiaquine-associated adverse effects after inadvertent overdose and after a standard therapeutic dose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, G O; Goka, B Q; Rodrigues, O P;

    2009-01-01

    , the occurrence of bradycardia after a standard dose of amodiaquine, which coincided with the time of expected peak concentrations of the active metabolite of amodiaquine, suggests a direct drug effect. These less reported adverse effects are likely to increase in parallel with the increased use of amodiaquine......, is reported. Both subjects were homozygous for the wild type allele of cytochrome P450 2C8, the main enzyme responsible for amodiaquine metabolism. In both subjects, plasma concentrations of N-desethylamodiaquine and N-bis-desethylamodiaquine, the main metabolites of amodiaquine, were normal. No other drugs......A case of an acute dystonic reaction in a child presumptively treated for malaria with amodiaquine, and a case of persistent asymptomatic bradycardia in another child with mild pulmonary stenosis treated with a standard dose of amodiaquine for parasitologically confirmed uncomplicated malaria...

  6. Could cancer and infection be adverse effects ofmesenchymal stromal cell therapy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martha L Arango-Rodriguez; Fernando Ezquer; Marcelo Ezquer; Paulette Conget

    2015-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells [also referred toas mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)] are a heterogeneoussubset of stromal cells. They can be isolated from bonemarrow and many other types of tissue. MSCs arecurrently being tested for therapeutic purposes (i.e.,improving hematopoietic stem cell engraftment, managinginflammatory diseases and regenerating damagedorgans). Their tropism for tumors and inflamed sites andtheir context-dependent potential for producing trophicand immunomodulatory factors raises the question asto whether MSCs promote cancer and/or infection. Thisarticle reviews the effect of MSCs on tumor establishment,growth and metastasis and also susceptibility to infectionand its progression. Data published to date shows aparadoxical effect regarding MSCs, which seems todepend on isolation and expansion, cells source anddose and the route and timing of administration. Cancerand infection may thus be adverse or therapeutic effectsarising form MSC administration.

  7. Observational studies on evaluating the safety and adverse effects of traditional chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jung-Nein; Tang, Jin-Ling; Wang, Jung-Der

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  8. Adverse effects of antiretroviral treatment at a tertiary care hospital in India: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta V. Vaghani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs related to antiretroviral (ARV use in public health practice are few indicating the need for antiretroviral therapy (ART safety surveillance in clinical care. Methods: 143 patients on ART were studied prospectively over a period of two years. All patients were asked to visit the clinic if they developed any symptoms or on a monthly basis. They were screened clinically and investigated suitably for any ADRs. Results: 143 HIV positive patients were analyzed. At least one ADR was seen in 87 (60.83% subjects. The most common ADR observed was peripheral neuropathy in 54 (37.76% patients, followed by lipodystrophy (13.98%, anemia (10.48% and hyperlipidemia (6.29%. Patients with peripheral neuropathy and lipodystrophy were mainly on stavudine based regimes, while patient with anemia and hyperlipidemia were on zidovudine based regimes. Conclusions: In spite of high ADRs, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is the only answer to HIV/AIDS. To optimize adherence and thus, efficacy of ART, clinicians must focus on preventing adverse effects whenever possible, and distinguish those that are self-limited from those that are potentially serious. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(3.000: 230-232

  9. A fatal adverse effect of cefazolin administration: severe brain edema in a patient with multiple meningiomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tribuddharat S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sirirat Tribuddharat,1 Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee,1 Amnat Kitkhuandee,2 Sunchai Theerapongpakdee,1 Kriangsak Ngamsaengsirisup,1 Sarinya Chanthawong,11Department of Anesthesiology, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Abstract: Cefazolin is commonly administered before surgery as a prophylactic antibiotic. Hypersensitivity to cefazolin is not uncommon, and the symptoms mostly include urticaria, skin reaction, diarrhea, vomiting, and transient neutropenia, which are rarely life threatening. We present a rare case of fatal cefazolin hypersensitivity in a female who was diagnosed with multiple meningiomas and scheduled for craniotomy and tumor removal. Immediately after cefazolin IV administration, the patient developed acute hypertensive crisis, which resolved within 10 minutes after the treatment. This was followed by unexplained metabolic acidosis. The patient then developed severe brain edema 100 minutes later. The patient had facial edema when her face was exposed for the next 30 minutes. A computed tomography scan revealed global brain edema with herniation. She was admitted to the intensive care unit for symptomatic treatment and died 10 days after surgery from multiorgan failure. The serum IgE level was very high (734 IU/mL. Single-dose administration of cefazolin for surgical prophylaxis may lead to rare, fatal adverse reaction. The warning signs are sudden, unexplained metabolic acidosis, hypertensive crisis, tachycardia, and facial angioedema predominating with or without cutaneous symptoms like urticaria. Keywords: cefazolin, adverse effect, drug hypersensitivity, brain edema, hypertension

  10. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Nein Lai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT, Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT, and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs, complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimbursement database of the National Health Insurance system, Taiwan, to explore the relationship between the use of TCM that have been adulterated by aristolochic acid and the risk from both nephrotoxins and carcinogens. Results. A total of 221, 287, and 203 AEs were detected after SZRT, DJT, and TMN-1 had been taken, respectively. Dizziness, headache, stomach ache, and diarrhea were judged to be probably related to SZRT treatment. Retrospective observational studies found an association between the consumption of aristolochic acid-containing Chinese formulae such as Mu Tong and an increased risk of CKD, ESRD, and urinary tract cancer. Conclusion. Prospective and retrospective observational studies seem to have specific advantages when investigating the safety and adverse effects of TCM therapies, as well as possibly other alternative/complementary therapies.

  11. A Study on the Adverse Effect of AOVs in AFWS Recirculation Paths on Plant Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huong, Ho Thi Thanh [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Dae-Wook [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Auxiliary feedwater system (AFWS) recirculation flow paths adopted air operated valves (AOVs) which could fail close on loss of instrument air (LOIA) event. So the AOVs and recirculation paths are closed on LOIA event, which could result in Auxiliary feedwater (AFW) pump(s) damage, which contributes greatly to core damage frequency (CDF).. On February 2002, the USNRC issued an inspection finding related to potential common cause failure of AOVs in AFWS recirculation flow paths on loss of instrument air system in Point Beach nuclear power plant (Pt. Beach). The AOVs have been removed from AFWS recirculation paths in the design of Korea standard nuclear power plant (KSNP). So, there is no possibility of above mentioned failure event in KSNP. It would be beneficial to evaluate the significance of adverse effect of AOVs in AFWS recirculation paths to realize the importance of maintaining AFWS recirculation paths always open. In this study, the AFWS modeling of Ulchin unit 3 and 4 was modified to model the AOVs in AFW recirculation flow paths to evaluate the change in CDF, which is caused by the adverse effect of AOV with operation mode of 'fails close' on LOIA event. It is concluded that the existence of AOV with 'fail close' design in AFWS MDP recirculation paths results in CDF increase of 131%, which is significant adverse effect on plant safety.. In this regard, the improved Westinghouse design and KSNP design had removed the AOVs from AFWS MDP recirculation paths. However, a couple of units with old Westinghouse design, Kori 1 and 2, still have AOVs in AFWS MDP recirculation paths and throttle back operation of AFWS is in effect. Although those AOVs adopt 'fail open' design to prevent above mentioned inadvertent closure, considering the big increase in CDF, there still exists considerable risk from the possibility of 'failure to open' during this throttle back operation. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that any

  12. The Effect of Physical Loading on Bone Broadband Ultrasound Attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng-rui; NIU Hai-jun; WANG Ling; FAN Yu-bo; LI De-yu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Physical loading changes bone microstructure and may influ-ence quantitative ultrasound (QUS) parameters. This study aims at evaluating the effect of physical loading on bone QUS measurement. Methods:Ten fresh bovine bone specimens were studied, which were scanned by a micro-CT and the density and structure parameters were calculated. The QUS measurement was performed when specimens sub-jected to loading, which changed from 0 to 1,000 N with the step of 100 N. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the difference between nBUA measured with and without loading, and the relationship between nBUA and the parameters measured by micro-CT. Results:While the loading exerted on bone lugher than 200 N, the measured nBUA significantly higher than nBUA measured without loading. With the increasing of loading, which exerted on bone, the values of nBUA also increased. A new parameter, the slope of the linearity fitted curve of nBUA values measured under different loading conditions, was introduced to evaluate BMD. The correlation coefficient between the slope and BMD is -0.869 (P=0.001). Conclusion: Physical loading substantially influences bone QUS measurement. QUS measurement performed under loading condition may be a new ultrasound method for osteoporosis diagnosis.

  13. Mediators and Adverse Effects of Child Poverty in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, John M; Wood, David L; Duffee, James H; Kuo, Alice

    2016-04-01

    The link between poverty and children's health is well recognized. Even temporary poverty may have an adverse effect on children's health, and data consistently support the observation that poverty in childhood continues to have a negative effect on health into adulthood. In addition to childhood morbidity being related to child poverty, epidemiologic studies have documented a mortality gradient for children aged 1 to 15 years (and adults), with poor children experiencing a higher mortality rate than children from higher-income families. The global great recession is only now very slowly abating for millions of America's children and their families. At this difficult time in the history of our nation's families and immediately after the 50th anniversary year of President Lyndon Johnson's War on Poverty, it is particularly germane for the American Academy of Pediatrics, which is "dedicated to the health of all children," to publish a research-supported technical report that examines the mediators associated with the long-recognized adverse effects of child poverty on children and their families. This technical report draws on research from a number of disciplines, including physiology, sociology, psychology, economics, and epidemiology, to describe the present state of knowledge regarding poverty's negative impact on children's health and development. Children inherit not only their parents' genes but also the family ecology and its social milieu. Thus, parenting skills, housing, neighborhood, schools, and other factors (eg, medical care) all have complex relations to each other and influence how each child's genetic canvas is expressed. Accompanying this technical report is a policy statement that describes specific actions that pediatricians and other child advocates can take to attenuate the negative effects of the mediators identified in this technical report and improve the well-being of our nation's children and their families.

  14. ALERT. Adverse late effects of cancer treatment. Vol. 2. Normal tissue specific sites and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, Philip; Constine, Louis S. [Univ. Rochester Medical Center, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Marks, Lawrence B. (ed.) [Univ. North Carolina and Lineberger, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-09-01

    Comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue sites in the human body. Considers in detail the detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects and discusses prognostic outcomes. Clearly presents radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects. Provides the most current evidence-based medicine for cancer care survivorship guidelines. The literature on the late effects of cancer treatment is widely scattered in different journals since all major organ systems are affected and management is based on a variety of medical and surgical treatments. The aim of ALERT - Adverse Late Effects of Cancer Treatment is to offer a coherent multidisciplinary approach to the care of cancer survivors. The central paradigm is that cytotoxic multimodal therapy results in a perpetual cascade of events that affects each major organ system differently and is expressed continually over time. Essentially, radiation and chemotherapy are intense biologic modifiers that allow for cancer cure and cancer survivorship but accelerate senescence of normal tissues and increase the incidence of age-related diseases and second malignant tumors. Volume 2 of this two-volume work comprehensively documents potential late effects in all the normal tissue anatomic sites in the human body. The detection, diagnosis, management and prevention of effects are all considered in detail, and prognostic outcomes are discussed. Radiation risk factors and interactions with chemotherapy effects are clearly presented. The text is accompanied by numerous supportive illustrations and tables.

  15. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming;

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine...... model whether implant cavities prepared with compaction had spring back. Before killing the animals, we used one of two surgical techniques to make implant cavities of identical dimensions in both lateral femoral condyles of 7 dogs. One side had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  16. The Effect of Bone Loss Pattern on the Structural Capacity of the Proximal Femur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Li-xia; Eric Wang

    2006-01-01

    The effect of age-related bone loss on the structural capacity of the proximal femur were investigated by Finite Element Analysis(FEA). Four bone loss patterns were considered. These were "uniform cortical bone loss", "neck cortical bone loss", "intertrochanteric cortical bone loss" and "uniform trabecular bone loss". The results show that the two "non-uniform cortical bone loss" patterns are more dangerous than the "uniform cortical bone loss" pattern, and that the cortical bone loss in intertrochanteric region is associated with a greater reduction in cortical failure load than the cortical bone loss in the femoral neck. The trabecular bone loss causes a limited decrease in both cortical failure and trabecular failure loads. This research should be helpful to the clinical assessment of femur fracture risk due to age-related bone loss.

  17. Therapy Effects of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells on Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Xinchun Ye; Jinxia Hu; Guiyun Cui

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. Recently, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have been shown to improve functional outcome after stroke. In this review, we will focus on the protective effects of BMSCs on ischemic brain and the relative molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of BMSCs on stroke.

  18. Ground experiments for finding principles and working out methods for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness on the human organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurin, L. I.; Gregoryev, A. I.; Mikhailov, V. M.; Tishler, V. A.

    1980-01-01

    A comparative assessment of the effectiveness of different prophylactic procedures to prevent the adverse effects of weightlessness is presented. It is concluded that: physical training is most effective but no single method by itself produces the full effect, and an adjustment of regimes to one another enhances the effect. The approved complex of prophylactic procedures affected basic changes occurring in hypokinesia: deficit of muscular activity, no or reduced BP hydrostatic component, reduced volume of blood circulation, reduced hydration level, and the application of various prophylactic complexes during 49 day antiorthostatic hypodynamia eliminated or reduced the adverse effects of weightlessness in simulation.

  19. Diverse Effects on M1 Signaling and Adverse Effect Liability within a Series of M1 Ago-PAMs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Jerri M; Abe, Masahito; Cho, Hyekyung P; Nance, Kellie D; Luscombe, Vincent B; Adams, Jeffrey J; Dickerson, Jonathan W; Remke, Daniel H; Garcia-Barrantes, Pedro M; Engers, Darren W; Engers, Julie L; Chang, Sichen; Foster, Jarrett J; Blobaum, Anna L; Niswender, Colleen M; Jones, Carrie K; Conn, P Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W

    2017-01-10

    Both historical clinical and recent preclinical data suggest that the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is an exciting target for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and the cognitive and negative symptom clusters in schizophrenia; however, early drug discovery efforts targeting the orthosteric binding site have failed to afford selective M1 activation. Efforts then shifted to focus on selective activation of M1 via either allosteric agonists or positive allosteric modulators (PAMs). While M1 PAMs have robust efficacy in rodent models, some chemotypes can induce cholinergic adverse effects (AEs) that could limit their clinical utility. Here, we report studies aimed at understanding the subtle structural and pharmacological nuances that differentiate efficacy from adverse effect liability within an indole-based series of M1 ago-PAMs. Our data demonstrate that closely related M1 PAMs can display striking differences in their in vivo activities, especially their propensities to induce adverse effects. We report the discovery of a novel PAM in this series that is devoid of observable adverse effect liability. Interestingly, the molecular pharmacology profile of this novel PAM is similar to that of a representative M1 PAM that induces severe AEs. For instance, both compounds are potent ago-PAMs that demonstrate significant interaction with the orthosteric site (either bitopic or negative cooperativity). However, there are subtle differences in efficacies of the compounds at potentiating M1 responses, agonist potencies, and abilities to induce receptor internalization. While these differences may contribute to the differential in vivo profiles of these compounds, the in vitro differences are relatively subtle and highlight the complexities of allosteric modulators and the need to focus on in vivo phenotypic screening to identify safe and effective M1 PAMs.

  20. Effect of swimming on bone metabolism in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Orhan; Cinemre, Alphan; Kanbur, Nuray; Doğan, Muhsin; Kiliç, Mustafa; Karaduman, Erdem

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on bone metabolism among adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of swimming on bone metabolism during adolescence. Swimming, as a non-weight-bearing sport, has been considered to be insignificant in the maintenance of bone mass. We studied whether swimming is associated with a higher peak bone mass. Forty swimmers (males aged 10-17 years and females aged 9-16 years) were studied. The control group consisted of the same number of adolescents aged between 10-16 years who did not swim; distribution of male and female gender was similar in the non-swimming control group compared to the swimming group. Adolescents were matched for age, gender and pubertal stages based on Tanner staging. All subjects underwent combined measurement of bone mineral metabolism by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of total body calcium content, and specific biochemical markers of turnover including osteocalcin, calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase. Bone age (determined by Greulich and Pyle's Radiographic Atlas of Skeletal Development of the Hand and Wrist), weight, height, ideal body weight, ideal body weight ratio, body mass index, Tanner classification (rated by examiner), diet, history of tobacco and alcohol exposure, exercise, socioeconomic status and history of chronic illness and medications were recorded to evaluate potential mediators that would affect bone metabolism. Tanner staging was used to assess puberty, and diet was evaluated based on reported consumption of milk, yogurt and cheese and cola/caffeine beverage consumption daily. There was significant difference in bone mineral content between adolescent male swimmers and the control group males. Consumption of cola beverages were significantly higher among the control group compared with the swimmer group. Ideal body weight ratio was significantly high among the female control group compared with female swimmers. Milk consumption was

  1. Effects of ipriflavone on augmented bone using a guided bone regeneration procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Minegishi, Tadashi; Takayama, Tadahiro; Tamura, Takanori; Yamada, Yutaka; Sato, Shuichi

    2007-02-01

    : This study investigated the effects of ipriflavone (IP) on augmented bone using a guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure. In 15 rabbits, two titanium caps were placed into calvarial bone for GBR. The animals were divided into three groups: the No-IP (no intake of IP), Post-IP (IP orally, 10 mg/kg/day after GBR), and Pre-IP (IP intake beginning before GBR) groups. One cap was removed from each rabbit after 3 months, and the remaining site was a control. One month after one cap removal, all the animals were euthanized, and histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed. In all of the groups, the newly generated tissue was of varying size, and it consisted of thin pieces of mineralized bone and large marrow spaces with fat cells and some hematopoietic cells. In all of the control sites, the newly generated tissue was noted and almost filled the space under the cap. There was a significant difference between groups No-IP and Pre-IP (93.8+/-4.6% vs. 98.5+/-0.8%, Ptissue generated at the test sites in all of the groups was resorbed, and its original shape and volume were not maintained 1 month after one cap removal. In particular, the greatest percentage, approximately 20% of the newly generated tissue, was resorbed in the No-IP group (93.8+/-4.6% vs. 73.9+/-3.7%, Ptissue generated appeared to increase with an increase in the total IP dose. Within the limitations of this rabbit experimental model, we conclude that the daily intake of IP before or after GBR inhibits the resorption of augmented tissue and would be useful for improving the quality of newly generated bone beyond the skeletal envelope.

  2. Effect of the "protein diet" and bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoraide Nascimento da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the hyperproteic diet consumption on bone tissue. Methods: The study was conducted during sixty days. Twenty eight Wistar albinus rats, adults, originated from Laboratory of Experimental Nutrition were divided in four groups: (n = 7; Control 1 (C1, Control 2 (C2, Hyperproteic 1 (HP1 e Hyperproteic 2 (HP2. The C2 and HP2 groups were submitted to 30% of food restriction. The hyperproteic diet was based on the Atkins diet and prepared to simulate the protein diet. At the end of the study the animals were anesthetized to performer bone densitometry analyses by DEXA and blood and tissue collection. Serum and bone minerals analyses were conducted by colorimetric methods in automated equipment. Results: The total bone mineral density (BMD of the pelvis and the spine of the food restriction groups (HP2 e C2 were lower (p < 0.05 than C1 e HP1 groups. While the femur BMD of the HP2 was lower (p < 0.05 related to others groups. It had been observed reduction (p < 0.05 in the medium point of the width of femur diaphysis and in bone calcium level in the hyperproteic groups (HP1 e HP2. It was observed similar effect on the osteocalcin level, that presented lower (p < 0.05 in the hyperproteic groups. The insulin level was lower only in HP2 and serum calcium of the HP1 and HP2 groups was lower than C1. Conclusion: The protein diet promotes significant bone change on femur and in the hormones levels related to bone synthesis and maintenance of this tissue.

  3. The effect of nicotine on osteoinduction by recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, K; Togo, Y; Kaihara, S; Hussain, A; Takahashi, K; Bessho, K

    2014-08-01

    Nicotine, one of the constituents of tobacco, is known to have an adverse effect on human health. We sought to clarify the interaction between nicotine and recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2) in terms of osteogenesis in vitro and osteoinduction in vivo. Nicotine did not inhibit or stimulate alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity or the amount of osteocalcin in C2C12 cells in the presence of rhBMP-2 in vitro. Ectopic bone formation using a collagen sponge containing rhBMP-2 was evaluated with and without nicotine after 21 days using radiographic, histological, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses. ALP activity in the medium-dose group (2.2±0.9IU/mg protein; P=0.047) and the high-dose group (2.0±0.1IU/mg protein; P=0.03) was significantly lower than in the control group. The calcium content in the medium-dose group (35.4±12.9μg/mg tissue; P=0.0099) and high-dose group (34.8±10.5μg/mg tissue; P=0.006) was significantly lower than in the control group. The number of vascular endothelial growth factor-positive cells in the high-dose group (671.9±57.3cells/mm(2); P=0.03) was significantly lower than in the control group. Results showed that nicotine did not inhibit the stimulatory effect of rhBMP-2 in vitro, but a high dose of nicotine inhibited bone formation in vivo by adversely affecting vascularization.

  4. Effects of nitrogen on the tolerance of brown planthopper,Nilaparvata Lugens, to adverse environmental factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG-XIANLU; KONG-LUENHEONG; XIAO-PINGYU; CUIHU

    2005-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen content in rice plants on the tolerance of brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stal to high temperature, starvation and insecticide, was studied in the laboratory at International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines. Survival of nymphs and adults, fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly increased by the increase of nitrogen content in host plants at 38℃. Moreover, the survival of nymphs,fecundity and egg hatchability were significantly higher in BPH populations on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen than those on rice plants with a low nitrogen regimen.Meanwhile, the tolerance of female adults to starvation and nymphs to growth regulator buprofezin on rice plants with a high nitrogen regimen were slightly increased. This indicates that the tolerances of BPH to adverse environmental stresses were positively increased by the application of nitrogenous fertilizer. The outbreak potential of BPH induced by the excessive application of fertilizer in rice fields was also discussed.

  5. Diagnostic criteria for adverse health effects in the environs of wind turbines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y; Krogh, Carmen Me

    2014-10-01

    In an effort to address climate change, governments have pursued policies that seek to reduce greenhouse gases. Alternative energy, including wind power, has been proposed by some as the preferred approach. Few would debate the need to reduce air pollution, but the means of achieving this reduction is important not only for efficiency but also for health protection. The topic of adverse health effects in the environs of industrial wind turbines (AHE/IWT) has proven to be controversial and can present physicians with challenges regarding the management of an exposure to IWT. Rural physicians in particular must be aware of the possibility of people presenting to their practices with a variety of sometimes confusing complaints. An earlier version of the diagnostic criteria for AHE/IWT was published in August 2011. A revised case definition and a model for a study to establish a confirmed diagnosis is proposed.

  6. Mouth breathing: adverse effects on facial growth, health, academics, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Yosh

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of health care professionals are unaware of the negative impact of upper airway obstruction (mouth breathing) on normal facial growth and physiologic health. Children whose mouth breathing is untreated may develop long, narrow faces, narrow mouths, high palatal vaults, dental malocclusion, gummy smiles, and many other unattractive facial features, such as skeletal Class II or Class III facial profiles. These children do not sleep well at night due to obstructed airways; this lack of sleep can adversely affect their growth and academic performance. Many of these children are misdiagnosed with attention deficit disorder (ADD) and hyperactivity. It is important for the entire health care community (including general and pediatric dentists) to screen and diagnose for mouth breathing in adults and in children as young as 5 years of age. If mouth breathing is treated early, its negative effect on facial and dental development and the medical and social problems associated with it can be reduced or averted.

  7. Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-01-01

    Propolis (bee glue) is the resinous substance that bees collect from living plants for the construction and adaptation of their nests. It has antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and may have a wide range of other beneficial biological activities. Propolis is available as a dietary supplement, in products for the protection of health and prevention of diseases, in biopharmaceuticals, and as a constituent of (bio)cosmetics. In this article, the following aspects of propolis are reviewed: the nature and chemical composition, its biological properties and applications, contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis (sensitizing potential, products causing contact allergy, clinical picture, frequency of sensitization, coreactivity and cross-reactivity, the allergens in propolis), and other adverse effects.

  8. Complete heart block in a neutropenic patient with aspergillosis: An unusual adverse effect of caspofungins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of complete heart block (CHB in a 58-year-old female patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with no past history of cardiac disease, who received caspofungin in the treatment of disseminated fungal infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case of CHB associated with caspofungins. Subsequent to induction chemotherapy the patient developed invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with sudden tachypnea, dyspnoea, fever, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and acute respiratory insufficiency consequent to neutropenia with ANC<500. During the first dose of antifungal therapy with caspofungins, she developed complete atrioventricular block and cardiac arrest. Complete heart block is an unusual adverse effect of caspofungins which has not been reported previously. Caspofungins release histamine in peripheral blood cells, so possible histamine-mediated symptoms ranging from severe fatal anaphylaxis can occur. These data suggest that infusion-related reactions associated with caspofungin may be mediated by histamine release secondary to caspofungin therapy.

  9. Mitigating Adverse Effects of a Human Mission on Possible Martian Indigenous Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupisella, M. L.

    2000-07-01

    Although human beings are, by most standards, the most capable agents to search for and detect extraterrestrial life, we are also potentially the most harmful. While there has been substantial work regarding forward contamination with respect to robotic missions, the issue of potential adverse effects on possible indigenous Martian ecosystems, such as biological contamination, due to a human mission has remained relatively unexplored and may require our attention now as this presentation will try to demonstrate by exploring some of the relevant scientific questions, mission planning challenges, and policy issues. An informal, high-level mission planning decision tree will be discussed and is included as the next page of this abstract. Some of the questions to be considered are: (1) To what extent could contamination due to a human presence compromise possible indigenous life forms? (2) To what extent can we control contamination? For example, will it be local or global? (3) What are the criteria for assessing the biological status of Mars, both regionally and globally? For example, can we adequately extrapolate from a few strategic missions such as sample return missions? (4) What should our policies be regarding our mission planning and possible interaction with what are likely to be microbial forms of extraterrestrial life? (5) Central to the science and mission planning issues is the role and applicability of terrestrial analogs, such as Lake Vostok for assessing drilling issues, and modeling techniques. Central to many of the policy aspects are scientific value, international law, public concern, and ethics. Exploring this overall issue responsibly requires an examination of all these aspects and how they interrelate. A chart is included, titled 'Mission Planning Decision Tree for Mitigating Adverse Effects to Possible Indigenous Martian Ecosystems due to a Human Mission'. It outlines what questions scientists should ask and answer before sending humans to Mars.

  10. Adverse effect of outdoor air pollution on cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Chan, Emily Y. Y.; Zhu, Yingjia; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the health impact of air pollution on children's cardiovascular health. A cross-sectional study was conducted and data was analysed in 2048 Chinese schoolchildren (aged 8-10 years) in three districts of Hong Kong to examine the association between exposure to outdoor air pollution and cardiorespiratory fitness. Annual means of ambient PM10, SO2, NO2 and O3 from 1996 to 2003 were used to estimate individual exposure of the subjects. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured for maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), predicted by the multistage fitness test (MFT). Height and weight were measured and other potential confounders were collected with questionnaires. Analysis of covariance was performed to estimate the impact of air pollution on complete speed in the MFT and predicted VO2max. The results showed that children in high-pollution district had significantly lower complete speed and predicted VO2max compared to those in low- and moderate-pollution districts. Complete speed and predicted VO2max was estimated to reduce 0.327 km h-1 and 1.53 ml kg-1 min-1 per 10 μg m-3 increase in PM10 annual mean respectively, with those in girls being greater than in boys. Being physically active could not significantly result in improved cardiorespiratory fitness in polluted districts. The adverse effect seems to be independent of short-term exposure to air pollution. We concluded that long-term exposure to higher outdoor air pollution levels was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in Chinese schoolchildren, especially for girls. PM10 is the most relevant pollutant of the adverse effect. Elevated cardiorespiratory fitness observed in physically activate children could be negated by increased amount of inhaled pollutants during exercise.

  11. Doping with anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS): Adverse effects on non-reproductive organs and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschlag, Eberhard; Vorona, Elena

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1970s anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) have been abused at ever increasing rates in competitive athletics, in recreational sports and in bodybuilding. Exceedingly high doses are often consumed over long periods, in particular by bodybuilders, causing acute or chronic adverse side effects frequently complicated by additional polypharmacy. This review summarizes side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions; effects on male and female reproduction have been recently reviewed in a parallel paper. Among the most striking AAS side effects are increases in haematocrit and coagulation causing thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke as well as other cardiac disturbances including arrhythmias, cardiomyopathies and possibly sudden death. 17α-alkylated AAS are liver toxic leading to cholestasis, peliosis, adenomas and carcinomas. Hyperbilirubinaemia can cause cholemic nephrosis and kidney failure. AAS abuse may induce exaggerated self-confidence, reckless behavior, aggressiveness and psychotic symptoms. AAS withdrawal may be accompanied by depression and suicidal intentions. Since AAS abuse is not or only reluctantly admitted physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

  12. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  13. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debjani Das

    Full Text Available Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4 exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148 aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003 on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  14. Effect of exposure to adverse climatic conditions on production in Manchega dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, M; Díaz, C; Pérez-Guzman, M D; Carabaño, M J

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to examine the effects of exposure to adverse weather conditions on milk production to assess the thermotolerance capability of the Manchega breed, a dairy sheep reared in the Mediterranean area, and the extent of decline in production outside the thermal comfort zone. To achieve this purpose, we merged data from the official milk recording of the breed with weather information and used to describe the cold and heat stress response for production traits. Production data consisted of 1,094,804 test-day records from the first 3 lactations of 177,605 ewes gathered between years 2000 to 2010. For each production trait and climate variable, the thermal load production response was characterized by the estimation of cold and heat stress thresholds that define a thermoneutral zone and the slopes of production decay outside this thermoneutral zone. Overall, we observed a comfort region between 10 and 22°C for daily average temperature, 18 and 30°C for daily maximum temperature, and from 9 to 18 units for a temperature-humidity index (THI) for all traits. Decline in production due to cold stress effects was of a greater magnitude than heat stress effects, especially for milk yield. Production losses ranged between 7 and 16 and from 0.2 to 0.6g/d per °C (or THI unit) for milk and for fat and protein yields, respectively. For heat stress, the observed decline in production was of 1 to 5 and 0.1 to 0.3g/d per °C (or THI unit) above the threshold for milk yield and for fat and protein yields, respectively. Highly productive animals showed a narrower comfort zone and higher slopes of decay. The study of lagged effects of thermal load showed how consequences of cold and heat stress are already visible in the first hours after exposure. Thus, production losses were due mainly to climate conditions on the day of control and the day before, with conditions on the previous days having a smaller effect. Annual economic losses due to thermal (cold and heat

  15. Assessment of the effect of reduced compositional heterogeneity on fracture resistance of human cortical bone using finite element modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Ahmet; Curran, Erin; Ural, Ani

    2016-10-01

    was inversely correlated with crack volume and more evenly distributed osteons led to a lower amount of crack growth for all levels of material heterogeneity. In summary, this study developed a new computational modeling approach that directly evaluated the influence of heterogeneity in elastic and fracture material properties on fracture resistance of cortical bone. The results established new information that showed the adverse effects of reduced heterogeneity on fracture resistance in cortical bone and demonstrated the nonlinear relationship between heterogeneity and fracture resistance. This new computational modeling approach provides a tool that can be used to improve the understanding of the effects of material level changes due to prolonged BP use on the overall bone fracture behavior. It may also bring additional insight into the causes of unusual fractures, such as AFF and their possible association with long term BP use.

  16. Diabetes mellitus related bone metabolism and periodontal disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying-Ying Wu; E Xiao; Dana T Graves

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and periodontal disease are chronic diseases affecting a large number of populations worldwide. Changed bone metabolism is one of the important long-term complications associated with diabetes mellitus. Alveolar bone loss is one of the main outcomes of periodontitis, and diabetes is among the primary risk factors for periodontal disease. In this review, we summarise the adverse effects of diabetes on the periodontium in periodontitis subjects, focusing on alveolar bone loss. Bone remodelling begins with osteoclasts resorbing bone, followed by new bone formation by osteoblasts in the resorption lacunae. Therefore, we discuss the potential mechanism of diabetes-enhanced bone loss in relation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

  17. Material Mismatch Effect on the Fracture of a Bone-Composite Cement Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, M; Tarantini, S

    2012-12-01

    The interfacial mechanics at the bone-implant interface is a critical issue for implant fixation and the filling of bone defects created by tumors and/or their excision. Our previous study found that micron and nano sizes MgO particles improved the fracture toughness of bone-cement interfaces under tension loading. The strength of bonding of different types of bone with different types of implants may not be the same. The aims of this research were to determine the influences of material mismatch due to bone orientation and a magnesium oxide (MgO) filler material for PMMA bone cement on the mechanical strength between bone and bone cement specimens. This research studied the longitudinal and transverse directions bovine cortical bone as different bone materials and poly Methyl MethAcrylate (PMMA) bone cement with and without MgO additives as different implant materials. The scope of work for this study was: (1) to determine the bending strength and modulus of different bone and bone cement specimens, (2) to determine whether inclusion of MgO particles on PMMA has any influence on these mechanical properties of PMMA, and (3) to determine whether bone orientation and inclusion of MgO particles with PMMA has any influence on the interface strength between bone and PMMA. This study showed that bone orientation has statistically significant effect on the bonding strength between bone and bone cement specimens (P value0.05).

  18. Treatment of heartwater : potential adverse effects of furosemide administration on certain homeostatic parameters in normal sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Diuretics, in particular furosemide, are generally recommended as a supportive treatment in the advanced stages of heartwater in ruminants. However, after what appeared to be possible adverse effects accompanying its use in field cases of heartwater, the effects of this drug on certain blood and urine parameters were investigated in normal sheep at the same dose rates. Diuresis with concomitant natriuresis was significant after furosemide administration, as was the expected plasma volume decrease. Other significant changes included metabolic alkalosis, hypokalaemia and reduced blood ionised calcium. The difference in duration of the diuretic effect and the duration of the changes in blood parameters from c. 3 h and c. 6 h respectively make it difficult to determine a time interval between successive treatments with furosemide. It appears that the probable cause of death of sheep with heartwater is a drastic reduction in blood volume and decreased cardiac output that leads to general circulatory failure. A therapeutic approach that involves further loss of plasma volume due to diuresis appears contradictory. The added effects of potentiating respiratory alkalosis and the terminal drop in blood ionised calcium seen in heartwater-affected animals indicate that the use of furosemide in supportive treatment of this disease is not warranted.

  19. Novel biopesticide based on a spider venom peptide shows no adverse effects on honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasu, Erich Y T; Williamson, Sally M; Edwards, Martin G; Fitches, Elaine C; Gatehouse, John A; Wright, Geraldine A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2014-07-22

    Evidence is accumulating that commonly used pesticides are linked to decline of pollinator populations; adverse effects of three neonicotinoids on bees have led to bans on their use across the European Union. Developing insecticides that pose negligible risks to beneficial organisms such as honeybees is desirable and timely. One strategy is to use recombinant fusion proteins containing neuroactive peptides/proteins linked to a 'carrier' protein that confers oral toxicity. Hv1a/GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin), containing an insect-specific spider venom calcium channel blocker (ω-hexatoxin-Hv1a) linked to snowdrop lectin (GNA) as a 'carrier', is an effective oral biopesticide towards various insect pests. Effects of Hv1a/GNA towards a non-target species, Apis mellifera, were assessed through a thorough early-tier risk assessment. Following feeding, honeybees internalized Hv1a/GNA, which reached the brain within 1 h after exposure. However, survival was only slightly affected by ingestion (LD50>100 µg bee(-1)) or injection of fusion protein. Bees fed acute (100 µg bee(-1)) or chronic (0.35 mg ml(-1)) doses of Hv1a/GNA and trained in an olfactory learning task had similar rates of learning and memory to no-pesticide controls. Larvae were unaffected, being able to degrade Hv1a/GNA. These tests suggest that Hv1a/GNA is unlikely to cause detrimental effects on honeybees, indicating that atracotoxins targeting calcium channels are potential alternatives to conventional pesticides.

  20. The adverse effect of phytoestrogens on the synthesis and secretion of ovarian oxytocin in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczuk, J; Wrobel, M H; Kotwica, J

    2011-02-01

    The current investigations were undertaken to study the mechanism of the adverse effect of phytoestrogens on the function of bovine granulosa (follicles >1< cm in diameter) and luteal cells from day 1-5, 6-10, 11-15, 16-19 of the oestrous cycle. The cells were incubated with genistein, daidzein or coumestrol (each at the dose of 1 × 10(-6) m). The viability and secretion of estradiol (E2), progesterone (P4) and oxytocin (OT) were measured after 72 h of incubation. Moreover, the expression of mRNA for neurophysin-I/OT (NP-I/OT; precursor of OT) and peptidyl-glycine-α-amidating monooxygenase (PGA, an enzyme responsible for post-translational OT synthesis) was determined after 8 h of treatment. None of the phytoestrogens used affected the viability of cells except for coumestrol. The increased secretion of E2 and P4 was only obtained by coumestrol (p<0.05) from granulosa cells from follicles <1cm in diameter and decreased from luteal cells on days 11-15 of the oestrous cycle, respectively. All three phytoestrogens stimulated (p<0.05) OT secretion from granulosa and luteal cells in all stages of the oestrous cycle and the expression of NP-I/OT mRNA in the both types of cells. The expression of mRNA for PGA was stimulated (p<0.05) by daidzein and coumestrol in granulosa cells, and by genistein and coumestrol in luteal cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that these phytoestrogens can impair the ovary function in cattle by adversely affecting the synthesis of OT in follicles and in corpus luteum. However, their influence on the ovarian steroids secretion was less evident.

  1. The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ann

    The Development of Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Adverse Health Effects Ann R. Kennedy Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 195 John Morgan Building, 3620 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA, United States 19104-6072 The development of countermeasures for radiation induced adverse health effects is a lengthy process, particularly when the countermeasure/drug has not yet been evaluated in human trials. One example of a drug developed from the bench to the clinic is the soybean-derived Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI), which has been developed as a countermeasure for radiation induced cancer. It was originally identified as a compound/drug that could prevent the radiation induced carcinogenic process in an in vitro assay system in 1975. The first observation that BBI could inhibit carcinogenesis in animals was in 1985. BBI received Investigational New Drug (IND) Status with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1992 (after several years of negotiation with the FDA about the potential IND status of the drug), and human trials began at that time. Phase I, II and III human trials utilizing BBI have been performed under several INDs with the FDA, and an ongoing Phase III trial will be ending in the very near future. Thus, the drug has been in development for 35 years at this point, and it is still not a prescription drug on the market which is available for human use. A somewhat less time-consuming process is to evaluate compounds that are on the GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. These compounds would include some over-the-counter medications, such as antioxidant vitamins utilized in human trials at the levels for which Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) have been established. To determine whether GRAS substances are able to have beneficial effects on radiation induced adverse health effects, it is still likely to be a lengthy process involving many years to potentially decades of human trial work. The

  2. More effective assessment of adverse effects and comorbidities in epilepsy: results of a Phase II communication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, John M; Labiner, David M; Gilliam, Frank G; Penovich, Patricia E; Onofrey, Meaghan; Eagan, Corey A; Holmes, Gregory L

    2011-11-01

    Research was conducted to evaluate conversations about epilepsy between community-based neurologists and patients. Adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs and mood/behavioral issues were infrequently discussed, and neurologists and patients disagreed about these issues postvisit. Follow-up research was conducted to assess the impact of a previsit assessment tool on discussions of epilepsy. Twenty neurologists reviewed a tool incorporating questions from validated instruments (Adverse Events Profile [AEP] and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy [NDDI-E]). Naturally occurring interactions between neurologists and 60 patients were recorded. Neurologists and patients were interviewed separately. All components were transcribed and analyzed using sociolinguistics. Using the previsit assessment tool increased the number of discussions about adverse effects and mood/behavioral issues and increased neurologist-patient agreement about issues postvisit. Visit length did not increase significantly when the tool was used. Ten months after follow-up research, 50% of neurologists reported continuing to use the tool in everyday practice with patients with epilepsy.

  3. Bone Biomarkers on the Pathway to Effective Spaceflight Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Osteocyte cells are the most abundant yet least understood bone cell type in the human body. However, recent discovers in osteocyte cell biology have shed light on their importance as key mechanosensing cells regulating the bone remodeling process. Thus, we propose the first ever in vitro gene expression evaluation of osteocytes exposed to simulated microgravity to determine mechanistic pathways of their gravity sensing ability. Improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms at the osteocyte cellular level may lead to improved treatment options to mitigate the effects of bone loss encountered by astronauts on long duration space missions and provide tailored treatment options for maintaining bone strength of immobilized/partially paralyzed patients here on Earth. Aim 1: Characterize the gene expression patterns and protein levels following exposure of murine osteocytelike cell line (MLO-Y4) to simulated microgravity using the NASA Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor. Osteocytes are theorized to be the mechanosensors and transducers of mechanical load for bones, yet the biological mechanism of this action remains elusive. We propose to investigate the genetic regulation of the mechanism of the MLO-Y4 cell in the NASA Bioreactor as it is the accepted ground-based analog for simulating vector averaged microgravity.

  4. Effect of bone loss in anterior shoulder instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Grant H; Liu, Joseph N; Dines, David M; Dines, Joshua S

    2015-01-01

    Anterior shoulder instability with bone loss can be a difficult problem to treat. It usually involves a component of either glenoid deficiency or a Hill-Sachs lesion. Recent data shows that soft tissue procedures alone are typically not adequate to provide stability to the shoulder. As such, numerous surgical procedures have been described to directly address these bony deficits. For glenoid defects, coracoid transfer and iliac crest bone block procedures are popular and effective. For humeral head defects, both remplissage and osteochondral allografts have decreased the rates of recurrent instability. Our review provides an overview of current literature addressing these treatment options and others for addressing bone loss complicating anterior glenohumeral instability. PMID:26085984

  5. The effect of bone displacement operations on facial soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Ali; Hisham, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    A novel biomechanical model for face soft tissue (skin, mucosa, and muscles) is introduced to investigate the effect of mandible and chin bone displacement on the overall appearance of the patient's face. Nonlinear FE analysis is applied to the model and the results obtained are used to help surgeons to decide the amount of displacement required.

  6. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  7. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  8. Mycorrhiza Reduces Adverse Effects of Dark Septate Endophytes (DSE) on Growth of Conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l. – Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and

  9. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE on growth of conifers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Reininger

    Full Text Available Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC. These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM. Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce, mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii and Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts

  10. A Review of Epidemiological Research on Adverse Neurological Effects of Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ha, Sandie Uyen; Basnet, Rakshya

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing body of epidemiological research reporting the neurological effects of ambient air pollution. We examined current evidence, identified the strengths and weaknesses of published epidemiological studies, and suggest future directions for research in this area. Studies were identified through a systematic search of online scientific databases, in addition to a manual search of the reference lists from the identified papers. Despite being a relatively new area of investigation, overall, there is mounting evidence implicating adverse effects of air pollution on neurobehavioral function in both adults and children. Further research is needed to expand our understanding of these relationships, including improvement in the accuracy of exposure assessments; focusing on specific toxicants and their relationships to specific health endpoints, such as neurodevelopmental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases; investigating the combined neurological effects of multiple air pollutants; and further exploration of genetic susceptibility for neurotoxicity of air pollution. In order to achieve these goals collaborative efforts are needed from multidisciplinary teams, including experts in toxicology, biostatistics, geographical science, epidemiology, and neurology.

  11. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Woo; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Ki-Jin; Hong, Soon-Cheol; Lee, Ji Sung; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A; Oh, Min-Jeong; Kim, Hai-Joong

    2014-01-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL). In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL). The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76) and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Preventive effects of folic acid supplementation on adverse maternal and fetal outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Woo Kim

    Full Text Available Although there is accumulating evidence regarding the additional protective effect of folic acid against adverse pregnancy outcomes other than neural tube defects, these effects have not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated whether folic acid supplementation is associated with favorable maternal and fetal outcomes. This was a secondary analysis of 215 pregnant women who were enrolled in our prior study. With additional data from telephone interviews regarding prenatal folic acid supplementation, existing demographic, maternal and fetal data were statistically analyzed. The concentration of folic acid in maternal blood was significantly higher following folic acid supplementation (24.6 ng/mL vs.11.8 ng/mL. In contrast, homocysteine level in maternal blood decreased with folic acid supplementation (5.5 µmol/mL vs. 6.8 µmol/mL. The rates of both preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR], 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09-0.76 and small for gestational age (SGA; 9.2% vs. 20.0%; OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99 were lower in the folic acid supplementation group than those in the control group. Other pregnancy outcomes had no association with folic acid supplementation. The findings indicate that folic acid supplementation may help to prevent preeclampsia and SGA. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the favorable effects of folic acid supplementation on pregnancy outcomes.

  13. The potential benefits and adverse effects of phytic Acid supplement in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, F O; Budiaman, A; Eng, Y; Olumese, F E; Hoesel, J L; Ejilemele, A; Okorodudu, A O

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effect of phytic acid supplement on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats was investigated. Diabetic rats were fed rodent chow with or without phytic acid supplementation for thirty days. Blood and organ samples were collected for assays. The average food intake was the highest and the body weight gain was the lowest in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the diabetic and normal control groups. There was a downward trend in intestinal amylase activity in the group fed phytic acid supplement compared to the other groups. The spike in random blood glucose was the lowest in the same group. We noted reduced serum triglycerides and increased total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels in the group fed phytic acid supplement. Serum alkaline phosphatase and alanine amino transferase activities were significantly (P phytic acid supplementation. Systemic IL-1 β level was significantly (P phytic acid supplementation may be beneficial in the management of diabetes mellitus. The observed adverse effect on the liver may be due to the combined effect of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and phytic acid supplementation.

  14. Pharmacology, toxicology, clinical efficacy, and adverse effects of calcium polycarbophil, an enteral hydrosorptive agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhof, I E

    1982-01-01

    Calcium polycarbophil is the calcium salt of polyacrylic acid crosslinked with divinyl glycol. It is chemically and physiologically inert. In dilute alkali it possesses marked hydrophilic capacity (60 to 100 times its weight), which is the basis for its therapeutic use. In daily dosages of 4 to 5 g in adults, it appears to be quite safe, is non-toxic, does not interfere with digestion or absorption, and does not cause gastrointestinal irritation. It appears to be effective in the treatment of both constipation and diarrhea due to functional or organic causes. Several days of continuous use are necessary before effectiveness becomes apparent. Clinical studies, of which there are relatively few, range from uncontrolled, unblinded evaluations of an almost anecdotal nature to well controlled, double-blind, crossover studies. Additional carefully controlled studies on dietary influences, exercise, and patient compliance would be helpful. Adverse effects, which are minimal, include epigastric fullness or heaviness, abdominal distention and bloating, and flatulence. As with all bulk-forming agents, calcium polycarbophil should not be used by persons who have stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Identification of Herbal Compound lmperatorin with Adverse Effects on ANO1 and CFTR Chloride Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Feng; YI Fei; ZHANG Di; NING Yan; SU Wei-heng; FENG Xue-chao; YANG Hong; MA Tong-hui

    2011-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels(CaCCs) are the crucial regulators of transepithelial fluid secretion,smooth muscle contraction and sensory transduction. Recently, compelling evidence has indicated that TMEM 16A(ANO 1 or anoctamin-i ) is a bona fide calcium-acvtivated chloride channel. A few small molecule CaCCs regulators are available for functional and therapeutic studies. We screened 126 natural compounds from Chinese herbs. Screening was performed with an iodide influx assay in Fischer rat thyroid epithelial cells to coexpress ANOI and an iodide-sensitive fluorescent indicator(EYFP-HI48Q/I152L). lmperatorin, a coumarin compound, was identifled to inhibit ANOl-mediated chloride transport activated by multiple calcium-elevating agonists. The inhibitory effect is dose-dependent with IC50 ~14.63 μmol/L. Interestingly, imperatorin activated CFTR chloride channel with EC50 ~35.52 μmol/L. The adverse effects of imperatorin on CaCC and CFTR chloride channels will make it useful in pharmacological dissection of chloride transport in airway and intestinal epithelium. Further studies are required to evaluate the therapeutic effects of imperatorin on hypertension, asthma and certain tumors.

  16. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects.

  17. Management of common adverse effects in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy in south east Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadikalmahdi Hussen Abdella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The combination of antiretroviral therapy is the corner stone of management of patients with human immune deficiency virus infection. Although antiretroviral therapy can reduce viral load to undetectable level, improve the immunity and prolong survival of patients, antiretroviral drugs are associated with many adverse effects that may be severe and affect patient adherence and quality of life. Aims : The aim of this study was to assess management strategies under taken in patient′s experienced common adverse effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Goba Hospital antiretroviral clinic. Patients and Methods: A cross sectional study of patient record chart of patients who had follow-up during data collection period was done followed by patient interview. Data was filled on well structured questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS for window version 16.0. Results: The common adverse effects were Rash (48.8%, Peripheral neuropathy (36.9% and Anemia (20.24%. The rate of management was 39.3%. Pyridoxine (36.8% was commonly prescribed drug for management of Peripheral neuropathy. Chlorphenarimine gel and Iron gluconate were common drugs for management of Rash and Anemia respectively. Use of traditional healers (57.7% was leading reason for non-management. Conclusion: Rate of management for common adverse effect is low. Education should be given on adverse effects for patients.

  18. The combined effects of prenatal drug exposure and early adversity on neurobehavioral disinhibition in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A; Lester, Barry M; DeGarmo, David S; Lagasse, Linda L; Lin, Hai; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta S; Bauer, Charles R; Hammond, Jane; Whitaker, Toni; Higgins, Rosemary

    2011-08-01

    The negative effects of prenatal substance exposure on neurobiological and psychological development and of early adversity are clear, but little is known about their combined effects. In this study, multilevel analyses of the effects of prenatal substance exposure and early adversity on the emergence of neurobehavioral disinhibition in adolescence were conducted. Neurobehavioral disinhibition has previously been observed to occur frequently in multiproblem youth from high-risk backgrounds. In the present study, neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed via behavioral dysregulation and poor executive function composite measures. Data were drawn from a prospective longitudinal investigation of prenatal substance exposure that included 1,073 participants followed from birth through adolescence. The results from latent growth modeling analyses showed mean stability but significant individual differences in behavioral dysregulation and mean decline with individual differences in executive function difficulties. Prior behavioral dysregulation predicted increased executive function difficulties. Prenatal drug use predicted the emergence and growth in neurobehavioral disinhibition across adolescence (directly for behavioral dysregulation and indirectly for executive function difficulties via early adversity and behavioral dysregulation). Prenatal drug use and early adversity exhibited unique effects on growth in behavioral dysregulation; early adversity uniquely predicted executive function difficulties. These results are discussed in terms of implications for theory development, social policy, and prevention science.

  19. The role of Notch in the cardiovascular system: potential adverse effects of investigational Notch inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eRizzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeting the Notch pathway is a new promising therapeutic approach for cancer patients. Inhibition of Notch is effective in the oncology setting because it causes a reduction of highly proliferative tumor cells and it inhibits survival of cancer stem cells which are considered responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Additionally, since Delta- like ligand 4 (Dll4- activated Notch signalling is a major modulator of angiogenesis, anti-Dll4 agents are being investigated to reduce vascularization of the tumor. Notch plays a major role in the heart during the development and, after birth, in response to cardiac damage. Therefore, agents used to inhibit Notch in the tumors (gamma secretase inhibitors and anti-Dll4 agents could potentially affect myocardial repair. The past experience with trastuzumab and other tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for cancer therapy demonstrates that the possible cardiotoxicity of agents targeting shared pathways between cancer and heart and the vasculature should be considered. To date, Notch inhibition in cancer patients has resulted only in mild gastrointestinal toxicity. Little is known about the potential long term cardiotoxicity associated to Notch inhibition in cancer patients. In this review we will focus on mechanisms through which inhibition of Notch signalling could lead to cardiomyocytes and endothelial dysfunctions. These adverse effects could contrast with the benefits of therapeutic responses in cancer cells during times of increased cardiac stress and/or in the presence of cardiovascular risk factor

  20. Potential adverse effects of applying phosphate amendments to immobilize soil contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majs, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    Seven-day batch equilibrium experiments were conducted to measure the efficacy of four phosphate amendments (trisodium trimetaphosphate [TP3], dodecasodium phytate [Na-IP6], precipitated calcium phytate [Ca-IP6], and hydroxyapatite [HA]) for immobilizing Ni and U in organic-rich sediment. Using the eight-step modified Miller's sequential extraction procedure and the USEPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure, the effect of these amendments on the distribution of Ni and U was assessed. Relative to unamended controls, equilibrium aqueous-phase U concentrations were lower following HA and Ca-IP6 additions but higher following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments, whereas aqueous Ni concentrations were not decreased only in the Na-IP6 amended treatment relative to the control. The poor rates of contaminant immobilization following TP3 and Na-IP6 amendments correlate with the dispersion of organic matter and organo-mineral colloids, which probably contain sorbed U and Ni. While all amendments shifted the U distribution toward more recalcitrant soil fractions, Ni was redistributed to more labile soil fractions. This study cautions that the addition of orthophosphates and organophosphates as contaminant immobilizing amendments may in fact have adverse effects, especially in high-organic soils. Particular attention is warranted at sites with mixed contaminants with varying geochemical behaviors.

  1. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  2. Adverse Structural and Functional Effects of Marijuana on the Brain: Evidence Reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelbaum, David E; de la Monte, Suzanne M

    2017-01-01

    The growing use and legalization of cannabis are leading to increased exposures across all age groups, including in adolescence. The touting of its medicinal values stems from anecdotal reports related to treatment of a broad range of illnesses including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, muscle spasms, arthritis, obesity, cancer, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, post-traumatic stress, inflammatory bowel disease, and anxiety. However, anecdotal data and the high level of interest in this treatment must not obscure objective assessments of any potential and realized short- and long-term adverse effects of cannabis, particularly with respect to age of onset and chronicity of exposure. This critical review focuses on evidence-based research designed to assess both therapeutic benefits and harmful effects of cannabis exposure and is combined with an illustration of the neuropathologic findings in a fatal case of cannabis-induced psychosis. The literature and reported case provide strong evidence that chronic cannabis abuse causes cognitive impairment and damages the brain, particularly white matter, where cannabinoid 1 receptors abound. Contrary to popular perception, there are few objective data supporting preferential use of cannabis over conventional therapy for restoration of central nervous system structure and function in disease states such as multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, or schizophrenia. Additional research is needed to determine if subsets of individuals with various neurological and psychiatric diseases derive therapeutic benefits from cannabis.

  3. DNA repair capacity and acute radiotherapy adverse effects in Italian breast cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterpone, Silvia; Cornetta, Tommaso [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Padua, Luca [' Don Carlo Gnocchi' Foundation, Rome (Italy); Mastellone, Valeria [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Giammarino, Daniela [' S. Camillo-Forlanini' Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Rome (Italy); Testa, Antonella; Tirindelli, Donatella [Toxicology and Biomedical Sciences Section, ENEA, Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Cozzi, Renata, E-mail: cozzi@uniroma3.it [Department of Biology, University of ' Roma TRE' , V.le G. Marconi 446, Rome 00146 (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [' S. Camillo-Forlanini' Hospital, Radiation Oncology Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-02-03

    Therapeutic exposure to ionising radiation can induce normal tissue side effects which consistently differ among individuals suggesting a possible genetic control. One approach to elucidate the underlying mechanisms is to analyse the relation between genetic traits, biomarkers of in vitro DNA damage and side toxicity in vivo. 43 breast cancer (BC) patients receiving radiotherapy after a breast-conserving surgery were recruited together with 34 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Adverse tissue reactions were recorded as indicators of radiotherapy susceptibility. All blood samples from both patients (35) and controls (34) were irradiated in vitro and DNA primary damage and repair kinetic were measured through Comet assay. All study subjects were genotyped for XRCC1, OGG1 and XRCC3 gene polymorphisms. In our small groups we found a positive association between XRCC1 variant allele (399Gln) and the occurrence of breast cancer [p = 0.01; OR = 2.41, 95%CI (1.24-4.66)]. BC patients showed a higher degree of basal (p < 0.001) and X-ray induced DNA damage (p < 0.01) when compared to healthy controls. A reduced repair ability was found in BC patients showing high degrees of tissue side effects as classified by Radiation Morbidity Scoring Scheme. BC patients showed an impairment of their DNA repair capacity associated with the development of radiation sensitivity but not with polymorphisms in any of the considered genes.

  4. Adverse effects of levamisole in cocaine users: a review and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor Markus; van den Berg, Jorrit; Pennings, Ed; Venhuis, Bastiaan

    2017-03-17

    The immunomodulatory adjuvant and antihelminth levamisole is increasingly used as an adulterant in cocaine worldwide. An accumulating body of clinical and toxicological literature has appeared since 2010 describing neutropenia, agranulocytosis, leukoencephalopathy and vasculitis in cases associated with levamisole-adulterated cocaine. Mostly, neutropenia and agranulocytosis were reported, characterized by a decimation of neutrophils. A large proportion of cases also involved vasculopathy, characterized by pronounced black and purple skin purpura with cutaneous necrosis. Females are more susceptible for both agranulocytosis and vasculitis. Another complication reported with levamisole-adulterated cocaine is leukoencephalopathy, a disabling and potentially fatal neurological disorder caused by cerebral demyelination. In this review, all adverse effects associated with therapeutic levamisole and levamisole-adulterated cocaine are described. In addition, this review provides an update of the pharmacology of levamisole, its metabolism, including toxic metabolites and metabolites that are relevant for levamisole's addition to cocaine. Special emphasis is put on the immunopathology and the dose-effect relationship of chronic levamisole exposure. Finally, a risk assessment is provided based on the current level of levamisole adulteration in street cocaine, the dose range calculated per gram and the pattern of chronic exposure in heavy or dependent users.

  5. Systemic effects of periodontitis: lessons learned from research on atherosclerotic vascular disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapanou, Panos N

    2015-12-01

    Studies conducted over the past 25 years have focussed on the role of periodontitis, an inflammatory condition of microbial aetiology that destroys the tooth-supporting tissues, as a systemic inflammatory stressor that can act as an independent risk factor of atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVSD) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs). It has been suggested that periodontitis-associated bacteraemias and systemic dissemination of inflammatory mediators produced in the periodontal tissues may result in systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, and that bacteria of oral origin may translocate into the feto-placental unit. Epidemiological studies largely support an association between periodontitis and ASVD/APOs, independently of known confounders; indeed, periodontitis has been shown to confer statistically significantly elevated risk for clinical events associated with ASVD and APOs in multivariable adjustments. On the other hand, intervention studies demonstrate that although periodontal therapy reduces systemic inflammation and improves endothelial function, it has no positive effect on the incidence of APOs. Studies of the effects of periodontal interventions on ASVD-related clinical events are lacking. This review summarises key findings from mechanistic, association and intervention studies and attempts to reconcile the seemingly contradictory evidence that originates from different lines of investigation.

  6. [Changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively(P12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P> 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations, while adverse effects decrease significantly. Changes of

  7. Effects of denosumab, alendronate, or denosumab following alendronate on bone turnover, calcium homeostasis, bone mass and bone strength in ovariectomized cynomolgus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostenuik, Paul J; Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Jolette, Jacquelin; Zhou, Lei; Ominsky, Michael S

    2015-04-01

    deleterious effects on Ca homeostasis or bone quality.

  8. Endocrine and Metabolic Adverse Effects of Psychotropic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Much as an increase in the use of psychotropic drugs is observed in children and adolescents over the last decade, the endocrine and metabolic side effects of these drugs can limit their use. Atypical antipsychotics can cause many side effects, which are not suitable for the developmental periods of children and adolescents, such as those related with thyroid, blood sugar, level of sex hormones, growth rate and bone metabolism. Children are under a more serious risk regarding the weight increasing effects of atypical antipsychotics and weight gain that is not proportionate with age is especially important due to the association between glucose or lipid abnormalities and cardiovascular mortality. Aripiprazole and ziprasidone are the least risky antipsychotic drugs when it comes to metabolic side affects. The antipsychotic drug that is associated with weight increase and diabetes in children and adolescents most is olanzapine. Even though there are no comparative long-term data concerning children, it is suggested by the currently available information that metabolic side effects including dyslipidemia and impaired glucose tolerance are at an alarming level when it comes to long-term treatment with antipsychotics. The most risky agents in terms of hyperglycemia and glucosuria development are olanzapine and clozapine. Use of risperidone and haloperidol should be undertaken with caution since it may bring about the risk of hyperprolactinemia. Among the antidepressants associated with weight loss and suppression of appetite are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, bupropion and venlafaxine. Thyroid functions can be affected by lithium, carbamazepine and valproate treatments. It is reported that the side effect most frequently associated with valproate is weight increase. The relationship between valproate treatment and the development of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary syndrome in young women should also be kept in mind. [TAF Prev

  9. Nostril Base Augmentation Effect of Alveolar Bone Graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woojin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aims of alveolar bone grafting are closure of the fistula, stabilization ofthe maxillary arch, support for the roots of the teeth adjacent to the cleft on each side.We observed nostril base augmentation in patients with alveolar clefts after alveolar bonegrafting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nostril base augmentation effect ofsecondary alveolar bone grafting in patients with unilateral alveolar cleft.Methods Records of 15 children with alveolar clefts who underwent secondary alveolar bonegrafting with autogenous iliac cancellous bone between March of 2011 and May of 2012 werereviewed. Preoperative and postoperative worm’s-eye view photographs and reconstructedthree-dimensional computed tomography (CT scans were used for photogrammetry. Thedepression of the nostril base and thickness of the philtrum on the cleft side were measuredin comparison to the normal side. The depression of the cleft side pyriform aperture wasmeasured in comparison to the normal side on reconstructed three-dimensional CT.Results Significant changes were seen in the nostril base (P=0.005, the philtrum length(P=0.013, and the angle (P=0.006. The CT measurements showed significant changes in thepyriform aperture (P<0.001 and the angle (P<0.001.Conclusions An alveolar bone graft not only fills the gap in the alveolar process but alsoaugments the nostril base after surgery. In this study, only an alveolar bone graft was performedto prevent bias from other procedures. Nostril base augmentation can be achieved byperforming alveolar bone grafts in children, in whom invasive methods are not advised.

  10. The effect of aromatase inhibitors on bone metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Bjarnason, Nina H; Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll;

    2009-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors increase the disease-free survival in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex catalysing the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. These properties cause a significant increase in bone loss. In this MiniReview, we present ...... in comparison with tamoxifen. We conclude that treatment with aromatase inhibitors leads to an increased bone loss and thus an increase in the risk of fractures in women with breast cancer.......Aromatase inhibitors increase the disease-free survival in patients with receptor-positive breast cancer. Aromatase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme complex catalysing the conversion of androgens to oestrogens. These properties cause a significant increase in bone loss. In this MiniReview, we present...... data from the aromatase inhibitor studies and the studies designed to investigate aromatase inhibitor effect on bone metabolism. At the cellular level, oestrogen has profound effects on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Oestrogen decreases the osteoblastic production of resorptive cytokines...

  11. Effects of Video Games on the Adverse Corollaries of Chemotherapy in Pediatric Oncology Patients: A Single-Case Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Rickard-Figueroa, Jorge L.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed effects of video games on adverse corollaries of chemotherapy in three pediatric oncology patients. Results indicated that access to video games resulted in reduction in the number of anticipatory symptoms experienced and observed, as well as a diminution in the aversiveness of chemotherapy side effects. (Author/NRB)

  12. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George D; Kipen, Howard; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Balmes, John; Brook, Robert D; Cromar, Kevin; De Matteis, Sara; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Frampton, Mark W; Grigg, Jonathan; Heederik, Dick; Kelly, Frank J; Kuenzli, Nino; Laumbach, Robert; Peters, Annette; Rajagopalan, Sanjay T; Rich, David; Ritz, Beate; Samet, Jonathan M; Sandstrom, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Torben; Sunyer, Jordi; Brunekreef, Bert

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air pollution studies.This current report seeks to integrate the latest science into a general framework for interpreting the adversity of the human health effects of air pollution. Rather than trying to provide a catalogue of what is and what is not an adverse effect of air pollution, we propose a set of considerations that can be applied in forming judgments of the adversity of not only currently documented, but also emerging and future effects of air pollution on human health. These considerations are illustrated by the inclusion of examples for different types of health effects of air pollution.

  13. Cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) adversely effects on pilocarpine seizure-induced hippocampal neuronal death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Dong Won; Choi, Bo Young; Sohn, Min; Lee, Song Hee; Choi, Hui Chul; Song, Hong Ki; Suh, Sang Won

    2015-01-21

    Citicoline (CDP-choline; cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine) is an important intermediate in the biosynthesis of cell membrane phospholipids. Citicoline serves as a choline donor in the biosynthetic pathways of acetylcholine and neuronal membrane phospholipids, mainly phosphatidylcholine. The ability of citicoline to reverse neuronal injury has been tested in animal models of cerebral ischemia and clinical trials have been performed in stroke patients. However, no studies have examined the effect of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death. To clarify the potential therapeutic effects of citicoline on seizure-induced neuronal death, we used an animal model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was induced by intraperitoneal injection of pilocarpine (25mg/kg) in adult male rats. Citicoline (100 or 300 mg/kg) was injected into the intraperitoneal space two hours after seizure onset and a second injection was performed 24h after the seizure. Citicoline was injected once per day for one week after pilocarpine- or kainate-induced seizure. Neuronal injury and microglial activation were evaluated at 1 week post-seizure. Surprisingly, rather than offering protection, citicoline treatment actually enhanced seizure-induced neuronal death and microglial activation in the hippocampus compared to vehicle treated controls. Citicoline administration after seizure-induction increased immunoglobulin leakage via BBB disruption in the hippocampus compared with the vehicle-only group. To clarify if this adverse effect of citicoline is generalizable across alternative seizure models, we induced seizure by kainate injection (10mg/kg, i.p.) and then injected citicoline as in pilocarpine-induced seizure. We found that citicoline did not modulate kainate seizure-induced neuronal death, BBB disruption or microglial activation. These results suggest that citicoline may not have neuroprotective effects after seizure and that clinical application of citicoline after

  14. Adverse effects of depression on glycemic control and health outcomes in people with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouwer, Francois; Nefs, Giesje; Nouwen, Arie

    2013-01-01

    In the past decades, important advances have been achieved in the psychological aspects of diabetes. This article reviews the associations between diabetes, depression, and adverse health outcomes. The article provides an update on the literature regarding the prevalence of depression in diabetes......, discusses the impact of depression on diabetes self-care and glycemic control in people with diabetes, and summarizes the results of longitudinal studies that have investigated depression as a risk factor for adverse health outcomes....

  15. Severe adverse effects of 5-fluorouracil in S-1 were lessened by haemodialysis due to elimination of the drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kazunori; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Omori, Hiroki; Kimura, Tomonori; Tomida, Kodo; Furumatsu, Yoshiyuki; Imai, Enyu; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2009-04-01

    S-1 and cisplatin are used as one of the first-line chemotherapies for gastric cancer in Japan. The plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is increased in patients with renal dysfunction because gimeracil in S-1 inhibits the degradation of 5-FU and about 50% of gimeracil is excreted in the urine. We describe a 35-year-old man with acute kidney injury while taking S-1 and cisplatin for advanced gastric cancer and who presented severe adverse effects of 5-FU. This case report describes the evolution of the plasma concentrations of 5-FU with haemodialysis along with a decrease in the adverse drug effects.

  16. Adverse effects of plant food supplements and botanical preparations: a systematic review with critical evaluation of causality

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Ceschi, Alessandro; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Lüde, Saskia; De Souza Nascimento, Elizabeth; Dos Santos, Ariana; Colombo, Francesca; Frigerio, Gianfranco; Nørby, Karin Kristiane; Plumb, Jenny; Finglas, Paul; Restani, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review was to collect available data on the following: (i) adverse effects observed in humans from the intake of plant food supplements or botanical preparations; (ii) the misidentification of poisonous plants; and (iii) interactions between plant food supplements/botanicals and conventional drugs or nutrients. PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched from database inception to June 2014, using the terms ‘adverse effect/s’, ‘poisoning/s’, ‘plant food supplement/s’, ‘misid...

  17. Reduction of adverse effects by a mushroom product, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC) in patients with advanced cancer during chemotherapy--the significance of the levels of HHV-6 DNA in saliva as a surrogate biomarker during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshinori; Urushima, Hayato; Sakaue, Miki; Yukawa, Sayoko; Honda, Hatsumi; Hirai, Kei; Igura, Takumi; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Kitagawa, Toru; Kondo, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy improves the outcome of cancer treatment, but patients are sometimes forced to discontinue chemotherapy or drop out of a clinical trial due to adverse effects, such as gastrointestinal disturbances and suppression of bone marrow function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a mushroom product, active hexose correlated compound (AHCC), on chemotherapy-induced adverse effects and quality of life (QOL) in patients with cancer. Twenty-four patients with cancer received their first cycle of chemotherapy without AHCC and then received their second cycle with AHCC. During chemotherapy, we weekly evaluated adverse effects and QOL via a blood test, EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire, and DNA levels of herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6) in saliva. The DNA levels of HHV-6 were significantly increased after chemotherapy. Interestingly, administration of AHCC significantly decreased the levels of HHV-6 in saliva during chemotherapy and improved not only QOL scores in the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire but also hematotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings suggest that salivary HHV-6 levels may be a good biomarker of QOL in patients during chemotherapy, and that AHCC may have a beneficial effect on chemotherapy-associated adverse effects and QOL in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy.

  18. Effect of adverse weather on neonatal caribou survival — a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank L. Miller

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationship between adverse weather and neonatal caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. survival in North America by examining the available literature and our own findings. The viewpoint that adverse weather on the calving ground can result in major losses of newborn barren-ground caribou (R. t. groenlandicus calves is largely unsupported. Published reports of calf mortality caused by adverse weather are questionable because causes of death were rarely determined by postmortem examinations. Circumstantial evidence associated with the small samples of dead calves does not support published assumptions that the mortality was weather related, or that high losses due to adverse weather are common events. The applicability of results from physiological testing are questionable, because the calves were restrained and the behaviour of unrestrained animals was ignored in the conclusions drawn from the tests. The relationship between adverse weather and calf mortality is more speculation than documentation yet often has been uncritically cited. In our view, healthy newborn barren-ground caribou are well adapted physiologically and behaviourally to cope with all but the most severe adverse weather.

  19. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea. CONCLUSION: It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  20. Reading from a Head-Fixed Display during Walking: Adverse Effects of Gaze Stabilization Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Borg

    Full Text Available Reading performance during standing and walking was assessed for information presented on earth-fixed and head-fixed displays by determining the minimal duration during which a numerical time stimulus needed to be presented for 50% correct naming answers. Reading from the earth-fixed display was comparable during standing and walking, with optimal performance being attained for visual character sizes in the range of 0.2° to 1°. Reading from the head-fixed display was impaired for small (0.2-0.3° and large (5° visual character sizes, especially during walking. Analysis of head and eye movements demonstrated that retinal slip was larger during walking than during standing, but remained within the functional acuity range when reading from the earth-fixed display. The detrimental effects on performance of reading from the head-fixed display during walking could be attributed to loss of acuity resulting from large retinal slip. Because walking activated the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, the resulting compensatory eye movements acted to stabilize gaze on the information presented on the earth-fixed display but destabilized gaze from the information presented on the head-fixed display. We conclude that the gaze stabilization mechanisms that normally allow visual performance to be maintained during physical activity adversely affect reading performance when the information is presented on a display attached to the head.

  1. Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation in Norway: What does it cost?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H., E-mail: ghb@ssb.no [Statistics Norway, Research Department, PO Box 8131 DEP, 0033 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-09-15

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems. However, most western countries include some exemptions for their energy-intensive export industries and thereby avoid this potential welfare gain. find that uniform taxation of carbon emissions in combination with a wage subsidy preserves jobs in these industries at a lower welfare cost compared with a differentiated system. The wage subsidy scheme generates a substantial welfare gain per job saved. This study, however, finds that welfare costs are substantial when less accurate policy measures, represented by production-dependent subsidies, protect jobs in Norwegian electricity-intensive industries. The welfare cost per job preserved by this subsidy scheme amounts to approximately 60% of the wage cost per job, suggesting that these jobs are expensive to preserve. A uniform electricity tax combined with production-dependent subsidies preserves jobs at a lower welfare cost compared with the current differentiated electricity tax system. - Highlights: > Avoiding adverse employment effects from electricity taxation is costly in Norway. > Uniform Norwegian electricity tax with job-preserving subsidies improves welfare. > The welfare cost of Norwegian job-saving subsidies amounts to 60% of the wage.

  2. Can {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene supplementation reduce adverse radiation effects on salivary glands?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funegaard, U.; Johansson, I.; Ericson, T. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Cariology; Malmer, B.; Henriksson, R. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-12-31

    In this study, we evaluated whether supplementation with antioxidant vitamins can reduce the adverse effects of irradiation on the salivary glands in the rat. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were given a basic diet providing 0.6 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and no {beta}-carotene per day. In two groups the basic diet was supplemented with 3.4 mg {alpha}-tocopherol and 6 mg {beta}-carotene per day from 14 days before irradiation until 12 days after complete irradiation. One group of rats given basic diet and one group given supplemented diet were irradiated with 7 Gy daily for five consecutive days. Isoproterenol and pilocarpine-stimulated whole saliva was collected from all rats 2, 4 and 26 weeks after irradiation. Vitamin-supplemented irradiated rats had higher secretion rates on all three occasions compared with those of irradiated rats given basic diet. The changes in saliva composition seen in irradiated rats were less accentuated in vitamin-supplemented, irradiated rats. The proportions of acinar cells were significantly decreased both in parotid and submandibular glands 26 weeks after irradiation. Supplementation with {alpha}-tocopherol and {beta}-carotene did not alter the morphology of the glands. (author).

  3. Efectos adversos del tratamiento del cáncer oral Adverse effects of oral cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Silvestre-Donat

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se hace una revisión de los efectos adversos más frecuentes por la cirugía de tumores de cabeza y cuello, la radioterapia y la quimioterapia, pues no es infrecuente que el odontólogo general encuentre en su consulta complicaciones como mucositis, xerostomía, necrosis óseas, alteraciones gustativas y otras lesiones que causarán molestias considerables al paciente, disminuyendo su calidad de vida. El papel del odontólogo en el tratamiento multidisciplinario constituye un pilar importante en la prevención, el tratamiento de dichas complicaciones y la disminución de sus secuelas.In this article a revision of most frequent adverse effects of head and neck surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is maid, because frequently general dentists deal with complications at their practises like mucositis, xerostomia, osteonecrosis, taste alterations and other pathologies which will cause disturbances to the patients, affecting their quality of live. The role of the dentist in the multidisciplinary treatment is an important element in the prevention, treatment of the complications and in the reduction of its consequences.

  4. Effects of early life adverse experiences on brain activity: Implications from maternal separation models in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi eNishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During postnatal development, adverse early life experiences can affect the formation of neuronal circuits and exert long-lasting influences on neural function. Many studies have shown that daily repeated MS, an animal model of early life stress, can modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis and can affect subsequent brain function and emotional behavior during adulthood. However, the molecular basis of the long-lasting effects of early life stress on brain function has not been completely elucidated. In this review, we introduce various cases of MS in rodents and illustrate the alterations in HPA axis activity by focusing on corticosterone (CORT, an end product of the HPA axis in rodents. We then present a characterization of the brain regions affected by various patterns of MS, including repeated MS and single time MS at various stages before weaning, by investigating c-Fos expression, a biological marker of neuronal activity. These CORT and c-Fos studies suggest that repeated early life stress may affect neuronal function in region- and temporal-specific manners, indicating a critical period for habituation to early life stress. Next, we discuss how early life stress can impact behavior, namely by inducing depression, anxiety or eating disorders. Furthermore, alterations in gene expression in adult mice exposed to MS, especially epigenetic changes of DNA methylation, are discussed.

  5. In vitro adverse effects of iron ore dusts on human lymphoblastoid cells in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Wang, Jing J; Sanderson, Barbara J S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adverse effects produced by four types of iron (Fe) ore dust using cultured human cells. Genotoxicity and cytotoxicity induced by Fe ore dusts were determined by assays including cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN), population growth, and methyl tetrazolium (MTT). Four iron ore dusts were tested, namely, 1002 Limonite & Goethite (1002), HG2 hematite (HG2), HG1 Soutlem Pit (HG1), and HG4. WIL2 -NS cells were incubated for 10 h with extracts from a range of concentrations (0, 75, or 150 μg/ml) of Fe ore dust. Significant decreases in percent cell viability were seen at 150 μg/ml HG2 and 1002 as measured by MTT, with viability that decreased to 75 and 73%, respectively, compared to untreated controls. The cell population regrew to a different extent after Fe ore dust was removed, except for HG1, where population remained declined. An approximately twofold significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBNC) was seen with 1002, HG2, and HG1 at 150 μg/ml. A significant rise in apoptosis induction was observed at 150 μg/ml HG1. Data indicate that Fe ore dusts at 150 μg/ml produced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

  6. Methyl donor supplementation blocks the adverse effects of maternal high fat diet on offspring physiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesselea Carlin

    Full Text Available Maternal consumption of a high fat diet during pregnancy increases the offspring risk for obesity. Using a mouse model, we have previously shown that maternal consumption of a high fat (60% diet leads to global and gene specific decreases in DNA methylation in the brain of the offspring. The present experiments were designed to attempt to reverse this DNA hypomethylation through supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors, and to determine whether methyl donor supplementation could block or attenuate phenotypes associated with maternal consumption of a HF diet. Metabolic and behavioral (fat preference outcomes were assessed in male and female adult offspring. Expression of the mu-opioid receptor and dopamine transporter mRNA, as well as global DNA methylation were measured in the brain. Supplementation of the maternal diet with methyl donors attenuated the development of some of the adverse effects seen in offspring from dams fed a high fat diet; including weight gain, increased fat preference (males, changes in CNS gene expression and global hypomethylation in the prefrontal cortex. Notable sex differences were observed. These findings identify the importance of balanced methylation status during pregnancy, particularly in the context of a maternal high fat diet, for optimal offspring outcome.

  7. Proanthocyanidin as a cytogenetic protective agent against adverse effects of plant growth regulators supplementation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hanaa A; El-Kholy, Wafaa M; Nour, Samar E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of grape seed extract (containing proanthocyandin) against the adverse effects of plant growth regulators (GA3 (gibberellic acid) and IAA (indoleacetic acid)). The present data showed that the administration of either GA3 and IAA caused undesirable changes in both hepatic and testicular structure. This was evidenced by a disturbed hepatic strands, pyknotic nuclei, central vein with collapsed endothelium, dilatation in bile sinusoids, congested blood vessel, binucleatd hepatocytes, lymphocytic infiltration, vacuolation, giant hepatic cells, increased Kupffer cells and karyoryxis. Additionally, it was shown that degenerative changes in the testis, spermatogenic arrest, moderate tubular necrosis, Leydig cell degeneration and reduction in the number and size of the seminiferous tubules with some spermatogonia detached from the basement membrane. Concerning flow cytometric study of the liver a significant decrease in G0/1 % and a significant increase in S phase %, G2/M  %, P(53) % and apoptosis % (sub G1) were detected. However, in testis the data recorded a significant decrease in the percentage of mature sperm (percentage of haploid cells) and a significant increase in the percentage of spermatide, diploid cells, P(53) and of apoptotic cells. On the other hand, a distinct recovery of the mentioned hepatic and testicular histopathological and cytogenetic disorders was observed when proanthocyanidin was supplemented to rats administered either of the plant growth hormones (GA3 and IAA).

  8. Does partial expander deflation exacerbate the adverse effects of radiotherapy in two-stage breast reconstruction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celet Ozden Burcu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The optimum protocol for expander volume adjustment with respect to the timing and application of radiotherapy remains controversial. Methods Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups. Metallic port integrated anatomic breast expanders of 250 cc were implanted on the back of each animal and controlled expansion was performed. Group I underwent radiotherapy with full expanders while in Group II, expanders were partially deflated immediately prior to radiotherapy. Control group did not receive radiotherapy. The changes in blood flow at different volume adjustments were investigated in Group II by laser Doppler flowmetry. Variations in the histopathologic properties of the irradiated tissues including the skin, capsule and the pocket floor, were compared in the biopsy specimens taken from different locations in each group. Results A significant increase in skin blood flow was detected in Group II with partial expander deflation. Overall, histopathologic exam revealed aggravated findings of chronic radiodermatitis (epidermal atrophy, dermal inflammation and fibrosis, neovascularisation and vascular changes as well as increased capsule thickness especially around the lower expander pole, in Group II. Conclusions Expander deflation immediately prior to radiotherapy, may augment the adverse effects, especially in the lower expander pole, possibly via enhanced radiosensitization due to a relative increase in the blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  9. Determination of threshold adverse effect doses of percutaneous VX exposure in African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Raymond F; Benton, Bernard J; Oubre, John L; Byers, Christopher E; Jakubowski, E Michael; Mioduszewski, Robert J; Settle, Timothy J; Steinbach, Thomas J

    2011-01-11

    Percutaneous exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent VX was evaluated in African green monkeys (n=9). Doses of VX (7.5-100 μg/kg) were applied to the skin for 60 min and residual agent was quantified (before decontamination) to estimate the absorbed dose. Monkeys were evaluated for the presence or absence of clinical signs of toxicity and blood was sampled periodically (30 min--12 weeks) following exposure to measure the degree of circulating acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition. Monkeys were also evaluated for behavioral changes from VX exposure using a serial probe recognition (SPR) task. The lowest observable adverse effect level (LOAEL) for the production of major clinical signs was determined to be 42.22 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=17.36 μg/kg) and the LOAEL for AChE inhibition was 13.33 μg/kg (absorbed dose estimate=6.53 μg/kg). Behavioral performance was unaffected at doses that, while producing substantial AChE inhibition, did not produce clinical signs. VX represents a substantial threat as a contact hazard and these results complement previous studies using the percutaneous route of exposure with VX and extend the findings to a non-human primate species.

  10. Manganese rescues adverse effects on lifespan and development in Podospora anserina challenged by excess hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Carolin; Osiewacz, Heinz D

    2015-03-01

    For biological systems, balancing cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is of great importance because ROS are both, essential for cellular signaling and dangerous in causing molecular damage. Cellular ROS abundance is controlled by a delicate network of molecular pathways. Within this network, superoxide dismutases (SODs) are active in disproportion of the superoxide anion leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide. The fungal aging model Podospora anserina encodes at least three SODs. One of these is the mitochondrial PaSOD3 isoform containing manganese as a cofactor. Previous work resulted in the selection of strains in which PaSod3 is strongly overexpressed. These strains display impairments in growth and lifespan. A computational model suggests a series of events to occur in Sod3 overexpressing strains leading to adverse effects due to elevated hydrogen peroxide levels. In an attempt to validate this model and to obtain more detailed information about the cellular responses involved in ROS balancing, we further investigated the PaSod3 overexpressing strains. Here we show that hydrogen peroxide levels are indeed strongly increased in the mutant strain. Surprisingly, this phenotype can be rescued by the addition of manganese to the growth medium. Strikingly, while we obtained no evidence for an antioxidant effect of manganese, we found that the metal is required for induction of components of the ROS scavenging network and lowers the hydrogen peroxide level of the mutant. A similar effect of manganese on lifespan reversion was obtained in wild-type strains challenged with exogenous hydrogen peroxide. It appears that manganese is limited under high hydrogen peroxide and suggests that a manganese-dependent activity leads to the induction of ROS scavenging components.

  11. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajumoke Omolara Ojo

    steroidogenesis. Spermatogenesis was however observed in testis 28 days after Salinomycin withdrawal. The results indicate reversible dose-dependent adverse effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice.

  12. Dose-dependent adverse effects of salinomycin on male reproductive organs and fertility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olajumoke Omolara; Bhadauria, Smrati; Rath, Srikanta Kumar

    2013-01-01

    . Spermatogenesis was however observed in testis 28 days after Salinomycin withdrawal. The results indicate reversible dose-dependent adverse effects of Salinomycin on male reproductive system of mice.

  13. PERTINENT DRY NEEDLING CONSIDERATIONS FOR MINIMIZING ADVERSE EFFECTS – PART ONE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Rob J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling is an evidence-based treatment technique that is accepted and used by physical therapists in the United States. This treatment approach focuses on releasing or inactivating muscular trigger points to decrease pain, reduce muscle tension, and assist patients with an accelerated return to active rehabilitation. Issue While commonly used, the technique has some patient risk and value of the treatment should be based on benefit compared to the potential risk. Adverse effects (AEs) with dry needling can be mild or severe, with overall incidence rates varying from zero to rates of approximately 10 percent. While mild AEs are the rule, any procedure that involves a needle insertion has the potential for an AE, with select regions and the underlying anatomy increasing the risk. Known significant AEs from small diameter needle insertion include pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, hematoma, infection, central nervous system injury, and other complications. Purpose/Objective Underlying anatomy across individuals has variability, requiring an in-depth knowledge of anatomy prior to any needle placement. This commentary is an overview of pertinent anatomy in the region of the thorax, with a ‘part two’ that addresses the abdomen, pelvis, back, vasovagal response, informed consent and other pertinent issues. The purpose of the commentary is to minimize the risk of a dry needling AE. Conclusions/Implications Dry needling is an effective adjunct treatment procedure that is within the recognized scope of physical therapy practice. Physical therapy education and training provides practitioners with the anatomy, basic sciences, and clinical foundation to use this intervention safely and effectively. A safe and evidenced-based implementation of the procedure is based on a thorough understanding of the underlying anatomy and the potential risks, with risks coordinated with patients via informed consent. Levels of Evidence Level 5 PMID:27525188

  14. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  15. Low Root Zone Temperature Limits Nutrient Effects on Cucumber Seedling Growth and Induces Adversity Physiological Response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Qiu-yan; DUAN Zeng-qiang; MAO Jing-dong; LI Xun; DONG Fei

    2013-01-01

    Effects of root-zone temperatures (RZT) (12°C-RZT and 20°C-RZT) and different N, P, and K nutrient regimes on the growth, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant enzyme in cucumber seedlings were investigated in hydroponics. Strong interactions were observed between RZT and nutrient on the dry weight (P=0.001), root length (P=0.001) and leaf area (P=0.05). Plant dry weights were suppressed at low RZT of 12°C, while higher biomass and growth of cucumber seedlings were produced at elevated RZT of 20°C under each nutrient treatment. Growth indexes (plant height, internode length, root length, and leaf area) at 12°C-RZT had less difference among nutrient treatments, but greater response was obtained for different nutrients at high RZT. RZT had larger effects (P=0.001) on cucumber seedling growth than nutrients. In addition, N was more effective nutrients to plant growth than P and K under low root temperature to plant growth. Higher hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), soluble sugar (SS) contents in leaves were observed at 12°C-RZT in all nutrient treatments than those at 20°C-RZT, indicating the chilling adversity damaged to plant growth. In general, antioxidant enzyme had larger response under low root-zone temperature. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were higher in both leaves and roots while peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) showed large different action in leaves and roots at both the two root-zone temperature.

  16. Risk of Adverse Health and Performance Effects of Celestial Dust Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert R.; Meyers, Valerie E.

    2015-01-01

    silica (Permissible Exposure Limit [PEL] 0.05 mg/m3) but more toxic than the nuisance dust titanium dioxide (TiO2 [PEL 5.0 mg/m3]). A PEL for episodic exposure to airborne lunar dust during a six-month stay on the lunar surface was established, in consultation with an independent, extramural panel of expert pulmonary toxicologists, at 0.3 mg/m3. The PEL provided for lunar dust is limited to the conditions and exposure specified therefore additional research remains to be accomplished with lunar dust to further address the issues of activation, address other areas of more unique lunar geology (Glotch et al., 2010; Greenhagen et al., 2010), examine potential toxicological effects of inhaled or ingested dust upon other organ systems, such cardiovascular, nervous systems, and examine effects of acute exposure to massive doses of dust such as may occur during off-nominal situations. Work to support the establishment of PELs for Martian dust and dusts of asteroids remains to be accomplished. The literature that describes health effects of exposure to toxic terrestrial dusts provides substantial basis for concern that prolonged exposure to respirable celestial dust could be detrimental to human health. Celestial bodies where a substantial portion of the dust is in the respirable range or where the dusts have large reactive surface areas or contain transition metals or volatile organics, represent greater risks of adverse effects from exposure to the dust. It is possible that in addition to adverse effects to the respiratory system, inhalation and ingestion of celestial dusts could pose risks to other systems

  17. Expanding the Description of Spaceflight Effects beyond Bone Mineral Density [BMD]: Trabecular Bone Score [TBS] in ISS Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Spector, E. R.; King, L. J.; Evans, H. J.; Smith, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA] is the widely-applied bone densitometry method used to diagnose osteoporosis in a terrestrial population known to be at risk for age-related bone loss. This medical test, which measures areal bone mineral density [aBMD] of clinically-relevant skeletal sites (e.g., hip and spine), helps the clinician to identify which persons, among postmenopausal women and men older than 50 years, are at high risk for low trauma or fragility fractures and might require an intervention. The most recognized osteoporotic fragility fracture is the vertebral compression fracture which can lead to kyphosis or hunched backs typically seen in the elderly. DXA measurement of BMD however is recognized to be insufficient as a sole index for assessing fracture risk. DXA's limitation may be related to its inability to monitor changes in structural parameters, such as trabecular vs. cortical bone volumes, bone geometry or trabecular microarchitecture. Hence, in order to understand risks to human health and performance due to space exposure, NASA needs to expand its measurements of bone to include other contributors to skeletal integrity. To this aim, the Bone and Mineral Lab conducted a pilot study for a novel measurement of bone microarchitecture that can be obtained by retrospective analysis of DXA scans. Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) assesses changes to trabecular microarchitecture by measuring the grey color "texture" information extracted from DXA images of the lumbar spine. An analysis of TBS in 51 ISS astronauts was conducted to assess if TBS could detect 1) an effect of spaceflight and 2) a response to countermeasures independent of DXA BMD. In addition, changes in trunk body lean tissue mass and in trunk body fat tissue mass were also evaluated to explore an association between body composition, as impacted by ARED exercise, and bone microarchitecture. The pilot analysis of 51 astronaut scans of the lumbar spine suggests that, following an ISS

  18. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Murine Gene Expression in Skin and Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Masahiro; Schreurs, Ann-Sofie; Shirazi-Fard, Yasaman; Alwood, Joshua; Tahimic, Candice; Sowa, Marianne B.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2017-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight causes a negative calcium balance and reduces bone density in astronauts. The potential for exposure to space radiation to contribute to lasting decrements in bone mass is not yet understood. Sustained changes to bone mass have a relatively long latency for development, however skin is a radiation sensitive organ and changes in skin gene expression may serve as an early radiation biomarker of exposures and may correlate with adverse effects on skeletal tissue. Previous studies have shown that FGF18 gene expression levels of hair follicles collected from astronauts on the ISS rose over time. In the hair follicle, FGF18 signaling mediates radioresistance in the telogen by arresting the cell cycle, and FGF18 has the potential to function as a radioprotector. In bone, FGF18 appears to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation positively during osteogenesis and negatively during chondrogenesis. Cellular defense responses to radiation are shared by a variety of organs, hence in this study, we examined whether radiation induced gene expression changes in skin may be predictive of the responses of skeletal tissue to radiation exposure. We have examined oxidative stress and growth arrest pathways in mouse skin and long bones by measuring gene expression levels via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) after exposure to total body irradiation (TBI). To investigate the effects of irradiation on gene expression, we used skin and femora (cortical shaft) from the following treatment groups: control (normally loaded, sham-irradiated), and TBI (0.5 Gy Fe-56 600 MeV/n and 0.5 Gy H-1 150 MeV/n). Animals were euthanized one and 11 days post-IR. Statistical analysis was performed via a Student's ttest. In skin samples one day after IR, skin expression of FGF18 was significantly greater (3.8X) than sham-irradiated controls (3.8X), but did not differ 11 days post TBI. Expression levels of other radiation related genes (Nfe2l2, Trp53, Cdkn1a, FoxO3

  19. A critical assessment of shrinkage-based regression approaches for estimating the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Steven; Martin, Michael

    Most investigations of the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants analyse the time series involved by simultaneously entering the multiple pollutants into a Poisson log-linear model. Concerns have been raised about this type of analysis, and it has been stated that new methodology or models should be developed for investigating the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants. In this paper, we introduce the use of the lasso for this purpose and compare its statistical properties to those of ridge regression and the Poisson log-linear model. Ridge regression has been used in time series analyses on the adverse health effects of multiple air pollutants but its properties for this purpose have not been investigated. A series of simulation studies was used to compare the performance of the lasso, ridge regression, and the Poisson log-linear model. In these simulations, realistic mortality time series were generated with known air pollution mortality effects permitting the performance of the three models to be compared. Both the lasso and ridge regression produced more accurate estimates of the adverse health effects of the multiple air pollutants than those produced using the Poisson log-linear model. This increase in accuracy came at the expense of increased bias. Ridge regression produced more accurate estimates than the lasso, but the lasso produced more interpretable models. The lasso and ridge regression offer a flexible way of obtaining more accurate estimation of pollutant effects than that provided by the standard Poisson log-linear model.

  20. 博宁联合化疗治疗恶性肿瘤骨转称疼痛%Combined chemotherapy with Boning in the treatment of pain due to bone metastases from malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安晓华; 焦立新; 王正艳

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of Boning on pain due to bone metastases from malignant tumors. Method From December,1998 to December,2000,86 patients with pathologically proved bone metastases from malignant tumors were randomly divided into two groups, study group(combined chemotherapy with boning),control group(simple chemotherapy).Boning (60 mg) dissolved in saline solution(500 ml) were given IV for consecutive 3 days. Then 60 mg Boning was given every half month .Patients in control group accepted simple chemotherapy. Results Efficacy in study group was 88.37% which was significantly superior to that in control group (66.47% ).Boning could repair injured bone. Adverse reaction associated with Boning was weak. Boning quickly relieved symptoms for a long time. Conclusion Effect of large dose Boning for relieving pain due to bone metastases from malignant tumors is satisfying. At the same time, Boning play important role in repair of destructed bone.

  1. Effects of demineralized bone matrix and a 'Ricinus communis' polymer on bone regeneration: a histological study in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureano Filho, José R; Andrade, Emanuel S S; Albergaria-Barbosa, José R; Camargo, Igor B; Garcia, Robson R

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to histologically analyze the effects of bovine and human demineralized bone matrix and a Ricinus communis polymer on the bone regeneration process. Two surgical bone defects were created in rabbit calvaria, one on the right and the other on the left side of the parietal suture. Eighteen rabbits were divided into three groups. In Group I, the experimental defect was treated with bovine demineralized bone matrix, Group II with human demineralized bone matrix, and in Group III, the experimental cavity was treated with polyurethane resin derived from Ricinus communis oil. The control defects were filled with the animals' own blood. The animals were sacrificed after 7 and 15 weeks. Histological analysis revealed that in all groups (control and experimental), bone regeneration increased with time. The least time required for bone regeneration was noted in the control group, with a substantial decrease in the thickness of the defect. All materials proved to be biologically compatible, but polyurethane resorbed more slowly and demonstrated considerably better results than the demineralized bone matrices.

  2. A joint ERS/ATS policy statement: what constitutes an adverse health effect of air pollution? An analytical framework.

    OpenAIRE

    Thurston, GD; Kipen, H; Annesi-Maesano, I; Balmes, J; Brook, RD; Cromar, K; DE MATTEIS, S.; Forastiere, F; Forsberg, B; Frampton, MW; Grigg, J.; Heederik, D.; Kelly, FJ; Kuenzli, N; Laumbach, R

    2017-01-01

    The American Thoracic Society has previously published statements on what constitutes an adverse effect on health of air pollution in 1985 and 2000. We set out to update and broaden these past statements that focused primarily on effects on the respiratory system. Since then, many studies have documented effects of air pollution on other organ systems, such as on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. In addition, many new biomarkers of effects have been developed and applied in air ...

  3. Adverse effects of endocrine disruptors on the foetal testis development: focus on the phthalates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Pairault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available There are great concerns about the increasing incidence of abnormalities in male reproductive function. Human sperm counts have markedly dropped and the rate of testicular cancer has clearly augmented over the past four decades. Moreover, the prevalence rates of cryptorchidism and hypospadias are also probably increasing. It has been hypothesized that all these adverse trends in male reproduction result from abnormalities in the development of the testis during foetal and neonatal life. Furthermore, many recent epidemiological, clinical and experimental data suggest that these male reproductive disorders could be due to the effects of xenobiotics termed endocrine disruptors, which are becoming more and more concentrated and prevalent in our environment. Among these endocrine disruptors, we chose to focus this review on the phthalates for different reasons: 1 they are widespread in the environment; 2 their concentrations in many human biological fluids have been measured; 3 the experimental data using rodent models suggesting a reprotoxicity are numerous and are the most convincing; 4 their deleterious effects on the in vivo and in vitro development and function of the rat foetal testis have been largely studied; 5 some epidemiological data in humans suggest a reprotoxic effect at environmental concentrations at least during neonatal life. However, the direct effects of phthalates on human foetal testis have never been explored. Thus, as we did for the rat in the 1990s, we recently developed and validated an organ culture system which allows maintenance of the development of the different cell types of human foetal testis. In this system, addition of 10-4 M MEHP (mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, the most produced phthalate, had no effect on basal or LH-stimulated production of testosterone, but it reduced the number of germ cells by increasing their apoptosis, without modification of their proliferation. This is the first experimental demonstration

  4. Adverse health effects of occupational exposure to radiofrequency radiation in airport surveillance radar operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Dehghan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radar workers are exposed to pulsed high frequency electromagnetic fields. In this study, health effects of these radiations in personnel who routinely work with radar systems are investigated. Materials and Methods: The 28-item General Health Questionnaire was used as a self-administered tool for assessment of general mental health and mental distress. One hundred workers occupationally exposed to radar radiations (14-18 GHz participated in the study. Visual reaction time was recorded with a simple blind computer-assisted-visual reaction time test. To assess the short-term memory, Wechsler Memory Scale-III test was performed. Results: Twenty to 39% of the radar workers reported different problems such as needing a good tonic, feeling run down and out of sorts, headache, tightness or pressure in the head, insomnia, getting edgy and bad-tempered. Furthermore, 47% of the radar workers reported feeling under strain. In response to this question that if they have been able to enjoy their normal day-to-day activities, 31% responded "less than usual". It was also shown that work experience had significant relationships with reaction time and short-term memory indices i.e., forward digit span, reverse digit span, word recognition and paired words. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiation leads to changes in somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Altogether these results indicate that occupational exposure to radar microwave radiations may be linked to some adverse health effects.

  5. Effect of adverse drug reactions on length of stay in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, E; Simón, J; Martin, J C; Puerro, M; Gonzalez-Callejo, M A; Jaime, M; Gomez-Mayoral, B; Duque, F; Gomez-Delgado, A; Moreno, A

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in intensive care units (ICUs) and to evaluate their effect on the length of stay. We performed a prospective study to detect ADRs in 420 patients hospitalised in 10 predetermined beds in the ICU of our hospital between the months of March and December 1996. While the patients were staying in the ICU, data was gathered regarding suspected ADRs and on different variables related to the length of stay. 96 different ADRs were detected in 85 of the 420 patients seen [20.2%, 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) 16.5 to 24.4]. The ADRs were most frequently caused by the following drugs: nitrates (n = 25), opiates (n = 21) and ultrashort-acting benzodiazepines (n = 10). Eight ADRs were severe, the suspected medication had to be discontinued in 51 cases and new drugs were necessary to manage the ADRs in 73 cases. The crude estimation of the effect of the number of ADRs performed with a bivariant regression model indicated that each ADR was related to a 2.38-day increase (95% CI 1.31 to 3.45) in the length of stay. Although this estimation was reduced to 1.76 days (95% CI 0.72 to 2.79), when other confounding variables associated with the length of stay were considered, it was still important.In conclusion, the ADRs were a significant clinical problem in the ICUs and were responsible for a significant increase in the length of stay.

  6. Increasing doses of diminazene aceturate:adverse reproductive effects in femaleWistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OguejioforCF; OchioguIS; UmeoduaguCJ

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of comparatively high doses of diminazene aceturate on the reproductive performance of female rats in the early stage of pregnancy.Methods: After oestrus synchronisation and successful mating,20pregnant female rats were randomly divided into four groups (A-D). Group A rats served as the control and were given single intraperitoneal injection of0.5mL sterile water (vehicle only) while groupsB, CandD rats were given single intraperitoneal doses of7, 14and 21mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate respectively, on day 7 of pregnancy. The gestation length, litter size and weight at birth, and areas of foetal resorption in the uterus were determined post partum. The post-implantation survival index (%) and the gestation index (group %) were also evaluated for rats in all the groups.Results: There was a graded increase in the number of observed resorbed foetuses as the dose of diminazene aceturate was increased, although only groupsC(14 mg/kg) and D (21 mg/kg) revealed a significant decrease(P<0.01, ANOVA) in the post implantation survival index of rat embryos. There was also a significant decrease(P<0.05) in the litter weights of rats in groups C and D.Conclusions:Although the pregnant rats showed no overt signs of systemic toxicity even at the highest dose of 21mg/kg body weight diminazene aceturate in this study, it was concluded that the use of high doses of diminazene aceturate in an effort to combat resistant trypanosomes could have adverse reproductive effects on female animals in the early period of pregnancy.

  7. Natural products for treatment of bone erosive diseases: The effects and mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jing; Hao, Dingjun; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yi; Yang, Hao

    2016-07-01

    Excessive bone resorption plays a central role on the development of bone erosive diseases, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. Osteoclasts, bone-resorbing multinucleated cells, are differentiated from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation is considered an effective therapeutic target to the treatment of pathological bone loss. Natural plant-derived products, with potential therapeutic and preventive activities against bone-lytic diseases, have received increasing attention in recent years because of their whole regulative effects and specific pharmacological activities, which are more suitable for long-term use than chemically synthesized medicines. In this review, we summarized the detailed research progress on the active compounds derived from medical plants with potential anti-resorptive effects and their molecular mechanisms on inhibiting osteoclast formation and function. The active ingredients derived from natural plants that are efficacious in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption include flavonoids, terpenoids (sesquiterpenoids, diterpenoids, triterpenoids), glycosides, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, polyphenols, limonoids, quinones and others (steroid, oxoxishhone, fatty acid). Studies have shown that above natural products exert the inhibitory effects via regulating many factors involved in the process of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, including the essential cytokines (RANKL, M-CSF), transcription factors (NFATc1, c-Fos), signaling pathways (NF-κB, MAPKs, Src/PI3K/Akt, the calcium ion signaling), osteoclast-specific genes (TRAP, CTSK, MMP-9, integrin β3, OSCAR, DC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2) and local factors (ROS, LPS, NO). The development of osteoclast-targeting natural products is of great value for the prevention or treatment of bone diseases and for bone regenerative medicine.

  8. Magnesium Alleviates Adverse Effects of Lead on Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ultrastructural Alterations of Torreya grandis Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Song, Lili; Müller, Karin; Hu, Yuanyuan; Song, Yang; Yu, Weiwu; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Jiasheng

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+) toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+) toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis) seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm), root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations on the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. All measurements were tested by a one-way ANOVA for the effects of treatments. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The generated results

  9. Alendronate has a residual effect on bone mass in postmenopausal Danish women up to 7 years after treatment withdrawal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Yu Z; Tankó, László B; Alexandersen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Alendronate has been shown to reduce bone turnover and increase bone mass. However, little is known about the duration of the effect on bone after treatment withdrawal. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover of various alendr...

  10. Family and personal protective factors moderate the effects of adversity and negative disposition on smoking among Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Chang, Megan Chia-Chen; Gallaher, Peggy; Pang, Zengchang; Guo, Qian; Johnson, C Anderson; Unger, Jennifer

    2010-07-01

    Tobacco use among Chinese adolescents is increasing at approximately 80,000 new smokers per day. Assessing the causes for initiating tobacco use in China will be important in developing effective interventions and policies to stem rising prevalence rates. This study tested predictors of Resilience Theory in a sample of 602 Chinese adolescents. Results revealed that prior adversity, measured through school and family-related events, was significantly associated with increased smoking in females. Family factors (i.e., family cohesion, family adaptability, parental monitoring) and one personal factor (i.e., academic score) were associated with lower odds for smoking due to prior adversity and negative disposition.

  11. Cumulative Effects of Prenatal Substance Exposure and Early Adversity on Foster Children's HPA-Axis Reactivity during a Psychosocial Stressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2012-01-01

    Dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis stress response has been reported among individuals with prenatal substance exposure and those with early adversity exposure. However, few researchers have examined the combined effects of these risk factors. Patterns of HPA reactivity among maltreated foster children with and without…

  12. (Un)Healthy in the city : Adverse health effects of traffic-related noise and air pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlema, Wilma

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the adverse health effects of urbanity, traffic-related noise and air pollution. We used harmonized data from multiple European cohort studies: LifeLines, HUNT, FINRISK, EPIC-Oxford and KORA. Based on our studies, we concluded that the living environment may be associated with advers

  13. Toward a Case Definition of Adverse Health Effects in the Environs of Industrial Wind Turbines: Facilitating a Clinical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtry, Robert Y.

    2011-01-01

    Internationally, there are reports of adverse health effects (AHE) in the environs of industrial wind turbines (IWT). There was multidisciplinary confirmation of the key characteristics of the AHE at the first international symposium on AHE/IWT. The symptoms being reported are consistent internationally and are characterized by crossover findings…

  14. Intermediate and long-term adverse effects of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S. C.; Peeters, R. P.; Ronckers, C. M.; Links, T. P.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; van Dijkum, E. J. M. Nieveen; van Rijn, R. R.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; Neggers, S. J.; Kremer, L. C. M.; van Eck-Smit, B. L. F.; van Santen, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) often involves administration of radioactive iodine (I-131) for remnant ablation or adjuvant therapy. As DTC has favorable outcome and the incidence is increasing, concerns have been raised about the possible adverse effects of I-131 th

  15. Intermediate and long-term adverse effects of radioiodine therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S C; Peeters, R P; Ronckers, C M; Links, T P; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Nieveen van Dijkum, E J M; van Rijn, R R; van der Pal, H J H; Neggers, S J; Kremer, L C M; van Eck-Smit, B L F; van Santen, H M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) often involves administration of radioactive iodine (I-131) for remnant ablation or adjuvant therapy. As DTC has favorable outcome and the incidence is increasing, concerns have been raised about the possible adverse effects of I-131 th

  16. Effects of Extended-Release Guanfacine on ADHD Symptoms and Sedation-Related Adverse Events in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Glatt, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Guanfacine extended release (GXR) is a selective alpha[subscript 2A]-adrenoceptor agonist that is shown to be an effective nonstimulant treatment for the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. This report documents the time course and predictors of symptom efficacy and sedation-related adverse events (AEs) that emerge…

  17. Magnesium alleviates adverse effects of lead on growth, photosynthesis and ultrastructural alterations of Torreya grandis seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg2+ has been shown to reduce the physiological and biochemical stress in plants caused by heavy metals. To date our understanding of how Mg2+ ameliorates the adverse effects of heavy metals in plants is scarce. The potential effect of Mg2+ on lead (Pb2+ toxicity in plants has not yet been studied. This study was designed to clarify the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of lead (Pb2+ toxicity. Torreya grandis (T. grandis seedlings were grown in substrate contaminated with 0, 700 and 1400 mg Pb2+ per kg-1 and with or without the addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+. Growth parameters, concentrations of Pb2+ and Mg2+ in the plants’ shoots and roots, photosynthetic pigment, gas exchange parameters, the maximum quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm, root oxidative activity, ultrastructure of chloroplasts and root growth were determined to analyze the effect of different Pb2+ concentrations in the seedlings as well as the potential ameliorating effect of Mg2+ on the Pb2+ induced toxicity. The growth of T. grandis seedlings cultivated in soils treated with 1400 mg kg-1 Pb2+ was significantly reduced compared with that of plants cultivated in soils treated with 0 or 700 mg kg-1 Pb2+. The addition of 1040 mg kg-1 Mg2+ improved the growth of the Pb2+-stressed seedlings, which was accompanied by increased chlorophyll content, the net photosynthetic rate and Fv/Fm, and enhanced chloroplasts development. In addition, the application of Mg2+ induced plants to accumulate five times higher concentrations of Pb2+ in the roots and to absorb and translocate four times higher concentrations of Mg2+ to the shoots than those without Mg2+ application. Furthermore, Mg2+ addition increased root growth and oxidative activity, and protected the root ultrastructure. To the best of our knowledge, our study is the first report on the mechanism of Mg2+-induced alleviation of Pb2+ toxicity. The gener¬ated results may have important implications for understanding the

  18. Chemical composition modulates the adverse effects of particles on the mucociliary epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiani Carvalho-Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:We compared the adverse effects of two types of real ambient particles; i.e., total suspended particles from an electrostatic precipitator of a steel mill and fine air particles from an urban ambient particulate matter of 2.5 µm, on mucociliary clearance.METHOD:Mucociliary function was quantified by mucociliary transport, ciliary beating frequency and the amount of acid and neutral mucous in epithelial cells through morphometry of frog palate preparations. The palates were immersed in one of the following solutions: total suspended particles (0.1 mg/mL, particulate matter 2.5 µm 0.1 mg/mL (PM0.1 or 3.0 mg/mL (PM3.0 and amphibian Ringer’s solution (control. Particle chemical compositions were determined by X-ray fluorescence and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.RESULTS:Exposure to total suspended particles and PM3.0 decreased mucociliary transport. Ciliary beating frequency was diminished by total suspended particles at all times during exposure, while particulate matter of 2.5 µm did not elicit changes. Particulate matter of 2.5 µm reduced epithelial mucous and epithelium thickness, while total suspended particles behaved similarly to the control group. Total suspended particles exhibited a predominance of Fe and no organic compounds, while the particulate matter 2.5 µm contained predominant amounts of S, Fe, Si and, to a lesser extent, Cu, Ni, V, Zn and organic compounds.CONCLUSION:Our results showed that different compositions of particles induced different airway epithelial responses, emphasizing that knowledge of their individual characteristics may help to establish policies aimed at controlling air pollution.

  19. Genetic determinants of response and adverse effects following vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parameshwar S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants (warfarin/acenocoumarol are commonly used anticoagulants that require careful clinical management to balance the risks of over anticoagulation and bleeding with those of under anticoagulation and clotting. Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9, and of a key pharmacologic target of vitamin K antagonists anticoagulant, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1, contribute to differences in patients responses to various anticoagulant doses. Methods: In thirty patients on oral vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant therapy, presented with either clotting manifestations (valve thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and DVT or prolonged INR/bleeding manifestations, we assessed CYP2C9 genotypes, VKORC1 haplotypes, clinical characteristics, response to therapy (as determined by the international normalized ratio [INR], and bleeding events. Results: Of the thirty patients, thirteen patients INR was high and four patients presented with major bleeding and four with minor bleeding manifestations. Out of thirteen patients with high INR, ten patients showed CYP2C9 polymorphism ( 1/ 3 and 2/ 3 of poor metabolizer genotype. Most of the high INR patients were recently started on oral vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant. Most patients presented with clotting manifestations with below therapeutic INR are noncompliant with anticoagulants. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the CYP2C9 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of over anticoagulation and of bleeding events among patients on vitamin K antagonists' anticoagulant setting. Screening for CYP2C9 variants may allow clinicians to develop dosing protocols and surveillance techniques to reduce the risk of adverse drug reactions in patients receiving vitamin K antagonist anticoagulants. However the cost-effectiveness of genotyping of patients must be considered. [Int J Res Med Sci

  20. Adverse effects of simulated hyper- and hypo-phosphatemia on endothelial cell function and viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Peng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of phosphate homeostasis as occurs in chronic kidney disease is associated with cardiovascular complications. It has been suggested that both hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia can cause cardiovascular disease. The molecular mechanisms by which high or low serum phosphate levels adversely affect cardiovascular function are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction in the presence of non-physiologic phosphate levels. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied the effects of simulated hyper- and hypophosphatemia in human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. We found both simulated hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia decrease eNOS expression and NO production. This was associated with reduced intracellular calcium, increased protein kinase C β2 (PKCβ2, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis. While simulated hyperphosphatemia was associated with decreased Akt/p-Akt, Bcl-xl/Bax ratios, NFkB-p65 and p-Erk abundance, simulated hypophosphatemia was associated with increased Akt/p-Akt and Bcl-xl/Bax ratios and p-Mek, p38, and p-p38 abundance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction with hypophosphatemia. Our data suggests that both hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia decrease eNOS activity via reduced intracellular calcium and increased PKCβ2. Hyperphosphatemia also appears to reduce eNOS transcription via reduced signaling through PI3K/Akt/NF-kB and MAPK/NF-kB pathways. On the other hand, hypophosphatemia appears to activate these pathways. Our data provides the basis for further studies to elucidate the relationship between altered phosphate homeostasis and cardiovascular disease. As a corollary, our data suggests that the level of phosphate in the culture media, if not in the physiologic range, may inadvertently affect experimental results.

  1. Adverse effects of enrofloxacin when associated with environmental stress in Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Neil; Nkejabega, Noemie; Hien, Nguyen-Ngoc; Huynh, Thi-Tu; Silvestre, Frederic; Phuong, Nguyen-Thanh; Danyi, Sophie; Widart, Joëlle; Douny, Caroline; Scippo, Marie-Louise; Kestemont, Patrick; Huong, Do-Thi-Thanh

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the adverse effects of enrofloxacin (EF) on Tra catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, in relation with density stress. Fish were held at 40, 80 or 120 fish m(-3) and fed with pellets containing either 1 g kg(-1) EF or no EF. Antibiotic exposure lasted 7d and all fish were fed without EF for another 7-d recovery period. Fish were sampled at 3, 7, 8, 10 and 14 d after the beginning of EF exposure. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and acetylcholine-esterase (AChE) activities were assessed in gill, brain, liver and muscle. At day 7, LPO levels in gills of EF-fish reared at low or high density were significantly more than 5-fold higher than their respective control. On the contrary, LPO in gills of EF-fish reared at medium density was significantly 3-fold lower than the control fish. Similarly, CAT activities in gills of EF-fish reared under low or high density were higher than in their control groups, while this activity was lower in EF-fish of the medium density group. AChE activities in muscles of EF-fish reared at low or high density were lower than controls at days 3 and 7, respectively. These results suggest that EF exposure may lead to disorders like lipid peroxidation and neural dysfunction in fish. However, when reared under lower stress condition (medium density), they may cope better with EF-induced stress than chronically stressed fish (low or high density).

  2. Assessing Granger Causality in Electrophysiological Data: Removing the Adverse Effects of Common Signals via Bipolar Derivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongnetrpunya, Amy; Nandi, Bijurika; Kang, Daesung; Kocsis, Bernat; Schroeder, Charles E; Ding, Mingzhou

    2015-01-01

    Multielectrode voltage data are usually recorded against a common reference. Such data are frequently used without further treatment to assess patterns of functional connectivity between neuronal populations and between brain areas. It is important to note from the outset that such an approach is valid only when the reference electrode is nearly electrically silent. In practice, however, the reference electrode is generally not electrically silent, thereby adding a common signal to the recorded data. Volume conduction further complicates the problem. In this study we demonstrate the adverse effects of common signals on the estimation of Granger causality, which is a statistical measure used to infer synaptic transmission and information flow in neural circuits from multielectrode data. We further test the hypothesis that the problem can be overcome by utilizing bipolar derivations where the difference between two nearby electrodes is taken and treated as a representation of local neural activity. Simulated data generated by a neuronal network model where the connectivity pattern is known were considered first. This was followed by analyzing data from three experimental preparations where a priori predictions regarding the patterns of causal interactions can be made: (1) laminar recordings from the hippocampus of an anesthetized rat during theta rhythm, (2) laminar recordings from V4 of an awake-behaving macaque monkey during alpha rhythm, and (3) ECoG recordings from electrode arrays implanted in the middle temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex of an epilepsy patient during fixation. For both simulation and experimental analysis the results show that bipolar derivations yield the expected connectivity patterns whereas the untreated data (referred to as unipolar signals) do not. In addition, current source density signals, where applicable, yield results that are close to the expected connectivity patterns, whereas the commonly practiced average re-reference method

  3. Acute and prolonged adverse effects of temperature on mortality from cardiovascular diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death worldwide, especially for developed countries. Elevated mortality from cardiovascular diseases has been shown related to extreme temperature. We thus assessed the risk of mortality from cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in relation to temperature profiles in four subtropical metropolitans (Taipei, Taichung, Tainan, and Kaohsiung from 1994 to 2007 in Taiwan. METHODS: Distributed lag non-linear models were applied to estimate the cumulative relative risks (RRs with confidence intervals of cause-specific mortality associated with daily temperature from lag 0 to 20 days, and specific effect of extreme temperature episodes with PM10, NOx, and O3, and other potential confounders controlled. Estimates for cause-specific mortalities were then pooled by random-effect meta-analysis. RESULTS: Comparing to centered temperature at 27 °C, the cumulative 4-day (lag 0 to 3 risk of mortality was significantly elevated at 31 °C for cerebrovascular diseases (RR = 1.14; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.31 and heart diseases (RR =  1.22; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.46 , but not for IHD (RR =  1.09; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.21. To the other extreme, at 15 °C, the cumulative 21-day (lag 0 to 20 risk of mortality were also remarkably increased for cerebrovascular diseases, heart diseases, and IHD (RRs  =  1.48 with 95% CI: 1.04, 2.12, 2.04 with 95% CI: 1.61, 2.58, and 1.62 with 95% CI: 1.30, 2.01, respectively. Mortality risks for cardiovascular diseases were generally highest on the present day (lag 0 of extreme heat. No particular finding was detected on prolonged extreme temperature event by pooling estimations for cause-specific mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Low temperature was associated with greater risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases in comparison with that of high temperature. Adverse effects of extreme temperatures are acute at the beginning of exposure.

  4. Low concentrations of metal mixture exposures have adverse effects on selected biomarkers of Xenopus laevis tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yologlu, Ertan, E-mail: ertanyologlu82@gmail.com [Adiyaman University, Faculty of Education, Department of Science Education, 02040 Adiyaman (Turkey); Ozmen, Murat [Inonu University, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Science, 44280 Malatya (Turkey)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Selected metal mixtures were evaluated for toxicity of safety limit concentrations. • Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as model test organism. • Combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 caused 100% lethality for some metals. • Metals did not change metallothionein levels in low concentrations. • Selected enzyme activities showed induction after low concentration exposures. - Abstract: Polluted ecosystems may contain mixtures of metals, such that the combinations of metals, even in low concentrations, may cause adverse effects. In the present study, we focused on toxic effects of mixtures of selected metals, the LC{sub 50} values, and also their safety limit in aquatic systems imposed by the European legislation using a model organism. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were used as test organisms. They were exposed to metals or their combinations due to 96-h LC{sub 50} values. Glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carboxylesterase (CaE), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) levels were evaluated. Metallothionein concentrations were also determined. The LC{sub 50}s for Cd, Pb, and Cu were calculated as 5.81 mg AI/L, 123.05 mg AI/L, and 0.85 mg AI/L, respectively. Low lethality ratios were observed with unary exposure of each metal in lower concentrations. Double or triple combinations of LC{sub 50} and LC{sub 50}/2 concentrations caused 100% lethality with Cd + Cu and Pb + Cd + Cu mixtures, while the Pb + Cu mixture also caused high lethal ratios. The selected enzyme activities were significantly affected by metals or mixtures, and dose-related effects were determined. The metallothionein levels generally increased as related to concentration in unary metals and mixtures. Acceptable limit values of unary metals and mixtures did not significantly change metallothionein levels. The results suggest that oxidative stress-related mechanisms are involved in the toxicity induced by selected

  5. Protective effects of phyllanthus emblica leaf extract on sodium arsenite-mediated adverse effects in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Sadia; Ahsan, Nazmul; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Rashid, Abdur; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

    2015-02-01

    Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). 'Control' mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated 'SA' and 'SA+PLE' were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity.

  6. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  7. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  8. Effects of casein, whey and soy proteins on volumetric bone density and bone strength in immunocompromised piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Bjørnvad, Charlotte; Mølgaard, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Summary:Background and aims: Bone-promoting effect of different proteins in early life, under immunocompromised conditions, is unknown. We investigated effects of milk- and plantderived proteins on bone development in immunocompromised piglets. Methods: Newborn, colostrum-deprived piglets were...... assigned to a formula based on either casein (n=11), whey (n=11) or soy (n=10) as the protein source (each 55 g/L), and equal amounts of fat, carbohydrates, calcium and phosphorus. Results & Conclusion: Despite efforts to sustain immuno-protection (sow serum and antibiotic injections), some piglets became...... sick and were early euthanised. After 6 days, bone density (peripheral quantitative computed tomography), bone mechanical strength (three-point bending test) and serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) (immunoassay) were measured in the surviving piglets (casein n=5, whey n=9, soy n=5)....

  9. The effects of oestrogens on linear bone growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    Regulation of linear bone growth in children and adolescents comprises a complex interaction of hormones and growth factors. Growth hormone (GH) is considered to be the key hormone regulator of linear growth in childhood. The pubertal increase in growth velocity associated with GH has traditionally...... female growth spurt despite lack of androgen action. Oestrogens may also influence linear bone growth indirectly via modulation of the GH-insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis. Thus, ER blockade diminishes endogenous GH secretion, androgen receptor (AR) blockade increases GH secretion in peripubertal...... boys, and non-aromatizable androgens [oxandrolone or dihydrotestosterone (DHT)] have no effect on GH secretion. Treatment with aromatase inhibitors reduces circulating IGF-I concentrations in healthy males, and reduces growth in boys with testotoxicosis. Taken together, these findings suggest...

  10. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan: effects of family function and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Pinchen; Wu, Yu-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship between three indicators of family adversity (domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage) and the severity of social anxiety among adolescents in Taiwan, as well as the mediating effects of perceived family function and self-esteem on that relationship, using structural equation modeling (SEM). A total of 5607 adolescents completed the social anxiety subscale of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children; the Family APGAR Index; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale; and a questionnaire for domestic violence, family substance use, and broken parental marriage. The relation between family adversity and social anxiety, as well as the mediating effects of family function and self-esteem, was examined using SEM. SEM analysis revealed that all three indicators of family adversity reduced the level of family function, that decreased family function compromised the level of self-esteem, and that a low level of self-esteem further increased the severity of social anxiety. The results indicated that, along with intervening to change family adversity, evaluating and improving adolescents' self-esteem and family function are also important clinical issues when helping adolescents reduce their social anxiety.

  11. Evaluation of the analgesic effect of salmon calcitonin in metastatic bone pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Seema

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of calcitonin in controlling metastatic bone pain. Materials and methods: Patients with bone metastases, with a numerical pain score greater than 4 wererandomized to receive calcitonin 200 IU subcutaneously 6 hourly for 48 hours (n= 10 or normal saline placebo (n = 10 . The parameters measured were the 11-point numerical pain score, ECOG functional capacity score, morphine consumption in 24 hours, duration of pain in 24 hours and subjective assessment of efficacy of treatment by a blinded investigator. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in pain score at 48 hours (2 vs 6 and 7 days (3 vs 6 in the calcitonin arm as compared to the control arm. The reduction in duration of pain (3 vs 13 and improvement in ECOG (1.5 vs 2.5 score were also statistically significant. Adverse effects were nausea in 5 patients and vomiting in 3 patients on the day of calcitonin administration. This was controlled with antiemetics. There was no significant change in serum calcium level in either group.

  12. Preliminary report: effect of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone maturation and bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaka, O; Hoshi, M; Kanazawa, S; Numata, M; Nakajima, D; Kanno, S; Negishi, M; Nishikura, K; Nitta, A; Imataka, M; Kuribayashi, T; Kano, K

    2001-04-01

    To clarify the independent physiological roles of adrenal androgen and estrogen on bone growth, we compared the lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) in prepubertal girls with virilizing congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) (n = 17) and girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) (n = 18). When BMD was analyzed according to chronologic age, no significant differences were found between CPP and CAH patients. However, when adjusted to bone age, BMD was statistically higher in CAH than in CPP subjects. This finding suggests that adrenal androgen, as well as estrogen, plays an important role in increasing BMD. Adrenal androgen may act on bone not only as androgen, but as estrogen after having been metabolized into an aromatized bone-active compound in peripheral tissues, such as bone and fat. Therefore, adrenal androgen may have a more important role in increasing BMD than previously realized.

  13. The effect of semelil (angipars® on bone resorption and bone formation markers in type 2 diabetic patients

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    Hasani-Ranjbar Shirin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a major risk factor for osteoporosis in which bone turnover is affected by different mechanisms. As the morbidity, mortality and financial cost related to osteoporosis are expected to rise in Iran in coming years, and considering the efficacy of Angipars® for improvement of different ulcers which made it a new herbal drug in diabetic foot ulcer, there is a need to evaluate the effect of this new drug on different organs including bone resorption and bone formation markers. Methods In this randomized, double- blind clinical trial, 61 diabetic patients were included. The subjects were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Subjects of intervention group received 100 mg of Angipars® twice a day. Laboratory tests including bone resorption and bone formation markers were performed at baseline and after 3 months. Result 31 patients in study group and 30 patients in control group finished the study. The mean age of the study population and the mean disease duration was respectively 51.8 ± 6.2 and 7.5 ± 4.7 years with no significant differences between intervention and control patients. No statistically significant differences between patients and controls were observed in pyridinoline, osteocalcin, urine calcium, bone alkaline phosphatase and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α. Only urine creatinine level significantly changed between two groups after 3 month of treatment (p-value: 0.029 Conclusion In conclusion, the findings of this study indicate that Semelil (Angipars® had no beneficial or harmful effects on bone. It might be other effects of this new component on bone turnover process which need more studies and more time to be discovered.

  14. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K. [Minitry of Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environment, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ye, L.X., E-mail: yelx2004@163.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 {mu}g/L (1.56), 11.7 {mu}g/g (1.75), 12.5 {mu}g/g (2.82), and 25.3 {mu}g/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of {>=} 100 {mu}g/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  15. Effect of Gengnianchun Recipe (更年春方) on Bone Mineral Density,Bone Biomechanical Parameters and Serum Lipid Level in Ovariectomized Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ke-ju; WANG Wen-jun; LI Da-jin; JIN Hui-fang; ZHOU Wen-jiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Gengnianchun Recipe (更年春方, GNC) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone biomechanical parameters and serum lipid level in the bilaterally ovariectomized (OVX) rats and to explore the prophylactic and therapeutic action of GNC on ovariectomy induced osteoporosis and hyperlipidemia. Methods: OVX SD rats, 10- 12 months old, were divided into different groups and fed with GNC 2 g/d, GNC 1 g/d and Nilestriol 0. 125 mg/week, respectively for 4 months to observe the change of BMD and bone biomechanical parameters of the lumbar vertebrae, and the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride(TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and to compare the effect of the two drugs on the morphology of the uterus. Results:There was marked reduction in BMD and biomechanical parameters in lumbar vertebrae ( P<0.01 ) and increase of serum TC and LDL-C levels ( P<0.01 ) in rats after OVX. GNC or Nilestriol significantly improved the decreased BMD and biomechanical parameters of the lumbar vertebrae (P<0.05 or P<0.01), and reduced the serum TC and LDL-C levels (P<0.01). In the Nilestriol group, the wet weight of uterus got increased obviously ( P<0.01 ), the number of uterine glands increased, uterine columnar epithelium thickened, and the mitotic figures in the epithelial stroma and myointimal cells augmented. But no such effect in wet weight and morphology of uterus was found in the GNC group. Conclusion: GNC could increase the BMD and biomechanical parameters of the lumbar vertebrae, reduce the serum TC and LDL-C levels, yet produce no adverse reaction in stimulating proliferation and hypertrophy of uterus.

  16. Effect of unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy on bone mineral content and density of rat's mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladizesky, M G; Cutrera, R A; Boggio, V; Mautalen, C; Cardinali, D P

    2000-01-14

    To assess the effect of a local sympathectomy on bone metabolism, the effect of a unilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy (Gx) on growth and bone mineral content and density of the ipsi- and contralateral mandibles was examined in female rats. A significant increase in the hemi-mandibular bone ipsilateral to Gx was found as compared to the contralateral, sham-operated side 30 days, but not 15 days, after surgery. Bone mineral content of the hemi-mandibular bones was significantly lower in the side ipsilateral to Gx in the group of rats killed on the 30th day after surgery. Since no difference in areas between innervated and denervated hemi-mandibles was found, bone mineral density was also significantly lower in the hemi-mandible ipsilateral to Gx. The results further support that a regional sympathectomy causes qualitative alterations in bone modeling and remodeling, leading to bone resorption.

  17. High-fat Diet Decreases Cancellous Bone Mass But Has No Effect on Cortical Bone Mass in the Tibia in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Body mass has a positive effect on bone mineral density and the strength. Whether mass derived from an obesity condition is beneficial to bone has not been established; neither have the mechanism by which obesity affects bone metabolism. The aim of this study was to examine the effects...

  18. Effects of bone-conducted music on swimming performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Angela R; Gennings, Chris; Hoffman, Regina A; Strittmatter, Andrew P; Retchin, Sheldon M

    2012-04-01

    Music has been shown to be a useful adjunct for many forms of exercise and has been observed to improve athletic performance in some settings. Nonetheless, because of the limited availability of practical applications of sound conduction in water, there are few studies of the effects of music on swimming athletes. The SwiMP3 is a novel device that uses bone conduction as a method to circumvent the obstacles to transmitting high fidelity sound in an aquatic environment. Thus, we studied the influence of music on swimming performance and enjoyment using the SwiMP3. Twenty-four competitive swimmers participated in a randomized crossover design study in which they completed timed swimming trials with and without the use of music delivered via bone conduction with the SwiMP3. Each participant swam four 50-m trials and one 800-m trial and then completed a physical enjoyment survey. Statistically significant improvements in swimming performance times were found in both the 50-m (0.32 seconds; p = 0.013) and 800-m (6.5 seconds; p = 0.031) trials with music using the SwiMP3. There was no significant improvement in physical enjoyment with the device as measured by a validated assessment tool. Bone-conducted music appears to have a salutary influence on swimming performance in a practice environment among competitive adult swimmers.

  19. Intrauterine retention of foetal bone: an IUCD effect

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    Balaji P. Nalwad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine retention of foetal bone is a rare complication of abortion. These patients may present with irregular bleeding per vaginum, dysmenorrheal, pelvic pain and secondary infertility. A 27 year old female (G2, P1, L1, A1 referred by a general practitioner to our OPD as a case of secondary infertility. Patient was asymptomatic and had a second trimester abortion three years back. USG showed a foreign body in the uterine cavity. There was no history of IUCD insertion. On the advice of general practitioner, CT scan was done, which showed similar finding. Then this case was referred to us for further clinical evaluation. On hysteroscopy, we found foetal bones impacted between two Ostia which were removed with difficulty in the same setting. Dye test for patency of tubes was negative, probably due to edema. After that, patient conceived naturally within four months and delivered a healthy baby. Retained foetal bone in the uterine cavity was causing secondary infertility by its IUCD effect. Hysteroscopy is the gold standard method for diagnosis and treatment of foreign body in the uterine cavity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1229-1231

  20. Effect of load on the bone around bone-anchored amputation prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Patrik; Trobos, Margarita; Lausmaa, Jukka; Brånemark, Rickard; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-06-24

    Osseointegrated transfemoral amputation prostheses have proven successful as an alternative method to the conventional socket-type prostheses. The method improves prosthetic use and thus increases the demands imposed on the bone-implant system. The hypothesis of the present study was that the loads applied to the bone-anchored implant system of amputees would result in locations of high stress and strain transfer to the bone tissue and thus contribute to complications such as unfavourable bone remodeling and/or elevated inflammatory response and/or compromised sealing function at the tissue-abutment interface. In the study, site-specific loading measurements were made on amputees and used as input data in finite element analyses to predict the stress and strain distribution in the bone tissue. Furthermore, a tissue sample retrieved from a patient undergoing implant revision was characterized in order to evaluate the long-term tissue response around the abutment. Within the limit of the evaluated bone properties in the present experiments, it is concluded that the loads applied to the implant system may compromise the sealing function between the bone and the abutment, contributing to resorption of the bone in direct contact with the abutment at the most distal end. This was supported by observations in the retrieved clinical sample of bone resorption and the formation of a soft tissue lining along the abutment interface. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res.

  1. Effects of raloxifene hydrochloride on bone mineral density, bone metabolism and serum lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shurong 郑淑蓉; Abie Ekangaki; Jodie Stocks; Kristine Harper; LIU Jianli 刘建立; WU Yiyong 吴宜勇; ZHANG Zhonglan 张忠兰; YANG Xin 杨欣; HUI Ying 惠英; ZHANG Ying 张颖; CHEN Shuling 陈淑玲; DENG Wenhui 邓文慧; LIU Hui 刘慧

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) on bone mineral density (BMD), bone metabolism markers and serum lipids in healthy postmenopausal women in Beijing.Methods A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in a total of 204 healthy postmenopausal women (age 59.5±5.0 years and weight 62.8±8.7 kg) treated with either RLX 60 mg (n=102) or placebo (n=102) daily for 12 months. BMD, serum lipids, and bone markers were measured before and after drug administration.Results Compared with placebo, RLX produced a significant increase in both total lumbar spine and total hip BMD. For the lumbar spine, percentage increase in total BMD was 2.3% with RLX compared with a decrease of 0.1% with placebo (P<0.001). Corresponding values for total hip BMD were a 2.5% increase for RLX and a 1.1% increase for placebo (P=0.011). For biochemical markers of bone metabolism, serum osteocalcin and C-telopeptide, percentage decreases were 27.65% and 24.02% in RLX-treated subjects. Corresponding values in placebo were a 10.64% decrease and a 15.75% increase (RLX compared with placebo, both P<0.001). For total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, percentage decreases were 6.44% and 34.58% in the RLX-treated group. Corresponding values in placebo-treated patients were a 1.44% increase and a 19.07% decrease (RLX compared with placebo, both P<0.001). No differences were found for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride levels between the two groups. Only 5 subjects discontinued early owing to an adverse event (3 in the RLX group and 2 in the placebo group). Conclusions This study confirms that RLX exerts positive effects on the skeleton, increasing BMD and decreasing biochemical markers of bone metabolism, and has a positive effect on the overall serum lipid profile in postmenopausal women in China.

  2. The Effect of Acupuncture on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳钢; 王玲玲; 王东岩; 卓铁军; 申志祥

    2002-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory that the kidney is in charge of the bone, the authors carried out a study on the effect of acupuncture on bone mineral density in 40 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated by the method of reinforcing the kidney to strengthen the bone, with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  3. Effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue-Feng Qian; Ping Cao; Shuan Liu; Hong-Ping Yang; Ming-Yong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of regular anti-osteoporosis treatment on bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with primary osteoporosis and its relationship with bone fractures.Methods:A total of 120 patients with primary osteoporosis were included in this study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=60). Control group received consistent treatment, observation group received individualized regular anti-osteoporosis treatment, and then the differences in bone mineral density, bone metabolism, trace elements, oxidative stress, fracture incidence, and so on were compared between two groups of patients 1 year after treatment.Results:Absolute BMD value of observation group after treatment was higher than that of control group; serum bone formation indexes ALP, BGP, PⅠNP and PⅠCP content were higher than those of control group; serum bone resorption indexesβ-CTX, sRANKL, TRACP, BAP and DPD content were lower than those of control group; serum trace elements iron and zinc content were higher than those of control group while calcium content was lower than that of control group; serum AOPP and MAOA content of observation group were significantly lower than those of control group while SOD and T-AOC content were significantly higher than those of control group;fracture incidence was significantly lower than that of control group during treatment.Conclusions:The regular anti-osteoporosis treatment can increase bone mineral density, optimize the overall condition and reduce the incidence of long-term fracture in patients with primary osteoporosis.

  4. Observational Studies on Evaluating the Safety and Adverse Effects of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Nein Lai; Jin-Ling Tang; Jung-Der Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to share our experiences when carrying out observational studies of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Methods. We have proactively monitored the safety profiles of Duhuo Jisheng Tang (DJT), Suan Zao Ren Tang (SZRT), and TMN-1. A list of adverse events (AEs), complete blood counts, and liver and kidney function tests were obtained from the participants during their scheduled hospital visits. Retrospective observational studies were conducted based on the reimburse...

  5. [High frequency of cutaneous adverse effects under infliximab. Geneva experience, 1999-2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydtaghia, Floriane; De Saussure, Philippe; Hadengue, Antoine

    2011-03-16

    Geneva experience, 1999-2008 Infliximab has been used for 10 years in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases in the gastroenterology and hepatology department at the University Hospitals of Geneva. This retrospective study shows the follow-up of these patients treated with infliximab and reveals a high rate of cutaneous adverse events, which, although often mild, can sign a definitive intolerance to treatment.

  6. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kocfa Chung-Delgado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS: A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35, overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89, anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92, MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6, and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87 were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. CONCLUSIONS: Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  7. Adverse effects including sexual problems associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a tertiary care center of Eastern Nepal

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    Bhawesh Koirala

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Adverse effect (irrespective of severity was commonly seen with SSRI use. Common adverse effects seen among remitted subjects were weight gain, dryness of mouth, headache, dizziness, paresthesia, etc. SD was other important side effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 651-656

  8. A Comparative Effectiveness Study of Bone Density Changes in Women Over 40 Following Three Bone Health Plans Containing Variations of the Same Novel Plant-sourced Calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert R. Kaats, Harry G. Preuss, Harry A. Croft, Samuel C. Keith, Patti L. Keith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US Surgeon General's Report on Bone Health suggests America's bone-health is in jeopardy and issued a “call to action” to develop bone-health plans incorporating components of (1 improved nutrition, (2 increased health literacy, and (3 increased physical activity.Objective: To conduct a Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER study comparing changes in bone mineral density in healthy women over-40 with above-average compliance when following one of three bone health Plans incorporating the SG's three components.Methods: Using an open-label sequential design, 414 females over 40 years of age were tested, 176 of whom agreed to participate and follow one of three different bone-health programs. One Plan contained a bone-health supplement with 1,000 IUs of vitamin D3 and 750 mg of a plant-sourced form of calcium for one year. The other two Plans contained the same plant form of calcium, but with differing amounts of vitamin D3 and other added bone health ingredients along with components designed to increase physical activity and health literacy. Each group completed the same baseline and ending DXA bone density scans, 43-chemistry blood test panels, and 84-item Quality of Life Inventory (QOL. Changes for all subjects were annualized as percent change in BMD from baseline. Using self-reports of adherence, subjects were rank-ordered and dichotomized as “compliant” or “partially compliant” based on the median rating. Comparisons were also made between the treatment groups and two theoretical age-adjusted expected groups: a non-intervention group and a group derived from a review of previously published studies on non-plant sources of calcium.Results: There were no significant differences in baseline BMD between those who volunteered versus those who did not and between those who completed per protocol (PP and those who were lost to attrition. Among subjects completing per protocol, there were no significant differences

  9. Effect of Progressive Locomotor Treadmill Compared to Conventional Training on Bone Mineral Density and Bone Remodeling in Paraplegia

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    Ghasemi Mobarake

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The decrease in bone mass in paraplegic spinal cord injured persons increases the risk factors for fractures. Objectives The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of progressive locomotor treadmill training (LT on muscle mass, bone mineral density, and bone remodeling in paraplegia patients. Methods The subjects investigated in this research included seventeen paraplegic spinal cord injured persons who were divided randomly into two groups: LT group (n = 10 and conventional exercise group (n = 7. The exercise training protocol was performed during 12 weeks, 3 days a week, 60 minutes a session. LT included 15 minutes warm-up on stationary bike plus 45 minutes LT with 50 percent body-weight support and finally 10 minutes cool-down as an adjunct to a conventional physiotherapy program. 10 percent loading weight was added per week for LT. Conventional exercise training incorporated 15 minutes warm-up plus 45 minutes over-ground training such as stretch exercise and resistance training. Results The obtained results showed that there were significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase levels (P < 0.001, osteocalcin levels (P = 0.003, bone mineral content (BMC of the femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral density (BMD of femoral neck (P < 0.001, bone mineral content (BMC of the lumbar spine (P < 0.001, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar spine (P = 0.000 between LT and conventional exercise regimes. Conclusions LT training, in addition to improvement of motor function and reduction of bone loss, can be prescribed as an effective exercise intervention for the treatment of osteoporosis in incomplete spinal cord injured persons.

  10. The effectiveness and adverse effects profile of "burst" ketamine in refractory cancer pain: The VCOG PM 1-00 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kate; Ashby, Michael; Howell, Deb; Petersen, Jennifer; Brumley, David; Good, Phillip; Pisasale, Maria; Wein, Simon; Woodruff, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This multi-centre study of adjuvant "burst" ketamine in palliative care in-patients documents its effectiveness, duration of pain relief, and adverse effects (AE) profile. Patients received a three-to-five day continuous subcutaneous infusion (CSCI) of ketamine escalated from 100 to 300 to 500 mg/24 hours if required. When the effective or maximum tolerated dose was attained, the infusion was continued for three days and each patient assessed as a responder or non-responder using strict criteria. The response rate was 22/44 (50 percent), with 4 (9 percent) becoming pain-free. Pain relief lasting two or more weeks was documented in 50 percent of responders. AEs were documented daily using the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Common Toxicity Criteria 0-4 scales. There were 11 grade 3 and 4 neurological AEs. However, no responders elected to cease treatment early due to neurological AEs. We concluded that this protocol in the controlled environment of an in-patient PC unit is relatively safe and simple with reasonable effectiveness.

  11. Sex-specific and strain-dependent effects of early life adversity on behavioral and epigenetic outcomes

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    Marija eKundakovic

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early life adversity can have a significant long-term impact with implications for the emergence of psychopathology. Disruption to mother-infant interactions is a form of early life adversity that may, in particular, have profound programming effects on the developing brain. However, despite converging evidence from human and animal studies, the precise mechanistic pathways underlying adversity-associated neurobehavioral changes has yet to be elucidated. One approach to the study of mechanism is exploration of epigenetic changes associated with early life experience. In the current study, we examined the effects of postnatal maternal separation in mice and assessed the behavioral, brain gene expression, and epigenetic effects of this manipulation in offspring. Importantly, we included two different mouse strains (B6 and Balb/c and both male and female offspring to determine strain- and/or sex-associated differential response to maternal separation. We found both strain-specific and sex-dependent effects of maternal separation in early adolescent offspring on measures on open-field exploration, sucrose preference, and social behavior. Analyses of cortical and hippocampal mRNA levels of the glucocorticoid receptor (Nr3c1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf genes revealed decreased hippocampal Bdnf expression in maternally-separated B6 females and increased cortical Bdnf expression in maternally separated male and female Balb/c offspring. Analyses of Nr3c1and Bdnf (IV and IX CpG methylation indicated increased hippocampal Nr3c1 methylation in maternally separated B6 males and increased hippocampal Bdnf IX methylation in male and female maternally separated Balb/c mice. Overall, though effect sizes were modest, these findings suggest a complex interaction between early life adversity, genetic background, and sex in the determination of neurobehavioral and epigenetic outcomes that may account for differential vulnerability to later life

  12. Reporting and understanding the safety and adverse effect profile of mobile apps for psychosocial interventions: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Farooq; Gire, Nadeem; Xiang, Shuo; Yang, Megan; Syed, Yumeen; Shokraneh, Farhad; Adams, Clive; Farooq, Saeed

    2016-06-22

    Recent years have seen a rapidly increasing trend towards the delivery of health technology through mobile devices. Smartphones and tablet devices are thus becoming increasingly popular for accessing information and a wide range of services, including health care services. Modern mobile apps can be used for a variety of reasons, ranging from education for the patients and assistance to clinicians to delivery of interventions. Mobile phone apps have also been established to benefit patients in a scope of interventions across numerous medical specialties and treatment modalities. Medical apps have their advantages and disadvantages. It is important that clinicians have access to knowledge to make decisions regarding the use of medical apps on the basis of risk-benefit ratio. Mobile apps that deliver psycho social interventions offer unique challenges and opportunities. A number of reviews have highlighted the potential use of such apps. There is a need to describe, report and study their side effects too. The adverse effects associated with these apps can broadly be divided into: (1) those resulting from the security and safety concerns; (2) those arising from the use of a particular psycho social intervention; and (3) those due to the interaction with digital technology. There is a need to refine and reconsider the safety and adverse effects in this area. The safety profile of a mobile PSI app should describe its safety profile in: (1) privacy and security; (2) adverse effects of psychotherapy; and (3) adverse effects unique to the use of apps and the internet. This is, however, a very new area and further research and reporting is required to inform clinical decision making.

  13. Effects of Dietary Cadmium and Boron Supplementation on Performance, Eggshell Quality and Mineral Concentrations of Bone in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olgun, Osman; Bahtiyarca, Yilmaz

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of different levels of cadmium and boron on performance, eggshell quality, and mineral concentrations of bone in layer diets. In this trial, a total of 144 layer chickens, 21 weeks old, were randomly divided into 12 experimental groups. In each experimental group, there were four replicates, and in each of the replicates, there were three hens. Experimental diets consisted of all possible combinations of four levels of added cadmium (0, 5, 15, and 45 mg/kg) and three levels of added boron (0, 60, and 120 mg/kg) to the basal diet. Added cadmium (15 or 45 mg/kg) had a significant adverse effect on performance parameters (P < 0.01). Eggshell thickness increased with the addition of 5 mg/kg level of cadmium to the diet (P < 0.01). Tibia cadmium content increased with the addition of cadmium and boron in the diet (P < 0.01). However, tibia boron content decreased with the supplementation of cadmium (P < 0.01). These results indicate that the addition of boron to the diet did not prevent adverse effect of cadmium on performance and eggshell quality, or accumulation of cadmium in bone.

  14. Remodelling of bone and bones. Effects of altered mechanical stress on anlages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, E; Feik, S A

    1982-04-01

    Tails from 4-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were bent in situ or skinned bent tail segments were transplanted s.c. into 50 g hosts. Tissue changes were studied for up to 24 weeks by radiographic and histological techniques. The early changes in situ resulted largely from limited translation of bones within their encasing tissues with resorption on the leading (pressure) side inducing thinning, and on the trailing (tension) side thickening of bone. The changes in transplanted anlages occurred in 3 stages: initially, bending of the anlages, with tension between the stretched periosteum and the outer bone surface inducing formation, and compression of cartilage and bone on the inner aspect leading to resorption; then resumption of longitudinal growth and expansion of the bent loop leading to translation of bones within the encasing soft tissues with resorption and thinning of bone on the leading pressure side and formation, with thickening of the inner shaft, on the trailing tension side; and finally with cessation of growth and translation, a reversal to the previous phase. The results support the hypothesis that 2 processes are involved: first, internal stress, and second, translation of bones with, in all instances, pressure inducing resorption and tension inducing formation of bone.

  15. [The assessment of no adverse effect doses for plant populations chronically exposed to radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseeva, T I; Maĭstrenko, T A; Belykh, E S; Geras'kin, S A

    2010-01-01

    Dose rates cause no adverse effects on natural populations of Pinus sylvestris L. and Vicia cracca L. inhabiting territories contaminated by uranium mill tailings and radium production wastes (Vodny settlement, Komi Republic) were determined. A significant increase in embryonic lethal mutation frequency in V. cracca legumes and decrease in seedlings survival rate as compared with control values were registered at dose rate equal to 1.67 mGy/day, that is 280 times higher than the one calculated for the reference site. The adverse effects in P. sylvestris expressed in increased frequency of chromosome aberrations in meristematic root tips and decreased reproductive capacity of seeds were determined at absorbed dose rate equal to 0.083 mGy/day. Data obtained show that the decrease in plant reproductive capacity in case of chronic exposure of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series can observe at lower weighted absorbed dose rates than in case of environmental contamination by artificial radionuclides.

  16. Modeling and simulation of induction motor drive system to investigate and mitigate of PWM inverter' s adverse effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ESMAELI Abdolreza; SUN Li

    2007-01-01

    Modeling and simulation of induction motor drive system to investigate and mitigate the adverse effects of PWM inverter based on analysis, modeling and simulation are presented. The estimation of conducted disturbances and other adverse effects of PWM inverter by simulation offer a considerable gain from the economic point of view. For an accurate model of the motor drive system including mains, rectifier, inverter, motor and its long cables, the high frequency parasitic current paths are taken into account. The novel model and its parasitic values for three-phase induction motor system are presented. Finally a new solution for suppressing EMI, common mode voltage, leakage current, bearing current and shaft voltages is proposed and the results show the excellent performances of proposed solution including active and passive filters.

  17. Biomarkers of effect in endocrine disruption: how to link a functional assay to an adverse outcome pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lorenzetti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of in vitro testing strategies may achieve a cost-effective generation of comprehensive datasets on a large number of chemicals, according to the requirements of the European Regulation REACH. Much emphasis is placed on in vitro methods based on subcellular mechanisms (e.g., nuclear receptor interaction, but it is necessary to define the predictive value of molecular or biochemical changes within an adverse outcome pathway (AOP. AOP pivots on the description of the flow from a molecular initiating event through a cascade of intermediate events needed to produce a specific adverse effect at organism level: downstream responses at cell level are, therefore, essential to define an AOP. Several in vitro assays are based on human cell lines representative of endocrine-targeted tissues (e.g., prostate and on functional biomarkers of clinical relevance (e.g., PSA secretion in human prostate epithelial cells. We discuss the implementation of such functional biomarkers in the AOP context.

  18. Effect on Hydration and Hardening of Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Cement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The bioactive α-Ca3 (PO4)2 bone cement was studied by XRD , SEM and isothermal calorimetric measurements. The results showed that a mixed pattern of TCP and hydroxylapatite were obtained after hydration and hardening. The mechanism of hydration and hardening of the α-Ca3 ( PO4 )2 was dissolution-precipitation,(NH4) H2 PO4 was the best set accelerator to the α-Ca3 ( PO4 )2 cement, and the HAP powers and the(NH4) H2 PO4 concentration had a great effect on the hydration rate of α-Ca3 ( PO4 )2.

  19. Effects of Platelet Factor 4 on Expression of Bone Marrow Heparan Sulfate in Syngenic Bone Marrow Transplantation Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟凡凯; 孙汉英; 刘文励; 袁慧玲; 徐惠珍; 孙岚; 周银莉; 任天华

    2002-01-01

    Summary: To explore the effects of platelet factor 4(PF4) on hematopoietic reconstitution and its mechanism in syngenic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The syngenic BMT mice models were established. 20 and 26 h before irradiation, the mice were injected 20 μg/kg PF4 or PBS twice into abdominal cavity, then the donor bone marrow nuclear cells (BMNC) were transplanted. On the 7th day, spleen clone forming units (CFU-S) were counted. On the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT, the BMNC and megakaryoryocytes in bone marrow tissue were counted and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and expression level of heparan sulfate in bone marrow tissue were assessed. In PF4-treated groups, the CFU-S counts on the 7th day were higher than those in BMT groups after BMT. The BMNC and megakaryoryocyte counts and the percentage of hematopoietic tissue and heparan sulfate expression level were higher than those in BMT group on the 7th, 14th and 21st day after BMT (P<0. 01 or P<0. 05). PF4 could accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution of syngenic bone marrow transplantation. The promotion of the heparan sulfate expression in bone marrow may be one of mechanisms of PF4.

  20. Severe Cholestatic Hepatitis due to Temozolomide: An Adverse Drug Effect to Keep in Mind. Case Report and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Grieco, Antonio; Tafuri, Maria Antonietta; Biolato, Marco; Diletto, Barbara; Di Napoli, Nicola; Balducci, Nicola; Vecchio, Fabio Maria; Miele, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Temozolomide is the current standard of therapy for postoperative patients with glioblastoma starting adjuvant radiotherapy. Hematologic adverse events are the most frequent side effects of temozolomide, while liver toxicity has been reported only in the post-marketing period. Here we report a case of severe temozolomide-induced liver injury during concurrent radiotherapy treatment, at a dose level of 75 mg/m2. The aim of this case report is to focus on the problems of temozolomide-i...

  1. Zinc therapy improves adverse effects of long term administration of copper on epididymal sperm quality of rats

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil Abshenas; Homayoon Babaei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Industrial copper ingest is a common form of poisoning in animals. Zinc has an important role in the physiology of spermatozoa, in sperm production and viability. Objective: This study was set to investigate whether the adverse effects of long term copper consumption on quality of rat spermatozoa could be prevented by zinc therapy. Materials and Methods: Forty eight mature (6-8 weeks old) male rats were randomly allocated to either control (Cont, n=12) or three treatment groups ea...

  2. Effect of endotracheal intubation and laryngeal mask airway on perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with upper airway infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄华君

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of endotracheal intubation(TT)or the laryngeal mask airway(LMA)on the incidence of perioperative respiratory adverse events in children with upper respiratory tract infection undergoing general anesthesia.Methods From November,2006to October,2012 in the Zhuji People’s Hospital,76 children with upper respiratory tract infection approved by hospital ethic committee were randomly divided into 2groups:group I(n=36),

  3. Bone sparing effect of a novel phytoestrogen diarylheptanoid from Curcuma comosa Roxb. in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangrat Tantikanlayaporn

    Full Text Available Phytoestrogens have been implicated in the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Recently, an active phytoestrogen from Curcuma comosa Roxb, diarylheptanoid (DPHD, (3R-1,7-diphenyl-(4E,6E-4,6-heptadien-3-ol, was found to strongly promote human osteoblast function in vitro. In the present study, we demonstrated the protective effect of DPHD on ovariectomy-induced bone loss (OVX in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats with 17β-estradiol (E2, 10 µg/kg Bw as a positive control. Treatment of OVX animals with DPHD at 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg Bw for 12 weeks markedly increased bone mineral density (BMD of tibial metaphysis as measured by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT. Histomorphometric analysis of bone structure indicated that DPHD treatment retarded the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone microstructure. Ovariectomy resulted in a marked decrease in trabecular bone volume, number and thickness and these changes were inhibited by DPHD treatment, similar to that seen with E2. Moreover, DPHD decreased markers of bone turnover, including osteocalcin and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP activity. These results suggest that DPHD has a bone sparing effect in ovariectomy-induced trabecular bone loss and prevents deterioration of bone microarchitecture by suppressing the rate of bone turnover. Therefore, DPHD appears to be a promising candidate for preserving bone mass and structure in the estrogen deficient women with a potential role in reducing postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. The effect of maternal near miss on adverse infant nutritional outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce M. Zanardi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between self-reported maternal near miss and adverse nutritional status in children under one year of age. METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of a study in which women who took their children under one year of age to the national vaccine campaign were interviewed. The self-reported condition of maternal near miss used the criteria of Intensive Care Unit admission; eclampsia; blood transfusion and hysterectomy; and their potential associations with any type of nutritional disorder in children, including deficits in weight-for-age, deficits in height-for-age, obesity and breastfeeding. The rates of near miss for the country, regions and states were initially estimated. The relative risks of infant adverse nutritional status according to near miss and maternal/childbirth characteristics were estimated with their 95% CIs using bivariate and multiple analyses. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of near miss was 2.9% and was slightly higher for the Legal Amazon than for other regions. No significant associations were found with nutritional disorders in children. Only a 12% decrease in overall maternal breastfeeding was associated with near miss. Living in the countryside and child over 6 months of age increased the risk of altered nutritional status by approximately 15%, while female child gender decreased this risk by 30%. Maternal near miss was not associated with an increased risk of any alteration in infant nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between maternal near miss and altered nutritional status in children up to one year of age. The risk of infant adverse nutritional status was greater in women living in the countryside, for children over 6 months of age and for male gender.

  5. Focal treatment of spasticity using botulinum toxin A in cerebral palsy cases of GMFCS level V: evaluation of adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Tedesco

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To report on the experience of injections of botulinum toxin A (BTA in a series of patients with cerebral palsy of Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS level V.Methods:This was a retrospective case series study on 33 patients with cerebral palsy of GMFCS level V who received 89 sessions of BTA application (of which 84 were Botox® and five were other presentations, in which the basic aim was to look for adverse effects.Results:The mean number of application sessions per patient was three, and the mean age at the time of each injection was 4 + 6 years (range: 1.6–13 years. The muscles that most frequently received injections were the gastrocnemius, hamstrings, hip adductors, biceps brachii and finger flexors. The mean total dose was 193 U and the mean dose per weight was 12.5 U/kg. Only one patient received anesthesia for the injections and no sedation was used in any case. No local or systemic adverse effects were observed within the minimum follow-up of one month.Conclusion:The absence of adverse effects in our series was probably related to the use of low doses and absence of sedation or anesthesia. According to our data, BTA can be safely used for patients with cerebral palsy of GMFCS level V, using low doses and preferably without sedation or anesthesia.

  6. Immune-Related Adverse Effects of Cancer Immunotherapy- Implications for Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Laura C; Shah, Ami A; Bingham, Clifton O

    2017-02-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are increasingly studied and used as therapy for a growing number of malignancies. ICIs work by blocking inhibitory pathways of T-cell activation, leading to an immune response directed against tumors. Such nonspecific immunologic activation can lead to immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Some IRAEs, including inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, myositis, and vasculitis, are of special interest to rheumatologists. As use of ICIs increases, recognition of these IRAEs and developing treatment strategies will become important. In this review, the current literature on rheumatic and musculoskeletal IRAEs is summarized. The incidence, clinical presentations, and treatment considerations are highlighted.

  7. Adverse effect of chloride impurities on lipase-catalyzed transesterifications in ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hyun; Ha, Sung Ho; Lee, Sun Bok; Koo, Yoon-Mo

    2006-09-01

    The adverse influence of chloride impurities on the lipase-catalyzed transesterification in ionic liquid is described. The activity of lipase from Rhizomucor miehei exponentially decreased with increasing Cl(-) content in 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl] amide, [Omim][Tf(2)N], and the activity of lipase in [Omim][Tf(2)N] mixture containing 2% [Omim] [Cl] was only about 2% of the activity in pure [Omim][Tf(2)N]. The activity of lipase from Candidantarctica linearly decreased at about 5% with every 1% increase in [Omim][Cl] with there being no activity in [Omim][Tf(2)N] containing about 20% [Omim][Cl].

  8. Effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on new trabecular bone during bone-tendon junction healing in a rabbit model: a synchrotron radiation micro-CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Lu

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound on bone regeneration during the bone-tendon junction healing process and to explore the application of synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography in three dimensional visualization of the bone-tendon junction to evaluate the microarchitecture of new trabecular bone. Twenty four mature New Zealand rabbits underwent partial patellectomy to establish a bone-tendon junction injury model at the patella-patellar tendon complex. Animals were then divided into low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment (20 min/day, 7 times/week and placebo control groups, and were euthanized at week 8 and 16 postoperatively (n = 6 for each group and time point. The patella-patellar tendon specimens were harvested for radiographic, histological and synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography detection. The area of the newly formed bone in the ultrasound group was significantly greater than that of control group at postoperative week 8 and 16. The high resolution three dimensional visualization images of the bone-tendon junction were acquired by synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography. Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment promoted dense and irregular woven bone formation at week 8 with greater bone volume fraction, number and thickness of new trabecular bone but with lower separation. At week 16, ultrasound group specimens contained mature lamellar bone with higher bone volume fraction and thicker trabeculae than that of control group; however, there was no significant difference in separation and number of the new trabecular bone. This study confirms that low-intensity pulsed ultrasound treatment is able to promote bone formation and remodeling of new trabecular bone during the bone-tendon junction healing process in a rabbit model, and the synchrotron radiation micro computed tomography could be applied for three dimensional visualization to quantitatively evaluate

  9. WindVOiCe, a Self-Reporting Survey: Adverse Health Effects, Industrial Wind Turbines, and the Need for Vigilance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Carmen M. E.; Gillis, Lorrie; Kouwen, Nicholas; Aramini, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Industrial wind turbines have been operating in many parts of the globe. Anecdotal reports of perceived adverse health effects relating to industrial wind turbines have been published in the media and on the Internet. Based on these reports, indications were that some residents perceived they were experiencing adverse health effects. The purpose…

  10. 20 CFR 655.1112 - Element II-What does “no adverse effect on wages and working conditions” mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ....1112 Element II—What does “no adverse effect on wages and working conditions” mean? (a) The second... affect the wages and working conditions of registered nurses similarly employed.” (b) For purposes of... conditions. To meet the requirement of no adverse effect on working conditions, the facility must attest...

  11. Effect of rhBMP-2 Immobilized Anorganic Bovine Bone Matrix on Bone Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Bo Huh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anorganic bovine bone matrix (Bio-Oss® has been used for a long time for bone graft regeneration, but has poor osteoinductive capability. The use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2 has been suggested to overcome this limitation of Bio-Oss®. In the present study, heparin-mediated rhBMP-2 was combined with Bio-Oss® in animal experiments to investigate bone formation performance; heparin was used to control rhBMP-2 release. Two calvarial defects (8 mm diameter were formed in a white rabbit model and then implanted or not (controls with Bio-Oss® or BMP-2/Bio-Oss®. The Bio-Oss® and BMP-2/Bio-Oss® groups had significantly greater new bone areas (expressed as percentages of augmented areas than the non-implanted controls at four and eight weeks after surgery, and the BMP-2/Bio-Oss® group (16.50 ± 2.87 (n = 6 had significantly greater new bone areas than the Bio-Oss® group (9.43 ± 3.73 (n = 6 at four weeks. These findings suggest that rhBMP-2 treated heparinized Bio-Oss® markedly enhances bone regeneration.

  12. The adverse effects of International Monetary Fund programs on the health and education workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marphatia, Akanksha A

    2010-01-01

    Decades of underinvestment in public sectors and in teachers and health workers have adversely affected the health and educational outcomes of women. This is partly explained by a general lack of resources. However, the amount a country can spend on social sectors, including teachers and health workers, is also determined by its macroeconomic framework, which is set in agreement with the International Monetary Fund. There is now ample evidence of how IMF-imposed wage ceilings have constrained the ability of governments to hire adequate numbers of trained professionals and increase investment in social sectors. Though the IMF has recently removed wage ceilings from its basket of conditions, little change has taken place to ensure that women are better supported by macroeconomic policies or, at the least, are less adversely affected. Thus far, the IMF's neoliberal policies have either ignored gender concerns or instrumentalized equity, health, and education to support economic development. Unless macroeconomic policies are more flexible and deliberately take into account the different needs of women and men, social outcomes will continue to be poor and inequitable. Governments must pursue alternative, feminist policies that put the goals of social equity at the center of macroeconomic policy. These policies can facilitate increased investment in education and health care, which are vital measures for achieving gender equality and providing both women and men with the skills and training needed to soften the impact of the current economic crisis.

  13. Effect of Physical Forces on the Metastatic Bone Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of the extracellular matrix. MMPs are known to be secreted from cells during bone remodeling [7]. Furthermore, MMPs are known to be important for...Rodan et al., 1987; Czekanska et al., 2012]. However, due to their presence in the bone and bone- remodeling ability, it is plausible that OCy may also...persist, but it is plausible that these are primarily lytic lesions masked by the normal bone architecture . OCys do not secrete components of

  14. Relative and combined effects of ethanol and protein deficiency on bone manganese and copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, José M; González-Reimers, Emilio; DeLaVega-Prieto, María José; Durán-Castellón, María del Carmen; Viña-Rodríguez, José; Galindo-Martín, Luis; Alvisa-Negrín, Julio; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco

    2012-06-01

    Both manganese and copper may affect bone synthesis. Bone content of both metals can be altered in alcoholics, although controversy exists regarding this matter. To analyse the relative and combined effects of ethanol and a low protein diet on bone copper and manganese, and their relationships with bone structure and metabolism, including trabecular bone mass (TBM), osteoid area (OA), osteocalcin (OCN), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone (PTH), urinary hydroxyproline (uHP) and vitamin D. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control rats received a 18% protein-containing diet; a second group, an isocaloric, 2% protein-containing diet; a third one, an isocaloric, 36% ethanol-containing diet and a fourth, an isocaloric diet containing 2% protein and 36% ethanol. After sacrifice, TBM and OA were histomorphometrically assessed; bone and serum manganese and copper were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, and serum OCN, IGF-1, PTH, uHP and vitamin D by radioimmunoassay. Ethanol-fed rats showed decreased TBM and bone manganese. Significant relationships existed between bone manganese and TBM, serum IGF-1 and OCN. Ethanol leads to a decrease in bone manganese, related to decreased bone mass and bone synthesis. No alterations were found in bone copper.

  15. The unsolved case of “bone-impairing analgesics”: the endocrine effects of opioids on bone metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Flaminia; Pergolizzi, Joseph; Raffa, Robert B; Mattia, Consalvo

    2015-01-01

    The current literature describes the possible risks for bone fracture in chronic analgesics users. There are three main hypotheses that could explain the increased risk of fracture associated with central analgesics, such as opioids: 1) the increased risk of falls caused by central nervous system effects, including sedation and dizziness; 2) reduced bone mass density caused by the direct opioid effect on osteoblasts; and 3) chronic opioid-induced hypogonadism. The impact of opioids varies by sex and among the type of opioid used (less, for example, for tapentadol and buprenorphine). Opioid-associated androgen deficiency is correlated with an increased risk of osteoporosis; thus, despite that standards have not been established for monitoring and treating opioid-induced hypogonadism or hypoadrenalism, all patients chronically taking opioids (particularly at doses ≥100 mg morphine daily) should be monitored for the early detection of hormonal impairment and low bone mass density. PMID:25848298

  16. Which adverse effects influence the dropout rate in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI treatment? Results for 50,824 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostev, Karel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Nowadays, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants due to their superior clinical efficacy, effectiveness, tolerability, and safety as compared to tricyclic antidepressants or monoamino oxidase inhibitors. However, despite these advantages SSRIs are still associated with a number of adverse drug reactions, especially in the early stages of treatment, which may lead to premature discontinuation of therapy in some cases. The aim of the present study was to assess the most common adverse drug reactions of SSRIs as well as their impact on dropout rate in a large study population.Patients and methods: Data for 50,824 patients treated for major depressive disorder with SSRIs for the first time was accessed via the Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health, Germany, providing information on SSRI adverse drug reactions and their influence on premature treatment discontinuation calculated by regression analysis. The presence of certain co-morbidities was also registered. Results: The mean age was 54.5 ± 19 years, two-thirds of the study population being female. The adverse effects mentioned most frequently were: “discomfort” of the digestive system (10%, sleep disorders (8.6%, and heart rhythm disorders (4%; however, these were of tolerable severity as they did not significantly influence the dropout rate. Contrary to that, somnolence and younger age (≤50 years in particular increased the chance of premature treatment discontinuation, while patients suffering from cardiovascular risk factors or osteoporosis tended to adhere to the therapy.Conclusions: Overall, there is high tolerability for early SSRI treatment, whereas the occurrence of somnolence leads to discontinuation.

  17. Effects of pioglitazone and fenofibrate co-administration on bone biomechanics and histomorphometry in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan Y; Samadfam, Rana; Chouinard, Luc; Awori, Malaika; Bénardeau, Agnes; Bauss, Frieder; Guldberg, Robert E; Sebokova, Elena; Wright, Matthew B

    2015-11-01

    Pioglitazone, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist is an effective therapy for type 2 diabetes, but has been associated with increased risk for bone fracture. Preclinical studies suggest that PPAR-α agonists (e.g., fenofibrate) increase bone mineral density/content, although clinical data on bone effects of fibrates are lacking. We investigated the effects of pioglitazone (10 mg/kg/day) and fenofibrate (25 mg/kg/day) on bone strength and bone histomorphometric parameters in osteopenic ovariectomized (OVX) rats. An additional group of rats received a combination of pioglitazone + fenofibrate to mimic the effects of a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist. The study consisted of a 13-week treatment phase followed by a 6-week treatment-free recovery period. Pioglitazone significantly reduced biomechanical strength at the lumbar spine and femoral neck compared with rats administered fenofibrate. Co-treatment with pioglitazone + fenofibrate had no significant effect on bone strength in comparison with OVX vehicle controls. Histomorphometric analysis of the proximal tibia revealed that pioglitazone suppressed bone formation and increased bone resorption at both cancellous and cortical bone sites relative to OVX vehicle controls. In contrast, fenofibrate did not affect bone resorption and only slightly suppressed bone formation. Discontinuation of pioglitazone treatment, both in the monotherapy and in the combination therapy arms, resulted in restoration of bone formation and resorption rates, demonstrating reversibility of effects. The above data support the concept that dual activation of PPAR-γ and PPAR-α attenuates the negative effects of PPAR-γ agonism on bone strength.

  18. Surface chemistry and effects on bone regeneration of a novel biomimetic synthetic bone filler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morra, Marco; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Sartori, Maria; Ferrari, Andrea; Parrilli, Annapaola; Bollati, Daniele; Baena, Ruggero Rodriguez Y; Cassinelli, Clara; Fini, Milena

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents results of physico-chemical and biological investigations of a surface-engineered synthetic bone filler. Surface analysis confirms that the ceramic phosphate granules present a collagen nanolayer to the surrounding environment. Cell cultures tests show that, in agreement with literature reports, surface-immobilized collagen molecular cues can stimulate progression along the osteogenic pathway of undifferentiated human mesenchymal cells. Finally, in vivo test in a rabbit model of critical bone defects shows statistically significant increase of bone volume and mineral apposition rate between the biomimetic bone filler and collagen-free control. All together, obtained data confirm that biomolecular surface engineering can upgrade the properties of implant device, by promoting more specific and targeted implant-host cells interactions.

  19. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  20. Adverse Effects of Tattoos and Piercing on Parent/Patient Confidence in Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scarlett C; Doi, Maegan L M; Yamamoto, Loren G

    2016-09-01

    First impressions based on practitioner appearance often form the basis for preliminary assumptions regarding trust, confidence, and competence, especially in situations where patients or family members do not have an established relationship with the physician. Given their growing prevalence, we strove to further investigate whether visible tattoos or piercings on a medical provider affects a patient's perception of the provider's capabilities and their trust in the care that would be provided. A survey using photographs of simulated practitioners was administered to 314 participants split between rural and urban locations. Study volunteers rated tattooed practitioners with lower confidence ratings when compared with nontattooed practitioners and reported greater degrees of discomfort with greater degrees of facial piercing. We concluded that these factors adversely affect the clinical confidence ratings of practitioners, regardless of the gender, age group, or location of participants.

  1. Effects of Vitamin E on Bone Biomechanical and Histomorphometric Parameters in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela G. Feresin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the dose-dependent effect of vitamin E in reversing bone loss in ovariectomized (Ovx rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were either Sham-operated (Sham or Ovx and fed control diet for 120 days to lose bone. Subsequently, rats were divided into 5 groups (n=12/group: Sham, Ovx-control, low dose (Ovx + 300 mg/kg diet; LD, medium dose (Ovx + 525 mg/kg diet; MD, and high dose (Ovx + 750 mg/kg diet; HD of vitamin E and sacrificed after 100 days. Animals receiving MD and HD of vitamin E had increased serum alkaline phosphatase compared to the Ovx-control group. Bone histomorphometry analysis indicated a decrease in bone resorption as well as increased bone formation and mineralization in the Ovx groups supplemented with MD and HD of vitamin E. Microcomputed tomography findings indicated no effects of vitamin E on trabecular bone of fifth lumbar vertebrae. Animals receiving HD of vitamin E had enhanced fourth lumbar vertebra quality as evidenced by improved ultimate and yield load and stress when compared to Ovx-control group. These findings demonstrate that vitamin E improves bone quality, attenuates bone resorption, and enhances the rate of bone formation while being unable to restore bone density and trabecular bone structure.

  2. Effects of adrenal steroids on the bone metabolism of children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin-Su, Karen; New, Maria I

    2007-11-01

    The primary treatment for patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) is glucocorticoid replacement therapy, which at supraphysiologic levels can result in diminished bone accrual and lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis. Unlike other diseases treated with chronic glucocorticoid therapy, previous studies of patients with 21OHD have not demonstrated a detrimental effect of glucocorticoid treatment on bone mineral density (BMD). It has been postulated that the elevated androgens typically found in these patients have a protective effect on bone integrity, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. We propose that the inhibitory effect of corticosteroid therapy on bone formation is counteracted by estrogen's effect on bone resorption through the RANK-L/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. A better understanding of the mechanism by which patients with 21OHD are protected against bone loss may lead to novel therapeutic measures to prevent or treat osteopenia and osteoporosis in other conditions, including postmenopausal women.

  3. Codeine Ultra-rapid Metabolizers: Age Appears to be a Key Factor in Adverse Effects of Codeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, K; Fuchs, W

    2015-12-01

    Codeine is widely used as an analgesic drug. Taking into account the high consumption of codeine, only few fatal adverse events have been published. A number of reports, where neonates and children showed serious or fatal adverse reactions, led to a restriction of the use of codeine in this patient group. Therefore, we reviewed the safety of codeine in adults. PubMed was systematically searched for clinical studies and case reports, with a special focus on CYP2D6, the enzyme that converts codeine to morphine and exhibits genetic polymorphism.181 cases were identified in adults in conjunction with serious or lethal effects of codeine. In the vast majority of cases, codeine was used in combination with other drugs by drug-dependent individuals or with a suicidal intent. Only 2 cases were found where ultra-rapid metabolizers experienced severe non-lethal adverse events. This is far less than would be predicted from the number of cases reported in children. The discrepancy may be explained by developmental changes in the disposition of codeine.The strategy of regulatory authorities to restrict access to codeine for infants and young children, the apparent highest risk group, has a factual and pharmacological rationale. By the same standards, there is no need for restrictions for adult use of codeine.

  4. Effect of copper on liver and bone metabolism in malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güler, A H; Sapan, N; Ediz, B; Genç, Z; Ozkan, K

    1994-01-01

    This study was planned to investigate the effects of copper (Cu) deficiency on liver and bone metabolism in malnourished children. Serum total calcium (Ca), inorganic phosphorus (P), Ca/P, Cu/Ca, Cu/P ratios and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity values were analyzed. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) enzyme activities and the ALT/AST (De Ritis) ratio as well as their correlations with Cu were tested to determine liver function. The results of the study showed that Cu deficiency directly affects the organic matrix formation, and by the suppression of ALP activity, indirectly causes decalcification. In the liver, however, no direct effect of Cu deficiency was seen. Deterioration in liver function and Cu deficiency increased parallel with the severity of malnutrition. Thus we concluded that a correlation exists between Cu and the parameters that indicate liver function.

  5. Degradability of injectable calcium sulfate/mineralized collagen-based bone repair material and its effect on bone tissue regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zonggang, E-mail: chenzg@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Kang, Lingzhi [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Meng, Qing-Yuan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Liu, Huanye [Department of Prosthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110001 (China); Wang, Zhaoliang [Jinan Military General Hospital of PLA, Jinan 250031 (China); Guo, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwguo@sdu.edu.cn [National Glycoengineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Cui, Fu-Zhai, E-mail: cuifz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-12-01

    The nHAC/CSH composite is an injectable bone repair material with controllable injectability and self-setting properties prepared by introducing calcium sulfate hemihydrate (CSH) into mineralized collagen (nHAC). When mixed with water, the nHAC/CSH composites can be transformed into mineralized collagen/calcium sulfate dihydrate (nHAC/CSD) composites. The nHAC/CSD composites have good biocompatibility and osteogenic capability. Considering that the degradation behavior of bone repair material is another important factor for its clinical applications, the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites was studied. The results showed that the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with lower nHAC content increased with the L/S ratio increase of injectable materials, but the variety of L/S ratio had no significant effect on the degradation ratio of the nHAC/CSD composites with higher nHAC content. Increasing nHAC content in the composites could slow down the degradation of nHAC/CSD composite. Setting accelerator had no significant effect on the degradability of nHAC/CSD composites. In vivo histological analysis suggests that the degradation rate of materials can match the growth rate of new mandibular bone tissues in the implanted site of rabbit. The regulable degradability of materials resulting from the special prescriptions of injectable nHAC/CSH composites will further improve the workability of nHAC/CSD composites. - Highlights: • The nHAC/CSH composite can be as an injectable bone repair material. • The L/S ratio and nHAC content have a significant effect on material degradability. • The degradability of bone materials can be regulated to match tissue repair. • The regulable degradability will further improve the workability of bone materials.

  6. The Effect of Skeletal Unloading on Bone Formation: Role of IGF-I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikle, D. D.; Kostenuik, P.; Holton, E. M.; Halloran, B. P.

    1999-01-01

    The best documented change in bone during space flight is the near cessation of bone formation. Space flight leads to a decrease in osteoblast number and activity, likely the result of altered differentiation of osteoblast precursors. The net result of these space flight induced changes is weaker bone. To understand the mechanism for these changes poses a challenge. Space flight studies must overcome enormous technical problems, and are necessarily limited in size and frequency. Therefore, ground based models have been developed to evaluate the effects of skeletal unloading. The hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) model simulates space flight better than other models because it reproduces the fluid shifts seen in space travel, is reversible, and is well tolerated by the animals with minimal evidence of stress as indicated by continued weight gain and normal levels and circadian rhythms of corticosterone. This is the model we have used for our experiments. Skeletal unloading by the hindlimb elevation method simulates a number of features of space flight in that bone formation, mineralization, and maturation are inhibited, osteoblast number is decreased, serum and skeletal osteocalcin levels fall, the ash content of bone decreases, and bone strength diminishes. We and others have shown that when osteoblasts or osteoprogenitor cells from the bones of the unloaded limbs are cultured in vitro they proliferate and differentiate more slowly, suggesting that skeletal unloading causes a persistent change in cell function which can be assessed in vitro. In contrast to the unweighted bones of the hindlimbs, no significant change in bone mass or bone formation is observed in the humeri, mandible, and cervical vertebrae during hindlimb elevation. The lack of effect of hindlimb elevation on bones like the humeri, mandible, and cervical vertebrae which are not unloaded by this procedure suggests that local factors rather than systemic effects dominate the response of bone to

  7. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  8. Effect of Microstructure on Fatigue Strength of Bovine Compact Bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Heon; Niinomi, Mitsuo; Akahori, Toshikazu; Takeda, Junji; Toda, Hiroyuki

    Despite its clinical importance in developing artificial bone, limited information is available regarding the microstructure with respect to the fatigue characteristics of bones. In this study, the fatigue characteristics of the bovine humerus and femur were investigated with respect to microstructures. Fatigue tests were conducted on the bovine humerus and femur at a stress ratio of 0.1 and a frequency of 10Hz. The fatigue strength of the plexiform bone is slightly greater than that of the haversian bone. This is because the volume fraction of voids in the haversian bone, which is the site of stress concentration, is higher than that of voids in the plexiform bone. Several microcracks are observed on the fatigue fracture surface of the haversian bone. The microcracks are short and their propagation directions are random. However, the number of the microcracks in the plexiform bone is very small. The microcracks are relatively long and their propagation directions are parallel to the longitudinal direction of the lamellar bone. Therefore, the crack requires relatively more energy to propagate across the lamella in the plexiform bone.

  9. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  10. The effect of weight bearing on bone mineral density and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Young; Choi, Jung Hwa; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Im, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The present study aims to explore the effect of weight bearing exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: Twelve children with CP of functional level of gross motor functional classification scale (GMFCS) V and 6 healthy children (control group) were included in the study. Participants underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan to measure the BMD of the femur and full-length anteroposterior radiography to measure the bone length of the femur and tibia at baseline and after 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A with programmed standing exercises and assisted standing for more than 2 hours a day, more than 5 days a week; and group B with conventional physiotherapy with a standing program for 20 minutes a day, 2 to 3 days a week. Results: A 6-month follow-up showed significantly increased BMD on the femur neck in the control group. Although the changes in BMD were not significant in both groups, group A demonstrated an increased trend of BMD, whereas group B showed a decreased trend. Bone length was significantly increased in all 3 groups at the 6-month follow-up. Although this increase was not significant, the change in bone length was greatest in the control group. The smallest changes were observed in group B. Conclusions: Weight bearing exercise may play an important role in increasing or maintaining BMD in children with CP and is also expected to promote bone growth. Programmed standing may be used as an effective treatment method to increase BMD in children with CP. However, further studies with a larger cohort and longer follow-up period are required to reveal further information on the benefit of weight bearing exercise and to develop a detailed program. PMID:28272197

  11. Energy drink consumption in Europe: A review of the risks, adverse health effects and policy options to respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Joaquim Breda

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the worldwide consumption of energy drinks increasing in recent years, concerns have been raised both in the scientific community and among the general public about the health effects of these products. Recent studies provide data on consumption patterns in Europe however more research is needed to determine the potential for adverse health effects related to the increasing consumption of energy drinks, particularly among young people. A review of the literature was conducted to identify published articles that examined the health risks, consequences and policies related to energy drink consumption. The health risks associated with energy drink consumption are primarily related to their caffeine content, but more research is needed that evaluates the long term effects of consuming common energy drink ingredients. The evidence indicating adverse health effects due to the consumption of energy drinks with alcohol is growing. The risks of heavy consumption of energy drinks among young people have largely gone unaddressed and are poised to become a significant public health problem in the future.

  12. Adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendam, Miranda W; Tiemersma, Edine W; van der Werf, Marieke J; Sandgren, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A recent systematic review concluded that there is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness to support or reject preventive therapy for treatment of contacts of patients with multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Whether preventive therapy is favorable depends both on the effectiveness and the adverse events of the drugs used. We performed a systematic review to assess adverse events in healthy individuals and MDR-TB contacts treated with anti-tuberculosis drugs potentially effective for preventing development of MDR-TB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and other databases (August 2011). Record selection, data extraction, and study quality assessment were done in duplicate. The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Of 6,901 identified references, 20 studies were eligible. Among the 16 studies in healthy volunteers (a total of 87 persons on either levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, or rifabutin, mostly for 1 week), serious adverse events and treatment discontinuation due to adverse events were rare (MDR-TB contacts, therapy was stopped for 58-100% of the included persons because of the occurrence of adverse events ranging from mild adverse events such as nausea and dizziness to serious events requiring treatment. The quality of the evidence was very low. Although the number of publications and quality of evidence are low, the available evidence suggests that shortly after starting treatment the occurrence of serious adverse events is rare. Mild adverse events occur more frequently and may be of importance because these may provoke treatment interruption.

  13. The effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 on osteosarcoma metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Jonathan; Connolly, Patrick; Roth, Michael; Chung, So Hak; Zhang, Wendong; Piperdi, Sajida; Hoang, Bang; Yang, Rui; Guzik, Hillary; Gorlick, Richard; Geller, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (BMP-2) may offer the potential to enhance allograft-host osseous union in limb-salvage surgery following osteosarcoma resection. However, there is concern regarding the effect of locally applied BMP-2 on tumor recurrence and metastasis. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the effect of exogenous BMP-2 on osteosarcoma migration and invasion across a panel of tumor cell lines in vitro and to characterize the effect of BMP-2 on pulmonary osteosarcoma metastasis within a xenograft model. Experimental design The effect of BMP-2 on in vitro tumor growth and development was assessed across multiple standard and patient-derived xenograft osteosarcoma cell lines. Tumor migration capacity, invasion, and cell proliferation were characterized. In addition, the effect on metastasis was measured using a xenograft model following tail-vein injection. The effect of exogenous BMP-2 on the development of metastases was measured following both single and multiple BMP-2 administrations. Results There was no significant difference in migration capacity, invasion, or cell proliferation between the BMP-2 treated and the untreated osteosarcoma cell lines. There was no significant difference in pulmonary metastases between either the single-dose or multi-dose BMP-2 treated animals and the untreated control animals. Conclusions In the model systems tested, the addition of BMP-2 does not increase osteosarcoma proliferation, migration, invasion, or metastasis to the lungs. PMID:28264040

  14. Adverse effects of MWCNTs on life parameters, antioxidant systems, and activation of MAPK signaling pathways in the copepod Paracyclopina nana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duck-Hyun; Puthumana, Jayesh; Kang, Hye-Min; Lee, Min-Chul; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Hwang, Dae-Sik; Kim, Il-Chan; Lee, Jin Wuk; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2016-10-01

    Engineered multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have received widespread applications in a broad variety of commercial products due to low production cost. Despite their significant commercial applications, CNTs are being discharged to aquatic ecosystem, leading a threat to aquatic life. Thus, we investigated the adverse effect of CNTs on the marine copepod Paracyclopina nana. Additional to the study on the uptake of CNTs and acute toxicity, adverse effects on life parameters (e.g. growth, fecundity, and size) were analyzed in response to various concentrations of CNTs. Also, as a measurement of cellular damage, oxidative stress-related markers were examined in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, activation of redox-sensitive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways along with the phosphorylation pattern of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38, and c-Jun-N-terminal kinases (JNK) were analyzed to obtain a better understanding of molecular mechanism of oxidative stress-induced toxicity in the copepod P. nana. As a result, significant inhibition on life parameters and evoked antioxidant systems were observed without ROS induction. In addition, CNTs activated MAPK signaling pathway via ERK, suggesting that phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK)-mediated adverse effects are the primary cause of in vitro and in vivo endpoints in response to CNTs exposure. Moreover, ROS-independent activation of MAPK signaling pathway was observed. These findings will provide a better understanding of the mode of action of CNTs on the copepod P. nana at cellular and molecular level and insight on possible ecotoxicological implications in the marine environment.

  15. Late health effects of chronic radiation exposure of bone marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmoshenko, Ilia V.; Malinovsky, Georgy P.; Konshina, Lidia G.; Zhukovsky, Michael V. [Institute of Industrial Ecology UB RAS, 620219, 20, Sophy Kovalevskoy St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Tuzankina, Irina A. [Institute of Immunology and Physiology UB RAS, 620049, 106, Pervomayskaya St., Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    Accidental explosion of waste storage tank at former soviet plutonium production plant 'Mayak' in 1957 resulted in emission of considerable amount of radioactive substances to the atmosphere. Atmospheric transfer and fallout caused contamination of the environment by Sr-90 and short-lived radionuclides (East-Ural Radioactive Trace, EURT). Due to consumption of contaminated food and milk some internal organs were affected to relatively high radiation exposure. Archive data of causes of deaths of rural population of EURT northern part for period 1957-2000 were used to create the Register on causes of deaths. Register records related to the settlements where initial surface contamination by Sr-90 was above and below 3.7 kBq/m2 were included to exposed (4 844 records) and unexposed (6 158 records) group respectively. Basing on the Register the analysis of cancer and non-cancer health effects of radiation exposure was conducted. By estimating proportionate mortality ratios statistically significant excess mortality due to the groups of causes of death as follow was observed in exposed population: stomach, liver and cervix cancers; group consisted only of stomach cancer; non-cancer deceases of infectious etiology. Non-significant but remarkably high risk was observed for the following groups of causes of death: bone cancer; leukemia; liver cancer; cervix cancer. Insignificant, virtually zero risk was found for: non-gastrointestinal solid cancers; colon and lung cancers; non-infectious non-cancer deceases. At the same time, considerable radiation doses were absorbed in bone (mean bone surface dose about 0.1 Gy) and colon (mean dose about 0.07 Gy). Doses absorbed in other organs and tissues were negligible and amounted less than 0.01 Gy for most tissues. It can be seen that some disagreement between observed effects and absorbed doses is revealed. Most remarkable is the high excess risks of stomach, liver and cervix cancers as well as non-cancer deceases of

  16. Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Sören; Schipper, Louis A; Matiasek, Michael G; Scow, Kate M; Cameron, Stewart; Bruesewitz, Denise A; McDonald, Ian R

    2011-11-01

    Denitrification beds are containers filled with wood by-products that serve as a carbon and energy source to denitrifiers, which reduce nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from point source discharges into non-reactive dinitrogen (N(2)) gas. This study investigates a range of alternative carbon sources and determines rates, mechanisms and factors controlling NO(3)(-) removal, denitrifying bacterial community, and the adverse effects of these substrates. Experimental barrels (0.2 m(3)) filled with either maize cobs, wheat straw, green waste, sawdust, pine woodchips or eucalyptus woodchips were incubated at 16.8 °C or 27.1 °C (outlet temperature), and received NO(3)(-) enriched water (14.38 mg N L(-1) and 17.15 mg N L(-1)). After 2.5 years of incubation measurements were made of NO(3)(-)-N removal rates, in vitro denitrification rates (DR), factors limiting denitrification (carbon and nitrate availability, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and concentrations of NO(3)(-), nitrite and ammonia), copy number of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes, and greenhouse gas production (dissolved nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane), and carbon (TOC) loss. Microbial denitrification was the main mechanism for NO(3)(-)-N removal. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 1.3 (pine woodchips) to 6.2 g N m(-3) d(-1) (maize cobs), and were predominantly limited by C availability and temperature (Q(10) = 1.2) when NO(3)(-)-N outlet concentrations remained above 1 mg L(-1). The NO(3)(-)-N removal rate did not depend directly on substrate type, but on the quantity of microbially available carbon, which differed between carbon sources. The abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) was similar in replicate barrels under cold incubation, but varied substantially under warm incubation, and between substrates. Warm incubation enhanced growth of nirS containing bacteria and bacteria that lacked the nosZ gene, potentially explaining the greater N(2)O emission in

  17. Bone effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Thomas C; Farooki, Azeez

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), lowers blood glucose by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption and increasing urinary glucose excretion. It has been reported that SGLT2 inhibitors may have potential adverse effects on bone, including increased fracture risk and decreased bone mineral density (BMD). Across clinical studies, canagliflozin was not associated with meaningful changes in serum or urine calcium, vitamin D, or parathyroid hormone. Minimal increases in serum phosphate and magnesium that were within normal limits were seen with canagliflozin versus placebo. Canagliflozin was associated with increases in serum collagen type 1 beta-carboxy telopeptide (beta-CTX), a bone resorption marker, and osteocalcin, a bone formation marker. Decreases in total hip BMD were seen with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg versus placebo after 2 years (-1.7%, -2.1%, -0.8%; differences of -0.9% and -1.2%), but not at other skeletal sites (normal age-related bone loss, ~0.5-1.0%/year). Changes in beta-CTX and total hip BMD were significantly associated with weight loss, which is known to increase bone resorption markers and decrease BMD. Canagliflozin was associated with a higher fracture incidence in an interim analysis of the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) in patients with a history or high risk of cardiovascular disease (incidence per 100 patient-years of 1.6, 1.6, and 1.1 with canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg and placebo), but not in other clinical studies of patients with T2DM. Fractures tended to occur as early as 12 weeks after initiating treatment and were primarily located in the distal parts of the upper and lower extremities. The reason for increased fracture risk with canagliflozin treatment is unknown, but is likely not related to a direct effect of canagliflozin on bone-related biomarkers. Data from ongoing canagliflozin studies, including CANVAS, will

  18. Occlusal effects on longitudinal bone alterations of the temporomandibular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Jiao, K; Zhang, M; Zhou, T; Liu, X-D; Yu, S-B; Lu, L; Jing, L; Yang, T; Zhang, Y; Chen, D; Wang, M-Q

    2013-03-01

    The pathological changes of subchondral bone during osteoarthritis (OA) development in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the longitudinal alterations of subchondral bone using a rat TMJ-OA model developed in our laboratory. Changes in bone mass were examined by micro-CT, and changes in osteoblast and osteoclast activities were analyzed by real-time PCR, immunohistochemistry, and TRAP staining. Subchondral bone loss was detected from 8 weeks after dental occlusion alteration and reached the maximum at 12 weeks, followed by a repair phase until 32 weeks. Although bone mass increased at late stages, poor mechanical structure and lower bone mineral density (BMD) were found in these rats. The numbers of TRAP-positive cells were increased at 12 weeks, while the numbers of osteocalcin-expressing cells were increased at both 12 and 32 weeks. Levels of mRNA expression of TRAP and cathepsin K were increased at 12 weeks, while levels of ALP and osteocalcin were increased at both 12 and 32 weeks. These findings demonstrated that there is an active bone remodeling in subchondral bone in TMJs in response to alteration in occlusion, although new bone was formed with lower BMD and poor mechanical properties.

  19. Assessment of the Effects of Zoledronic Acid Therapy on Bone Metabolic Indicators in Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients with Bone Metastatasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirtas, Abdullah; Sahin, Nurettin; Caniklioglu, Mehmet; Kula, Mustafa; Ekmekcioglu, Oguz; Tatlisen, Atila

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Assessment of effects of zoledronic acid therapy on bone metabolic indicators in hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis. Material and Methods. Hormone-resistant prostate cancer patients who were identified to have metastases in their bone scintigraphy were taken to trial group. Before administration of zoledronic acid, routine tests for serum calcium, total alkalen phosphates were studied. Sample sera for bone metabolic indicators BALP, PINP, and ICTP were collected. Bone pain was assessed via visual analogue scale and performance via Karnofsky performance scale. Four mg zoledronic acid was administered intravenously once a month. Results. When serum levels of bone forming indicators PINP; BALP were compared before and after therapy, there were insignificant decreases (P = .33, P = .21, resp.). Serum levels of bone destruction indicator ICTP was compared, and there was a significant decrease after zoledronic acid therapy (P = .04). When performances of the patients were compared during therapy period, performances decreased significantly due to progress of illness (P = .01). All patients had ostalgia caused by bone metastases at various degrees. Significant decrease in pain scores was observed (P < .01). Conclusion. Zoledronic acid therapy decreased bone destruction and was effective in palliation of pain in patient with bone metastasis. Using bone metabolic indicators during followup of zoledronic acid therapy might be useful. PMID:22084798

  20. The Anabolic Effect of PTH on Bone is Attenuated by Simultaneous Glucocorticoid Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxlund, Hans; Ørtoft, Gitte; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus;

    2006-01-01

    a pronounced increase in the endocortical bone formation rate (BFR) and a smaller increase in periosteal BFR. The combination of PTH + GC resulted in a partial inhibition of the PTH-induced increase in bone formation. Serum-osteocalcin was increased by 65% in the PTH group and reduced by 39% in the GC group....... The pronounced anabolic effect of PTH injections on the endocortical and trabecular bone surfaces and less pronounced anabolic effect on periosteal surfaces were partially inhibited, but not prevented, by simultaneous GC treatment in old rats. Both cortical and cancellous bone possessed full mechanical...

  1. Assessment of gene-by-sex interaction effect on bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Estrada, Karol; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M;

    2012-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome-wide, and ......Sexual dimorphism in various bone phenotypes, including bone mineral density (BMD), is widely observed; however, the extent to which genes explain these sex differences is unclear. To identify variants with different effects by sex, we examined gene-by-sex autosomal interactions genome...

  2. Mobile phone base stations and adverse health effects: phase 1 of a population-based, cross-sectional study in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Schlehofer, B; Breckenkamp, J;

    2009-01-01

    -sectional study within the context of a large panel survey regularly carried out by a private research institute in Germany. In the initial phase, reported on in this paper, 30,047 persons from a total of 51,444 who took part in the nationwide survey also answered questions on how mobile phone base stations.......7% of participants were concerned about adverse health effects of mobile phone base stations, while an additional 10.3% attributed their personal adverse health effects to the exposure from them. Participants who were concerned about or attributed adverse health effects to mobile phone base stations and those living...

  3. Effect of Alendronate on Bone Formation during Tooth Extraction Wound Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanoue, R; Koi, K; Yamashita, J

    2015-09-01

    Alendronate (ALN) is an antiresorptive agent widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis. Its suppressive effect on osteoclasts has been extensively studied. However, the effect of ALN on bone formation is not as clear as its effect on resorption. The objective was to determine the effect of short-term ALN on bone formation and tooth extraction wound healing. Molar tooth extractions were performed in mice. ALN, parathyroid hormone (PTH), or saline (vehicle control) was administered. PTH was used as the bone anabolic control. Mice were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21 d after extractions. Hard tissue healing was determined histomorphometrically. Neutrophils and lymphatic and blood vessels were quantified to evaluate soft tissue healing. Gene expression in the wounds was assessed at the RNA level. Furthermore, the vossicle bone transplant system was used to verify findings from extraction wound analysis. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was visualized in the vossicles to assess osteoblast activity. ALN exhibited no negative effect on bone formation. In intact tibiae, ALN increased bone mass significantly more than PTH did. Consistently, significantly elevated osteoblast numbers were noted. In the extraction sockets, bone fill in the ALN-treated mice was equivalent to the control. Genes associated with bone morphogenetic protein signaling, such as bmp2, nog, and dlx5, were activated in the extraction wounds of the ALN-treated animals. Bone formation in vossicles was significantly enhanced in the ALN versus PTH group. In agreement with this, ALN upregulated ALP activity considerably in vossicles. Neutrophil aggregation and suppressed lymphangiogenesis were evident in the soft tissue at 21 d after extraction, although gross healing of extraction wounds was uneventful. Bone formation was not impeded by short-term ALN treatment. Rather, short-term ALN treatment enhanced bone formation. ALN did not alter bone fill in extraction sockets.

  4. Low-level laser therapy on bone repair: is there any effect outside the irradiated field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas Dantas; Sargenti-Neto, Sérgio; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana Soares; Pagnoncelli, Rogério Miranda

    2015-07-01

    The biological effects of local therapy with laser on bone repair have been well demonstrated; however, this possible effect on bone repair outside the irradiated field has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (λ = 830 nm) on repair of surgical bone defects outside the irradiated field, in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were submitted to osteotomy on the left femur and randomly separated into four groups (n = 15): group I, control, bone defect only; group II, laser applied on the right femur (distant dose); group III, laser applied locally on the bone defect and also on the right femur (local and distant doses); and group IV, laser applied locally on the left femur (local dose). Laser groups received applications within a 48-h interval in one point per session of density energy (DE) = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.028 cm. Five animals of each group were euthanized 7, 15, and 21 days after surgery. Histologic analysis in all groups showed new bone formation in the region of interest (ROI) at 7 days. After 15 days, bone remodeling with a decrease of bone neoformation in the marrow area was observed in all groups. After 21 days, advanced bone remodeling with new bone mostly located in the cortical area was observed. The histomorphometric analysis showed at 7 days a significant increase of bone formation in groups III and IV compared to groups I and II. At days 15 and 21, histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences between them. Laser therapy presented a positive local biostimulative effect in the early stage of bone healing, but the LLLT effect was not observed a long distance from the evaluated area.

  5. [Social development of twins: the need for intervention to avoid adverse effects of twin language].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Chisato; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Maeda, Chiho; Nishihara, Reiko; Onoi, Miyuki

    2008-10-01

    Social competence is one of the most important accomplishments of human development, and this skill in human relationships is learned through communication. Therefore, it is considered that delays in language development could be a barrier to building human relationships and social competence. Although it is well known that there are delays in language development in twins compared with that of singletons, little is known about how these linguistic delays affect the development of social competence. Because twin language is a language that is unique to each pair of twins and cannot be understood by either their mother or others, it may be assumed that the social competence of twins who have a twin language is less than that of twins who don't have a twin language. Therefore, in this prospective longitudinal study we also investigated the relationship between twin language and social competence. A mailed questionnaire survey was conducted in 958 mothers as a follow-up of a study conducted in 2004. As a result, 522 respondents returned the questionnaire (53.9%). In this study, we used only 256 twins aged 6- 12-years-old (school-age children) for analysis, excluding those with missing values. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed. In the second child of twins, a low birth weight, the appearance of twin language and gestosis of the mother were positively related with social unbalance (OR = 1.846, 2.022 and 1.903). On the other hand, with the first child, however, there was no such link. The present results indicate that twin language might influence social competence in school-age children. It has been believed that linguistic intervention is unnecessary, because most twin language disappears spontaneously. However, early intervention, for example linguistic assistance by public health nurses or psychologists and early enrollment in a preschool may be necessary for twins with a twin language, to avoid adverse consequences in social competence at school-age.

  6. Effects of a perfusion bioreactor activated novel bone substitute in spine fusion in sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Roed; Koroma, Kariatta Ester; Ding, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model.......To evaluate the effect of a large perfusion-bioreactor cell-activated bone substitute, on a two-level large posterolateral spine fusion sheep model....

  7. Spaceflight effects on cultured embryonic chick bone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.; Hodgens, K. J.; Block, D.; Toma, C. D.; Gerstenfeld, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    A model calcifying system of primary osteoblast cell cultures derived from normal embryonic chicken calvaria has been flown aboard the shuttle, Endeavour, during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission STS-59 (April 9-20, 1994) to characterize unloading and other spaceflight effects on the bone cells. Aliquots of cells (approximately 7 x 10(6)) grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) + 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) were mixed with microcarrier beads, inoculated into cartridge culture units of artificial hollow fiber capillaries, and carried on the shuttle. To promote cell differentiation, cartridge media were supplemented with 12.5 microg/ml ascorbate and 10 mM beta-glycerophosphate for varying time periods before and during flight. Four cartridges contained cells from 17-day-old embryos grown for 5 days in the presence of ascorbate prior to launch (defined as flight cells committed to the osteoblastic lineage) and four cartridges supported cells from 14-day-old embryos grown for 10 days with ascorbate before launch (uncommitted flight cells). Eight cartridges prepared in the same manner were maintained under normal gravity throughout the flight (control cells) and four additional identical cartridges under normal gravity were terminated on the day of launch (basal cells). From shuttle launch to landing, all cartridges were contained in closed hardware units maintaining 5% CO2, 37 degrees C, and media delivery at a rate of approximately 1.5 ml/6 h. During day 3 and day 5 of flight, duplicate aliquots of conditioned media and accumulated cell products were collected in both the flight and the control hardware units. At the mission end, comparisons among flight, basal, and control samples were made in cell metabolism, gene expression for type I collagen and osteocalcin, and ultrastructure. Both committed and uncommitted flight cells were metabolically active, as measured by glucose uptake and lactate production, at approximately the

  8. Effects of oestrogen deficiency on the alveolar bone of rats with experimental periodontitis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xin-chen; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Xi; ZHAI, ZAN-JING; Liu, Xu-qiang; ZHENG, XIN-YI; Zhang, Jun; Qin, An; Lu, Er-yi

    2015-01-01

    Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease characterized by loss of connective tissue and alveolar bone, and osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by a systemic impairment of bone mass and microarchitecture. To date, the association between periodontitis and osteoporosis has remained to be fully elucidated. In the present study, an experimental rat model of periodontitis was used to explore the effects of oestrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis on the maxillary alveolar bone. Forty-f...

  9. Effect of GH/IGF-1 on Bone Metabolism and Osteoporsosis

    OpenAIRE

    Vittorio Locatelli; Vittorio E. Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) are fundamental in skeletal growth during puberty and bone health throughout life. GH increases tissue formation by acting directly and indirectly on target cells; IGF-1 is a critical mediator of bone growth. Clinical studies reporting the use of GH and IGF-1 in osteoporosis and fracture healing are outlined. Methods. A Pubmed search revealed 39 clinical studies reporting the effects of GH and IGF-1 administration on bone ...

  10. No effect of ketoprofen and meloxicam on bone graft ingrowth: a bone chamber study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Hannink, G.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is increasing awareness that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and especially the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective ones, may retard bone healing. We have used NSAIDs (indomethacin for at least 7 days) to prevent heterotopic ossification after acetabular

  11. Effect of tetracalcium dimagnesium phytate on bone characteristics in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Félix; Sanchis, Pilar; Prieto, Rafael M; Perelló, Joan; López-González, Ángel A

    2010-12-01

    The aim was to evaluate the influence of dietary Ca-Mg-phytate consumption on the bone characteristics of ovariectomized rats, an animal model for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Twenty ovariectomized female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups fed, respectively, with a non-phytate diet (AIN-76A) or the same diet enriched with 1% phytate (as the calcium magnesium salt, phytin). After 12 weeks of feeding the rats were sacrificed, and both femoral bones and L4 vertebra were removed from each rat. Bone mass, length, width, volume, and mineral density were measured, and the phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and zinc contents of bones were determined. Deoxypyridinoline (a bone resorption marker) was measured in urine, and osteocalcin (a bone formation marker) was measured in serum. The calcium and phosphorus contents and bone mineral density were significantly higher in both femoral bones and L4 vertebra for phytate-treated rats in comparison to rats in the non-phytate group. Deoxypyridinoline was significantly increased in rats in the non-phytate treatment group. Ca-Mg-phytate consumption reduces bone mineral density loss due to estrogen deficiency. Thus, phytate exhibits effects similar to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption and may be of use in the primary prevention of osteoporosis if larger studies in humans confirm these findings.

  12. Effects of Nrf2 Deficiency on Bone Microarchitecture in an Experimental Model of Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Ibáñez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Redox imbalance contributes to bone fragility. We have evaluated the in vivo role of nuclear factor erythroid derived 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2, an important regulator of cellular responses to oxidative stress, in bone metabolism using a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Methods. Ovariectomy was performed in both wild-type and mice deficient in Nrf2 (Nrf2−/−. Bone microarchitecture was analyzed by μCT. Serum markers of bone metabolism were also measured. Reactive oxygen species production was determined using dihydrorhodamine 123. Results. Sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice exhibit a loss in trabecular bone mineral density in femur, accompanied by a reduction in cortical area in vertebrae. Nrf2 deficiency tended to increase osteoblastic markers and significantly enhanced osteoclastic markers in sham-operated animals indicating an increased bone turnover with a main effect on bone resorption. We have also shown an increased production of oxidative stress in bone marrow-derived cells from sham-operated or ovariectomized Nrf2−/− mice and a higher responsiveness of bone marrow-derived cells to osteoclastogenic stimuli in vitro. Conclusion. We have demonstrated in vivo a key role of Nrf2 in the maintenance of bone microarchitecture.

  13. Low bone turnover and low BMD in Down syndrome: effect of intermittent PTH treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan W Fowler

    Full Text Available Trisomy 21 affects virtually every organ system and results in the complex clinical presentation of Down syndrome (DS. Patterns of differences are now being recognized as patients' age and these patterns bring about new opportunities for disease prevention and treatment. Low bone mineral density (BMD has been reported in many studies of males and females with DS yet the specific effects of trisomy 21 on the skeleton remain poorly defined. Therefore we determined the bone phenotype and measured bone turnover markers in the murine DS model Ts65Dn. Male Ts65Dn DS mice are infertile and display a profound low bone mass phenotype that deteriorates with age. The low bone mass was correlated with significantly decreased osteoblast and osteoclast development, decreased bone biochemical markers, a diminished bone formation rate and reduced mechanical strength. The low bone mass observed in 3 month old Ts65Dn mice was significantly increased after 4 weeks of intermittent PTH treatment. These studies provide novel insight into the cause of the profound bone fragility in DS and identify PTH as a potential anabolic agent in the adult low bone mass DS population.

  14. Combined intervention of dietary soybean proteins and swim training: effects on bone metabolism in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figard, Hélène; Mougin, Fabienne; Gaume, Vincent; Berthelot, Alain

    2006-01-01

    Soybean proteins, a rich source of isoflavones, taken immediately after an ovariectomy prevent bone loss in rats. Exercise-induced stimuli are essential for bone growth. Few studies exist about the combined effects of swim training and soybean protein supplementation on bone metabolism. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate, in 48 female Sprague-Dawley rats (12 weeks old) the effects of an 8-week swim-training regimen (1 h/day, 5 days/week) and dietary soybean proteins (200 g/kg diet) on bone metabolism. Rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) ovariectomized fed with a semisynthetic control diet; (2) ovariectomized fed with a soybean protein-enriched semisynthetic diet; (3) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with control diet; (4) ovariectomized trained to exercise and fed with a soybean protein diet. Following the treatment period, body weight gain was identical in the four groups. Soybean protein supplementation increased bone calcium content, and reduced plasma osteocalcin values, without significant modification of calcium balance and net calcium absorption. Swim training enhanced plasma and bone calcium content and calcium balance and net calcium absorption. It did not modify either plasma osteocalcin values or urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion. Both exercise and soybean protein intake increased plasma on bone calcium without modifying net calcium absorption or bone markers. In conclusion, we demonstrated, in ovariectomized rats, that swimming exercise and dietary supplementation with soy proteins do not have synergistic effects on calcium metabolism and bone markers.

  15. Effect of low-level laser therapy on repair of the bone compromised by radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Jonas D; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Cardoso, Sérgio V; Dechichi, Paula; Rocha, Flaviana S; Pagnoncelli, Rogério M

    2014-11-01

    Radiotherapy (RDT) is commonly used for cancer treatment, but high doses of ionizing radiation can directly affect healthy tissues. Positive biological effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on bone repair have been demonstrated; however, this effect on surgical defects of bone previously compromised by radiotherapy has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of LLLT (λ = 830 nm) in femur repair after ionizing radiation. Twenty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control group (GC, n = 5) creation of bone defects (BDs) only; laser group (GL), with BD and LLLT (n = 5); radiotherapy group (GR), submitted to RDT and BD (n = 5); and radiotherapy and laser group (GRL), submitted to RDT, BD, and LLLT (n = 5). GL and GRL received punctual laser application (DE = 210 J/cm(2), P = 50 mW, t = 120 s, and beam diameter of 0.04 cm(2)) immediately after surgery, with 48-h interval during 7 days. Animals were euthanized at 7 days after surgery, and bone sections were evaluated morphometrically with conventional microscopy. Bone repair was only observed in nonirradiated bone, with significant improvement in GL in comparison to GC. GR and GRL did not present any bone neoformation. The result demonstrated a positive local biostimulative effect of LLLT in normal bone. However, LLLT was not able to revert the bone metabolic damage due to ionizing radiation.

  16. Salicylic acid alleviates adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis through changes in proline production and ethylene formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Per, Tasir S; Khan, Nafees A

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the potential of salicylic acid (SA) in alleviating the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv WH 711. Activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), photosynthetic-nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and net photosynthesis decreased in plants subjected to heat stress (40 °C for 6 h), but proline metabolism increased. SA treatment (0.5 mM) alleviated heat stress by increasing proline production through the increase in γ-glutamyl kinase (GK) and decrease in proline oxidase (PROX) activity, resulting in promotion of osmotic potential and water potential necessary for maintaining photosynthetic activity. Together with this, SA treatment restricted the ethylene formation in heat-stressed plants to optimal range by inhibiting activity of 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS). This resulted in improved proline metabolism, N assimilation and photosynthesis. The results suggest that SA interacts with proline metabolism and ethylene formation to alleviate the adverse effects of heat stress on photosynthesis in wheat.

  17. Severe unexpected adverse effects after permanent eye makeup and their management by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldman A

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Alberto Goldman,1 Uwe Wollina2 1Clinica Goldman, Porto Alegre RS, Brazil; 2Department of Dermatology and Allergology, Academic Teaching Hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt, Dresden, Germany Abstract: Permanent makeup is a cosmetic tattoo that is used to enhance one’s appearance, and which has become more popular among middle-aged and elderly women. A couple of benefits seem to be associated with permanent tattoos in the elderly: saving time (wake up with makeup; poor eyesight (difficult to apply makeup; and saving money. On the other hand, cosmetic tattoos bear the same risks as other tattoo procedures. We report on fading and unintended hyperpigmentation after tattooing on eyebrows and eyelids, and discuss the scientific and anatomical background behind the possible cause. Dermatochalasis may be a possible risk factor for excessive unwanted discolorations. Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser is an appropriate and safe therapeutic tool that can manage such adverse effects. Consumer protection warrants better information and education of the risks of cosmetic tattoos – in particular, for elderly women. Keywords: permanent makeup, cosmetic tattoos, adverse effects, dermatochalasis, Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

  18. [Adverse effects of the herd immunity or when childhood vaccination becomes deleterious for the epidemiology of infectious diseases in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier

    2011-03-01

    The irremediable ageing of the world population, the aged-related increasing in the prevalence of infectious diseases the fear of any influenza pandemic rife have recently led the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) et the International Association of Geriatric and Gerontology European Regions (IAGG-ER) of establishing vaccine recommendations dedicated to individuals aged of 60 years or above and promoting a life-course vaccination programme. This approach is mainly motivated by the herd immunity-associated effect on the epidemiology of infectious diseases observed within the adult and old adult population. This review (1) after a presentation of the concept and its demonstrated beneficial effects; (2) will detail that herd immunity acts with adverse effects on the epidemiology of the infectious diseases in the adult and aged individual population; (3) in order to demonstrate that maintaining a vaccine pressure in every age groups is imperative.

  19. Assessment of individual radiosensitivity in human lymphocytes of cancer patients and its correlation with adverse side effects to radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giorgio, M; Busto, E; Mairal, L; Menendez, P; Roth, B; Sardi, M; Taja, M R; Vallerga, M B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Individual radiosensitivity is an inherent characteristic, associated with an increased reaction to ionizing radiation on the human body. Biological endpoints such as clonogenic survival, chromosome aberration formation and repair capacity of radiation-induced damage have been applied to evaluate individual radiosensitivity in vitro. 5%-7% of cancer patients develop adverse side effects to radiation therapy in normal tissues within the treatment field, which are referred as 'clinical radiation reactions' and include acute effects, late effects and cancer induction. It has been hypothesized that the occurrence and severity of these reactions are mainly influenced by genetic susceptibility to radiation. Additionally, the nature of the genetic disorders associated with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy suggests that DNA repair mechanisms are involved. Consequently, the characterization of DNA repair in lymphocytes through cytokinesis blocked micronucleus (MN) and alkaline single-cell micro...

  20. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  1. Effect of Denosumab on Bone Mineral Density and Markers of Bone Turnover among Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of denosumab (Dmab on bone mineral density (BMD and bone turnover markers after 1 year of treatment. Additionally, the effect of Dmab in bisphosphonate-naïve patients (BP-naïve compared to patients previously treated with bisphosphonates (BP-prior was analyzed. This retrospective study included 425 postmenopausal women treated with Dmab for 1 year in clinical practice conditions in specialized centers from Argentina. Participants were also divided according to previous bisphosphonate treatment into BP-naïve and BP-prior. A control group of patients treated with BP not switched to Dmab matched by sex, age, and body mass index was used. Data are expressed as mean ± SEM. After 1 year of treatment with Dmab the bone formation markers total alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin were significantly decreased (23.36% and 43.97%, resp., as was the bone resorption marker s-CTX (69.61%. Significant increases in BMD were observed at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip without differences between BP-naïve and BP-prior. A better BMD response was found in BP-prior group compared with BP treated patients not switched to Dmab. Conclusion. Dmab treatment increased BMD and decreased bone turnover markers in the whole group, with similar response in BP-naïve and BP-prior patients. A better BMD response in BP-prior patients versus BP treated patients not switched to Dmab was observed.