WorldWideScience

Sample records for adversaries

  1. Adversarial Autoencoders

    OpenAIRE

    Makhzani, Alireza; Shlens, Jonathon; Jaitly, Navdeep; Goodfellow, Ian; Frey, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the "adversarial autoencoder" (AAE), which is a probabilistic autoencoder that uses the recently proposed generative adversarial networks (GAN) to perform variational inference by matching the aggregated posterior of the hidden code vector of the autoencoder with an arbitrary prior distribution. Matching the aggregated posterior to the prior ensures that generating from any part of prior space results in meaningful samples. As a result, the decoder of the adversarial...

  2. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    OpenAIRE

    Kereliuk, Corey; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is essentially an algorithm intent on making a classification system perform in some particular way given an input, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, which exploits the parameters of the system to find the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the network misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of de...

  3. Generic adversary characteristics: summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adversaries studied were found to be complex, often unpredictable, and dynamic. The adversary typically goes through a complex decision-making process between the time a potential target is identified and the moment the decision to act is made. This study analyzes the adversary characteristics, and the following conclusions are made: one of the least likely methods of attack is an overt armed assault. Terrorists and psychotics depend upon a high degree of personal dedication. No single generic adversary group or individual exhibits strength in every characteristic. Physical danger appears to have some deterrent effect on all adversaries except the psychotics. Organized and professional criminals often try to recruit insiders. Disoriented persons, white-collar criminals, and disgruntled employees tend to operate as insiders. Professional criminals, many terrorist groups, some extremist protest groups, and certain disoriented persons plan carefully before initiating a criminal mission. Organized crime and miscellaneous criminal adversaries rely on deception and ruse to bypass security. After the decision to commit a crime, the resources deployed by terrorists or organized criminals will be a function of their perception of the operational requirements of the crime. The nature of ''threat'' is dynamic; adversary behavior and capability appear to be related to prevailing political, economic, and social conditions

  4. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is an agent designed to make a classification system perform in some particular way, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, exploiting the parameters of the system to find the...... minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...

  5. All Quantum Adversary Methods are Equivalent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Spalek; M. Szegedy

    2005-01-01

    The quantum adversary method is one of the most versatile lower-bound methods for quantum algorithms. We show that all known variants of this method are equal: spectral adversary [Barnum, Saks, and Szegedy, 2003], weighted adversary [Ambainis, 2003], strong weighted adversary [Zhang, 2004], and the

  6. Polytope Codes Against Adversaries in Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kosut, Oliver; Tong, Lang; Tse, David

    2011-01-01

    Network coding is studied when an adversary controls a subset of nodes in the network of limited quantity but unknown location. This problem is shown to be more difficult than when the adversary controls a given number of edges in the network, in that linear codes are insufficient. To solve the node problem, the class of Polytope Codes is introduced. Polytope Codes are constant composition codes operating over bounded polytopes in integer vector fields. The polytope structure creates addition...

  7. Foveation-based Mechanisms Alleviate Adversarial Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yan; Boix, Xavier; Roig, Gemma; Poggio, Tomaso; Zhao, Qi

    2015-01-01

    We show that adversarial examples, i.e., the visually imperceptible perturbations that result in Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) fail, can be alleviated with a mechanism based on foveations---applying the CNN in different image regions. To see this, first, we report results in ImageNet that lead to a revision of the hypothesis that adversarial perturbations are a consequence of CNNs acting as a linear classifier: CNNs act locally linearly to changes in the image regions with objects reco...

  8. Using Machine Learning in Adversarial Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Intrusion/anomaly detection systems are among the first lines of cyber defense. Commonly, they either use signatures or machine learning (ML) to identify threats, but fail to account for sophisticated attackers trying to circumvent them. We propose to embed machine learning within a game theoretic framework that performs adversarial modeling, develops methods for optimizing operational response based on ML, and integrates the resulting optimization codebase into the existing ML infrastructure developed by the Hybrid LDRD. Our approach addresses three key shortcomings of ML in adversarial settings: 1) resulting classifiers are typically deterministic and, therefore, easy to reverse engineer; 2) ML approaches only address the prediction problem, but do not prescribe how one should operationalize predictions, nor account for operational costs and constraints; and 3) ML approaches do not model attackers’ response and can be circumvented by sophisticated adversaries. The principal novelty of our approach is to construct an optimization framework that blends ML, operational considerations, and a model predicting attackers reaction, with the goal of computing optimal moving target defense. One important challenge is to construct a realistic model of an adversary that is tractable, yet realistic. We aim to advance the science of attacker modeling by considering game-theoretic methods, and by engaging experimental subjects with red teaming experience in trying to actively circumvent an intrusion detection system, and learning a predictive model of such circumvention activities. In addition, we will generate metrics to test that a particular model of an adversary is consistent with available data.

  9. Adversarial Feature Selection Against Evasion Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Chan, Patrick P K; Biggio, Battista; Yeung, Daniel S; Roli, Fabio

    2016-03-01

    Pattern recognition and machine learning techniques have been increasingly adopted in adversarial settings such as spam, intrusion, and malware detection, although their security against well-crafted attacks that aim to evade detection by manipulating data at test time has not yet been thoroughly assessed. While previous work has been mainly focused on devising adversary-aware classification algorithms to counter evasion attempts, only few authors have considered the impact of using reduced feature sets on classifier security against the same attacks. An interesting, preliminary result is that classifier security to evasion may be even worsened by the application of feature selection. In this paper, we provide a more detailed investigation of this aspect, shedding some light on the security properties of feature selection against evasion attacks. Inspired by previous work on adversary-aware classifiers, we propose a novel adversary-aware feature selection model that can improve classifier security against evasion attacks, by incorporating specific assumptions on the adversary's data manipulation strategy. We focus on an efficient, wrapper-based implementation of our approach, and experimentally validate its soundness on different application examples, including spam and malware detection. PMID:25910268

  10. David against Goliath: Coping with Adversarial Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    future-oriented relationships with any of them. From the perspective of the SME, this kind of customer behaviour could even be described as harmful, since it often impedes the SME manager's long-term development of his or her business. This makes the balancing of adversarial customer relationships an...... aspect crucial to the long-term survival and success of the particular SME. In this article, we propose a three-fold approach through which SME managers could balance their relationships with this type of customer. Firstly, we review theoretical discussions about business relationships and adversariness......SME managers in many industries face the situation that they have to deal with a few important, large customer organisations that behave in an adversarial manner. These customers pit alternative suppliers against each other in order to achieve the lowest possible price, showing no intent to build...

  11. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  12. Deep learning, audio adversaries, and music content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We present the concept of adversarial audio in the context of deep neural networks (DNNs) for music content analysis. An adversary is an algorithm that makes minor perturbations to an input that cause major repercussions to the system response. In particular, we design an adversary for a DNN that...

  13. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, William H. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  14. RFID Key Establishment Against Active Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bringer, Julien; Cohen, Gérard; Kindarji, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to strengthen a very low cost solution for key agreement with a RFID device. Starting from a work which exploits the inherent noise on the communication link to establish a key by public discussion, we show how to protect this agreement against active adversaries. For that purpose, we unravel integrity $(I)$-codes suggested by Cagalj et al. No preliminary key distribution is required.

  15. Adversarial Risk Analysis: The Somali Pirates case

    OpenAIRE

    Ríos Insúa, David; Ríos, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Some of the current world’s biggest problems revolve around security issues. This has raised recent interest in resource allocation models to manage security threats, from terrorism to organized crime through money laundering. One of those approaches is adversarial risk analysis, which aims at dealing with decision making problems with intelligent opponents and uncertain outcomes. We show here how such framework may cope with a current important security issue in relation with piracy in the S...

  16. Using plural modeling for predicting decisions made by adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incorporating an appropriate representation of the likelihood of terrorist decision outcomes into risk assessments associated with weapons of mass destruction attacks has been a significant problem for countries around the world. Developing these likelihoods gets at the heart of the most difficult predictive problems: human decision making, adaptive adversaries, and adversaries about which very little is known. A plural modeling approach is proposed that incorporates estimates of all critical uncertainties: who is the adversary and what skills and resources are available to him, what information is known to the adversary and what perceptions of the important facts are held by this group or individual, what does the adversary know about the countermeasure actions taken by the government in question, what are the adversary's objectives and the priorities of those objectives, what would trigger the adversary to start an attack and what kind of success does the adversary desire, how realistic is the adversary in estimating the success of an attack, how does the adversary make a decision and what type of model best predicts this decision-making process. A computational framework is defined to aggregate the predictions from a suite of models, based on this broad array of uncertainties. A validation approach is described that deals with a significant scarcity of data.

  17. Covert Communication Gains from Adversary's Ignorance of Transmission Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bash, Boulat A.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don

    2014-01-01

    The recent square root law (SRL) for covert communication demonstrates that Alice can reliably transmit $\\mathcal{O}(\\sqrt{n})$ bits to Bob in $n$ uses of an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel while keeping ineffective any detector employed by the adversary; conversely, exceeding this limit either results in detection by the adversary with high probability or non-zero decoding error probability at Bob. This SRL is under the assumption that the adversary knows when Alice transmits (i...

  18. Incorporating opponent models into adversary search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmel, D.; Markovitch, S. [Technion, Haifa (Israel)

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a generalized theoretical framework that allows incorporation of opponent models into adversary search. We present the M* algorithm, a generalization of minimax that uses an arbitrary opponent model to simulate the opponent`s search. The opponent model is a recursive structure consisting of the opponent`s evaluation function and its model of the player. We demonstrate experimentally the potential benefit of using an opponent model. Pruning in M* is impossible in the general case. We prove a sufficient condition for pruning and present the {alpha}{beta}* algorithm which returns the M* value of a tree while searching only necessary branches.

  19. Adversarial Scheduling in Evolutionary Game Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Gabriel; Ravi, S S

    2008-01-01

    Consider a system in which players at nodes of an underlying graph G repeatedly play Prisoner's Dilemma against their neighbors. The players adapt their strategies based on the past behavior of their opponents by applying the so-called win-stay lose-shift strategy. This dynamics has been studied in (Kittock 94), (Dyer et al. 2002), (Mossel and Roch, 2006). With random scheduling, starting from any initial configuration with high probability the system reaches the unique fixed point in which all players cooperate. This paper investigates the validity of this result under various classes of adversarial schedulers. Our results can be sumarized as follows: 1. An adversarial scheduler that can select both participants to the game can preclude the system from reaching the unique fixed point on most graph topologies. 2. A nonadaptive scheduler that is only allowed to choose one of the participants is no more powerful than a random scheduler. With this restriction even an adaptive scheduler is not significantly more ...

  20. Enemies in Agreement: Domestic Politics, Uncertainty, and Cooperation between Adversaries

    OpenAIRE

    Vaynman, Jane Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Adversarial agreements, such as the nuclear weapons treaties, disarmament zones, or conventional weapons limitations, vary considerably in the information sharing provisions they include. This dissertation investigates why adversarial states sometimes choose to cooperate by creating restraining institutions, and how their choices for the form of that cooperation are constrained and motivated. I argue that uncertainties arising out of domestic political volatility, which includes leadershi...

  1. Adversarial Scheduling Analysis of Game Theoretic Models of Norm Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Istrate, Gabriel; Ravi, S S

    2008-01-01

    In (Istrate, Marathe, Ravi SODA 2001) we advocated the investigation of robustness of results in the theory of learning in games under adversarial scheduling models. We provide evidence that such an analysis is feasible and can lead to nontrivial results by investigating, in an adversarial scheduling setting, Peyton Young's model of diffusion of norms. In particular, our main result incorporates into Peyton Young's model.

  2. Understanding Sampling Style Adversarial Search Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanujan, Raghuram; Selman, Bart

    2012-01-01

    UCT has recently emerged as an exciting new adversarial reasoning technique based on cleverly balancing exploration and exploitation in a Monte-Carlo sampling setting. It has been particularly successful in the game of Go but the reasons for its success are not well understood and attempts to replicate its success in other domains such as Chess have failed. We provide an in-depth analysis of the potential of UCT in domain-independent settings, in cases where heuristic values are available, and the effect of enhancing random playouts to more informed playouts between two weak minimax players. To provide further insights, we develop synthetic game tree instances and discuss interesting properties of UCT, both empirically and analytically.

  3. Potential criminal adversaries of nuclear programs: a portrait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.

    1980-07-01

    This paper examines the possibility that terrorists or other kinds of criminals might attempt to seize or sabotage a nuclear facility, steal nuclear material, or carry out other criminal activities in the nuclear domain which has created special problems for the security of nuclear programs. This paper analyzes the potential threat. Our tasks was to describe the potential criminal adversary, or rather the spectrum of potential adversaries who conceivably might carry out malevolent criminal actions against nuclear programs and facilities. We were concerned with both the motivations as well as the material and operational capabilities likely to be displayed by various categories of potential nuclear adversaries.

  4. Adversarial life testing: A Bayesian negotiation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Life testing is a procedure intended for facilitating the process of making decisions in the context of industrial reliability. On the other hand, negotiation is a process of making joint decisions that has one of its main foundations in decision theory. A Bayesian sequential model of negotiation in the context of adversarial life testing is proposed. This model considers a general setting for which a manufacturer offers a product batch to a consumer. It is assumed that the reliability of the product is measured in terms of its lifetime. Furthermore, both the manufacturer and the consumer have to use their own information with respect to the quality of the product. Under these assumptions, two situations can be analyzed. For both of them, the main aim is to accept or reject the product batch based on the product reliability. This topic is related to a reliability demonstration problem. The procedure is applied to a class of distributions that belong to the exponential family. Thus, a unified framework addressing the main topics in the considered Bayesian model is presented. An illustrative example shows that the proposed technique can be easily applied in practice

  5. Quantum Computers: Noise Propagation and Adversarial Noise Models

    OpenAIRE

    Kalai, Gil

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider adversarial noise models that will fail quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. We describe known results regarding high-rate noise, sequential computation, and reversible noisy computation. We continue by discussing highly correlated noise and the "boundary," in terms of correlation of errors, of the "threshold theorem." Next, we draw a picture of adversarial forms of noise called (collectively) "detrimental noise." Detrimental noise is mode...

  6. Modelling adversary actions against a nuclear material accounting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical nuclear material accounting system employing double-entry bookkeeping is described. A logic diagram is used to model the interactions of the accounting system and the adversary when he attempts to thwart it. Boolean equations are derived from the logic diagram; solution of these equations yields the accounts and records through which the adversary may disguise a SSNM theft and the collusion requirements needed to accomplish this feat. Some technical highlights of the logic diagram are also discussed

  7. Communication in the Presence of a State-Aware Adversary

    OpenAIRE

    Budkuley, Amitalok J.; Dey, Bikash Kumar; Prabhakaran, Vinod M

    2015-01-01

    We study communication systems over state-dependent channels in the presence of a malicious state-aware adversary. Taking an Arbitrarily Varying Channel (AVC) approach, we consider two setups, namely, the discrete memoryless Gelfand-Pinsker (GP) AVC and the additive white Gaussian Dirty Paper (DP) AVC. We determine the randomized coding capacity of both the AVCs under a maximum probability of error criterion. Even with non-causal knowledge of the state, we prove that the state-aware adversary...

  8. Modelling adversary actions against a nuclear material accounting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J.J.; Huebel, J.G.

    1979-04-01

    A typical nuclear material accounting system employing double-entry bookkeeping is described. A logic diagram is used to model the interactions of the accounting system and the adversary when he attempts to thwart it. Boolean equations are derived from the logic diagram; solution of these equations yields the accounts and records through which the adversary may disguise a SSNM theft and the collusion requirements needed to accomplish this feat. Some technical highlights of the logic diagram are also discussed.

  9. Towards Deep Neural Network Architectures Robust to Adversarial Examples

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Shixiang; Rigazio, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Recent work has shown deep neural networks (DNNs) to be highly susceptible to well-designed, small perturbations at the input layer, or so-called adversarial examples. Taking images as an example, such distortions are often imperceptible, but can result in 100% mis-classification for a state of the art DNN. We study the structure of adversarial examples and explore network topology, pre-processing and training strategies to improve the robustness of DNNs. We perform various experiments to ass...

  10. Unifying Adversarial Training Algorithms with Flexible Deep Data Gradient Regularization

    OpenAIRE

    Ororbia II, Alexander G.; Giles, C. Lee; Kifer, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We present DataGrad, a general back-propagation style training procedure for deep neural architectures that uses regularization of a deep Jacobian-based penalty. It can be viewed as a deep extension of the layerwise contractive auto-encoder penalty. More importantly, it unifies previous proposals for adversarial training of deep neural nets -- this list includes directly modifying the gradient, training on a mix of original and adversarial examples, using contractive penalties, and approximat...

  11. The best of both worlds: stochastic and adversarial bandits

    CERN Document Server

    Bubeck, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    We present a new bandit algorithm, SAO (Stochastic and Adversarial Optimal), whose regret is, essentially, optimal both for adversarial rewards and for stochastic rewards. Specifically, SAO combines the square-root worst-case regret of Exp3 (Auer et al., SIAM J. on Computing 2002) and the (poly)logarithmic regret of UCB1 (Auer et al., Machine Learning 2002) for stochastic rewards. Adversarial rewards and stochastic rewards are the two main settings in the literature on (non-Bayesian) multi-armed bandits. Prior work on multi-armed bandits treats them separately, and does not attempt to jointly optimize for both. Our result falls into a general theme of achieving good worst-case performance while also taking advantage of "nice" problem instances, an important issue in the design of algorithms with partially known inputs.

  12. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  13. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems

  14. Adversarial Growth in Telephone Counsellors: Psychological and Environmental Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Julian; Whelan, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the level of adversarial growth among telephone counsellors, and to examine the influence of psychological and environmental factors on growth. In particular, the effect of compassion fatigue, empathy, environmental support and calls per shift on posttraumatic growth was assessed. Sixty-four telephone…

  15. Publishing Set-Valued Data Against Realistic Adversaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Qiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Privacy protection in publishing set-valued data is an important problem.However,privacy notions proposed in prior works either assume that the adversary has unbounded knowledge and hence provide over-protection that causes excessive distortion,or ignore the knowledge about the absence of certain items and do not prevent attacks based on such knowledge.To address these issues,we propose a new privacy notion,(k,e)(m,n)-privacy,which prevents both the identity disclosure and the sensitive item disclosure to a realistic privacy adversary who has bounded knowledge about the presence of items and the bounded knowledge about the absence of items.In addition to the new notion,our contribution is an efficient algorithm that finds a near-optimal solution and is applicable for anonymizing real world databases.Extensive experiments on real world databases showed that our algorithm outperforms the state of the art algorithms.

  16. Real Right Alternation and Its Adversarial Problem Under Registration Antagonism

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqi HU

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous development of socialist market economy in China, real right alternation has become increasingly frequent, which is becoming the critical issue in the legislation of real right. In this legislation, a binary structure model has been adopted by China, which is based on registration essentials doctrine and supplemented by registration antagonism. This paper describes the registration antagonism in the real right alternation, and studies its adversarial problems.

  17. On the Foundations of Adversarial Single-Class Classification

    OpenAIRE

    El-Yaniv, Ran; Nisenson, Mordechai

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by authentication, intrusion and spam detection applications we consider single-class classification (SCC) as a two-person game between the learner and an adversary. In this game the learner has a sample from a target distribution and the goal is to construct a classifier capable of distinguishing observations from the target distribution from observations emitted from an unknown other distribution. The ideal SCC classifier must guarantee a given tolerance for the false-positive err...

  18. Unsupervised Representation Learning with Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Radford, Alec; Metz, Luke; Chintala, Soumith

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, supervised learning with convolutional networks (CNNs) has seen huge adoption in computer vision applications. Comparatively, unsupervised learning with CNNs has received less attention. In this work we hope to help bridge the gap between the success of CNNs for supervised learning and unsupervised learning. We introduce a class of CNNs called deep convolutional generative adversarial networks (DCGANs), that have certain architectural constraints, and demonstrate that they ar...

  19. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many classification algorithms have been successfully deployed in security-sensitive applications including spam filters and intrusion detection systems. Under such adversarial environments, adversaries can generate exploratory attacks against the defender such as evasion and reverse engineering. In this paper, we discuss why reverse engineering attacks can be carried out quite efficiently against fixed classifiers, and investigate the use of randomization as a suitable strategy for mitigating their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high probability. We analyze the tradeoff between variance of the distribution and its predictive accuracy, and establish that one can almost always incorporate randomization with large variance without incurring a loss in accuracy. In other words, the conventional approach of using a fixed classifier in adversarial environments is generally Pareto suboptimal. Finally, we validate such conclusions on both synthetic and real-world classification problems. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  20. Quantifying Adversary Capabilities to Inform Defensive Resource Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Bier, Vicki M

    2016-04-01

    We propose a Bayesian Stackelberg game capable of analyzing the joint effects of both attacker intent and capabilities on optimal defensive strategies. The novel feature of our model is the use of contest success functions from economics to capture the extent to which the success of an attack is attributable to the adversary's capability (as well as the level of defensive investment), rather than pure luck. Results of a two-target example suggest that precise assessment of attacker intent may not be necessary if we have poor estimates of attacker capability. PMID:25929274

  1. Distributed Certificateless Key Encapsulation Mechanism Secure Against the Adaptive Adversary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Yu; LI Xiang-xue; CHEN Ke-fei; HONG Xuan

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptively secure solution to certificateless distributed key encapsulation mechanism from pairings by using Canetti's adaptive secure key generation scheme based on discrete logarithm. The proposed scheme can withstand adaptive attackers that can choose players for corruption at any time during the run of the protocol, and this kind of attack is powerful and realistic. In contrast, all previously presented threshold certificateless public key cryptosystems are proven secure against the more idealized static adversaries only. They choose and fix the subset of target players before running the protocol. We also prove security of this scheme in the random oracle model.

  2. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  3. Evaluating late detection capability against diverse insider adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a model for evaluating the late (after-the-fact) detection capability of material control and accountability (MCandA) systems against insider theft or diversion of special nuclear material. Potential insider cover-up strategies to defeat activities providing detection (e.g., inventories) are addressed by the model in a tractable manner. For each potential adversary and detection activity, two probabilities are assessed and used to fit the model. The model then computes the probability of detection for activities occurring periodically over time. The model provides insight into MCandA effectiveness and helps identify areas for safeguards improvement. 4 refs., 4 tabs

  4. The SAT-UNSAT transition in the adversarial SAT problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bardoscia, Marco; Nagaj, Daniel; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Adversarial SAT (AdSAT) is a generalization of the satisfiability (SAT) problem in which two players try to make a boolean formula true (resp. false) by controlling their respective sets of variables. AdSAT belongs to a higher complexity class in the polynomial hierarchy than SAT and therefore the nature of the critical region and the transition are not easily paralleled to those of SAT and worth of independent study. AdSAT also provides an upper bound for the transition threshold of the quan...

  5. Adversary modeling: an analysis of criminal activities analogous to potential threats to nuclear safeguard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineke, J.M.

    1978-12-20

    This study examines and analyzes several classes of incidents in which decision makers are confronted with adversaries. The classes are analogous to adversaries in a material control system in a nuclear facility. Both internal threats (bank frauds and embezzlements) and external threats (aircraft hijackings and hostage-type terrorist events were analyzed. (DLC)

  6. Adversary modeling: an analysis of criminal activities analogous to potential threats to nuclear safeguard systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines and analyzes several classes of incidents in which decision makers are confronted with adversaries. The classes are analogous to adversaries in a material control system in a nuclear facility. Both internal threats (bank frauds and embezzlements) and external threats (aircraft hijackings and hostage-type terrorist events were analyzed

  7. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  8. Counteracting Byzantine Adversaries with Network Coding: An Overhead Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, MinJi; Barros, Joao

    2008-01-01

    Network coding increases throughput and is robust against failures and erasures. However, since it allows mixing of information within the network, a single corrupted packet generated by a Byzantine attacker can easily contaminate the information to multiple destinations. In this paper, we study the transmission overhead associated with detecting Byzantine adversaries at a trusted node using network coding. We consider three different schemes: end-to-end error correction, packet-based Byzantine detection scheme, and generation-based Byzantine detection scheme. In end-to-end error correction, it is known that we can correct up to the min-cut between the source and destinations. However, if we use Byzantine detection schemes, we can detect polluted data, drop them, and therefore, only transmit valid data. For the dropped data, the destinations perform erasure correction, which is computationally lighter than error correction. We show that, with enough attackers present in the network, Byzantine detection scheme...

  9. Secrecy Is Cheap if the Adversary Must Reconstruct

    CERN Document Server

    Schieler, Curt

    2012-01-01

    A secret key can be used to conceal information from an eavesdropper during communication, as in Shannon's cipher system. Most theoretical guarantees of secrecy require the secret key space to grow exponentially with the length of communication. Here we show that when an eavesdropper attempts to reconstruct an information sequence, as posed in the literature by Yamamoto, very little secret key is required to effect unconditionally maximal distortion; specifically, we only need the secret key space to increase unboundedly, growing arbitrarily slowly with the blocklength. As a corollary, even with a secret key of constant size we can still cause the adversary arbitrarily close to maximal distortion, regardless of the length of the information sequence.

  10. On Breaching Enterprise Data Privacy Through Adversarial Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Ganta, Srivatsava Ranjit

    2008-01-01

    Data privacy is one of the key challenges faced by enterprises today. Anonymization techniques address this problem by sanitizing sensitive data such that individual privacy is preserved while allowing enterprises to maintain and share sensitive data. However, existing work on this problem make inherent assumptions about the data that are impractical in day-to-day enterprise data management scenarios. Further, application of existing anonymization schemes on enterprise data could lead to adversarial attacks in which an intruder could use information fusion techniques to inflict a privacy breach. In this paper, we shed light on the shortcomings of current anonymization schemes in the context of enterprise data. We define and experimentally demonstrate Web-based Information- Fusion Attack on anonymized enterprise data. We formulate the problem of Fusion Resilient Enterprise Data Anonymization and propose a prototype solution to address this problem.

  11. Securing Dynamic Distributed Storage Systems against Eavesdropping and Adversarial Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Pawar, Sameer; Ramchandran, Kannan

    2010-01-01

    We address the problem of securing distributed storage systems against eavesdropping and adversarial attacks. An important aspect of these systems is node failures over time, necessitating, thus, a repair mechanism in order to maintain a desired high system reliability. In such dynamic settings, an important security problem is to safeguard the system from an intruder who may come at different time instances during the lifetime of the storage system to observe, and possibly alter, the data stored on some nodes. In this scenario, we give upper bounds on the maximum amount of information that can be stored safely on the system. For an important operating regime of the distributed storage system, which we call the `bandwidth-limited regime', we show that our upper bounds are tight and provide explicit code constructions. Moreover, we provide a way to shortlist the malicious nodes and expurgate the system.

  12. On the Foundations of Adversarial Single-Class Classification

    CERN Document Server

    El-Yaniv, Ran

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by authentication, intrusion and spam detection applications we consider single-class classification (SCC) as a two-person game between the learner and an adversary. In this game the learner has a sample from a target distribution and the goal is to construct a classifier capable of distinguishing observations from the target distribution from observations emitted from an unknown other distribution. The ideal SCC classifier must guarantee a given tolerance for the false-positive error (false alarm rate) while minimizing the false negative error (intruder pass rate). Viewing SCC as a two-person zero-sum game we identify both deterministic and randomized optimal classification strategies for different game variants. We demonstrate that randomized classification can provide a significant advantage. In the deterministic setting we show how to reduce SCC to two-class classification where in the two-class problem the other class is a synthetically generated distribution. We provide an efficient and practi...

  13. The IMP game: Learnability, approximability and adversarial learning beyond $\\Sigma^0_1$

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Michael; Dowe, David L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a problem set-up we call the Iterated Matching Pennies (IMP) game and show that it is a powerful framework for the study of three problems: adversarial learnability, conventional (i.e., non-adversarial) learnability and approximability. Using it, we are able to derive the following theorems. (1) It is possible to learn by example all of $\\Sigma^0_1 \\cup \\Pi^0_1$ as well as some supersets; (2) in adversarial learning (which we describe as a pursuit-evasion game), the pursuer has a...

  14. The media and the military: Allies or adversaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Scholtz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Military commanders like Alexander the Great or Richard the Lionheart did not have to take public opinion greatly into account when they planned their campaigns in their day. Today it is a very different situation. In the light of the above this article starts with two somewhat startling quotes by the futurologists Alvin and Heidi Toffler: "The people thinking hardest about warfare in the future know that some of the most important combat of tomorrow will take place on the media battlefield." They also state: “[T]he media, including channels and technologies unimagined today, will be a prime weapon for Third Wave combatants in both the wars and anti-wars of the future, a key component of knowledge strategy.” In recent years, much has been made of the adversarial relations between journalists and the military. The media have, for instance, been blamed for the US defeat in Vietnam, for unthinkingly blabbing about tactical decisions in advance in the Falklands, etc. From their side, journalists have been blaming the military for not trying to understand the nature of their job, of covering up a number of bad things, etc.

  15. Satisfiability-unsatisfiability transition in the adversarial satisfiability problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Nagaj, Daniel; Scardicchio, Antonello

    2014-03-01

    Adversarial satisfiability (AdSAT) is a generalization of the satisfiability (SAT) problem in which two players try to make a Boolean formula true (resp. false) by controlling their respective sets of variables. AdSAT belongs to a higher complexity class in the polynomial hierarchy than SAT, and therefore the nature of the critical region and the transition are not easily parallel to those of SAT and worthy of independent study. AdSAT also provides an upper bound for the transition threshold of the quantum satisfiability problem (QSAT). We present a complete algorithm for AdSAT, show that 2-AdSAT is in P, and then study two stochastic algorithms (simulated annealing and its improved variant) and compare their performances in detail for 3-AdSAT. Varying the density of clauses α we claim that there is a sharp SAT-UNSAT transition at a critical value whose upper bound is αc≲1.5, suggesting a much stricter upper bound for the QSAT transition than those previously found. PMID:24730811

  16. Intelligent Online Path Planning for UAVs in Adversarial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Online path planning (OPP for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a basic issue of intelligent flight and is indeed a dynamic multi‐objective optimization problem (DMOP. In this paper, an OPP framework is proposed in the sense of model predictive control (MPC to continuously update the environmental information for the planner. For solving the DMOP involved in the MPC we propose a dynamic multi‐objective evolutionary algorithm based on linkage and prediction (LP‐DMOEA. Within this algorithm, the historical Pareto sets are collected and analysed to enhance the performance. For intelligently selecting the best path from the output of the OPP, the Bayesian network and fuzzy logic are used to quantify the bias to each optimization objective. The DMOEA is validated on three benchmark problems characterized by different changing types in decision and objective spaces. Moreover, the simulation results show that the LP‐DMOEA overcomes the restart method for OPP. The decision‐making method for solution selection can assess the situation in an adversarial environment and accordingly adapt the path planner.

  17. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  18. Breaking the O(n^2) Bit Barrier: Scalable Byzantine agreement with an Adaptive Adversary

    CERN Document Server

    King, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for Byzantine agreement that is scalable in the sense that each processor sends only $\\tilde{O}(\\sqrt{n})$ bits, where $n$ is the total number of processors. Our algorithm succeeds with high probability against an \\emph{adaptive adversary}, which can take over processors at any time during the protocol, up to the point of taking over arbitrarily close to a 1/3 fraction. We assume synchronous communication but a \\emph{rushing} adversary. Moreover, our algorithm works in the presence of flooding: processors controlled by the adversary can send out any number of messages. We assume the existence of private channels between all pairs of processors but make no other cryptographic assumptions. Finally, our algorithm has latency that is polylogarithmic in $n$. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first algorithm to solve Byzantine agreement against an adaptive adversary, while requiring $o(n^{2})$ total bits of communication.

  19. Distillation as a Defense to Adversarial Perturbations against Deep Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Papernot, Nicolas; Mcdaniel, Patrick; Wu, Xi; Jha, Somesh; Swami, Ananthram

    2015-01-01

    Deep learning algorithms have been shown to perform extremely well on many classical machine learning problems. However, recent studies have shown that deep learning, like other machine learning techniques, is vulnerable to adversarial samples: inputs crafted to force a deep neural network (DNN) to provide adversary-selected outputs. Such attacks can seriously undermine the security of the system supported by the DNN, sometimes with devastating consequences. For example, autonomous vehicles c...

  20. Adversarial scheduling analysis of Game-Theoretic Models of Norm Diffusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Istrate, Gabriel; Marathe, Madhav V.; Ravi, S. S.

    2008-01-01

    In (Istrate et al. SODA 2001) we advocated the investigation of robustness of results in the theory of learning in games under adversarial scheduling models. We provide evidence that such an analysis is feasible and can lead to nontrivial results by investigating, in an adversarial scheduling setting, Peyton Young's model of diffusion of norms . In particular, our main result incorporates contagion into Peyton Young's model.

  1. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Tess M. S.

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, s...

  2. Data Injection Attacks on Smart Grids with Multiple Adversaries: A Game-Theoretic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjab, Anibal; Saad, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Data injection attacks have recently emerged as a significant threat on the smart power grid. By launching data injection attacks, an adversary can manipulate the real-time locational marginal prices to obtain economic benefits. Despite the surge of existing literature on data injection, most such works assume the presence of a single attacker and assume no cost for attack or defense. In contrast, in this paper, a model for data injection attacks with multiple adversaries and a single smart g...

  3. Application of adversarial risk analysis model in pricing strategies with remanufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Liurui Deng; Bolin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Purpose: This paper mainly focus on the application of adversarial risk analysis (ARA) in pricing strategy with remanufacturing. We hope to obtain more realistic results than classical model. Moreover, we also wish that our research improve the development of ARA in pricing strategy of manufacturing or remanufacturing. Approach: In order to gain more actual research, combining adversarial risk analysis, we explore the pricing strategy with remanufacturing based on Stackelberg model...

  4. Strategic Evolution of Adversaries Against Temporal Platform Diversity Active Cyber Defenses

    OpenAIRE

    Winterrose, Michael L.; Carter, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    Adversarial dynamics are a critical facet within the cyber security domain, in which there exists a co-evolution between attackers and defenders in any given threat scenario. While defenders leverage capabilities to minimize the potential impact of an attack, the adversary is simultaneously developing countermeasures to the observed defenses. In this study, we develop a set of tools to model the adaptive strategy formulation of an intelligent actor against an active cyber defensive system. We...

  5. Assessing and minimizing adversarial risk in a nuclear material transportation network

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Bradford S.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops a simple method for evaluating adversarial risk within the transportation portion of the nuclear fuel cycle for commercial electric power generation, and develops models that can guide the reduction of that risk by such means as rerouting and decoy shipments. A conceivable, worst-case attack by an intelligent adversary will cause a localized release of radioactive material. A damage function is defined using the po...

  6. The Forgiving Graph: A distributed data structure for low stretch under adversarial attack

    CERN Document Server

    Hayes, Tom; Trehan, Amitabh

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of self-healing in peer-to-peer networks that are under repeated attack by an omniscient adversary. We assume that, over a sequence of rounds, an adversary either inserts a node with arbitrary connections or deletes an arbitrary node from the network. The network responds to each such change by quick "repairs," which consist of adding or deleting a small number of edges. These repairs essentially preserve closeness of nodes after adversarial deletions, without increasing node degrees by too much, in the following sense. At any point in the algorithm, nodes $v$ and $w$ whose distance would have been $\\ell$ in the graph formed by considering only the adversarial insertions (not the adversarial deletions), will be at distance at most $\\ell \\log n$ in the actual graph, where $n$ is the total number of vertices seen so far. Similarly, at any point, a node $v$ whose degree would have been $d$ in the graph with adversarial insertions only, will have degree at most 3d in the actual graph. Our ...

  7. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-01-01

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  8. Modeling adversarial intent for interactive simulation and gaming: the fused intent system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eugene, Jr.; McQueary, Bruce; Krause, Lee

    2008-04-01

    Understanding the intent of today's enemy necessitates changes in intelligence collection, processing, and dissemination. Unlike cold war antagonists, today's enemies operate in small, agile, and distributed cells whose tactics do not map well to established doctrine. This has necessitated a proliferation of advanced sensor and intelligence gathering techniques at level 0 and level 1 of the Joint Directors of Laboratories fusion model. The challenge is in leveraging modeling and simulation to transform the vast amounts of level 0 and level 1 data into actionable intelligence at levels 2 and 3 that include adversarial intent. Currently, warfighters are flooded with information (facts/observables) regarding what the enemy is presently doing, but provided inadequate explanations of adversarial intent and they cannot simulate 'what-if' scenarios to increase their predictive situational awareness. The Fused Intent System (FIS) aims to address these deficiencies by providing an environment that answers 'what' the adversary is doing, 'why' they are doing it, and 'how' they will react to coalition actions. In this paper, we describe our approach to FIS which includes adversarial 'soft-factors' such as goals, rationale, and beliefs within a computational model that infers adversarial intent and allows the insertion of assumptions to be used in conjunction with current battlefield state to perform what-if analysis. Our approach combines ontological modeling for classification and Bayesian-based abductive reasoning for explanation and has broad applicability to the operational, training, and commercial gaming domains.

  9. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the “filtering” effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the “allegiance effect” in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  10. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process. PMID:27124416

  11. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess M S Neal

    Full Text Available This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

  12. Criminal defectors lead to the emergence of cooperation in an experimental, adversarial game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R D'Orsogna

    Full Text Available While the evolution of cooperation has been widely studied, little attention has been devoted to adversarial settings wherein one actor can directly harm another. Recent theoretical work addresses this issue, introducing an adversarial game in which the emergence of cooperation is heavily reliant on the presence of "Informants," actors who defect at first-order by harming others, but who cooperate at second-order by punishing other defectors. We experimentally study this adversarial environment in the laboratory with human subjects to test whether Informants are indeed critical for the emergence of cooperation. We find in these experiments that, even more so than predicted by theory, Informants are crucial for the emergence and sustenance of a high cooperation state. A key lesson is that successfully reaching and maintaining a low defection society may require the cultivation of criminals who will also aid in the punishment of others.

  13. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2006-03-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.

  14. Physical attributes of potential adversaries to U.S. nuclear programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development of physical protection elements and systems applicable to the protection of nuclear facilities and materials include the characterization of potential threats to U.S. nuclear programs. RAND Corp. has investigated several hundred incidents which involved activities of a type which can serve as analogs of potential threats to U.S. nuclear programs. This paper summarizes the data used by RAND and provides a listing of potential adversary attributes derived from a historical-incident data base. The attributes are expressed in terms of the physical capabilities of a composite adversary group

  15. Managing Quality, Identity and Adversaries in Public Discourse with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Automation can mitigate issues when scaling and managing quality and identity in public discourse on the web. Discourse needs to be curated and filtered. Anonymous speech has to be supported while handling adversaries. Reliance on human curators or analysts does not scale and content can be missed. These scaling and management issues include the…

  16. Procedural Justice in Family Court: Does the Adversary Model Make Sense?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Gary B.; Lind, E. Allan

    1982-01-01

    Reviews research and theory on procedural justice concerning family disputes, and discusses existing proposals for reform of family court procedures. Holds that adversary proceedings in custody disputes may be more beneficial to older children and disputing parents than nonadversary procedures. Identifies areas for needed research in procedural…

  17. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms. PMID:24913946

  18. Intrinsic asymmetry with respect to adversary: a new feature of Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the local bound of a Bell inequality is sensitive to the knowledge of the external observer about the settings statistics. Here we ask how that sensitivity depends on the structure of that knowledge. It turns out that in some cases it may happen that the local bound is much more sensitive to the adversary's knowledge about the settings of one party than the other. Remarkably, there are Bell inequalities which are highly asymmetric with respect to the adversary's knowledge about local settings. This property may be viewed as a hidden intrinsic asymmetry of Bell inequalities. Potential implications of the revealed asymmetry effect are also discussed. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  19. A Graphical Adversarial Risk Analysis Model for Oil and Gas Drilling Cybersecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Aitor Couce; Houmb, Siv Hilde; Insua, David Rios

    2014-01-01

    Oil and gas drilling is based, increasingly, on operational technology, whose cybersecurity is complicated by several challenges. We propose a graphical model for cybersecurity risk assessment based on Adversarial Risk Analysis to face those challenges. We also provide an example of the model in the context of an offshore drilling rig. The proposed model provides a more formal and comprehensive analysis of risks, still using the standard business language based on decisions, risks, and value.

  20. Material control study: a directed graph and fault tree procedure for adversary event set generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In work for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is developing an assessment procedure to evaluate the effectiveness of a potential nuclear facility licensee's material control (MC) system. The purpose of an MC system is to prevent the theft of special nuclear material such as plutonium and highly enriched uranium. The key in the assessment procedure is the generation and analysis of the adversary event sets by a directed graph and fault-tree methodology

  1. Coalition-based Planning of Military Operations: Adversarial Reasoning Algorithms in an Integrated Decision Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Ground, Larry; Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Use of knowledge-based planning tools can help alleviate the challenges of planning a complex operation by a coalition of diverse parties in an adversarial environment. We explore these challenges and potential contributions of knowledge-based tools using as an example the CADET system, a knowledge-based tool capable of producing automatically (or with human guidance) battle plans with realistic degree of detail and complexity. In ongoing experiments, it compared favorably with human planners...

  2. Cooperation and punishment in an adversarial game: How defectors pave the way to a peaceful society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, M. B.; Brantingham, P. J.; D'Orsogna, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of human cooperation has been the subject of much research, especially within the framework of evolutionary public goods games, where several mechanisms have been proposed to account for persistent cooperation. Yet, in addressing this issue, little attention has been given to games of a more adversarial nature, in which defecting players, rather than simply free riding, actively seek to harm others. Here, we develop an adversarial evolutionary game using the specific example of criminal activity, recasting the familiar public goods strategies of punishers, cooperators, and defectors in this light. We then introduce a strategy—the informant—with no clear analog in public goods games and show that individuals employing this strategy are a key to the emergence of systems where cooperation dominates. We also find that a defection-dominated regime may be transitioned to one that is cooperation-dominated by converting an optimal number of players into informants. We discuss these findings, the role of informants, and possible intervention strategies in extreme adversarial societies, such as those marred by wars and insurgencies.

  3. Undermining Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2012-01-01

    balancing refers to a state's strategies or diplomatic efforts aiming to undermine a rival's power. By contrast, positive balancing means to strengthen a state's own power in world politics. I argue that a state's balancing strategies are shaped by the level of threat perception regarding its rival. The......This paper engages the ongoing soft balancing debate by suggesting a new analytical framework for states’ countervailing strategies—a negative balancing model—to explain why states do not form alliances and conduct arms races to balance against power or threats as they previously did. Negative...... which the relatively low-threat propensity of the system renders positive balancing strategies incompatible with state interests after the Cold War. Instead, states have employed various negative balancing strategies to undermine each other's power, especially when dealing with us primacy. China...

  4. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques. PMID:27355948

  5. Semantic policy and adversarial modeling for cyber threat identification and avoidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, Anton; McQueary, Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Today's enterprise networks undergo a relentless barrage of attacks from foreign and domestic adversaries. These attacks may be perpetrated with little to no funding, but may wreck incalculable damage upon the enterprises security, network infrastructure, and services. As more services come online, systems that were once in isolation now provide information that may be combined dynamically with information from other systems to create new meaning on the fly. Security issues are compounded by the potential to aggregate individual pieces of information and infer knowledge at a higher classification than any of its constituent parts. To help alleviate these challenges, in this paper we introduce the notion of semantic policy and discuss how it's use is evolving from a robust approach to access control to preempting and combating attacks in the cyber domain, The introduction of semantic policy and adversarial modeling to network security aims to ask 'where is the network most vulnerable', 'how is the network being attacked', and 'why is the network being attacked'. The first aspect of our approach is integration of semantic policy into enterprise security to augment traditional network security with an overall awareness of policy access and violations. This awareness allows the semantic policy to look at the big picture - analyzing trends and identifying critical relations in system wide data access. The second aspect of our approach is to couple adversarial modeling with semantic policy to move beyond reactive security measures and into a proactive identification of system weaknesses and areas of vulnerability. By utilizing Bayesian-based methodologies, the enterprise wide meaning of data and semantic policy is applied to probability and high-level risk identification. This risk identification will help mitigate potential harm to enterprise networks by enabling resources to proactively isolate, lock-down, and secure systems that are most vulnerable.

  6. Adversarial Error Resilience in Distributed Storage Using MRD Codes and MDS Array Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Silberstein, Natalia; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel coding scheme for distributed storage systems containing nodes with adversarial errors. The key challenge in such systems is the propagation of the erroneous data from a single corrupted node to the rest of the system during node repair process. We present a concatenated coding scheme which is based on two types of codes: maximum rank distance (MRD) code as an outer code and optimal repair maximal distance separable (MDS) array code as an inner code. We prove that this coding scheme attains the upper bound on the resilience capacity, i.e., amount of data stored reliably in a system with a limited number of corrupted nodes.

  7. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  8. Application of adversarial risk analysis model in pricing strategies with remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liurui Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose: This paper mainly focus on the application of adversarial risk analysis (ARA in pricing strategy with remanufacturing. We hope to obtain more realistic results than classical model. Moreover, we also wish that our research improve the development of ARA in pricing strategy of manufacturing or remanufacturing. Approach: In order to gain more actual research, combining adversarial risk analysis, we explore the pricing strategy with remanufacturing based on Stackelberg model. Especially, we build OEM’s 1-order ARA model and further study on manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategy. Findings: We find the OEM’s 1-order ARA model for the OEM’s product cost C. Besides, we get according manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategies. Besides, the pricing strategies based on 1-order ARA model have advantage over than the classical model regardless of OEMs and remanufacturers. Research implications: The research on application of ARA imply that we can get more actual results with this kind of modern risk analysis method and ARA can be extensively in pricing strategies of supply chain. Value: Our research improves the application of ARA in remanufacturing industry. Meanwhile, inspired by this analysis, we can also create different ARA models for different parameters. Furthermore, some results and analysis methods can be applied to other pricing strategies of supply chain.

  9. Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It's obvious that one cannot answer the question from the title with simple 'yes' or 'no'. If it seems that the nuclear advocates globaly, have the same point of view, and an homegeneous argumentation, it is not the same for the opponents to Nuclear Energy. We can classify these adversaries in 4 categories, according to the nature of their opposition: ideological, economical, political, that includes ideological, mystical. In reality, these 4 types of opposition are not equally represented in France. From 1974 to the present moment, the EDF, has tried to have a dialogue with them. Various resultswere achieved with the Ecologists, 'Economical opponents', 'political adversaries'. Theer was no dialogue with the 'mystical opponents', for a very simple reason 'Nuclear people' are the Devil himself and they did not wish to have anything to do with him. There can be no end to the discussion about the sex of angels. To conclude, it is believed that there has been a discussion in France. It did not lead to any sort of complete consensus, but there are some true positive results. Only one, the well-known opponent to nuclear energy, in the seventies, the President of 'The Friends of the Earth' he is, now, French 'Environment Vice-Minister' and he considers that, among the energy industries, the nuclear energy is, without doubt, the less polluting

  10. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968. PMID:27428585

  11. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  12. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others. PMID:24552075

  13. An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Rastaghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propose a new public-key cryptosystem for P2P networks that is robust against Man-in-the-Middle adversary. This cryptosystem is based on RSA and knapsack problems. Our precoding-based algorithm uses knapsack problem for performing permutation and padding random data to the message. We show that comparing to other proposed cryptosystems, our algorithm is more efficient and it is fully secure against an active adversary.

  14. Breaking the O(nm) Bit Barrier: Secure Multiparty Computation with a Static Adversary

    CERN Document Server

    Dani, Varsha; Movahedi, Mahnush; Saia, Jared

    2012-01-01

    We describe scalable algorithms for secure multiparty computation (SMPC). We assume a synchronous message passing communication model, but unlike most related work, we do not assume the existence of a broadcast channel. Our main result holds for the case where there are n players, of which a (1/3-\\epsilon)-fraction are controlled by an adversary, for \\epsilon, any positive constant. We describe a SMPC algorithm for this model that requires each player to send O((n+m)/n + \\sqrt{n}) (where the O notation hides polylogarithmic factors) messages and perform O((n+m)/n + \\sqrt{n}) computations to compute any function f, where m is the size of a circuit to compute f. We also consider a model where all players are selfish but rational. In this model, we describe a Nash equilibrium protocol that solve SMPC and requires each player to send O((n+m)/n) messages and perform O((n+m)/n) computations. These results significantly improve over past results for SMPC which require each player to send a number of bits and perform...

  15. Adversarial intent modeling using embedded simulation and temporal Bayesian knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Melhuish, James; Seidel, Andy; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Gorniak, Mark

    2009-05-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness among air strategy planners, BAE Systems has developed Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment for authoring, integration, validation, and debugging of models relating multiple domains, including political, military, social, economic and information. CMIST provides a unified graphical user interface for such systems of systems modeling, spanning several disparate modeling paradigms. Here, we briefly review the CMIST architecture and then compare modeling results using two approaches to intent modeling. The first uses reactive agents with simplified behavior models that apply rule-based triggers to initiate actions based solely on observations of the external world at the current time in the simulation. The second method models proactive agents running an embedded CMIST simulation representing their projection of how events may unfold in the future in order to take early preventative action. Finally, we discuss a recent extension to CMIST that incorporates Temporal Bayesian Knowledge Bases for more sophisticated models of adversarial intent that are capable of inferring goals and future actions given evidence of current actions at particular times.

  16. Secure two-party quantum evaluation of unitaries against specious adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalities to garantee privacy: a private SWAP between registers held by the two parties and a classical private AND-box equivalent to oblivious transfer. If the unitary to be evaluated is in the Clifford group then only one call to SWAP is required for privacy. On the other hand, any unitary not in the Clifford requires one call to an AND-box per R-gate in the circuit. Since SWAP is itself in the Clifford group, this functionality is universal for the private evaluation of any unitary in that group. SWAP can be built from a classical bit commitment scheme or an AND-box but an AND-box cannot be constructed from SWAP. It follows that unitaries in the Clifford group are to some extent the easy ones. We also show that SWAP cann...

  17. Decision Aids for Adversarial Planning in Military Operations: Algorithms, Tools, and Turing-test-like Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Kott, Alexander; Budd, Ray; Ground, Larry; Rebbapragada, Lakshmi; Langston, John

    2016-01-01

    Use of intelligent decision aids can help alleviate the challenges of planning complex operations. We describe integrated algorithms, and a tool capable of translating a high-level concept for a tactical military operation into a fully detailed, actionable plan, producing automatically (or with human guidance) plans with realistic degree of detail and of human-like quality. Tight interleaving of several algorithms -- planning, adversary estimates, scheduling, routing, attrition and consumptio...

  18. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol. We design, implement, and apply the first methodology for large-scale testing of certificate validation logic in SSL/TLS implementations. Our first ingredient is "frankencerts," synthetic certificates that are randomly mutated from parts of real certificates and thus include unusual combinations of extensions and constraints. Our second ingredient is differential testing: if one SSL/TLS implementation accepts a certificate while another rejects the same certificate, we use the discrepancy as an oracle for finding flaws in individual implementations. Differential testing with frankencerts uncovered 208 discrepancies between popular SSL/TLS implementations such as OpenSSL, NSS, CyaSSL, GnuTLS, PolarSSL, MatrixSSL, etc. Many of them are caused by serious security vulnerabilities. For example, any server with a valid X.509 version 1 certificate can act as a rogue certificate authority and issue fake certificates for any domain, enabling man-in-the-middle attacks against MatrixSSL and GnuTLS. Several implementations also accept certificate authorities created by unauthorized issuers, as well as certificates not intended for server authentication. We also found serious vulnerabilities in how users are warned about certificate validation errors. When presented with an expired, self-signed certificate, NSS, Safari, and Chrome (on Linux) report that the certificate has expired-a low-risk, often ignored error-but not that the connection is insecure against a man-in-the-middle attack. These results demonstrate that automated adversarial testing with frankencerts

  19. The Effect of Respect, Trust, and Fear in Adversarial Stakeholder Relationships: A Case Study on Water Commodification and Stakeholder Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McGinley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Current academic discussion around stakeholder engagement has historically been focused on the attributes of the various stakeholders rather than on the relationship between the stakeholders. This paper examines the role that the intangible variables, respect, fear, and trust play in stakeholder relationships that are characterized by intractable conflict. That role is explored through a case study of stakeholder groups with adversarial positions on the commodification and export of Canada’s freshwater. Through discussion of the relationship between two sets of stakeholders with conflicting interests on Canada’s freshwater commodification respect, fear, and trust are advanced as the key intangible variables that create the underlying conflict. With these root causes identified the paper explores methods to build respect, reduce fear, and create trust between the stakeholders in an effort to shift their relationship from adversarial to co-operative in the hopes of facilitating constructive dialogue.

  20. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    correctly, are in this case, merely tools being employed to co-opt or buy off the opposition and legitimize the process. It appears at this point that there are two choices: either the decision-makers can attempt to continue with the current program of forced siting, ignoring all citizen and scientific opposition and eventually leading to litigation; or a new program can be developed. Since the US nuclear waste programs have utilized or have been perceived as utilizing advocacy science, the country must add 'adversary science' to the national program. This is described as the providing of financial support for competing teams of experts to investigate, and to tell the public about, any hazards which the enthusiasts of a project may have failed to report, or even to see. If citizens were able to participate in the debate between scientists and experts, with differing opinions concerning the merits of a nuclear waste site or indeed, any controversial technology, they would feel represented. They would believe that the final decisions were made only after the program in question had withstood and overcome all criticism-rather than just ignored it. There is probably no chance that the current US nuclear waste program can succeed in light of the level of public opposition. It is therefore necessary to move to a policy that respects those who must pay the costs and live with its consequences

  1. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    applied correctly, are in this case, merely tools being employed to co-opt or buy off the opposition and legitimize the process. It appears at this point that there are two choices: either the decision-makers can attempt to continue with the current program of forced siting, ignoring all citizen and scientific opposition and eventually leading to litigation; or a new program can be developed. Since the US nuclear waste programs have utilized or have been perceived as utilizing advocacy science, the country must add 'adversary science' to the national program. This is described as the providing of financial support for competing teams of experts to investigate, and to tell the public about, any hazards which the enthusiasts of a project may have failed to report, or even to see. If citizens were able to participate in the debate between scientists and experts, with differing opinions concerning the merits of a nuclear waste site or indeed, any controversial technology, they would feel represented. They would believe that the final decisions were made only after the program in question had withstood and overcome all criticism-rather than just ignored it. There is probably no chance that the current US nuclear waste program can succeed in light of the level of public opposition. It is therefore necessary to move to a policy that respects those who must pay the costs and live with its consequences.

  2. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts. PMID:25401483

  3. Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does Dialogue have a chance? Introductory remarks by John A. Macpherson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Are the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries listening to each other? Does dialogue have a chance? My short answer to both questions posed as the title for this discussion is 'no'. And I would add: There is no point in trying to bring opposite poles together, it requires too much investment for too little return. A nuclear dialogue will have a chance only it a distinction can be shown between physics and metaphysics, between chemistry and alchemy, and if the gap can be bridged between the polarized views of the world's societal needs which, incidentally, create the nuclear issue in the first place. This is a daunting task Movements in search of a cause have a passion for preaching rather than a love for listening

  4. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Staff's Approach to Incorporate the Attractiveness of Nuclear Material to Adversaries into Its Graded Approach to Security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of the analysis performed to support the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff’s approach to incorporate material attractiveness into its graded security requirements. Discussions of the technical study, as well as the input we have received from interested parties are presented. It will also provide the staff’s current view of the approach and how it could potentially be implemented into the regulatory framework. As with all of the NRC’s policy decisions, the five-member Commission will ultimately decide the final approach and implementation of the staff’s efforts. The NRC staff has worked over the last several years to identify an approach to capturing the concept of material attractiveness into its graded security requirements. This has involved staff work, a technical study, and outreach to stakeholders. The staff’s current understanding is that the most useful attribute to consider, aside from self protection, is the level of dilution. It is both measureable and correlated with the attractiveness of nuclear material to adversaries. The staff considers that the current categorization approach should be maintained. However, alternative security measures should be considered for varying levels of dilution, taking into account the bulkiness, heavy weight and lower attractiveness of the material. (author)

  5. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  6. PALs for allies and adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permissive action links (PAL) are electronic locks installed on certain nuclear weapons to preclude accidental or unauthorized use. These devices were developed and installed by the United States in some of its nuclear weapons deployed in Europe and elsewhere during the early 1960s PALs are important means of reducing the risk of nuclear war; however, despite this importance, there is a paucity of information in the open literature about the development and current deployment of permissive action links. In this paper, the author describes what permissive action links are, who has them, and present the pros and cons of sharing information about PALs, particularly in the European context

  7. Mother Earth: Ally or Adversary?

    OpenAIRE

    Thorvaldur Gylfason

    2002-01-01

    Economic growth requires capital. This article reviews the relationship between economic growth around the world and six different kinds of capital: real capital; human capital; financial capital; foreign capital; social capital; and natural capital. Economic theory and empirical evidence suggest that domestic and foreign investment, education, financial maturity, and reasonable equality in the distribution of income are all good for growth. However, recent theory and evidence also seem to su...

  8. High-Confidence Predictions under Adversarial Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Drucker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We study the setting in which the bits of an unknown infinite binary sequence x are revealed sequentially to an observer. We show that very limited assumptions about x allow one to make successful predictions about unseen bits of x. First, we study the problem of successfully predicting a single 0 from among the bits of x. In our model we have only one chance to make a prediction, but may do so at a time of our choosing. We describe and motivate this as the problem of a frog who wants to cross a road safely. Letting N_t denote the number of 1s among the first t bits of x, we say that x is "eps-weakly sparse" if lim inf (N_t/t) 0, we give a randomized forecasting algorithm S_eps that, given sequential access to a binary sequence x, makes a predi ction of the form: "A p fraction of the next N bits will be 1s." (The algorithm gets to choose p, N, and the time of the prediction.) For any fixed sequence x, the forecast fraction p is accurate to within +-eps with probability 1 - eps.

  9. Adversarial decision and optimization-based models

    OpenAIRE

    Villacorta Iglesias, Pablo Jos??

    2015-01-01

    Decision making is all around us. Everyone makes choices everyday, from the moment we open our eyes in the morning. Some of them do not have very important consequences in our life and these consequences are easy to take into account. However, in the business world, managers make decisions that have important consequences on the future of their own firm (in terms of revenues, market position, business policy) and their employees. In these cases, it is difficult to account fo...

  10. Quantum Information Processing with Adversarial Devices

    OpenAIRE

    McKague, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    We consider several applications in black-box quantum computation in which untrusted physical quantum devices are connected together to produce an experiment. By examining the outcome statistics of such an experiment, and comparing them against the desired experiment, we may hope to certify that the physical experiment is implementing the desired experiment. This is useful in order to verify that a calculation has been performed correctly, that measurement outcomes are secure, or that the dev...

  11. The Adversarial Playground: Adversaries manipulate media technology to their advantage [video

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2016-01-01

    ISIS has honed and evolved its propaganda skills and continues to push out very effective messaging to its prospective recruits, in many cases radicalizing groups and individuals. Which approaches should be taken in finding the right strategy to counter their hateful and violent disinformation? In this interview, Kathleen Kiernan has assembled a panel of subject matter experts on media production who discuss various approaches towards counter-messaging the messenger.

  12. New online ecology of adversarial aggregates: ISIS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N F; Zheng, M; Vorobyeva, Y; Gabriel, A; Qi, H; Velasquez, N; Manrique, P; Johnson, D; Restrepo, E; Song, C; Wuchty, S

    2016-06-17

    Support for an extremist entity such as Islamic State (ISIS) somehow manages to survive globally online despite considerable external pressure and may ultimately inspire acts by individuals having no history of extremism, membership in a terrorist faction, or direct links to leadership. Examining longitudinal records of online activity, we uncovered an ecology evolving on a daily time scale that drives online support, and we provide a mathematical theory that describes it. The ecology features self-organized aggregates (ad hoc groups formed via linkage to a Facebook page or analog) that proliferate preceding the onset of recent real-world campaigns and adopt novel adaptive mechanisms to enhance their survival. One of the predictions is that development of large, potentially potent pro-ISIS aggregates can be thwarted by targeting smaller ones. PMID:27313046

  13. The deconstruction of safety arguments through adversarial counter-argument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Deconstructive Evaluation of Risk In Dependability Arguments and Safety Cases (DERIDASC) has recently experimented with techniques borrowed from literary theory as safety case analysis techniques [Armstrong. Danger: Derrida at work. Interdiscipl Sci Rev 2003;28(2):83-94. ; Armstrong J, Paynter S. Safe systems: construction, destruction, and deconstruction. In: Redmill F, Anderson T, editors. Proceedings of the 11th safety critical systems symposium, Bristol, UK. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 62-76. ISBN:1-85233-696-X. ]. This paper introduces our high-level framework for 'deconstructing' safety arguments. Our approach is quite general and should be applicable to different types of safety argumentation framework. As one example, we outline how the approach would work in the context of the Goal Structure Notation (GSN)

  14. New Online Ecology of Adversarial Aggregates: ISIS and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Vorobyeva, Y; Gabriel, A; Qi, H; Velasquez, N; Manrique, P; Johnson, D; Restrepo, E; Song, C; Wuchty, S

    2016-01-01

    Support for an extremist entity such as Islamic State (ISIS) somehow manages to survive globally online despite significant external pressure, and may ultimately inspire acts by individuals who have no prior history of extremism, formal cell membership or direct links to leadership. We uncover an ultrafast ecology driving this online support and provide a mathematical theory that describes it. The ecology features self-organized aggregates that proliferate preceding the onset of recent real-world campaigns, and adopt novel adaptive mechanisms to enhance their survival. One of the actionable predictions is that the development of large, potentially potent pro-ISIS aggregates can be thwarted by targeting smaller ones.

  15. Modeling Adversaries in Counterterrorism Decisions Using Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Jason R W; Leclerc, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Counterterrorism decisions have been an intense area of research in recent years. Both decision analysis and game theory have been used to model such decisions, and more recently approaches have been developed that combine the techniques of the two disciplines. However, each of these approaches assumes that the attacker is maximizing its utility. Experimental research shows that human beings do not make decisions by maximizing expected utility without aid, but instead deviate in specific ways such as loss aversion or likelihood insensitivity. In this article, we modify existing methods for counterterrorism decisions. We keep expected utility as the defender's paradigm to seek for the rational decision, but we use prospect theory to solve for the attacker's decision to descriptively model the attacker's loss aversion and likelihood insensitivity. We study the effects of this approach in a critical decision, whether to screen containers entering the United States for radioactive materials. We find that the defender's optimal decision is sensitive to the attacker's levels of loss aversion and likelihood insensitivity, meaning that understanding such descriptive decision effects is important in making such decisions. PMID:25039254

  16. Risk taking in adversarial situations: Civilization differences in chess experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassy, Philippe; Gobet, Fernand

    2015-08-01

    The projections of experts in politics predict that a new world order will emerge within two decades. Being multipolar, this world will inevitably lead to frictions where civilizations and states will have to decide whether to risk conflict. Very often these decisions are informed if not taken by experts. To estimate risk-taking across civilizations, we examined strategies used in 667,599 chess games played over eleven years by chess experts from 11 different civilizations. We show that some civilizations are more inclined to settle for peace. Similarly, we show that once engaged in the battle, the level of risk taking varies significantly across civilizations, the boldest civilization using the riskiest strategy about 35% more than the most conservative civilization. We discuss which psychological factors might underpin these civilizational differences. PMID:25912894

  17. A model-referenced procedure to support adversarial decision processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In public enquiries concerning major facilities, such as the construction of a new electric power plant, it is observed that a useable decision model should be made commonly available alongside the open provision of data and assumptions. The protagonist, eg the electric utility, generally makes use of a complex, proprietary model for detailed evaluation of options. A simple emulator of this, based upon a regression analysis of numerous scenarios, and validated by further simulations is shown to be feasible and potentially attractive. It would be in the interests of the utility to make such a model-referenced decision support method generally available. The approach is considered in relation to the recent Hinkley Point C public enquiry for a new nuclear power plant in the UK. (Author)

  18. Intelligent Online Path Planning for UAVs in Adversarial Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Xingguang Peng; Demin Xu

    2012-01-01

    Online path planning (OPP) for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is a basic issue of intelligent flight and is indeed a dynamic multi‐objective optimization problem (DMOP). In this paper, an OPP framework is proposed in the sense of model predictive control (MPC) to continuously update the environmental information for the planner. For solving the DMOP involved in the MPC we propose a dynamic multi‐objective evolutionary algorithm based on linkage and prediction (LP‐DMOEA). Within this algorith...

  19. New Online Ecology of Adversarial Aggregates: ISIS and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, N F; Zheng, M.; Vorobyeva, Y.; Gabriel, A.; Qi, H.; Velasquez, N.; Manrique, P.; Johnson, D.; Restrepo, E; Song, C.; Wuchty, S.

    2016-01-01

    Support for an extremist entity such as Islamic State (ISIS) somehow manages to survive globally online despite significant external pressure, and may ultimately inspire acts by individuals who have no prior history of extremism, formal cell membership or direct links to leadership. We uncover an ultrafast ecology driving this online support and provide a mathematical theory that describes it. The ecology features self-organized aggregates that proliferate preceding the onset of recent real-w...

  20. Distributed convergence to Nash equilibria by adversarial networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gharesifard, Bahman

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers a class of strategic scenarios in which two networks of agents have opposing objectives with regards to the optimization of a common objective function. In the resulting zero-sum game, individual agents collaborate with neighbors in their respective network and have only partial knowledge of the state of the agents in the other network. For the case when the interaction topology of each network is undirected, we synthesize a distributed saddle-point strategy and establish its convergence to the Nash equilibrium for the class of strictly concave-convex and locally Lipschitz objective functions. We also show that this dynamics does not converge in general if the topologies are directed. This justifies the introduction, in the directed case, of a generalization of this distributed dynamics which we show converges to the Nash equilibrium for the class of strictly concave-convex differentiable functions with locally Lipschitz gradients. The technical approach combines tools from algebraic grap...

  1. Educating Political Adversaries: Chantal Mouffe and Radical Democratic Citizenship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2009-01-01

    Many scholars in the area of citizenship education take deliberative approaches to democracy, especially as put forward by John Rawls, as their point of departure. From there, they explore how students' capacity for political and/or moral reasoning can be fostered. Recent work by political theorist Chantal Mouffe, however, questions some of the…

  2. Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    We propose a protocol for the problem of secure two-party pattern matching, where Alice holds a text t∈{0,1}∗ of length n, while Bob has a pattern p∈{0,1}∗ of length m. The goal is for Bob to (only) learn where his pattern occurs in Alice’s text, while Alice learns nothing. Private pattern matching...... costs of O(n+m) group elements in a constant round complexity. This improves over previous work by Gennaro et al. (Public Key Cryptography, pp. 145–160, 2010) whose solution requires overhead of O(nm) group elements and exponentiations in O(m) rounds. In addition to the above, we propose a collection of...... protocols for important variations of the secure pattern matching problem that are significantly more efficient than the current state of art solutions: First, we deal with secure pattern matching with wildcards. In this variant the pattern may contain wildcards that match both 0 and 1. Our protocol...

  3. [The newborn and the couple: adversaries or partners?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, M A; Tremblay, S

    1991-06-01

    We generally accept that the planned arrival of a first child is a source of joy for the new parents and that it provides them with a sense of accomplishment. Traditionally, society welcomes the formation of a family unit and looks forward to this passage into the new role of parenthood. However, not only has research on marital relations set aside the popular imagery of romanticism, but it has increasingly given negative connotations to this crisis-prone transition phase. The objective of this article is therefore to review literature concerning the impact of a newborn child on the marital experience, and to nuance the idea that childbirth can lead to crisis situations within the couple. In conclusion, the authors argue that the concept of marital satisfaction needs to be reformulated. Judging from their brief overview of literature, the authors believe the concept to be too narrowly defined and slightly ambiguous. Indeed, researchers have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of marital satisfaction. Furthermore, they tend to operationalize the concept in very different ways. As a result, there is a lot of conclusion and the fact that many researchers use different terms as a synonym of satisfaction is no help. What's more, the assessment of quality in a relationship should not be limited to measuring the level of satisfaction of the two partners. Other dimensions (e.g. adjustment, commitment, cohesion, etc.) deserve consideration in order to give a more complete image of the changes that occur over the years within the couple. PMID:1932419

  4. The perpetual adversary: how Dutch security services perceived communism (1918-1989)

    OpenAIRE

    Hijzen, Constant Willem

    2013-01-01

    "For more than eighty years, Dutch security services perceived communism as the ultimate threat to national security. From its inception, the anticommunist threat perceptions contained references to foreign, possible, potential, and ideological elements of the communist threat. This put the activities of Dutch communists in a different light. Although for a long time there were well-grounded reasons to do so, the author finds that there were periods when the actual threatening character of Du...

  5. Adversary phase change detection using S.O.M. and text data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we developed a self-organizing map (SOM) technique for using web-based text analysis to forecast when a group is undergoing a phase change. By 'phase change', we mean that an organization has fundamentally shifted attitudes or behaviors. For instance, when ice melts into water, the characteristics of the substance change. A formerly peaceful group may suddenly adopt violence, or a violent organization may unexpectedly agree to a ceasefire. SOM techniques were used to analyze text obtained from organization postings on the world-wide web. Results suggest it may be possible to forecast phase changes, and determine if an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  6. Insider, Outsider, Ally, or Adversary: Parents of Youth with Learning Disabilities Engage in Educational Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duquette, Cheryll; Fullarton, Stephanie; Orders, Shari; Robertson-Grewal, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the educational advocacy experiences of parents of adolescents and young adults identified as having a learning disability (LD) through the lens of four dimensions of advocacy. Seventeen mothers of youth with LD responded to items in a questionnaire and 13 also engaged in in-depth interviews. It…

  7. [The investigative and adversarial process in Italy and the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, George B; Mastronardi, Vincenzo; Agostini, Susanna

    2012-01-01

    The structure of the US legal system, which relies on the presence of different courts to provide for the impartial administration of justice, both civil and criminal is discussed. Therefore, all the steps to conviction or acquittal of the American criminal trial, are taken into consideration. However, there is the presumption of innocence of the accused and the prosecution must prove his guilt beyond any reasonable doubt. Another important procedure in the US trial is the jury selection (voir dire), 12 jurors: 6 for the defense and 6 for the prosecution. In Italy it was observed that the autonomy of the police would squeeze the steering function of the prosecutor, and the practice of "under cover" investigation has granted an extension of police activity. PMID:23023121

  8. The principles of adversarial procedure and equality in international commercial arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Козирєва, Валентина; Гаврилішин, Анатолій

    2016-01-01

    The article investigates the principles of competitiveness and procedural equality as basic principles of justice which govern litigation international commercial arbitration. On the basis of international legal acts are examples of the application of the above principles. English abstract V. Kozyreva, A. Havrylishyn The article deals with the principles of competition and equality of procedural justice as the basic principles governing the cases to international commercial arbitration. On...

  9. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visió...

  10. Using Frankencerts for Automated Adversarial Testing of Certificate Validation in SSL/TLS Implementations

    OpenAIRE

    Brubaker, Chad; Jana, Suman; Ray, Baishakhi; Khurshid, Sarfraz; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Modern network security rests on the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols. Distributed systems, mobile and desktop applications, embedded devices, and all of secure Web rely on SSL/TLS for protection against network attacks. This protection critically depends on whether SSL/TLS clients correctly validate X.509 certificates presented by servers during the SSL/TLS handshake protocol.

  11. 'In the last analysis, our aim can only be achieved by cooperating with our political adversary...'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains, word for word, a declaration written by eight members of the 'Hanau Chain Reaction' and signed by 112 individuals. It had the aim to convince the management of Siemens-Brennelementewerk Hanau-Wolfgang (known as Alkem and BRU before January 1989) of the necessity to stop the production of fuel cells made from plutonium co-oxide and uranium. This act of peaceful resistance was to give emphasis to the demands formerly made during talks with the firm management. (BBR)

  12. Know Thine Adversary: The Impact of Race on Styles of Dealing with Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Martin N.

    2001-01-01

    Examined Blacks' and Whites' conflict coping preferences using a scenario that manipulated an offender's race. In one study, Blacks more than Whites preferred behaviorally expressive conflict management and eschewed more reserved tactics. People were less confrontational with offenders of their same racial group. In another study, there was weaker…

  13. Peer-to-Peer Secure Multi-Party Numerical Computation Facing Malicious Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny

    2009-01-01

    We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and other tasks, where the computing nodes is expected to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we try to bridge the gap between theoretical algorithms in the security domain, and a practical Peer-to-Peer deployment. We consider two security models. The first is the semi-honest model where peers correctly follow the protocol, but try to reveal private information. We provide three possible schemes for secure multi-party numerical computation for this model and identify a singl...

  14. Semidefinite programming characterization and spectral adversary method for quantum complexity with noncommuting unitary queries

    OpenAIRE

    Barnum, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Generalizing earlier work characterizing the quantum query complexity of computing a function of an unknown classical ``black box'' function drawn from some set of such black box functions, we investigate a more general quantum query model in which the goal is to compute functions of N by N ``black box'' unitary matrices drawn from a set of such matrices, a problem with applications to determining properties of quantum physical systems. We characterize the existence of an algorithm for such a...

  15. Vision and strategy development of Slovak society. Development Strategy for Slovak society (basis for public adversary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analytical study analyses the present state as well as strategy of perspectives of development of Slovak society. This strategy of development of Slovak society is scientific testimony of the authors, the manner and extent of its use will determine political representation. Future economic growth and development of Slovak's regions will mainly depend on the availability of raw materials, energy resources, water, food processes and improving the environment. A key issue in the next 5 to 10 years in the energy sector will address energy security, diversification of energy sources, utilization of domestic raw materials and renewable energy and energy savings. The energy security strategy is to achieve a competitive energy industry for reliable and efficient supply of all forms of energy at affordable prices, with a view to protection of the customer and the environment.

  16. Consensus of Multi-Agent Networks in the Presence of Adversaries Using Only Local Information

    CERN Document Server

    LeBlanc, Heath J; Sundaram, Shreyas; Koutsoukos, Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of resilient consensus in the presence of misbehaving nodes. Although it is typical to assume knowledge of at least some nonlocal information when studying secure and fault-tolerant consensus algorithms, this assumption is not suitable for large-scale dynamic networks. To remedy this, we emphasize the use of local strategies to deal with resilience to security breaches. We study a consensus protocol that uses only local information and we consider worst-case security breaches, where the compromised nodes have full knowledge of the network and the intentions of the other nodes. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the normal nodes to reach consensus despite the influence of the malicious nodes under different threat assumptions. These conditions are stated in terms of a novel graph-theoretic property referred to as network robustness.

  17. BEHAVIOR AND CONSCIOUSNESS. HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF THE ADVERSARY ALTERNATIVES IN THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARCÍA-VEGA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The word behavior has a reduccionist origin and meaning, the later has been commonly assumed since the mecanicistinterpretation of organic movement in Descartes, La Mettrie, Séchenov and Pávlov until nowadays. Watson continueswith this tendency making it the starting point of his psychology and, in fact, due to the category he studies, he will callhis school behaviorism.In 1924 Vygostky refuses to take this reduccionist and mecanicist model from reactology and reflexology and claims forpsychology the need of taking conscience into account, understanding conscience not as the movement of a machinethat reacts to a stimular situation, but as the dialectic activity of material human brain, that has reached its highestdegree of development.

  18. Partners or Adversaries: A Comparative Case Study of Higher-Education Systems and State-Level Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toman, Janelle Krause; Card, Karen Aldred

    2010-01-01

    The accountability focus in higher education historically has been directed at the institutional level. The purpose of this comparative case study, however, was to look at state-level accountability. The research focused on the processes used in Tennessee, Minnesota, and South Dakota. Interviews were conducted with higher education administrators…

  19. An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary

    OpenAIRE

    Roohallah Rastaghi

    2012-01-01

    Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propos...

  20. El aspecto científico de la trilogía “ministerio público-policía-peritos” en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en México/The scientific aspect of the trilogy "public-police-expert ministry" in the new adversarial criminal process, and oral adversarial court in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez

    2015-01-01

    The last June 18, 2008 the Decree amending Articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 are amended was published; (the fractions) XXI and XXIII of Article 73, Section VII of Article 115 and section XIII paragraph B of Article 123 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, giving rise to the Constitutional reform of criminal justice, emerging as basic expectations: total transformation of the criminal justice system; effectively guarantee the validity of the “due process” in criminal matters re...

  1. El aspecto científico de la trilogía “ministerio público-policía-peritos” en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en México/The scientific aspect of the trilogy "public-police-expert ministry" in the new adversarial criminal process, and oral adversarial court in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The last June 18, 2008 the Decree amending Articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 are amended was published; (the fractions XXI and XXIII of Article 73, Section VII of Article 115 and section XIII paragraph B of Article 123 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, giving rise to the Constitutional reform of criminal justice, emerging as basic expectations: total transformation of the criminal justice system; effectively guarantee the validity of the “due process” in criminal matters restore confidence in the criminal justice system and its institutions doing research and efficient prosecution of crimes, the accused is greater assurances defense thereby ensuring the protection, support and participation of victims and injured, and safeguard the principles governing a Democratic-State Constitutional Law.

  2. Plea Bargaining: A Trojan Horse of The Adversarial System?%辩诉交易:对抗制的"特洛伊木马"?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓娜

    2011-01-01

    @@ 一、问题的提出 近年来,人们惊讶地发现:辩诉交易,这一具有强烈"美国"符号的制度,不知从何时起,已经"暗度陈仓",悄然在欧洲大陆和一些拉美国家开枝散叶.[1

  3. [Polls and analysis of data presented by Risto Saenkiaho [Roundtable discussion on whether the advocates of nuclear power and the adversaries are listening to each other

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion shows the results of polls and analysis of data related to: confidence toward different information sources in energy policy; advantages of nuclear power; disadvantages of nuclear power; factors of political goals; factors of attitudes in energy policy

  4. MISTRAL: A game-theoretical model to allocate security measures in a multi-modal chemical transportation network with adaptive adversaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a multi-modal security-transportation model to allocate security resources within a chemical supply chain which is characterized by the use of different transport modes, each having their own security features. We consider security-related risks so as to take measures against terrorist acts which could target critical transportation systems. The idea of addressing security-related issues, by supporting decisions for preventing or mitigating intentional acts on transportation infrastructure, has gained attention in academic research only recently. The decision model presented in this paper is based on game theory and it can be employed to organize intelligence capabilities aimed at securing chemical supply chains. It enables detection and warning against impending attacks on transportation infrastructures and the subsequent adoption of security countermeasures. This is of extreme importance for preventing terrorist attacks and for avoiding (possibly huge) human and economic losses. In our work we also provide data sources and numerical simulations by applying the proposed model to a illustrative multi-modal chemical supply chain. - Highlights: • A model to increase the security in a multimodal chemical supply chain is proposed. • The model considers adaptive opponents having multi-attribute utility functions. • The model is based on game theory using an attacker–defender schema. • The model provides recommendations about where to allocate security measures. • Numerical simulations on a sample multimodal chemical supply chain are shown

  5. 中国男篮潜在对手斯洛文尼亚队的得分能力研究%Score Capability' s Analysis of Siovenia, the Potential Adversaries about Chinese Men's Basketball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛小犇

    2011-01-01

    作为中国男篮的潜在对手,对参加第35届欧洲男子篮球锦标赛的斯洛文尼亚队进行的全部9场比赛所涉及到得分的技术指标进行数据统计与分析,研究该球队的得分特点及规律.得出该队是以内线进攻为主,球队进入状态较快,首先选择中路进攻,其次是右区,最后是左区;投篮方式主要接球直接投篮和低位背向篮的进攻.%Attending the complete 9 competitions which 35th session of European man basketball championship tournament's Slovenian team,the research is to study the score technical specification on the data statistics and the analysis,and this team ' s score characteristic and the rule. This team is by the inside connection attack primarily. The team enters the condition to be quick, first chooses the middle of the mill attack, next is the right area, finally is the left area. Short distance shooting mainly concentrates under the basket 13 and 14 areas; long-distance range shooting mainly concentrates in 2 areas, 3 areas and 4 areas; The shooting way mainly catches a ball direct shooting and the low position dislikes basket's attack.

  6. Rate-Distortion Theory for Secrecy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schieler, Curt; Cuff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Secrecy in communication systems is measured herein by the distortion that an adversary incurs. The transmitter and receiver share secret key, which they use to encrypt communication and ensure distortion at an adversary. A model is considered in which an adversary not only intercepts the communication from the transmitter to the receiver, but also potentially has side information. Specifically, the adversary may have causal or noncausal access to a signal that is correlated with the source s...

  7. Coercion-Resistant Electronic Elections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juels, Ari; Catalano, Dario; Jakobsson, Markus

    We introduce a model for electronic election schemes that involves a more powerful adversary than previous work. In particular, we allow the adversary to demand of coerced voters that they vote in a particular manner, abstain from voting, or even disclose their secret keys. We define a scheme to be coercion-resistant if it is infeasible for the adversary to determine whether a coerced voter complies with the demands.

  8. Rateless codes for AVC models

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Gastpar, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The arbitrarily varying channel (AVC) is a channel model whose state is selected maliciously by an adversary. Fixed-blocklength coding assumes a worst-case bound on the adversary's capabilities, which leads to pessimistic results. This paper defines a variable-length perspective on this problem, for which achievable rates are shown that depend on the realized actions of the adversary. Specifically, rateless codes are constructed which require a limited amount of common randomness. These codes...

  9. Investing in Conflict Management

    OpenAIRE

    GARANCE GENICOT; STERGIOS SKAPERDAS

    2002-01-01

    Achieving peace and building the institutions that will make it last require much time and effort on the part of adversaries. While making this effort, the likelihood of peace is uncertain, and preparations for conflict are ongoing. Using a model that takes such considerations into account, adversaries divide their resources between “guns,â€â€œbutter,†and investments in conflict management. Even when all adversaries undertake sizable investments in conflict management, peace is uncertain....

  10. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom......Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any......- work, and gives a general pattern for reasoning about independence....

  11. Information Theoretic-Learning Auto-Encoder

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Eder; Emigh, Matthew; Principe, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Information Theoretic-Learning (ITL) divergence measures for variational regularization of neural networks. We also explore ITL-regularized autoencoders as an alternative to variational autoencoding bayes, adversarial autoencoders and generative adversarial networks for randomly generating sample data without explicitly defining a partition function. This paper also formalizes, generative moment matching networks under the ITL framework.

  12. Estado e mercado: adversários ou aliados no processo de implementação da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição? Elementos para um debate sobre medidas de regulamentação State and market: adversaries or allies in the implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy? Some reflections on regulation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação e a nutrição constituem requisitos básicos para a promoção e a proteção da saúde, possibilitando a afirmação plena do potencial de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano, com qualidade de vida e cidadania. As mudanças na relação do Estado, sociedade civil e mercado têm trazido uma série de conseqüências sociais adversas, especialmente no campo da saúde e nutrição. Este artigo tem como propósito provocar algumas reflexões relativas à necessidade de pactuação entre Estado, sociedade e mercado para a efetivação de medidas capazes de atuar positivamente no controle da obesidade e conseqüentemente melhorar as condições de saúde e nutrição da população brasileira. Apresenta uma breve descrição de contexto histórico sobre política social no Brasil e seus reflexos específicos na temática de alimentação e nutrição; identifica aspectos políticos principais para uma análise das diretrizes da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição; destaca o fortalecimento de medidas de regulamentação como estratégia de enfrentamento do problema de excesso de peso / obesidade na sociedade, identificando suas raízes a partir do modo de viver urbano, globalizado e neoliberal das ultimas décadas, e, por fim, sugere elementos para enriquecer esse debate. Medidas de regulamentação parecem poder influenciar positivamente nas ações de promoção da saúde, pois estabelecem limites e um conjunto de critérios para mediar as relações entre sociedade e mercado, além de refletir o apoio e a proteção da saúde do cidadão como objetivo principal do Estado nesse processo.Food and nutrition constitute basic requirements for health promotion and protection, enabling the full expression of the human potential for growth and development, with quality of life and citizenship. Changes in the relationship between State, Civil Society, and the Market have brought several adverse social consequences, particularly in the health and nutrition field. This article intends to stimulate some reflections related to the need of an agreement between State, Civil Society and the Market for the accomplishment of measures that are able to contribute to obesity control and, as a consequence, to improve health and nutrition conditions of the Brazilian population. The article also presents a brief description of the historical context of social policies in Brazil and their specific consequences to food and nutrition matters; it identifies the main political aspects to analyze guidelines of the National Food and Nutrition Policy; it emphasizes the strengthening of regulation measures as a strategy to face the problem of excess of weight / obesity in society, identifying its roots in the urban, 'global' and neoliberal way of life of the last decades and, as a conclusion, it suggests more elements to enrich this debate. Regulation Measures seem to have a positive influence on health promotion actions by setting up the boundaries and criteria to mediate the relationship between Civil Society and the Market, besides reflecting the support and protection of the citizen's health as the main purpose of the State in this process.

  13. Teaching Global Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtan, Linda S.

    1980-01-01

    Addresses problem of American students' limited knowledge of international issues and laws. Provides articles for secondary school students on law around the world, South Africa, Russia, folk law, and alternatives to the adversary system and suggests relevant resources. (KC)

  14. 78 FR 69073 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... a technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software..., repair and return services, software development/integration, test and equipment, supply support... equipment, tanker support, ferry services, repair and return services, software...

  15. 78 FR 48422 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... SAFIRE III is an all-digital, full high definition EO/IR system that provides superior image... technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements,...

  16. Probabilistic Analysis of Onion Routing in a Black-box Model

    CERN Document Server

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Syverson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We perform a probabilistic analysis of onion routing. The analysis is presented in a black-box model of anonymous communication in the Universally Composable framework that abstracts the essential properties of onion routing in the presence of an active adversary that controls a portion of the network and knows all a priori distributions on user choices of destination. Our results quantify how much the adversary can gain in identifying users by exploiting knowledge of their probabilistic behavior. In particular, we show that, in the limit as the network gets large, a user u's anonymity is worst either when the other users always choose the destination u is least likely to visit or when the other users always choose the destination u chooses. This worst-case anonymity with an adversary that controls a fraction b of the routers is shown to be comparable to the best-case anonymity against an adversary that controls a fraction \\surdb.

  17. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  18. 78 FR 703 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... of sensitive technology and information. The equipment, hardware, and documentation are classified... circuits are classified Secret. The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to protect... advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements, the...

  19. 76 FR 43662 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... hardware upon which the software has been installed. 3. If a technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements, the information could be used to...

  20. 76 FR 17158 - Assumption Buster Workshop: Distributed Data Schemes Provide Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... different segments throughout the platform we send the adversary on a wild goose chase to find and... no more than two pages which highlights your expertise in this area and (2) a one-page paper...

  1. 76 FR 80241 - Revisions to Rules of Conduct and Standards of Responsibility for Representatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Responsibility for Representatives AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Final rules. SUMMARY: We are... conduct and standards of responsibility for representatives made our process adversarial. Response: Our... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL...

  2. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    OpenAIRE

    Durairaj, M; A. Persia

    2014-01-01

    A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM) and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP) is done. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC) address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends ...

  3. When Do Customers Switch Suppliers? Empirical Evidence From The US Auto Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Helper, S; Mudambi, R

    1995-01-01

    This paper tests a model incorporating non-cooperative behaviour within the formal context of commitment (a "close, but adversarial model"), using data from the US auto industry. The model appears to be reasonably well supported by the data, suggesting that even within professed cooperative buyer-supplier relationships, adversarial behaviour persists. When the sample is split on the basis of a 'trust' pre-test, evidence for informal commitment appears in a minority of the relationships.

  4. OJIT: A Novel Obfuscation Approach Using Standard Just-In-Time Compiler Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Hataba, Muhammad; El-Mahdy, Ahmed; Rohou, Erven

    2015-01-01

    With the adoption of cloud computing, securing remote program execution becomes an important issue. Relying on standard data encryption is not enough, since code execution happens on remote servers, possibly allowing for eavesdropping from potential adversaries; thus the full execution process requires protection from such threats. In this paper, we introduce OJIT system as a novel approach for obfuscating programs, making it difficult for adversaries to reverse-engineer. The system exploits ...

  5. Device Fingerprinting in Wireless Networks: Challenges and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qiang; Zheng, Rong; Saad, Walid; Han, Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Node forgery or impersonation, in which legitimate cryptographic credentials are captured by an adversary, constitutes one major security threat facing wireless networks. The fact that mobile devices are prone to be compromised and reverse engineered significantly increases the risk of such attacks in which adversaries can obtain secret keys on trusted nodes and impersonate the legitimate node. One promising approach toward thwarting these attacks is through the extraction of unique fingerpri...

  6. Bringing Theory Closer to Practice in Post-quantum and Leakage-resilient Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Duc, Alexandre Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Modern cryptography pushed forward the need of having provable security. Whereas ancient cryptography was only relying on heuristic assumptions and the secrecy of the designs, nowadays researchers try to make the security of schemes to rely on mathematical problems which are believed hard to solve. When doing these proofs, the capabilities of potential adversaries are modeled formally. For instance, the black-box model assumes that an adversary does not learn anything from the inner-state of ...

  7. Security Aspects of Distance-Bounding Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Onete, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Authentication protocols, run between a so-called prover and a so-called verifier, enable the verifier to decide whether a prover is legitimate or not. Such protocols enable access control, and are used in e.g.~logistics, public transport, or personal identification. An authentication protocol is considered secure if an adversary cannot impersonate a legitimate prover. Such an adversary may eavesdrop authentication attempts between a legitimate prover and a legitimate verifier, interact with ...

  8. Location Privacy in Mobile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This master thesis presents a client-server system for protecting the anonymity and location privacy of mobile network users against a passive network-side adversary. The server provides a pool of UICCs – technological successors to SIM cards. Users’ cellphones rely on those UICCs for accessing a mobile network. Through simultaneous, coordinated switching to new UICCs, groups of users in the same mobile radio cell become indistinguishable to the adversary. The system’s performance was evaluat...

  9. Video Transmission in Tactical Cognitive Radio Networks Under Disruptive Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Soysa, Madushanka Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    In this dissertation, I examine the performance of a cognitive radio (CR) system in a hostile environment where an intelligent adversary tries to disrupt communications with a Gaussian noise signal. I analyze a cluster-based network of secondary users (SUs). The adversary can limit access for SUs by either transmitting a spoofing signal in the sensing interval, or a desynchronizing signal in the code acquisition interval. By jamming the network during the transmission interval, the adversar...

  10. Hidden Attacks on Power Grid: Optimal Attack Strategies and Mitigation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2014-01-01

    Real time operation of the power grid and synchronism of its different elements require accurate estimation of its state variables. Errors in state estimation will lead to sub-optimal Optimal Power Flow (OPF) solutions and subsequent increase in the price of electricity in the market or, potentially overload and create line outages. This paper studies hidden data attacks on power systems by an adversary trying to manipulate state estimators. The adversary gains control of a few meters, and is...

  11. High Confidence Networked Control for Next Generation Air Transportation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Pangun; Khadilkar, Harshad Dilip; Balakrishnan, Hamsa; Tomlin, Claire J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a secure and fault-tolerant air transportation system in the presence of attempts to disrupt the system through the satellite-based navigation system. Adversarial aircraft are assumed to transmit incorrect position and intent information, potentially leading to violations of separation requirements among aircraft. We propose a framework for the identification of adversaries and malicious aircraft, and then for air traffic control in the presence of such deli...

  12. Public-Key Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Lint, van, JH

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Theory Provable security is an important goal in the design of public-key cryptosystems. For most security properties, it is computational security that has to be considered: an attack scenario describes how adversaries interact with the cryptosystem, trying to attack it; the system can be called secure if adversaries with reasonably bounded computational means have negligible prospects of success. The lack of computational problems that are guaranteed to be hard in an appropriate sen...

  13. Material control system simulator user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts

  14. Vulnerable GPU Memory Management: Towards Recovering Raw Data from GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Zhe; Diao, Wenrui; Liu, Xiangyu; Li, Zhou; Zhang, Kehuan; Liu, Rui

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present that security threats coming with existing GPU memory management strategy are overlooked, which opens a back door for adversaries to freely break the memory isolation: they enable adversaries without any privilege in a computer to recover the raw memory data left by previous processes directly. More importantly, such attacks can work on not only normal multi-user operating systems, but also cloud computing platforms. To demonstrate the seriousness of such attacks, we...

  15. Near-Optimal Evasion of Convex-Inducing Classifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Blaine; Huang, Ling; Joseph, Anthony D; Lau, Shing-hon; Lee, Steven J; Rao, Satish; Tran, Anthony; Tygar, J D

    2010-01-01

    Classifiers are often used to detect miscreant activities. We study how an adversary can efficiently query a classifier to elicit information that allows the adversary to evade detection at near-minimal cost. We generalize results of Lowd and Meek (2005) to convex-inducing classifiers. We present algorithms that construct undetected instances of near-minimal cost using only polynomially many queries in the dimension of the space and without reverse engineering the decision boundary.

  16. Secure Human-Computer Identification (Interface) Systems against Peeping Attacks: SecHCI

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SJ; Shum, HY

    2005-01-01

    It is an interesting problem how a human can prove its identity to a trustworthy (local or remote) computer with untrustworthy input devices and via an insecure channel controlled by adversaries. Any input devices and auxiliary devices are untrustworthy under the following assumptions: the adversaries can record humans' operations on the devices, and can access the devices to replay the recorded operations. Strictly, only the common brain intelligence is available for the human. In this paper...

  17. Crypto at the Time of Surveillance: Sharing with the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Yung, Moti

    2014-01-01

    These days as we are facing extremely powerful attacks on servers over the Internet (say, by the Advanced Persistent Threat attackers or by Surveillance by powerful adversary), Shamir has claimed that “Cryptography is Ineffective”and some understood it as “Cryptography is Dead!” In this talk I will discuss the implications on cryptographic systems design while facing such strong adversaries. Is crypto dead or we need to design it better, taking into account, mathematical constraints, but also...

  18. Configuration of road convoys: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important element in the evaluation of transportation safeguards systems is the analysis of convoy configurations. The analysis should examine the influence of vehicle deployment and tactics, communications strategies, vulnerabilities, and adversary characteristics on survivability and emergency signal probability. A computerized model, SOURCE, has been developed which simulates the initial interaction between a convoy and an adversary force. The model is described and example results for several vehicle convoy configurations are presented

  19. Quantifying Cyber-Security for Networked Control Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, André; Sou, Kin C.; Sandberg, Henrik; Johansson, Karl H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we consider a typical architecture for a networked control system under false-data injection attacks. Under a previously proposed adversary modeling framework, various formulations for quantifying cyber-security of control systems are proposed and formulated as constrained optimization problems. These formulations capture trade-offs in terms of attack impact on the control performance, attack detectability, and adversarial resources. The formulations are then discussed and relat...

  20. An Identity- Based Key- Exchange Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-juan; ZHU Yue-fei; HUANG Qiu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based key-exchange protocol using a bilinear map is proposed and it is proved SK-secure(session key secure) in the AM (authenticated links adversarial model)provided the BDDH (bilinear Diffie-Hellmen) assumption is correct. Then we apply the signature-based authenticator to our protocol and obtain an identity-Based key-exchange protocol that is SK-secure in the UM (unauthenticated links adversarial model) provided the BDDH assumption is correct.

  1. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts.

  2. Information-theoretically Secure Erasure Codes for Distributed Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nihar B.; Rashmi, K. V.; Ramchandran, Kannan; Kumar, P. Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Repair operations in distributed storage systems potentially expose the data to malicious acts of passive eavesdroppers or active adversaries, which can be detrimental to the security of the system. This paper presents erasure codes and repair algorithms that ensure security of the data in the presence of passive eavesdroppers and active adversaries, while maintaining high availability, reliability and efficiency in the system. Our codes are optimal in that they meet previously proposed lower...

  3. Detecting and Mitigating Smart Insider Jamming Attacks in MANETs Using Reputation-Based Coalition Game

    OpenAIRE

    Ashraf Al Sharah; Taiwo Oyedare; Sachin Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Security in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) is challenging due to the ability of adversaries to gather necessary intelligence to launch insider jamming attacks. The solutions to prevent external attacks on MANET are not applicable for defense against insider jamming attacks. There is a need for a formal framework to characterize the information required by adversaries to launch insider jamming attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel reputation-based coalition game in MANETs to detect and m...

  4. Structure for the decomposition of safeguards responsibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major mission of safeguards is to protect against the use of nuclear materials by adversaries to harm society. A hierarchical structure of safeguards responsibilities and activities to assist in this mission is defined. The structure begins with the definition of international or multi-national safeguards and continues through domestic, regional, and facility safeguards. The facility safeguards is decomposed into physical protection and material control responsibilities. In addition, in-transit safeguards systems are considered. An approach to the definition of performance measures for a set of Generic Adversary Action Sequence Segments (GAASS) is illustrated. These GAASS's begin outside facility boundaries and terminate at some adversary objective which could lead to eventual safeguards risks and societal harm. Societal harm is primarily the result of an adversary who is successful in the theft of special nuclear material or in the sabotage of vital systems which results in the release of material in situ. With the facility safeguards system, GAASS's are defined in terms of authorized and unauthorized adversary access to materials and components, acquisition of material, unauthorized removal of material, and the compromise of vital components. Each GAASS defines a set of ''paths'' (ordered set of physical protection components) and each component provides one or more physical protection ''functions'' (detection, assessment, communication, delay, neutralization). Functional performance is then developed based upon component design features, the environmental factors, and the adversary attributes. An example of this decomposition is presented

  5. EASI approach to physical security evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, easy to use method, called Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI), has been developed to evaluate physical security system performance under specified conditions of threat and system operation. The method consists of a probabilistic analysis of the interactions of basic security functions, such as detection, communications, response, etc. The evaluation can be performed on a hand-held programmable calculator. The results of the analysis are expressed in terms of the probability that the physical protection system can respond in time to interrupt specific adversary action sequences. The following input data is required: (1) Detection probability for each sensor or other means of detection. (2) Probability of communication to response force or other means of response. (3) Mean and standard deviation of response time. (4) Mean and standard deviation of the time to perform each task in the adversary action sequence. The utility of the method depends upon the user's ability to identify significant adversary action sequences and to obtain data which properly reflect conditions created by the adversary action sequence of interest. The objective of the development is to provide a usable evaluation method which could serve as either a physical protection system design aid or as a decision aid in the licensing and inspection process. As such, it is recommended that EASI be utilized on a limited trial basis to provide information on the utility of the method and to clarify user's needs

  6. The Application of materials attractiveness in a graded approach to nuclear materials security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The threat from terrorist groups has recently received greater attention. In this paper, material quantity and material attractiveness are addressed through the lens of a minimum security strategy needed to prevent the construction of a nuclear explosive device (NED) by an adversary. Nuclear materials are placed into specific security categories (3 or 4 categories) , which define a number of security requirements to protect the material. Materials attractiveness can be divided into four attractiveness levels, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low that correspond to the utility of the material to the adversary and to a minimum security strategy that is necessary to adequately protect the nuclear material. We propose a graded approach to materials attractiveness that recognizes for instance substantial differences in attractiveness between pure reactor-grade Pu oxide (High attractiveness) and fresh MOX fuel (Low attractiveness). In either case, an adversary's acquisition of a Category I quantity of plutonium would be a major incident, but the acquisition of Pu oxide by the adversary would be substantially worse than the acquisition of fresh MOX fuel because of the substantial differences in the time and complexity required of the adversary to process the material and fashion it into a NED

  7. Self-Healing Algorithms for Byzantine Faults

    CERN Document Server

    Knockel, Jeffrey; Saia, Jared

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen significant interest in designing networks that are \\emph{self-healing} in the sense that they can automatically recover from adversarial attack. Previous work shows that it is possible for a network to automatically recover, even when an adversary repeatedly deletes nodes in the network. However, there have not yet been any algorithms that self-heal in the case where an adversary \\emph{takes over} nodes in a network. In this paper, we address this gap.% by presenting self-healing algorithms that work in the presence of such an attack. In particular, we show how to maintain an overlay network over $n$ nodes that ensures the following properties, even when an adversary controls up to $t \\leq n/4 $ nodes. First, $O(t (\\log^{*} n)^{2})$ message corruptions occur in expectation, before the adversarially controlled nodes are effectively quarantined so that they cause no more corruptions. Second, the network continually provides point-to-point communication with bandwidth and latency costs th...

  8. Tamper-Proof Circuits : : How to Trade Leakage for Tamper-Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Venturi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Tampering attacks are cryptanalytic attacks on the implementation of cryptographic algorithms (e.g., smart cards), where an adversary introduces faults with the hope that the tampered device will reveal secret information. Inspired by the work of Ishai et al. [Eurocrypt’06], we propose a compiler...... that transforms any circuit into a new circuit with the same functionality, but which is resilient against a well-defined and powerful tampering adversary. More concretely, our transformed circuits remain secure even if the adversary can adaptively tamper with every wire in the circuit as long as the...... tampering fails with some probability δ > 0. This additional requirement is motivated by practical tampering attacks, where it is often difficult to guarantee the success of a specific attack. Formally, we show that a q-query tampering attack against the transformed circuit can be “simulated” with only...

  9. Security-by-Experiment: Lessons from Responsible Deployment in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadžiosmanović, Dina; Dechesne, Francien

    2016-06-01

    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents (attackers) may be at least as important when it comes to undesirable effects of deployed technologies. In such cases, conditions for responsible experimentation may need to be implemented differently, as attackers behave strategically rather than probabilistically. In this contribution, we outline how adversarial aspects are already taken into account in technology deployment in the field of cyber security, and what the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments can learn from this. In particular, we show the importance of adversarial roles in social experiments with new technologies. PMID:25896029

  10. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    , one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited......In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases...

  11. Efficient and Universal Corruption Resilient Fountain Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Asaf; Tzachar, Nir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new family of fountain codes which overcome adversarial errors. That is, we consider the possibility that some portion of the arriving packets of a rateless erasure code are corrupted in an undetectable fashion. In practice, the corrupted packets may be attributed to a portion of the communication paths which are controlled by an adversary or to a portion of the sources that are malicious. The presented codes resemble and extend LT and Raptor codes. Yet, their benefits over existing coding schemes are manifold. First, to overcome the corrupted packets, our codes use information theoretic techniques, rather than cryptographic primitives. Thus, no secret channel between the senders and the receivers is required. Second, the encoders in the suggested scheme are oblivious to the strength of the adversary, yet perform as if its strength was known in advance. Third, the sparse structure of the codes facilitates efficient decoding. Finally, the codes easily fit a decentralized scenario wi...

  12. Privacy amplification for quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines classical privacy amplification using a universal family of hash functions. In quantum key distribution, the adversary's measurement can wait until the choice of hash functions is announced, and so the adversary's information may depend on the choice. Therefore the existing result on classical privacy amplification, which assumes the independence of the choice from the other random variables, is not applicable to this case. This paper provides a security proof of privacy amplification which is valid even when the adversary's information may depend on the choice of hash functions. The compression rate of the proposed privacy amplification can be taken to be the same as that of the existing one with an exponentially small loss in secrecy of a final key. (fast track communication)

  13. AntiJam: Efficient Medium Access despite Adaptive and Reactive Jamming

    CERN Document Server

    Richa, Andrea; Schmid, Stefan; Zhang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Intentional interference constitutes a major threat for communication networks operating over a shared medium and where availability is imperative. Jamming attacks are often simple and cheap to implement. In particular, today's jammers can perform physical carrier sensing in order to disrupt communication more efficiently, specially in a network of simple wireless devices such as sensor nodes, which usually operate over a single frequency (or a limited frequency band) and which cannot benefit from the use of spread spectrum or other more advanced technologies. This paper proposes the medium access (MAC) protocol \\textsc{AntiJam} that is provably robust against a powerful reactive adversary who can jam a $(1-\\epsilon)$-portion of the time steps, where $\\epsilon$ is an arbitrary constant. The adversary uses carrier sensing to make informed decisions on when it is most harmful to disrupt communications; moreover, we allow the adversary to be adaptive and to have complete knowledge of the entire protocol history....

  14. How to Bypass Verified Boot Security in Chromium OS

    CERN Document Server

    Husain, Mohammad Iftekhar; Qiao, Chunming; Sridhar, Ramalingam

    2012-01-01

    Verified boot is an interesting feature of Chromium OS that should detect any modification in the firmware, kernel or the root file system (rootfs) by a dedicated adversary. However, by exploiting a design flaw in verified boot, we show that an adversary can replace the original rootfs by a malicious rootfs containing exploits such as a spyware and still pass the verified boot process. The exploit is based on the fact that although a kernel partition is paired with a rootfs, verification of kernel partition and rootfs are independent of each other. We experimentally demonstrate an attack using both the base and developer version of Chromium OS in which the adversary installs a spyware in the target system to send cached user data to the attacker machine in plain text which are otherwise inaccessible in encrypted form. We also discuss possible directions to mitigate the vulnerability.

  15. A Secure and Efficient Certificateless Short Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless public key cryptography combines advantage of traditional public key cryptography and identity-based public key cryptography as it avoids usage of certificates and resolves the key escrow problem. In 2007, Huang et al. classified adversaries against certificateless signatures according to their attack power into normal, strong and super adversaries (ordered by their attack power. In this paper, we propose a new certificateless short signature scheme and prove that it is secure against both of the super type I and the super type II adversaries. Our new scheme not only achieves the strongest security level but also has the shortest signature length (one group element. Compared with the other short certificateless signature schemes which have a similar security level, our new scheme has less operation cost.

  16. Device-independence for two-party cryptography and position verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Jeremy; Thinh, Le Phuc; Kaniewski, Jedrzej;

    2016-01-01

    Quantum communication has demonstrated its usefulness for quantum cryptography far beyond quantum key distribution. One domain is two-party cryptography, whose goal is to allow two parties who may not trust each other to solve joint tasks. Another interesting application is position......-based cryptography whose goal is to use the geographical location of an entity as its only identifying credential. Unfortunately, security of these protocols is not possible against an all powerful adversary. However, if we impose some realistic physical constraints on the adversary, there exist protocols for which...... security can be proven, but these so far relied on the knowledge of the quantum operations performed during the protocols. In this work we give device-independent security proofs of two-party cryptography and Position Verification for memoryless devices under different physical constraints on the adversary...

  17. Cultural myths and supports for rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, M R

    1980-02-01

    This article describes the "rape myth" and tests hypotheses derived from social psychological and feminist theory that acceptance of rape myths can be predicted from attitudes such as sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, sexual conservatism, and acceptance of interpersonal violence. Personality characteristics, background characteristics, and personal exposure to rape, rape victims, and rapists are other factors used in predictions. Results from regression analysis of interview data indicate that the higher the sex role stereotyping, adversarial sexual beliefs, and acceptance of interpersonal violence, the greater a respondent's acceptance of rape myths. In addition, younger and better educated people reveal less stereotypic, adversarial, and proviolence attitudes and less rape myth acceptance. Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for understanding and changing this cultural orientation toward sexual assault. PMID:7373511

  18. Insecurity of position-based quantum-cryptography protocols against entanglement attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, position-based quantum cryptography has been claimed to be unconditionally secure. On the contrary, here we show that the existing proposals for position-based quantum cryptography are, in fact, insecure if entanglement is shared among two adversaries. Specifically, we demonstrate how the adversaries can incorporate ideas of quantum teleportation and quantum secret sharing to compromise the security with certainty. The common flaw to all current protocols is that the Pauli operators always map a codeword to a codeword (up to an irrelevant overall phase). We propose a modified scheme lacking this property in which the same cheating strategy used to undermine the previous protocols can succeed with a rate of at most 85%. We prove the modified protocol is secure when the shared quantum resource between the adversaries is a two- or three-level system.

  19. (Unconditional) Secure Multiparty Computation with Man-in-the-middle Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Vaya, Shailesh

    2010-01-01

    In secure multi-party computation $n$ parties jointly evaluate an $n$-variate function $f$ in the presence of an adversary which can corrupt up till $t$ parties. Almost all the works that have appeared in the literature so far assume the presence of authenticated channels between the parties. This assumption is far from realistic. Two directions of research have been borne from relaxing this (strong) assumption: (a) The adversary is virtually omnipotent and can control all the communication channels in the network, (b) Only a partially connected topology of authenticated channels is guaranteed and adversary controls a subset of the communication channels in the network. This work introduces a new setting for (unconditional) secure multiparty computation problem which is an interesting intermediate model with respect to the above well studied models from the literature (by sharing a salient feature from both the above models). We consider the problem of (unconditional) secure multi-party computation when 'some...

  20. Path enumeration program (ENUMPTH) for physical protection effectiveness evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions are presented of the structure and of ENUMPTH, a program for enumerating paths which an adversary might follow in attempting defeat of physical protection systems. The paths are evaluated in terms of the probability of detecting and then interrupting the adversary as the paths are traversed. The program is intended to be practical in orientation, selecting all paths which meet some specified minimum criteria. The nature of the physical protection issue suggests that all such paths may be of equal interest to analysts who are concerned with a total facility. An example is given to demonstrate the program's applicability to practical problems

  1. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyonam; Kim, So Young; Yim, Mansung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [Univ. of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States)

    2014-05-15

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  2. Data Retention and Anonymity Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer; Köpsell, Stefan

    The recently introduced legislation on data retention to aid prosecuting cyber-related crime in Europe also affects the achievable security of systems for anonymous communication on the Internet. We argue that data retention requires a review of existing security evaluations against a new class of realistic adversary models. In particular, we present theoretical results and first empirical evidence for intersection attacks by law enforcement authorities. The reference architecture for our study is the anonymity service AN.ON, from which we also collect empirical data. Our adversary model reflects an interpretation of the current implementation of the EC Directive on Data Retention in Germany.

  3. Societal risk approach to safeguards design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive rationale for safeguards design and evaluation, and a framework for continuing systematic assessment of the system's effectiveness and efficient allocation of available safeguards resources for balanced protection, were developed. The societal risk approach employed considers the likelihood of successful destructive acts involving nuclear materials or facilities and the magnitude of the effects on society. The safeguards problem is described in terms of events affecting societal risk and adversary actions. Structure of the safeguards system and the evaluation of its adequacy are discussed. Adversary characteristics are also discussed

  4. Spam Detection By Stackelberg Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Naeimi Sadigh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many data mining applications, ranging from Spam filtering to intrusion detection, are forced with activeadversaries. Adversary deliberately manipulate data in order to reduce the classifier's accuracy, in allthese applications, initially successful classifiers will degrade easily.In this paper we model the interaction between the adversary and the classifier as a two personsequential non cooperative Stackelberg game and analyze the payoff when there is a leader and afollower. We then proceed to model the interaction as an optimization problem and solve it withevolutionary strategy.Our experimental results are promising; since they show that our approach improves accuracy spamdetection on several real world data sets.

  5. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  6. Attack strategies on quantum cryptographic protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Quantum key distribution (QKD) and quantum authentication (QA) have been a topic of extensive research in the last 20 years. In course of that many attacks on QKD and QA protocols have been studied. Among these, Zhang, Lee and Guo presented an attack on a QKD protocol using entanglement swapping. Based on that strategy we take a look at other protocols to inspect how much information an adversary may get if he shares entanglement with either one or both parties. We will present some protocols where an adversary can even get full information about the key using entanglement. (author)

  7. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  8. SAVI: a pc-based vulnerability assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SAVI (Systematic Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion) represents a new generation of analyses programs, which assess the vulnerability of a physical protection system and are designed for use on personal computers. Features unique to SAVI include (a) analysis of all adversary paths, (b) a safeguards-component catalog with a detection/delay performance database, (c) results in graphic form, and (d) path-upgrade recommendations. The primary figure of merit calculated for system effectiveness is the probability of adversary interruption before mission completion. SAVI has been taught to more than 200 security analysts from the US Dept. of Energy and is currently its standard tool for outsider-threat vulnerability analysis

  9. The art of negotiation. A delicate balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, C; Sullivan, G

    1997-01-01

    Successful negotiation is the art of gentle persuasion, not a "winner-take-all" showdown. Accordingly, it is essential to begin the process with a positive outlook and with the goal of reaching an agreement that is acceptable to all parties involved. Although the term "opponent" is used in this article to describe the person or group with whom you are negotiating, it is not used in the adversarial context. It is important to maintain a non-adversarial relationship, to the extent possible. PMID:9295662

  10. Efficient, Robust and Constant-Round Distributed RSA Key Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe

    2010-01-01

    We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number.......We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number....

  11. Performance estimates for personnel access control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current performance estimates for personnel access control systems use estimates of Type I and Type II verification errors. A system performance equation which addresses normal operation, the insider, and outside adversary attack is developed. Examination of this equation reveals the inadequacy of classical Type I and II error evaluations which require detailed knowledge of the adversary threat scenario for each specific installation. Consequently, new performance measures which are consistent with the performance equation and independent of the threat are developed as an aid in selecting personnel access control systems

  12. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan; Ishai, Yuval; Malkin, Tal

    course of the computation. We study the relations between adaptive security (i.e., security in the adaptive setting) and non-adaptive security, according to two definitions and in several models of computation. While affirming some prevailing beliefs, we also obtain some unexpected results. Some...... definition of Canetti, for honest-but-curious adversaries, adaptive security is equivalent to non-adaptive security when the number of parties is logarithmic, and is strictly stronger than non-adaptive security when the number of parties is super-logarithmic. For Byzantine adversaries, adaptive security is...

  13. The effect of the guard location in a nuclear facility on performance criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The major functions of a physical protection system (PPS) are detection, delay, and response. Detection function is mainly to sense an adversary's intrusion and assess alarm events, and its physical implementation includes intrusion sensors, alarm communication systems and entry control facilities. Delay function can be accomplished through various passive and active barriers, makes adversary's advance toward his goal slow. Response function is to practically stop adversary actions. There are response guards responsible for the response function in a nuclear facility. They can be located at one or more posts to take action against adversary's progress after alarm occurred. The mostly used quantitative effectiveness measure of a PPS is the probability of interruption (PI) derived from delay time after detection and guard response time. Delay time is a variable dependent on adversary's capabilities and guard response time varies with the distance between a guard post and destination to be dispatched. According to the advanced technology of digital computing, software programs such as SAVI (System Analysis of Vulnerability to Intrusion) provide PI based on user input including adversary capability, protective elements, guard response time, and other PPS information. However guard response time is considered as a constant not a variable. That means same guard response time is always set regardless of the variable guard travel time from a post to a location where guards can interrupt the adversary's action. Since the location of guards may be easily changed in contrast to detection elements or delay elements and can be considered as a flexible mean against temporarily upgraded threat, a trial to investigate the changes of PI and CDP (Critical Detection Point) in case that guard response time is a variable was started. We defined several detection and delay elements along an adversary intrusion path and guard travel times as many as the number of detection

  14. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  15. LEGO for Two-Party Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    . Asymptotically it obtains a factor  improvement in computation and communication over previous cut-and-choose based solutions, where  is the size of the circuit being computed. The protocol is universally composable (UC) in the OT-hybrid model against a static, active adversary.......This paper continues the recent line of work of making Yao’s garbled circuit approach to two-party computation secure against an active adversary. We propose a new cut-and-choose based approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization): It is specifically aimed at large circuits...

  16. Structured Intuition: A Methodology to Analyse Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed

    . Sometimes, a single failure of authentication affects the system for a long time, e.g., if an adversary is able to install a malicious program, such as a root kit, back door, key logger, bot, or other malware. Therefore, security protocols, which can resist a resourceful adversary, are used to authenticate...... and the level of abstraction used in the analysis. Thus, the goal of developing a high level methodology that can be used with different notions of security, authentication, and abstraction is worth considering. In this thesis, we propose a new methodology, called the structured intuition (SI), which addresses...

  17. RFID Distance Bounding Protocol with Mixed Challenges to Prevent Relay Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chong Hee; Avoine, Gildas

    RFID systems suffer from different location-based attacks such as distance fraud, mafia fraud and terrorist fraud attacks. Among them mafia fraud attack is the most serious since this attack can be mounted without the notice of both the reader and the tag. An adversary performs a kind of man-in-the-middle attack between the reader and the tag. It is very difficult to prevent this attack since the adversary does not change any data between the reader and the tag. Recently distance bounding protocols measuring the round-trip time between the reader and the tag have been researched to prevent this attack.

  18. Performance estimates for personnel access control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R. G.

    1980-10-01

    Current performance estimates for personnel access control systems use estimates of Type I and Type II verification errors. A system performance equation which addresses normal operation, the insider, and outside adversary attack is developed. Examination of this equation reveals the inadequacy of classical Type I and II error evaluations which require detailed knowledge of the adversary threat scenario for each specific installation. Consequently, new performance measures which are consistent with the performance equation and independent of the threat are developed as an aid in selecting personnel access control systems.

  19. Path enumeration program (ENUMPTH) for physical protection effectiveness evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.C.

    1978-10-01

    Descriptions are presented of the structure and of ENUMPTH, a program for enumerating paths which an adversary might follow in attempting defeat of physical protection systems. The paths are evaluated in terms of the probability of detecting and then interrupting the adversary as the paths are traversed. The program is intended to be practical in orientation, selecting all paths which meet some specified minimum criteria. The nature of the physical protection issue suggests that all such paths may be of equal interest to analysts who are concerned with a total facility. An example is given to demonstrate the program's applicability to practical problems.

  20. A Game Theoretic Approach to Nuclear Security Analysis against Insider Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As individuals with authorized access to a facility and system who use their trusted position for unauthorized purposes, insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also capitalize on their knowledge to exploit any vulnerabilities in safety-related systems, with cyber security of safety-critical information technology systems offering an important example of the 3S interface. While this Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) approach is appropriate for describing fundamentally random events like component failure of a safety system, it does not capture the adversary's intentions, nor does it account for adversarial response and adaptation to defensive investments. To address these issues of intentionality and interactions, this study adopts a game theoretic approach. The interaction between defender and adversary is modeled as a two-person Stackelberg game. The optimal strategy of both players is found from the equilibrium of this game. A defender strategy consists of a set of design modifications and/or post-construction security upgrades. An attacker strategy involves selection of a target as well as a pathway to that target. In this study, application of the game theoretic approach is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem. Novel to our approach is the modeling of insider threat that affects the non-detection probability of an adversary. The game-theoretic approach has the advantage of modelling an intelligent adversary who has an intention and complete knowledge of the facility. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three groups of adversary paths assisted by insiders and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. Certainly more work needs to be done to

  1. Physical Protection System Design Analysis against Insider Threat based on Game Theoretic Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyo-Nam; Suh, Young-A; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Schneider, Erich [The University of Texas, Austin (United States)

    2015-05-15

    This study explores the use of game-theoretic modeling of physical protection analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat. The defender-adversary interaction along with the inclusion of an insider is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem at an experimental fast reactor system. Non-detection probability and travel time are used as a baseline of physical protection parameters in this model. As one of the key features of the model is its ability to choose among security upgrades given the constraints of a budget, the study also performed cost benefit analysis for security upgrades options. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three types of adversary paths assisted by the insider and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. More work needs to be done to incorporate complex dimensions of insider threats, which include but are not limited to: a more realistic mapping of insider threat, accounting for information asymmetry between the adversary, insider, and defenders, and assignment of more pragmatic parameter values.

  2. Generic physical protection logic trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle

  3. On-line safeguards design: an application of estimation/detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of madern signal processing techniques to the safeguards problem for a plutonium nitrate storage tank and concentrator is addressed. The techniques involve mathematical modeling, optimal estimation of process variables, and the detection of abnormal changes in these variables due to adversary diversion. The performance of these techniques is preesented for various diversion scenarios

  4. A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.

  5. Physical Protection System Design Analysis against Insider Threat based on Game Theoretic Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the use of game-theoretic modeling of physical protection analysis by incorporating the implications of an insider threat. The defender-adversary interaction along with the inclusion of an insider is demonstrated using a simplified test case problem at an experimental fast reactor system. Non-detection probability and travel time are used as a baseline of physical protection parameters in this model. As one of the key features of the model is its ability to choose among security upgrades given the constraints of a budget, the study also performed cost benefit analysis for security upgrades options. In this study, we analyzed the expected adversarial path and security upgrades with a limited budget with insider threat modeled as increasing the non-detection probability. Our test case problem categorized three types of adversary paths assisted by the insider and derived the largest insider threat in terms of the budget for security upgrades. More work needs to be done to incorporate complex dimensions of insider threats, which include but are not limited to: a more realistic mapping of insider threat, accounting for information asymmetry between the adversary, insider, and defenders, and assignment of more pragmatic parameter values

  6. Course Design for Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedy, John J.; Furedy, Christine

    1979-01-01

    A fourth year honors thesis research course in psychology at the University of Toronto uses the device of adversarial interaction to improve critical thinking. Course components, including thesis submission, research seminar, student relations, and supervision, are designed to simulate the constraints, criticism, and relationships of actual…

  7. 77 FR 35363 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... a technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software... Common Test Device software, ATACMS Quality Assurance Team support, spare and repair parts, tools and... Unitary Missiles, Missile Common Test Device software, ATACMS Quality Assurance Team support, spare...

  8. 77 FR 46415 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... a technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software... Missiles, Missile Common Test Device software, ATACMS Quality Assurance Team support, spare and repair... Unitary Missiles, Missile Common Test Device software, ATACMS Quality Assurance Team support, spare...

  9. 78 FR 695 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... because it has the latest software and hardware. Reverse engineering would allow countermeasures to be... technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements, the... cheap replication without the expenditure of Research and Development funds. The UFCS software...

  10. 77 FR 40023 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ..., mass memory unit, mission and flight management computers, and MH-60R dedicated operational software... computers, and MH-60R/MH-60S operational software. The navigation suite includes the LN-100G inertial.... 3. If a technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware...

  11. 77 FR 37884 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... equipment and technical data. The equipment/hardware and documentation are classified Confidential; software...-counter measures circuits are Secret. The hardware, software, and data identified are classified to... technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements,...

  12. How to work through the news media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are essentially four steps that anyone must follow if the objective is to communicate a message through the news media: 1) Understand media (adversarial relationship, code of ethics, importance of First Amendment); 2) Redefine the relationship (become acquainted with reporter, save steps for the reporter); 3) Communicate clearly; and 4) Use alternatives when appropriate. These four steps are discussed

  13. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  14. The Documentation Process: The Administrator's Role and the Interplay of Necessity, Support and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Donna; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2008-01-01

    Traditional teacher documentation procedures pit the administrator against the teacher. The process is adversarial and erodes the quality of the intervention. Teachers who are unsuccessful in meeting campus/school district expectations can be successfully acclimatized to the campus culture through a documentation process that combines affective…

  15. External Labeling as a Framework for Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    With the ever increasing volume of data existing on and passing through on-line resources together with a growing number of legitimate users of that information and potential adversaries, the need for better security and safeguards is immediate and critical. Currently, most of the security and safeguards afforded on-line information are provided…

  16. Framework for generating expert systems to perform computer security risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Los Alamos we are developing a framework to generate knowledge-based expert systems for performing automated risk analyses upon a subject system. The expert system is a computer program that models experts' knowledge about a topic, including facts, assumptions, insights, and decision rationale. The subject system, defined as the collection of information, procedures, devices, and real property upon which the risk analysis is to be performed, is a member of the class of systems that have three identifying characteristics: a set of desirable assets (or targets), a set of adversaries (or threats) desiring to obtain or to do harm to the assets, and a set of protective mechanisms to safeguard the assets from the adversaries. Risk analysis evaluates both vulnerability to and the impact of successful threats against the targets by determining the overall effectiveness of the subject system safeguards, identifying vulnerabilities in that set of safeguards, and determining cost-effective improvements to the safeguards. As a testbed, we evaluate the inherent vulnerabilities and risks in a system of computer security safeguards. The method considers safeguards protecting four generic targets (physical plant of the computer installation, its hardware, its software, and its documents and displays) against three generic threats (natural hazards, direct human actions requiring the presence of the adversary, and indirect human actions wherein the adversary is not on the premises-perhaps using such access tools as wiretaps, dialup lines, and so forth). Our automated procedure to assess the effectiveness of computer security safeguards differs from traditional risk analysis methods

  17. Privacy-Preserving Matching of Spatial Datasets with Protection against Background Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Shang, Ning;

    2010-01-01

    circuits that evaluate the matching condition without revealing anything else other than the matching outcome. However, existing solutions have at least one of the following drawbacks: (i) they fail to protect against adversaries with background knowledge on data distribution, (ii) they compromise privacy...

  18. Supplanting the Venom of Litigation with Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Role of Counsellors and Guidance Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udoh, Nsisong Anthony; Sanni, Kudirat Bimbo

    2015-01-01

    This literature review attempts to interface counselling with alternative legal practice. The authors proceed by contrasting the adversarial nature of litigation with the conciliatory nature of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) with a view to encouraging seekers of dispute resolution to opt for ADR in lieu of litigation. The paper discusses the…

  19. Literacy, Numeracy and Alternative Dispute Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, J. Joy; Wilson, Janice M.

    2005-01-01

    The formal court system in Australia has long been criticised for its adversarial nature. As a result, there has been an increase in the use of alternative dispute resolution processes such as mediation. These are promoted as a means of increasing access to justice by disadvantaged groups and as an inexpensive way of solving legal or quasi-legal…

  20. The Failure of Legalization in Education: Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    1989-01-01

    A federal statute provided that parents may use the judicial process to challenge educators' decisions. Describes the intent of legalization; how reaction to an adversarial system led to the use of mediation in most states; and why this alternative model is not appropriate for resolving education questions. (MLF)

  1. Schools versus Students' Rights: Can Alternative Dispute Resolution Build a Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    1995-01-01

    Schools' regulation by external forces has rendered the education process secondary to avoidance of litigation. Alternative dispute resolution (ADR) provides an answer to the adversarial process currently in place within education. ADR offers negotiation and mediation as methods to resolve conflict, avoid litigation, and increase the likelihood of…

  2. Dispute Resolution in Special Education: An Introduction to Litigation Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.; Huefner, Dixie Snow

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of common methods of conflict resolution used in special-education disputes. Argues that "principled negotiation" has been underutilized at the early phase of special-education disputes and shows promise as a means of settling many disputes without the need for mediation or adversarial processes. (46…

  3. Alternative Means of Family Dispute Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Howard, Ed.; And Others

    Twenty-eight articles focusing on non-adversarial approaches to resolving family disputes without formal court procedures are collected in this manual. The 16 articles in the first chapter discuss aspects of divorce mediation. These are followed by six papers in the second chapter on the mediation of family conflicts involving domestic violence…

  4. The Danger of Economic Nationalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMES; A.DORN

    2008-01-01

    The United States should treat China as a normal rising power,not a probable adversary Unlike special interest groups that are harmed by trade, no one represents future generations who will have a lower standard of living because of present government profligacy

  5. Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Yaphet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

  6. Intelligent agent supported training in virtual simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van; Harbers, M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in military decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Usually humans are used to play these roles to ensure varied behavior required for the training of such tasks. However, there is growing conviction and evide

  7. Trial Evidence: Overt and Covert Communication in Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulow-Moller, Anne Marie

    1991-01-01

    Discusses examination and cross-examination strategies used in the adversarial system of a U.S. criminal trial, arguing against the use of traditional discourse analysis to describe courtroom communication and demonstrating how counsel use semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic features to establish credibility and achieve calculated responses. (25…

  8. Toward a Developmentally-Informed Approach to Parenting Interventions: Seeking Hidden Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from developmental psychology and psychopathology, we propose a new, developmentally-informed approach to parenting interventions that focuses on elucidating changes in the unfolding developmental process between the parent and child. We present data from 186 low-income mothers of toddlers, randomly assigned to Child-Oriented Play group or Play-as-Usual group. We examined the maladaptive cascade from child difficulty to mother adversarial, negative parenting to child maladjustment, well documented in the literature. The measures incorporated multiple observations and reports. As expected, the sequence from child difficulty (Pretest) to mother adversarial, negative parenting (Posttest 1, after 3-month intervention) to child maladjustment (Posttest 2, 6 months later) was present in Play-as-Usual group, but absent, or defused, in Child-Oriented Play group. The findings are consistent with a view of intervention presumably enhancing the mother-child relationship, which in turn served to moderate future mother-child dynamics, altering its otherwise anticipated negative trajectory. A closer examination of the cascade revealed that, at Posttest 1, mothers in Play-as-Usual group engaged in more adversarial, negative parenting (controlling for Pretest) than mothers in Child-Oriented Play group when their children were of high difficulty. The intervention appears to exert its primary influence on the cascade by weakening the link between child difficulty and maternal adversarial, negative parenting. PMID:27063895

  9. The Rhetoric of Redistricting: Ohio's Altered State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, David M.

    An event such as congressional boundary redistricting, so ripe with political confrontation, provides a fertile ground for the profuse growth of political rhetoric. The traditional two-party political system, charged by the two well-developed adversarial philosophies, generates a highly charged environment with messages begging for analysis. After…

  10. Enculturation, Not Alchemy: Professionalizing Novice Writing Program Administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Bradley

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process of acculturation in three stages by which fledgling Writing Program Administrators can be transformed into change agents: (1) critically reading the program to locate key allies, potential advocates, and proven adversaries; (2) implementing changes on an infrastructural level to convert positive relations among colleagues into…

  11. Corporate Social Responsibility: Case Study of Community Expectations and the Administrative Systems, Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogula, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…

  12. Einstein in love a scientific romance

    CERN Document Server

    Overbye, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    At its height, Einstein's marriage to Mileva was an extraordinary one - a colleague and often fierce adversary, Mileva was brilliantly matched with the scientific genius. Dennis Overbye seeks to present this scientific romance in a vivid light, telling the private story of the young Einstein.

  13. On the Runtime of Randomized Local Search and Simple Evolutionary Algorithms for Dynamic Makespan Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten

    combinatorial optimization problem, namely makespan scheduling. We study the model of a strong adversary which is allowed to change one job at regular intervals. Furthermore, we investigate the setting of random changes. Our results show that randomized local search and a simple evolutionary algorithm are very...

  14. Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution with Commuting Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Hänggi, Esther

    2010-01-01

    We consider quantum key distribution in the device-independent scenario, i.e., where the legitimate parties do not know (or trust) the exact specification of their apparatus. We show how secure key distribution can be realized against the most general attacks by a quantum adversary under the condition that measurements on different subsystems by the honest parties commute.

  15. Literacy Teaching Method and Peace Building in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelore, Omobola; Majaro-Majesty, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of peace building in Nigeria is increasing as communities continue to show adversary tendencies. This is happening even after many third party conflict transformation efforts have been expended to resolve and set a conducive climate for stakeholders to sustain peace. Some peace building assessment projects have indicated that the…

  16. Arvustused / Ahto-Lembit Lehtmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtmets, Ahto-Lembit

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Satyricon "Now, Diabolica", Nitrous "Dominant Force", Ihsahn "Adversary", Keep Of Kalessin "Armada", Zyklon "Disintegrate", Enslaved "Ruun", Lacuna Coil "Karmacode", Sick Of It All "Death To Tyrants", Cult Of Luna "Somewhere Along the Highway", Scent Of Flesh "Become Malignity EP", Mythological Cold Towers "The Vanished Pantheon", Kalmah "The Black Waltz", Neglected Fields "Splenetic"

  17. Intelligent agents for training on-board fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Harbers, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Doesburg, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key

  18. Using agent technology to build a real-world training application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cap, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Using staff personnel for playing roles in simulation-based training (e.g. team mates, adversaries) elevates costs, and imposes organizational constraints on delivery of training. One solution to this problem is to use intelligent software agents that play the required roles autonomously. BDI modeli

  19. Cognitive model supported tactical training simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mate, adversaries, instructor). Due to the dynamic and complex nature of military tactics, it is hard to create agents that behave realistically and support the training lead

  20. More Important than the Contract Is the Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee

    2015-01-01

    What should a school district procurement officer ask when he or she sits down with a sales representative from a vendor of digital education products? Who else should be at the table? How do districts and providers become partners in instruction, rather than adversaries in negotiation? These are increasingly critical questions as public school…

  1. Disorder in the Courtroom? Child Witnesses under Cross-Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Rachel; O'Neill, Sarah; Hayne, Harlene

    2012-01-01

    When a witness gives evidence in an adversarial criminal trial, there are two main questioning phases: direct examination and cross-examination. Special provisions are sometimes made for children to give direct evidence, but the majority of child witnesses are still cross-examined. While several decades of research have demonstrated how to elicit…

  2. Wisconsin's perception of DOE's waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the duties and responsibilities of the Wisconsin Radioactive Waste Review Board and its two adversary councils, provides results of two surveys and a referendum that express public opinion, and explains Wisconsin's concerns about the current state of DOE's high-level nuclear waste program

  3. Guideline for the development of a methodology for measuring level of effectiveness of physical protection facilities at fixed-site facilities. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical guidelines contain recommendations for a program that would utilize data obtained by NRC inspectors to measure the effectiveness of fixed-site physical protection components/systems for various levels of adversary threats. The contribution of both equipment and procedures to the measured level of effectiveness are considered

  4. 28 CFR 24.305 - Extensions of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT IN DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEEDINGS Procedures for Considering Applications § 24.305 Extensions... shall be conducted pursuant to the procedural rules governing adversary adjudications conducted by...

  5. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  6. 77 FR 70153 - 36(b)(1) Arms Sales Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... seeker with a 64 x 64 element staring Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (HgCdTE) Focal Plane Array (FPA... maintenance. 5. The Javelin Missile System hardware and the documentation are unclassified. The missile... technologically advanced adversary were to obtain knowledge of the specific hardware and software elements,...

  7. Psychology and the prevention of nuclear war: A book of readings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the paper titles are: On Numbing and Feeling; The Mirror Image in Soviet-American Relations; Empathizing with the Soviet Government; Decision Making in Crises; The Nature and Control of Escalation; Cognitive Perspectives on Foreign Policy; and Deterrence, the Spiral Model and Intentions of the Adversary.

  8. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel;

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of computing in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily (i.e., adversarially) corrupt memory locations. In the faulty memory model, any memory cell can get corrupted at any time, and corrupted cells cannot be distinguished from uncorrupted ones. An upper bound $\\del...

  9. In Search of Interoperability Standards for Human Behaviour Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunzelmann, G.; Gaughan, C.; Huiskamp, W.; Bosch, K. van den; Jong, S. de; Alexander, T.; Bruzzone, A.G.; Tremori, A.

    2014-01-01

    There is a long history of research to create capabilities that address the need for human behaviour representations in training simulations and other M&S application domains. In training, human behaviour models have applications as synthetic teammates and adversaries, but can also be used as a repr

  10. Supply chain management as a competitive advantage in the Spanish grocery sector

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Eva; Gim??nez, Cristina

    2002-01-01

    Adversarial relationships have long dominated business relationships, but Supply Chain Management (SCM) entails a new perspective. SCM requires a movement away from arms-length relationships toward partnership style relations. SCM involves integration, co-ordination and collaboration across organisations and throughout the supply chain. It means that SCM requires internal (intraorganisational) and external (interorganisational) integration. This paper analyses the relationsh...

  11. MiniLEGO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Tore Kasper; Jakobsen, Thomas Pelle; Nielsen, Jesper Buus;

    2013-01-01

    One of the main tools to construct secure two-party computation protocols are Yao garbled circuits. Using the cut-and-choose technique, one can get reasonably efficient Yao-based protocols with security against malicious adversaries. At TCC 2009, Nielsen and Orlandi [28] suggested to apply cut...

  12. Strategic alliances in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A competitor today is an ally tomorrow. A strategic partner in one market is an adversary in another. In this radically new way of doing business, the oil and gas industry seems quite at home. The trend to mergers is not unique to the oil industry, what is unique is the knack of petroleum companies to form strategic alliances

  13. The LOCAL attack: Cryptanalysis of the authenticated encryption scheme ALE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, Dmitry; Rechberger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    state bytes to the adversary. Our approach allows for a time-data complexity tradeoff, with an extreme case of a forgery produced after 2119 attempts and based on a single authenticated message. Our attack is further turned into a state recovery and a universal forgery attack with a time complexity...

  14. Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Serge, Fehr; Schaffner, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  15. Cryptography In The Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  16. Proactive malware detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Jonathan; Diep, Michael; Dredden, David; Mix, Matthew; Olsen, Mark; Price, Brian; Steil, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Small-to-medium sized businesses lack resources to deploy and manage high-end advanced solutions to deter sophisticated threats from well-funded adversaries, but evidence shows that these types of businesses are becoming key targets. As malicious code and network attacks become more sophisticated, classic signature-based virus and malware detection methods are less effective. To augment the current malware methods of detection, we developed a proactive approach to detect emerging malware threats using open source tools and intelligence to discover patterns and behaviors of malicious attacks and adversaries. Technical and analytical skills are combined to track adversarial behavior, methods and techniques. We established a controlled (separated domain) network to identify, monitor, and track malware behavior to increase understanding of the methods and techniques used by cyber adversaries. We created a suite of tools that observe the network and system performance looking for anomalies that may be caused by malware. The toolset collects information from open-source tools and provides meaningful indicators that the system was under or has been attacked. When malware is discovered, we analyzed and reverse engineered it to determine how it could be detected and prevented. Results have shown that with minimum resources, cost effective capabilities can be developed to detect abnormal behavior that may indicate malicious software.

  17. College Students' Attitudes toward Date Rape and Date Rape Backlash: Implications for Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Susan; Bower, Douglas J.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college students regarding their acceptance of rape-myth beliefs expounded by the date rape backlash movement. Results indicated that gender, adversarial attitudes toward sexual relationships, political and sex role views, perception of false accusation vulnerability, academic honorary membership, Greek affiliation, and knowledge of a…

  18. User's guide for evaluating physical security capabilities of nuclear facilities by the EASI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This handbook is a guide for evaluating physical security of nuclear facilities using the ''Estimate of Adversary Sequence Interruption (EASI)'' method and a hand-held programmable calculator. The handbook is intended for use by personnel at facilities where special nuclear materials are used, processed, or stored. It may also be used as a design aid for such facilities by potential licensees

  19. Design of Simple and Efficient Revocation List Distribution in Urban areas for VANET's

    CERN Document Server

    Samara, Ghassan; Al-Salihy, Wafaa A H

    2010-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research we propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for revocation list distribution in VANET, which will reduce channel overhead and eliminate the use of CRL. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicles.

  20. Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    We introduce a new approach to multiparty computation (MPC) basing it on homomorphic threshold crypto-systems. We show that given keys for any sufficiently efficient system of this type, general MPC protocols for n parties can be devised which are secure against an active adversary that corrupts...

  1. An Improved Robust Fuzzy Extractor

    CERN Document Server

    Kanukurthi, Bhavana

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of building robust fuzzy extractors, which allow two parties holding similar random variables W, W' to agree on a secret key R in the presence of an active adversary. Robust fuzzy extractors were defined by Dodis et al. in Crypto 2006 to be noninteractive, i.e., only one message P, which can be modified by an unbounded adversary, can pass from one party to the other. This allows them to be used by a single party at different points in time (e.g., for key recovery or biometric authentication), but also presents an additional challenge: what if R is used, and thus possibly observed by the adversary, before the adversary has a chance to modify P. Fuzzy extractors secure against such a strong attack are called post-application robust. We construct a fuzzy extractor with post-application robustness that extracts a shared secret key of up to (2m-n)/2 bits (depending on error-tolerance and security parameters), where n is the bit-length and m is the entropy of W. The previously best known res...

  2. Robust Multiparty Computation with Linear Communication Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    We present a robust multiparty computation protocol. The protocol is for the cryptographic model with open channels and a poly-time adversary, and allows n parties to actively securely evaluate any poly-sized circuit with resilience t < n/2. The total communication complexity in bits over the poi...

  3. Attorney and Parent Attitudes Related to Successful Mediation Counseling of Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Leland C.; Heinish, D.

    The divorce explosion has placed a substantial burden on the judicial system of the United States. About 10 percent of divorce cases involve child custody battles. The adversarial legal process may be contrary to the children's best interest. Custody mediation has been used as an alternative to court litigation. California law requires an attempt…

  4. PIME '89 (Public Information Materials Exchange): International workshop on public information problems of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentations included in this proceedings are describing the following; Mass media and public information on nuclear energy and radiation: striving for two-way confidence and understanding; case studies of different countries having developed nuclear programs, problems of communication between nuclear promoters and/or operators and its adversaries; public attitude concerning nuclear power; different attitudes of men and women

  5. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Intrusion Detection System in a Nuclear Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical protection system of a nuclear facility is designed and implemented to prevent nuclear materials and nuclear facilities from illegal movement of nuclear materials or sabotage of nuclear facility. The effectiveness evaluation should be carried out in order to validate the performance of designed physical protection system. This work deals with the performance of a physical protection system of a nuclear research reactor to ensure that it meets the physical protection objectives. The effectiveness of the intrusion detection system is done by using a quantitative computer model. In this work only one path of an adversary who would plan to destroy a vital area in the research reactor is analyzed. The time values of detection, delay communication and response force action are measured along the adversary path. These values are used to calculate the probability of adversary interruption. The estimated output shows that the probability of intercepting the adversary would be before any sabotage is done. Also, the results show that the sufficient lighting system would improve the probability of detection system

  6. Pravastatin inhibits tumor growth through elevating the levels of apolipoprotein A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: This study demonstrated that pravastatin elevated ApoA1, an HDL major constituent with anti-inflammatory characteristics, which displayed strong adversary associations with tumor developments and growth. Increasing the amounts of ApoA1 by pravastatin coupled with DOX may improve the therapeutic efficacy for cancer treatment.

  7. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversary's task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  8. Secure Identification and QKD in the Bounded-Quantum-Storage Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damgard, I.B.; Fehr, S.; Salvail, L.; Schaffner, C.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of secure identification: user U proves to server S that he knows an agreed (possibly low-entropy) password w, while giving away as little information on w as possible - the adversary can exclude at most one possible password for each execution. We propose a solution in the b

  9. A New Approach to Practical Active-Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian; Orlandi, Claudio; Burra, Sai Sheshank

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new approach to practical two-party computation secure against an active adversary. All prior practical protocols were based on Yao's garbled circuits. We use an OT-based approach and get efficiency via OT extension in the random oracle model. To get a practical protocol we introduce a...

  10. A New Approach to Practical Active-Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian; Orlandi, Claudio; Burra, Sai Sheshank

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new approach to practical two-party computation secure against an active adversary. All prior practical protocols were based on Yao’s garbled circuits. We use an OT-based approach and get efficiency via OT extension in the random oracle model. To get a practical protocol we introduce a...

  11. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  12. A technical approach for determining the importance of information in computerized alarm systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortney, D.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lim, J.J. [Lim and Orzechowski Associates, Alamo, CA (United States)

    1994-06-10

    Computerized alarm and access control systems must be treated as special entities rather than as generic automated information systems. This distinction arises due to the real-time control and monitoring functions performed by these systems at classified facilities and the degree of centralization of a site`s safeguards system information in the associated databases. As an added requirement for these systems, DOE safeguards and security classification policy is to protect information whose dissemination has the potential for significantly increasing the probability of successful adversary action against the facility, or lowering adversary resources needed for a successful attack. Thus at issue is just how valuable would specific alarm system information be to an adversary with a higher order objective. We have developed and applied a technical approach for determining the importance of information contained in computerized alarm and access control systems. The methodology is based on vulnerability assessment rather than blanket classification rules. This method uses a system architecture diagram to guide the analysis and to develop adversary defeat methods for each node and link. These defeat methods are evaluated with respect to required adversary resources, technical difficulty, and detection capability. Then they are incorporated into site vulnerability assessments to determine the significance of alarm system information in the context of a facility attack. This methodology was successfully applied to the Argus alarm, access control, and assessment system developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Lab. Argus is software-driven, contains interrelated databases, shares host computers, and communicates with field processors and alarms through a common network. The evaluation results provided insights into the importance of alarm system information while the methodology itself provided a framework for addressing associated information protection issues.

  13. Methodology for evaluating port vulnerability to nuclear smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: Fueled by an increase in intercepted nuclear smuggling events, the threat of nuclear smuggling has received increased attention in recent years. This attention has resulted in a focused effort to improve the ability to deter or detect smuggling attempts through border crossings, including seaports, airports, and rail and road crossings. These efforts have primarily been focused on installing SNM detectors across vehicle and pedestrian gates entering these ports. However, the effectiveness of this application in deterring or detecting events has not been carefully evaluated. A recent effort was undertaken to evaluate in detail the susceptibility of an international seaport and airport to nuclear smuggling. The evaluation considered a range of adversary profiles to match these against existing and proposed port security measures and equipment. The evaluation was pursued using path analysis methodologies, which were adapted to the port environment. As a result of limited data concerning the effectiveness of patrol, search, and access control procedures at the port, an assessment methodology was developed to estimate these in a standardized fashion. The methodology considers a detailed list of tasks each type of adversary must successfully accomplish for any particular smuggling scenario and path through the port. Within these tasks, locations or times of potential detection are identified. From a look-up table, a detection level (Low, Medium, or High) is assigned to each detection potential based upon the type of detection possible and considering the possible access or authority of each adversary. The overall detection potential in determined as a sum of these individual detection potentials according to the equation: Pt={1-Σ(1-Pn). Where: Pt is the total detection potential for an adversary path, and Pn is the individual detection at a particular location or time. The evaluation revealed that the current process of installing portals at

  14. Hiding in Plain Sight: Exploiting Broadcast for Practical Host Anonymity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shue, Craig A [ORNL; Gupta, Prof. Minaxi [Indiana University

    2010-01-01

    Users are being tracked on the Internet more than ever before as Web sites and search engines gather pieces of information sufficient to identify and study their behavior. While many existing schemes provide strong anonymity, they are inappropriate when high bandwidth and low latency are required. In this work, we explore an anonymity scheme for end hosts whose performance makes it possible to have it always on. The scheme leverages the natural grouping of hosts in the same subnet and the universally available broadcast primitive to provide anonymity at line speeds. Our scheme is strongly resistant against all active or passive adversaries as long as they are outside the subnet. Even within the subnet, our scheme provides reasonable resistance against adversaries, providing anonymity that is suitable for common Internet applications.

  15. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G S L; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302

  16. Federalism and nuclear waste disposal: the struggle over shared decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the domain of federal agencies, authority to select sites for the disposal of commercial high-level nuclear wastes has recently been expanded to include a role for host states. State opposition to earlier siting efforts had demonstrated the difficulties federal agencies faced in resolving conflict between the local population bearing the costs and the dispersed population receiving the benefits. The new model defines the agency and the state adversarial representatives of these competing interests. An outstanding weakness, however, is that it does not clearly specify who should speak for the state, and may actually promote intrastate conflict. The adversarial approach does not provide a generic solution to the problem of federalism, but it may prove useful at the state level for selecting disposal sites for low-level radioactive wastes and hazardous chemical wastes. 64 references

  17. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durairaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP is done. Denial of Service (DoS attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends the management frame, which is unencrypted, to the victim using spoofed MAC address. This study compares the performance of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP and evaluated the result using NS2. The attack scenario is simulated and effectiveness of the solutions is validated after the instigation of solutions in the attack consequences. Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss are measured and taken to endorse the performance of ICM and TPF-LEP.

  18. Routing Security Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are rapidly emerging as an important new area in wireless and mobile computing research. Applications of WSNs are numerous and growing, and range from indoor deployment scenarios in the home and office to outdoor deployment scenarios in adversary's territory in a tactical battleground (Akyildiz et al., 2002). For military environment, dispersal of WSNs into an adversary's territory enables the detection and tracking of enemy soldiers and vehicles. For home/office environments, indoor sensor networks offer the ability to monitor the health of the elderly and to detect intruders via a wireless home security system. In each of these scenarios, lives and livelihoods may depend on the timeliness and correctness of the sensor data obtained from dispersed sensor nodes. As a result, such WSNs must be secured to prevent an intruder from obstructing the delivery of correct sensor data and from forging sensor data. To address the latter problem, end-to-end data integrity checksums and pos...

  19. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  20. Traffic and Security using Randomized Dispersive Routes in Heterogeneous Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, P

    2012-01-01

    Generally traffic and the sensor network security have many challenges in the transmission of data in the network. The existing schemes consider homogeneous sensor networks which have poor performance and scalability. Due to many-to-one traffic pattern, sensors may communicate with small portion of its neighbours. Key management is the critical process in sensor nodes to secure the data. Most existing schemes establish shared keys for all the sensors no matter whether they are communicating or not. Hence it leads to large storage overhead. Another problem in sensor network is compromised node attack and denial of service attack which occurs because of its wireless nature. Existing multi path routing algorithms are vulnerable to these attacks. So once an adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, and hence endanger all information sent over these routes. If an adversary performs node compromise attack, they can easily get the encryption/ decryption keys used b...

  1. Tailored Security and Safety for Pervasive Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Erik-Oliver; Zitterbart, Martina

    Pervasive computing makes high demands on security: devices are seriously resource-restricted, communication takes place spontaneously, and adversaries might control some of the devices. We claim that 1.) today’s research, studying traditional security properties for pervasive computing, leads to inefficient, expensive, and unnecessary strong and unwanted security solutions. Instead, security solutions tailored to the demands of a user, the scenario, or the expected adversary are more promising. 2.) Today’s research for security in pervasive computing makes naive, inefficient, and unrealistic assumptions regarding safety properties, in particular the quality of basic communication. Therefore, future security research has to consider safety characteristics and has to jointly investigate security and safety for efficient, tailored solutions.

  2. Robust Max-Product Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ibrahimi, Morteza; Kanoria, Yashodhan; Montanari, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of optimizing a graph-structured objective function under \\emph{adversarial} uncertainty. This problem can be modeled as a two-persons zero-sum game between an Engineer and Nature. The Engineer controls a subset of the variables (nodes in the graph), and tries to assign their values to maximize an objective function. Nature controls the complementary subset of variables and tries to minimize the same objective. This setting encompasses estimation and optimization problems under model uncertainty, and strategic problems with a graph structure. Von Neumann's minimax theorem guarantees the existence of a (minimax) pair of randomized strategies that provide optimal robustness for each player against its adversary. We prove several structural properties of this strategy pair in the case of graph-structured payoff function. In particular, the randomized minimax strategies (distributions over variable assignments) can be chosen in such a way to satisfy the Markov property with respect to the gra...

  3. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavente Chorres Hesbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su voluntad.This study analyzes the cases of the documented proof in those codes regulated the Mexican states that have appropriate criminal proceedings prone to adversarial system. In that sense, it is understood by those measures documented evidence, primarily statements made during the investigation stage that the law gives the probative value could not attend the court hearing to test the trial for reasons beyond their control.

  4. GNSS-based positioning: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitratos, P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of mobile computing devices, user-portable, or embedded in vehicles, cargo containers, or the physical space, need to be aware of their location in order to provide a wide range of commercial services. Most often, mobile devices obtain their own location with the help of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), integrating, for example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Nonetheless, an adversary can compromise location-aware applications by attacking the GNSS-based positioning: It can forge navigation messages and mislead the receiver into calculating a fake location. In this paper, we analyze this vulnerability and propose and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures. First, we consider replay attacks, which can be effective even in the presence of future cryptographic GNSS protection mechanisms. Then, we propose and analyze methods that allow GNSS receivers to detect the reception of signals generated by an adversary, and then reject fake locations calculated because of ...

  5. Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Song, Jun; Ma, Zhao; Huang, Shiyong

    Mission-critical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been found in numerous promising applications in civil and military fields. However, the functionality of WSNs extensively relies on its security capability for detecting and defending sophisticated adversaries, such as Sybil, worm hole and mobile adversaries. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired security framework to provide intelligence-enabled security mechanisms. This scheme is composed of a middleware, multiple agents and mobile agents. The agents monitor the network packets, host activities, make decisions and launch corresponding responses. Middleware performs an infrastructure for the communication between various agents and corresponding mobility. Certain cognitive models and intelligent algorithms such as Layered Reference Model of Brain and Self-Organizing Neural Network with Competitive Learning are explored in the context of sensor networks that have resource constraints. The security framework and implementation are also described in details.

  6. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget

  7. Exponential separations for one-way quantum communication complexity, with applications to cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Gavinsky, D; Kempe, J; Kerenidis, I; Raz, R; Gavinsky, Dmitry; Kempe, Julia; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Raz, Ran; Wolf, Ronald de

    2006-01-01

    We give an exponential separation between one-way quantum and classical communication protocols for two partial Boolean functions, both of which are variants of the Boolean Hidden Matching Problem of Bar-Yossef et al. Earlier such an exponential separation was known only for a relational version of the Hidden Matching Problem. Our proofs use the Fourier coefficients inequality of Kahn, Kalai, and Linial. We also give a number of applications of this separation. In particular, we provide the first example in the bounded storage model of cryptography where the key is secure if the adversary has a certain amount of classical storage, but is completely insecure if he has a similar (or even much smaller) amount of \\emph{quantum} storage. Moreover, in the setting of privacy amplification, we show that there exist extractors which yield a classically secure key, but are insecure against a quantum adversary.

  8. Modern Air&Space Power and political goals at war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Güngör.

    2014-05-01

    Modern AirandSpace Power is increasingly becoming a political tool. In this article, AirandSpacePower as a political tool will be discussed. The primary purpose of this article is to search how AirandSpacePower can provide contributions to security and also determine if it may reach the political goals on its own at war by SWOT Analysis Method and analysing the role of AirandSpace Power in Operation Unified Protector (Libya) as a case study. In conclusion, AirandSpacePower may not be sufficient to win the political goals on its own. However it may reach the political aims partially against the adversary on its own depending upon the situations. Moreover it can alone persuade the adversary to alter its behavior(s) in war.

  9. Analysis of Information Leakage in Quantum Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-li; ZHENG Dong; CHENG Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Quantum key agreement is one of the approaches to unconditional security. Since 1980's, different protocols for quantum key agreement have been proposed and analyzed. A new quantum key agreement protocol was presented in 2004, and a detailed analysis to the protocol was given. The possible game played between legitimate users and the enemy was described:sitting in the middle, an adversary can play a "man-in-the-middle" attack to cheat the sender and receiver. The information leaked to the adversary is essential to the length of the final quantum secret key. It was shown how to determine the amount of information leaked to the enemy and the amount of uncertainty between the legitimate sender and receiver.

  10. Spying the World from your Laptop -- Identifying and Profiling Content Providers and Big Downloaders in BitTorrent

    CERN Document Server

    Blond, Stevens Le; Fessant, Fabrice Le; Dabbous, Walid; Kaafar, Mohamed Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a set of exploits an adversary can use to continuously spy on most BitTorrent users of the Internet from a single machine and for a long period of time. Using these exploits for a period of 103 days, we collected 148 million IPs downloading 2 billion copies of contents. We identify the IP address of the content providers for 70% of the BitTorrent contents we spied on. We show that a few content providers inject most contents into BitTorrent and that those content providers are located in foreign data centers. We also show that an adversary can compromise the privacy of any peer in BitTorrent and identify the big downloaders that we define as the peers who subscribe to a large number of contents. This infringement on users' privacy poses a significant impediment to the legal adoption of BitTorrent.

  11. Practical Attacks on a RFID Authentication Protocol Conforming to EPC C-1 G-2 Standard?

    CERN Document Server

    Habibi, Mohammad Hassan; Alaghband, Mahdi R; 10.5121/iju.2011.2101

    2011-01-01

    Yeh et al. recently have proposed a mutual authentication protocol based on EPC Class-1 Gen.-2 ‎standard [1]. They have claimed that their protocol is secure against adversarial attacks and also ‎provides forward secrecy. In this paper we will show that the proposed protocol does not have proper ‎security features. A powerful and practical attack is presented on this protocol whereby the whole ‎security of the protocol is broken. Furthermore, Yeh et al. protocol does not assure the untraceabilitiy ‎and backward untraceabilitiy aspects. Namely, all past and next transactions of a compromised tag will ‎be traceable by an adversary.‎

  12. A new proxy signature with revocation based on security advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat-Isa, M.; Ismail, E. S.

    2013-11-01

    n proxy signature schemes with revocation, an original signer delegates his signing capability to a proxy signer on behalf of the original signer and revokes delegations whenever necessary. Currently, the security of the previous schemes is based on a single hard problem such as factoring or discrete logarithms. These schemes appear secure today but in a near future, if an adversary finds a solution to these hard problems, the developed schemes will be no longer secure. To solve this problem we develop a new proxy signature scheme with revocation based on two hard problems; factoring and discrete logarithms. The new scheme offers higher level security than normal schemes since it is hard for an adversary to solve the two hard problems simultaneously.

  13. Security and Composability of Randomness Expansion from Bell Inequalities

    CERN Document Server

    Fehr, Serge; Schaffner, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The nonlocal behavior of quantum mechanics enables to generate guaranteed fresh randomness from an untrusted device that consists of two nonsignalling components. Since the generation process requires some initial fresh randomness to act as a catalyst, one also speaks of randomness expansion. Previous works showed the freshness of the generated randomness only for an adversary that holds no quantum side information, or, equivalently, has measured all quantum side information before the randomness is generated by the device. Thus, until now it was unclear if and how much fresh randomness can be generated by an untrusted device in the presence of an adversary that maintains a quantum state. In this work, we show that security against quantum side information comes "for free". Specifically, we show that with the same procedure, the very same amount of randomness can be generated in the presence of quantum side information as can be generated without any (quantum or classical) side information. Our result on the ...

  14. Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat

    2015-10-01

    Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.

  15. Risk analysis for critical asset protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, William L; Ayyub, Bilal M; Kaminskiy, Mark

    2007-10-01

    This article proposes a quantitative risk assessment and management framework that supports strategic asset-level resource allocation decision making for critical infrastructure and key resource protection. The proposed framework consists of five phases: scenario identification, consequence and criticality assessment, security vulnerability assessment, threat likelihood assessment, and benefit-cost analysis. Key innovations in this methodology include its initial focus on fundamental asset characteristics to generate an exhaustive set of plausible threat scenarios based on a target susceptibility matrix (which we refer to as asset-driven analysis) and an approach to threat likelihood assessment that captures adversary tendencies to shift their preferences in response to security investments based on the expected utilities of alternative attack profiles assessed from the adversary perspective. A notional example is provided to demonstrate an application of the proposed framework. Extensions of this model to support strategic portfolio-level analysis and tactical risk analysis are suggested. PMID:18076495

  16. A Rational Approach to Cryptographic Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero-Gil, P; Bruno-Castañeda, C; 10.1016/j.mcm.2006.12.013

    2010-01-01

    This work initiates an analysis of several cryptographic protocols from a rational point of view using a game-theoretical approach, which allows us to represent not only the protocols but also possible misbehaviours of parties. Concretely, several concepts of two-person games and of two-party cryptographic protocols are here combined in order to model the latters as the formers. One of the main advantages of analysing a cryptographic protocol in the game-theory setting is the possibility of describing improved and stronger cryptographic solutions because possible adversarial behaviours may be taken into account directly. With those tools, protocols can be studied in a malicious model in order to find equilibrium conditions that make possible to protect honest parties against all possible strategies of adversaries.

  17. Certified Randomness from a Two-Level System in a Relativistic Quantum Field

    CERN Document Server

    Thinh, Le Phuc; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is an indispensable resource in modern science and information technology. Fortunately, an experimentally simple procedure exists to generate randomness with well-characterized devices: measuring a quantum system in a basis complementary to its preparation. Towards realizing this goal one may consider using atoms or superconducting qubits, promising candidates for quantum information processing. However, their unavoidable interaction with the electromagnetic field affects their dynamics. At large time scales, this can result in decoherence. Smaller time scales in principle avoid this problem, but may not be well analysed under the usual rotating wave and single-mode approximation (RWA and SMA) which break the relativistic nature of quantum field theory. Here, we use a fully relativistic analysis to quantify the information that an adversary with access to the field could get on the result of an atomic measurement. Surprisingly, we find that the adversary's guessing probability is not minimized for ...

  18. Weaponizing Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Athanasios; Tassos, Dimitriou; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    gain access in the network and the information transferred within. While much work has been done on trying to defend these networks, little has been done on suggesting sophisticated tools for proving how vulnerable sensor networks are. This work demonstrates a tool that allows both passive monitoring...... of transactional data in sensor networks, such as message rate, mote frequency, message routing, etc., but also discharge of various attacks against them. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first instance of an attack tool that can be used by an adversary to penetrate the confidentiality and...... functionality of a sensor network. Results show that our tool can be flexibly applied to different sensor network operating systems and protocol stacks giving an adversary privileges to which she is not entitled to. We hope that our tool will be used proactively, to study the weaknesses of new security...

  19. Query Strategies for Evading Convex-Inducing Classifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, Blaine; Huang, Ling; Joseph, Anthony D; Lee, Steven J; Rao, Satish; Tygar, J D

    2010-01-01

    Classifiers are often used to detect miscreant activities. We study how an adversary can systematically query a classifier to elicit information that allows the adversary to evade detection while incurring a near-minimal cost of modifying their intended malfeasance. We generalize the theory of Lowd and Meek (2005) to the family of convex-inducing classifiers that partition input space into two sets one of which is convex. We present query algorithms for this family that construct undetected instances of approximately minimal cost using only polynomially-many queries in the dimension of the space and in the level of approximation. Our results demonstrate that near-optimal evasion can be accomplished without reverse-engineering the classifier's decision boundary. We also consider general lp costs and show that near-optimal evasion on the family of convex-inducing classifiers is generally efficient for both positive and negative convexity for all levels of approximation if p=1.

  20. Relationship Contracting: The South Australian Experience - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry has long been accusedof poor performance. The confrontational attitudeof its members and the resultant adversarial atmosphere has been identified as a major factor responsible for this poor performance. A cultural change is required to remove these barriers and to promote optimum project outcomes. Relationship contracting is promoted as a way to support the shift from the adversarial culture to the co-operative and collaborative culture within the industry and the project team.The Adelaide Convention Centre Extensions project was the first in South Australia to be procure und r the principles of relationship contract1ng. Usmg the case study approach, this paper reviews the form of relationship contracting used in this milestone project. The paper documents the lessons learned from this project and makes recommendations that can lead to improvements for future projects.

  1. Secure Neighbor Position Discovery in VANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Marco; Chiasserini, Carla Fabiana; Papadimitratos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Many significant functionalities of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) require that nodes have knowledge of the positions of other vehicles, and notably of those within communication range. However, adversarial nodes could provide false position information or disrupt the acquisition of such information. Thus, in VANETs, the discovery of neighbor positions should be performed in a secure manner. In spite of a multitude of security protocols in the literature, there is no secure discovery protocol for neighbors positions. We address this problem in our paper: we design a distributed protocol that relies solely on information exchange among one-hop neighbors, we analyze its security properties in presence of one or multiple (independent or colluding) adversaries, and we evaluate its performance in a VANET environment using realistic mobility traces. We show that our protocol can be highly effective in detecting falsified position information, while maintaining a low rate of false positive detections.

  2. Attacks and Countermeasures in Social Network Data Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yang

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of social networks, more and more social network data are published for many applications, such as social network analysis and data mining. However, this brings privacy problems. For example, adversaries can get sensitive in⁃formation of some individuals easily with little background knowledge. How to publish social network data for analysis purpose while preserving the privacy of individuals has raised many concerns. Many algorithms have been proposed to address this issue. In this paper, we discuss this privacy problem from two aspects: attack models and countermeasures. We analyse privacy con⁃cerns, model the background knowledge that adversary may utilize and review the recently developed attack models. We then sur⁃vey the state⁃of⁃the⁃art privacy preserving methods in two categories: anonymization methods and differential privacy methods. We also provide research directions in this area.

  3. Merkle Puzzles in a Quantum World

    CERN Document Server

    Brassard, Gilles; Kalach, Kassem; Kaplan, Marc; Laplante, Sophie; Salvail, Louis

    2011-01-01

    In 1974, Ralph Merkle proposed the first unclassified scheme for secure communications over insecure channels. When legitimate communicating parties are willing to spend an amount of computational effort proportional to some parameter N, an eavesdropper cannot break into their communication without spending a time proportional to N^2, which is quadratically more than the legitimate effort. We showed in an earlier paper that Merkle's schemes are completely insecure against a quantum adversary, but that their security can be partially restored if the legitimate parties are also allowed to use quantum computation: the eavesdropper needed to spend a time proportional to N^{3/2} to break our earlier quantum scheme. Furthermore, all previous classical schemes could be broken completely by the onslaught of a quantum eavesdropper and we conjectured that this is unavoidable. We give two novel key establishment schemes in the spirit of Merkle's. The first one can be broken by a quantum adversary that makes an effort pr...

  4. A BAYESIAN ABDUCTION MODEL FOR EXTRACTING THE MOST PROBABLE EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT SENSEMAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Munya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the development of a Bayesian Abduction Model of Sensemaking Support (BAMSS as a tool for information fusion to support prospective sensemaking. Currently, BAMSS can identify the Most Probable Explanation from a Bayesian Belief Network (BBN and extract the prevalent conditional probability values to help the sensemaking analysts to understand the cause-effect of the adversary information. Actual vignettes from databases of modern insurgencies and asymmetry warfare are used to validate the performance of BAMSS. BAMSS computes the posterior probability of the network edges and performs information fusion using a clustering algorithm. In the model, the friendly force commander uses the adversary information to prospectively make sense of the enemy’s intent. Sensitivity analyses were used to confirm the robustness of BAMSS in generating the Most Probable Explanations from a BBN through abductive inference. The simulation results demonstrate the utility of BAMSS as a computational tool to support sense making.

  5. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology.

  6. SAFE/SNAP application to shipboard security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An application of the combined Safeguards Automated Facility Evaluation/Safeguards Network Analysis Procedure (SAFE/SNAP) modeling technique to a physical protection system (PPS) aboard a generic ship is described. This application was performed as an example of how the SAFE and SNAP techniques could be used. Estimates of probability of interruption and neutralization for the example shipboard PPS are provided by SAFE as well as an adversary scenario, which serves as input to SNAP. This adversary scenario is analyzed by SNAP through four cases which incorporate increasingly detailed security force tactics. Comparisons between the results of the SAFE and SNAP analyses are made and conclusions drawn on the validity of each technique. Feedback from SNAP to SAFE is described, and recommendations for upgrading the ship based on the results of the SAFE/SNAP application are also discussed

  7. Fair trial in international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh khedri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fair hearing in the courts requires the principles of procedure. Because the arbitration is considered as private judgment, thus in arbitration hearing regarding to non-ceremonial proceedings, arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect the principles of civil procedure in arbitration hearing. Equal treatment with parties of arbitration and Adversarial procedure are principles that arbitrator or arbitration panel obliged to satisfy them in proceeding whit action arbitration parties. Independence and impartiality are elements of Equal treatment and proper notice and give a full opportunity to presentation case are elements of adversarial procedure in Arbitration hearing that arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect them in proceeding between action arbitration parties. Disclosure Obligation, Challenge to arbitrators competence, application for setting aside and refuse to recognition and enforcement of award are tools to satisfy compliance of principles of procedural civil in Arbitration hearing. In this paper, ways of satisfying principles of procedure and its sanctions has been considered.

  8. Realistic noise-tolerant randomness amplification using finite number of devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Ramanathan, Ravishankar; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Karol; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Szarek, Tomasz; Wojewódka, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is a fundamental concept, with implications from security of modern data systems, to fundamental laws of nature and even the philosophy of science. Randomness is called certified if it describes events that cannot be pre-determined by an external adversary. It is known that weak certified randomness can be amplified to nearly ideal randomness using quantum-mechanical systems. However, so far, it was unclear whether randomness amplification is a realistic task, as the existing proposals either do not tolerate noise or require an unbounded number of different devices. Here we provide an error-tolerant protocol using a finite number of devices for amplifying arbitrary weak randomness into nearly perfect random bits, which are secure against a no-signalling adversary. The correctness of the protocol is assessed by violating a Bell inequality, with the degree of violation determining the noise tolerance threshold. An experimental realization of the protocol is within reach of current technology. PMID:27098302

  9. Collaborative Divorce: An Effort to Reduce the Damage of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fisch, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Divorce has been trapped in the adversarial system of the courts, a system ill suited to the needs of a family attempting to reorganize itself and still safeguard the well-being of its members. Collaborative divorce (CD) is a relatively new approach comprising an interdisciplinary professional team trained to help the divorcing family arrive at a financial, legal, and emotional settlement. The CD approach is designed to assist both members of the couple and their children transition into a more constructive future wherein they can still be a family. The structure and adversarial approach of the courts have been replaced by collaborative structures and principles developed to encourage honesty and cooperation. The case presented illustrates how this actually works. PMID:27037997

  10. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    parameter ρ < n/2, we obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t < n/2, and computationally secure with agreement on abort (privacy and correctness only) for up to t < n -ρ. Our......Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational power...... of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness...

  11. Cryptanalysis of Two RFID Authentication Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjie Cao

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Radio frequency identi¯cation (RFID technologies have many advantages in applications such as object tracking and monitoring, ticketing, supply-chain management, contactless payment systems. However, the RFID system may bring about various security and privacy problems. In this paper we present our security analysis of the LAK protocol and the CWH protocol. First, we show that the LAK protocol cannot resist replay attacks, and therefore an adversary can impersonate a legal tag. Next, we present a full-disclosure attack on the CWH protocol. By sending malicious queries to a tag and collecting the response messages emitted by the tag, the full-disclosure attack allows an adversary to extract the secret information from the tag.

  12. The vulnerability of social networking media and the insider threat : new eyes for bad guys

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkart, John J.

    2011-01-01

    CHDS State/Local Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Social networking media introduces a new set of vulnerabilities to protecting an organization's sensitive information. Competitors and foreign adversaries are actively targeting U.S. industry to acquire trade secrets to undercut U.S. business in the marketplace. Of primary concern in this endeavor is an insider's betrayal of an organization, witting or unwitting, by providing sensitive information to a hostile outsi...

  13. ‪The Vulnerability of Social Networking Media and the Insider Threat: New Eyes for Bad Guys‬ [video

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkart, John; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2012-01-01

    Social networking media introduces a new set of vulnerabilities to protecting an organization's sensitive information. Adversaries are actively targeting U.S. industry to acquire trade secrets to undercut U.S. business in the marketplace. Of primary concern is an insider's betrayal of an organization by providing sensitive information to a hostile outsider. Social engineering, when coupled with the new and widespread use of social networking media, becomes more effective by exploiting the wea...

  14. The interaction between potential criminals' and victims' demands for guns

    OpenAIRE

    Baç, Mehmet; Bac, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    I develop a model with endogenous gun ownership and study the interaction between the demands for guns by heterogeneous potential offenders and victims. I show that the interaction depends on pervasiveness of guns, injury probabilities and, in particular, the impact of the gun on the probability of success against armed relative to unarmed adversaries. While the sanction on armed offense is maximal under plausible conditions, the sanction on unarmed offense balances direct deterrence benef...

  15. The USSR/Russia, Norway and international co-operation on environmental matters in the Arctic, 1984-1996

    OpenAIRE

    Karelina, Irina

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the USSR, Norway and international cooperation on environmental matters in the Arctic (1984-1996). During the Cold War, the region attracted much attention from of the main adversaries. It was a playground for strategic planners and a laboratory for the improvement of military technology. But at the same time these territories were also – at least potentially – a source for contacts between scientist of the East and the West. Especially in the last decade of the Cold War,...

  16. Anonymous Authentication Scheme for Intercommunication in the Internet of Things Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Youngseok Chung; Seokjin Choi; Dongho Won

    2015-01-01

    Authentication and privacy protection are important security mechanisms for keeping things safe in the Internet of Things environments. In particular, an anonymous authentication scheme is a privacy preserving authentication technique which provides both authentication and privacy preservation. An authentication scheme with anonymity in mobility networks was proposed recently. However, it was proven that it failed to provide anonymity against passive adversaries and malicious users and securi...

  17. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  18. Feasibility of developing a surrogate missile system for the purpose of combat systems testing, evaluation, and watchstander proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Elzner, Benjamin Asher

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Aegis readiness is an increasing concern as ships age, Navy budgets shrink, and potential adversaries make strides toward combat power parity in diverse regions around the world. Keys to combat effectiveness are materiel readiness and crew proficiency. Live fire missile exercises are a proven way to gauge the former while contributing to the latter, but the use of combat missiles for this purpose is both expensive and depletes the inve...

  19. Relational changes between Statoil and suppliers in the last sesquidecade

    OpenAIRE

    Slaattelid, Andreas Hollund

    2015-01-01

    Research in relations management has burgeoned in the last sixty years, and literature has classified attributes of interorganizational relations into two models: The Collaborative, where integrated teams, flexibility, shared information and close relationships are cultivated; and the Adversarial, which bases its premise on market forces, formal communication, and the entitlements of contract. The Norwegian supply and service industry has developed in parallel with Statoil, and both parti...

  20. The Invisible Hand in Legal and Political Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeule, Cornelius Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Theorists have offered invisible-hand justifications for a range of legal institutions, including the separation of powers, free speech, the adversary system of litigation, criminal procedure, the common law, and property rights. These arguments are largely localized, with few comparisons across contexts and no general account of how invisible-hand justifications work. This essay has two aims. The first is to identify general conditions under which an invisible-hand justification will succeed...

  1. Poisoned Feedback: The Impact of Malicious Users in Closed-Loop Multiuser MIMO Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amitav

    2010-01-01

    Accurate channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter is critical for maximizing spectral efficiency on the downlink of multi-antenna networks. In this work we analyze a novel form of physical layer attacks on such closed-loop wireless networks. Specifically, this paper considers the impact of deliberately inaccurate feedback by malicious users in a multiuser multicast system. Numerical results demonstrate the significant degradation in performance of closed-loop transmission schemes due to intentional feedback of false CSI by adversarial users.

  2. Information operations, an evolutionary step for the Mexican Armed Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz, David Vargas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis will focus on the Mexican Armed Force's ability to deal with existing and future unconventional threats and insurgencies. The modern Mexican Armed Forces are the result of an enduring evolutionary process, which has made the necessary changes to deal with the emerging threats against the state. Mexico's criminal threat has evolved because of 9/11 and because of the U.S.-led crackdown on Colombian drug cartels. Mexico's modern adversary is well versed in waging mass media campa...

  3. Body Cultures: the Venezuelan Holy Family

    OpenAIRE

    Guerrero, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I propose reading the body as a privileged space to debate Venezuelan politics. I expose the violent metaphorical and allegorical operations that manage to disfigure the national bodies, taking them to the very limits of monstrosity before normalizing them. Notwithstanding the compulsion to denounce the political adversary that defiles the Venezuelan ‘holy’ family, the need to preserve the national body par excellence is stronger than these differences and the incidental poss...

  4. Mobile Tracking Based on Support Vector Regressors Ensemble and Game Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fanzi Zeng; Shaoyuan Liu; Renfa Li; Qingguang Zeng

    2014-01-01

    A two-step tracking strategy is proposed to mitigate the adverse effect of non-line-of-sight (NLOS) propagation to the mobile node tracking. This strategy firstly uses support vector regressors ensemble (SVRM) to establish the mapping of node position to radio parameters by supervising learning. Then by modelling the noise as the adversary of position estimator, a game between position estimator and noise is constructed. After that the position estimation from SVRM is smoothed by game theory....

  5. LinkMirage: How to Anonymize Links in Dynamic Social Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Changhchang; Mittal, Prateek

    2015-01-01

    Social network based trust relationships present a critical foundation for designing trustworthy systems, such as Sybil defenses, secure routing, and anonymous/censorshipresilient communications. A key issue in the design of such systems, is the revelation of users' trusted social contacts to an adversary-information that is considered sensitive in today's society. In this work, we focus on the challenge of preserving the privacy of users' social contacts, while still enabling the design of s...

  6. PRESERVING IDENTITY OF USERS IN SOCIAL NETWORK SITES BY INTEGRATING ANONYMIZATION AND DIVERSIFICATION ALGORITHMS

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaz Kavianpour; Zuraini Ismail; and Amirhossein Mohtasebi

    2011-01-01

    Currently, Social Networking Sites (SNSs) expand internet users’ relationships and their businesses. Despite the huge benefits gained by SNS users, the huge amount of information exchanged by different users makes SNSs an easy target for privacy threats. The goal of this paper is to explain how information disclosure to adversaries will be minimized by using integrated algorithm. This study takes the advantages of Kanonymity algorithm and ldiversity algorithm then evaluated the effectivenes...

  7. Den tavse venstrefløjspolitik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech

    2012-01-01

    legitimized in three ways. First, by displacing the question of freedom of speech from a political right to a morality of empathy; second, by moralizing and antagonizing the political climate in good/evil, which stigmatizes the adversary; and finally, calling for self-censorship and censorship of those who do...... not conform to what is politically correct. The article looks into these aspects of the public political culture in Denmark by focusing on how leftists have argued in the public media....

  8. Dynamic Packet Scheduling in Wireless Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kesselheim, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We consider protocols that serve communication requests arising over time in a wireless network that is subject to interference. Unlike previous approaches, we take the geometry of the network and power control into account, both allowing to increase the network's performance significantly. We introduce a stochastic and an adversarial model to bound the packet injection. Although taken as the primary motivation, this approach is not only suitable for models based on the signal-to-interference...

  9. Cultural Influences on Mediation in International Crises

    OpenAIRE

    Molly Inman; Roudabeh Kishi; Jonathan Wilkenfeld; Michele Gelfand; Elizabeth Salmon

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of culture on state behavior in international crises, specifically with regard to mediation and its outcome, this study tests hypotheses rooted in both the international relations and the cross-cultural psychology literatures, implementing analysis at both the international-system level and the domestic-state-actor level. At the international system level, the study finds that cultural difference between adversaries affects whether or not mediation occurs during ...

  10. A Cost Effective RFID Based Customized DVD-ROM to Thwart Software Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dogra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software piracy has been a very perilous adversary of the software-based industry, from the very beginning of the development of the latter into a significant business. There has been no developed foolproof system that has been developed to appropriately tackle this vile issue. We have in our scheme tried to develop a way to embark upon this problem using a very recently developed technology of RFID.

  11. Strategic behavior at trial : the production, reporting, and evaluation of complex evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Botelho, Anabela

    2001-01-01

    Recent game-theoretic analyses of the adversarial process have focused on the ability of courts to render accurate verdicts in light of selectively reported evidence. This paper generalizes previous work by developing a game where the court’s decision to weigh evidence and litigants’ information-gathering and reporting strategies are endogenously determined, and examines the effects on the players’ equilibrium strategies of varying the informational endowments of the litigants ...

  12. Security-by-experiment : lessons from responsible deployment in cyberspace

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadžiosmanović, Dina; Dechesne, Francien

    2015-01-01

    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents (attackers) may be at least as important ...

  13. A Protocol for Quantum Energy Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Hotta, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    A new protocol, quantum energy distribution (QED), is proposed in which multiple parties can simultaneously extract positive energy from spin chains by common secret keys shared by an energy supplier. QED is robust against impersonation; an adversary, who does not have a common secret key and attempts to get energy, will instead give energy to the spin chains. The total amount of energy transfer gives a lower bound of the residual energy of any local cooling process by the energy supplier.

  14. SCM and extended integration at the lower tiers of the construction supply chain: An explorative study in the Dutch construction industry

    OpenAIRE

    Pryke, S. D.; Broft, R.; Badi, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have underlined the potential of Supply Chain Management (SCM) in meeting the formidable challenges associated with fragmentation, adversarial relationships and insufficient customer focus in the delivery of construction projects (e.g. Dainty et al., 2001; Cox and Ireland, 2002; Gadde and Dubois, 2010). However, there remains a paucity of properly documented examples of successfully implemented SCM initiatives, particularly at the lower tiers of the supply chain. This study se...

  15. Re-Imagining Punishment: An Exercise in “Intersectional Criminal Justiceâ€

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Pagni Barak

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 40 years a number of scholars have called upon fellow criminologists to rethink the field’s priorities and methods, as well as the American criminal justice system and current punishment practices. Drawing on alternative criminologies, including constitutive and peacemaking criminologies, as well as the practice of reintegrative shaming, this paper presents a new model of criminal justice that combines aspects of adversarial, restorative, social, and transformative justice fra...

  16. Re-Imagining Punishment: An Exercise in “Intersectional Criminal Justice”

    OpenAIRE

    Barak, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 40 years a number of scholars have called upon fellow criminologists to rethink the field’s priorities and methods, as well as the American criminal justice system and current punishment practices. Drawing on alternative criminologies, including constitutive and peacemaking criminologies, as well as the practice of reintegrative shaming, this paper presents a new model of criminal justice that combines aspects of adversarial, restorative, social, and transformative justice frame...

  17. O desafio das diferenças étnicas em Heródoto. Uma questão de inteligência e saber

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria de Fátima de Sousa e

    2001-01-01

    The Persian conquest politics through successive military campains moves, from Darius on, to west, particularly towards Cythia and Greece. So farther and remote, so much unknown is that adversary, that the Persian king despises for ignorance, but agains whom he will show unprovided of means and efficatcous strategies. Called to render concrete the enterprise planned by his father - the promising conquest of Greece -, Xerxes acts with the same ignorance and imprudence. The enemy potentialities...

  18. Collusion and gasoline retail activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Italian Competition Authority opened a new procedure dealing with gasoline retail activities and with the alleged collusion between the main companies of this sector. The preliminary adversary arguments do not seem to be firm enough to pass through a possible appeal to the Italian administrative courts. This is why the Authority and the companies could agree and binding commitments in order to close the case in advance

  19. A Bitcoin system with no mining and no history transactions: Build a compact Bitcoin system

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaochao Qian

    2014-01-01

    We give an explicit definition of decentralization and show you that decentralization is almost impossible for the current stage. We propose a new framework of noncentralized cryptocurrency system with an assumption of the existence of a weak adversary for a bank alliance. It abandons the mining process and blockchain, and removes history transactions from data synchronization. We propose a consensus algorithm named "Converged Consensus" for a noncentralized cryptocurrency system.

  20. Exploring individual differences in deductive reasoning as a function of 'autistic'-like traits

    OpenAIRE

    Fugard, Andrew J. B.

    2009-01-01

    From a logical viewpoint, people must reason to as well as from interpretations in deductive reasoning tasks. There are two main interpretative stances (e.g., Stenning & van Lambalgen, 2004, 2005, 2008): credulous, the act of trying to infer the speaker's intended model; and sceptical, an adversarial strategy. A range of contextual factors in uence interpretation, but there are also differences between individuals across situations. Taking an individual differences approach,...

  1. Classification of Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Mohamed-Lamine

    2014-01-01

    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), security has a vital importance. Recently, there was a huge interest to propose security solutions in WSNs because of their applications in both civilian and military domains. Adversaries can launch different types of attacks, and cryptography is used to countering these attacks. This paper presents challenges of security and a classification of the different possible attacks in WSNs. The problems of security in each layer of the network's OSI model are dis...

  2. Dragon Training and Changing Culture: A Review of DreamWorks' How to Train Your Dragon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, Chelsea J; Wilhite, Criss; Williams, W Larry

    2010-01-01

    DreamWorks' How to Train Your Dragon is an animated coming-of-age story in which the hero uses behavioral techniques to befriend and then to train an adversary. This movie provides an example of the successful dissemination of behavioral principles and technologies to the general population. Although it does not represent best practices in every instance, the movie may be an indication of a broader social acceptance of behavioral approaches to conflict resolution. PMID:22532721

  3. Egalitarian computing

    OpenAIRE

    Biryukov, Alex; Khovratovich, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we explore several contexts where an adversary has an upper hand over the defender by using special hardware in an attack. These include password processing, hard-drive protection, cryptocurrency mining, resource sharing, code obfuscation, etc. We suggest memory-hard computing as a generic paradigm, where every task is amalgamated with a certain procedure requiring intensive access to RAM both in terms of size and (very importantly) bandwidth, so that transferring the com...

  4. Public forest policy development in New Brunswick, Canada: multiple streams approach, advocacy coalition framework, and the role of science

    OpenAIRE

    William F. A. Anderson; MacLean, David A.

    2015-01-01

    In a 15-year case study, we used the multiple streams approach (MSA) and the advocacy coalition framework (ACF) to examine a controversial industry-led proposal for increased harvest of Crown forests in New Brunswick, Canada, in an adversarial policy subsystem. Study participants were queried on their perceptions of policy problems and reasons for community attention, the relationship between science and policy, and whether policy decisions were consistent with scientific understanding. Thema...

  5. How to optimize joint theater ballistic missile defense

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Douglas D.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Many potential adversaries seek, or already have theater ballistic missiles capable of threatening targets of interest to the United States. The U.S. Missile Defense Agency and armed forces are developing and fielding missile interceptors carried by many different platforms, including ships, aircraft, and ground units. Given some exigent threat, the U.S. must decide where to position defensive platforms and how they should engage poten...

  6. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente Chorres Hesbert

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su vol...

  7. CUSUM-Based Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Bishan Ying

    2014-01-01

    The nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) makes them very vulnerable to adversary's malicious attacks. Therefore, network security is an important issue to WSNs. Due to the constraints of WSN, intrusion detection in WSNs is a challengeable task. In this paper, we present a novel intrusion detection mechanism for WSNs, which is composed of a secure data communication algorithm and an intrusion detection algorithm. The major contribution of this paper is that we propose an original secure m...

  8. A Factoring and Discrete Logarithm based Cryptosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Ciss, Abdoul Aziz; Cheikh, Ahmed Youssef Ould; Sow, Djiby

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new public key cryptosystem based on two hard problems : the cube root extraction modulo a composite moduli (which is equivalent to the factorisation of the moduli) and the discrete logarithm problem. These two hard problems are combined during the key generation, encryption and decryption phases. By combining the IFP and the DLP we introduce a secure and efficient public key cryptosystem. To break the scheme, an adversary may solve the IFP and the DLP separately which...

  9. An Enciphering Scheme Based on a Card Shuffle

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Viet Tung; Morris, Ben; Rogaway, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the swap-or-not shuffle and show that the technique gives rise to a new method to convert a pseudorandom function (PRF) into a pseudorandom permutation (PRP) (or, alternatively, to directly build a confusion/diffusion blockcipher). We then prove that swap-or-not has excellent quantitative security bounds, giving a Luby-Rackoff type result that ensures security (assuming an ideal round function) to a number of adversarial queries that is nearly the size of the construction's domai...

  10. Quantum money from knots

    CERN Document Server

    Farhi, Edward; Hassidim, Avinatan; Lutomirski, Andrew; Shor, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Quantum money is a cryptographic protocol in which a mint can produce a quantum state, no one else can copy the state, and anyone (with a quantum computer) can verify that the state came from the mint. We present a concrete quantum money scheme based on superpositions of diagrams that encode oriented links with the same Alexander polynomial. We expect our scheme to be secure against computationally bounded adversaries.

  11. Quantum money with classical verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it

  12. Prosecutorial Discretion at the International Criminal Court: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jingbo Dong

    2009-01-01

    In International Criminal Court (ICC), the prosecutorial discretion in nature is a hybrid of the common-law adversarial model and the inquisitorial approach of civil-law systems. This paper studies the ICC prosecutorial discretion from the perspectives of common law and civil law and draws the conclusion that the ICC needs some more time to carefully design the prosecutorial discretion to reach coherence.

  13. Strategic unionism in Eastern Europe : the case of Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Trif, Aurora; Koch, Karl

    2005-01-01

    The shift from centrally planned economies to market-oriented economic models presented trade unions in Eastern European countries with crucial choices in relation to their roles as industrial relations actors. This paper investigates whether (and why) unions have chosen adversarial and/or co-operative relationships with the employers, based on a strategic choice conceptual framework. It focuses on trade union relations with employers at national, sectoral and company levels in Romania. It is...

  14. Cyber operations and Gray Zones:challenges for NATO

    OpenAIRE

    Fitton, Oliver James

    2016-01-01

    The Gray Zone represents a space between peaceful state rivalries and war. Within this space actors have developed hybrid strategies to extend their influence. This concept of conflict is best illustrated by Russia’s actions in Eastern Ukraine in 2014. Gray Zone doctrine leverages ambiguity to create an environment in which adversaries are unable to make strategic decisions in a timely and confident manner. Cyber Operations, because of the attribution problem, lend themselves to this kind of ...

  15. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  16. aDTN - Undetectable Communication in Wireless Delay-tolerant Networks (Working Draft)

    OpenAIRE

    Barroso, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This document describes a best-effort delay-tolerant communication system that protects the privacy of users in wireless ad-hoc networks by making their communication undetectable. The proposed system is a wireless broadcast-based adaptation of mix networks where each user belongs to at least one group it trusts, and each group acts as a mix node. Assuming encryption is not broken, it provides undetectability of all users and messages against external adversaries, as well as undetectability o...

  17. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Yang; Liusheng Huang; Fang Song

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of...

  18. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deon Erasmus; Angus Lloyd Hornigold

    2015-01-01

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventu...

  19. Garbage In, Garbage Out: The Court Interpreter’s Lament

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelson, Holly

    2012-01-01

    Interpreters in all settings, in all parts of the world, and throughout history have lamented the poor quality of the language they must deal with in source texts. This chapter will review some recent publications on interpreting quality criteria, user expectations, and the associated challenges facing interpreters in different settings (Kondo 2006; Peng 2006; Lee 2009; Ng 2009; Napier et al. 2009; Kent 2009). The constraints facing court interpreters in adversarial settings wi...

  20. Integrity of the Web Content: The Case of Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Vratonjic, Nevena; Freudiger, Julien; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Online advertising is a major source of revenues in the Internet. In this paper, we identify a number of vulnerabilities of current ad serving systems. We describe how an adversary can exploit these vulnerabilities to divert part of the ad revenue stream for its own benefit. We propose a collaborative secure scheme to fix this problem. The solution relies on the fact that most of online advertising networks own digital authentication certificates and can become a source of trust. We also expl...

  1. RFID Technology Based Attendance Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita Nainan; Romin Parekh; Tanvi Shah

    2013-01-01

    RFID is a nascent technology, deeply rooted by its early developments in using radar as a harbinger of adversary planes during World War II. A plethora of industries have leveraged the benefits of RFID technology for enhancements in sectors like military, sports, security, airline, animal farms, healthcare and other areas. Industry specific key applications of this technology include vehicle tracking, automated inventory management, animal monitoring, secure store checkouts, supply chain mana...

  2. Finding Robust Assailant Using Optimization Functions (FiRAO-PG) in Wireless Sensor Network

    OpenAIRE

    Piyush Kumar Shukla; Sachin Goyal; Rajesh Wadhvani; Rizvi, M. A.; Poonam Sharma; Neeraj Tantubay

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor network consists of hundreds or thousands of low cost, low power, and self-organizing tiny sensor nodes that are deployed within the sensor network. Sensor network is susceptible to physical attacks due to deprived power and restricted resource capability and is exposed to external environment for transmitting and receiving data. Node capture attack is one of the most menacing attack in the wireless sensor network and may be physically captured by an adversary for extracting ...

  3. The Approach Of The Sports Press To Public Relations Activities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    OKAY, Aydemir

    2007-01-01

    Journalism and public relations are professional fields very close to each other. Despite some evidences regarding the usefulness of public relations supports on news work, a number of studies have described the perceptions of public relations practitioners and journalists as sometimes adversarial,  cooperative, or a love-hate relationship, and mostly skeptical toward each other. Most studies confirm that practitioners try to influence the news process and journalists try to defend against un...

  4. Bluetooth Low Energy - privacy enhancement for advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is to design, simulate, and implement a privacy enhancement protocol over BLE advertising channels. The design of the privacy enhancement is generic and modular. Due to the risk of privacy disclosure and device tracking by adversary, the main focus will be put on designing and implementing message confidentiality, replay prevention, and anti-tracking of device over BLE advertising channels. Bluetooth core specification 4.1 is used as baseline for design and implementat...

  5. Bad Universal Priors and Notions of Optimality

    OpenAIRE

    Leike, Jan; Hutter, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A big open question of algorithmic information theory is the choice of the universal Turing machine (UTM). For Kolmogorov complexity and Solomonoff induction we have invariance theorems: the choice of the UTM changes bounds only by a constant. For the universally intelligent agent AIXI (Hutter, 2005) no invariance theorem is known. Our results are entirely negative: we discuss cases in which unlucky or adversarial choices of the UTM cause AIXI to misbehave drastically. We show that Legg-Hutte...

  6. Machine Learning Methods for Computer Security (Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 12371)

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Anthony D.; Laskov, Pavel; Roli, Fabio; Tygar, J. Doug; Nelson, Blaine

    2013-01-01

    The study of learning in adversarial environments is an emerging discipline at the juncture between machine learning and computer security. The interest in learning-based methods for security- and system-design applications comes from the high degree of complexity of phenomena underlying the security and reliability of computer systems. As it becomes increasingly difficult to reach the desired properties solely using statically designed mechanisms, learning methods are being used more and mor...

  7. A Cross-Platform Collection of Social Network Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga, Maria Han; Eickhoff, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The proliferation of Internet-enabled devices and services has led to a shifting balance between digital and analogue aspects of our everyday lives. In the face of this development there is a growing demand for the study of privacy hazards, the potential for unique user de-anonymization and information leakage between the various social media profiles many of us maintain. To enable the structured study of such adversarial effects, this paper presents a dedicated dataset of cross-platform soci...

  8. On the Linearization of Human Identification Protocols: Attacks based on Linear Algebra, Coding Theory and Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Asghar, HJ; Steinfeld, R.; Li, S.; Kaafar, MA; Pieprzyk, J

    2015-01-01

    Human identification protocols are challenge-response protocols that rely on human computational ability to reply to random challenges from the server based on a public function of a shared secret and the challenge to authenticate the human user. One security criterion for a human identification protocol is the number of challenge-response pairs the adversary needs to observe before it can deduce the secret. In order to increase this number, protocol designers have tried to construct protocol...

  9. Relaxing the Gaussian AVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwate, Anand D.; Gastpar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The arbitrarily varying channel (AVC) is a conservative way of modeling an unknown interference, and the corresponding capacity results are pessimistic. We reconsider the Gaussian AVC by relaxing the classical model and thereby weakening the adversarial nature of the interference. We examine three different relaxations. First, we show how a very small amount of common randomness between transmitter and receiver is sufficient to achieve the rates of fully randomized codes. Second, akin to the ...

  10. Active cyber defense: enhancing national cyber defense

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Tiong Pern.

    2011-01-01

    With increased dependency on the Internet, cyber attacks are fast becoming an attractive option for state adversaries, in part because of the ease of hiding one's identity. In response, governments around the world are taking measures to improve their national cyber defenses. However, these defenses, which are generally passive in nature, have been insufficient to address the threat. This thesis explores the possibility of employing active cyber defenses to improve cyber defenses at the na...

  11. Upconversion based receivers for quantum hacking resistant quantum key distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation) based quantum-optical setup that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermor...

  12. Team 6: Joint Capability Metamodel-Test-Metamodel Integration with Data Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, T.; Dryer, D.; Way, H.; Sanchez, S.; Kelton, W.D.; Schamburg, J.; D. Martin

    2007-01-01

    from Scythe : Proceedings and Bulletin of the International Data Farming Community, Issue 2 Workshop 14 US adversaries are continuously seeking new ways to threaten US interests at home and abroad. In order to counter these threats, now more than ever, commanders must seek to leverage existing and emerging joint capabilities effectively in a variety of unique contexts. Achieving mission effectiveness in today's joint operational environment demands robust synerg...

  13. Transforming Power Relationships: Leadership, Risk and Hope

    OpenAIRE

    Read, James H.; Shapiro, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Chronic communal conflicts resemble the prisoner's dilemma. Both communities prefer peace to war. But neither trusts the other, viewing the other's gain as its own loss, so potentially shared interests often go unrealized. Achieving positive-sum outcomes from apparently zero-sum struggles requires a kind of risk-embracing leadership. To succeed leaders must: a) see power relations as potentially positive-sum; b) strengthen negotiating adversaries instead of weakening them; and c) de...

  14. ISR systems: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems have been in use for thousands of years. Technology and CONOPS have continually evolved and morphed to meet ever-changing information needs and adversaries. Funding sources, constraints and procurement philosophies have also evolved, requiring cost-effective innovation to field marketable products which maximize the effectiveness of the Tasking, Capture, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (TCPED) information chain. This paper describes the TCPED information chain and the evolution of ISR (past, present, and future).

  15. HCA 459 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    potik

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Survival Strategies. This discussion has two options. Please choose either Option A or Option B to respond to. Be sure to indicate within your post which option you chose. Option A: Hospitals frequently seek ways to ensure survival. Sometimes an adversarial climate cannot be avoided when the action that is being considered is controversial. For example, a hospital may seek to expand its market reach by opening an inpatient drug treatment facility in a small suburban townshi...

  16. HCA 459 uop / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Survival Strategies. This discussion has two options. Please choose either Option A or Option B to respond to. Be sure to indicate within your post which option you chose. Option A: Hospitals frequently seek ways to ensure survival. Sometimes an adversarial climate cannot be avoided when the action that is being considered is controversial. For example, a hospital may seek to expand its market reach by opening an inpatient drug treatment facility in a small suburban townshi...

  17. Invisible Discrimination: Employers & Social Media Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Pate, Richard

    2012-01-01

    With the advent and popularity of social networks sites, the boundaries of the relationship between the employer-employee/prospective employee have stretched well beyond the work-place and work-hours. Predictably, this relationship expansion has led to unchartered adversarial scenarios between the respective parties. Unfortunately, in this new, vibrant cyber world, traditional employment law considerations are struggling for deference and rumination. Notwithstanding this ostensible indifferen...

  18. Die Vraagstuk van Misleiding, Verrassing en Vertolking van Informasie in Oorlog, met Spesifieke Verwysing na die rol wat dit in Egipte se Aanval op Israel op 6 Oktober 1973 gespeel het

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Esterhuyse

    2012-01-01

    The Question of Deception, Surprise and Interpretation of Information in War, with specific reference to Egypt's Attack on Israel on 6 October 1973. Strategic surprise occurs to the degree that the victim does not appreciate whether he is attacked (moral surprise), or when, where or how the adversary will strike (material surprise). The effect of surprise is both psychological and physical, because the victim's moral, as well as his forces and equipment are destroyed. Surprise is an effecti...

  19. An Assessment of Supplier Development Practices in a Retail Environment with Particular Reference to Boots the Chemist

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Adrian John

    2007-01-01

    An organisations ability to control, adapt and improve its supply chain can significantly impact its competitive position (Drucker, 1982). For retailers, the supply base contributes almost three quarters of their total costs. Within manufacturing, organisations have been moving from predominantly adversarial, short-term, transactional relationships with their suppliers, to longer-term collaborative relationships. Automotive manufacturers in Japan were leading this, and it has since transfe...

  20. Bitcoin Beacon

    OpenAIRE

    Bentov, Iddo; Gabizon, Ariel; Zuckerman, David

    2016-01-01

    We examine a protocol $\\pi_{\\text{beacon}}$ that outputs unpredictable and publicly verifiable randomness, meaning that the output is unknown at the time that $\\pi_{\\text{beacon}}$ starts, yet everyone can verify that the output is close to uniform after $\\pi_{\\text{beacon}}$ terminates. We show that $\\pi_{\\text{beacon}}$ can be instantiated via Bitcoin under sensible assumptions; in particular we consider an adversary with an arbitrarily large initial budget who may not operate at a loss ind...

  1. Integrated cyber defenses towards cyber defense doctrine

    OpenAIRE

    Cloud, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    At the same time that the Department of Defense (DoD) has leveraged Network Centric Warfare concepts to increase the operational effectiveness of U.S. military forces and to gain decision superiority over adversaries, the DoD has become increasingly dependent upon the secure operations of computer networks and infrastructure. As a result, DoD computer network operations have become a vital center of gravity of U.S. military forces. Unfortunately, computer networks are growing faster than ...

  2. Design and evaluation of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spread of nuclear industry around the world has increased the risks and hazards of various possible forms of attack on nuclear facilities, operations and material. This work deals with the physical protection of nuclear facilities, operations and materials. It is intended to present detailed information on the physical protection aspects and the basic methodology to be used in the design and analysis of a facility's security system. Physical protection measures are directed against theft or unauthorized removal of nuclear materials and sabotage of nuclear facilities and operations individuals or groups of individuals. The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of the physical protection system objectives, the initial design of a physical protection system, and, probably, a redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer mst begin by gathering information about facility operations and conditions, such as comprehensive description of the facility, operating states, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: Class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not nuclear materials are attractive targets is based mainly on the case or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, what to protect against whom. The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors procedures, communication devices, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working

  3. Security Toolbox for Detecting Novel and Sophisticated Android Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, Benjamin; Deering, Tom; Kothari, Suresh; Mathews, Jon; Ranade, Nikhil

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a demo of our Security Toolbox to detect novel malware in Android apps. This Toolbox is developed through our recent research project funded by the DARPA Automated Program Analysis for Cybersecurity (APAC) project. The adversarial challenge ("Red") teams in the DARPA APAC program are tasked with designing sophisticated malware to test the bounds of malware detection technology being developed by the research and development ("Blue") teams. Our research group, a Blue team i...

  4. Intelligence-led risk management for homeland security: a collaborative approach for a common goal

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, David P.

    2011-01-01

    CHDS State/Local The concept of risk management provides the foundation of the homeland security enterprise. The United States of America faces numerous complex risks ranging from a series of natural hazards, pandemic disease, technological hazards, transnational criminal enterprises and acts of terrorism perpetrated by intelligent adversaries. The management of these risks requires a strategic collaborative effort from the intelligence and risk analysis communities and many stakeholders a...

  5. How industry - labor relations and government policies affect Senegal's economic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, Katherine; Svejnar, Jan

    1990-01-01

    Senegal is in a long-term economic crisis. Senegalese industry suffers from a highly adversarial system of industrial and labor relations, excessive government regulations in some areas and inadequate government support in others, and many misperceptions about the ethnically diverse labor force and enterprise ownership. Since the late 1970s, the Senegalese government has recognized the need to embark on a sustained and long-term adjustment program and has searched for appropriate policies to ...

  6. Privacy in RFID systems

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID) is the current trend allowing the identification and/or authentication of objects or persons without physical contact. The rise of RFID systems has brought up major concerns on privacy. Indeed nowadays, when such a system is deployed, informed customers yearn for guarantees that their privacy will not be threatened. One formal way to perform this task is to evaluate the privacy level of the RFID system with an adversary model. However, if the chosen model...

  7. A Cost Effective RFID Based Customized DVD-ROM to Thwart Software Piracy

    CERN Document Server

    Dogra, Sudip; Ghosh, Saustav; Bhattacharya, Debharshi; Sarkar, Subir Kr

    2009-01-01

    Software piracy has been a very perilous adversary of the software based industry, from the very beginning of the development of the latter into a significant business. There has been no developed foolproof system that has been developed to appropriately tackle this vile issue. We have in our scheme tried to develop a way to embark upon this problem using a very recently developed technology of RFID.

  8. An Asymptotically Optimal RFID Authentication Protocol Against Relay Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Avoine, Gildas

    2008-01-01

    Relay attacks are a major concern for RFID systems: during an authentication process an adversary transparently relays messages between a verifier and a remote legitimate prover. We present an authentication protocol suited for RFID systems. Our solution is the first that prevents relay attacks without degrading the authentication security level: it minimizes the probability that the verifier accepts a fake proof of identity, whether or not a relay attack occurs.

  9. Autoencoding beyond pixels using a learned similarity metric

    OpenAIRE

    Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo; Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Larochelle, Hugo; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We present an autoencoder that leverages learned representations to better measure similarities in data space. By combining a variational autoencoder with a generative adversarial network we can use learned feature representations in the GAN discriminator as basis for the VAE reconstruction objective. Thereby, we replace element-wise errors with feature-wise errors to better capture the data distribution while offering invariance towards e.g. translation. We apply our method to images of face...

  10. Overview of Security Threats in WSN

    OpenAIRE

    Ms. Poonam Barua; Mr. Sanjeev Indora

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor network is a combination of tiny devices called as sensor nodes which havecomputing, sensing and processing capabilities. As WSN are deployed in hostile environment usually and canbe physically accessible by an adversary; he/she can affect the confidentiality and integrity of the data as wellas some other security measures. So security is a main concern in wireless sensor network especially inhostile environment. In this paper we focus on security requirements, security scheme...

  11. A Novel Method of Inconsistent Collision Detection to Prevent Cloning Attacks in High-Security Wireless Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Govindharajan Uma Gowri; Rajagopal Sivakumar

    2014-01-01

    Remote monitoring of physiological data of patient is emerging as technology called Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). As WBAN devices are operated in hostile environments, providing security and privacy to patients are challenging tasks. Due to simple, low cost and resource constrained nature of the sensors of WBAN, adversary can easily compromise one or more nodes and make clones of compromised nodes to launch different insider attacks in the network. In this paper, we propose a clone dete...

  12. Application of SAFE to an operating reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for the evaluation of physical protection systems at nuclear facilities has been developed. The evaluation process consists of five major phases: (1) Facility Characterization, (2) Facility Representation, (3) Component Performance, (4) Adversary Path Analysis, and (5) Effectiveness Evaluation. Each of these phases will be described in some detail and illustrated by examples. The process for evaluation of physical protection system effectiveness against an outside threat will be presented for a reactor facility

  13. Cryptographic Path Hardening: Hiding Vulnerabilities in Software through Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh, Vijay; Carbin, Michael; Rinard, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel approach to improving software security called Cryptographic Path Hardening, which is aimed at hiding security vulnerabilities in software from attackers through the use of provably secure and obfuscated cryptographic devices to harden paths in programs. By "harden" we mean that certain error-checking if-conditionals in a given program P are replaced by equivalent" we mean that adversaries cannot use semi-automatic program analysis techniques to reason about the hardened pr...

  14. The Treaty of Friendship, Partnership and Cooperation between Libya and Italy: From an Awkward Past to a Promising Equal Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiem, Mustafa Abdalla A.

    2010-01-01

    Italian-Libyan international relations entered a new era when the two countries signed the Treaty on Friendship, Partnership, and Cooperation on August 30, 2008. The treaty allowed Italy to extend its interests into the southern basin of the Mediterranean in order to balance Atlanticism and Europeanism in the region. The treaty enabled Libya also to create a partnership with a northern ally that was until recently described as an adversary. In politics, however, there is no such thing as perm...

  15. Your Neighbors Are My Spies: Location and other Privacy Concerns in Dating Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Nguyen Phong; Asano, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trilateration has recently become one of the well-known threat models to the user's location privacy in location-based applications (aka: location-based services or LBS), especially those containing highly sensitive information such as dating applications. The threat model mainly depends on the distance shown from the targeted victim to the adversary to pinpoint the victim's position. As a countermeasure, most of location-based applications have already implemented the "hide distance" functio...

  16. The Economics of Coercion and Conflict: an Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This chapter introduces the author’s selected papers on the economics of coercion and conflict. It defines coercion and conflict and relates them. In conflict, adversaries make costly investments in the means of coercion. The application of coercion does not remove choice but limits it to options that leave the victim worse off than before. Coercion and conflict are always political, but a number of key concepts from economics can help us understand them. These include rational choice, strate...

  17. Cost-driven weighted networks evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Yihong; Zhu, Daoli; Li, Yang; Su, Bing; Zhu, Bingxin

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by studies on airline networks we propose a general model for weighted networks in which topological growth and weight dynamics are both determined by cost adversarial mechanism. Since transportation networks are designed and operated with objectives to reduce cost, the theory of cost in micro-economics plays a critical role in the evolution. We assume vertices and edges are given cost functions according to economics of scale and diseconomics of scale (congestion effect). With diffe...

  18. Guideline for the development of a methodology for measuring level of effectiveness of physical protection facilities at fixed-site facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These technical guidelines contain recommendations for a program that would utilize data obtained by NRC inspectors to measure the effectiveness of fixed-site physical protection components/systems for various levels of adversary threats. The contribution of both equipment and procedures to the measured level of effectiveness are considered. The study was conducted in response to Task 3 of NRC contract AT(49-24)-0376, and this report is submitted in fulfillment of that requirement

  19. Supply positioning in support of humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Gregory P.; Cisek, Jeffrey J.; Reilly, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    MBA Professional Report The U.S. military possesses many capabilities that are used throughout the range of military operations (ROMO) in order to carry out planned and contingency response missions. These capabilities can bring destruction to an adversary or can provide critical aid in a humanitarian assistance or disaster response (HA/DR) operation. In many situations, prepositioning supplies and equipment is essential to the Defense (DoD) in a rapid response that is efficient and e...

  20. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  1. Toward a Developmentally-Informed Approach to Parenting Interventions: Seeking Hidden Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Rebecca L.; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    Drawing from developmental psychology and psychopathology, we propose a new, developmentally-informed approach to parenting interventions that focuses on elucidating changes in the unfolding developmental process between the parent and child. We present data from 186 low-income mothers of toddlers, randomly assigned to Child-Oriented Play group or Play-as-Usual group. We examined the maladaptive cascade from child difficulty to mother adversarial, negative parenting to child maladjustment, we...

  2. Aware: Controlling App Access to I/O Devices on Mobile Platforms

    OpenAIRE

    Petracca, Giuseppe; Atamli, Ahmad; Sun, Yuqiong; Grossklags, Jens; Jaeger, Trent

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones' cameras, microphones, and device displays enable users to capture and view memorable moments of their lives. However, adversaries can trick users into authorizing malicious apps that exploit weaknesses in current mobile platforms to misuse such on-board I/O devices to stealthily capture photos, videos, and screen content without the users' consent. Contemporary mobile operating systems fail to prevent such misuse of I/O devices by authorized apps due to lack of binding between us...

  3. Passive nuclear material detection in a personnel portal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concepts employed in the development of gamma-ray and neutron detection systems for a special nuclear materials booth portal monitor are described. The portal is designed for unattended use in detecting diversion by a technically sophisticated adversary and has possible application to International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards of a fast critical assembly facility. Preliminary evaluation results are given and plans for further parameter studies are noted

  4. Using Game Theory for Los Angeles Airport Security

    OpenAIRE

    Pita, James; University of Southern California; Jain, Manish; University of Southern California; Ordóñez, Fernando; University of Southern California; Portway, Christopher; University of Southern California; Tambe, Milind; University of Southern California; Western, Craig; University of Southern California; Paruchuri, Praveen; Intelligent Automation, Inc.; Kraus, Sarit; Bar Ilan University and University of Maryland

    2009-01-01

    Security at major locations of economic or political importance is a key concern around the world, particularly given the threat of terrorism. Limited security resources prevent full security coverage at all times, which allows adversaries to observe and exploit patterns in selective patrolling or monitoring, e.g. they can plan an attack avoiding existing patrols. Hence, randomized patrolling or monitoring is important, but randomization must provide distinct weights to different actions base...

  5. Formation of public attitudes to nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power has been plagued by public acceptance problems. Evidence suggests one of the key factors is poor communicaton between the scientific community and the general public. Although environmental enquiries provide a forum for the voicing of views, by adopting the adversary principle they have also resulted in polarizaton of public opinion, as experienced in Australia with the Ranger Environmental Enquiry. The problem of developing methods to enable a flow of objective informaton to and from the public requires urgent solution

  6. Side Channel Attacks on STTRAM and Low-Overhead Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Rathi, Nitin; Naeimi, Helia; Ghosh, Swaroop

    2016-01-01

    Spin Transfer Torque RAM (STTRAM) is a promising candidate for Last Level Cache (LLC) due to high endurance, high density and low leakage. One of the major disadvantages of STTRAM is high write latency and write current. Additionally, the latency and current depends on the polarity of the data being written. These features introduce major security vulnerabilities and expose the cache memory to side channel attacks. In this paper we propose a novel side channel attack model where the adversary...

  7. Optimal Construction of Regenerating Code through Rate-matching in Hostile Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian; Li, Tongtong; Ren, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Regenerating code is a class of code very suitable for distributed storage systems, which can maintain optimal bandwidth and storage space. Two types of important regenerating code have been constructed: the minimum storage regeneration (MSR) code and the minimum bandwidth regeneration (MBR) code. However, in hostile networks where adversaries can compromise storage nodes, the storage capacity of the network can be significantly affected. In this paper, we propose two optimal constructions of...

  8. Securing Online Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Vratonjic, Nevena; Freudiger, Julien; Felegyhazi, Mark; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Online advertisement is a major source of revenues in the Internet. In this paper, we identify a number of vulnerabilities of current ad serving systems. We describe how an adversary can exploit these vulnerabilities to divert part of the ad revenue stream for its own benefit. We propose a scalable, secure ad serving scheme to fix this problem. We also explain why the deployment of this solution would benefit the Web browsing security in general.

  9. Secure Learning and Learning for Security: Research in the Intersection

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinstein, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Statistical Machine Learning is used in many real-world systems, such as web search, network and power management, online advertising, finance and health services, in which adversaries are incentivized to attack the learner, motivating the urgent need for a better understanding of the security vulnerabilities of adaptive systems. Conversely, research in Computer Security stands to reap great benefits by leveraging learning for building adaptive defenses and even designing intelligent attacks ...

  10. USBcat - Towards an Intrusion Surveillance Toolset

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Chris; Knight, Scott; Dean, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper identifies an intrusion surveillance framework which provides an analyst with the ability to investigate and monitor cyber-attacks in a covert manner. Where cyber-attacks are perpetrated for the purposes of espionage the ability to understand an adversary's techniques and objectives are an important element in network and computer security. With the appropriate toolset, security investigators would be permitted to perform both live and stealthy counter-intelligence operations by ob...

  11. Secure Authentication Technique for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    R. M.S. Parvathi; V. Bhoopathy

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN), serious security threat is caused by node capture attacks where an adversary gains full control over a sensor node through direct physical access. Approach: This creates a high risk of data confidentiality. Results: We propose a secure authentication technique for data aggregation in WSN. During first round of data aggregation, the aggregator upon identifying the detecting nodes selects a set of nodes randomly and broadcast a unique value ...

  12. MicroRNAs in Brain Metastases: Potential Role as Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Alsidawi; Ehsan Malek; Driscoll, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain metastases remain a daunting adversary that negatively impact patient survival. Metastatic brain tumors affect up to 45% of all cancer patients with systemic cancer and account for ~20% of all cancer-related deaths. A complex network of non-coding RNA molecules, microRNAs (miRNAs), regulate tumor metastasis. The brain micro-environment modulates metastatic tumor growth; however, defining the precise genetic events that promote metastasis in the brain niche represents an important, unres...

  13. Secure Positioning of Mobile Terminals with Simplex Radio Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    With the rapid spread of various mobile terminals in our society, the importance of secure positioning is growing for wireless networks in adversarial settings. Recently, several authors have proposed a secure positioning mechanism of mobile terminals which is based on the geometric property of wireless node placement, and on the postulate of modern physics that a propagation speed of information never exceeds the velocity of light. In particular, they utilize the measurements of the round-tr...

  14. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  15. Reports of the AAAI 2011 Conference Workshops

    OpenAIRE

    Agmon, Noa; University of Texas at Austin; Agrawal, Vikas; Infosys Labs; Aha, David W.; Naval Research Laboratory; Aloimonos, Yiannis; University of Maryland, College Park; Buckley, Donagh; EMC; Doshi, Prashant; University of Georgia; Geib, Christopher; University of Edinburgh; Grasso, Floriana; University of Liverpool; Green, Nancy; University of North Carolina Greensboro; Johnston, Benjamin; University of Technology, Sydney; Kaliski, Burt; VeriSign, Inc.; Kiekintveld, Christopher; University of Texas at El Paso; Law, Edith; Carnegie Mellon University; Lieberman, Henry; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Carnegie Mellon University

    2012-01-01

    The AAAI-11 workshop program was held Sunday and Monday, August 7–18, 2011, at the Hyatt Regency San Francisco in San Francisco, California USA. The AAAI-11 workshop program included 15 workshops covering a wide range of topics in artificial intelligence. The titles of the workshops were Activity Context Representation: Techniques and Languages; Analyzing Microtext; Applied Adversarial Reasoning and Risk Modeling; Artificial Intelligence and Smarter Living: The Conquest of Complexity; AI for ...

  16. Numerically erasure-robust frames

    OpenAIRE

    Fickus, Matthew; Mixon, Dustin G.

    2012-01-01

    Given a channel with additive noise and adversarial erasures, the task is to design a frame that allows for stable signal reconstruction from transmitted frame coefficients. To meet these specifications, we introduce numerically erasure-robust frames. We first consider a variety of constructions, including random frames, equiangular tight frames and group frames. Later, we show that arbitrarily large erasure rates necessarily induce numerical instability in signal reconstruction. We conclude ...

  17. Quantum money with classical verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavinsky, Dmitry [NEC Laboratories America, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-12-04

    We propose and construct a quantum money scheme that allows verification through classical communication with a bank. This is the first demonstration that a secure quantum money scheme exists that does not require quantum communication for coin verification. Our scheme is secure against adaptive adversaries - this property is not directly related to the possibility of classical verification, nevertheless none of the earlier quantum money constructions is known to possess it.

  18. On the Privacy of Two Tag Ownership Transfer Protocols for RFIDs

    OpenAIRE

    Abyaneh, Mohammad Reza Sohizadeh

    2012-01-01

    IEEE International Conference for Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST2011) in Abu Dhabi, UAE. In this paper, the privacy of two recent RFID tag ownership transfer protocols are investigated against the tag owners as adversaries. The first protocol called ROTIV is a scheme which provides a privacy-preserving ownership transfer by using an HMACbased authentication with public key encryption. However, our passive attack on this protocol shows that any leg...

  19. Performance TTradeoffs in Distributed Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Holly

    Large scale systems consisting of many interacting subsystems are often controlled in a distributed fashion due to inherent limitations in computation, communication, or sensing. Here, individual agents must make decisions based on local, often incomplete information. This dissertation focuses on understanding performance tradeoffs in distributed control systems, specifically focusing on using a game theoretic framework to assign agent control laws. Performance of a distributed control law is determined by (1) the degree with which it meets a stated objective, (2) the amount of time it takes to converge, (3) agents' informational requirements, and (4) vulnerability to adversarial manipulation. The three main research questions addressed in this work are: • When is fast convergence to near-optimal behavior possible in a distributed system? We design a distributed control law which converges to a near-optimal configuration in a time that is near-linear in the number of agents. This worst case convergence time is an improvement over existing algorithms whose worst-case convergence times are exponential in the number of agents. • Can agents in a distributed system learn near-optimal correlated behavior despite severely limited information about one another's behavior? We design a distributed control law that imposes limited informational requirements for individual agents and converges to near-optimal correlated behavior. • How does the structure of agent interaction impact a distributed control system's vulnerability to adversarial manipulation? We derive a graph theoretical condition that ensures resilience to adversarial manipulation, and we examine the conditions under which an adversary can manipulate collective behavior in a distributed control system, simply by influencing small subsets of agents.

  20. Unattended ground sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 intelligence collections

    OpenAIRE

    Harrington, Ryan F.

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited As our adversaries continue to evolve in complexity, the U.S. Marines adapt in kind with its design and intent through its Expeditionary Force 21 (EF 21) Capstone. EF 21 stresses the need for increased persistent intelligence collections capabilities and the optimization of existing assets. Current requirements for Unattended Ground Sensors (UGS) limit usage in non-permissive environments beyond the Area of Operations, contrary to the ...

  1. Hybridkrig

    OpenAIRE

    Haande, Trond; Bjerga, Kjell Inge

    2011-01-01

    The study addresses hybrid warfare and its relevance to land operations conducted by the Norwegian Armed Forces. While the first part explores the recent phenomenon of hybrid warfare, the second asks whether hybrid warfare has any bearing on land operations. A land operation is a ground operation on Norwegian territory in which Norwegian Armed Forces engage conventional adversaries. Military theory traditionally recognises a dichotomy between guerrilla warfare and conventional ...

  2. Re-Identification of Home Addresses from Spatial Locations Anonymized by Gaussian Skew

    OpenAIRE

    Cassa Christopher A; Wieland Shannon C; Mandl Kenneth D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Knowledge of the geographical locations of individuals is fundamental to the practice of spatial epidemiology. One approach to preserving the privacy of individual-level addresses in a data set is to de-identify the data using a non-deterministic blurring algorithm that shifts the geocoded values. We investigate a vulnerability in this approach which enables an adversary to re-identify individuals using multiple anonymized versions of the original data set. If several such...

  3. Attacks on Fitness Trackers Revisited: A Case-Study of Unfit Firmware Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Fitness trackers - wearables that continuously record a wearer's step count and related activity data - are quickly gaining in popularity. Apart from being useful for individuals seeking a more healthy lifestyle, their data is also being used in court and by insurance companies to adjust premiums. For these use cases, it is essential to ensure authenticity and integrity of data. Here we demonstrate a flaw in the way firmware for Withings' Activit\\'e is verified, allowing an adversary to compr...

  4. Entropy of Graphical Passwords: Towards an Information-Theoretic Analysis of Face-Recognition Based Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Rass, Stefan; Schuller, David; Kollmitzer, Christian

    2010-01-01

    International audience We present an information-theoretic discussion of authentication via graphical passwords, and devise a model for entropy estimation. Our results make face-recognition based authentication comparable to standard password authentication in terms of uncertainty (Shannon-entropy) that an adversary is confronted with in both situations. It is widely known that cognitive abilities strongly determine the choice of alphanumeric passwords as well as graphical passwords, and w...

  5. Bystander Position Taking in School Bullying: The Role of Positive Identity, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K.P.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they res...

  6. The Myth of Civic Republicanism: Interrogating the Ideology of Antebellum Legal Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Spaulding, Norman W.

    2002-01-01

    Ethicists, historians and sociologists have generally accepted the premise that the legal profession did not offer strong, public defenses of the adversary ethic (ethically neutral service of clients) until after 1870 when professional elites sought to rationalize their role in the rise of corporate capitalism. Prior to 1870, it has been argued, the legal profession was dominated by a civic republican ideology in which lawyers conceived their role as a form of public service dedicated to vin...

  7. Editorial

    OpenAIRE

    Sweeney, Delma

    2014-01-01

    Conflict is a natural part of life. Yet when faced with difficult situations people can slip into adversarial and destructive behaviours that exacerbate reactivity, causing an escalation into estrangements and violence. Thoughtful and strategic management of likely circumstances known to cause difficulties could ameliorate such reactions. The first two articles in this second publication of JMACA examine elements of the root causes of issues that spark such hazards and seek to find ways forwa...

  8. Defensive complexity in antagonistic coevolution

    OpenAIRE

    Chastain, Erick; Antia, Rustom; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2012-01-01

    One strategy for winning a coevolutionary struggle is to evolve rapidly. Most of the literature on host-pathogen coevolution focuses on this phenomenon, and looks for consequent evidence of coevolutionary arms races. An alternative strategy, less often considered in the literature, is to deter rapid evolutionary change by the opponent. To study how this can be done, we construct an evolutionary game between a controller that must process information, and an adversary that can tamper with this...

  9. China's maritime silk road to oil : influence in the Middle East through naval modernization

    OpenAIRE

    Dumlao, Roberto C.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis explores the prospect of a PRC naval role in the Persian Gulf by 2025 and its implications for the United States Navy, focusing in particular on Beijing's evolving relationship with Iran. Since the last years of the Cold War, China's relationships with the United States and Russia have improved significantly, and China no longer sees these former adversaries as imminent threats. As a result, the People's Liberation Army (PLA) has shifted its strategy from a defensive posture to a ...

  10. Defensive complexity and the phylogenetic conservation of immune control

    OpenAIRE

    Chastain, Erick; Antia, Rustom; Bergstrom, Carl T.

    2012-01-01

    One strategy for winning a coevolutionary struggle is to evolve rapidly. Most of the literature on host-pathogen coevolution focuses on this phenomenon, and looks for consequent evidence of coevolutionary arms races. An alternative strategy, less often considered in the literature, is to deter rapid evolutionary change by the opponent. To study how this can be done, we construct an evolutionary game between a controller that must process information, and an adversary that can tamper with this...

  11. Efficient Certificate Management in VANET

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad hoc Networks is one of the most challenging research area in the field of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks, in this research We propose a flexible, simple, and scalable design for VANET certificates, and new methods for efficient certificate management, which will Reduce channel overhead by eliminating the use of CRL, and make Better certificate Revocation Management. Also it will increase the security of the network and helps in identifying the adversary vehicle.

  12. Security Analysis of Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET)

    OpenAIRE

    Samara, Ghassan

    2012-01-01

    Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANET) has mostly gained the attention of today's research efforts, while current solutions to achieve secure VANET, to protect the network from adversary and attacks still not enough, trying to reach a satisfactory level, for the driver and manufacturer to achieve safety of life and infotainment. The need for a robust VANET networks is strongly dependent on their security and privacy features, which will be discussed in this paper. In this paper a various types of ...

  13. Physical protection system design and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of physical protection system objectives, initial design of a physical protection system, design evaluation, and probably a redesign or refinement. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operation and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating conditions, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not the materials being protected are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the material. The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, open-quotes what to protect against whom.close quotes The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors and assessment devices, entry control elements, procedures, communication devices, and protective forces personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to ensure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of the protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted. This paper reviews the physical protection system design and methodology mentioned above. Examples of the steps required and a brief introduction to some of the technologies used in modem physical protections system are given

  14. Hierarchical Motion Control for a Team of Humanoid Soccer Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Joon Yi; Stephen McGill; Dennis Hong; Daniel Lee

    2016-01-01

    Robot soccer has become an effective benchmarking problem for robotics research as it requires many aspects of robotics including perception, self localization, motion planning and distributed coordination to work in uncertain and adversarial environments. Especially with humanoid robots that lack inherent stability, a capable and robust motion controller is crucial for generating walking and kicking motions without losing balance. In this paper, we describe the details of a motion controller...

  15. Sensor Data Security Level Estimation Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Ramos; Raimir Holanda Filho

    2015-01-01

    Due to their increasing dissemination, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become the target of more and more sophisticated attacks, even capable of circumventing both attack detection and prevention mechanisms. This may cause WSN users, who totally trust these security mechanisms, to think that a sensor reading is secure, even when an adversary has corrupted it. For that reason, a scheme capable of estimating the security level (SL) that these mechanisms provide to sensor data is needed, so...

  16. The PROBE Framework for the Personalized Cloaking of Private Locations

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Damiani; Elisa Bertino; Claudio Silvestri

    2010-01-01

    The widespread adoption of location-based services (LBS) raises increasing concerns for the protection of personal location information. A common strategy, referred to as obfuscation (or cloaking), to protect location privacy is based on forwarding the LBS provider a coarse user location instead of the actual user location. Conventional approaches, based on such technique, are however based only on geometric methods and therefore are unable to assure privacy when the adversary is aware of the...

  17. Automatic Formal Framework of Coercion-resistance in Internet Voting Protocols with CryptoVerif in Computational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Meng

    2012-01-01

    Automatic proof for internet voting protocols is a hotspot issue in security protocol world. To our best knowledge, until now analysis of coercion-resistance and internet voting protocols with automatic tool in computational model does not exist. So in this study, we initiatively proposed the automatic framework of coercion-resistance and internet voting protocols based on computational model with active adversary. In the proposed framework observational equivalence is used to formalize coerc...

  18. An Advanced Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme for Identifying Cheaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-cui; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an advanced threshold secret sharing scheme for identifying cheaters is proposed by using authentication codes. The performance of the scheme is discussed. The results show that in the scheme the valid shareholders can not only identify the impersonation of an adversary, but also detect cheating of some valid shareholders. In particular one honest shareholder is able to detect cheating of other participants forming a collection, and the information rate of the scheme is higher than that of others.

  19. Unmasking host and microbial strategies in the Agrobacterium-plant defense tango

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Elizabeth E.; Wang, Melinda B.; Bravo, Janis E.; Banta, Lois M

    2015-01-01

    Coevolutionary forces drive adaptation of both plant-associated microbes and their hosts. Eloquently captured in the Red Queen Hypothesis, the complexity of each plant–pathogen relationship reflects escalating adversarial strategies, but also external biotic and abiotic pressures on both partners. Innate immune responses are triggered by highly conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or PAMPs, that are harbingers of microbial presence. Upon cell surface receptor-mediated recognition...

  20. Fair trial in international commercial arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    saleh khedri

    2015-01-01

    A fair hearing in the courts requires the principles of procedure. Because the arbitration is considered as private judgment, thus in arbitration hearing regarding to non-ceremonial proceedings, arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect the principles of civil procedure in arbitration hearing. Equal treatment with parties of arbitration and Adversarial procedure are principles that arbitrator or arbitration panel obliged to satisfy them in proceeding whit action arbitration parties...

  1. Advanced unattended sensors and systems: state of the art and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiddy, John H.

    2010-04-01

    The unattended ground sensors (UGS) have come a long way over the more than 40 years they have been used to detect adversarial activities. From large, single phenomenology sensors with little signal processing and point to point communications the technology has now changed to small, intelligent sensors using network communications. This technology change has resulted in far more capable sensors but challenges remain for UGS to be effective in providing information to users.

  2. The Use of Collaborative and Three-Dimensional Imaging Technology to Achieve Increased Value and Efficiency in the Cost-estimation Portion of the SHIPMAIN Environment

    OpenAIRE

    David Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Maintenance and modernization efforts of the US. Navy''s fleet are essential to the US''s ability to project power and deter adversaries from around the world. This maintenance and modernization requires substantial allocation of funds from the already stretched-thin budget. In order to facilitate the most cost-effective way of allocating funds, the Navy has invested substantial fiscal and human resources to standardize the processes used to accomplish maintenance, modernization and repair ...

  3. Routing Data Authentication in Wireless Networks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss several specific threats directed at the routing data of an ad hoc network. We address security issues that arise from wrapping authentication mechanisms around ad hoc routing data. We show that this bolt-on approach to security may make certain attacks more difficult, but still leaves the network routing data vulnerable. We also show that under a certain adversarial model, most existing routing protocols cannot be secured with the aid of digital signatures

  4. Toward Normalization of Relations with Japan: The Strategy of North Korea, circa 1950 to 1961

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhiko Kimuran

    2011-01-01

    North Korea is still a strictly secluded state and little is known of its past and present though recent research using documents from countries in the former Soviet bloc has produced a number of breakthroughs especially in the discussion of the origins of the Korean War. Among others, history of relations between North Korea and Japan is most unexplored. One might assume that North Korea has had little interest in developing relations with Japan because of the adversary political ideologies ...

  5. Vulnerability of the Process Communication Model in Bittorrent Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed ElShafee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BitTorrent is the most extensively used protocol in peer-to-peer systems. Its clients are widely spread worldwide and account for a large fraction of today’s Internet traffic. This paper will discuss potential attack that exploits a certain vulnerability of BitTorrent based systems. Code injection refers to force a code – which may be malicious - to run inside another benign code, by inserting it into known process name or process ID. Operating systems supply API functions that can be used by third party to inject a few lines of malicious code inside the original running process, which can effectively damage or harm user resources. Ethernet is the most common internetwork layer for Local Area Networks; the shared medium of LAN enables all users on the same broadcasting domain to listen to all exchanged packets through the network (promiscuous mode, so any adversary can easily perform a simple packet sniffing process on the medium access layer of the network. By capturing and analyzing the sent packets from the P2P application, an adversary can use the revealed process ID by BitTorrent protocol to start the code injection action. So the adversary will be able to seize more machines from the network. Controlled machines can be used to perform many attacks. The study revealed that any adversary can exploit the vulnerability of the process communication model used in P2P by injecting any malicious process inside the BitTorrent application itself exposed by sniffing the exchanged BitTorrent packets through LAN.

  6. Jamming aided Generalized Data Attacks: Exposing Vulnerabilities in Secure Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Deka, Deepjyoti; Baldick, Ross; Vishwanath, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Jamming refers to the deletion, corruption or damage of meter measurements that prevents their further usage. This is distinct from adversarial data injection that changes meter readings while preserving their utility in state estimation. This paper presents a generalized attack regime that uses jamming of secure and insecure measurements to greatly expand the scope of common 'hidden' and 'detectable' data injection attacks in literature. For 'hidden' attacks, it is shown that with jamming, t...

  7. Finessing the demonology of war

    OpenAIRE

    Ivie, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines peace-building communication in an adversarial world by pursuing an unlikely comparison between the crisis-managing discourse of President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev in 1962 and the prophetic Christian voice of Jim Wallis' antiwar dissent since 9/11. It draws from these cases the rudimentary form of a humanising aesthetic, in which political actors - whether resisting the demonology of war as decision makers or dissenters - devise the discursive equivalent of a stereo...

  8. The "recognition turn" in critical theory as a communication theory for peace:

    OpenAIRE

    McLuskie, Ed

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines peace-building communication in an adversarial world by pursuing an unlikely comparison between the crisis-managing discourse of President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev in 1962 and the prophetic Christian voice of Jim Wallis' antiwar dissent since 9/11. It draws from these cases the rudimentary form of a humanising aesthetic, in which political actors - whether resisting the demonology of war as decision makers or dissenters - devise the discursive equivalent of a stereo...

  9. Finessing the demonology of war: toward a practical aesthetic of humanising dissent:

    OpenAIRE

    Ivie, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines peace-building communication in an adversarial world by pursuing an unlikely comparison between the crisis-managing discourse of President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev in 1962 and the prophetic Christian voice of Jim Wallis' antiwar dissent since 9/11. It draws from these cases the rudimentary form of a humanising aesthetic, in which political actors - whether resisting the demonology of war as decision makers or dissenters - devise the discursive equivalent of a stereo...

  10. The "recognition turn" in critical theory as a communication theory for peace

    OpenAIRE

    McLuskie, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This essay examines peace-building communication in an adversarial world by pursuing an unlikely comparison between the crisis-managing discourse of President Kennedy and Chairman Khrushchev in 1962 and the prophetic Christian voice of Jim Wallis' antiwar dissent since 9/11. It draws from these cases the rudimentary form of a humanising aesthetic, in which political actors - whether resisting the demonology of war as decision makers or dissenters - devise the discursive equivalent of a stereo...

  11. Pricing Multi-play Offers under Uncertainty and Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hélène, Le Cadre

    2007-01-01

    In a mature market, telecommunication operators try to differentiate themselves by marketing bundles offers. In this highly competitive context, operators should anticipate the strategies of their adversaries and guess the consumers' tastes, to maximize their benefits. To price their offers, operators have to deal with deep uncertainties on the other operators' cost structures, strategies, and on the consumers' preferences. We segment the market and estimate the consumers' subjective prices, ...

  12. Symbolic Planning and Control Using Game Theory and Grammatical Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Fu, Jie; Tanner, Herbert G.; Heinz, Jeffrey; Chandlee, Jane; Karydis, Konstantinos; Koirala, Cesar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach that brings together game theory with grammatical inference and discrete abstractions in order to synthesize control strategies for hybrid dynamical systems performing tasks in partially unknown but rule-governed adversarial environments. The combined formulation guarantees that a system specification is met if (a) the true model of the environment is in the class of models inferable from a positive presentation, (b) a characteristic sample is observed, and (c)...

  13. Conflict simulation for surface transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important element in the analysis of transportation safeguards systems is the determination of the outcome of an armed attack against the system. Such information is necessary to understand relationships among the various defender tactics, weapons systems, and adversary attributes. A battle model, SABRES, which can simulate safeguards engagements is under development. This paper briefly describes the first phase of SABRES and presents some examples of its capabilities

  14. Protecting Location Privacy: Optimal Strategy against Localization Attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Reza; Theodorakopoulos, Georgios; Troncoso, Carmela; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre; Le Boudec, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The mainstream approach to protecting the location-privacy of mobile users in location-based services (LBSs) is to alter the users' actual locations in order to reduce the location information exposed to the service provider. The location obfuscation algorithm behind an effective location-privacy preserving mechanism (LPPM) must consider three fundamental elements: the privacy requirements of the users, the adversary's knowledge and capabilities, and the maximal tolerated service quality degr...

  15. Verecundia, risa y decoro: Cicerón y el arte de insultar

    OpenAIRE

    Mas, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    One can speak about laughter in many ways; one can take, for example, a physiological approach, or a psychological one, or even a third sociological one, which the ancients did not completely disregard. Cicero, however, preferred to focus on the rhetorical possibilities of laughter and humor. The relevance of jest and jokes in order to get an audience’s favor or to ridicule an adversary is undeniable; but, despite their effectiveness and given their effectiveness, that jest and jokes can also...

  16. Modeling Computational Security in Long-Lived Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Canetti, Ran; Cheung, Ling; Kaynar, Dilsun; Lynch, Nancy; Pereira, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    For many cryptographic protocols, security relies on the assumption that adversarial entities have limited computational power. This type of security degrades progressively over the lifetime of a protocol. However, some cryptographic services, such as timestamping services or digital archives, are emph{long-lived} in nature; they are expected to be secure and operational for a very long time (ie super-polynomial). In such cases, security cannot be guaranteed in the traditi...

  17. How to define and build an effective cyber threat intelligence capability how to understand, justify and implement a new approach to security

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry; Carnall, James

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence-Led Security: How to Understand, Justify and Implement a New Approach to Security is a concise review of the concept of Intelligence-Led Security. Protecting a business, including its information and intellectual property, physical infrastructure, employees, and reputation, has become increasingly difficult. Online threats come from all sides: internal leaks and external adversaries; domestic hacktivists and overseas cybercrime syndicates; targeted threats and mass attacks. And these threats run the gamut from targeted to indiscriminate to entirely accidental. Amo

  18. Strongly Unforgeable Ring Signature Scheme from Lattices in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geontae Noh

    2014-01-01

    from lattices are not even existentially unforgeable with respect to insider corruption. We then improve previous schemes by applying, for the first time, the concept of strong unforgeability with respect to insider corruption to a ring signature scheme in lattices. This offers more security than any previous ring signature scheme: adversaries cannot produce new signatures for any ring-message pair, including previously signed ring-message pairs.

  19. Mind Your Coins: Fully Leakage-Resilient Signatures with Graceful Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Faonio, Antonio; Venturi, Daniele; Buus Nielsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We construct new leakage-resilient signature schemes. Our schemes remain unforgeable against an adversary leaking arbitrary (yet bounded) information on the entire state of the signer (sometimes known as fully leakage resilience). The main feature of our constructions, is that they o er a graceful degradation of security in situations where standard existential unforgeability is impossible. This property was recently put forward by Nielsen et al. (PKC 2014) to deal with setting...

  20. Should we do battle with antivaccination activists?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leask, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Antivaccination activists have existed since variolation was introduced in Europe in the 18th century. Today, they continue to attempt to influence the vaccination decisions of parents. Commentators have expressed concern about the impact of such activists on vaccination rates and disease outbreaks. Some argue that public health advocates should engage in adversarial approaches involving public attempts to discredit or stop an antivaccination group or individual. This article argues that such adversarial advocacy may not be the most effective way to support vaccine programs. It argues this on the basis of what is known to influence vaccination attitudes and uptake, and the unintended negative consequences that can arise from an adversarial approach. These include drawing attention to such activists and their arguments, and potentially alienating the most important audience - hesitant parents - where the primary goal is to establish trust. The exception is when the antivaccination activists' actions may cause direct harm, such as encouraging a 'disease party' or illegal activities. Generally, however, advocacy should focus on areas where real gains can be made - on policies that directly address determinants of low coverage such as lack of opportunity to vaccinate and lack of acceptance of vaccination. This includes advocacy for accessible and affordable vaccines. In addressing the global problem of vaccine hesitancy, public health has a responsibility to better monitor public attitudes, support health professionals in communication, and develop and test strategies that engage vaccine-hesitant parents and communities. PMID:25848733

  1. Comparison of two methods to quantify cyber and physical security effectiveness.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, Gregory Dane; Gordon, Kristl A.

    2005-11-01

    With the increasing reliance on cyber technology to operate and control physical security system components, there is a need for methods to assess and model the interactions between the cyber system and the physical security system to understand the effects of cyber technology on overall security system effectiveness. This paper evaluates two methodologies for their applicability to the combined cyber and physical security problem. The comparison metrics include probabilities of detection (P{sub D}), interruption (P{sub I}), and neutralization (P{sub N}), which contribute to calculating the probability of system effectiveness (P{sub E}), the probability that the system can thwart an adversary attack. P{sub E} is well understood in practical applications of physical security but when the cyber security component is added, system behavior becomes more complex and difficult to model. This paper examines two approaches (Bounding Analysis Approach (BAA) and Expected Value Approach (EVA)) to determine their applicability to the combined physical and cyber security issue. These methods were assessed for a variety of security system characteristics to determine whether reasonable security decisions could be made based on their results. The assessments provided insight on an adversary's behavior depending on what part of the physical security system is cyber-controlled. Analysis showed that the BAA is more suited to facility analyses than the EVA because it has the ability to identify and model an adversary's most desirable attack path.

  2. DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION OF MULTIPLE SPOOFING ATTACKERS FOR MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maivizhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The openness nature of wireless networks allows adversaries to easily launch variety of spoofing attacks and causes havoc in network performance. Recent approaches used Received Signal Strength (RSS traces, which only detect spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. However, it is not always desirable to use these methods as RSS values fluctuate significantly over time due to distance, noise and interference. In this paper, we discusses a novel approach, Mobile spOofing attack DEtection and Localization in WIireless Networks (MODELWIN system, which exploits location information about nodes to detect identity-based spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. Also, this approach determines the number of attackers who used the same node identity to masquerade as legitimate device. Moreover, multiple adversaries can be localized accurately. By eliminating attackers the proposed system enhances network performance. We have evaluated our technique through simulation using an 802.11 (WiFi network and an 802.15.4 (Zigbee networks. The results prove that MODELWIN can detect spoofing attacks with a very high detection rate and localize adversaries accurately.

  3. On node replication attack in wireless sensor networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks) comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes) that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs. (author)

  4. Applying Pebble-Rotating Game to enhance the robustness of DHTs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Ren

    Full Text Available Distributed hash tables (DHTs are usually used in the open networking environment, where they are vulnerable to Sybil attacks. Pebble-Rotating Game (PRG mixes the nodes of the honest and the adversarial randomly, and can resist the Sybil attack efficiently. However, the adversary may have some tricks to corrupt the rule of PRG. This paper proposes a set of mechanisms to make the rule of PRG be obliged to obey. A new joining node must ask the Certificate Authority (CA for its signature and certificate, which records the complete process on how a node joins the network and obtains the legitimacy of the node. Then, to prevent the adversary from accumulating identifiers, any node can make use of the latest certificate to judge whether one identifier is expired with the help of the replacement property of RPG. This paper analyzes in details the number of expired certificates which are needed to store in every node, and gives asymptotic solution of this problem. The analysis and simulations show that the mean number of the certificates stored in each node are [Formula: see text], where n is the size of the network.

  5. Applying Pebble-Rotating Game to enhance the robustness of DHTs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Liyong; Nie, Xiaowen; Dong, Yuchi

    2013-01-01

    Distributed hash tables (DHTs) are usually used in the open networking environment, where they are vulnerable to Sybil attacks. Pebble-Rotating Game (PRG) mixes the nodes of the honest and the adversarial randomly, and can resist the Sybil attack efficiently. However, the adversary may have some tricks to corrupt the rule of PRG. This paper proposes a set of mechanisms to make the rule of PRG be obliged to obey. A new joining node must ask the Certificate Authority (CA) for its signature and certificate, which records the complete process on how a node joins the network and obtains the legitimacy of the node. Then, to prevent the adversary from accumulating identifiers, any node can make use of the latest certificate to judge whether one identifier is expired with the help of the replacement property of RPG. This paper analyzes in details the number of expired certificates which are needed to store in every node, and gives asymptotic solution of this problem. The analysis and simulations show that the mean number of the certificates stored in each node are [Formula: see text], where n is the size of the network. PMID:23776485

  6. Are you threatening me?: Towards smart detectors in watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Comesaña-Alfaro, Pedro; Pérez-González, Fernando; Tondi, Benedetta

    2014-02-01

    We revisit the well-known watermarking detection problem, also known as one-bit watermarking, in the presence of an oracle attack. In the absence of an adversary, the design of the detector generally relies on probabilistic formulations (e.g., Neyman-Pearson's lemma) or on ad-hoc solutions. When there is an adversary trying to minimize the probability of correct detection, game-theoretic approaches are possible. However, they usually assume that the attacker cannot learn the secret parameters used in detection. This is no longer the case when the adversary launches an oracle-based attack, which turns out to be extremely effective. In this paper, we discuss how the detector can learn whether it is being subject to such an attack, and take proper measures. We present two approaches based on different attacker models. The first model is very general and makes minimum assumptions on attacker's beaver. The second model is more specific since it assumes that the oracle attack follows a weel-defined path. In all cases, a few observations are sufficient to the watermark detector to understand whether an oracle attack is on going.

  7. Nuclear Industry Sector Force on Force Exercises: Experiences in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear facilities spend substantial and time on designing effective security systems and putting detection, delay and response measures in place. Having done this, facilities hardly ever get in the situation where they need to actively use these security measures to counter an actual threat. This results in three important questions that need to be considered: 1. How do we know that the technical security measures are in effective in detecting and withstanding a real-life, intelligent and creative adversary? 2. How do we ensure that (and train that) especially the guards – who in normal working life hardly ever encounter any adversaries – are continuously alert to detect and counter threats that surface unexpectedly? 3. How well is not only the guard force, but also the facilities as a whole prepared to withstand combined attach scenarios, including physical, social engineering and cyber scenarios? This paper discusses how the security managers of nuclear facilities in The Netherlands collaboratively addressed the questions above by developing in industry sector wide Force on Force exercises team. This team comprises members of all nuclear facilities in The Netherlands and performs as adversary test team unannounced security exercises at those facilities. (author)

  8. Detecting and Mitigating Smart Insider Jamming Attacks in MANETs Using Reputation-Based Coalition Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al Sharah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs is challenging due to the ability of adversaries to gather necessary intelligence to launch insider jamming attacks. The solutions to prevent external attacks on MANET are not applicable for defense against insider jamming attacks. There is a need for a formal framework to characterize the information required by adversaries to launch insider jamming attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel reputation-based coalition game in MANETs to detect and mitigate insider jamming attacks. Since there is no centralized controller in MANETs, the nodes rely heavily on availability of transmission rates and a reputation for each individual node in the coalition to detect the presence of internal jamming node. The nodes will form a stable grand coalition in order to make a strategic security defense decision, maintain the grand coalition based on node reputation, and exclude any malicious node based on reputation value. Simulation results show that our approach provides a framework to quantify information needed by adversaries to launch insider attacks. The proposed approach will improve MANET’s defense against insider attacks, while also reducing incorrect classification of legitimate nodes as jammers.

  9. Preventing ADDOS Attack by Using Secure TRNG Based Port Hopping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Siva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Now a day`s each and every where we are using client-server communication for different information service systems. Normally client server communication can be differentiating by using IP Address and Protocol Port number from one machine to another machine. In network environment we are already having DOS/DDOS Attacks Another Subset of this attack scenario is DOS/DDOS attack is Application Denial of Service(ADOSattack ,In this the adversary attacks open Ports/Ideal ports present at server side for this the adversary Know need huge machines ,zombie systems and no need sending packets of data with high bandwidth. To control this type of A-DOS attacks the existing enterprise security devices are not suitable like firewalls, anti-viruses and IDS/IPS Systems why because the adversary not using high bandwidth, spam messages, zombie`s or botnet`s for their attack scenarios.To safeguard this type of DOS/DDOS or Application denial of service attacks we are having some port hopping mechanisms i.e Port hopping by using Pseudo Random Number Generation (PRNGbased port hopping ,Acknowledgement based port hopping and proactive Reinitialization based on this existing once and their disadvantages like in PRNG attackers can predict the random number generation by using pre-calculated list or based on mathemathical functions .we introduce new port hopping technique i.e True Random Number Generation based port hopping

  10. Continuous Time Channels with Interference

    CERN Document Server

    Ivan, Ioana; Thaler, Justin; Yuen, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Khanna and Sudan studied a natural model of continuous time channels where signals are corrupted by the effects of both noise and delay, and showed that, surprisingly, in some cases both are not enough to prevent such channels from achieving unbounded capacity. Inspired by their work, we consider channels that model continuous time communication with adversarial delay errors. The sender is allowed to subdivide time into arbitrarily large number $M$ of micro-units in which binary symbols may be sent, but the symbols are subject to unpredictable delays and may interfere with each other. We model interference by having symbols that land in the same micro-unit of time be summed, and a $k$-interference channels allows receivers to distinguish sums up to the value $k$. We consider both a channel adversary that has a limit on the maximum number of steps it can delay each symbol, and a more powerful adversary that only has a bound on the average delay. We give precise characterizations of the threshold between finite...

  11. On Node Replication Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Qabulio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs

  12. Potential threat to licensed nuclear activities from insiders (insider study). Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Insider Study was undertaken by NRC staff at the request of the Commission. Its objectives were to: (1) determine the characteristics of potential insider adversaries to licensed nuclear activities; (2) examine security system vulnerabilities to insider adversaries; and (3) assess the effectiveness of techniques used to detect or prevent insider malevolence. The study analyzes insider characteristics as revealed in incidents of theft or sabotage that occurred in the nuclear industry, analogous industries, government agencies, and the military. Adversary characteristics are grouped into four categories: position-related, behavioral, resource and operational. It also analyzes (1) the five security vulnerabilities that most frequently accounted for the success of the insider crimes in the data base; (2) the 11 means by which insider crimes were most often detected; and (3) four major and six lesser methods aimed at preventing insider malevolence. In addition to case history information, the study contains data derived from non-NRC studies and from interviews with over 100 security experts in industry, government (federal and state), and law enforcement

  13. Cops and Invisible Robbers: the Cost of Drunkenness

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, Athanasios; Pralat, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We examine a version of the Cops and Robber (CR) game in which the robber is invisible, i.e., the cops do not know his location until they capture him. Apparently this game (CiR) has received little attention in the CR literature. We examine two variants: in the first the robber is adversarial (he actively tries to avoid capture); in the second he is drunk (he performs a random walk). Our goal in this paper is to study the invisible Cost of Drunkenness (iCOD), which is defined as the ratio ct_i(G)/dct_i(G), with ct_i(G) and dct_i(G) being the expected capture times in the adversarial and drunk CiR variants, respectively. We show that these capture times are well defined, using game theory for the adversarial case and partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP) for the drunk case. We give exact asymptotic values of iCOD for several special graph families such as $d$-regular trees, give some bounds for grids, and provide general upper and lower bounds for general classes of graphs. We also give an in...

  14. A multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks based on channel characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhuo; Zhong, Sheng; Yu, Nenghai

    2013-01-01

    A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks. PMID:23766725

  15. Attacks on quantum key distribution protocols that employ non-ITS authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacher, C.; Abidin, A.; Lorünser, T.; Peev, M.; Ursin, R.; Zeilinger, A.; Larsson, J.-Å.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate how adversaries with large computing resources can break quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols which employ a particular message authentication code suggested previously. This authentication code, featuring low key consumption, is not information-theoretically secure (ITS) since for each message the eavesdropper has intercepted she is able to send a different message from a set of messages that she can calculate by finding collisions of a cryptographic hash function. However, when this authentication code was introduced, it was shown to prevent straightforward man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks against QKD protocols. In this paper, we prove that the set of messages that collide with any given message under this authentication code contains with high probability a message that has small Hamming distance to any other given message. Based on this fact, we present extended MITM attacks against different versions of BB84 QKD protocols using the addressed authentication code; for three protocols, we describe every single action taken by the adversary. For all protocols, the adversary can obtain complete knowledge of the key, and for most protocols her success probability in doing so approaches unity. Since the attacks work against all authentication methods which allow to calculate colliding messages, the underlying building blocks of the presented attacks expose the potential pitfalls arising as a consequence of non-ITS authentication in QKD post-processing. We propose countermeasures, increasing the eavesdroppers demand for computational power, and also prove necessary and sufficient conditions for upgrading the discussed authentication code to the ITS level.

  16. A total risk assessment methodology for security assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories performed a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project to develop a new collaborative risk assessment method to enable decision makers to fully consider the interrelationships between threat, vulnerability, and consequence. A five-step Total Risk Assessment Methodology was developed to enable interdisciplinary collaborative risk assessment by experts from these disciplines. The objective of this process is promote effective risk management by enabling analysts to identify scenarios that are simultaneously achievable by an adversary, desirable to the adversary, and of concern to the system owner or to society. The basic steps are risk identification, collaborative scenario refinement and evaluation, scenario cohort identification and risk ranking, threat chain mitigation analysis, and residual risk assessment. The method is highly iterative, especially with regard to scenario refinement and evaluation. The Total Risk Assessment Methodology includes objective consideration of relative attack likelihood instead of subjective expert judgment. The 'probability of attack' is not computed, but the relative likelihood for each scenario is assessed through identifying and analyzing scenario cohort groups, which are groups of scenarios with comparable qualities to the scenario being analyzed at both this and other targets. Scenarios for the target under consideration and other targets are placed into cohort groups under an established ranking process that reflects the following three factors: known targeting, achievable consequences, and the resources required for an adversary to have a high likelihood of success. The development of these target cohort groups implements, mathematically, the idea that adversaries are actively choosing among possible attack scenarios and avoiding scenarios that would be significantly suboptimal to their objectives. An adversary who can choose among only a few comparable targets and scenarios (a

  17. Systematic evaluation of the Cernavoda nuclear power plant physical protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: For three years at Cernavoda NPP is working a process to systematic evaluating the effectiveness of the Physical Protection System (PPS). Due to the fact that this evaluation has to be continuous, the first important step is to define a baseline to compare periodically the performance of PPS against it. The necessity of that process has been identified as follows: the continuous changes in the field of perceived threats against Cernavoda NPP and the necessary measures to respond to that changing climate; the needful to improve the performance of PPS against certain threats in conjunction with the needful to allocate substantially financial and human resources to cover the discovered weakness in the system; an assistant to take the appropriate measure in case of indisponibility of one or more components or parts of the PPS. The second step is the continuous tracking of the behavior of PPS in order to determine: the maintenance resource allocation and the priorities of the work; the predictive behavior of installed components to determine the future appropriate measures, including budget dimensioning. SAVI is a PC compatible program developed by SANDIA Laboratory (USA) for comprehensive analysis of PPS effectiveness. That program is organized in two modules: the Adversary Sequence Diagram (ASD) module and the outsider module modeling trough specific codes both the characteristics of PPS and of the predicted adversary. Combining the two modules related to a specific PPS and adversary is possible to find out the effectiveness of the physical protection system for each vital zone along to ten possible paths to penetrate by adversary, starting with the most vulnerable one. Because of two conservative assumption considered by the SAVI algorithm (adversary know the PPS characteristics and they use an optimal penetration strategy), the measure of effectiveness (probability of interruption - PI) is very realistic and conservative related to the necessary

  18. CONTRADICTORIALITATEA ÎN CORAPORT CU ALTE PRINCIPII ALE PROCESULUI PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available În legătură cu reformarea sistemului judiciar şi schimbările intervenite în viaţa social-politică a statului nostru, prin­cipiul contradictorialităţii a obţinut o nouă rezonanţă din considerentul că reforma judiciară şi de drept este legată direct de contradictorialitate. Reforma legii procesual penale trebuie să fie fundamentată pe o temelie teoretică solidă. Contra­dictorialitatea, însă, în calitate de noţiune juridică, este insuficient cercetată în doctrina dreptului procesual penal. La ziua de azi, specialişti notorii în domeniul dreptului procesual penal analizează şi studiază importanţa fundamentelor şi principiilor de bază ale procesului penal şi, în primul rând, contradictorialitatea acestuia. Legea procesual penală a Republicii Moldova cunoaşte o evoluţie şi dezvoltate în sensul democratizării şi lărgirii începuturilor contradictoriale în înfăptuirea justiţiei. Aceasta e şi firesc, deoarece contradictorialitatea are o importanţă enormă pentru întregul sistem al procesului penal, determinând în mare parte statutul juridic şi raporturile dintre participanţii la procesul penal, precum şi relaţiile juridice stabilite între participanţii la acest proces şi instanţa de judecată. CONTRADICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OTHER PRINCIPLES OF THE CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGIn connection with the judiciary system reforming and changes in socio-political life of our state, the adversarial principle has gained a new resonance on the grounds that the judicial and legal reform is directly linked to adversariality. The reform of the criminal procedure law must be based on solid theoretical foundation. However, adversariality, as legal concept, is not enough investigated in the doctrine of the criminal procedure law. Currently, notorious specialists in the field of criminal procedure law examine and study the importance of fundamentals and basic principles of the criminal process and

  19. Defense in depth used in the physical protection of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This PowerPoint presentation has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The fundamental principle 'I': Defense in depth. - Defense in depth and the Design Basis Threat. - Defense in depth and a physical protection concept; 3. Defense in depth - safety functions; 4. Defense in depth - physical protection functions; 5. Defense in depth and consequence analyses; 6. Conclusions. By document referenced GOV/2001/41 of the 15th of August 2001, the Board of Governors of IAEA has acknowledged twelve fundamental principles of physical protection for nuclear materials and nuclear facilities. These principles will be integrated into the forthcoming revision of the International Convention on Physical Protection. One of these fundamental principles, the principle 'I', deals with defense in depth. The State's requirements for physical protection should reflect a concept of several layers and methods of protection (structural or other technical, personnel and organizational) that have to be overcome or circumvented by an adversary in order to achieve his objectives. The questions of how to accomplish this fundamental principle and how is the adversary defined and what are his objectives are discussed. As well defined, the Design Basis Threat (DBT) is the starting point for a defense in depth physical protection of a NPP. The following cases are exposed: - Demonstrators; - Malvolent demonstrators; - Insider; - Terrorist attack (outsider); - Co-operation outsider - insider; while the following terrorism objectives could be in view, namely, theft of nuclear material and/or sabotage (major release of radioactive material from the NPP). The defense in depth and the physical protection concept concern a general scope i.e. outer protected area, inner protected area, vital areas inside inner protected areas, and technical and personnel protection measures to accomplish the requirements, while, in particular, one protects a facility against single objectives of an

  20. Evaluating Moving Target Defense with PLADD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hobbs, Jacob Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tauritz, Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulder, Samuel A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of moving target defense (MTD) techniques using a new game we have designed, called PLADD, inspired by the game FlipIt [28]. PLADD extends FlipIt by incorporating what we believe are key MTD concepts. We have analyzed PLADD and proven the existence of a defender strategy that pushes a rational attacker out of the game, demonstrated how limited the strategies available to an attacker are in PLADD, and derived analytic expressions for the expected utility of the game’s players in multiple game variants. We have created an algorithm for finding a defender’s optimal PLADD strategy. We show that in the special case of achieving deterrence in PLADD, MTD is not always cost effective and that its optimal deployment may shift abruptly from not using MTD at all to using it as aggressively as possible. We believe our effort provides basic, fundamental insights into the use of MTD, but conclude that a truly practical analysis requires model selection and calibration based on real scenarios and empirical data. We propose several avenues for further inquiry, including (1) agents with adaptive capabilities more reflective of real world adversaries, (2) the presence of multiple, heterogeneous adversaries, (3) computational game theory-based approaches such as coevolution to allow scaling to the real world beyond the limitations of analytical analysis and classical game theory, (4) mapping the game to real-world scenarios, (5) taking player risk into account when designing a strategy (in addition to expected payoff), (6) improving our understanding of the dynamic nature of MTD-inspired games by using a martingale representation, defensive forecasting, and techniques from signal processing, and (7) using adversarial games to develop inherently resilient cyber systems.