WorldWideScience

Sample records for adversaries

  1. Deep Learning and Music Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    An adversary is an agent designed to make a classification system perform in some particular way, e.g., increase the probability of a false negative. Recent work builds adversaries for deep learning systems applied to image object recognition, exploiting the parameters of the system to find...... the minimal perturbation of the input image such that the system misclassifies it with high confidence. We adapt this approach to construct and deploy an adversary of deep learning systems applied to music content analysis. In our case, however, the system inputs are magnitude spectral frames, which require...

  2. Optimal Online Prediction in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Peter L.

    In many prediction problems, including those that arise in computer security and computational finance, the process generating the data is best modelled as an adversary with whom the predictor competes. Even decision problems that are not inherently adversarial can be usefully modeled in this way, since the assumptions are sufficiently weak that effective prediction strategies for adversarial settings are very widely applicable.

  3. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  4. Negative weights makes adversaries stronger

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P; Spalek, R; Hoyer, Peter; Lee, Troy; Spalek, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The quantum adversary method is one of the most successful techniques for proving lower bounds on quantum query complexity. It gives optimal lower bounds for many problems, has application to classical complexity in formula size lower bounds, and is versatile with equivalent formulations in terms of weight schemes, eigenvalues, and Kolmogorov complexity. All these formulations are information-theoretic and rely on the principle that if an algorithm successfully computes a function then, in particular, it is able to distinguish between inputs which map to different values. We present a stronger version of the adversary method which goes beyond this principle to make explicit use of the existence of a measurement in a successful algorithm which gives the correct answer, with high probability. We show that this new method, which we call ADV+-, has all the advantages of the old: it is a lower bound on bounded-error quantum query complexity, its square is a lower bound on formula size, and it behaves well with res...

  5. Departments Take Adversary Roles in Law Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galie, Peter; Berlin, Barry

    1980-01-01

    A modified adversary context within a team teaching approach was used in a course on media law and ethics. Although some problems occurred, overall reaction to the course structures and teaching procedures was favorable. (RL)

  6. CARA: Cognitive Architecture for Reasoning About Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    E7(/(3+21(180%(5 ,QFOXGHDUHDFRGH 01/20/2012 Final 5/1/2010 - 4/30/2011 MURI: CARA : Cognitive Architecture for Reasoning about Adversaries...22203 AFOSR/RSL AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2012-0160 A We developed the CARA (Cultural Adversarial Reasoning Architecture) that provides a software platform using...Adversaries” project (or CARA for short) was to develop the mathematical foundations, data structures, algorithms, prototype implementations, and

  7. Using Machine Learning in Adversarial Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Warren Leon [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Intrusion/anomaly detection systems are among the first lines of cyber defense. Commonly, they either use signatures or machine learning (ML) to identify threats, but fail to account for sophisticated attackers trying to circumvent them. We propose to embed machine learning within a game theoretic framework that performs adversarial modeling, develops methods for optimizing operational response based on ML, and integrates the resulting optimization codebase into the existing ML infrastructure developed by the Hybrid LDRD. Our approach addresses three key shortcomings of ML in adversarial settings: 1) resulting classifiers are typically deterministic and, therefore, easy to reverse engineer; 2) ML approaches only address the prediction problem, but do not prescribe how one should operationalize predictions, nor account for operational costs and constraints; and 3) ML approaches do not model attackers’ response and can be circumvented by sophisticated adversaries. The principal novelty of our approach is to construct an optimization framework that blends ML, operational considerations, and a model predicting attackers reaction, with the goal of computing optimal moving target defense. One important challenge is to construct a realistic model of an adversary that is tractable, yet realistic. We aim to advance the science of attacker modeling by considering game-theoretic methods, and by engaging experimental subjects with red teaming experience in trying to actively circumvent an intrusion detection system, and learning a predictive model of such circumvention activities. In addition, we will generate metrics to test that a particular model of an adversary is consistent with available data.

  8. David against Goliath: Coping with Adversarial Customers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alajoutsijärvi, Kimmo; Tikkanen, Henrikki; Skaates, Maria Anne

    2001-01-01

    future-oriented relationships with any of them. From the perspective of the SME, this kind of customer behaviour could even be described as harmful, since it often impedes the SME manager's long-term development of his or her business. This makes the balancing of adversarial customer relationships...... an aspect crucial to the long-term survival and success of the particular SME. In this article, we propose a three-fold approach through which SME managers could balance their relationships with this type of customer. Firstly, we review theoretical discussions about business relationships and adversariness......SME managers in many industries face the situation that they have to deal with a few important, large customer organisations that behave in an adversarial manner. These customers pit alternative suppliers against each other in order to achieve the lowest possible price, showing no intent to build...

  9. Deep learning, audio adversaries, and music content analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kereliuk, Corey Mose; Sturm, Bob L.; Larsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    We present the concept of adversarial audio in the context of deep neural networks (DNNs) for music content analysis. An adversary is an algorithm that makes minor perturbations to an input that cause major repercussions to the system response. In particular, we design an adversary for a DNN...

  10. The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool: A Web Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casson, William H. Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-02

    The Adversarial Route Analysis Tool is a type of Google maps for adversaries. It's a web-based Geospatial application similar to Google Maps. It helps the U.S. government plan operations that predict where an adversary might be. It's easily accessible and maintainble and it's simple to use without much training.

  11. Automated Planning in Repeated Adversarial Games

    CERN Document Server

    de Cote, Enrique Munoz; Sykulski, Adam M; Jennings, Nicholas R

    2012-01-01

    Game theory's prescriptive power typically relies on full rationality and/or self-play interactions. In contrast, this work sets aside these fundamental premises and focuses instead on heterogeneous autonomous interactions between two or more agents. Specifically, we introduce a new and concise representation for repeated adversarial (constant-sum) games that highlight the necessary features that enable an automated planing agent to reason about how to score above the game's Nash equilibrium, when facing heterogeneous adversaries. To this end, we present TeamUP, a model-based RL algorithm designed for learning and planning such an abstraction. In essence, it is somewhat similar to R-max with a cleverly engineered reward shaping that treats exploration as an adversarial optimization problem. In practice, it attempts to find an ally with which to tacitly collude (in more than two-player games) and then collaborates on a joint plan of actions that can consistently score a high utility in adversarial repeated gam...

  12. Tight adversary bounds for composite functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, P.; Spalek, R.

    2005-01-01

    The quantum adversary method is a very versatile method for proving lower bounds on quantum algorithms. It has many equivalent formulations, yields tight bounds for many computational problems, and has natural connections to classical lower bounds. One of its formulations is in terms of the spectral

  13. Socio-metrics: Identifying Invisible Deviant Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-07

    advertisements . Furthermore, the use of OSNs and Internet forums has allowed adversaries from around the world to form underground groups and...compared to more popular OSNs like Twitter or Facebook . There are a total of 168 users in the dataset spread across the five hacking groups. Table 1

  14. RFID Key Establishment Against Active Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bringer, Julien; Cohen, Gérard; Kindarji, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to strengthen a very low cost solution for key agreement with a RFID device. Starting from a work which exploits the inherent noise on the communication link to establish a key by public discussion, we show how to protect this agreement against active adversaries. For that purpose, we unravel integrity $(I)$-codes suggested by Cagalj et al. No preliminary key distribution is required.

  15. Arguing with Adversaries: Aikido, Rhetoric, and the Art of Peace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    The Japanese martial art of aikido affords a framework for understanding argument as harmonization rather than confrontation. Two movements, circling away ("tenkan") and entering in ("irimi"), suggest tactics for arguing with adversaries. The ethical imperative of aikido involves protecting one's adversary from harm, using the least force…

  16. Learning to Pivot with Adversarial Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Louppe, Gilles; Cranmer, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Many inference problems involve data generation processes that are not uniquely specified or are uncertain in some way. In a scientific context, the presence of several plausible data generation processes is often associated to the presence of systematic uncertainties. Robust inference is possible if it is based on a pivot -- a quantity whose distribution is invariant to the unknown value of the (categorical or continuous) nuisance parameters that parametrizes this family of generation processes. In this work, we introduce a flexible training procedure based on adversarial networks for enforcing the pivotal property on a predictive model. We derive theoretical results showing that the proposed algorithm tends towards a minimax solution corresponding to a predictive model that is both optimal and independent of the nuisance parameters (if that models exists) or for which one can tune the trade-off between power and robustness. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach with a toy example and an...

  17. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Quang; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones) that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device.

  18. A Forensically Sound Adversary Model for Mobile Devices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Do

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an adversary model to facilitate forensic investigations of mobile devices (e.g. Android, iOS and Windows smartphones that can be readily adapted to the latest mobile device technologies. This is essential given the ongoing and rapidly changing nature of mobile device technologies. An integral principle and significant constraint upon forensic practitioners is that of forensic soundness. Our adversary model specifically considers and integrates the constraints of forensic soundness on the adversary, in our case, a forensic practitioner. One construction of the adversary model is an evidence collection and analysis methodology for Android devices. Using the methodology with six popular cloud apps, we were successful in extracting various information of forensic interest in both the external and internal storage of the mobile device.

  19. Decorrelated Jet Substructure Tagging using Adversarial Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    We describe a strategy for constructing a neural network jet substructure tagger which powerfully discriminates boosted decay signals while remaining largely uncorrelated with the jet mass. This reduces the impact of systematic uncertainties in background modeling while enhancing signal purity, resulting in improved discovery significance relative to existing taggers. The network is trained using an adversarial strategy, resulting in a tagger that learns to balance classification accuracy with decorrelation. As a benchmark scenario, we consider the case where large-radius jets originating from a boosted Z' decay are discriminated from a background of nonresonant quark and gluon jets. We show that in the presence of systematic uncertainties on the background rate, our adversarially-trained, decorrelated tagger considerably outperforms a conventionally trained neural network, despite having a slightly worse signal-background separation power. We generalize the adversarial training technique to include a paramet...

  20. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  1. Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    simulation in the presence of malicious, polynomial-time adversaries (assuming that ElGamal encryption is semantically secure) and exhibits computation and communication costs of O(n + m) in a constant round complexity. In addition to the above, we propose a collection of protocols for variations...

  2. Adversarial risks in social experiments with new technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Wolter; Dechesne, Francien; Poel, van de Ibo; Asveld, Lotte; Mehos, Donna C.

    2017-01-01

    Studies that approach the deployment of new technologies as social experiments have mostly focused on unintentional effects, notably safety. We argue for the inclusion of adversarial risks or security aspects that are the result of intentional, strategic behavior of actors, who aim at using the tech

  3. Publishing Set-Valued Data Against Realistic Adversaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Qiang Liu

    2012-01-01

    Privacy protection in publishing set-valued data is an important problem.However,privacy notions proposed in prior works either assume that the adversary has unbounded knowledge and hence provide over-protection that causes excessive distortion,or ignore the knowledge about the absence of certain items and do not prevent attacks based on such knowledge.To address these issues,we propose a new privacy notion,(k,e)(m,n)-privacy,which prevents both the identity disclosure and the sensitive item disclosure to a realistic privacy adversary who has bounded knowledge about the presence of items and the bounded knowledge about the absence of items.In addition to the new notion,our contribution is an efficient algorithm that finds a near-optimal solution and is applicable for anonymizing real world databases.Extensive experiments on real world databases showed that our algorithm outperforms the state of the art algorithms.

  4. Application of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to jet images

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.05927 We provide a bridge between generative modeling in the Machine Learning community and simulated physical processes in High Energy Particle Physics by applying a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture to the production of jet images -- 2D representations of energy depositions from particles interacting with a calorimeter. We propose a simple architecture, the Location-Aware Generative Adversarial Network, that learns to produce realistic radiation patterns from simulated high energy particle collisions. The pixel intensities of GAN-generated images faithfully span over many orders of magnitude and exhibit the desired low-dimensional physical properties (i.e., jet mass, n-subjettiness, etc.). We shed light on limitations, and provide a novel empirical validation of image quality and validity of GAN-produced simulations of the natural world. This work provides a base for further explorations of GANs for use in faster simulation in High Energy Particle Physics.

  5. Adversary Model: Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack with Timing Attack

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We have introduced a novel adversary model in Chosen-Ciphertext Attack with Timing Attack (CCA2-TA) and it was a practical model because the model incorporates the timing attack. This paper is an extended paper for 'A Secure TFTP Protocol with Security Proofs'. Keywords - Timing Attack, Random Oracle Model, Indistinguishabilit, Chosen Plaintext Attack, CPA, Chosen Ciphertext Attack, IND-CCA1, Adaptive Chosen Ciphertext Attack, IND-CCA2, Trivial File Transfer Protocol, TFTP, Security, Trust, P...

  6. Adding Robustness to Support Vector Machines Against Adversarial Reverse Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Many classification algorithms have been successfully deployed in security-sensitive applications including spam filters and intrusion detection systems. Under such adversarial environments, adversaries can generate exploratory attacks against the defender such as evasion and reverse engineering. In this paper, we discuss why reverse engineering attacks can be carried out quite efficiently against fixed classifiers, and investigate the use of randomization as a suitable strategy for mitigating their risk. In particular, we derive a semidefinite programming (SDP) formulation for learning a distribution of classifiers subject to the constraint that any single classifier picked at random from such distribution provides reliable predictions with a high probability. We analyze the tradeoff between variance of the distribution and its predictive accuracy, and establish that one can almost always incorporate randomization with large variance without incurring a loss in accuracy. In other words, the conventional approach of using a fixed classifier in adversarial environments is generally Pareto suboptimal. Finally, we validate such conclusions on both synthetic and real-world classification problems. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  7. A Quantitative Model-Driven Comparison of Command Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    12TH ICCRTS “Adapting C2 to the 21st Century” A Quantitative Model-Driven Comparison of Command Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model Tracks...Lenahan2 identified metrics and techniques for adversarial C2 process modeling . We intend to further that work by developing a set of adversarial process ...Approaches in an Adversarial Process Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  8. Probabilistic Characterization of Adversary Behavior in Cyber Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    The objective of this SMS effort is to provide a probabilistic characterization of adversary behavior in cyber security. This includes both quantitative (data analysis) and qualitative (literature review) components. A set of real LLNL email data was obtained for this study, consisting of several years worth of unfiltered traffic sent to a selection of addresses at ciac.org. The email data was subjected to three interrelated analyses: a textual study of the header data and subject matter, an examination of threats present in message attachments, and a characterization of the maliciousness of embedded URLs.

  9. Adversary modeling: an analysis of criminal activities analogous to potential threats to nuclear safeguard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heineke, J.M.

    1978-12-20

    This study examines and analyzes several classes of incidents in which decision makers are confronted with adversaries. The classes are analogous to adversaries in a material control system in a nuclear facility. Both internal threats (bank frauds and embezzlements) and external threats (aircraft hijackings and hostage-type terrorist events were analyzed. (DLC)

  10. Counteracting Byzantine Adversaries with Network Coding: An Overhead Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, MinJi; Barros, Joao

    2008-01-01

    Network coding increases throughput and is robust against failures and erasures. However, since it allows mixing of information within the network, a single corrupted packet generated by a Byzantine attacker can easily contaminate the information to multiple destinations. In this paper, we study the transmission overhead associated with detecting Byzantine adversaries at a trusted node using network coding. We consider three different schemes: end-to-end error correction, packet-based Byzantine detection scheme, and generation-based Byzantine detection scheme. In end-to-end error correction, it is known that we can correct up to the min-cut between the source and destinations. However, if we use Byzantine detection schemes, we can detect polluted data, drop them, and therefore, only transmit valid data. For the dropped data, the destinations perform erasure correction, which is computationally lighter than error correction. We show that, with enough attackers present in the network, Byzantine detection scheme...

  11. On Breaching Enterprise Data Privacy Through Adversarial Information Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Ganta, Srivatsava Ranjit

    2008-01-01

    Data privacy is one of the key challenges faced by enterprises today. Anonymization techniques address this problem by sanitizing sensitive data such that individual privacy is preserved while allowing enterprises to maintain and share sensitive data. However, existing work on this problem make inherent assumptions about the data that are impractical in day-to-day enterprise data management scenarios. Further, application of existing anonymization schemes on enterprise data could lead to adversarial attacks in which an intruder could use information fusion techniques to inflict a privacy breach. In this paper, we shed light on the shortcomings of current anonymization schemes in the context of enterprise data. We define and experimentally demonstrate Web-based Information- Fusion Attack on anonymized enterprise data. We formulate the problem of Fusion Resilient Enterprise Data Anonymization and propose a prototype solution to address this problem.

  12. 'Meatball searching' - The adversarial approach to online information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    It is proposed that the different styles of online searching can be described as either formal (highly precise) or informal with the needs of the client dictating which is most applicable at a particular moment. The background and personality of the searcher also come into play. Particular attention is focused on meatball searching which is a form of online searching characterized by deliberate vagueness. It requires generally comprehensive searches, often on unusual topics and with tight deadlines. It is most likely to occur in search centers serving many different disciplines and levels of client information sophistication. Various information needs are outlined as well as the laws of meatball searching and the adversarial approach. Traits and characteristics important to sucessful searching include: (1) concept analysis, (2) flexibility of thinking, (3) ability to think in synonyms and (4) anticipation of variant word forms and spellings.

  13. Device-independent randomness expansion secure against quantum adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Pironio, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    Measurements on entangled quantum systems necessarily yield outcomes that are intrinsically unpredictable if they violate a Bell inequality. This property is at the basis of device-independent randomness expansion, in which a certified private random string is generated from a shorter one without making assumptions about the internal working of the quantum devices used in the protocol. We show here that the privacy of the output string can be guaranteed even against adversaries that possess quantum side information about the devices. This opens the possibility for highly efficient concatenated protocols in which a random string produced by a given pair of Bell-violating devices is used as a seed for another pair of devices. In particular, such concatenated protocols can produce an amount of randomness doubly exponential in the number of pairs of devices starting from a finite initial string and can produce an exponential amount of randomness in the length of the initial seed using two pairs of devices.

  14. Taxonomies of Cyber Adversaries and Attacks: A Survey of Incidents and Approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, C A; Powers, S S; Faissol, D M

    2009-10-08

    In this paper we construct taxonomies of cyber adversaries and methods of attack, drawing from a survey of the literature in the area of cyber crime. We begin by addressing the scope of cyber crime, noting its prevalence and effects on the US economy. We then survey the literature on cyber adversaries, presenting a taxonomy of the different types of adversaries and their corresponding methods, motivations, maliciousness, and skill levels. Subsequently we survey the literature on cyber attacks, giving a taxonomy of the different classes of attacks, subtypes, and threat descriptions. The goal of this paper is to inform future studies of cyber security on the shape and characteristics of the risk space and its associated adversaries.

  15. Breaking the O(n^2) Bit Barrier: Scalable Byzantine agreement with an Adaptive Adversary

    CERN Document Server

    King, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for Byzantine agreement that is scalable in the sense that each processor sends only $\\tilde{O}(\\sqrt{n})$ bits, where $n$ is the total number of processors. Our algorithm succeeds with high probability against an \\emph{adaptive adversary}, which can take over processors at any time during the protocol, up to the point of taking over arbitrarily close to a 1/3 fraction. We assume synchronous communication but a \\emph{rushing} adversary. Moreover, our algorithm works in the presence of flooding: processors controlled by the adversary can send out any number of messages. We assume the existence of private channels between all pairs of processors but make no other cryptographic assumptions. Finally, our algorithm has latency that is polylogarithmic in $n$. To the best of our knowledge, ours is the first algorithm to solve Byzantine agreement against an adaptive adversary, while requiring $o(n^{2})$ total bits of communication.

  16. A new queueing strategy for the Adversarial Queueing Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hilker, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In the today's Internet and TCP/IP-networks, the queueing of packets is commonly implemented using the protocol FIFO (First In First Out). Unfortunately, FIFO performs poorly in the Adversarial Queueing Theory. Other queueing strategies are researched in this model and better results are performed by alternative queueing strategies, e.g. LIS (Longest In System). This article introduces a new queueing protocol called interval-strategy that is concerned with the reduction from dynamic to static routing. We discuss the maximum system time for a packet and estimate with up-to-date results how this can be achieved. We figure out the maximum amount of time where a packet can spend in the network (i.e. worst case system time), and argue that the universal instability of the presented interval-strategy can be reached through these results. When a large group of queueing strategies is used for queueing, we prove that the interval-strategy will be universally unstable. Finally, we calculate the maximum time of the stat...

  17. The media and the military: Allies or adversaries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopold Scholtz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Military commanders like Alexander the Great or Richard the Lionheart did not have to take public opinion greatly into account when they planned their campaigns in their day. Today it is a very different situation. In the light of the above this article starts with two somewhat startling quotes by the futurologists Alvin and Heidi Toffler: "The people thinking hardest about warfare in the future know that some of the most important combat of tomorrow will take place on the media battlefield." They also state: “[T]he media, including channels and technologies unimagined today, will be a prime weapon for Third Wave combatants in both the wars and anti-wars of the future, a key component of knowledge strategy.” In recent years, much has been made of the adversarial relations between journalists and the military. The media have, for instance, been blamed for the US defeat in Vietnam, for unthinkingly blabbing about tactical decisions in advance in the Falklands, etc. From their side, journalists have been blaming the military for not trying to understand the nature of their job, of covering up a number of bad things, etc.

  18. A Secure Scalar Product Protocol Against Malicious Adversaries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Yang; Yong Yu; Chung-Huang Yang

    2013-01-01

    A secure scalar product protocol is a type of specific secure multi-party computation problem.Using this kind of protocol,two involved parties are able to jointly compute the scalar product of their private vectors,but no party will reveal any information about his/her private vector to another one.The secure scalar product protocol is of great importance in many privacy-preserving applications such as privacy-preserving data mining,privacy-preserving cooperative statistical analysis,and privacy-preserving geometry computation.In this paper;,we give an efficient and secure scalar product protocol in the presence of malicious adversaries based on two important tools:the proof of knowledge of a discrete logarithm and the verifiable encryption.The security of the new protocol is proved under the standard simulation-based definitions.Compared with the existing schemes,our scheme offers higher efficiency because of avoiding inefficient cut-and-choose proofs.

  19. Intelligent Online Path Planning for UAVs in Adversarial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingguang Peng

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Online path planning (OPP for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs is a basic issue of intelligent flight and is indeed a dynamic multi‐objective optimization problem (DMOP. In this paper, an OPP framework is proposed in the sense of model predictive control (MPC to continuously update the environmental information for the planner. For solving the DMOP involved in the MPC we propose a dynamic multi‐objective evolutionary algorithm based on linkage and prediction (LP‐DMOEA. Within this algorithm, the historical Pareto sets are collected and analysed to enhance the performance. For intelligently selecting the best path from the output of the OPP, the Bayesian network and fuzzy logic are used to quantify the bias to each optimization objective. The DMOEA is validated on three benchmark problems characterized by different changing types in decision and objective spaces. Moreover, the simulation results show that the LP‐DMOEA overcomes the restart method for OPP. The decision‐making method for solution selection can assess the situation in an adversarial environment and accordingly adapt the path planner.

  20. Adversarial reasoning and resource allocation: the LG approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilman, Boris; Yakhnis, Vladimir; Umanskiy, Oleg; Boyd, Ron

    2005-05-01

    Many existing automated tools purporting to model the intelligent enemy utilize a fixed battle plan for the enemy while using flexible decisions of human players for the friendly side. According to the Naval Studies Board, "It is an open secret and a point of distress ... that too much of the substantive content of such M&S has its origin in anecdote, ..., or a narrow construction tied to stereotypical current practices of 'doctrinally correct behavior.'" Clearly, such runs lack objectivity by being heavily skewed in favor of the friendly forces. Presently, the military branches employ a variety of game-based simulators and synthetic environments, with manual (i.e., user-based) decision-making, for training and other purposes. However, without an ability to automatically generate the best strategies, tactics, and COA, the games serve mostly to display the current situation rather than form a basis for automated decision-making and effective training. We solve the problem of adversarial reasoning as a gaming problem employing Linguistic Geometry (LG), a new type of game theory demonstrating significant increase in size in gaming problems solvable in real and near-real time. It appears to be a viable approach for solving such practical problems as mission planning and battle management. Essentially, LG may be structured into two layers: game construction and game solving. Game construction includes construction of a game called an LG hypergame based on a hierarchy of Abstract Board Games (ABG). Game solving includes resource allocation for constructing an advantageous initial game state and strategy generation to reach a desirable final game state in the course of the game.

  1. Modeling State Space Search Technique for a Real World Adversarial Problem Solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kester O. Omoregie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In problem solving, there is a search for the appropriate solution. A state space is a problem domain consisting of the start state, the goal state and the operations that will necessitate the various moves from the start state to the goal state. Each move operation takes one away from the start state and closer to the goal state. In this work we have attempted implementing this concept in adversarial problem solving, which is a more complex problem space. We noted that real world adversarial problems vary in their types and complexities, and therefore solving an adversarial problem would depend on the nature of the adversarial problem itself. Specifically, we examined a real world case, "the prisoner's dilemma" which is a critical, mutually independent, decision making adversarial problem. We combined the idea of the Thagard's Theory of Explanatory Coherence (TEC with Bayes' theorem of conditional probability to construct the model of an opponent that includes the opponent's model of the agent. A further conversion of the model into a series of state space structures led us into the use of breadth-first search strategy to arrive at our decision goal.

  2. Malaria's contribution to World War One - the unexpected adversary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabin, Bernard J

    2014-12-16

    Malaria in the First World War was an unexpected adversary. In 1914, the scientific community had access to new knowledge on transmission of malaria parasites and their control, but the military were unprepared, and underestimated the nature, magnitude and dispersion of this enemy. In summarizing available information for allied and axis military forces, this review contextualizes the challenge posed by malaria, because although data exist across historical, medical and military documents, descriptions are fragmented, often addressing context specific issues. Military malaria surveillance statistics have, therefore, been summarized for all theatres of the War, where available. These indicated that at least 1.5 million solders were infected, with case fatality ranging from 0.2 -5.0%. As more countries became engaged in the War, the problem grew in size, leading to major epidemics in Macedonia, Palestine, Mesopotamia and Italy. Trans-continental passages of parasites and human reservoirs of infection created ideal circumstances for parasite evolution. Details of these epidemics are reviewed, including major epidemics in England and Italy, which developed following home troop evacuations, and disruption of malaria control activities in Italy. Elsewhere, in sub-Saharan Africa many casualties resulted from high malaria exposure combined with minimal control efforts for soldiers considered semi-immune. Prevention activities eventually started but were initially poorly organized and dependent on local enthusiasm and initiative. Nets had to be designed for field use and were fundamental for personal protection. Multiple prevention approaches adopted in different settings and their relative utility are described. Clinical treatment primarily depended on quinine, although efficacy was poor as relapsing Plasmodium vivax and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were not distinguished and managed appropriately. Reasons for this are discussed and the clinical trial data

  3. Stability of the Max-Weight Protocol in Adversarial Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Sungsu; Andrews, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the Max-Weight protocol for routing and scheduling in wireless networks under an adversarial model. This protocol has received a significant amount of attention dating back to the papers of Tassiulas and Ephremides. In particular, this protocol is known to be throughput-optimal whenever the traffic patterns and propagation conditions are governed by a stationary stochastic process. However, the standard proof of throughput optimality (which is based on the negative drift of a quadratic potential function) does not hold when the traffic patterns and the edge capacity changes over time are governed by an arbitrary adversarial process. Such an environment appears frequently in many practical wireless scenarios when the assumption that channel conditions are governed by a stationary stochastic process does not readily apply. In this paper we prove that even in the above adversarial setting, the Max-Weight protocol keeps the queues in the network stable (i.e. keeps the queue sizes bounded...

  4. Criminal defectors lead to the emergence of cooperation in an experimental, adversarial game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R D'Orsogna

    Full Text Available While the evolution of cooperation has been widely studied, little attention has been devoted to adversarial settings wherein one actor can directly harm another. Recent theoretical work addresses this issue, introducing an adversarial game in which the emergence of cooperation is heavily reliant on the presence of "Informants," actors who defect at first-order by harming others, but who cooperate at second-order by punishing other defectors. We experimentally study this adversarial environment in the laboratory with human subjects to test whether Informants are indeed critical for the emergence of cooperation. We find in these experiments that, even more so than predicted by theory, Informants are crucial for the emergence and sustenance of a high cooperation state. A key lesson is that successfully reaching and maintaining a low defection society may require the cultivation of criminals who will also aid in the punishment of others.

  5. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Tess M S

    2016-01-01

    This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

  6. Are Forensic Experts Already Biased before Adversarial Legal Parties Hire Them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess M S Neal

    Full Text Available This survey of 206 forensic psychologists tested the "filtering" effects of preexisting expert attitudes in adversarial proceedings. Results confirmed the hypothesis that evaluator attitudes toward capital punishment influence willingness to accept capital case referrals from particular adversarial parties. Stronger death penalty opposition was associated with higher willingness to conduct evaluations for the defense and higher likelihood of rejecting referrals from all sources. Conversely, stronger support was associated with higher willingness to be involved in capital cases generally, regardless of referral source. The findings raise the specter of skewed evaluator involvement in capital evaluations, where evaluators willing to do capital casework may have stronger capital punishment support than evaluators who opt out, and evaluators with strong opposition may work selectively for the defense. The results may provide a partial explanation for the "allegiance effect" in adversarial legal settings such that preexisting attitudes may contribute to partisan participation through a self-selection process.

  7. Extended defense systems :I. adversary-defender modeling grammar for vulnerability analysis and threat assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2006-03-01

    Vulnerability analysis and threat assessment require systematic treatments of adversary and defender characteristics. This work addresses the need for a formal grammar for the modeling and analysis of adversary and defender engagements of interest to the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). Analytical methods treating both linguistic and numerical information should ensure that neither aspect has disproportionate influence on assessment outcomes. The adversary-defender modeling (ADM) grammar employs classical set theory and notation. It is designed to incorporate contributions from subject matter experts in all relevant disciplines, without bias. The Attack Scenario Space U{sub S} is the set universe of all scenarios possible under physical laws. An attack scenario is a postulated event consisting of the active engagement of at least one adversary with at least one defended target. Target Information Space I{sub S} is the universe of information about targets and defenders. Adversary and defender groups are described by their respective Character super-sets, (A){sub P} and (D){sub F}. Each super-set contains six elements: Objectives, Knowledge, Veracity, Plans, Resources, and Skills. The Objectives are the desired end-state outcomes. Knowledge is comprised of empirical and theoretical a priori knowledge and emergent knowledge (learned during an attack), while Veracity is the correspondence of Knowledge with fact or outcome. Plans are ordered activity-task sequences (tuples) with logical contingencies. Resources are the a priori and opportunistic physical assets and intangible attributes applied to the execution of associated Plans elements. Skills for both adversary and defender include the assumed general and task competencies for the associated plan set, the realized value of competence in execution or exercise, and the opponent's planning assumption of the task competence.

  8. Managing Quality, Identity and Adversaries in Public Discourse with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Automation can mitigate issues when scaling and managing quality and identity in public discourse on the web. Discourse needs to be curated and filtered. Anonymous speech has to be supported while handling adversaries. Reliance on human curators or analysts does not scale and content can be missed. These scaling and management issues include the…

  9. Secure Two-Party Quantum Evaluation of Unitaries against Specious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalit...

  10. Constructing Learning: Adversarial and Collaborative Working in the British Construction Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dan; Felstead, Alan; Fuller, Alison; Jewson, Nick; Unwin, Lorna; Kakavelakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines two competing systems of work organisation in the British construction industry and their consequences for learning. Under the traditional "adversarial" system, conflict, hostility and litigation between contractors are commonplace. Such a climate actively militates against collective learning and knowledge sharing between…

  11. Bring a gun to a gunfight: armed adversaries and violence across nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Berg, Mark T; Rogers, Meghan L

    2014-09-01

    We use homicide data and the International Crime Victimization Survey to examine the role of firearms in explaining cross-national variation in violence. We suggest that while gun violence begets gun violence, it inhibits the tendency to engage in violence without guns. We attribute the patterns to adversary effects-i.e., the tendency of offenders to take into account the threat posed by their adversaries. Multi-level analyses of victimization data support the hypothesis that living in countries with high rates of gun violence lowers an individual's risk of an unarmed assault and assaults with less lethal weapons. Analyses of aggregate data show that homicide rates and gun violence rates load on a separate underlying factor than other types of violence. The results suggest that a country's homicide rate reflects, to a large extent, the tendency of its offenders to use firearms.

  12. Using Non-invertible Data Transformations to Build Adversarial-Robust Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qinglong; Guo, Wenbo; Ororbia II, Alexander G.; Xing, Xinyu; Lin, Lin; Giles, C. Lee; Liu, Xue; Liu, Peng(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, China); Xiong, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Deep neural networks have proven to be quite effective in a wide variety of machine learning tasks, ranging from improved speech recognition systems to advancing the development of autonomous vehicles. However, despite their superior performance in many applications, these models have been recently shown to be susceptible to a particular type of attack possible through the generation of particular synthetic examples referred to as adversarial samples. These samples are constructed by manipula...

  13. Cooperation and punishment in an adversarial game: How defectors pave the way to a peaceful society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, M. B.; Brantingham, P. J.; D'Orsogna, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    The evolution of human cooperation has been the subject of much research, especially within the framework of evolutionary public goods games, where several mechanisms have been proposed to account for persistent cooperation. Yet, in addressing this issue, little attention has been given to games of a more adversarial nature, in which defecting players, rather than simply free riding, actively seek to harm others. Here, we develop an adversarial evolutionary game using the specific example of criminal activity, recasting the familiar public goods strategies of punishers, cooperators, and defectors in this light. We then introduce a strategy—the informant—with no clear analog in public goods games and show that individuals employing this strategy are a key to the emergence of systems where cooperation dominates. We also find that a defection-dominated regime may be transitioned to one that is cooperation-dominated by converting an optimal number of players into informants. We discuss these findings, the role of informants, and possible intervention strategies in extreme adversarial societies, such as those marred by wars and insurgencies.

  14. Optimal-Rate Coding Theorem For Adversarial Networks in the Public-Key Setting

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Yair; Ostrovksy, Rafail

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we establish an optimal-rate (interactive) coding theorem in the public-key setting for synchronous networks in the presence of a malicious poly-time adversary for dynamically changing networks. Namely, even if the majority of the nodes are controlled by a malicious adversary and the topology of the network is changing at each round, then as long as there is some path of non-corrupted nodes connecting the sender and receiver at each round (though this path may change at every round) we construct a protocol with bounded memory per processor that achieves optimal transfer rate and negligible decoding error. This protocol will transmit polynomially many messages of polynomial size with constant overhead per bit. We stress that our protocol assumes no knowledge of which nodes are corrupted nor which path is reliable at any round. Our interactive coding theorem states that our protocol cannot be affected in a meaningful way by any polynomial-time malicious adversary whose goal is to disrupt and dest...

  15. Upper Bounds on the Capacity of Binary Channels with Causal Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dey, Bikash Kumar; Langberg, Michael; Sarwate, Anand D

    2012-01-01

    In this work we consider the communication of information in the presence of a causal adversarial jammer. In the setting under study, a sender wishes to communicate a message to a receiver by transmitting a codeword $\\mathbf{x}=(x_1,...,x_n)$ bit-by-bit over a communication channel. The sender and receiver do not share common randomness. The adversarial jammer can view the transmitted bits $x_i$ one at a time, and can change up to a $p$-fraction of them. However, the decisions of the jammer must be made in a causal manner. Namely, for each bit $x_i$ the jammer's decision on whether to corrupt it or not (and on how to change it) must depend only on $x_j$ for $j \\leq i$. This is in contrast to the "classical" adversarial jamming situations in which the jammer has no knowledge of $\\mathbf{x}$ or complete knowledge of $\\mathbf{x}$. In this work, we present upper bounds on the capacity which hold for both deterministic and stochastic encoding schemes.

  16. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnag, Anas; Abuzneid, Abdelshakour; Mahmood, Ausif

    2016-06-27

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP). The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP) employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD), Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD) and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD) were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network). Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  17. Source Anonymity in WSNs against Global Adversary Utilizing Low Transmission Rates with Delay Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Bushnag

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN are deployed for many applications such as tracking and monitoring of endangered species, military applications, etc. which require anonymity of the origin, known as Source Location Privacy (SLP. The aim in SLP is to prevent unauthorized observers from tracing the source of a real event by analyzing the traffic in the network. Previous approaches to SLP such as Fortified Anonymous Communication Protocol (FACP employ transmission of real or fake packets in every time slot, which is inefficient. To overcome this shortcoming, we developed three different techniques presented in this paper. Dummy Uniform Distribution (DUD, Dummy Adaptive Distribution (DAD and Controlled Dummy Adaptive Distribution (CAD were developed to overcome the anonymity problem against a global adversary (which has the capability of analyzing and monitoring the entire network. Most of the current techniques try to prevent the adversary from perceiving the location and time of the real event whereas our proposed techniques confuse the adversary about the existence of the real event by introducing low rate fake messages, which subsequently lead to location and time privacy. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed techniques provide reasonable delivery ratio, delay, and overhead of a real event's packets while keeping a high level of anonymity. Three different analysis models are conducted to verify the performance of our techniques. A visualization of the simulation data is performed to confirm anonymity. Further, neural network models are developed to ensure that the introduced techniques preserve SLP. Finally, a steganography model based on probability is implemented to prove the anonymity of the techniques.

  18. Local Optimization and Adversarial Consideration:Agent Skills in Everest Simulation Team

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾洋; 崔立辉; 刘俊峰; 王庆林

    2004-01-01

    Skilled individual agents are firm basis of a strong soccer team. The skills available to Everest 2002 agents include kicking, dribbling, forwarding, ball interception and tackling. These intermediate sub goals are implemented by a combination of local optimization which hopes to determine the optimal primitive action from a local perspective and adversarial consideration which takes into account opponents and limitations imposed by simulation environment. Everest 2002 RoboCup simulation teams, building on 11 skilled agents and an on-line coach, won the 2nd place in RoboCup 2002 simulation league.

  19. Game Theoretic Evaluation of Threat Detection Problems-The Central Role of the Adversary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, Patrick G.; Wood, Thomas W.; Reichmuth, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    A wide variety of security problems hinge on the detection of threats and discrimination of threats from innocuous objects. The theory that frames these problems is common among medical diagnostics, radar and sonar imaging, and detection of radiological, chemical, and biological agents. In many of these problems, the nature of the threat is subject to control by a malicious adversary, and the choice of a reference (or "design basis") threat is a very diffcult, and often intractable, aspect of the problem. It is this class of problems that this report considers.

  20. Undermining Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2012-01-01

    in which the relatively low-threat propensity of the system renders positive balancing strategies incompatible with state interests after the Cold War. Instead, states have employed various negative balancing strategies to undermine each other's power, especially when dealing with us primacy. China......'s negative balancing strategy against the United States and the us negative balancing strategy against Russia are two case studies that test the validity of the negative balancing model....

  1. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF SMALL-GROUP COLLABORATORS AND ADVERSARIES IN THE LONDON KLEINIAN DEVELOPMENT (1914-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Joseph; Regeczkey, Agnes

    2016-07-01

    The authors historically situate the London Kleinian development in terms of the small-group collaborations and adversaries that arose during the course of Melanie Klein's career. Some collaborations later became personally adversarial (e.g., those Klein had with Glover and Schmideberg); other adversarial relationships forever remained that way (with A. Freud); while still other long-term collaborations became theoretically contentious (such as with Winnicott and Heimann). After the Controversial Discussions in 1944, Klein marginalized one group of supporters (Heimann, Winnicott, and Riviere) in favor of another group (Rosenfeld, Segal, and Bion). After Klein's death in 1960, Bion maintained loyalty to Klein's ideas while quietly distancing his work from the London Klein group, immigrating to the United States in 1968.

  2. Evaluation of risk from acts of terrorism :the adversary/defender model using belief and fuzzy sets.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, John L.

    2006-09-01

    Risk from an act of terrorism is a combination of the likelihood of an attack, the likelihood of success of the attack, and the consequences of the attack. The considerable epistemic uncertainty in each of these three factors can be addressed using the belief/plausibility measure of uncertainty from the Dempster/Shafer theory of evidence. The adversary determines the likelihood of the attack. The success of the attack and the consequences of the attack are determined by the security system and mitigation measures put in place by the defender. This report documents a process for evaluating risk of terrorist acts using an adversary/defender model with belief/plausibility as the measure of uncertainty. Also, the adversary model is a linguistic model that applies belief/plausibility to fuzzy sets used in an approximate reasoning rule base.

  3. Application of adversarial risk analysis model in pricing strategies with remanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liurui Deng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Purpose: This paper mainly focus on the application of adversarial risk analysis (ARA in pricing strategy with remanufacturing. We hope to obtain more realistic results than classical model. Moreover, we also wish that our research improve the development of ARA in pricing strategy of manufacturing or remanufacturing. Approach: In order to gain more actual research, combining adversarial risk analysis, we explore the pricing strategy with remanufacturing based on Stackelberg model. Especially, we build OEM’s 1-order ARA model and further study on manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategy. Findings: We find the OEM’s 1-order ARA model for the OEM’s product cost C. Besides, we get according manufacturers and remanufacturers’ pricing strategies. Besides, the pricing strategies based on 1-order ARA model have advantage over than the classical model regardless of OEMs and remanufacturers. Research implications: The research on application of ARA imply that we can get more actual results with this kind of modern risk analysis method and ARA can be extensively in pricing strategies of supply chain. Value: Our research improves the application of ARA in remanufacturing industry. Meanwhile, inspired by this analysis, we can also create different ARA models for different parameters. Furthermore, some results and analysis methods can be applied to other pricing strategies of supply chain.

  4. Evaluating data distribution and drift vulnerabilities of machine learning algorithms in secure and adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kevin; Corbin, George; Blowers, Misty

    2014-05-01

    Machine learning is continuing to gain popularity due to its ability to solve problems that are difficult to model using conventional computer programming logic. Much of the current and past work has focused on algorithm development, data processing, and optimization. Lately, a subset of research has emerged which explores issues related to security. This research is gaining traction as systems employing these methods are being applied to both secure and adversarial environments. One of machine learning's biggest benefits, its data-driven versus logic-driven approach, is also a weakness if the data on which the models rely are corrupted. Adversaries could maliciously influence systems which address drift and data distribution changes using re-training and online learning. Our work is focused on exploring the resilience of various machine learning algorithms to these data-driven attacks. In this paper, we present our initial findings using Monte Carlo simulations, and statistical analysis, to explore the maximal achievable shift to a classification model, as well as the required amount of control over the data.

  5. Span programs and quantum query complexity: The general adversary bound is nearly tight for every boolean function

    OpenAIRE

    Reichardt, Ben W.

    2009-01-01

    The general adversary bound is a semi-definite program (SDP) that lower-bounds the quantum query complexity of a function. We turn this lower bound into an upper bound, by giving a quantum walk algorithm based on the dual SDP that has query complexity at most the general adversary bound, up to a logarithmic factor. In more detail, the proof has two steps, each based on "span programs," a certain linear-algebraic model of computation. First, we give an SDP that outputs for any boolean function...

  6. Arlen Spector and the Construction of Adversarial Discourse: Selective Representation in the Clarence Thomas-Anita Hill Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S. Ashley

    1995-01-01

    Reports on Senator Arlen Spector's interview of Anita Hill during hearings on Supreme Court nominee Clarence Thomas and her allegations of sexual harassment. Examines the social structures and argumentative strategies Spector invoked to place Hill in a position of "powerlessness." Argues that the key resource contributing to the adversarial nature…

  7. When does familiarity promote versus undermine interpersonal attraction? A proposed integrative model from erstwhile adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Eli J; Norton, Michael I; Reis, Harry T; Ariely, Dan; Caprariello, Peter A; Eastwick, Paul W; Frost, Jeana H; Maniaci, Michael R

    2015-01-01

    This article began as an adversarial collaboration between two groups of researchers with competing views on a longstanding question: Does familiarity promote or undermine interpersonal attraction? As we explored our respective positions, it became clear that the limitations of our conceptualizations of the familiarity-attraction link, as well as the limitations of prior research, were masking a set of higher order principles capable of integrating these diverse conceptualizations. This realization led us to adopt a broader perspective, which focuses on three distinct relationship stages-awareness, surface contact, and mutuality-and suggests that the influence of familiarity on attraction depends on both the nature and the stage of the relationship between perceivers and targets. This article introduces the framework that emerged from our discussions and suggests directions for research to investigate its validity.

  8. Institutionalizing dissent: a proposal for an adversarial system of pharmaceutical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin

    2013-12-01

    There are serious problems with the way in which pharmaceutical research is currently practiced, many of which can be traced to the influence of commercial interests on research. One of the most significant is inadequate dissent, or organized skepticism. In order to ameliorate this problem, I develop a proposal that I call the "Adversarial Proceedings for the Evaluation of Pharmaceuticals," to be instituted within a regulatory agency such as the Food and Drug Administration for the evaluation of controversial new drugs and controversial drugs already in the market. This proposal is an organizational one based upon the "science court" proposal by Arthur Kantrowitz in the 1960s and 1970s. The primary benefit of this system is its ability to institutionalize dissent, thereby ensuring that one set of interests does not dominate all others.

  9. Imparting protean behavior to mobile robots accomplishing patrolling tasks in the presence of adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2015-10-08

    Providing unpredictable trajectories for patrol robots is essential when coping with adversaries. In order to solve this problem we developed an effective approach based on the known protean behavior of individual prey animals-random zig-zag movement. The proposed bio-inspired method modifies the normal robot's path by incorporating sudden and irregular direction changes without jeopardizing the robot's mission. Such a tactic is aimed to confuse the enemy (e.g. a sniper), offering less time to acquire and retain sight alignment and sight picture. This idea is implemented by simulating a series of fictive-temporary obstacles that will randomly appear in the robot's field of view, deceiving the obstacle avoiding mechanism to react. The new general methodology is particularized by using the Arnold's cat map to obtain the timely random appearance and disappearance of the fictive obstacles. The viability of the proposed method is confirmed through an extensive simulation case study.

  10. A 2D chaotic path planning for mobile robots accomplishing boundary surveillance missions in adversarial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curiac, Daniel-Ioan; Volosencu, Constantin

    2014-10-01

    The path-planning algorithm represents a crucial issue for every autonomous mobile robot. In normal circumstances a patrol robot will compute an optimal path to ensure its task accomplishment, but in adversarial conditions the problem is getting more complicated. Here, the robot’s trajectory needs to be altered into a misleading and unpredictable path to cope with potential opponents. Chaotic systems provide the needed framework for obtaining unpredictable motion in all of the three basic robot surveillance missions: area, points of interests and boundary monitoring. Proficient approaches have been provided for the first two surveillance tasks, but for boundary patrol missions no method has been reported yet. This paper addresses the mentioned research gap by proposing an efficient method, based on chaotic dynamic of the Hénon system, to ensure unpredictable boundary patrol on any shape of chosen closed contour.

  11. An Efficient Encryption Algorithm for P2P Networks Robust Against Man-in-the-Middle Adversary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohallah Rastaghi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P networks have become popular as a new paradigm for information exchange and are being used in many applications such as file sharing, distributed computing, video conference, VoIP, radio and TV broadcasting. This popularity comes with security implications and vulnerabilities that need to be addressed. Especially duo to direct communication between two end nodes in P2P networks, these networks are potentially vulnerable to Man-in-the-Middle attacks. In this paper, we propose a new public-key cryptosystem for P2P networks that is robust against Man-in-the-Middle adversary. This cryptosystem is based on RSA and knapsack problems. Our precoding-based algorithm uses knapsack problem for performing permutation and padding random data to the message. We show that comparing to other proposed cryptosystems, our algorithm is more efficient and it is fully secure against an active adversary.

  12. Adversarial intent modeling using embedded simulation and temporal Bayesian knowledge bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioch, Nicholas J.; Melhuish, James; Seidel, Andy; Santos, Eugene, Jr.; Li, Deqing; Gorniak, Mark

    2009-05-01

    To foster shared battlespace awareness among air strategy planners, BAE Systems has developed Commander's Model Integration and Simulation Toolkit (CMIST), an Integrated Development Environment for authoring, integration, validation, and debugging of models relating multiple domains, including political, military, social, economic and information. CMIST provides a unified graphical user interface for such systems of systems modeling, spanning several disparate modeling paradigms. Here, we briefly review the CMIST architecture and then compare modeling results using two approaches to intent modeling. The first uses reactive agents with simplified behavior models that apply rule-based triggers to initiate actions based solely on observations of the external world at the current time in the simulation. The second method models proactive agents running an embedded CMIST simulation representing their projection of how events may unfold in the future in order to take early preventative action. Finally, we discuss a recent extension to CMIST that incorporates Temporal Bayesian Knowledge Bases for more sophisticated models of adversarial intent that are capable of inferring goals and future actions given evidence of current actions at particular times.

  13. The Effects of Sacred Value Networks Within an Evolutionary, Adversarial Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, Scott G.; Short, Martin B.; Brantingham, P. Jeffrey

    2013-05-01

    The effects of personal relationships and shared ideologies on levels of crime and the formation of criminal coalitions are studied within the context of an adversarial, evolutionary game first introduced in Short et al. (Phys. Rev. E 82:066114, 2010). Here, we interpret these relationships as connections on a graph of N players. These connections are then used in a variety of ways to define each player's "sacred value network"—groups of individuals that are subject to special consideration or treatment by that player. We explore the effects on the dynamics of the system that these networks introduce, through various forms of protection from both victimization and punishment. Under local protection, these networks introduce a new fixed point within the game dynamics, which we find through a continuum approximation of the discrete game. Under more complicated, extended protection, we numerically observe the emergence of criminal coalitions, or "gangs". We also find that a high-crime steady state is much more frequent in the context of extended protection networks, in both the case of Erdős-Rényi and small world random graphs.

  14. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino (México

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visión y recepción que del mismo tienen los operadores jurídicos y la sociedad en general, son aspectos que cubre el presente documento. The study and understanding of the new Code of Criminal Procedure of Veracruz is unavoidable, by reason of the sharp differences between the legal concepts that contains the actual order, compared with the previous. Needs to be systematized, describe and analyze the structure of the adversarial criminal system, in order to be able to evaluate and, if necessary, propose improvements to the system in question. The schematic and substantial content of the code, viewing and welcome that the same have the legal practitioners and society in general, are aspects covered by herein.

  15. Secure two-party quantum evaluation of unitaries against specious adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis

    2010-01-01

    We describe how any two-party quantum computation, specified by a unitary which simultaneously acts on the registers of both parties, can be privately implemented against a quantum version of classical semi-honest adversaries that we call specious. Our construction requires two ideal functionalities to garantee privacy: a private SWAP between registers held by the two parties and a classical private AND-box equivalent to oblivious transfer. If the unitary to be evaluated is in the Clifford group then only one call to SWAP is required for privacy. On the other hand, any unitary not in the Clifford requires one call to an AND-box per R-gate in the circuit. Since SWAP is itself in the Clifford group, this functionality is universal for the private evaluation of any unitary in that group. SWAP can be built from a classical bit commitment scheme or an AND-box but an AND-box cannot be constructed from SWAP. It follows that unitaries in the Clifford group are to some extent the easy ones. We also show that SWAP cann...

  16. El aspecto criminalista del nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en el estado de México/The forensic aspect of the accusatorial, adversarial and oral criminal process in the state of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    El Gobierno del Estado de México, mediante Decreto número 266 del 9 de febrero de 2009, publicó en la Gaceta del Gobierno, el nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales para el Estado de México, tomando importancia en el presente trabajo, el rol del perito en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral, donde se abordarán los tópicos referentes a los principios que lo rigen, la legalidad y la valoración de la prueba, el registro de actuaciones y audiencias, los sujetos procesal...

  17. The Effect of Respect, Trust, and Fear in Adversarial Stakeholder Relationships: A Case Study on Water Commodification and Stakeholder Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McGinley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Current academic discussion around stakeholder engagement has historically been focused on the attributes of the various stakeholders rather than on the relationship between the stakeholders. This paper examines the role that the intangible variables, respect, fear, and trust play in stakeholder relationships that are characterized by intractable conflict. That role is explored through a case study of stakeholder groups with adversarial positions on the commodification and export of Canada’s freshwater. Through discussion of the relationship between two sets of stakeholders with conflicting interests on Canada’s freshwater commodification respect, fear, and trust are advanced as the key intangible variables that create the underlying conflict. With these root causes identified the paper explores methods to build respect, reduce fear, and create trust between the stakeholders in an effort to shift their relationship from adversarial to co-operative in the hopes of facilitating constructive dialogue.

  18. How to achieve public participation in nuclear waste decisions: Public relations or transparent adversary science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treichel, J. [Nevada Nuclear Waste Task Force, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1999-12-01

    applied correctly, are in this case, merely tools being employed to co-opt or buy off the opposition and legitimize the process. It appears at this point that there are two choices: either the decision-makers can attempt to continue with the current program of forced siting, ignoring all citizen and scientific opposition and eventually leading to litigation; or a new program can be developed. Since the US nuclear waste programs have utilized or have been perceived as utilizing advocacy science, the country must add 'adversary science' to the national program. This is described as the providing of financial support for competing teams of experts to investigate, and to tell the public about, any hazards which the enthusiasts of a project may have failed to report, or even to see. If citizens were able to participate in the debate between scientists and experts, with differing opinions concerning the merits of a nuclear waste site or indeed, any controversial technology, they would feel represented. They would believe that the final decisions were made only after the program in question had withstood and overcome all criticism-rather than just ignored it. There is probably no chance that the current US nuclear waste program can succeed in light of the level of public opposition. It is therefore necessary to move to a policy that respects those who must pay the costs and live with its consequences.

  19. The structure of adversarial growth in a sample of cancer patients 8 years post-diagnosis : a revision of the SLQ-38

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, Orla; Schroevers, Maya J.; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2009-01-01

    Stressful and traumatic events may trigger positive life changes, so-called adversarial growth. Despite growing interest in this topic, the structure and dimensionality of this concept has not been established. Recently, empirical reviews have suggested that the factors underlying this construct are

  20. The Influence of Cognitive Biases on Court Decisions. Contributions of Legal Psychology to the Adversary Criminal Proceedings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Iliana De la Rosa Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to disperse among the judiciary and society the psychological procedures involved in the decision-making process of judges since they are not only influenced by law but by previous ideas and values. It is worth questioning: in what extent their personal views and beliefs are the bases of verdicts? How can aversions and public opinion have an impact in the court decision? This paper analyzes and states the differences of the judicial role in the Mexican adversarial system and the inquisitorial models of justice. It also critiques the categories of the judicial officers and presents the circumstances that make an impact on judicial decisions, according to Psychology studies. It finally classifies cognitive biases and concludes that the more knowledge judges have about it, the more imparcial judgments will be.

  1. Mothers' power assertion; children's negative, adversarial orientation; and future behavior problems in low-income families: early maternal responsiveness as a moderator of the developmental cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sanghag; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2015-02-01

    Parental power assertion, a key dimension of family environment, generally sets in motion detrimental developmental cascades; however, evidence suggests that other qualities of parenting, such as responsiveness, can significantly moderate those processes. Mechanisms that account for such moderating effects are not fully understood. We propose a conceptual model of processes linking parental power assertion, parental responsiveness, children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the parent, and behavior problems. We test that model in a short-term longitudinal design involving 186 low-income, ethnically diverse mothers and their toddlers. When children were 30 months, the dyads were observed in multiple, lengthy, naturalistic laboratory interactions to assess behaviorally mothers' responsiveness and their power-assertive control style. At 33 months, we observed behavioral indicators of children's negative, adversarial, rejecting orientation toward the mothers in several naturalistic and standardized paradigms. At 40 months, mothers rated children's behavior problems. The proposed moderated mediation sequence, tested using a new approach, PROCESS (Hayes, 2013), was supported. The indirect effect from maternal power assertion to children's negative, adversarial orientation to future behavior problems was present when mothers' responsiveness was either low or average but absent when mothers were highly responsive. This study elucidates a potential process that may link parental power assertion with behavior problems and highlights how positive aspects of parenting can moderate this process and defuse maladaptive developmental cascades. It also suggests possible targets for parenting intervention and prevention efforts.

  2. El aspecto criminalista del nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en el estado de México/The forensic aspect of the accusatorial, adversarial and oral criminal process in the state of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El Gobierno del Estado de México, mediante Decreto número 266 del 9 de febrero de 2009, publicó en la Gaceta del Gobierno, el nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales para el Estado de México, tomando importancia en el presente trabajo, el rol del perito en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral, donde se abordarán los tópicos referentes a los principios que lo rigen, la legalidad y la valoración de la prueba, el registro de actuaciones y audiencias, los sujetos procesales, las actuaciones y los elementos de la investigación, inspecciones, registros y aseguramientos, registros de investigación y cadena de custodia, los peritajes, su actuación en la audiencia de juicio oral, en la prueba anticipada y en la prueba irreproductible. De esta manera, el perito normará su actuación -además de lo referente a su ciencia-, conforme a los principios del proceso penal acusatorio. Las reglas para la emisión y presentación del dictamen cambian de manera sustancial, razón por la cual, los peritos deben analizar el cuerpo legal y dirigir su actuación en base a dichos criterios, además de que será requerida su intervención personal en base a interrogatorios efectuados por los sujetos procesales, siendo participes dentro del drama penal como agentes activos para lograr el conocimiento de la verdad histórica de los hechos.

  3. Adversarial Geospatial Abduction Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Technology, Vol. , No. , 20. 38 · Paulo Shakarian et al. Rossmo, D. K. and Rombouts, S. 2008. Geographic Profiling. In Enviromental Criminology and Crime...mlsapino/Conferma-I-fascia/TIST.pdf). Stollsteimer, J. F. 1963. A Working Model for Plant Numbers and Locations. Journal of Farm Economics 45, 3 (Aug.), 631

  4. Localization under Adversary Misdirection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    locations using manifold learning algorithms. Source Localization A number of methods exist for estimating location including angle of arrival (AOA), time...improvement of the least-squares estimator. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, 56(5):1788–1800, 2008. [12] M. Fazel, H. Hindi , and S.P. Boyd. Log-det...and applications, pages 20–29. ACM, 2003. [54] N. Patwari and A.O. Hero III. Manifold learning algorithms for localization in wireless sensor networks

  5. Adversaries in Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Ciaramello, Caroline Andrews, Laura Fegeley, Amir Sadovnik, Katherine Lai, Natalia Buitrago, Alisa Blinova, George Khachatryan, Anna Tarakanova, Ilan...Rabinovich, Jennifer Tu, Katherine Reid, Laura Boylan, Lanya da Silva , Nick Martin, Jen Selby, Bobak Nazer, Krish Eswaran, Cat Miller, John Danaher, Jim

  6. Using adversary text to detect adversary phase changes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speed, Ann Elizabeth; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Warrender, Christina E.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to help develop a research roadmap and small proof ofconcept for addressing key problems and gaps from the perspective of using text analysis methods as a primary tool for detecting when a group is undergoing a phase change. Self- rganizing map (SOM) techniques were used to analyze text data obtained from the tworld-wide web. Statistical studies indicate that it may be possible to predict phase changes, as well as detect whether or not an example of writing can be attributed to a group of interest.

  7. Advanced Agent Methods in Adversarial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-30

    after the end of the game, the definitions bellow also evaluate agents’ actions ex post. Simplified graphical form of the definitions is presented in Fig...and dese - rialized (unmarshaled) in the appropriate class name space depending on the sender and receiver agent/service’s class loader. Fig. A.2. Create...the JOGL libraries (Java binding for OpenGL [3]) which are used for accessing graphics 3D acceleration. The ATC core system uses Java Web Start

  8. Adversarial Risk Analysis for Dynamic Network Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-20

    Theory, 29, 1–24. Robinson, J. (1951). “An Iterative Method of Solving a Game,” Annals of Mathematics , 52(2), 296-301. Stahl, D., and Wilson, P. (1995...The Colonel Blotto Game,” Economic Theory, 29, 1–24. Robinson, J. (1951). “An Iterative Method of Solving a Game,” Annals of Mathematics , 52(2), 296-301

  9. Analyzing Adversaries as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    reflecting the general population’s sympathy (support) for the terrorist’s cause, is depressed as the terrorist attack magnitude increases, as shown in...Cowan, George A., Pines, David, Meltzer , David, eds., 1994, Complexity: Metaphors, Models, and Reality, Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley

  10. High-Confidence Predictions under Adversarial Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Drucker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    We study the setting in which the bits of an unknown infinite binary sequence x are revealed sequentially to an observer. We show that very limited assumptions about x allow one to make successful predictions about unseen bits of x. First, we study the problem of successfully predicting a single 0 from among the bits of x. In our model we have only one chance to make a prediction, but may do so at a time of our choosing. We describe and motivate this as the problem of a frog who wants to cross a road safely. Letting N_t denote the number of 1s among the first t bits of x, we say that x is "eps-weakly sparse" if lim inf (N_t/t) 0, we give a randomized forecasting algorithm S_eps that, given sequential access to a binary sequence x, makes a predi ction of the form: "A p fraction of the next N bits will be 1s." (The algorithm gets to choose p, N, and the time of the prediction.) For any fixed sequence x, the forecast fraction p is accurate to within +-eps with probability 1 - eps.

  11. Legality in Cyberspace: An Adversary View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Conflict” by Robert Fanelli; studies examining the applicability of international law to terrorist acts committed through cyberspace;3 and many more...Russia’s resources will be preceded by a series of conflicts (not necessarily armed ones) within the country. Increasing activity by various terrorist ...rest of the world at the World Conference on International Telecommunica- tions (WCIT) in Dubai in December 2012. A key lesson from WCIT for those

  12. Networking in the Presence of Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-12

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. Cornell University 373 Pine Tree Road Ithaca, NY 14850 -2820 1 ABSTRACT Number of Papers...Since the seminal work of Shannon in 1948, reliability and efficiency tradeoff have been at the heart of modern communication theory. For random

  13. Destabilization of Adversarial Organizations with Strategic Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Basile, M. (2004) Going to the Source: Why Al Qaeda’s Financial Network Is Likely to Withstand the Current War on Terrorist Financing , Studies in...based approach, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals , Vol. 20, Issue 1, April 2004, pp 63-68 Epstein, J., Steinbruner, J. D., and Parker, M. T. (2001) Modeling...detonate  0.327  final reconnaissance mission  0.204  education and training  0.177  lead attackers to embassy  0.521  finance  surveillance  0.339  clean

  14. Integrated Adversarial Network Theory (iANT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    it is increasingly applied to everything from a trade association to a listserv to a social media website such as Facebook. Our objective in this...alter represents the people in their social environment - the people they have ties with and are receiving information from. Ego Alter ( Socia l... markets as "networks". In this literature, a network refers to a group of organizations working closely together, almost as if they were one super

  15. Computationally Secure Pattern Matching in the Presence of Malicious Adversaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Toft, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    We propose a protocol for the problem of secure two-party pattern matching, where Alice holds a text t∈{0,1}∗ of length n, while Bob has a pattern p∈{0,1}∗ of length m. The goal is for Bob to (only) learn where his pattern occurs in Alice’s text, while Alice learns nothing. Private pattern matching...... for important variations of the secure pattern matching problem that are significantly more efficient than the current state of art solutions: First, we deal with secure pattern matching with wildcards. In this variant the pattern may contain wildcards that match both 0 and 1. Our protocol requires O......(n+m) communication and O(1) rounds using O(nm) computation. Then we treat secure approximate pattern matching. In this variant the matches may be approximated, i.e., have Hamming distance less than some threshold, τ. Our protocol requires O(nτ) communication in O(1) rounds using O(nm) computation. Third, we have...

  16. The Challenge of Nuclear-Armed Regional Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    detonate 14 An extreme version of deterrence by the threat of slow-motion or nonstandard means of attack might be called the dandelion strategy. A regional...they are rooted , to some degree, in the nature of the regime itself and its claim to power, as described below. If a nation’s leadership seeks to

  17. Privacy for Key-Trees with Adaptive Adversaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, M.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Hash-lock authentication protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags incur heavy search on the server. Key-trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags. Butty´an [3] and Beye and Veugen [

  18. Anonymity for key-trees with adaptive adversaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beye, M.; Veugen, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Hash-lock authentication protocols for Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tags incur heavy search on the server. Key-trees have been proposed as a way to reduce search times, but because partial keys in such trees are shared, key compromise affects several tags. Buttyán [4] and Beye and Veugen [3

  19. Modeling Adversaries in Counterterrorism Decisions Using Prospect Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Jason R W; Leclerc, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Counterterrorism decisions have been an intense area of research in recent years. Both decision analysis and game theory have been used to model such decisions, and more recently approaches have been developed that combine the techniques of the two disciplines. However, each of these approaches assumes that the attacker is maximizing its utility. Experimental research shows that human beings do not make decisions by maximizing expected utility without aid, but instead deviate in specific ways such as loss aversion or likelihood insensitivity. In this article, we modify existing methods for counterterrorism decisions. We keep expected utility as the defender's paradigm to seek for the rational decision, but we use prospect theory to solve for the attacker's decision to descriptively model the attacker's loss aversion and likelihood insensitivity. We study the effects of this approach in a critical decision, whether to screen containers entering the United States for radioactive materials. We find that the defender's optimal decision is sensitive to the attacker's levels of loss aversion and likelihood insensitivity, meaning that understanding such descriptive decision effects is important in making such decisions.

  20. Crime, Punishment, and Evolution in an Adversarial Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    nature than standard social dilemmas. Such settings have been largely ignored in the literature , yet an important exception is Short, Brantingham...highly influential in driving the system away from the “Dystopian” state of high crime and toward the efficient, no- crime, “ Utopian ” steady state...Specifically, the presence of Informants is a sufficient, but not necessary, condition for achieving the Utopian state. Our paper more closely examines

  1. Users Get Routed: Traffic Correlation on Tor by Realistic Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Congestion-Aware Tor (CAT) by Wang et al. [43]. The main idea in CAT is that clients create a local view of circuit con- gestion through opportunistic and...exchanges/ equinix-internet-exchange/. [18] N. S. Evans, R. Dingledine, and C. Grothoff. A Practical Con- gestion Attack on Tor using Long Paths. In

  2. New online ecology of adversarial aggregates: ISIS and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N F; Zheng, M; Vorobyeva, Y; Gabriel, A; Qi, H; Velasquez, N; Manrique, P; Johnson, D; Restrepo, E; Song, C; Wuchty, S

    2016-06-17

    Support for an extremist entity such as Islamic State (ISIS) somehow manages to survive globally online despite considerable external pressure and may ultimately inspire acts by individuals having no history of extremism, membership in a terrorist faction, or direct links to leadership. Examining longitudinal records of online activity, we uncovered an ecology evolving on a daily time scale that drives online support, and we provide a mathematical theory that describes it. The ecology features self-organized aggregates (ad hoc groups formed via linkage to a Facebook page or analog) that proliferate preceding the onset of recent real-world campaigns and adopt novel adaptive mechanisms to enhance their survival. One of the predictions is that development of large, potentially potent pro-ISIS aggregates can be thwarted by targeting smaller ones.

  3. Guerrilla Counterintelligence: Insurgent Approaches to Neutralizing Adversary Intelligence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    the city he was to spy on, the agent’s accent revealed to local tribesmen that he was not who he claimed to be. The information was transmitted to...released the text of a Taliban “Layeha,” a term usually rendered in English as “Rulebook” or “Book of Rules.” 29 Turbiville: Guerrilla...just any Quechua, but the dialect spoken in the zone where they are operating …” 51 Hand in hand with the language shortfalls was the lack of

  4. Behavior of Machine Learning Algorithms in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    Computer Science, pages 226–248. Springer, September 2006. ISBN 3-540-39723-X. Zhe Wang , William K. Josephson, Qin Lv, Moses Charikar, and Kai Li. Filtering...take significantly more time than text-based filtering [Dredze et al., 2007, Wang et al., 2007]. An attacker could exploit such overhead by sending...generalize, such as through regularization. Wang et al. [2006] present Anagram, an anomaly detection system using n-gram models of bytes to detect intrusions

  5. New Online Ecology of Adversarial Aggregates: ISIS and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, N F; Vorobyeva, Y; Gabriel, A; Qi, H; Velasquez, N; Manrique, P; Johnson, D; Restrepo, E; Song, C; Wuchty, S

    2016-01-01

    Support for an extremist entity such as Islamic State (ISIS) somehow manages to survive globally online despite significant external pressure, and may ultimately inspire acts by individuals who have no prior history of extremism, formal cell membership or direct links to leadership. We uncover an ultrafast ecology driving this online support and provide a mathematical theory that describes it. The ecology features self-organized aggregates that proliferate preceding the onset of recent real-world campaigns, and adopt novel adaptive mechanisms to enhance their survival. One of the actionable predictions is that the development of large, potentially potent pro-ISIS aggregates can be thwarted by targeting smaller ones.

  6. A classical one-way function to confound quantum adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher; Vazirani, U; Moore, Cristopher; Russell, Alexander; Vazirani, Umesh

    2007-01-01

    The promise of quantum computation and its consequences for complexity-theoretic cryptography motivates an immediate search for cryptosystems which can be implemented with current technology, but which remain secure even in the presence of quantum computers. Inspired by recent negative results pertaining to the nonabelian hidden subgroup problem, we present here a classical algebraic function $f_V(M)$ of a matrix $M$ which we believe is a one-way function secure against quantum attacks. Specifically, inverting $f_V$ reduces naturally to solving a hidden subgroup problem over the general linear group (which is at least as hard as the hidden subgroup problem over the symmetric group). We also demonstrate a reduction from Graph Isomorphism to the problem of inverting $f_V$; unlike Graph Isomorphism, however, the function $f_V$ is random self-reducible and therefore uniformly hard. These results suggest that, unlike Shor's algorithm for the discrete logarithm--which is, so far, the only successful quantum attack ...

  7. Autonomous and cooperative multi-UAV guidance in adversarial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Ugur

    The research presented in this dissertation is aimed at developing rule-based autonomous and cooperative guidance strategies for UAVs to perform missions such as path planning, target tracking and rendezvous while reducing their risk/threat exposure level, and avoiding threats and/or obstacles by utilizing measurement information provided by sensors. First, a mathematical formulation is developed to represent the area of operation that contains various types of threats, obstacles, and restricted areas, in a single framework. Once constructed, there will be no need to distinguish between threats, obstacles and restricted areas as the framework already contains the information on what needs to be avoided and the level of penalty for a given position in the area. This framework provides the mathematical foundation for the guidance strategies to make intelligent decisions during the execution of the mission and also provides scalar metrics to assess the performance of a guidance strategy in a given mission. The autonomous guidance strategies are developed by using a rule-based expert system approach with the requirements of completing assigned mission or task, avoiding obstacle/restricted-areas, minimizing threat exposure level, considering the dynamic and communication constraints of the UAVs and avoiding collision. All these requirements and objectives are quantified and prioritized to facilitate the development of guidance algorithms that can be executed in real-time. The strategies consist of a set of "decision states", which contain rules to determine how the host UAV should move by generating heading and speed signals. Cooperation of multiple UAVs is modeled by minimizing a cost function, which is constructed based on the level of threat exposure for each UAV and distance of each UAV relative to the target. This improves the performance of the system in the terms of increasing the total area of coverage of the sensors onboard the UAVs, increasing the flexibility of the UAVs to search for better trajectories in terms of obstacle/restricted-area avoidance and threat exposure minimization, and improving the estimation by providing additional sources of measurement. Finally, the performances of the algorithms are evaluated in a MATLAB/Simulink (c) based simulation environment, which includes the dynamics of each vehicle involved, the models of sensor measurement and data communication with different sampling rates, and the discrete execution of the algorithms. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms successfully generates the trajectories that satisfy the given mission objectives and requirements.

  8. Have Adversary Missiles Become a Revolution in Military Affairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    including maneuverable reentry vehicle and early-release submunitions); midcourse and terminal guidance ; solid fuel; longer ranges; mobility; site...NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Institute (AFRI),Air and Space Power Journal,155...System guidance , greater warhead lethality, extended ranges, improved mobility, and onboard and standoff countermeasures. These weapons were supported

  9. Agent-Based Computing in Distributed Adversarial Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    agents, P3 represents games with 3 agents; value of BF represents the branching factors for the agents in fixed order (each digit for one agent...and M. Wooldridge. Cooperation, knowledge, and time: Alternating-time temporal epistemic logic and its applications. Studia Logica , 75(1):125–157

  10. The deconstruction of safety arguments through adversarial counter-argument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, James M. [BAE Systems Systems Engineering Innovation Centre (SEIC), University of Loughborough (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: J.M.Armstrong@lboro.ac.uk; Paynter, Stephen E. [MBDA UK Ltd, Filton, Bristol (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.paynter@mbda.co.uk

    2007-11-15

    The project Deconstructive Evaluation of Risk In Dependability Arguments and Safety Cases (DERIDASC) has recently experimented with techniques borrowed from literary theory as safety case analysis techniques [Armstrong. Danger: Derrida at work. Interdiscipl Sci Rev 2003;28(2):83-94. ; Armstrong J, Paynter S. Safe systems: construction, destruction, and deconstruction. In: Redmill F, Anderson T, editors. Proceedings of the 11th safety critical systems symposium, Bristol, UK. Berlin: Springer; 2003. p. 62-76. ISBN:1-85233-696-X. ]. This paper introduces our high-level framework for 'deconstructing' safety arguments. Our approach is quite general and should be applicable to different types of safety argumentation framework. As one example, we outline how the approach would work in the context of the Goal Structure Notation (GSN)

  11. Computational Modeling of Cultural Dimensions in Adversary Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    sons of soil” and contraband- financed civil war types last longer than other types (coups/popular revolutions, anti-colonial wars, and wars in...University of California Press. [122] Cioffi-Revilla, C., and M. I. Midlarsky. 2004. Highest-magnitude warfare: Power laws, scaling, and fractals in the...Terrorism: An Agent-Based Approach.” Chaos, Solitons & Fractals 20. 1 (April 2004): 63-68. [176] Levis, A. H. “Executable Models of Decision

  12. Intelligent Adversary Risk Analysis: A Bioterrorism Risk Management Model (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-20

    Waterborne Pathogens • Lassa Fever • Other Rickettsias • Bacteria • Bunyaviruses • Rabies • Diarrheagenic E.coli • Hantaviruses • Prions* • Pathogenic...pseudomallei Emerging infectious disease threats such as Nipah virus and additional hantaviruses. • Coxiella burnetii (Q fever ) • Clostridium...Chlamydia psittaci (Psittacosis) • Variola major (smallpox) and other related pox viruses • Tickborne hemorrhagic fever viruses • Ricin

  13. A First-cut Concept Map: The Irregular Adversary (Insurgent)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    by the Minister of National Defence, 2012 © Sa Majesté la Reine (en droit du Canada), telle que représentée par le ministre de la Défense nationale...Hoffman, R. (2008). Concept mapping and its applications. Report to the QinetiQ Ltd on the Project “ Critiquing in IO, EBA and Intelligence Analysis No

  14. A5: Automated Analysis of Adversarial Android Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-03

    phones and tablets has surged dramatically over the past couple of years; this trend has been particularly pronounced for Android devices, that now...design, allowing wholesale replacement of components in favor of newer, better performing options. Any sandbox implementation for Android must be aware...privacy monitoring on smartphones . In OSDI 2010. [11] W. Enck, D. Octeau, P. McDaniel, and S. Chaudhuri. A Study of Android Application Security. In

  15. Cooperative Control of Distributed Autonomous Vehicles in Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-14

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , March 2006. Computation and control language programming environment: Design...to Nash equilibria”, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , March 2005. Differential games with probabilistic models: Many representations of...Accepted for publication, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 2006. Language Evolution: This work is indirectly related to the problem of consensus.

  16. The Effect of Adversary Unmanned Aerial Systems on the US Concept of Air Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-04

    campaign. Intensity of the German V-weapon Threat: Adolf Hitler’s Motivation Adolf Hitler had an infatuation with highly technical, revolutionary, and...warfare. One of these secret endeavors was the V- weapons program. Although initially Hitler may have had a more glamorous inclination behind the weapons...and military historian Sir John Keegan helps paint a picture of the V-weapons’ impact and the effects Hitler hoped to achieve: The V-1 was a

  17. Adversarial Collaboration Decision-Making: An Overview of Social Quantum Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    in the social learning theory model (classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and modeling) occurs outside of awareness, indicating that it may be...prices (Lawless & Castelao, 2001); it combines social learning theory and dissonance theory (cooperation employs K, but competition is required to

  18. 29 CFR 102.143 - “Adversary adjudication” defined; entitlement to award; eligibility for award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; eligibility for award. 102.143 Section 102.143 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS... Marketing Act (12 U.S.C. 1141j(a)) with not more than 500 employees; and (5) Any other partnership, corporation, association, unit of local government, or public or private organization with a net worth of...

  19. Violent Systems: Defeating Terrorists, Insurgents, and Other Non-State Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Zapatista National Liberation Army ( EZLN ) of Chiapas, Mexico, emerged out of dire socioeconomic conditions as well as a popular perception that...Zapatistas were politically ignored. According the EZLN leader, Subcomandante Marcos, “the modern state cannot be oligarchic in the sense of excluding

  20. Peer-to-Peer Secure Multi-Party Numerical Computation Facing Malicious Adversaries

    CERN Document Server

    Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny; Pinkas, Benny

    2009-01-01

    We propose an efficient framework for enabling secure multi-party numerical computations in a Peer-to-Peer network. This problem arises in a range of applications such as collaborative filtering, distributed computation of trust and reputation, monitoring and other tasks, where the computing nodes is expected to preserve the privacy of their inputs while performing a joint computation of a certain function. Although there is a rich literature in the field of distributed systems security concerning secure multi-party computation, in practice it is hard to deploy those methods in very large scale Peer-to-Peer networks. In this work, we try to bridge the gap between theoretical algorithms in the security domain, and a practical Peer-to-Peer deployment. We consider two security models. The first is the semi-honest model where peers correctly follow the protocol, but try to reveal private information. We provide three possible schemes for secure multi-party numerical computation for this model and identify a singl...

  1. Defending Tor from Network Adversaries: A Case Study of Network Path Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    we recreate the work of Augustin et al.[7]. We scraped Packet Clearing House7 and the Peering Database8 in February of 2014 creating a list of 732...user behaviors such as web search and webmail on a plausible daily schedule. Over the course of a week, this schedule re- sults in 2632 streams (i.e

  2. Robust Planning in Domains with Stochastic Outcomes, Adversaries, and Partial Observability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    representation theorem (this version is from Bazaraa et al. [1990]): Theorem 3.1.1. Any bounded polyhedron X ⊆ Rm has a finite set of extreme points...1962]. We focus on the application of this technique to the problem at hand, and refer the reader to Bazaraa et al. [1990] for a more general...algorithms [ Bazaraa et al., 1990, Hiriart-Urruty and Lemaréchal, 1993]. Motivation for the Double Oracle Algorithm The single oracle algorithm is

  3. Secure estimation and control for cyber-physical systems under adversarial attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Fawzi, Hamza; Diggavi, Suhas

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of today's critical infrastructure is supported by numerous feedback control loops and an attack on these control loops can have disastrous consequences. This is a major concern since modern control systems are becoming large and decentralized and thus more vulnerable to attacks. This paper is concerned with the estimation and control of linear systems when some of the sensors or actuators are corrupted by an attacker. In the first part we look at the estimation problem where we characterize the resilience of a system to attacks and study the possibility of increasing its resilience by a change of parameters. We then propose an efficient algorithm to estimate the state despite the attacks and we characterize its performance. Our approach is inspired from the areas of error-correction over the reals and compressed sensing. In the second part we consider the problem of designing output-feedback controllers that stabilize the system despite attacks. We show that a principle of separation betwee...

  4. Consensus of Multi-Agent Networks in the Presence of Adversaries Using Only Local Information

    CERN Document Server

    LeBlanc, Heath J; Sundaram, Shreyas; Koutsoukos, Xenofon

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of resilient consensus in the presence of misbehaving nodes. Although it is typical to assume knowledge of at least some nonlocal information when studying secure and fault-tolerant consensus algorithms, this assumption is not suitable for large-scale dynamic networks. To remedy this, we emphasize the use of local strategies to deal with resilience to security breaches. We study a consensus protocol that uses only local information and we consider worst-case security breaches, where the compromised nodes have full knowledge of the network and the intentions of the other nodes. We provide necessary and sufficient conditions for the normal nodes to reach consensus despite the influence of the malicious nodes under different threat assumptions. These conditions are stated in terms of a novel graph-theoretic property referred to as network robustness.

  5. Return of the Boss Problem: Competing Online against a Non-adaptive Adversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldórsson, Magnús M.; Shachnai, Hadas

    We follow the travails of Enzo the baker, Orsino the oven man, and Beppe the planner. Their situation have a common theme: They know the input, in the form of a sequence of items, and they are not computationally constrained. Their issue is that they don't know in advance the time of reckoning, i.e. when their boss might show up, when they will be measured in terms of their progress on the prefix of the input sequence seen so far. Their goal is therefore to find a particular solution whose size on any prefix of the known input sequence is within best possible performance guarantees.

  6. The Scoring of Integrative Complexity as a Tool in Forecasting Adversary Intentions: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    périodiques de violence, sanctionnées par le gouvernement , contre des opposants politiques (Zimbabwe), et le lancement par une organisation ou ses...n’interviendrait pas. Au Zimbabwe, les faibles cotes CI attribuées au porte-parole du gouvernement correspondaient aux recrudescences des périodes violentes et les...manifestations périodiques de violence, sanctionnées par le gouvernement , contre des opposants politiques (Zimbabwe), et le lancement par une

  7. Adversaries and Allies: Rival National Suffrage Groups and the 1882 Nebraska Woman Suffrage Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    In September 1882, Nebraska was the setting for a significant moment in the history of the United States women's rights movement: the two rival suffrage organizations, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) and the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), both held their annual conventions in Omaha. The alliance of the AWSA and the NWSA…

  8. Assessing and Minimizing Adversarial Risk in a Nuclear Material Transportation Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    GNF Global Nuclear Fuel – Americas, LLC HAZMAT hazardous material kg kilogram km kilometer LWR light water reactor MWt megawatt thermal MOX mixed-oxide...Fuel Cycle Facilities Uranium Fuel Fabrication Gaseous Diffusion Enrichment Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Uranium Hexafluoride Conversion MOX Fuel...manipulate for purposes of demonstration. The methods also apply to other transportation subnetworks, such as shipping enriched uranium, mixed-oxide ( MOX

  9. Vision-Based Autonomous Sensor-Tasking in Uncertain Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    registration technique with an applica- tion to stereo vision. Proceedings of Imaging Understanding Workshop, pages 121–130, 1981. [17] S. P. Meyn, A...forecast activities, and analyze complex scenes with multiple interacting entities. Specific applications include autonomous aerial surveillance...Specific applications include autonomous aerial surveillance systems that cover broad areas of military operations, camera security sys- tems that cover

  10. Confronting Emergent Nuclear-Armed Regional Adversaries: Prospects for Neutralization, Strategies for Escalation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    policy which the availability of nuclear weapons has rendered obsolete.” Hans J. Morgenthau , “The Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy,” American...pubs/monographs/MG614.html Morgenthau , Hans J., “The Four Paradoxes of Nuclear Strategy,” The American Political Science Review, Vol. 58, No. 1, March

  11. Research Directions in Remote Detection of Covert Tactical Adversarial Intent of Individuals in Asymmetric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    physiological indicators. For example, sociopaths may be emotionally numb. Further, there could be possible links to religious fanaticism and the...compounds (salivary amylase or cortisol in the mouth or in the breath). Laser-induced fluorescence, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), and

  12. Interaction of Language, Culture and Cognition in Group Dynamics for Understanding the Adversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    the following ways: a. Absolute word choices – use of positive terms in reference to ingroup and less positive terms or negative terms for outgroup...14 Prominent Sufi Masters wrote their poetry in Persian. The influence of the Persian language, which does not

  13. Sistema penal acusatorio en Veracruz/Adversarial criminal system in Veracruz

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Alberto Pérez Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    El estudio y comprensión del nuevo Código de Procedimientos Penales de Veracruz resulta ineludible, en virtud de las nítidas diferencias existentes entre las figuras jurídicas que contiene el actual ordenamiento, en comparación con el anterior. Es preciso sistematizar, describir y analizar la estructura del sistema penal acusatorio, a efecto de estar en condiciones de evaluar y, en su caso, proponer las mejoras al sistema en cuestión. El contenido esquemático y sustancial del código, la visió...

  14. On Modeling of Adversary Behavior and Defense for Survivability of Military MANET Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    hoc network (MANET) typically comprising sensor-carried human actors, vehicles , or robots assembled together for executing a specific mission. Our...Evaluation, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 89-112, 1998. [28] I. R. Chen and N. Verma, “Simulation study of a class of autonomous host-centric mobility prediction...USA, Sept. 2012, pp. 1-6. [35] I. R. Chen, J. Guo, and F. Bao, "Trust Management for SOA- based IoT and Its Application to Service Composition," IEEE

  15. Secure and Robust IPV6 Autoconfiguration Protocol For Mobile Adhoc Networks Under Strong Adversarial Model

    CERN Document Server

    Slimane, Zohra; Feham, Mohamed; Taleb-Ahmed, Abdelmalik

    2011-01-01

    Automatic IP address assignment in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) enables nodes to obtain routable addresses without any infrastructure. Different protocols have been developed throughout the last years to achieve this service. However, research primarily focused on correctness, efficiency and scalability; much less attention has been given to the security issues. The lack of security in the design of such protocols opens the possibility of many real threats leading to serious attacks in potentially hostile environments. Recently, few schemes have been proposed to solve this problem, but none of them has brought satisfactory solutions. Auto-configuration security issues are still an open problem. In this paper, a robust and secure stateful IP address allocation protocol for standalone MANETs is specified and evaluated within NS2. Our solution is based on mutual authentication, and a fully distributed Autoconfiguration and CA model, in conjunction with threshold cryptography. By deploying a new concept of joi...

  16. BEHAVIOR AND CONSCIOUSNESS. HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF THE ADVERSARY ALTERNATIVES IN THE BEGINNINGS OF THE SCIENTIFIC PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS GARCÍA-VEGA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The word behavior has a reduccionist origin and meaning, the later has been commonly assumed since the mecanicistinterpretation of organic movement in Descartes, La Mettrie, Séchenov and Pávlov until nowadays. Watson continueswith this tendency making it the starting point of his psychology and, in fact, due to the category he studies, he will callhis school behaviorism.In 1924 Vygostky refuses to take this reduccionist and mecanicist model from reactology and reflexology and claims forpsychology the need of taking conscience into account, understanding conscience not as the movement of a machinethat reacts to a stimular situation, but as the dialectic activity of material human brain, that has reached its highestdegree of development.

  17. The United States and Iraq’s Shi’ite Clergy: Partners or Adversaries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    time of this writing, Sistani has consistently refused to meet with U.S. offi cials, including U.S. administrator Paul Bremmer.43 He 14 apparently...Jockeying for Shiite Hearts,” Chicago Tribune, May 1, 2003, internet. 56. Catherine Philp , “Cleric Raises Shai Militia to Defend Faith and Defy America

  18. Remote Detection of Covert Tactical Adversarial Intent of Individuals in Asymmetric Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    disconnectivity and a willingness to commit violence include aggression, impulsivity, autism , post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), unattractiveness...psychological traits of interest (PTSD, autism , antisocial behavior, embracing violence, indifference to human death, etc.) could be measured. One...identification (e.g., man, woman vs. child; car vs. truck; dog vs. horse ), recognition (e.g., John vs. Richard; Toyota vs. Honda), localization (x, y, and z

  19. Coercive Nuclear Campaigns in the 21st Century: Understanding Adversary Incentives and Options for Nuclear Escalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Noriega ,  Slobodan...United   States   conquered  Panama  and  arrested   its   leader,  Manuel   Noriega .     For  most  Americans,   this...short  war   is   forgotten.   For   Noriega ,   it   triggered   a   calamitous   reversal   of   fortune:  

  20. Study of Adversarial and Defensive Components in an Experimental Machinery Control Systems Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    GNU Radio , iPDC, PMU Simulator, Saleae Logic, and Termineter). These tools enhance the vulnerability identification and security assessment of energy...Name INL Kali SamuraiSTFU Developer System(s) OpenDNP3 x Automatak Cross-platform Energy Sector Tools GNU Radio x Eric Blossom / GNU Project...code, Revision Number, as well as the Device IP. https://github.com/digitalbond/Redpoint GNU Radio Eric Blossom / GNU Project Cross

  1. SECURE AND ROBUST IPV6 AUTOCONFIGURATION PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE ADHOC NETWORKS UNDER STRONG ADVERSARIAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohra Slimane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Automatic IP address assignment in Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs enables nodes to obtainroutable addresses without any infrastructure. Different protocols have been developed throughout thelast years to achieve this service. However, research primarily focused on correctness, efficiency andscalability; much less attention has been given to the security issues. The lack of security in the design ofsuch protocols opens the possibility of many real threats leading to serious attacks in potentially hostileenvironments. Recently, few schemes have been proposed to solve this problem, but none of them hasbrought satisfactory solutions. Auto-configuration security issues are still an open problem. In this paper,a robust and secure stateful IP address allocation protocol for standalone MANETs is specified andevaluated within NS2. Our solution is based on mutual authentication, and a fully distributed Autoconfigurationand CA model, in conjunction with threshold cryptography. By deploying a new concept ofjoint IP address and public key certificate, we show that, instead of earlier approaches, our solutionsolves the problem of all possible attacks associated with dynamic IP address assignment in MANETs.The resulting protocol incurs low latency and control overhead.

  2. Robust Feedback Control of Reconfigurable Multi-Agent Systems in Uncertain Adversarial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-09

    methods in distributed settings and the design of numerical methods to properly compute their trajectories. We have generate results showing that...most exciting contributions have been on distributed robust estimation with performance guarantees and hybrid methods for the analysis and design of...recognized by AACC as a finalist for the Best Student Paper Computation at the 2014 American and Control Conference in Portland. The other important

  3. China’s Rise: Regional Stabilizer or U.S. Adversary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    librarians who have shown eagerness to help and provided the necessary material and resources for the completion of this thesis. I warmly thank...Army overran the Baltic states of Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania. After demanding parts of Finland , the Soviet’s actions helped start the Finnish

  4. On the Formal Modeling of Games of Language and Adversarial Argumentation : A Logic-Based Artificial Intelligence Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson Lundström, Jenny S. Z.

    2009-01-01

    Argumentation is a highly dynamical and dialectical process drawing on human cognition. Successful argumentation is ubiquitous to human interaction. Comprehensive formal modeling and analysis of argumentation presupposes a dynamical approach to the following phenomena: the deductive logic notion, the dialectical notion and the cognitive notion of justified belief. For each step of an argumentation these phenomena form networks of rules which determine the propositions to be allowed to make se...

  5. El principio acusatorio en el modelo adversarial colombiano. Análisis en torno a su aplicación.

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz González, Ana Milena

    2014-01-01

    El trabajo se ocupa de analizar cómo en el sistema penal de corte acusatorio vigente el dogma del principio acusatorio carece de estructura aplicable; muestra cómo, con extrañeza, se emplea ese postulado pese a que está concebido de cara a instituciones que, justamente, hacían parte del sistema inquisitivo derogado. Así las cosas, se busca poner en evidencia de qué manera tales matices terminaron por desnaturalizar un diseño que prometía solucionar los problemas más importantes del derecho pr...

  6. Distributed Learning, Extremum Seeking, and Model-Free Optimization for the Resilient Coordination of Multi-Agent Adversarial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-07

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0314 Distributed learning , extremum seeking, and model-free optimization for the resilient coordination of multi-agent...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information . Send comments regarding

  7. [Max Planck--an adversary of Christianity? The debate about Planck's attitude towards religion after World War II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Gebhard

    2012-03-01

    The article discusses a debate which unfolded in the early 1950s and 1960s between East German Marxist philosophers and historians of science and West German theologians and scientists. The subject treated was the attitude towards religion of famous physicist Max Planck who had died a few years earlier, in 1947. The article analyses the different positions of the contributors, mainly with a view to developing a categorial framework usable in descriptions and analyses of the religious attitudes of natural scientists. Moreover the different stages of the debate are outlined in order to exhibit their connections to the larger historical context, i.e. the unfolding of the cold war. In the light of this the debate can be regarded as a religious or ideological war, albeit a cold one, on German soil, which fortunately did not escalate into a hot conflict. It ended, as can be illustrated in a late contribution to the debate, with the collapse of the GDR in 1989 or shortly thereafter.

  8. El aspecto científico de la trilogía “ministerio público-policía-peritos” en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en México/The scientific aspect of the trilogy "public-police-expert ministry" in the new adversarial criminal process, and oral adversarial court in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The last June 18, 2008 the Decree amending Articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 are amended was published; (the fractions XXI and XXIII of Article 73, Section VII of Article 115 and section XIII paragraph B of Article 123 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, giving rise to the Constitutional reform of criminal justice, emerging as basic expectations: total transformation of the criminal justice system; effectively guarantee the validity of the “due process” in criminal matters restore confidence in the criminal justice system and its institutions doing research and efficient prosecution of crimes, the accused is greater assurances defense thereby ensuring the protection, support and participation of victims and injured, and safeguard the principles governing a Democratic-State Constitutional Law.

  9. Adjuncts or adversaries to shared decision-making? Applying the Integrative Model of behavior to the role and design of decision support interventions in healthcare interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fishbein Martin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of literature documents the efficacy of decision support interventions (DESI in helping patients make informed clinical decisions. DESIs are frequently described as an adjunct to shared decision-making between a patient and healthcare provider, however little is known about the effects of DESIs on patients' interactional behaviors-whether or not they promote the involvement of patients in decisions. Discussion Shared decision-making requires not only a cognitive understanding of the medical problem and deliberation about the potential options to address it, but also a number of communicative behaviors that the patient and physician need to engage in to reach the goal of making a shared decision. Theoretical models of behavior can guide both the identification of constructs that will predict the performance or non-performance of specific behaviors relevant to shared decision-making, as well as inform the development of interventions to promote these specific behaviors. We describe how Fishbein's Integrative Model (IM of behavior can be applied to the development and evaluation of DESIs. There are several ways in which the IM could be used in research on the behavioral effects of DESIs. An investigator could measure the effects of an intervention on the central constructs of the IM - attitudes, normative pressure, self-efficacy, and intentions related to communication behaviors relevant to shared decision-making. However, if one were interested in the determinants of these domains, formative qualitative research would be necessary to elicit the salient beliefs underlying each of the central constructs. Formative research can help identify potential targets for a theory-based intervention to maximize the likelihood that it will influence the behavior of interest or to develop a more fine-grained understanding of intervention effects. Summary Behavioral theory can guide the development and evaluation of DESIs to increase the likelihood that these will prepare patients to play a more active role in the decision-making process. Self-reported behavioral measures can reduce the measurement burden for investigators and create a standardized method for examining and reporting the determinants of communication behaviors necessary for shared decision-making.

  10. Adjuncts or adversaries to shared decision-making? Applying the Integrative Model of behavior to the role and design of decision support interventions in healthcare interactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frosch, D.; Legare, F.; Fishbein, M.; Elwyn, G.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature documents the efficacy of decision support interventions (DESI) in helping patients make informed clinical decisions. DESIs are frequently described as an adjunct to shared decision-making between a patient and healthcare provider, however little is

  11. Validation of Rational Deterrence Theory: Analysis of U.S. Government and Adversary Risk Propensity and Relative Emphasis on Gain or Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    conceptually how these ideas fit together to support elicitation of various actor risk profiles and help populate the Deterrence Efficacy Model...equilibrium solution must be derived to solve a game with multiple pure strategy equilibria. Husband Fights Ballet Wife Fights (2 , 3) (1 , 1... Ballet (1 , 1) (3 , 2) Figure 9. Battle of the Sexes In this case, the payoffs reflect the players’ preferences. Each gains maximum utility

  12. Secure Euclidean distance computation in presence of malicious adversaries%恶意模型下计算欧几里德距离的协议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨得新; 刘力铭; 杨波

    2015-01-01

    安全多方计算(MPC)是一个允许多个参与方在保持各自输入隐私的前提下联合计算一个函数.Yao和Goldreich等人(STOC'87)开创性的工作表明,存在陷门置换的前提下,任何一个函数都存在安全多方计算协议,并给出了安全多方计算的一个通用解决方案,但是该方案由于效率问题而不实用.因此,Goldreich同时指出需要针对特定问题提出特定的安全多方计算协议.提出了一个新的基于分布式EI Gamal加密的计算两个向量欧几里德距离的安全协议,并在混合模型下给出了协议的安全性证明.与原来的方案比较,该协议的计算和通信复杂度都较低,适用于计算和通信能力都有限的应用环境.%Secure Multiparty Computation(MPC)deals with protocols that allow a group of agents to jointly compute a function of their individual private inputs. Nothing is revealed except the value of function in the end. Even though Yao and Goldreich et al.(STOC'87)have already proposed the general solution of any function, the general MPC has been proven to be inefficient and impractical. It is necessary to construct special MPC protocol for special problem. In this paper, a new scheme which can evaluate the Euclidean distance between two vectors is proposed. This scheme is based on distributed EI Gamal encryption, and is proven secure in the hybrid model. Compared with the previous schemes, this scheme has lower computation and communication complexity. It can be suitable to the circumstances which are computation and communication limited.

  13. How Is U.S. Space Power Jeopardized By An Adversary’s Exploitation, Technological Developments, Employment and Engagement of Laser Antisatellite Weapons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Through the Looking Glass (Global...Space Operations: Through The Looking Glass (Global Area Strike System),” AF 2025 Study (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air War College, 1996), 48; Lt Col...Crawford, "Space Operations: Through the Looking Glass (Global Area Strike System)," 27. 4 Ibid. 5 Hans Mark, "Warfare in Space," 1984, in

  14. Unexpected Turns: The Aesthetic, the Pathetic and the Adversarial in the Long Durée of Art’s Histories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Pollock

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a conference organized at the University of Birmingham in 2012, I was invited to reflect upon the current situation in Art History that is posited as being ‘After the New Art History’. What is this after-ness? Succession? Supersession? Replacement? Exhaustion? Erasure? Fashionability? Dare we ask what kind of ‘killing’ of the past or of Oedipal Feminist Mothers and Marxists Fathers is going on here? Or does this indicate simply that we need new directions in our discipline just to keep it alive? There is certainly a feeling around that we are in a period of transition. Former certainties about the tendencies within the discipline of art history have melted. Is this a sign of our condition as Liquid Modernity? There is a risk, however, of casting the recent past as being ‘over’, to be viewed nostalgically, or gratefully cast into the dustbin of has-been histories so that we can get back to business as normal or find new pastures exciting because they are different. Before I acquiesce to such a trend for newness per se, I want to reconsider what is being said to have come before and now is defined as being over. To do so, I shall argue for an understanding of the long-term nature of any one intervention seeking radically to change the ways we study art and the image, past and present. Equally, I suggest that such long-term projects are themselves subject to historical change, shifting in sensitive response to altered conditions and changed priorities, but also registering their own effects and opening new avenues of analysis. Finally this article performs a reading of the call for papers for the conference in order to tease out critical misrepresentations of the past that we are now supposed to come after. Displacing the model of old and new with notions of parallel trajectories and multiple settlements in the expanding, historically shifting but also deeply structured ‘landscape’ of the discipline, I propose as less phallic model of a field with many threads contributing to its complex engagements with art, with visuality, with subjectivity and with their forms of material and symbolic interaction.

  15. Defending Against Opposed Patterns of Resistant: Can Past Cultural Lessons in Armed Conflict Help U.S. Identify, Defend, Adapt, or Exploit Notions of Resistant With New Adversaries Like ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    deliberate, calculated strategy” and serves to justify their faith.14 ISIS promotes this type of sexual violence and slavery in their literature...opposition. They also use sexual violence as a tool of coercion. However, these initial generalizations miss the underlining reasons and organization...with Sharia law as families of infidels.13 This sexual violence “isn’t just a physical indulgence or a manifestation of battlefield brutality; it’s a

  16. “La Inclusión del sistema acusatorio adversarial en el Estado de Michoacán como alternativa para mejorar la calidad de justicia penal.”

    OpenAIRE

    Zizumbo Zacarias, Carlos Alberto

    2011-01-01

    En el presente trabajo de investigación se ha considerado destacar la problemática de la función judicial de nuestra época, la que ha asumido una creciente complejidad, debido al excesivo formalismo con el que se solucionan los conflictos jurídicos sometidos a la jurisdicción de las autoridades encargadas de administrar justicia.

  17. Understanding an Adversary’s Strategic and Operational Calculus: A Late Cold War Case Study with 21st Century Applicability U.S. Views on Soviet Navy Strategy and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    38  Sources ............................................................................................ 40  The disinformation issue...Trusting that the sources examined represented real Soviet thinking, not “ disinformation ” aimed at Western analysts. As Dr. James McConnell...example of the types of sources used, taken from a representative piece of CNA Soviet open-source analysis of the 1980s. The disinformation issue

  18. Secure and self-stabilizing clock synchronization in sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Larsson, A.; Schiller, E.M.; Tsigas, P.

    2007-01-01

    In sensor networks, correct clocks have arbitrary starting offsets and nondeterministic fluctuating skews. We consider an adversary that aims at tampering with the clock synchronization by intercepting messages, replaying intercepted messages (after the adversary's choice of delay), and capturing no

  19. Probabilistic Anonymity and Admissible Schedulers

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia, Flavio D; Sokolova, Ana

    2007-01-01

    When studying safety properties of (formal) protocol models, it is customary to view the scheduler as an adversary: an entity trying to falsify the safety property. We show that in the context of security protocols, and in particular of anonymizing protocols, this gives the adversary too much power; for instance, the contents of encrypted messages and internal computations by the parties should be considered invisible to the adversary. We restrict the class of schedulers to a class of admissible schedulers which better model adversarial behaviour. These admissible schedulers base their decision solely on the past behaviour of the system that is visible to the adversary. Using this, we propose a definition of anonymity: for all admissible schedulers the identity of the users and the observations of the adversary are independent stochastic variables. We also develop a proof technique for typical cases that can be used to proof anonymity: a system is anonymous if it is possible to `exchange' the behaviour of two...

  20. Workshop on Planning and Learning in Multi- Agent Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Mine the data •  Learn plans for mul7-­‐agent adversarial environments •  How people communicate to achieve •  Can you improve Army’s opera7ons – comms...between people , TTPs, etc., etc. 19 D How to deal with intelligent adversaries, Day 1 Group leader: Mary Ann Fields How to deal with intelligent...with intelligent adversaries, Day 2 Group leader: Ed Durfee Characterizing the Adversary •  Sta3c or stupid •  Stochas3c •  Adap3ve/Dynamic •  Reflec3ve

  1. Random Oracles in a Quantum World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boneh, D.; Dagdelen, O.; Fischlin, M.; Lehmann, D.; Schaffner, C.; Zhandry, M.

    2012-01-01

    The interest in post-quantum cryptography - classical systems that remain secure in the presence of a quantum adversary - has generated elegant proposals for new cryptosystems. Some of these systems are set in the random oracle model and are proven secure relative to adversaries that have classical

  2. Adaptive versus Non-Adaptive Security of Multi-Party Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Security analysis of multi-party cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarial settings: In the non-adaptive setting the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...

  3. Sessions and Separability in Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Marco; Guttman, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Despite much work on sessions and session types in non- adversarial contexts, session-like behavior given an active adversary has not received an adequate definition and proof methods. We provide a syntactic property that guarantees that a protocol has session-respecting executions. Any uncomprom...

  4. Resolving Disputes in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Kenneth R.; Schrant, Nancy E.

    Because of the increasing incidence of disputes in schools, educators need more knowledge about methods of dispute resolution. The adversary system of resolving disputes, on which the U.S. judicial system is founded, assumes that truth is best found through a struggle between two opposing parties. In the adversary system, due process plays a…

  5. Expanding Combat Power Through Military Cyberpower Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-02

    usually cybercrime -related, automated, and take the form of “smash and grab” operations where the adversary has no interest in maintaining persistent...access to these high value systems to adversaries seeking targeted access (e.g., nexus of cybercrime and state-sponsored cyber operations). Although

  6. Multiparty Computations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziembowski, Stefan

    papers [1,2]. In [1] we assume that the adversary can corrupt any set from a given adversary structure. In this setting we study a problem of doing efficient VSS and MPC given an access to a secret sharing scheme (SS). For all adversary structures where VSS is possible at all, we show that, up...... an impossibility result indicating that a similar equivalence does not hold for Multiparty Computation (MPC): we show that even if protocols are given black-box access for free to an idealized secret sharing scheme secure for the access structure in question, it is not possible to handle all relevant access...... adversary structure. We propose new VSS and MPC protocols that are substantially more efficient than the ones previously known. Another contribution of [2] is an attack against a Weak Secret Sharing Protocol (WSS) of [3]. The attack exploits the fact that the adversary is adaptive. We present this attack...

  7. Multiple-access Network Information-flow and Correction Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Dikaliotis, Theodoros K; Jaggi, Sidharth; Vyetrenko, Svitlana; Yao, Hongyi; Effros, Michelle; Kliewer, Joerg; Erez, Elona

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the multiple-access multicast error-correction scenario over a packetized network with $z$ malicious edge adversaries. The network has min-cut $m$ and packets of length $\\ell$, and each sink demands all information from the set of sources $\\sources$. The capacity region is characterized for both a "side-channel" model (where sources and sinks share some random bits that are secret from the adversary) and an "omniscient" adversarial model (where no limitations on the adversary's knowledge are assumed). In the "side-channel" adversarial model, the use of a secret channel allows higher rates to be achieved compared to the "omniscient" adversarial model, and a polynomial-complexity capacity-achieving code is provided. For the "omniscient" adversarial model, two capacity-achieving constructions are given: the first is based on random subspace code design and has complexity exponential in $\\ell m$, while the second uses a novel multiple-field-extension technique and has $O(\\ell m^{|\\sources|})$ ...

  8. Actively Secure Two-Party Evaluation of Any Quantum Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dupuis, Frédéric; Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Salvail, Louis

    2012-01-01

    We provide the first two-party protocol allowing Alice and Bob to evaluate privately even against active adversaries any completely positive, trace-preserving map , given as a quantum circuit, upon their joint quantum input state . Our protocol leaks no more to any active adversary than an ideal ...... functionality for provided Alice and Bob have the cryptographic resources for active secure two-party classical computation. Our protocol is constructed from the protocol for the same task secure against specious adversaries presented in [4]....

  9. Superposition Attacks on Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Funder, Jakob Løvstad; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2011-01-01

    Attacks on classical cryptographic protocols are usually modeled by allowing an adversary to ask queries from an oracle. Security is then defined by requiring that as long as the queries satisfy some constraint, there is some problem the adversary cannot solve, such as compute a certain piece...... of information. In this paper, we introduce a fundamentally new model of quantum attacks on classical cryptographic protocols, where the adversary is allowed to ask several classical queries in quantum superposition. This is a strictly stronger attack than the standard one, and we consider the security...

  10. Material control system simulator program reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    A description is presented of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts. Although MCSS may be used independently in the design or analysis of material handling and processing systems, it has been tailored toward the determination of material accountability and the response of material control systems to adversary action sequences.

  11. Estado e mercado: adversários ou aliados no processo de implementação da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição? Elementos para um debate sobre medidas de regulamentação State and market: adversaries or allies in the implementation of the National Food and Nutrition Policy? Some reflections on regulation measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Rizzolo de Oliveira Pinheiro

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação e a nutrição constituem requisitos básicos para a promoção e a proteção da saúde, possibilitando a afirmação plena do potencial de crescimento e desenvolvimento humano, com qualidade de vida e cidadania. As mudanças na relação do Estado, sociedade civil e mercado têm trazido uma série de conseqüências sociais adversas, especialmente no campo da saúde e nutrição. Este artigo tem como propósito provocar algumas reflexões relativas à necessidade de pactuação entre Estado, sociedade e mercado para a efetivação de medidas capazes de atuar positivamente no controle da obesidade e conseqüentemente melhorar as condições de saúde e nutrição da população brasileira. Apresenta uma breve descrição de contexto histórico sobre política social no Brasil e seus reflexos específicos na temática de alimentação e nutrição; identifica aspectos políticos principais para uma análise das diretrizes da Política Nacional de Alimentação e Nutrição; destaca o fortalecimento de medidas de regulamentação como estratégia de enfrentamento do problema de excesso de peso / obesidade na sociedade, identificando suas raízes a partir do modo de viver urbano, globalizado e neoliberal das ultimas décadas, e, por fim, sugere elementos para enriquecer esse debate. Medidas de regulamentação parecem poder influenciar positivamente nas ações de promoção da saúde, pois estabelecem limites e um conjunto de critérios para mediar as relações entre sociedade e mercado, além de refletir o apoio e a proteção da saúde do cidadão como objetivo principal do Estado nesse processo.Food and nutrition constitute basic requirements for health promotion and protection, enabling the full expression of the human potential for growth and development, with quality of life and citizenship. Changes in the relationship between State, Civil Society, and the Market have brought several adverse social consequences, particularly in the health and nutrition field. This article intends to stimulate some reflections related to the need of an agreement between State, Civil Society and the Market for the accomplishment of measures that are able to contribute to obesity control and, as a consequence, to improve health and nutrition conditions of the Brazilian population. The article also presents a brief description of the historical context of social policies in Brazil and their specific consequences to food and nutrition matters; it identifies the main political aspects to analyze guidelines of the National Food and Nutrition Policy; it emphasizes the strengthening of regulation measures as a strategy to face the problem of excess of weight / obesity in society, identifying its roots in the urban, 'global' and neoliberal way of life of the last decades and, as a conclusion, it suggests more elements to enrich this debate. Regulation Measures seem to have a positive influence on health promotion actions by setting up the boundaries and criteria to mediate the relationship between Civil Society and the Market, besides reflecting the support and protection of the citizen's health as the main purpose of the State in this process.

  12. 15 CFR Supplement No. 1 to Part 766 - Guidance on Charging and Penalty Determinations in Settlement of Administrative Enforcement Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... settlement on the eve of an adversary hearing under § 766.13 are fewer, insofar as BIS has already expended... based on nuclear, biological, and chemical weapon proliferation, missile technology proliferation,...

  13. From Passive to Covert Security at Low Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Geisler, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2010-01-01

    Aumann and Lindell defined security against covert attacks, where the adversary is malicious, but is only caught cheating with a certain probability. The idea is that in many real-world cases, a large probability of being caught is sufficient to prevent the adversary from trying to cheat. In this......Aumann and Lindell defined security against covert attacks, where the adversary is malicious, but is only caught cheating with a certain probability. The idea is that in many real-world cases, a large probability of being caught is sufficient to prevent the adversary from trying to cheat....... In this paper, we show how to compile a passively secure protocol for honest majority into one that is secure against covert attacks, again for honest majority and catches cheating with probability 1/4. The cost of the modified protocol is essentially twice that of the original plus an overhead that only...

  14. Colon Cancer on The Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colon Cancer on the Rise Among Gen Xers, Millennials And an old adversary -- the obesity epidemic -- may ... their early 50s and younger -- Gen Xers and millennials -- are experiencing significant increases in colon and rectal ...

  15. Sustaining and Enhancing High OPTEMPO Performance of Soldiers in the Transformed Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    from superpower struggles initiated by large adversarial nations such as The Soviet Union . Today, emerging dominant nations and aggressive meta...time-to-exhaustion, maximal oxygen consumption, maximal blood lactate concentration, and neuromuscular power did not change in participants

  16. A Survey of Security of Multimodal Biometric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvarnsing G. Bhable

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A biometric system is essentially a pattern recognition system being used in adversarial environment. Since, biometric system like any conventional security system is exposed to malicious adversaries, who can manipulate data to make the system ineffective by compromising its integrity. Current theory and design methods of biometric systems do not take into account the vulnerability to such adversary attacks. Therefore, evaluation of classical design methods is an open problem to investigate whether they lead to design secure systems. In order to make biometric systems secure it is necessary to understand and evaluate the threats and to thus develop effective countermeasures and robust system designs, both technical and procedural, if necessary. Accordingly, the extension of theory and design methods of biometric systems is mandatory to safeguard the security and reliability of biometric systems in adversarial environments.

  17. Prospects for improved detection of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear threats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Craig R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hart, Brad [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Slezak, Thomas R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-07-31

    Acquisition and use of Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) weapons continue to be a major focus of concern form the security apparatus of nation states because of their potential for mass casualties when used by a determined adversary.

  18. 13 CFR 134.618 - How are awards paid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CASES BEFORE THE OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS Implementation of the Equal Access to Justice Act § 134... the adversary adjudication, or of the award, to the following address: Chief Financial Officer,...

  19. Information Assurance for Network-Centric Naval Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Executive Office for Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence PEO IWS Program Executive Office for Integrated Warfare Systems PHP ...are less than sufficiently tested, evaluated, and debugged , thereby providing sophisticated adversaries with the opportunity to exploit software

  20. Probabilistically Safe Vehicle Control in a Hostile Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Cizelj, Igor; Ding, Xu Chu; Lahijanian, Morteza; Pinto, Alessandro; Belta, Calin

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an approach to control a vehicle in a hostile environment with static obstacles and moving adversaries. The vehicle is required to satisfy a mission objective expressed as a temporal logic specification over a set of properties satisfied at regions of a partitioned environment. We model the movements of adversaries in between regions of the environment as Poisson processes. Furthermore, we assume that the time it takes for the vehicle to traverse in between two facets...

  1. Thutmose - Investigation of Machine Learning-Based Intrusion Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    experimentally induced adversarial data drift. The results of this work provide deep insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the studied...and the degree to which they were resistant and resilient to experimentally induced adversarial data drift. The results of this work provide deep ...used for model drift evaluation. 3.2.2.1 SuStorID. The first such system was SuStorID, an open-source host-based IDS for web services which uses

  2. The Sniper Attack: Anonymously Deanonymizing and Disabling the Tor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    ping-o-death. html. [40] S. Savage, N. Cardwell, D. Wetherall, and T. Anderson, “TCP Con- gestion Control with a Misbehaving Receiver,” ACM SIGCOMM CCR...forcing them to choose guard nodes in control of the adversary. Finally, we discuss defenses against the Sniper Attack that provably render the attack...in control of the adversary. Our attack thus imposes real, significant threats to Tor’s users,1 and we believe it constitutes the most devastating

  3. Material control system simulator user's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollstien, R.B.

    1978-01-24

    This report describes the use of a Material Control System Simulator (MCSS) program for determination of material accounting uncertainty and system response to particular adversary action sequences that constitute plausible material diversion attempts. The program is intended for use in situations where randomness, uncertainty, or interaction of adversary actions and material control system components make it difficult to assess safeguards effectiveness against particular material diversion attempts.

  4. Conflict and Security Indices: A Summary of Open-Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Original signed by Nada J. Pavlovic Nada J. Pavlovic Research Technologist, Adversarial Intent Section Approved by Original signed by Carol ...McCann Carol McCann Head, Adversarial Intent Section Approved for release by Original signed by K. C. Wulterkens K.C. Wulterkens For the Chair...van Tongeren, Executive Director, Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), The Netherlands Emeritus Professor Stuart Rees

  5. Increasing Uncertainty: The Dangers of Relying on Conventional Forces for Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-14

    Deterrence Theory Deterrence theory is beautiful in its simplicity. At its essence, the theory is a mili- tary strategy in which one power uses the...because it is a psychological function in the mind of the adversary. Consequently, success is difficult to predict or prove, and deficiencies may become...acceptable outcome.7 As mentioned above, at its core, deterrence is a psychological function. Under- standing the adversary, including his leadership

  6. An Identity- Based Key- Exchange Protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ya-juan; ZHU Yue-fei; HUANG Qiu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based key-exchange protocol using a bilinear map is proposed and it is proved SK-secure(session key secure) in the AM (authenticated links adversarial model)provided the BDDH (bilinear Diffie-Hellmen) assumption is correct. Then we apply the signature-based authenticator to our protocol and obtain an identity-Based key-exchange protocol that is SK-secure in the UM (unauthenticated links adversarial model) provided the BDDH assumption is correct.

  7. Secure Human-Computer Identification against Peeping Attacks (SecHCI): A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, SJ; Shum, HY

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on human-computer identification systems against peeping attacks, in which adversaries can observe (and even control) interactions between humans (provers) and computers (verifiers). Real cases on peeping attacks were reported by Ross J. Anderson ten years before. Fixed passwords are insecure to peeping attacks since adversaries can simply replay the observed passwords. Some identification techniques can be used to defeat peeping attacks, but auxiliary devices must be used ...

  8. Theory to Strategy: War Insight for the Strategic Soldier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Library Typography , New York, 1993, 162. 3 Additionally, these models may provide insights as to what an adversary may do depending on the nature of...11. 7 Carl Von Clausewitz, On War (edited and translated by Michael Howard and Peter Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 73...Paret), Everyman’s Library Typography , New York, 1993, 88. 8 common enemy. Minimizing the amount of allies an adversary has may also limit its

  9. An Adaptive Security Construct: Insurgency in Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    concept was later adapted for urban guerrilla conflict. See also Carlos Marighella, “Minimanual do guerrilheiro urbano ,” translated by Robert Moss...It represents an inherently competitive process in which “[s]trategic thinking is the art of outdoing an adversary, knowing that the adversary is...theory is a scientific method applied to this art ; the possible strategies of opposing players are “gamed” to provide a set of possible and likely

  10. After the First Shots: Managing Escalation in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    other words, withholding punishment —to induce comparable restraint from the adversary. Madelyn Creedon, the former Assistant Secretary of Defense...measures for reinforcing mutual restraint in the early phase of a confrontation, but these measures would quickly become infeasible if China did...Measured punishment and operations that deny adversary objectives could influence its perceptions about both the costs of escalation and continuing

  11. Optimal space-time attacks on system state estimation under a sparsity constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jingyang; Niu, Ruixin; Han, Puxiao

    2016-05-01

    System state estimation in the presence of an adversary that injects false information into sensor readings has attracted much attention in wide application areas, such as target tracking with compromised sensors, secure monitoring of dynamic electric power systems, secure driverless cars, and radar tracking and detection in the presence of jammers. From a malicious adversary's perspective, the optimal strategy for attacking a multi-sensor dynamic system over sensors and over time is investigated. It is assumed that the system defender can perfectly detect the attacks and identify and remove sensor data once they are corrupted by false information injected by the adversary. With this in mind, the adversary's goal is to maximize the covariance matrix of the system state estimate by the end of attack period under a sparse attack constraint such that the adversary can only attack the system a few times over time and over sensors. The sparsity assumption is due to the adversary's limited resources and his/her intention to reduce the chance of being detected by the system defender. This becomes an integer programming problem and its optimal solution, the exhaustive search, is intractable with a prohibitive complexity, especially for a system with a large number of sensors and over a large number of time steps. Several suboptimal solutions, such as those based on greedy search and dynamic programming are proposed to find the attack strategies. Examples and numerical results are provided in order to illustrate the effectiveness and the reduced computational complexities of the proposed attack strategies.

  12. A Theoretical Analysis: Physical Unclonable Functions and The Software Protection Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyanand, Rishab [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Solis, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) or Physical One Way Functions (P-OWFs) are physical systems whose responses to input stimuli (i.e., challenges) are easy to measure (within reasonable error bounds) but hard to clone. This property of unclonability is due to the accepted hardness of replicating the multitude of uncontrollable manufacturing characteristics and makes PUFs useful in solving problems such as device authentication, software protection, licensing, and certified execution. In this paper, we focus on the effectiveness of PUFs for software protection and show that traditional non-computational (black-box) PUFs cannot solve the problem against real world adversaries in offline settings. Our contributions are the following: We provide two real world adversary models (weak and strong variants) and present definitions for security against the adversaries. We continue by proposing schemes secure against the weak adversary and show that no scheme is secure against a strong adversary without the use of trusted hardware. Finally, we present a protection scheme secure against strong adversaries based on trusted hardware.

  13. 20,000 In League Under the Sea: Anonymous Communication, Trust, MLATs, and Undersea Cables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaggard Aaron D.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the effectiveness of correlation attacks against Tor, the censorship arms race, and observations of malicious relays in Tor, we propose that Tor users capture their trust in network elements using probability distributions over the sets of elements observed by network adversaries. We present a modular system that allows users to efficiently and conveniently create such distributions and use them to improve their security. To illustrate this system, we present two novel types of adversaries. First, we study a powerful, pervasive adversary that can compromise an unknown number of Autonomous System organizations, Internet Exchange Point organizations, and Tor relay families. Second, we initiate the study of how an adversary might use Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties (MLATs to enact surveillance. As part of this, we identify submarine cables as a potential subject of trust and incorporate data about these into our MLAT analysis by using them as a proxy for adversary power. Finally, we present preliminary experimental results that show the potential for our trust framework to be used by Tor clients and services to improve security.

  14. Quantum position verification in bounded-attack-frequency model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Liu, Bin; Wen, QiaoYan

    2016-11-01

    In 2011, Buhrman et al. proved that it is impossible to design an unconditionally secure quantum position verification (QPV) protocol if the adversaries are allowed to previously share unlimited entanglements. Afterwards, people started to design secure QPV protocols in practical settings, e.g. the bounded-storage model, where the adversaries' pre-shared entangled resources are supposed to be limited. Here we focus on another practical factor that it is very difficult for the adversaries to perform attack operations with unlimitedly high frequency. Concretely, we present a new kind of QPV protocols, called non-simultaneous QPV. And we prove the security of a specific non-simultaneous QPV protocol with the assumption that the frequency of the adversaries' attack operations is bounded, but no assumptions on their pre-shared entanglements or quantum storage. Actually, in our nonsimultaneous protocol, the information whether there comes a signal at present time is also a piece of command. It renders the adversaries "blind", that is, they have to execute attack operations with unlimitedly high frequency no matter whether a signal arrives, which implies the non-simultaneous QPV is also secure in the bounded-storage model.

  15. ON THE OFFENSE: USING CYBER WEAPONS TO INFLUENCE COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Fendley

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing recognition that cyber warfare is an important area of development for targeting and weaponeering, with far-reaching effects in national defense and economic security. The ability to conduct effective operations in cyberspace relies on a robust situational awareness of events occurring in both the physical and information domains, with an understanding of how they affect the cognitive domain of friendly, neutral, and adversary population sets. The dynamic nature of the battlefield complicates efforts to understand shifting adversary motivations and intentions. There are very few approaches, to date, that systematically evaluate the effects of the repertoire of cyber weapons on the cognitive, perceptual, and behavioral characteristics of the adversary. In this paper, we describe a software environment called Cognitive Cyber Weapon Selection Tool (CCWST that simulates a scenario involving cyber weaponry.This tool provides the capabilities to test weapons which may induce behavioral state changes in the adversaries. CCWST provides the required situational awareness to the Cyber Information Operations (IO planner to conduct intelligent weapon selection during weapon activation in order to induce the desired behavioral change in the perception of the adversary. Weapons designed to induce the cognitive state changes of deception, distraction, distrust and confusion were then tested empirically to evaluate the capabilities and expected cognitive state changes induced by these weapons. The results demonstrated that CCWST is a powerful environment within which to test and evaluate the impact of cyber weapons on influencing cognitive behavioral states during information processing.

  16. Between detection and neutralization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snell, Mark Kamerer; Green, Mary Wilson; Adams, Douglas Glenn; Pritchard, Daniel Allison

    2005-08-01

    Security system analytical performance analysis is generally based on the probability of system effectiveness. The probability of effectiveness is a function of the probabilities of interruption and neutralization. Interruption occurs if the response forces are notified in sufficient time to engage the adversary. Neutralization occurs if the adversary attack is defeated after the security forces have actively engaged the adversary. Both depend upon communications of data. This paper explores details of embedded communications functions that are often assumed to be inconsequential. It is the intent of the authors to bring focus to an issue in security system modeling that, if not well understood, has the potential to be a deciding factor in the overall system failure or effectiveness.

  17. Quantum Communication Attacks on Classical Cryptographic Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre

    In the literature on cryptographic protocols, it has been studied several times what happens if a classical protocol is attacked by a quantum adversary. Usually, this is taken to mean that the adversary runs a quantum algorithm, but communicates classically with the honest players. In several cases......, one can show that the protocol remains secure even under such an attack. However, there are also cases where the honest players are quantum as well, even if the protocol uses classical communication. For instance, this is the case when classical multiparty computation is used as a “subroutine......” in quantum multiparty computation. Furthermore, in the future, players in a protocol may employ quantum computing simply to improve efficiency of their local computation, even if the communication is supposed to be classical. In such cases, it no longer seems clear that a quantum adversary must be limited...

  18. Security-by-Experiment: Lessons from Responsible Deployment in Cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Wolter; Hadžiosmanović, Dina; Dechesne, Francien

    2016-06-01

    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents (attackers) may be at least as important when it comes to undesirable effects of deployed technologies. In such cases, conditions for responsible experimentation may need to be implemented differently, as attackers behave strategically rather than probabilistically. In this contribution, we outline how adversarial aspects are already taken into account in technology deployment in the field of cyber security, and what the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments can learn from this. In particular, we show the importance of adversarial roles in social experiments with new technologies.

  19. Efficient and Universal Corruption Resilient Fountain Codes

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Asaf; Tzachar, Nir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new family of fountain codes which overcome adversarial errors. That is, we consider the possibility that some portion of the arriving packets of a rateless erasure code are corrupted in an undetectable fashion. In practice, the corrupted packets may be attributed to a portion of the communication paths which are controlled by an adversary or to a portion of the sources that are malicious. The presented codes resemble and extend LT and Raptor codes. Yet, their benefits over existing coding schemes are manifold. First, to overcome the corrupted packets, our codes use information theoretic techniques, rather than cryptographic primitives. Thus, no secret channel between the senders and the receivers is required. Second, the encoders in the suggested scheme are oblivious to the strength of the adversary, yet perform as if its strength was known in advance. Third, the sparse structure of the codes facilitates efficient decoding. Finally, the codes easily fit a decentralized scenario wi...

  20. AntiJam: Efficient Medium Access despite Adaptive and Reactive Jamming

    CERN Document Server

    Richa, Andrea; Schmid, Stefan; Zhang, Jin

    2010-01-01

    Intentional interference constitutes a major threat for communication networks operating over a shared medium and where availability is imperative. Jamming attacks are often simple and cheap to implement. In particular, today's jammers can perform physical carrier sensing in order to disrupt communication more efficiently, specially in a network of simple wireless devices such as sensor nodes, which usually operate over a single frequency (or a limited frequency band) and which cannot benefit from the use of spread spectrum or other more advanced technologies. This paper proposes the medium access (MAC) protocol \\textsc{AntiJam} that is provably robust against a powerful reactive adversary who can jam a $(1-\\epsilon)$-portion of the time steps, where $\\epsilon$ is an arbitrary constant. The adversary uses carrier sensing to make informed decisions on when it is most harmful to disrupt communications; moreover, we allow the adversary to be adaptive and to have complete knowledge of the entire protocol history....

  1. The source coding game with a cheating switcher

    CERN Document Server

    Palaiyanur, Hari; Sahai, Anant

    2007-01-01

    Berger's paper `The Source Coding Game', IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, 1971, considers the problem of finding the rate-distortion function for an adversarial source comprised of multiple known IID sources. The adversary, called the `switcher', was allowed only causal access to the source realizations and the rate-distortion function was obtained through the use of a type covering lemma. In this paper, the rate-distortion function of the adversarial source is described, under the assumption that the switcher has non-causal access to all source realizations. The proof utilizes the type covering lemma and simple conditional, random `switching' rules. The rate-distortion function is once again the maximization of the R(D) function for a region of attainable IID distributions.

  2. Overcoming the barrier of narrative adherence in conflicts through awareness of the psychological bias of naïve realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasie, Meytal; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Pliskin, Ruthie; Nahhas, Eman; Halperin, Eran

    2014-11-01

    One significant socio-psychological barrier for peaceful resolution of conflicts is each party's adherence to its own collective narrative. We hypothesized that raising awareness to the psychological bias of naïve realism and its identification in oneself would provide a path to overcoming this barrier, thus increasing openness to the adversary's narrative. We conducted three experimental studies in the context of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Studies 1 and 2, conducted among Jewish Israelis and Palestinian Israelis, respectively, revealed that participants with hawkish political ideology reported greater openness to the adversary's narrative when they were made aware of naïve realism bias. Study 3 revealed that hawkish participants at the baseline adhered to the ingroup narrative and resisted the adversary's narrative more than dovish participants. They were also more able to identify the bias in themselves upon learning about it. This identification may explain why the manipulation led to bias correction only among hawkish participants.

  3. Device-independence for two-party cryptography and position verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Jeremy; Thinh, Le Phuc; Kaniewski, Jedrzej;

    Quantum communication has demonstrated its usefulness for quantum cryptography far beyond quantum key distribution. One domain is two-party cryptography, whose goal is to allow two parties who may not trust each other to solve joint tasks. Another interesting application is position......-based cryptography whose goal is to use the geographical location of an entity as its only identifying credential. Unfortunately, security of these protocols is not possible against an all powerful adversary. However, if we impose some realistic physical constraints on the adversary, there exist protocols for which...... security can be proven, but these so far relied on the knowledge of the quantum operations performed during the protocols. In this work we give device-independent security proofs of two-party cryptography and Position Verification for memoryless devices under different physical constraints on the adversary...

  4. Probabilistic results for a mobile service scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jesper; Yiu, Man Lung

    We consider the following stochastic model for a mobile service scenario. Consider a stationary Poisson process in Rd, with its points radially ordered with respect to the origin (the anchor); if d = 2, the points may correspond to locations of e.g. restaurants. A user, with a location different...... the inferred privacy region is a random set obtained by an adversary who only knows the anchor and the points received from the server, where the adversary ‘does the best' to infer the possible locations of the user. Probabilistic results related to the communication cost and the inferred privacy region...

  5. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  6. Practical Leakage-Resilient Symmetric Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Schipper, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount of arbitr......Leakage resilient cryptography attempts to incorporate side-channel leakage into the black-box security model and designs cryptographic schemes that are provably secure within it. Informally, a scheme is leakage-resilient if it remains secure even if an adversary learns a bounded amount...

  7. Security of the AES with a Secret S-Box

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiessen, Tyge; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Kölbl, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    How does the security of the AES change when the S-box is replaced by a secret S-box, about which the adversary has no knowledge? Would it be safe to reduce the number of encryption rounds? In this paper, we demonstrate attacks based on integral cryptanalysis which allow to recover both the secret...... key and the secret S-box for respectively four, five, and six rounds of the AES. Despite the significantly larger amount of secret information which an adversary needs to recover, the attacks are very efficient with time/data complexities of 217/216, 238/240 and 290/264, respectively. Another...

  8. Server-Aided Two-Party Computation with Simultaneous Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cascudo Pueyo, Ignacio; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Ranellucci, Samuel

    We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal composab......We consider secure two-party computation in the client-server model where there are two adversaries that operate separately but simultaneously, each of them corrupting one of the parties and a restricted subset of servers that they interact with. We model security via the local universal...

  9. Technology Transition and Adoption: A Study in Search of Metrics for Evaluating Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    0 0 0 1 97 Polymorphous Computing Architectures (PCA) 0 0 0 1 1 0 98 Quantum Information Science and Technology ( QuIST ) 0 0 0 0 0 1 99 Real...Quantum Information Science and Technology ( QuIST ) N/A 0 0 1,068 0 0 1 99 Real-Time Adversarial Intelligence and Decision-Making (RAID) 41 1 0 1,094 0 0 1...Quantum Information Science and Technology ( QuIST ) 4 4 2 6 4 99 Real-Time Adversarial Intelligence and Decision-Making (RAID) 6 4 2 6 6 100 Real

  10. Interactive animation of fault-tolerant parallel algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apgar, S.W.

    1992-02-01

    Animation of algorithms makes understanding them intuitively easier. This paper describes the software tool Raft (Robust Animator of Fault Tolerant Algorithms). The Raft system allows the user to animate a number of parallel algorithms which achieve fault tolerant execution. In particular, we use it to illustrate the key Write-All problem. It has an extensive user-interface which allows a choice of the number of processors, the number of elements in the Write-All array, and the adversary to control the processor failures. The novelty of the system is that the interface allows the user to create new on-line adversaries as the algorithm executes.

  11. The Use of Family Therapy within a University Counseling Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    As a counterpoint to the oftentimes adversarial way that parents are viewed when they appear to be overinvolved in the lives of their college-aged students, this article advocates for the use of a family therapy perspective in university counseling centers. Benefits of this perspective include a broadening of the lens through which individual…

  12. Unconditionally-secure and reusable public-key authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Ioannou, Lawrence M

    2011-01-01

    We present a quantum-public-key identification protocol and show that it is secure against a computationally-unbounded adversary. This demonstrates for the first time that unconditionally-secure and reusable public-key authentication is possible in principle with (pure-state) public keys.

  13. Einstein in love a scientific romance

    CERN Document Server

    Overbye, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    At its height, Einstein's marriage to Mileva was an extraordinary one - a colleague and often fierce adversary, Mileva was brilliantly matched with the scientific genius. Dennis Overbye seeks to present this scientific romance in a vivid light, telling the private story of the young Einstein.

  14. Re/Thinking Critical Thinking: The Seductions of Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Kal

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that both critical thinking and obstacles to successful critical thinking are most commonly found in the activities of everyday life. Argues for a connective criticism approach that does not assume critical means adversarial and acknowledges that critical thinking can be used as a means of opening worlds of meaning. (KS)

  15. Secure Computation, I/O-Efficient Algorithms and Distributed Signatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Kölker, Jonas; Toft, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    adversary corrupting a constant fraction of the players and servers. Using packed secret sharing, the data can be stored in a compact way but will only be accessible in a block-wise fashion. We explore the possibility of using I/O-efficient algorithms to nevertheless compute on the data as efficiently...

  16. Natural-Born Arguers: Teaching How to Make the Best of Our Reasoning Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Hugo; Boudry, Maarten; Paglieri, Fabio; Trouche, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    We summarize the argumentative theory of reasoning, which claims that the main function of reasoning is to argue. In this theory, argumentation is seen as being essentially cooperative (people have to listen to others' arguments and be ready to change their mind) but with an adversarial dimension (their goal as argument producers is to convince).…

  17. Understanding How Reverse Engineers Make Sense of Programs from Assembly Language Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    No.PR00303), 100–111 (1999). 78. Geertz C. “Thick description: towards an interpretive theory of culture.” The Interpretation of Cultures edited by...C. Geertz , New York: Basic Books, 1973. 79. Geib C. “Plan recognition.” Adversarial Reasoning: Computational Approaches to Reading the Opponent’s Mind

  18. 12 CFR 1705.4 - Standards for awards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... circumstances of the case, unless the party has committed a willful violation of law or otherwise acted in bad... adjudication in which it prevailed, unless the position of OFHEO in the adversary adjudication was... that its position was substantially justified and may do so by showing that its position was...

  19. Bioinspired Security Analysis of Wireless Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrocchi, Marinella; Spognardi, Angelo; Santi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    work, this paper investigates feasibility of adopting fraglets as model for specifying security protocols and analysing their properties. In particular, we give concrete sample analyses over a secure RFID protocol, showing evolution of the protocol run as chemical dynamics and simulating an adversary...

  20. Robust Mobile Tactical Communications for Video Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Received Paper 3.00 Madushanka Soysa, Pamela C. Cosman, Laurence B. Milstein. Spoofing optimization over Nakagami -m fading channels of a cognitive radio...Rayleigh fading channels of a cognitive radio adversary,” submitted to IEEE Trans. Commun. 9 [2] ——, “Spoofing optimization over Nakagami -m fading

  1. On the Runtime of Randomized Local Search and Simple Evolutionary Algorithms for Dynamic Makespan Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Frank; Witt, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    combinatorial optimization problem, namely makespan scheduling. We study the model of a strong adversary which is allowed to change one job at regular intervals. Furthermore, we investigate the setting of random changes. Our results show that randomized local search and a simple evolutionary algorithm are very...

  2. Requirements Analysis and Course Improvements for EO3502 Telecommunications Systems Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    electronic business technologist. The following courses are required: Digital Business Strategy Strategic Uses of IT and eCommerce IT For Business Capstone...techniques, allowing a number of platforms to press home an offensive, increase defensive strength against an adversary’s offensive, or respond

  3. Bytes: Weapons of Mass Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Air University Press, Maxwell AFB, AL, 1996, pg. 6. 53 Kaspar , Beth M., Air University, The End Of Secrecy? Military Competitiveness In The Age Of...a computer system. Nano machines are tiny robots that could be spread at an information center of an adversary. They crawl through the halls and

  4. Through the Looking Glass: The Role of Ethnicity and Affiliation in Responses to Terrorism in the Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoshani, Anat; Slone, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis) and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  5. Perceptions of the News Media's Societal Roles: How the Views of U.K. Journalism Students Changed during Their Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Mark; Sanders, Karen

    2012-01-01

    A longitudinal study of U.K. journalism undergraduates records how their attitudes on societal roles of the news media changed during university education. Students became more likely to endorse an adversarial approach toward public officials and businesses as extremely important. Yet students did not support these roles as strongly as an older…

  6. Air and Space Power Journal. Volume 24, Number 4, Winter 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    cyber attacks would originate with individuals in shirt sleeves, perhaps civil- ians, sitting at computer terminals thou- sands of miles from the places...address three objectives: providing security guaran- tees to partner nations, deterring adversary actions inimical to US policy objectives, and...ceeds from increasing US security and im- proving access opportunities for potential contingency operations. Security guaran- tees depend upon an

  7. Cognitive model supported tactical training simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, W.A. van; Bosch, K. van den

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mate, adversaries, instructor). Due to the dynamic and complex nature of military tactics, it is hard to create agents that behave realistically and support the training lead

  8. LEGO for Two-Party Secure Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Orlandi, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    This paper continues the recent line of work of making Yao’s garbled circuit approach to two-party computation secure against an active adversary. We propose a new cut-and-choose based approach called LEGO (Large Efficient Garbled-circuit Optimization): It is specifically aimed at large circuits...

  9. How to Securely Release Unverified Plaintext in Authenticated Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreeva, Elena; Bogdanov, Andrey; Luykx, Atul

    2014-01-01

    , which tries to fool adversaries by mimicking the decryption oracle, without the secret key. Releasing unverified plaintext to the attacker then becomes harmless as it is infeasible to distinguish the decryption oracle from the plaintext extractor. We introduce two notions of plaintext awareness...

  10. A New Approach to Practical Active-Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian; Orlandi, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new approach to practical two-party computation secure against an active adversary. All prior practical protocols were based on Yao’s garbled circuits. We use an OT-based approach and get efficiency via OT extension in the random oracle model. To get a practical protocol we introduce...

  11. A New Approach to Practical Active-Secure Two-Party Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus; Nordholt, Peter Sebastian; Orlandi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new approach to practical two-party computation secure against an active adversary. All prior practical protocols were based on Yao's garbled circuits. We use an OT-based approach and get efficiency via OT extension in the random oracle model. To get a practical protocol we introduce...

  12. The Failure of Legalization in Education: Alternative Dispute Resolution and the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Steven S.

    1989-01-01

    A federal statute provided that parents may use the judicial process to challenge educators' decisions. Describes the intent of legalization; how reaction to an adversarial system led to the use of mediation in most states; and why this alternative model is not appropriate for resolving education questions. (MLF)

  13. Cognitive Radio baseband processing on a reconfigurable platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Qiwei; Kokkeler, A.B.J.; Smit, G.J.M.; Walters, K.H.G.; Zhang, Qiwei

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive Radio is considered as a promising technology to address the paradox of spectrum scarcity and spectrum under-utilization. It has to operate in different bands under various data rates and combat adversary channel conditions. Therefore, Cognitive Radio needs an adaptive physical layer which

  14. Arvustused / Ahto-Lembit Lehtmets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lehtmets, Ahto-Lembit

    2006-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Satyricon "Now, Diabolica", Nitrous "Dominant Force", Ihsahn "Adversary", Keep Of Kalessin "Armada", Zyklon "Disintegrate", Enslaved "Ruun", Lacuna Coil "Karmacode", Sick Of It All "Death To Tyrants", Cult Of Luna "Somewhere Along the Highway", Scent Of Flesh "Become Malignity EP", Mythological Cold Towers "The Vanished Pantheon", Kalmah "The Black Waltz", Neglected Fields "Splenetic"

  15. Distributed Control for Networked Systems with Non-Traditional Communication Constraints: Lossy Links, Power and Usage Limitations, and Induced Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    networked control system performance. Therefore, it is important to develop an understanding of how much loss the control system, or the network in... networked control system setting there is an additional entity, strategic adversary, who has the capability to jam the channel that connects the controller

  16. Intelligent agent supported training in virtual simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van; Harbers, M.

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in military decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Usually humans are used to play these roles to ensure varied behavior required for the training of such tasks. However, there is growing conviction and evide

  17. Using agent technology to build a real-world training application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cap, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W. van

    2011-01-01

    Using staff personnel for playing roles in simulation-based training (e.g. team mates, adversaries) elevates costs, and imposes organizational constraints on delivery of training. One solution to this problem is to use intelligent software agents that play the required roles autonomously. BDI modeli

  18. The Costs of "Openness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleveland, Harlan

    1975-01-01

    The author argues that very wide consultation tends to discourage innovation and favor stand-pattism and that the very great benefits of openness and wide participation are flawed by apathy and non-participation, by muscle-binding legalisms, by processes which polarize two adversary sides, and by the encouragement of mediocrity. (JT)

  19. Self-Development for Cyber Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    and the future. In particular, the cyber punk genre is extremely relevant to the cyber professional; book authors such as Neal Stephenson, William...Adversary Mindset, Emerging Technologies Classic cyber punk tale where the hero combats extremely virulent malicious software. Starship Troopers

  20. Implementing AES via an Actively/Covertly Secure Dishonest-Majority MPC Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Keller, Marcel; Keller, Enrique;

    2012-01-01

    We describe an implementation of the protocol of Damgård, Pastro, Smart and Zakarias (SPDZ/Speedz) for multi-party computation in the presence of a dishonest majority of active adversaries. We present a number of modifications to the protocol; the first reduces the security to covert security...

  1. Organizational Climate, a Concept Worth Consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-15

    fundamentals. Clearly, some business and military leadership attitudes need to change from the traditional adversarial, negative reinforcement style. The...may be viewed as hollow. The led will probably recognize the leader for what he is. The unit may perform, but most likely from a negative reinforcement or

  2. Developing a Reference Framework for Cybercraft Trust Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    reporting, and adversary identification 2. Use cases were created for each of these defense priorities using a mision level task breakdown and are shown in...new mision statement”, December 2005. URL http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?id=123013440. 10. Gollmann, Dieter. “Why Trust is Bad for Security”. First

  3. Air Force Cyber Warfare: Now and the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    keystrokes or to fend off adversaries with a smartphone, a pa- per clip, and an ingenious plan. These socially awkward heroes and heroines fill the...network pro- visioning ( dynamic construction), hardening, and configuration management. Twenty-Fourth Air Force manages the AFNet—the Air Force’s por

  4. Resilient Control under Denial-Of-Service

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Tesi, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    We investigate resilient control strategies for linear systems under Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks. By DoS attacks we mean interruptions of communication on measurement (sensor-to-controller) and control (controller-to-actuator) channels carried out by an intelligent adversary. We characterize the

  5. Development of the Reactive Planning Strategies Simulation (REPSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    information about strength , location, activity, and capabilities. In stability operations and support operations, this includes adversaries, potentially...sednoadrcevn text messages (eciigdmgscre Figuraprein )fh "ed"ed teallowsnth comade adeah ea o omos ndsed esag t hecomadra peiictemo Menu fAllocations Map

  6. Afghan Tortoise, Korean Hare: Advising in Hard and Soft Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    trajectory of US foreign policy and would likely weaken the deterrent effect of current policy on future adversaries and lead to a much more limited...100 Ralph H. Magnus and Eden Naby, Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid (Boulder, CO...Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1968. Magnus , Ralph H. and Eden Naby. Afghanistan: Mullah, Marx, and Mujahid. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998

  7. Automating Cyber Defence Responses Using Attack-Defence Trees and Game Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Mauw, Sjouke; Zakiuddin, Irfan

    2016-01-01

    Cyber systems that serve government and military organizations must cope with unique threats and powerful adversaries. In this context, one must assume that attackers are continuously engaged in offence and an attack can potentially escalate in a compromised system. This paper proposes an approach t

  8. Gendered Practices in the Contemporary Workplace: A Critique of What Often Constitutes Front Page News in "The Wall Street Journal."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzanell, Patrice M.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes and critiques a front-page article in the "Wall Street Journal." Finds that, underlying an image of fun and equitable workplace, is a disquieting depiction of adversarial gendered relationships, and of career advice that can damage the competence assessments and long-term advancement of women. (SR)

  9. Proactive malware detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Jonathan; Diep, Michael; Dredden, David; Mix, Matthew; Olsen, Mark; Price, Brian; Steil, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Small-to-medium sized businesses lack resources to deploy and manage high-end advanced solutions to deter sophisticated threats from well-funded adversaries, but evidence shows that these types of businesses are becoming key targets. As malicious code and network attacks become more sophisticated, classic signature-based virus and malware detection methods are less effective. To augment the current malware methods of detection, we developed a proactive approach to detect emerging malware threats using open source tools and intelligence to discover patterns and behaviors of malicious attacks and adversaries. Technical and analytical skills are combined to track adversarial behavior, methods and techniques. We established a controlled (separated domain) network to identify, monitor, and track malware behavior to increase understanding of the methods and techniques used by cyber adversaries. We created a suite of tools that observe the network and system performance looking for anomalies that may be caused by malware. The toolset collects information from open-source tools and provides meaningful indicators that the system was under or has been attacked. When malware is discovered, we analyzed and reverse engineered it to determine how it could be detected and prevented. Results have shown that with minimum resources, cost effective capabilities can be developed to detect abnormal behavior that may indicate malicious software.

  10. Promoting Resilience through Social Work Practice with Groups: Implications for the Practice and Field Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitterman, Alex; Knight, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    The realities of contemporary social work practice often push social workers toward a deficit-focused orientation. The article begins with an overview of the major tenets of resiliency and adversarial growth theories and related research findings. We suggest that the group modality epitomizes the application of resiliency theory and adversarial…

  11. On Adaptive vs. Non-adaptive Security of Multiparty Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canetti, Ran; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Dziembowski, Stefan

    2001-01-01

    Security analysis of multiparty cryptographic protocols distinguishes between two types of adversarialsettings: In the non-adaptive setting, the set of corrupted parties is chosen in advance, before the interaction begins. In the adaptive setting, the adversary chooses who to corrupt during...

  12. 12 CFR 1705.26 - Decision of the adjudicative officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT Procedures for Filing and Consideration of the Application for Award § 1705.26 Decision of the... acted in bad faith, or whether special circumstances would make the award unjust. (e) In decisions on... adversary adjudication or whether special circumstance make the award unjust....

  13. Technology, the Acquisitions Loop, and Strategic Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    a much larger audience witnesses conduct exceeding the bounds of 3 Michael Walzer, Just And Unjust Wars: A...cost without requiring advanced technologies.31 The ability of a potential adversary to develop expertise in cyberspace appears to be a “ considerable ...ideas and their relationship to the problem under consideration . The acquisition process is then outlined in broad terms to illustrate how

  14. More Important than the Contract Is the Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Patricia; Good, Annalee

    2015-01-01

    What should a school district procurement officer ask when he or she sits down with a sales representative from a vendor of digital education products? Who else should be at the table? How do districts and providers become partners in instruction, rather than adversaries in negotiation? These are increasingly critical questions as public school…

  15. Secure and self-stabilizing clock synchronization in sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoepman, J.H.; Larsson, A.; Schiller, E.M.; Tsigas, P.

    2011-01-01

    In sensor networks, correct clocks have arbitrary starting offsets and nondeterministic fluctuating skews. We consider an adversary that aims at tampering with the clock synchronization by intercepting messages, replaying intercepted messages (after the adversary’s choice of delay), and capturing no

  16. Democracy as a Contested Concept in Postwar Western Europe: A Comparative Study of Political Debates in France, West Germany and Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corduwener, P.

    2016-01-01

    This article explores how political parties in France, West Germany, and Italy conceptualized democracy and challenged the conceptions of democracy of their political adversaries between the end of the 1940s and the early 1960s. It studies from a comparative perspective the different conceptions of

  17. American Grand Strategy in an Age of Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    enough to focus on the most serious of these threats without becoming too wed to any one particular adversary.97...Punjab and in some other areas. The SGPC through its ability to affect the very way Sikhism was worshipped was in a position of leadership in the

  18. Attorney and Parent Attitudes Related to Successful Mediation Counseling of Child Custody Disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Leland C.; Heinish, D.

    The divorce explosion has placed a substantial burden on the judicial system of the United States. About 10 percent of divorce cases involve child custody battles. The adversarial legal process may be contrary to the children's best interest. Custody mediation has been used as an alternative to court litigation. California law requires an attempt…

  19. Environment and Alternative Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Rajni

    Stressing the global dimension to the adversary relationship between economic development and environmental conservation, this monograph examines the philosophical, historical, cultural, and ethnic underpinnings of modern science and technology. In addition, the monograph spells out policy implications of an alternative concept of development and…

  20. External Labeling as a Framework for Access Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbroek, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    With the ever increasing volume of data existing on and passing through on-line resources together with a growing number of legitimate users of that information and potential adversaries, the need for better security and safeguards is immediate and critical. Currently, most of the security and safeguards afforded on-line information are provided…

  1. 8 Skills of Highly Effective New Presidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James; Samels, James E.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for new college presidents to have skills in: (1) mastering technology choices; (2) producing partnerships; (3) vanquishing adversaries; (4) building a brand; (5) seeking selective excellence; (6) valuing bricks and clicks; (7) leveraging mentoring networks; and (8) ensuring entrepreneurial advantage. (EV)

  2. The National Military Strategy of the United States of America: Redefining America’s Military Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    adversary behavior. Denying an aggressor the benefits of achieving its objectives can be just as effective as in altering its strategic calculus ...being good stewards of public resources; and vigorously executing lawful orders. The military’s adherence to the ideals comprised in our Constitution

  3. The Effect of Cross-Examination Tactics on Simulated Jury Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Margaret; And Others

    Past research has demonstrated the negative effects of leading questions by attorneys on eyewitness testimony and has found that adversary lawyers produced less accurate testimony from eyewitnesses. This study was conducted to examine the effects of lawyer's hostile versus non-hostile behavior and lawyer's leading versus non-leading questions on…

  4. Generic physical protection logic trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, W.K.

    1981-10-01

    Generic physical protection logic trees, designed for application to nuclear facilities and materials, are presented together with a method of qualitative evaluation of the trees for design and analysis of physical protection systems. One or more defense zones are defined where adversaries interact with the physical protection system. Logic trees that are needed to describe the possible scenarios within a defense zone are selected. Elements of a postulated or existing physical protection system are tagged to the primary events of the logic tree. The likelihood of adversary success in overcoming these elements is evaluated on a binary, yes/no basis. The effect of these evaluations is propagated through the logic of each tree to determine whether the adversary is likely to accomplish the end event of the tree. The physical protection system must be highly likely to overcome the adversary before he accomplishes his objective. The evaluation must be conducted for all significant states of the site. Deficiencies uncovered become inputs to redesign and further analysis, closing the loop on the design/analysis cycle.

  5. The source coding game with a cheating switcher

    CERN Document Server

    Palaiyanur, Hari; Sahai, Anant

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the lossy compression of an active-vision video stream, we consider the problem of finding the rate-distortion function of an arbitrarily varying source (AVS) composed of a finite number of subsources with known distributions. Berger's paper `The Source Coding Game', \\emph{IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory}, 1971, solves this problem under the condition that the adversary is allowed only strictly causal access to the subsource realizations. We consider the case when the adversary has access to the subsource realizations non-causally. Using the type-covering lemma, this new rate-distortion function is determined to be the maximum of the IID rate-distortion function over a set of source distributions attainable by the adversary. We then extend the results to allow for partial or noisy observations of subsource realizations. We further explore the model by attempting to find the rate-distortion function when the adversary is actually helpful. Finally, a bound is developed on the uniform continuity of the I...

  6. Enhanced Cyberspace Defense through Covert Publish-Subscribe Broker Pattern Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    time constraint imposed. For example, a hard real-time system such as an automotive airbag system must operate within fractions of a second. The...communications between the users? Recall from Chapter II however that data points to the sustained presence of adversaries inside the borders of

  7. 8 CFR 240.67 - Procedure for interview before an asylum officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure for interview before an asylum... Procedure for interview before an asylum officer. (a) Fingerprinting requirements. The Service will notify.... (1) The asylum officer shall conduct the interview in a non-adversarial manner and, except at...

  8. The 1988 Electoral Debates and Debate Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of debate theory to the 1988 presidential and vice presidential debates. Proposes that the press's involvement retrieves the debates from the category of "joint appearances." Argues that major definitional difficulties are resolved by recognizing the press as one of the adversaries in the debate process. (MM)

  9. Army Officer Counseling Training for Commanders: Participant Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    power differential associated with rank. …Punishing officer for giving you bad news. … Sarcasm ; becoming defensive or adversarial. …Jumping to...officer to talk or continue talking (e.g., “please go on”). f. Express appropriate emotion in response to what an officer is saying. g. Pay

  10. Strategic Mobility 21 Transition Plan: From Research Federation to Business Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-31

    program guidance; SWOT analysis ; emerging opportunities; market feedback and response; forecasting, and intuition. Figure 16 – Alignment of...made available or sold to the public and foreign nationals, companies , and governments, including adversary governments, and may be exported. c...Business Enterprise JLETT. The modeling, simulation, and analysis (MSA) capabilities developed by the SM21 Research Federation will also

  11. Optimal Resilient Dynamic Dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the problem of computing in the presence of faults that may arbitrarily (i.e., adversarially) corrupt memory locations. In the faulty memory model, any memory cell can get corrupted at any time, and corrupted cells cannot be distinguished from uncorrupted ones. An upper bound $\\del...

  12. Theory Z Bargaining Works: Teachers and Administrators in Two School Districts Replace Hostility with Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheasant, Marilyn

    1985-01-01

    A bargaining process, begun over 10 years ago, is based on problem-solving rather than on adversarial confrontation and uses elements of participative management. It has resulted in outstanding benefits for two school districts. Called "Theory Z bargaining," the process follows a procedure based on each side treating the other with respect.…

  13. Achievement Investment Prowess: Identifying Cost Efficient Higher Performing Maine Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Ida A.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the United States the debate has been frequent, intense, and at times adversarial over how to fund education adequately. Maine has been trying to identify higher performing schools in the hope that practices that contribute to success at higher performing schools can be adapted at similar schools throughout the state. The 1997…

  14. Relationships between Exposure to Rap Music Videos and Attitudes toward Relationships among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Yaphet

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to (a) predict adversarial attitudes toward male-female relationships and (b) explore the relationships between traditional agents of socialization and personal acceptance of negative images in rap videos by African American adolescents. Participants completed psychosocial measures, viewed videos, and completed surveys…

  15. Historical Perspectives of Outdoor and Wilderness Recreation Programming in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Ron

    This paper traces the history of outdoor programming beginning with the influence of western expansionism and the settling of the American frontier. The late 1800s brought about a change in the national attitude from an adversarial view of wilderness to a beneficial view. This was reflected by writers such as Henry David Thoreau and John Muir.…

  16. Random Fruits on the Zielonka Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, F.; Albers, S.; Marion, J.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Stochastic games are a natural model for the synthesis of controllers confronted to adversarial and/or random actions. In particular, $\\omega$-regular games of infinite length can represent reactive systems which are not expected to reach a correct state, but rather to handle a continuous stream of

  17. Cryptography in the Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Serge, Fehr; Schaffner, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  18. 77 FR 43506 - DoD Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information (UCNI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... abbreviated ``DOD UCNI'') at the bottom on: the outside of the front cover, if any; the outside of the back...(s) and associated electrical systems, barriers, and back-up power systems not observable from a... adversary to defeat a security measure, e.g., fire, safety, nuclear accident, radiological release, or...

  19. Piracy: The Best Business Model Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    anchored just offshore is held by pirates. Photo used by permission of Newscom. JSOU Report 13-7 The JSOU Press MacDill Air Force Base, Florida 2013...prove to be a formidable adversary. Actions by Commodore Edward Preble convinced Morocco to leave the fight, and his shelling of Tripoli proved

  20. 32 CFR Appendix B to Part 223 - Guidelines for the Determination of DoD UCNI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of nuclear weapons or the theft, diversion, or sabotage of SNM, equipment, or facilities. B. General... an adversary to defeat a security measure; i.e., fire, safety, nuclear accident, radiological release... Weapon Stockpile and Storage Requirement, Nuclear Weapon Destruction and Disablement Systems, and...

  1. Navy John Lewis (TAO-205) Class Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Lowest Total Price For LHA, Oiler To Win Bulk Of LX(R),” Inside the Navy, February 23, 2015 (posted online February 20, 2015). 33 Government...counter- piracy , and improving adversary A2/AD capabilities cause strike groups and ready groups to disperse over more expansive areas. Additionally

  2. Navy TAO(X) Oiler Shipbuilding Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Bulk Of LX(R),” Inside the Navy, February 23, 2015 (posted online February 20, 2015). 33 Government Accountability Office, Defense Acquisitions...smaller fleet, new missions, such as ballistic missile defense and counter- piracy , and improving adversary A2/AD capabilities cause strike groups

  3. What Happens If They Say No? Preserving Access to Critical Commercial Space Capabilities during Future Crises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    operators during crises. For example, Internet denial of service attacks can prevent companies from communicating with their clients. Adversaries can also...feared that Arab states would drive up fuel prices, cut them off from transit routes, and contribute to in- creased air piracy that would undermine

  4. Web-Shared Confrontation and Collaboration Analysis for CMOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    military and adversary entities in Alberts and Hayes’s C2 Approach Space. However the author also stresses the institutional and cultural...to network more effectively with external stakeholders, be they shareholders, suppliers or customers. The personal acculturation of those in

  5. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  6. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  7. Literacy Teaching Method and Peace Building in Multi-Ethnic Communities of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelore, Omobola; Majaro-Majesty, Henry

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of peace building in Nigeria is increasing as communities continue to show adversary tendencies. This is happening even after many third party conflict transformation efforts have been expended to resolve and set a conducive climate for stakeholders to sustain peace. Some peace building assessment projects have indicated that the…

  8. Pointblank: Acts on the Eve of War, 1938-1939

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    An adversary could use this island network as an intermediary to deploy bomber aircraft to both Mexico and Canada, weak states unable to stave off...instantaneous-fuzed bomb detonated on the bride road, causing insignificant damage.70 Kuter augmented the Pee Dee River Bridge test using the USS Virginia as

  9. 78 FR 59719 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Settlement Agreement Under The Comprehensive Environmental Response...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ..., Compensation, and Liability Act On September 24, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Settlement..., Compensation, and Liability Act (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9607. Under the Settlement Agreement, the Apco... prejudice its adversary proceeding against the General Services Administration in connection with the...

  10. Through the looking glass: The role of ethnicity and affiliation in responses to terrorism in the media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anat Shoshani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether attitudinal and emotional responses to broadcasts of images of terrorist events differ according to ethnic group (Jewish and Arab Israelis and outgroup affiliation during an intense wave of terrorism that occurred in Israel during 2015. Participants were 118 Jewish and 110 Arab-Israelis adults randomly allocated to a terrorism or criminal violence television broadcast. State anxiety, state anger, stereotypes, and negative attitudes toward an adversary were examined prior and subsequent to the media exposure. Findings showed significant increases in anxiety, anger, stereotypes, and negative adversary perceptions in the terrorism exposure group compared to only anxiety increases in the criminal violence exposure. In the terrorism exposure group, Jewish participants showed greater increases in negative adversary perceptions of the Palestinians than Arab Israeli participants, but both groups showed similar significant increases in levels of anxiety and anger. Exposure to broadcasts of terrorism increased willingness to negotiate with the adversary among the Arab participants, but not among the Jewish participants. In the terrorism exposure group, both Jewish and Arab Israelis with high affiliation with the Palestinian cause showed less increases in stereotypes than those with low affiliation. Findings emphasize the role of ethnicity and outgroup affiliation in responses to media exposure to terrorism images.

  11. The Impact of Physical Attractiveness and Trait Argumentativeness as Predictors of Responses to an Argumentative Situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancer, Andrew S.; Infante, Dominic A.

    A study examined the influence of physical attractiveness and trait argumentativeness as predictors of responses to an argumentative situation. Subjects, 152 college students identified as either high or low in trait argumentativeness, were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: attractive or unattractive anticipated adversary. A…

  12. A LocationGuard Approach: An Efficacious Scheme to Alleviate DoS Attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2011-01-01

    from a denial-of- service (DoS) attack or a host compromise attack. Hence, most of these distributed file systems are vulnerable to targeted file attacks, wherein a n adversary attempts to attack a small (chosen) set of files by attacking the nodes that host them. This paper presents Location Guard—a...

  13. The Danger of Economic Nationalism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JAMES; A.DORN

    2008-01-01

    The United States should treat China as a normal rising power,not a probable adversary Unlike special interest groups that are harmed by trade, no one represents future generations who will have a lower standard of living because of present government profligacy

  14. Training tactical decision making using cognitive models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Doesburg, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Simulation-based tactical training can be made more effective by using cognitive software agents to play key roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). For successful use in training, agents should show tactically representative behavior that support trainees in achieving the learning objectives. For a t

  15. Robust Multiparty Computation with Linear Communication Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirt, Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present a robust multiparty computation protocol. The protocol is for the cryptographic model with open channels and a poly-time adversary, and allows n parties to actively securely evaluate any poly-sized circuit with resilience t < n/2. The total communication complexity in bits over the poi...

  16. Security of Quantum-Readout PUFs against quadrature based challenge estimation attacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Mosk, A.P.; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of quantum-secure readout of Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs) has recently been realized experimentally in an optical PUF system. We analyze the security of this system under the strongest type of classical attack: the challenge estimation attack. The adversary performs a measurement

  17. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  18. Anonymity-Preserving Public-Key Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlweiss, Markulf; Maurer, Ueli; Onete, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    A receiver-anonymous channel allows a sender to send a message to a receiver without an adversary learning for whom the message is intended. Wireless broadcast channels naturally provide receiver anonymity, as does multi-casting one message to a receiver population containing the intended receive...

  19. Corporate Social Responsibility: Case Study of Community Expectations and the Administrative Systems, Niger Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogula, David

    2012-01-01

    Poor community-company relations in the Niger Delta have drawn attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the region. Since the 1960s, transnational oil corporations operating in the Niger Delta have adopted various CSR strategies, yet community-company relations remain adversarial. This article examines community…

  20. Cryptography In The Bounded Quantum-Storage Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Salvail, Louis; Schaffner, Christian;

    2005-01-01

    We initiate the study of two-party cryptographic primitives with unconditional security, assuming that the adversary's quantum memory is of bounded size. We show that oblivious transfer and bit commitment can be implemented in this model using protocols where honest parties need no quantum memory...

  1. Trust Management and Accountability for Internet Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wayne W.

    2011-01-01

    Adversarial yet interacting interdependent relationships in information sharing and service provisioning have been a pressing issue of the Internet. Such relationships exist among autonomous software agents, in networking system peers, as well as between "service users and providers." Traditional "ad hoc" security approaches effective in…

  2. A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.

  3. Divorce mediation and resolution of child custody disputes: long-term effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, P A; Emery, R E

    1996-01-01

    Separated parents randomly assigned to either mediation or traditional adversarial methods for resolving child custody disputes were surveyed nine years postsettlement. Noncustodial parents assigned to mediation reported more frequent current contact with their children and greater involvement in current decisions about them. Parents in the mediation group also reported more frequent communication about their children during the period since dispute resolution.

  4. Rambo and Mother Theresa: A Judge Looks at Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Joseph L.

    1988-01-01

    Addresses community attitude that angry adversarial divorces are normal and inevitable and asserts that, to change the divorce experience of Americans, the community attitude must change. Notes that one part of client community created and demanded and achieved joint custody and no fault divorce, and that it is up to the clients to demand and…

  5. 49 CFR 601.30 - Hearings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... otherwise specified, hearings held under this part are informal, non-adversary, fact-finding procedures at... Transit Administration designates a member of his/her staff to serve as legal officer at the hearing....

  6. The embedding of reported speech in a rhetorical structure by prosecutors and defense lawyers in Dutch trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneijder, P.W.J.

    2014-01-01

    Closing arguments in Dutch trials are representative of the adversarial part of the Dutch criminal justice system. The prosecutor and the defense lawyer design these arguments to persuade the judges of their opposing versions of the criminal events. Both parties draw on written documents such as the

  7. 44 CFR 334.3 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 334.3 Section 334.3 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... adversaries shape the nature and gravity of the threat as well as its likelihood and timing of...

  8. Quasiregularity and Its Discontents: The Legacy of the Past Tense Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Mark S.; Plaut, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Rumelhart and McClelland's chapter about learning the past tense created a degree of controversy extraordinary even in the adversarial culture of modern science. It also stimulated a vast amount of research that advanced the understanding of the past tense, inflectional morphology in English and other languages, the nature of linguistic…

  9. High Frontier: The Journal for Space and Cyberspace Professionals. Volume 6, Number 4, August 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    malicious code is then debugged , and a zero- day exploit is identified and shared with the defense industrial base community. The adversary had a new...Python, Ruby, XPath, and PHP . The ability to execute filtering software on a local network with the OPIR fire hose data mitigates problems with

  10. Intelligent agents for training on-board fire fighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, K. van den; Harbers, M.; Heuvelink, A.; Doesburg, W. van

    2009-01-01

    Simulation-based training in complex decision making often requires ample personnel for playing various roles (e.g. team mates, adversaries). Using intelligent agents may diminish the need for staff. However, to achieve goal-directed training, events in the simulation as well as the behavior of key

  11. Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Koshiba, T

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to adversaries, we generally discuss what are the right security notions for (quantum) public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting. Moreover, we consider the security of quantum public-key cryptosystems known so far.

  12. Security of a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Song [Curtin University of Technology, G.P.O. Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)], E-mail: s.han@curtin.edu.au

    2008-11-15

    Kacorev et al. proposed new public key encryption scheme using chaotic maps. Subsequently, Bergamo et al. has broken Kacorev and Tasev's encryption scheme and then applied the attack on a key agreement protocol based on Kacorev et al.'s system. In order to address Bergamo et al.' attack, Xiao et al. proposed a novel key agreement protocol. In this paper, we will present two attacks on Xiao et al.'s key agreement protocol using chaotic maps. Our new attack method is different from the one that Bergamo et al. developed. The proposed attacks work in a way that an adversary can prevent the user and the server from establishing a shared session key even though the adversary cannot get any private information from the user and the server's communications.

  13. Fair trial in international commercial arbitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saleh khedri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fair hearing in the courts requires the principles of procedure. Because the arbitration is considered as private judgment, thus in arbitration hearing regarding to non-ceremonial proceedings, arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect the principles of civil procedure in arbitration hearing. Equal treatment with parties of arbitration and Adversarial procedure are principles that arbitrator or arbitration panel obliged to satisfy them in proceeding whit action arbitration parties. Independence and impartiality are elements of Equal treatment and proper notice and give a full opportunity to presentation case are elements of adversarial procedure in Arbitration hearing that arbitrator or arbitration panel are bound to respect them in proceeding between action arbitration parties. Disclosure Obligation, Challenge to arbitrators competence, application for setting aside and refuse to recognition and enforcement of award are tools to satisfy compliance of principles of procedural civil in Arbitration hearing. In this paper, ways of satisfying principles of procedure and its sanctions has been considered.

  14. Robust Network Coding in the Presence of Untrusted Nodes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Da; Kschischang, Frank R

    2008-01-01

    While network coding can be an efficient means of information dissemination in networks, it is highly susceptible to ``pollution attacks,'' as the injection of even a single erroneous packet has the potential to corrupt each and every packet received by a given destination. Even when suitable error-control coding is applied, an adversary can, in many interesting practical situations, overwhelm the error-correcting capability of the code. To limit the power of potential adversaries, a broadcast-mode transformation is introduced, in which nodes are limited to just a single (broadcast) transmission per generation. Under this broadcast transformation, the multicast capacity of a network is changed (in general reduced) from the number of edge-disjoint paths between source and sink to the number of internally-disjoint paths. Exploiting this fact, we propose a family of networks whose capacity is largely unaffected by a broadcast transformation. This results in a significant achievable transmission rate for such net...

  15. Analysis of Information Leakage in Quantum Key Agreement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng-li; ZHENG Dong; CHENG Ke-fei

    2006-01-01

    Quantum key agreement is one of the approaches to unconditional security. Since 1980's, different protocols for quantum key agreement have been proposed and analyzed. A new quantum key agreement protocol was presented in 2004, and a detailed analysis to the protocol was given. The possible game played between legitimate users and the enemy was described:sitting in the middle, an adversary can play a "man-in-the-middle" attack to cheat the sender and receiver. The information leaked to the adversary is essential to the length of the final quantum secret key. It was shown how to determine the amount of information leaked to the enemy and the amount of uncertainty between the legitimate sender and receiver.

  16. Certified Randomness from a Two-Level System in a Relativistic Quantum Field

    CERN Document Server

    Thinh, Le Phuc; Martin-Martinez, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Randomness is an indispensable resource in modern science and information technology. Fortunately, an experimentally simple procedure exists to generate randomness with well-characterized devices: measuring a quantum system in a basis complementary to its preparation. Towards realizing this goal one may consider using atoms or superconducting qubits, promising candidates for quantum information processing. However, their unavoidable interaction with the electromagnetic field affects their dynamics. At large time scales, this can result in decoherence. Smaller time scales in principle avoid this problem, but may not be well analysed under the usual rotating wave and single-mode approximation (RWA and SMA) which break the relativistic nature of quantum field theory. Here, we use a fully relativistic analysis to quantify the information that an adversary with access to the field could get on the result of an atomic measurement. Surprisingly, we find that the adversary's guessing probability is not minimized for ...

  17. Quantum-secure covert communication on bosonic channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Boulat A.; Gheorghe, Andrei H.; Patel, Monika; Habif, Jonathan L.; Goeckel, Dennis; Towsley, Don; Guha, Saikat

    2015-10-01

    Computational encryption, information-theoretic secrecy and quantum cryptography offer progressively stronger security against unauthorized decoding of messages contained in communication transmissions. However, these approaches do not ensure stealth--that the mere presence of message-bearing transmissions be undetectable. We characterize the ultimate limit of how much data can be reliably and covertly communicated over the lossy thermal-noise bosonic channel (which models various practical communication channels). We show that whenever there is some channel noise that cannot in principle be controlled by an otherwise arbitrarily powerful adversary--for example, thermal noise from blackbody radiation--the number of reliably transmissible covert bits is at most proportional to the square root of the number of orthogonal modes (the time-bandwidth product) available in the transmission interval. We demonstrate this in a proof-of-principle experiment. Our result paves the way to realizing communications that are kept covert from an all-powerful quantum adversary.

  18. Secure Neighbor Position Discovery in VANETs

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Marco; Chiasserini, Carla Fabiana; Papadimitratos, Panagiotis

    2010-01-01

    Many significant functionalities of vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) require that nodes have knowledge of the positions of other vehicles, and notably of those within communication range. However, adversarial nodes could provide false position information or disrupt the acquisition of such information. Thus, in VANETs, the discovery of neighbor positions should be performed in a secure manner. In spite of a multitude of security protocols in the literature, there is no secure discovery protocol for neighbors positions. We address this problem in our paper: we design a distributed protocol that relies solely on information exchange among one-hop neighbors, we analyze its security properties in presence of one or multiple (independent or colluding) adversaries, and we evaluate its performance in a VANET environment using realistic mobility traces. We show that our protocol can be highly effective in detecting falsified position information, while maintaining a low rate of false positive detections.

  19. Structured Intuition: A Methodology to Analyse Entity Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed

    Entity authentication is a process of verifying a claimed identity of a network party. It may appear to be a simple goal, but, depending on the application and context, it entails a number of modalities, such as whether the party is currently active on the network, whether the party is willing...... to communicate, and whether the party knows that it has been authenticated. Combining such goals in different ways leads to different flavours of entity authentication. On an unauthenticated channel, an adversary can present a false claim of identity. Clearly, if the adversary succeeds, it may have serious...... network parties. Verification of an authentication protocol to show that it is secure is a hard problem. Most of the reported flaws in authentication protocols are not due to some weakness in the cryptographic primitives used in these protocols. The usual problems lie in improper use of cryptographic...

  20. The Effective Key Length of Watermarking Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the embedding distortion, the payload and the robustness of digital watermarking schemes are well understood, the notion of security is still not completely well defined. The approach proposed in the last five years is too theoretical and solely considers the embedding process, which is half of the watermarking scheme. This paper proposes a new measurement of watermarking security, called the effective key length, which captures the difficulty for the adversary to get access to the watermarking channel. This new methodology is applied to additive spread spectrum schemes where theoretical and practical computations of the effective key length are proposed. It shows that these schemes are not secure as soon as the adversary gets observations in the Known Message Attack context.

  1. Hybrid-secure MPC 

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Christoph; Raub, Dominik; Maurer, Ueli

    2010-01-01

    of the adversary, without being aware of the actual adversarial setting. Thus, hybrid-secure MPC protocols allow for graceful degradation of security. We present a hybrid-secure MPC protocol that provides an optimal trade-off between IT robustness and computational privacy: For any robustness parameter ρ ...Most protocols for distributed, fault-tolerant computation, or multi-party computation (MPC), provide security guarantees in an all-or-nothing fashion. In contrast, a hybrid-secure protocol provides different security guarantees depending on the set of corrupted parties and the computational power...... obtain one MPC protocol that is simultaneously IT secure with robustness for up to t ≤ ρ actively corrupted parties, IT secure with fairness (no robustness) for up to t privacy and correctness only) for up to t

  2. Towards a Bio-inspired Security Framework for Mission-Critical Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Song, Jun; Ma, Zhao; Huang, Shiyong

    Mission-critical wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been found in numerous promising applications in civil and military fields. However, the functionality of WSNs extensively relies on its security capability for detecting and defending sophisticated adversaries, such as Sybil, worm hole and mobile adversaries. In this paper, we propose a bio-inspired security framework to provide intelligence-enabled security mechanisms. This scheme is composed of a middleware, multiple agents and mobile agents. The agents monitor the network packets, host activities, make decisions and launch corresponding responses. Middleware performs an infrastructure for the communication between various agents and corresponding mobility. Certain cognitive models and intelligent algorithms such as Layered Reference Model of Brain and Self-Organizing Neural Network with Competitive Learning are explored in the context of sensor networks that have resource constraints. The security framework and implementation are also described in details.

  3. Signature Schemes Secure against Hard-to-Invert Leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Hazay, Carmit; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2012-01-01

    In the auxiliary input model an adversary is allowed to see a computationally hard-to-invert function of the secret key. The auxiliary input model weakens the bounded leakage assumption commonly made in leakage resilient cryptography as the hard-to-invert function may information-theoretically...... reveal the entire secret key. In this work, we propose the first constructions of digital signature schemes that are secure in the auxiliary input model. Our main contribution is a digital signature scheme that is secure against chosen message attacks when given an exponentially hard-to-invert function...... of the secret key. As a second contribution, we construct a signature scheme that achieves security for random messages assuming that the adversary is given a polynomial-time hard to invert function. Here, polynomial-hardness is required even when given the entire public-key – so called weak auxiliary input...

  4. Another cost of being a young black male: Race, weaponry, and lethal outcomes in assaults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B; Painter-Davis, Noah

    2012-09-01

    We examine the effect of the race, age, and gender of victims of assault on the offenders' use of weapons and lethal intent. Evidence from the National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) suggests that offenders are particularly likely to use guns against young black men-a three-way interaction - and to kill black males and young black adults. Black offenders respond more strongly to the victim's race than do white offenders. As a result of these effects, a violent incident between two young black men is about six times more likely to involve a gun than a violent incident between two young white men. We suggest that adversary effects, i.e., an offender's tactical response to the threat posed by adversaries, help explain why violence in black communities tends to be much more serious than violence in white communities.

  5. CompChall: Addressing Password Guessing Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Goyal, Vipul; Singh, Mayank; Abraham, Ajith; Sanyal, Sugata

    2011-01-01

    Even though passwords are the most convenient means of authentication, they bring along themselves the threat of dictionary attacks. Dictionary attacks may be of two kinds: online and offline. While offline dictionary attacks are possible only if the adversary is able to collect data for a successful protocol execution by eavesdropping on the communication channel and can be successfully countered using public key cryptography, online dictionary attacks can be performed by anyone and there is no satisfactory solution to counter them. This paper presents a new authentication protocol which is called CompChall (computational challenge). The proposed protocol uses only one way hash functions as the building blocks and attempts to eliminate online dictionary attacks by implementing a challenge-response system. This challenge-response system is designed in a fashion that it does not pose any difficulty to a genuine user but is time consuming and computationally intensive for an adversary trying to launch a large n...

  6. Secret Sharing and Proactive Renewal of Shares in Hierarchical Groups

    CERN Document Server

    Naskar, Ruchira; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2312

    2010-01-01

    Secret sharing in user hierarchy represents a challenging area for research. Although a lot of work has already been done in this direc- tion, this paper presents a novel approach to share a secret among a hierarchy of users while overcoming the limitations of the already exist- ing mechanisms. Our work is based on traditional (k +1; n)-threshold secret sharing, which is secure as long as an adversary can compromise not more than k secret shares. But in real life it is often feasible for an adversary to obtain more than k shares over a long period of time. So, in our work we also present a way to overcome this vulnerability, while implementing our hierarchical secret sharing scheme. The use of Elliptic Curve Cryptography makes the computations easier and faster in our work.

  7. CUSUM-Based Intrusion Detection Mechanism for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishan Ying

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nature of wireless sensor networks (WSNs makes them very vulnerable to adversary's malicious attacks. Therefore, network security is an important issue to WSNs. Due to the constraints of WSN, intrusion detection in WSNs is a challengeable task. In this paper, we present a novel intrusion detection mechanism for WSNs, which is composed of a secure data communication algorithm and an intrusion detection algorithm. The major contribution of this paper is that we propose an original secure mechanism to defend WSNs against malicious attacks by using the information generated during data communication. The approach is able to protect the data communication in a WSN even if some sensor nodes are compromised by adversary. The proposed approach is easy to be implemented and performed in resource-constrained WSN. We also evaluate the proposed approach by a simulation experiment and analyze the simulation results in detail.

  8. Composition Attacks and Auxiliary Information in Data Privacy

    CERN Document Server

    Ganta, Srivatsava Ranjit; Smith, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Privacy is an increasingly important aspect of data publishing. Reasoning about privacy, however, is fraught with pitfalls. One of the most significant is the auxiliary information (also called external knowledge, background knowledge, or side information) that an adversary gleans from other channels such as the web, public records, or domain knowledge. This paper explores how one can reason about privacy in the face of rich, realistic sources of auxiliary information. Specifically, we investigate the effectiveness of current anonymization schemes in preserving privacy when multiple organizations independently release anonymized data about overlapping populations. 1. We investigate composition attacks, in which an adversary uses independent anonymized releases to breach privacy. We explain why recently proposed models of limited auxiliary information fail to capture composition attacks. Our experiments demonstrate that even a simple instance of a composition attack can breach privacy in practice, for a large ...

  9. Loss-tolerant quantum secure positioning with weak laser sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Charles Ci Wen; Xu, Feihu; Siopsis, George; Chitambar, Eric; Evans, Philip G.; Qi, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Quantum position verification (QPV) is the art of verifying the geographical location of an untrusted party. Recently, it has been shown that the widely studied Bennett & Brassard 1984 (BB84) QPV protocol is insecure after the 3 dB loss point assuming local operations and classical communication (LOCC) adversaries. Here, we propose a time-reversed entanglement swapping QPV protocol (based on measurement-device-independent quantum cryptography) that is highly robust against quantum channel loss. First, assuming ideal qubit sources, we show that the protocol is secure against LOCC adversaries for any quantum channel loss, thereby overcoming the 3 dB loss limit. Then, we analyze the security of the protocol in a more practical setting involving weak laser sources and linear optics. In this setting, we find that the security only degrades by an additive constant and the protocol is able to verify positions up to 47 dB channel loss.

  10. Are leftists more emotion-driven than rightists? The interactive influence of ideology and emotions on support for policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliskin, Ruthie; Bar-Tal, Daniel; Sheppes, Gal; Halperin, Eran

    2014-12-01

    Although emotions and ideology are important factors guiding policy support in conflict, their interactive influence remains unclear. Based on prior findings that ideological leftists' beliefs are more susceptible to change than rightists' beliefs, we tested a somewhat counterintuitive extension that leftists would be more susceptible to influence by their emotional reactions than rightists. In three laboratory studies, inducing positive and negative emotions affected Jewish-Israeli leftists', but not rightists', support for conciliatory policies toward an adversarial (Studies 1 and 3) and a non-adversarial (Study 2) outgroup. Three additional field studies showed that positive and negative emotions were related to leftists', but not rightists', policy support in positive as well as highly negative conflict-related contexts, among both Jewish (Studies 4 and 5) and Palestinian (Study 6) citizens of Israel. Across different conflicts, emotions, conflict-related contexts, and even populations, leftists' policy support changed in accordance with emotional reactions more than rightists' policy support.

  11. Circuit-extension handshakes for Tor achieving forward secrecy in a quantum world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanck John M.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a circuit extension handshake for Tor that is forward secure against adversaries who gain quantum computing capabilities after session negotiation. In doing so, we refine the notion of an authenticated and confidential channel establishment (ACCE protocol and define pre-quantum, transitional, and post-quantum ACCE security. These new definitions reflect the types of adversaries that a protocol might be designed to resist. We prove that, with some small modifications, the currently deployed Tor circuit extension handshake, ntor, provides pre-quantum ACCE security. We then prove that our new protocol, when instantiated with a post-quantum key encapsulation mechanism, achieves the stronger notion of transitional ACCE security. Finally, we instantiate our protocol with NTRU-Encrypt and provide a performance comparison between ntor, our proposal, and the recent design of Ghosh and Kate.

  12. Routing Security Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks: Attacks and Defenses

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, Jaydip

    2011-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are rapidly emerging as an important new area in wireless and mobile computing research. Applications of WSNs are numerous and growing, and range from indoor deployment scenarios in the home and office to outdoor deployment scenarios in adversary's territory in a tactical battleground (Akyildiz et al., 2002). For military environment, dispersal of WSNs into an adversary's territory enables the detection and tracking of enemy soldiers and vehicles. For home/office environments, indoor sensor networks offer the ability to monitor the health of the elderly and to detect intruders via a wireless home security system. In each of these scenarios, lives and livelihoods may depend on the timeliness and correctness of the sensor data obtained from dispersed sensor nodes. As a result, such WSNs must be secured to prevent an intruder from obstructing the delivery of correct sensor data and from forging sensor data. To address the latter problem, end-to-end data integrity checksums and pos...

  13. A Graph-Based Impact Metric for Mitigating Lateral Movement Cyber Attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvine, Emilie AH; Johnson, John R.; Lo, Chaomei

    2016-11-04

    Most cyber network attacks begin with an adversary gain- ing a foothold within the network and proceed with lateral movement until a desired goal is achieved. The mechanism by which lateral movement occurs varies but the basic signa- ture of hopping between hosts by exploiting vulnerabilities is the same. Because of the nature of the vulnerabilities typ- ically exploited, lateral movement is very difficult to detect and defend against. In this paper we define a dynamic reach- ability graph model of the network to discover possible paths that an adversary could take using different vulnerabilities, and how those paths evolve over time. We use this reacha- bility graph to develop dynamic machine-level and network- level impact scores. Lateral movement mitigation strategies which make use of our impact scores are also discussed, and we detail an example using a freely available data set.

  14. 'The ravages of permissiveness': sex education and the permissive society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampshire, James; Lewis, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article we explore how sex education in schools has become an adversarial political issue. Although sex education has never been a wholly uncontroversial subject, we show that for two decades after the Second World War there was a broad consensus among policy-makers that it offered a solution to public health and social problems, especially venereal disease. From the late 1960s, this consensus came under attack. As part of a wider effort to reverse the changes associated with the 'permissive' society and legislation of the late 1960s, moral traditionalists and pro-family campaigners sought to problematize sex education. They depicted it as morally corrupting and redefined it as a problem rather than a public health solution. Henceforth, the politics of sex education became increasingly polarized and adversarial. We conclude that the fractious debates about sex education in the 1980s and 1990s are a legacy of this reaction against the permissive society.

  15. Replication Attack Mitigations for Static and Mobile WSN

    CERN Document Server

    Manjula, V; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3210

    2011-01-01

    Security is important for many sensor network applications. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are often deployed in hostile environments as static or mobile, where an adversary can physically capture some of the nodes. once a node is captured, adversary collects all the credentials like keys and identity etc. the attacker can re-program it and replicate the node in order to eavesdrop the transmitted messages or compromise the functionality of the network. Identity theft leads to two types attack: clone and sybil. In particularly a harmful attack against sensor networks where one or more node(s) illegitimately claims an identity as replicas is known as the node replication attack. The replication attack can be exceedingly injurious to many important functions of the sensor network such as routing, resource allocation, misbehavior detection, etc. This paper analyzes the threat posed by the replication attack and several novel techniques to detect and defend against the replication attack, and analyzes their effect...

  16. Enhancements for distributed certificate authority approaches for mobile wireless ad hoc networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Leeuwen, Brian P.; Michalski, John T.; Anderson, William Erik

    2003-12-01

    Mobile wireless ad hoc networks that are resistant to adversarial manipulation are necessary for distributed systems used in military and security applications. Critical to the successful operation of these networks, which operate in the presence of adversarial stressors, are robust and efficient information assurance methods. In this report we describe necessary enhancements for a distributed certificate authority (CA) used in secure wireless network architectures. Necessary cryptographic algorithms used in distributed CAs are described and implementation enhancements of these algorithms in mobile wireless ad hoc networks are developed. The enhancements support a network's ability to detect compromised nodes and facilitate distributed CA services. We provide insights to the impacts the enhancements will have on network performance with timing diagrams and preliminary network simulation studies.

  17. Random patterns and biometrics for counterfeit deterrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolk, K.M.

    1993-12-31

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) has been working on non-counterfeitable seals, tags, and documents for over fifteen years. During that time, several technologies have been developed that can be applied to deter counterfeiting of identification documents such as ID cards, passports, and possibly credit cards. Two technologies are presented in some detail. The first is reflective particle tagging technology that was developed to help verify treaties limiting the numbers of nuclear weapons that participating parties may possess. This approach uses the random locations and orientations of reflective particles applied to the surface of an item to uniquely identify the item. The resulting tags are secure against even the most determined adversaries. The second technology uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals.

  18. Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Ronald; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to multiparty computation (MPC) basing it on homomorphic threshold crypto-systems. We show that given keys for any sufficiently efficient system of this type, general MPC protocols for n parties can be devised which are secure against an active adversary that corrupts...... any minority of the parties. The total number of bits broadcast is O(nk|C|), where k is the security parameter and |C| is the size of a (Boolean) circuit computing the function to be securely evaluated. An earlier proposal by Franklin and Haber with the same complexity was only secure for passive...... adversaries, while all earlier protocols with active security had complexity at least quadratic in n. We give two examples of threshold cryptosystems that can support our construction and lead to the claimed complexities....

  19. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benavente Chorres Hesbert

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su voluntad.This study analyzes the cases of the documented proof in those codes regulated the Mexican states that have appropriate criminal proceedings prone to adversarial system. In that sense, it is understood by those measures documented evidence, primarily statements made during the investigation stage that the law gives the probative value could not attend the court hearing to test the trial for reasons beyond their control.

  20. Defining cyber warfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan D. Mladenović

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cyber conflicts represent a new kind of warfare that is technologically developing very rapidly. Such development results in more frequent and more intensive cyber attacks undertaken by states against adversary targets, with a wide range of diverse operations, from information operations to physical destruction of targets. Nevertheless, cyber warfare is waged through the application of the same means, techniques and methods as those used in cyber criminal, terrorism and intelligence activities. Moreover, it has a very specific nature that enables states to covertly initiate attacks against their adversaries. The starting point in defining doctrines, procedures and standards in the area of cyber warfare is determining its true nature. In this paper, a contribution to this effort was made through the analysis of the existing state doctrines and international practice in the area of cyber warfare towards the determination of its nationally acceptable definition.

  1. Traffic and Security using Randomized Dispersive Routes in Heterogeneous Sensor Network

    CERN Document Server

    Karunakaran, P

    2012-01-01

    Generally traffic and the sensor network security have many challenges in the transmission of data in the network. The existing schemes consider homogeneous sensor networks which have poor performance and scalability. Due to many-to-one traffic pattern, sensors may communicate with small portion of its neighbours. Key management is the critical process in sensor nodes to secure the data. Most existing schemes establish shared keys for all the sensors no matter whether they are communicating or not. Hence it leads to large storage overhead. Another problem in sensor network is compromised node attack and denial of service attack which occurs because of its wireless nature. Existing multi path routing algorithms are vulnerable to these attacks. So once an adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, and hence endanger all information sent over these routes. If an adversary performs node compromise attack, they can easily get the encryption/ decryption keys used b...

  2. Comparison of ICM with TPF-LEP to Prevent MAC Spoof DoS Attack in Wireless Local Area Infrastructure Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Durairaj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A Comparison of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP is done. Denial of Service (DoS attack is a biggest peril in wireless local area infrastructure network. It makes the resources unavailable for intended users which transpired through spoofing legitimate Client/AP's Medium Access Control (MAC address. MAC address are easily caricatured by the adversary clients, subsequently they are not encrypted. Since, the adversary sends the management frame, which is unencrypted, to the victim using spoofed MAC address. This study compares the performance of Integrated Central Manager (ICM and Traffic Pattern Filtering with Letter Envelop Protocol (TPF-LEP and evaluated the result using NS2. The attack scenario is simulated and effectiveness of the solutions is validated after the instigation of solutions in the attack consequences. Throughput, Packet Delivery Ratio and Packet Loss are measured and taken to endorse the performance of ICM and TPF-LEP.

  3. GNSS-based positioning: Attacks and Countermeasures

    CERN Document Server

    Papadimitratos, P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of mobile computing devices, user-portable, or embedded in vehicles, cargo containers, or the physical space, need to be aware of their location in order to provide a wide range of commercial services. Most often, mobile devices obtain their own location with the help of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), integrating, for example, a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Nonetheless, an adversary can compromise location-aware applications by attacking the GNSS-based positioning: It can forge navigation messages and mislead the receiver into calculating a fake location. In this paper, we analyze this vulnerability and propose and evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures. First, we consider replay attacks, which can be effective even in the presence of future cryptographic GNSS protection mechanisms. Then, we propose and analyze methods that allow GNSS receivers to detect the reception of signals generated by an adversary, and then reject fake locations calculated because of ...

  4. Modern Air&Space Power and political goals at war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Güngör.

    2014-05-01

    Modern AirandSpace Power is increasingly becoming a political tool. In this article, AirandSpacePower as a political tool will be discussed. The primary purpose of this article is to search how AirandSpacePower can provide contributions to security and also determine if it may reach the political goals on its own at war by SWOT Analysis Method and analysing the role of AirandSpace Power in Operation Unified Protector (Libya) as a case study. In conclusion, AirandSpacePower may not be sufficient to win the political goals on its own. However it may reach the political aims partially against the adversary on its own depending upon the situations. Moreover it can alone persuade the adversary to alter its behavior(s) in war.

  5. Route Discovery and Hop Node Verification to Ensure Authenticated Data Transmissions in Manet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha.M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In mobile ad hoc network, Position aided routing protocols can offer a significant performance increase over traditional ad hoc routing protocols. As position information is broadcasted including the enemy to receive. Routes may be disconnected due to dynamic movement of nodes. Such networks are more vulnerable to both internal and external attacks due to presence of adversarial nodes. These nodes affect the performance of routing protocol in ad hoc networks. So it is essential to identify the neighbours in MANET. The “Neighbor Position Verification” (NPV, is a routing protocol designed to protect the network from adversary nodes by verifying the position of neighbor nodes to improve security, efficiency and performance in MANET routing.

  6. Controlling chaotic transients: Yorke's game of survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Jacobo; D'ovidio, Francesco; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.

    2004-01-01

    We consider the tent map as the prototype of a chaotic system with escapes. We show analytically that a small, bounded, but carefully chosen perturbation added to the system can trap forever an orbit close to the chaotic saddle, even in presence of noise of larger, although bounded, amplitude......, the dynamics diverge, leaving a relatively safe region, and we say the protagonist loses. What makes survival difficult is that the adversary is allowed stronger "actions" than the protagonist. What makes survival possible is (i) the background dynamics (the tent map here) are chaotic and (ii) the protagonist...... knows the action of the adversary in choosing his response and is permitted to choose the initial point x(0) of the game. We use the "slope 3" tent map in an example of this problem. We show that it is possible for the protagonist to survive....

  7. Collaborative Divorce: An Effort to Reduce the Damage of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Fisch, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Divorce has been trapped in the adversarial system of the courts, a system ill suited to the needs of a family attempting to reorganize itself and still safeguard the well-being of its members. Collaborative divorce (CD) is a relatively new approach comprising an interdisciplinary professional team trained to help the divorcing family arrive at a financial, legal, and emotional settlement. The CD approach is designed to assist both members of the couple and their children transition into a more constructive future wherein they can still be a family. The structure and adversarial approach of the courts have been replaced by collaborative structures and principles developed to encourage honesty and cooperation. The case presented illustrates how this actually works.

  8. Attacks and Countermeasures in Social Network Data Publishing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Yang

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of social networks, more and more social network data are published for many applications, such as social network analysis and data mining. However, this brings privacy problems. For example, adversaries can get sensitive in⁃formation of some individuals easily with little background knowledge. How to publish social network data for analysis purpose while preserving the privacy of individuals has raised many concerns. Many algorithms have been proposed to address this issue. In this paper, we discuss this privacy problem from two aspects: attack models and countermeasures. We analyse privacy con⁃cerns, model the background knowledge that adversary may utilize and review the recently developed attack models. We then sur⁃vey the state⁃of⁃the⁃art privacy preserving methods in two categories: anonymization methods and differential privacy methods. We also provide research directions in this area.

  9. Tamper-Proof Circuits : : How to Trade Leakage for Tamper-Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faust, Sebastian; Pietrzak, Krzysztof; Venturi, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    that transforms any circuit into a new circuit with the same functionality, but which is resilient against a well-defined and powerful tampering adversary. More concretely, our transformed circuits remain secure even if the adversary can adaptively tamper with every wire in the circuit as long as the tampering......-box access to the original circuit and log(q) bits of additional auxiliary information. Thus, if the implemented cryptographic scheme is secure against log(q) bits of leakage, then our implementation is tamper-proof in the above sense. Surprisingly, allowing for this small amount of information leakage...... allows for much more efficient compilers, which moreover do not require randomness during evaluation. Similar to earlier works our compiler requires small, stateless and computation-independent tamper-proof gadgets. Thus, our result can be interpreted as reducing the problem of shielding arbitrary...

  10. Leader Election for Anonymous Asynchronous Agents in Arbitrary Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Dereniowski, Dariusz

    2012-01-01

    We study the problem of leader election among mobile agents operating in an arbitrary network modeled as an undirected graph. Nodes of the network are unlabeled and all agents are identical. Hence the only way to elect a leader among agents is by exploiting asymmetries in their initial positions in the graph. Agents do not know the graph or their positions in it, hence they must gain this knowledge by navigating in the graph and share it with other agents to accomplish leader election. This can be done using meetings of agents, which is difficult because of their asynchronous nature: an adversary has total control over the speed of agents. When can a leader be elected in this adversarial scenario and how to do it? We give a complete answer to this question by characterizing all initial configurations for which leader election is possible and by constructing an algorithm that accomplishes leader election for all configurations for which this can be done.

  11. Security Notions for Quantum Public-Key Cryptography

    OpenAIRE

    Koshiba, Takeshi

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Shor's quantum algorithm for integer factorization can break down the RSA public-key cryptosystem, which is widely used in many cryptographic applications. Thus, public-key cryptosystems in the quantum computational setting are longed for cryptology. In order to define the security notions of public-key cryptosystems, we have to model the power of the sender, receiver, adversary and channel. While we may consider a setting where quantum computers are available only to ad...

  12. Cyberspace: Time to Reassess, Reorganize, and Resource for Evolving Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    consequences of any type of cyber adversary attacking national level critical infrastructure such as power generation facilities , on a large scale...cyberspace as notional and non-existent. The 1982 Disney movie TRON contributes to this fantasy by portraying humans entering into cyberspace via an...treasure to protect its economic sectors, facilities , and infrastructure. The national and international corporate business worlds are potential players

  13. Escalation of the Space Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    spacepower – what is meant by spacepower and how might its elements be made available for escalation. Chapter 2 Escalation 101 “We sleep safely...its instruments of national power to change the forthcoming behavior of an adversary.21 There are two distinct types of coercion: punishment and...are similar in nature and application to those seen in science fiction moves or on television (i.e., Star Trek) that can provide direct kinetic

  14. Towards an American Model of Criminal Process: The Reform of the Polish Code of Criminal Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roclawska Monika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, the Polish Parliament passed an amendment to the Code of Criminal Procedure. The legislators decided to expand a number of adversarial elements present in current Polish criminal proceedings. When these changes come into effect (July 1, 2015, Polish criminal procedure will be similar to American regulations, in which the judge’s role is to be an impartial arbitrator, not an investigator.

  15. Strategic War Game - Arctic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    aérienne, le gouvernement du Canada et l’adversaire. Chaque joueur adopte des plans d’action possibles, on choisit une méthode de pointage, et le jeu...increased interception. Whereas both COAs achieve the desired result (the Adversary respecting Canadian sovereignty), the costs associated with...increased surveillance (both in terms of level of effort and monetary costs) are limited when compared to those associated with increased interception

  16. A Cost Effective RFID Based Customized DVD-ROM to Thwart Software Piracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Dogra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Software piracy has been a very perilous adversary of the software-based industry, from the very beginning of the development of the latter into a significant business. There has been no developed foolproof system that has been developed to appropriately tackle this vile issue. We have in our scheme tried to develop a way to embark upon this problem using a very recently developed technology of RFID.

  17. Root Cause Analysis of Sexual Assault: Shifting from Early Detection to a Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    consistent. However, the author does so with regret that male victims and the large majority of male non-rapists may be offended . Finally, though the...a culture of dignity and respect, must be developed and modeled from the top down, all ages, both men and women.30 Additionally, young members...derived status from getting attention. These agendas are both complementary and adversarial.”47 It is both our young males and females complete

  18. Verifying DART Systems (DART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-15

    physical context and rational adversaries • Computationally complex decisions Coordination, adaptation, and uncertainty pose key challenges for...self-adaptation and mixed criticality to cope with uncertainty and changing context Demonstrate on DoD-relevant model problem (DART prototype...Threads (HCTs) H C T L C T Software for guaranteed requirements, e.g., collision avoidance protocol must ensure absence of collisions ZSRM

  19. Technical Assessment: Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-23

    technical fields: perception, cognition, and action, which cover areas from sensors to artificial intelligence and robotics . There are opportunities to...and robotics R&D on developing autonomy for platforms intended to operate in complex environments with special consideration for adversarial...performance, and in new configurations which have not been possible to date. Autonomy will also impact the behavior of humans and raise new ethical and legal

  20. Supply Chain Attack Framework and Attack Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Malware is embedded in a replacement server motherboard (e.g., in the flash memory) in order to alter server functionality from that intended. Attack...Slashdot: Dell Ships Infected Motherboards July 21, 2010(c/o Rick Dove) Threat: An adversary with access to hardware procurement, maintenance, or upgrade...control can embed malware in a critical component server motherboard . Vulnerabilities: The control processes and mechanisms for hardware

  1. ISR systems: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Daniel J.

    2016-05-01

    Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) systems have been in use for thousands of years. Technology and CONOPS have continually evolved and morphed to meet ever-changing information needs and adversaries. Funding sources, constraints and procurement philosophies have also evolved, requiring cost-effective innovation to field marketable products which maximize the effectiveness of the Tasking, Capture, Processing, Exploitation, and Dissemination (TCPED) information chain. This paper describes the TCPED information chain and the evolution of ISR (past, present, and future).

  2. Secure Sensor Semantic Web and Information Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-25

    assumptions on the opponent’s knowledge, the distribution of corrupted data, and available computing resources. In practice, adversaries are seldom optimal...financial crisis to ensure that this does not happen in the future. Our third paper is on credit card fraud analysis. While there has been work in this area...Sharing, PAISI (Pacific Asia Intelligence and Security Informatics) May 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia . (presented by Prof. Latifur Khan) 4. Assured Cloud

  3. The fragility of functional work systems in steel

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne J. Konzelmann; Barnes, William

    1999-01-01

    The I/N case offers insight into the interrelationship between work systems, living standards and performance. It demonstrates that a high road approach and functional work systems positively impact stakeholders’ lives, improve production efficiency and benefit the local and macro-level economies and societies in which they are embedded. It also shows that such work systems can be implemented in contexts with a history of adversarial labor-management relations. However, broader external force...

  4. The Fragility of Functional Work Systems in American Steel

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, W.; Sue Konzelmann

    1999-01-01

    The I/N case offers insight into the interrelationship between work systems, living standards and performance. It demonstrates that a high road approach and functional work systems positively impact stakeholders' lives, improve production efficiency and benefit the local and macro-level economies and societies in which they are embedded. It also shows that such work systems can be implemented in contexts with a history of adversarial labor-management relations. However, broader external force...

  5. International Politics of the Reincarnation of the Dalai Lama

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    requires a careful assessment of the adversary’s commitment to use military power. Past Action Theory and Current Calculus Theory examine the credibility...of such a commitment. Past Action Theory examines the history of keeping and breaking commitments to the adversary power’s leaders and predicts the...threatening behavior. Daryl G. Press tested the two theories in four different cases and concluded that Current Calculus was valid. Past Action theory requires

  6. Cyberspace Operations in Support of Counterinsurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    Operations, cyberspace operations consist of computer network attack (cna), computer network exploitation (cne) and computer network defense ( cnd ).2 CNA...use of computer networks to gather data from target or adversary automated information systems or networks.”4 finally, cnd is characterized as in...intelligence supporting counterinsurgency operations • CNA directed by command in theater of war • CND support via IAD D Theater Cyber Support Element

  7. The More Things Change, Acquisition Reform Remains the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    civil-military industrial base (continued commercialization of acquisition processes), focus on cost and schedule as priority parameters over...adversaries in an environment of increasing domestic competition for shrinking economic resources. Secretary Gates went on to identify three...realities of growing economic difficulties in the U.S. made achieving those higher budget top-lines unlikely. His conclusion was that DoD must

  8. The ’Islamic State’ Crisis and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-22

    Mosul, one of Iraq’s largest cities. Since then, IS forces have massacred Syrian adversaries and Iraqi civilians, often from ethnic or religious...peshmerga. Humanitarian Airdrops During early August 2014, the U.S. military conducted airdrops of food and water to those trapped on Sinjar...The “Islamic State” Crisis and U.S. Policy Congressional Research Service 10 town of Amerli (in eastern Salahuddin Province), inhabited by ethnic

  9. Strongly Unforgeable Ring Signature Scheme from Lattices in the Standard Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geontae Noh

    2014-01-01

    from lattices are not even existentially unforgeable with respect to insider corruption. We then improve previous schemes by applying, for the first time, the concept of strong unforgeability with respect to insider corruption to a ring signature scheme in lattices. This offers more security than any previous ring signature scheme: adversaries cannot produce new signatures for any ring-message pair, including previously signed ring-message pairs.

  10. Tasked and Ready: The Armys Commitment to the Better Buying Power Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    adversaries as isolated as individual terrorists and as large as nation-states. Our portfolio must span aviation, ground vehicles, missiles, ammunition...and elimination of chemical and biological weapons. This breadth of portfolios coupled with significant fund- ing and manpower reductions posed by...programs of record, then examined ongoing sustainment needs from a total-life-cycle perspective . The Army continues to identify critical technolo- gies

  11. Unraveling an Old Cloak: k-anonymity for Location Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Reza; Troncoso, Carmela; Diaz, Claudia; Freudiger, Julien; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    There is a rich collection of literature that aims at protecting the privacy of users querying location-based services. One of the most popular location privacy techniques consists in cloaking users' locations such that k users appear as potential senders of a query, thus achieving k-anonymity. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of k-anonymity approaches for protecting location privacy in the presence of various types of adversaries. The unraveling of the scheme unfolds the inconsistency b...

  12. How to define and build an effective cyber threat intelligence capability how to understand, justify and implement a new approach to security

    CERN Document Server

    Dalziel, Henry; Carnall, James

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence-Led Security: How to Understand, Justify and Implement a New Approach to Security is a concise review of the concept of Intelligence-Led Security. Protecting a business, including its information and intellectual property, physical infrastructure, employees, and reputation, has become increasingly difficult. Online threats come from all sides: internal leaks and external adversaries; domestic hacktivists and overseas cybercrime syndicates; targeted threats and mass attacks. And these threats run the gamut from targeted to indiscriminate to entirely accidental. Amo

  13. Advocacy and technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    A highly structured treatment is presented of adversarial systems as they apply to technology assessment. One approach to the problem of adequate criteria of assessment focuses upon the internal operations of assessment entities; operations include problem perception, problem formulation, selection, utilization, determination, and evaluation. Potential contributions of advocacy as a mode of inquiry in technology are discussed; advocacy is evaluated by representative sets of criteria of adequate assessment which include participant criteria, perspectives criteria, situations criteria, base values criteria, and strategies criteria.

  14. Evaluating the Success of the Commanders Emergency Response Program in Herat Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    the people in their favor. There would be no way that the adversary could compete with the deep pockets of the local American commander. Generals...Utilizing open source, geospatial intelligence gathered by DigitalGlobe’s Enhanced View Web Hosting Service, it can be determined with a moderate...Station, October 1, 2016.54 53 Adapted from Shindand–Enhanced View Web Hosting, Digital Globe, last accessed October 21, 2016, https

  15. Command and Control, Cyber, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (CRISR) and Cyber Tactical Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    vulnerabilities were explored to counter adversarial C4ISR capabilities. The key was to help develop a portfolio of technologies to support evolving warfighter...The final component is doctrinal, organizational, training, materiel, leadership and education , personnel, and facilities initiatives developed...warranted for their positions. An advanced training and educational degree program (i.e., MBA) would be created and offered to ORTAs to meet the new

  16. Social context modulates the effect of physical warmth on perceived interpersonal kindness:a study of embodied metaphors

    OpenAIRE

    Citron, Francesca M M; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical contact with hot vs. iced coffee has been shown to affect evaluation of the personal warmth or kindness of a hypothetical person (Williams & Bargh, 2008). In 3 studies, we investigated whether the manipulation of social context can modulate the activation of the metaphorical mapping, KINDNESS as WARMTH. After priming participants with warm vs. cold temperature, we asked them to evaluate a hypothetical ad-hoc ally or adversary on the kindness dimension, as well as on other qualities u...

  17. Choosing a Moral Framework for the War on Terror

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    41 Jay M. Feinman , Law 101: Everything You Need to Know About the American Legal System (New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), 263. 19 States...enforcement investigation procedure, and the adversary system.51 Feinman notes that the burden is upon the state in the criminal justice system: “All...investigators. After the Khobar towers bombing in 1996, for example, the Saudi Arabian 51 Feinman , 301

  18. 2004 Space Report: Environment and Strategy for Space Research at NATO’s Research and Technology Organisation (RTO) (Compte rendu Espace 2004 : Environnement et strat gie de la recherche spatiale de l’Organisation pour la recherche et la technologie de l’OTAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    capteurs installés sur des plates-formes terrestres , aériennes et spatiales, l’acquisition des capacités de communications des satellites de prochaine...Navigational Warfare’), communication and imagery via jamming is another effective mechanism that can be used by adversaries from the ground or air...superiority via the use of modern space systems. Research to sustain, protect and advance space-based systems and related technologies and to assure

  19. Detecting malicious activities with user-agent-based profiles

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) has become the main protocol to carry out malicious activities. Attackers typically use HTTP for communication with command-and-control servers, click fraud, phishing and other malicious activities, as they can easily hide among the large amount of benign HTTP traffic. The user-agent (UA) field in the HTTP header carries information on the application, operating system (OS), device, and so on, and adversaries fake UA strings as a way to evade detection. Moti...

  20. An Advanced Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme for Identifying Cheaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-cui; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an advanced threshold secret sharing scheme for identifying cheaters is proposed by using authentication codes. The performance of the scheme is discussed. The results show that in the scheme the valid shareholders can not only identify the impersonation of an adversary, but also detect cheating of some valid shareholders. In particular one honest shareholder is able to detect cheating of other participants forming a collection, and the information rate of the scheme is higher than that of others.

  1. Ecosystem Services and Environmental Governance: Comparing China and the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services (the benefits people derive from functioning ecosystems) is beginning to change the way we view the relationship between humans and the rest of nature. To the extent that we view humanity as embedded in and interdependent with the rest of nature, rather than viewing nature as separate from people or even as an adversary, our whole approach to environmental research, governance and management changes. These ongoing changes are discussed with reference to the e...

  2. Mathematical Basis of Knowledge Discovery and Autonomous Intelligent Architectures. Task #2: Rapid Knowledge Fusion in the Scalable Infosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-14

    34Advances in Engineering Software" and two detective novels by Agatha Christie (Table 16). Table 16. Results of experiments with stemming of large texts Time...in a multiagent cooperative design environment 0.016 2087 42315 The Mysterious Affair at Styles ( Agatha Christie ) 0.172 13778 347320 The Secret...Adversary ( Agatha Christie ) 0.219 17543 452141 5.5.3. Results of Experiments with Spelling Experiment showed that request processing by spelling module

  3. Poisoned Feedback: The Impact of Malicious Users in Closed-Loop Multiuser MIMO Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Amitav

    2010-01-01

    Accurate channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter is critical for maximizing spectral efficiency on the downlink of multi-antenna networks. In this work we analyze a novel form of physical layer attacks on such closed-loop wireless networks. Specifically, this paper considers the impact of deliberately inaccurate feedback by malicious users in a multiuser multicast system. Numerical results demonstrate the significant degradation in performance of closed-loop transmission schemes due to intentional feedback of false CSI by adversarial users.

  4. Extended Deterrence and Allied Assurance: Key Concepts and Current Challenges for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    to describe the phenomena of extended deterrence. Using generic terms, extended deterrence can be described as Blue deterring adversary Red from...to the phenomena of extended deterrence and assurance: why would a state risk blood and treasure on behalf of a third party, and how much risk on...American Forces Press Service, November 16, 2011. 52 Office of the Prime Minister of Australia, “Transcript of Press Conference, Bali ,” press release

  5. Minimal Representation and Decision Making for Networked Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    A new adaptive formation control method is developed for a large number of spacecraft or robots moving on adaptive network topologies . The...adversarial nodes are able not only to impede convergence toward consensus, but can also affect global changes in the topology of the communication...Perform Global Linear Computations. IEEE Conference and Decision and Control, 2015. Submitted. 12. H. Park , S. Hutchinson, "A Distributed Optimal Strategy

  6. Software Supply Chain Risk Management: From Products to Systems of Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    how th , such as one for water treatment. The designers of Stux l systems directly. Rather Stuxnet infected hundreds of bjective of compromising a...targeted by the Stuxnet attack are used to control water , electricity, and nuclear operations. To be adapted to the acquiring organization’s...Influence on DoD S ssues . lnerabilities is deeply complex, and there is no silver bul code has been implanted by a capable adversary, it is u

  7. Crowd-Averse Cyber-Physical Systems: The Paradigm of Robust Mean Field Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bauso, D.; Tembine, H.

    2015-01-01

    For a networked controlled system we illustrate the paradigm of robust mean-field games. This is a modeling framework at the interface of differential game theory, mathematical physics, and H1-optimal control that tries to capture the mutual influence between a crowd and its individuals. First, we establish a mean-field system for such games including the effects of adversarial disturbances. Second, we identify the optimal response of the individuals for a given population behavior. Third, we...

  8. Characterizing the Efficacy of the NRL Network Pump in Mitigating Covert Timing Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    optimal causal coding-decoding problems,” http://arxiv.org/abs/1102.0250, 2010. [37] S. Gorantla and T. Coleman, “On reversible markov chains and...information by encoding it in the timings of the packets sent through a queuing system was investigated in [18]. In [19], the authors study an...adversarial queuing setup, where a jammer has control of the queueing discipline. Most recently Askarov et al. adapting the periodic quantization methodology

  9. Decentralized Network Interdiction Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-31

    11 2.3 Bridging Game Theory and Large-Scale Optimization under Uncertainty...has their own set of adversaries to obstruct, their actions can affect (either favorably or adversely) the other interdictors’ interests due to the...potential reason for the lack of attention paid to such games may be that such games often involve nondifferentiabil- ity, as each interdictor’s optimization

  10. Achieving Sink Node Anonymity Under Energy Constraints in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    initial intervals and detection and transmission of real event data to adjusted transmission of dummy traffic to regain the mean of the PDF, from [6...sensor network (WSN) is typically composed of a set of sensors that probe their physical environment for information and report their measurements to a...information transmitted can be sensed information or a dummy packet if the sensor has no information to relay at that time. An adversary observing the network

  11. Managing and Securing Critical Infrastructure - A Semantic Policy and Trust Driven Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    enviromental factors, then it is very likely that the corresponding device has been compromised and controlled by an adversary. In this case, the report... Enviromental Factors in Faulty Case (b) Result of Policy Execution in Faulty Case Figure 7: Policy Execution in Faulty Case (a) Enviromental Factors...to the various attributes, operators can tune the decision process to satisfy their economic , political and other policies. For example, ASes can

  12. Biotechnology: An Era of Hopes and Fears

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    bird flu makes agriculture a serious target for an adversary seeking to inflict fi- nancial damage while not directly harming human life. This threat...large number of engineered bees could be raised in a protected environment; then a large population of engineered drones would be released to...of the bee population in an agriculturally in- tense geographic area could have enormous secondary effects, as crops that rely upon pollination

  13. Droning on: American strategic myopia toward unmanned aerial systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Carlos S.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Throughout the past decade of wars, the U.S. has deployed unmanned aerial systems, commonly referred to as drones, from Africa to Asia collecting intelligence and targeting adversaries. The nation now stands at a crossroad seeking to develop future American drone policy against an evolving threat while at the same time shaping global norms. The past decade of American drone use focused on short-term benefits, intelligence collection a...

  14. Robust Learning of Fixed-Structure Bayesian Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Diakonikolas, Ilias; Kane, Daniel; Stewart, Alistair

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the problem of learning Bayesian networks in an agnostic model where an $\\epsilon$-fraction of the samples are adversarially corrupted. Our agnostic learning model is similar to -- in fact, stronger than -- Huber's contamination model in robust statistics. In this work, we study the fully observable Bernoulli case where the structure of the network is given. Even in this basic setting, previous learning algorithms either run in exponential time or lose dimension-dependent facto...

  15. Assessment of Vision-Based Target Detection and Classification Solutions Using an Indoor Aerial Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    move forward through the water with limited lateral and astern propulsion capabilities. This is both a blessing and a curse. They are predictable in...CAS) or supplies would be beneficial. To minimize susceptibility to detection by adversarial forces, a flight profile that limits extended flight time...on Robotics and Biomimetics. Bangkok : IEEE, Feb. 2009, pp. 1744–1749. [Online]. Available: http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber

  16. ‪The Vulnerability of Social Networking Media and the Insider Threat: New Eyes for Bad Guys‬ [video

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkart, John; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2012-01-01

    Social networking media introduces a new set of vulnerabilities to protecting an organization's sensitive information. Adversaries are actively targeting U.S. industry to acquire trade secrets to undercut U.S. business in the marketplace. Of primary concern is an insider's betrayal of an organization by providing sensitive information to a hostile outsider. Social engineering, when coupled with the new and widespread use of social networking media, becomes more effective by exploiting the wea...

  17. Towards Algorithmic Advances for Solving Stackelberg Games: Addressing Model Uncertainties and Massive Game Scale-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-04

    applying game theory to solving real-world security problems is the “perfect rationality” assumption of the players, which may not hold when dealing with...predictability. However, one key challenge in applying game theory to solving real-world security problems is the “perfect rationality” assumption of the...optimal randomized schedules against adversaries who may exploit predictability. However, one key challenge in applying game theory to solving real

  18. S čim začeti roman? Balzac, Dumas in Sue:

    OpenAIRE

    Marinčič, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    This article examines Honoré de Balzac's relationship to trivial literature, especially to two of the most important feuilletonists of his day, Alexander Dumas and Eugene Sue. It shows that, despite Balzac's critical and even adversarial reception of this type of literature, the narrative technique of the "feuilleton novel" significantly marked Balzac's narrative style, especially in the expositions of his novels. Članek obravnava odnos Honoréja de Balzaca do trivialne književnosti, zlasti...

  19. Radar operation in a hostile electromagnetic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2014-03-01

    Radar ISR does not always involve cooperative or even friendly targets. An adversary has numerous techniques available to him to counter the effectiveness of a radar ISR sensor. These generally fall under the banner of jamming, spoofing, or otherwise interfering with the EM signals required by the radar sensor. Consequently mitigation techniques are prudent to retain efficacy of the radar sensor. We discuss in general terms a number of mitigation techniques.

  20. On the theoretical basis for plea bargaining system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiancheng

    2006-01-01

    Before discussing the introduction of the plea bargaining system to China's criminal justice system,it is necessary to study its theoretical basis.Among which,the following aspects should be focused on: the philosophical viewpoint of pragmatism is its thinking basis;the concept of contract is its cultural basis;the structure form of adversary procedure is its systematic basis;and the system of fight to silence and discovery of evidence are its symbiotic basis.

  1. Bullets and Blogs: New Media and the Warfighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Internet-enabled iPods , GPS devices, and other consumer appliances are increasing the number of network-attached devices through which new media...being baited by adversary action that seeks to provoke a heavy-handed response. A participant shared his experience when stationed with the Israelis...by mainstream media before correctives are issued;50 and, “ competition has driven traditional media to abrogate its responsibilities for

  2. Antiterrorism Measures For Historic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    superior anchorage and cabling woven through the mesh , it may not even be counted on to thwart a determined adversary in a vehicle. Similar prob- lems...Parking and Roadways — Close the Street and Parking Areas. This resolution differs from aban- doning in place in that it involves some level of redes - ign...a mesh fabric sleeve (called a sock in the manufacturer literature) and fluid grout is injected under pressure through the anchor until reaching

  3. Back to the Future: Integrated Air and Missile Defense in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Add to those the Aegis system, ground-based air defense, and short-ranged air defense to destroy an adversary’s inbound air threats. By combining...Technology Demonstra- tion. Designed to protect critical, vulnerable assets through the most cost -effective application of hardening/ resiliency methods...ability to /( flush-launch" (rapid engine start, taxi, and takeoff) alert aircraft upon receipt of warnings of tactical inbound missiles and

  4. U.S. Security-Related Agreements in Force Since 1955: Introducing a New Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    less powerful states ( Morgenthau , 1973; Waltz, 1979; Morrow, 1994). Using a new dataset of military alliances, Leeds (2003a, 2003b) finds evidence...and treaties affect state behavior only when their interdictions or provisions overlap with the state’s interests ( Morgenthau , 1985). Another school...with important adversaries ( Morgenthau , 1973; Waltz, 1979). For example, during the Cold War, the United States and Union of Soviet Socialist

  5. Criminal Evidence : Democracy, Relevance to the Implementation of Accusatory System and Efficiency of the Oral Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Domingues, Ricardo Alves; Avila, Gustavo Noronha de

    2016-01-01

    The so-called principle of real truth is argument to justify arbitrary procedures used in criminal proceedings. A perfect reproduction of the scene of a crime is impossible. The production of evidence in democratic societies must be guided by the adversarial system . However, not enough positivization affections precepts to this systematic procedure. It is necessary that the practice of instruction acts reveal democratic conduct by the authorities responsible for conducting the process. Only ...

  6. Can’t Stop the Signal: Regaining Reliable Access to Cyberspace for Command and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    nations now have the ability to destroy or disable satellites outright with anti- satellite ( ASAT ) technology, forcing the combatant commander to analyze...the problem of how to provide cyber without space. 24 Even if the JFC would like to assume that an ASAT -capable nation would not use this ability...for guarantees from the adversary not to utilize ASAT first. This would severely hamper the operational commander’s ability to utilize cyber unless

  7. Marine ground intelligence reform: how to redesign ground intelligence for the threats of the 21st century

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Present-day Marine ground intelligence is configured for attrition warfighting and the predictable conventional adversaries of the past. Designed during WWII, it has undergone little change; what has changed is the threat environment. Modern-day threats are less centralized and regimented. They think on their own and they adapt quickly. This thesis analyzes the current configuration of Marine ground intelligence and compares it with tw...

  8. Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    AtaUllah Ghafoor; Muhammad Sher; Muhammad Imran; Imran Baig

    2016-01-01

    Key distribution is essential for providing secure communication between commercial and sensitive applications of wireless sensor and actor networks (WSANs). It becomes more challenging when any of the intermediate sensor nodes is compromised by the adversaries as the messages carrying secure keys will be exposed and links will be unreliable. This paper presents a Disjoint Key Establishment Protocol (DKEP) that does not require transmitting keys across the nodes. In DKEP, each node is preload...

  9. Trojans in Early Design Steps—An Emerging Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Polian, Ilia; Becker, Georg T.; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Hardware Trojans inserted by malicious foundries during integrated circuit manufacturing have received substantial attention in recent years. In this paper, we focus on a different type of hardware Trojan threats: attacks in the early steps of design process. We show that third-party intellectual property cores and CAD tools constitute realistic attack surfaces and that even system specification can be targeted by adversaries. We discuss the devastating damage potential o...

  10. Duplication-based Concurrent Detection of Hardware Trojans in Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Palanichamy, Manikandan; Ba, Papa-Sidy; Dupuis, Sophie; Flottes, Marie-Lise; Di Natale, Giorgio; Rouzeyre, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Outsourcing the fabrication process to low-cost locations has become a major trend in the Integrated Circuits (ICs) industry in the last decade. This trend raises the question about untrusted foundries in which an adversary can tamper with the circuit by inserting a malicious behavior in the ICs, referred to as Hardware Trojans (HTs). The serious impact of HTs in security applications and global economy brings extreme importance to detection as well as prevention techn...

  11. India: The Impact of Climate Change to 2030 Geopolitical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    incomes. Numbers count in a democracy and the poor are learning to use their political clout to make demands on the government. If the hldian poor become...during the two Indo-Pakistani wars and periodic tensions. Lessons learned from this example of water cooperation between adversaries include the need for...deporting persons of Bengali origin unable to produce a birth certificate or other evidence of Indian citizenship. In India’s northeastem Assam region

  12. How To Break Anonymity of the Netflix Prize Dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Narayanan, Arvind; Shmatikov, Vitaly

    2006-01-01

    We present a new class of statistical de-anonymization attacks against high-dimensional micro-data, such as individual preferences, recommendations, transaction records and so on. Our techniques are robust to perturbation in the data and tolerate some mistakes in the adversary's background knowledge. We apply our de-anonymization methodology to the Netflix Prize dataset, which contains anonymous movie ratings of 500,000 subscribers of Netflix, the world's largest online movie rental service. ...

  13. So Near and Yet So Far: Choices and Consequences of the Stand-In and Stand-Off Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    11. 4. David M. Glantz and Jonathan House, When Titans Clashed: How the Red Army Stopped Hitler (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1995...numbers from Glantz, When Titans Clashed, 292. 6. Deane, The Strange Alliance, 16. 7. Mark A. Stoler, Allies and Adversaries: The Joint Chiefs of...carry the necessary tools , personnel, and supplies to “insure immediate full- scale operations after landing in Russia.”49 This evidence further

  14. Re-integrating Influence and Cyber Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    targeting people with self - esteem issues, and legislation is still playing the catch up game when it comes to use of technology in many of these cases...on time, in scope, and not letting bite off more than I could chew. To our pets , I know this meant not nearly enough walks, scratches, or romps...shaping perceptions and influencing the behavior of both adversaries and allies, developing allied and friendly military capabilities for self

  15. On Modeling Terrorist Frauds

    OpenAIRE

    Vaudenay, Serge

    2013-01-01

    Quite recently, distance-bounding protocols received a lot of attention as they offer a good solution to thwart relay attacks. Their security models at still unstable, especially when considering terrorist fraud. This considers the case where a malicious prover would try to bypass the protocol by colluding with an adversary without leaking his credentials. Two formal models appeared recently: one due to Fischlin and Onete and another one by Boureanu, Mitrokotsa, and Vaudenay. Both were propos...

  16. Annual Report to Congress: Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    radio , radar, optical, infrared, and microwave frequencies, in addition to adversarial computer and information systems. Chinese EW strategy stresses...provide revenue streams to support defense-related activities. In 2003, the Sixteenth Party Congress introduced the concept of locating military...FIOtila "’’ l1NIID lWl Na~MRA.F + -Divlslco .. F’JQr\\WD!IniiOn ~ SAMBngade 41tt Group Afff’IJ UAIIIID Jill! G<cupAnny HD .. Armtlf

  17. The U.S. Army Reserve’s Private Public Partnership (P3) Program in Support of the Combatant Commander’s Security Cooperation Activities and the Readiness Opportunities for the U.S. Army Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    support non-state actors makes them adversaries to the United States In Southeast Asia, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant threats (in Syria...Statement of General David M. Rodriguez, USA , Commander, United States Africa Command before the Senate Armed Services Committee, Senate Armed Services...Haram Islamic State-West Africa Province as parallel efforts in Central Africa in collaboration with the African Union Regional Task Force works to

  18. Islamic Jihad: Sectarian Factors in Combating Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    Bernard, Crisis in Islam : Holy War and Unholy Terror, ( USA : Modern Library, 2003). Lewis, Bernard, The Crisis of Islam , (New York: Random House...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ISLAMIC JIHAD: SECTARIAN FACTORS IN COMBATING TERRORISM by Michael W. Moyles, Lt Col, USAF A Research...fighting an explicitly Islamic adversary, motivated almost exclusively by religion. However, these militant Muslims are not representative of mainstream

  19. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO

    OpenAIRE

    Hesbert,Benavente Chorres

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su vol...

  20. LA PRUEBA DOCUMENTADA EN EL NUEVO SISTEMA DE JUSTICIA PENAL MEXICANO Documented proof in the new Mexican criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Benavente Chorres Hesbert

    2010-01-01

    El presente estudio analiza los supuestos de prueba documentada regulados en aquellos códigos de las entidades federativas mexicanas que han adecuado el proceso penal al sistema acusatorio con tendencia adversarial. En ese sentido, se entiende por prueba documentada aquellas diligencias, principalmente declaraciones, realizadas durante la etapa de investigación que la ley otorga valor probatorio al no poder asistir el órgano de prueba a la audiencia del juicio oral por razones ajenas a su vol...

  1. Military Engagement and Forward Presence: Down But Not Out as Tools to Shape and Win

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    each potential adversary. For example, China is beset with internal challenges that consume the attention of its leadership and the energy of its...pollution generated by coal power pro- duction.8 Fourth, unrest among environmentalists, ethnic minorities, those frustrated with corruption, those...frustrated with high inflation in food prices and other commodities, and others groups continues to grow. Today there are hundreds of protests per day

  2. Fighting in Thin Air: Operational Wilderness Medicine in High Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Indian army has waged (and continues to anticipate) battles with Pakistan and China along the spine of the Himalayas . In 1962, the Chinese attacked India...traditional adversaries, Pakistan and China. Three Indian battalions defend this varied borderline. The Siachen runs through some of the world’s highest...1999, Pakistani forces occu- pied peaks in the Indian -held Kargil region that barred Indian access to the remote reaches of the Kashmir state. The

  3. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  4. Sustaining and Enhancing the US Militarys Technology Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    acquisition-reform study written in the last several decades has em- phasized the importance of increasing performance measures and accountability ...military with a signifi- cant technological advantage , if not superiority, over its competitors and adversaries. The Department of Defense’s (DOD...been a distinct advantage that makes the US military the best in the world. But, the United States can no longer take for granted its decisive tech

  5. Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics Chad Dacus Research Professor of Defense Economics Air Force Research Institute Dr. Pano...to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...If adversary can hack into mission essential software/hardware, then mission is compromised • Mission assurance requires materiel solutions, educated

  6. The Operational Narrative in Wars of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    through a story that articulates the organization’s vision and makes sense of what the organization is doing. US military doctrine does not address the gap...understood all the time, and always effect behavior change in target audiences. However, to communicate the operational commander’s vision is better than...communicate the operational commander’s vision is better than letting the adversary win the conflict of narratives by default. iii

  7. Immune Interference After Sequential Alphavirus Vaccine Vaccinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    biological weapons by adversary governments and/or terrorists [4–9]. For veterinary use, there are live, attenuated and inactivated VEE vaccines as...Alphaviruses. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007. p. 1023–67. [2] Kuhn RJ...Togaviridae: the viruses and their replication. In: Knife DM, Howley PM, editors. Fields virology . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams

  8. To Know Thy Enemy: Sociological Intelligence in Strategy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    psychiatrist and a founder of analytical psychology. The Myers - Briggs Type Indicator, a popular psychometric instrument, was developed as an outgrowth of...Command and Staff College. Major Sgarlata is a career intelligence officer with over 14 years of experience. He has a bachelor‘s degree in Foreign...the adversary society‘s decision -making leadership and fails to seek a wider understanding of the dynamics affecting how senior leaders reach

  9. Attacks on Fitness Trackers Revisited: A Case-Study of Unfit Firmware Security

    OpenAIRE

    Rieck, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Fitness trackers - wearables that continuously record a wearer's step count and related activity data - are quickly gaining in popularity. Apart from being useful for individuals seeking a more healthy lifestyle, their data is also being used in court and by insurance companies to adjust premiums. For these use cases, it is essential to ensure authenticity and integrity of data. Here we demonstrate a flaw in the way firmware for Withings' Activit\\'e is verified, allowing an adversary to compr...

  10. Introduction: Envisioning Future War; Strategic Insights, v. 10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights, v.10, Special issue (October 2011), 1-6. Topic: Global Trends and Future Warfare Approved for public display, distribution unlimited The workshop whose proceedings are presented here was convened to provide the National Intelligence Council (NIC) with insight into the way war in the intermediate future, meaning the next twenty years or so, is viewed from the perspective of America's allies, partners, and potential adversaries. The group took ...

  11. Military Strategy vs. Military Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfoed, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The article argues that while doctrine represents the more scientific side of warfare, strategy represents the artistic side. Existing doctrine will almost never meet the requirements for winning the next war; it is through the artistic application of generic peacetime doctrine to the specific st...... strategic and operational context, using doctrine as building blocks for a context specific military strategy, that the military commander outwits and defeats or coerces the adversary and achieves the military objectives....

  12. HCA 459 Courses/sanptutorial

    OpenAIRE

    potik

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Survival Strategies. This discussion has two options. Please choose either Option A or Option B to respond to. Be sure to indicate within your post which option you chose. Option A: Hospitals frequently seek ways to ensure survival. Sometimes an adversarial climate cannot be avoided when the action that is being considered is controversial. For example, a hospital may seek to expand its market reach by opening an inpatient drug treatment facility in a small suburban townshi...

  13. HCA 459 uop / uophelp

    OpenAIRE

    uophelp

    2015-01-01

    Organizational Survival Strategies. This discussion has two options. Please choose either Option A or Option B to respond to. Be sure to indicate within your post which option you chose. Option A: Hospitals frequently seek ways to ensure survival. Sometimes an adversarial climate cannot be avoided when the action that is being considered is controversial. For example, a hospital may seek to expand its market reach by opening an inpatient drug treatment facility in a small suburban townshi...

  14. Airpower in Hybrid War: Ethical Implications for the Joint Force Commander

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-15

    building housing three adversaries designated as a high value target. However, in this scenario ten children also live in the building. One targeting option...makes bridging tactics and strategy extremely difficult. The character of hybrid war will likely contain an enemy with an intangible center of gravity ...Law” def. 1, accessed 15 May 2014. 4 Kevin M. Brew , “Legal Basis for use of Force and Law of Armed Conflict,” U.S. Naval War College, Joint

  15. Future Capabilities and Technologies for the Air Force in 2030. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    as a foil to evaluate future systems and technologies, to deter- mine the optimum path forward for Air Force investment. These senior officers each...attacks are being designed to degrade adversary command and control and early- warning capabilities. Finally, submarines, destroyers, aircraft, mines ...Paralysis in Military Operations Jan S. Breemer, December 2000 20 Using Lasers in Space: Laser Orbital Debris Removal and Asteroid Deflection Jonathon

  16. Recognition-based judgments and decisions : What we have learned (so far)

    OpenAIRE

    Julian N. Marewski; Rudiger F. Pohl; Oliver Vitouch

    2011-01-01

    This special issue on recognition processes in inferential decision making represents an adversarial collaboration among the three guest editors. This introductory article to the special issue's third and final part comes in three sections. In Section 1, we summarize the six papers that appear in this part. In Section 2, we give a wrap-up of the lessons learned. Specifically, we discuss (i) why studying the recognition heuristic has led to so much controversy, making it difficult to settle on...

  17. The Criteria-Based Content Analysis and Its Utility in Distinguishing Between Truthful and Fabricated Criminal Allegations: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    reputation, and then a global assessment of the child’s credibility. The second approach is what K6hnken (1989a) termed a " psychodiagnostic decision... psychodiagnostic decision-making approach to determine the veracity of a statement. In 1954, the Supreme Court of the Federal Republic of Germany mandated that...the adversarial nature of the U.S. court system makes it easier to employ global credibility assessments rather than psychodiagnostic procedures such

  18. CMUNITED-97: RoboCup-97 Small-Robot World Champion Team

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Manuela M.; Stone, Peter; Han, Kwun

    1998-01-01

    Robotic soccer is a challenging research domain that involves multiple agents that need to collaborate in an adversarial environment to achieve specific objectives. In this article, we describe CMUNITED, the team of small robotic agents that we developed to enter the RoboCup-97 competition. We designed and built the robotic agents, devised the appropriate vision algorithm, and developed and implemented algorithms for strategic collaboration between the robots in an uncertain and dynamic envir...

  19. Network unfairness in dragonfly topologies

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Pablo; Vallejo, Enrique; Camarero, Cristóbal; Beivide Palacio, Ramon; Valero Cortés, Mateo

    2016-01-01

    Dragonfly networks arrange network routers in a two-level hierarchy, providing a competitive cost-performance solution for large systems. Non-minimal adaptive routing (adaptive misrouting) is employed to fully exploit the path diversity and increase the performance under adversarial traffic patterns. Network fairness issues arise in the dragonfly for several combinations of traffic pattern, global misrouting and traffic prioritization policy. Such unfairness prevents a balanced use of the res...

  20. Reawaken the American Spirit of Innovation in Your Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    and to think creatively may seem perplexing. It is easier than it first appears and can prove to be a rewarding experience. Beyond that, remaining...23 Small, unfettered “red teams” offer an adversarial or contrarian view to typical organization processes, thereby sparking creative thinking ...official sanction of the Department of Defense, Air Force, Air Education and Training Command, Air University, or other agencies or departments of the

  1. The Appropriate Army Organization to Conduct Security Force Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    divisions of Nationalist Chinese troops to combat Axis forces during World War II.30  Shortly after the end of World War II the Army also advised the...values.44 It is important to note that SOF remains continually engaged around the world in SFA activities. All SOF operations in Iraq and Afghanistan...environment is characterized with conflicts that will be volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous ( VUCA ). Unconventional adversaries will

  2. Combatant Commander Challenges and the Role of Religion and History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    extremists around the world . The American people united against this asymmetric adversary. The Department of Defense budget grew exponentially, with...Ambiguous ( VUCA ) problem.5 From ancient times to the present, opposing sides in war have long evoked the favor of the deity to strengthen their...today’s world . How well they are prepared— through sound doctrine—to best maximize the value of this and other historical knowledge is, however, open

  3. The Challenge of Technological Superiority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    incorporation by, the DoD. What new devices can we em- ploy? Consortia, such as the Spectrum Consortia initiated in 2014? Social Media Tools? Market Research...the United States has had a domi-nant military advantage over any potential adversary. The underpinning of that advantage was the superior platforms...ability to obstruct, alter or move the playing field to take advantage of our strengths has given us the finest and strongest military capabilities

  4. Report of a Workshop on Expanding U.S. Air Force Noncombat Mission Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    conflict, they do not try to take sides (e.g., "Are we on the side of the Crips or the Bloods ?"), instead going after anyone shooting a gun. Regular...civil chaos. There is little evidence of organized opposition to the government; the mobs and gangs run wild. Many elements of the government...enclaves embedded within regions controlled by their adversaries. The stakes and symbolism of these enclaves increase in proportion to the blood spilled

  5. Academic Pipeline and Futures Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    list of student-centered research experiential learning projects: o 3D Music Box: Using skeletal tracking technology and generative model to create... music o AVATAR (Advanced Virtualization for Adversary Tracking and Anticipatory Re- sponse): seamless integration of real and virtual worlds so that...ensure the fragments are a correct match FAME uses an edge image created by the absolute gradient magnitude from Sobel operators. The more defined

  6. Strategic and Operational Decision-Making: Does Military Weakness Affect Decisions Made?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    the early months of 1940. The JPC worked the Rainbow 2 scenario, but considered a Rainbow 5 scenario, which envisioned Britain and France on the...in Europe resulted in the JPC focusing on Rainbow 4 for unilateral hemispheric defense. Roosevelt refused to remain passive in the Far East and...Allies and Adversaries, 20. The Joint Planning Committee ( JPC ) developed the Rainbow Plans as a new set of war plans to cover virtually every

  7. Self inflicted human teeth bites: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Satinder Pal; Aggarwal, Akashdeep; Kaur, Sumeet; Singh, Dalbir

    2014-01-01

    Human infighting has been a part of our civilization since times immemorial. These incidences may go unnoticed or may attract attention of law enforcing agencies depending upon the severity of the offence. Though weapons are generally employed to inflict injuries, rare cases have been reported in literature where human teeth have been used to serve this purpose. Human bites may be self inflicted or self suffered in connivance with others to level an allegation against an adversary. We are pre...

  8. Truth is the First Casualty of War: A Brief Examination of Russian Informational Conflict during the 2014 Crisis in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-14

    extensive use of proxies are made, including private and state-sponsored or controlled media outlets as well as non-state actors, such as labour unions... manage the strategic socio-political discussion space. Second to psychologically distract, overwhelm and disrupt the adversary with as much...future is defined as the next five to 10 years. 78 Berzins. 12 7. Russia will seek not just to shape / manage but rather to control

  9. Secure positioning in wireless networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capkun, Srdjan; Hubaux, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    So far, the problem of positioning in wireless networks has been studied mainly in a non-adversarial settings. In this work, we analyze the resistance of positioning techniques to position and distance spoofing attacks. We propose a mechanism for secure positioning of wireless devices, that we call...... Verifiable Multilateration. We then show how this mechanism can be used to secure positioning in sensor networks. We analyze our system through simulations....

  10. Final Performance Report on Grant FA9550-07-1-0366 (Simulation-Based and Sampling Method for Global Optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , 52, 1349- 1355, 2007. • H.S. Chang, J. Hu, M.C. Fu, and S.I. Marcus, Adaptive Adversarial Multi...Armed Bandit Approach to Two-Person Zero-Sum Markov Games, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , forthcoming, 2010. • M. Chen, J.Q. Hu, and M.C. Fu...Perturbation Analysis of a Dynamic Priority Call Center, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control , forthcoming, 2010. 15 • C.H.

  11. Democratic Group Signatures with Threshold Traceability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-xue; QIAN Hai-feng; LI Jian-hua

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a concrete democratic group signature scheme which holds (t, n)-threshold trace-ability. In the scheme, the capability of tracing the actual signer is distributed among n group members. It gives a valid democratic group signature such that any subset with more than t members can jointly reconstruct a secret and reveal the identity of the signer. Any active adversary cannot do this even if he can corrupt up to t - 1 group members.

  12. Preventing Real-Time Packet Classification Using Cryptographic Primitives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.Vasumathi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Jamming attacks are especially harmful when ensuring the dependability of wireless communication. Typically, jamming has been addressed under an external threat model. Adversaries with internal knowledge of protocol specifications and network secrets can launch low-effort jamming attacks that are difficult to detect and counter. The problem of selective jamming attacks in wireless networks is addressed in this work. In these attacks, the adversary is active only for a short period of time, specifically targeting messages of high importance. The advantages of selective jamming in terms of network performance degradation and adversary effort is illustrated by presenting two case studies; one is selective attack on TCP and another is on routing. The selective jamming attacks can be launched by performing real-time packet classification at the physical layer. To avoid these attacks, four schemes are developed such as All Or Nothing Transformation-Hiding Scheme (AONT-HS - pseudo message is added with message before transformation and encryption, Strong Hiding Commitment Scheme(SHCS - off-the-shelf symmetric encryption is done, Puzzle Based Hiding Scheme(PBHS- time lock and hash puzzle and Nonce based Authenticated Encryption Scheme(N-AES-Nonce is used for encryption, that prevent real-time packet classification by combining cryptographic primitives with physical-layer attributes.

  13. On Node Replication Attack in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Qabulio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks comprise a large number of small, inexpensive, low power and memory constrained sensing devices (called sensor nodes that are densely deployed to measure a given physical phenomenon. Since WSNs are commonly deployed in a hostile and unattended environment, it is easy for an adversary to physically capture one or more legitimate sensor nodes, re-program and redeploy them in the network. As a result, the adversary becomes able to deploy several identical copies of physically captured nodes in the network in order to perform illegitimate activities. This type of attack is referred to as Node Replication Attack or Clone Node Attack. By launching node replication attack, an adversary can easily get control on the network which consequently is the biggest threat to confidentiality, integrity and availability of data and services. Thus, detection and prevention of node replication attack in WSNs has become an active area of research and to date more than two dozen schemes have been proposed, which address this issue. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review, classification and comparative analysis of twenty five of these schemes which help to detect and/or prevent node replication attack in WSNs

  14. Based on Channel Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo Hao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of key agreement schemes based on wireless channel characteristics have been proposed recently. However, previous key agreement schemes require that two nodes which need to agree on a key are within the communication range of each other. Hence, they are not suitable for multihop wireless networks, in which nodes do not always have direct connections with each other. In this paper, we first propose a basic multihop key agreement scheme for wireless ad hoc networks. The proposed basic scheme is resistant to external eavesdroppers. Nevertheless, this basic scheme is not secure when there exist internal eavesdroppers or Man-in-the-Middle (MITM adversaries. In order to cope with these adversaries, we propose an improved multihop key agreement scheme. We show that the improved scheme is secure against internal eavesdroppers and MITM adversaries in a single path. Both performance analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the improved scheme is efficient. Consequently, the improved key agreement scheme is suitable for multihop wireless ad hoc networks.

  15. DETECTION AND LOCALIZATION OF MULTIPLE SPOOFING ATTACKERS FOR MOBILE WIRELESS NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maivizhi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The openness nature of wireless networks allows adversaries to easily launch variety of spoofing attacks and causes havoc in network performance. Recent approaches used Received Signal Strength (RSS traces, which only detect spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. However, it is not always desirable to use these methods as RSS values fluctuate significantly over time due to distance, noise and interference. In this paper, we discusses a novel approach, Mobile spOofing attack DEtection and Localization in WIireless Networks (MODELWIN system, which exploits location information about nodes to detect identity-based spoofing attacks in mobile wireless networks. Also, this approach determines the number of attackers who used the same node identity to masquerade as legitimate device. Moreover, multiple adversaries can be localized accurately. By eliminating attackers the proposed system enhances network performance. We have evaluated our technique through simulation using an 802.11 (WiFi network and an 802.15.4 (Zigbee networks. The results prove that MODELWIN can detect spoofing attacks with a very high detection rate and localize adversaries accurately.

  16. Detecting and Mitigating Smart Insider Jamming Attacks in MANETs Using Reputation-Based Coalition Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Al Sharah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Security in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs is challenging due to the ability of adversaries to gather necessary intelligence to launch insider jamming attacks. The solutions to prevent external attacks on MANET are not applicable for defense against insider jamming attacks. There is a need for a formal framework to characterize the information required by adversaries to launch insider jamming attacks. In this paper, we propose a novel reputation-based coalition game in MANETs to detect and mitigate insider jamming attacks. Since there is no centralized controller in MANETs, the nodes rely heavily on availability of transmission rates and a reputation for each individual node in the coalition to detect the presence of internal jamming node. The nodes will form a stable grand coalition in order to make a strategic security defense decision, maintain the grand coalition based on node reputation, and exclude any malicious node based on reputation value. Simulation results show that our approach provides a framework to quantify information needed by adversaries to launch insider attacks. The proposed approach will improve MANET’s defense against insider attacks, while also reducing incorrect classification of legitimate nodes as jammers.

  17. Hybrid onboard and ground based digital channelizer beam-forming for SATCOM interference mitigation and protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenhao; Wang, Gang; Tian, Xin; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Chen, Genshe

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we propose a novel beam-forming power allocation method for a satellite communication (SATCOM) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system to mitigate the co-channel interference (CCI) as well as limiting the signal leakage to the adversary users. In SATCOM systems, the beam-forming technique is a conventional way of avoiding interference, controlling the antenna beams, and mitigating undesired signals. We propose to use an advanced beam-forming technique which considers the number of independent channels used and transmitting power deployed to reduce and mitigate the unintentional interference effect. With certain quality of service (QoS) for the SATCOM system, independent channels components will be selected. It is desired to use less and stronger channel components when possible. On the other hand, considering that SATCOM systems often face the problem that adversary receiver detects the signal, a proposed power allocation method can efficiently reduce the received power at the adversary receiver. To reduce the computational burden on the transponder in order to minimize the size, mass, power consumption and delay for the satellite, we apply a hybrid onboard and ground based beam-forming design to distribute the calculation between the transponder and ground terminals. Also the digital channelizer beam-forming (DCB) technique is employed to achieve dynamic spatial control.

  18. Context Sensing System Analysis for Privacy Preservation Based on Game Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengling; Li, Luyun; Sun, Weiman; Guo, Junqi; Bie, Rongfang; Lin, Kai

    2017-02-10

    In a context sensing system in which a sensor-equipped mobile phone runs an unreliable context-aware application, the application can infer the user's contexts, based on which it provides personalized services. However, the application may sell the user's contexts to some malicious adversaries to earn extra profits, which will hinder its widespread use. In the real world, the actions of the user, the application and the adversary in the context sensing system affect each other, so that their payoffs are constrained mutually. To figure out under which conditions they behave well (the user releases, the application does not leak and the adversary does not retrieve the context), we take advantage of game theory to analyze the context sensing system. We use the extensive form game and the repeated game, respectively, to analyze two typical scenarios, single interaction and multiple interaction among three players, from which Nash equilibriums and cooperation conditions are obtained. Our results show that the reputation mechanism for the context-sensing system in the former scenario is crucial to privacy preservation, so is the extent to which the participants are concerned about future payoffs in the latter one.

  19. Are you threatening me?: Towards smart detectors in watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Comesaña-Alfaro, Pedro; Pérez-González, Fernando; Tondi, Benedetta

    2014-02-01

    We revisit the well-known watermarking detection problem, also known as one-bit watermarking, in the presence of an oracle attack. In the absence of an adversary, the design of the detector generally relies on probabilistic formulations (e.g., Neyman-Pearson's lemma) or on ad-hoc solutions. When there is an adversary trying to minimize the probability of correct detection, game-theoretic approaches are possible. However, they usually assume that the attacker cannot learn the secret parameters used in detection. This is no longer the case when the adversary launches an oracle-based attack, which turns out to be extremely effective. In this paper, we discuss how the detector can learn whether it is being subject to such an attack, and take proper measures. We present two approaches based on different attacker models. The first model is very general and makes minimum assumptions on attacker's beaver. The second model is more specific since it assumes that the oracle attack follows a weel-defined path. In all cases, a few observations are sufficient to the watermark detector to understand whether an oracle attack is on going.

  20. Determining Solution Space Characteristics for Real-Time Strategy Games and Characterizing Winning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Weissgerber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The underlying goal of a competing agent in a discrete real-time strategy (RTS game is to defeat an adversary. Strategic agents or participants must define an a priori plan to maneuver their resources in order to destroy the adversary and the adversary's resources as well as secure physical regions of the environment. This a priori plan can be generated by leveraging collected historical knowledge about the environment. This knowledge is then employed in the generation of a classification model for real-time decision-making in the RTS domain. The best way to generate a classification model for a complex problem domain depends on the characteristics of the solution space. An experimental method to determine solution space (search landscape characteristics is through analysis of historical algorithm performance for solving the specific problem. We select a deterministic search technique and a stochastic search method for a priori classification model generation. These approaches are designed, implemented, and tested for a specific complex RTS game, Bos Wars. Their performance allows us to draw various conclusions about applying a competing agent in complex search landscapes associated with RTS games.

  1. Data-plane Defenses against Routing Attacks on Tor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tor is susceptible to traffic correlation attacks in which an adversary who observes flows entering and leaving the anonymity network can apply statistical techniques to correlate flows and de-anonymize their endpoints. While an adversary may not be naturally positioned to conduct such attacks, a recent study shows that the Internet’s control-plane can be manipulated to increase an adversary’s view of the network, and consequently, improve its ability to perform traffic correlation. This paper explores, in-depth, the effects of control-plane attacks on the security of the Tor network. Using accurate models of the live Tor network, we quantify Tor’s susceptibility to these attacks by measuring the fraction of the Tor network that is vulnerable and the advantage to the adversary of performing the attacks. We further propose defense mechanisms that protect Tor users from manipulations at the control-plane. Perhaps surprisingly, we show that by leveraging existing trust anchors in Tor, defenses deployed only in the data-plane are sufficient to detect most control-plane attacks. Our defenses do not assume the active participation of Internet Service Providers, and require only very small changes to Tor. We show that our defenses result in a more than tenfold decrease in the effectiveness of certain control-plane attacks.

  2. Cops and Invisible Robbers: the Cost of Drunkenness

    CERN Document Server

    Kehagias, Athanasios; Pralat, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We examine a version of the Cops and Robber (CR) game in which the robber is invisible, i.e., the cops do not know his location until they capture him. Apparently this game (CiR) has received little attention in the CR literature. We examine two variants: in the first the robber is adversarial (he actively tries to avoid capture); in the second he is drunk (he performs a random walk). Our goal in this paper is to study the invisible Cost of Drunkenness (iCOD), which is defined as the ratio ct_i(G)/dct_i(G), with ct_i(G) and dct_i(G) being the expected capture times in the adversarial and drunk CiR variants, respectively. We show that these capture times are well defined, using game theory for the adversarial case and partially observable Markov decision processes (POMDP) for the drunk case. We give exact asymptotic values of iCOD for several special graph families such as $d$-regular trees, give some bounds for grids, and provide general upper and lower bounds for general classes of graphs. We also give an in...

  3. CONTRADICTORIALITATEA ÎN CORAPORT CU ALTE PRINCIPII ALE PROCESULUI PENAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia RUSU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available În legătură cu reformarea sistemului judiciar şi schimbările intervenite în viaţa social-politică a statului nostru, prin­cipiul contradictorialităţii a obţinut o nouă rezonanţă din considerentul că reforma judiciară şi de drept este legată direct de contradictorialitate. Reforma legii procesual penale trebuie să fie fundamentată pe o temelie teoretică solidă. Contra­dictorialitatea, însă, în calitate de noţiune juridică, este insuficient cercetată în doctrina dreptului procesual penal. La ziua de azi, specialişti notorii în domeniul dreptului procesual penal analizează şi studiază importanţa fundamentelor şi principiilor de bază ale procesului penal şi, în primul rând, contradictorialitatea acestuia. Legea procesual penală a Republicii Moldova cunoaşte o evoluţie şi dezvoltate în sensul democratizării şi lărgirii începuturilor contradictoriale în înfăptuirea justiţiei. Aceasta e şi firesc, deoarece contradictorialitatea are o importanţă enormă pentru întregul sistem al procesului penal, determinând în mare parte statutul juridic şi raporturile dintre participanţii la procesul penal, precum şi relaţiile juridice stabilite între participanţii la acest proces şi instanţa de judecată. CONTRADICTION AND ITS CORRELATION WITH OTHER PRINCIPLES OF THE CRIMINAL PROCEEDINGIn connection with the judiciary system reforming and changes in socio-political life of our state, the adversarial principle has gained a new resonance on the grounds that the judicial and legal reform is directly linked to adversariality. The reform of the criminal procedure law must be based on solid theoretical foundation. However, adversariality, as legal concept, is not enough investigated in the doctrine of the criminal procedure law. Currently, notorious specialists in the field of criminal procedure law examine and study the importance of fundamentals and basic principles of the criminal process and

  4. Development of an info-gap-based path planner to enable nondeterministic low-observability mobile sensor nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascareñas, David; Stull, Christopher; Farrar, Charles

    2012-06-01

    Mobile sensor nodes are an ideal solution for efficiently collecting measurements for a variety of applications. Mobile sensor nodes offer a particular advantage when measurements must be made in hazardous and/or adversarial environments. When mobile sensor nodes must operate in hostile environments, it would be advantageous for them to be able to avoid undesired interactions with hostile elements. It is also of interest for the mobile sensor node to maintain low-observability in order to avoid detection by hostile elements. Conventional path-planning strategies typically attempt to plan a path by optimizing some performance metric. The problem with this approach in an adversarial environment is that it may be relatively simple for a hostile element to anticipate the mobile sensor node's actions (i.e. optimal paths are also often predictable paths). Such information could then be leveraged to exploit the mobile sensor node. Furthermore, dynamic adversarial environments are typically characterized by high-uncertainty and highcomplexity that can make synthesizing paths featuring adequate performance very difficult. The goal of this work is to develop a path-planner anchored in info-gap decision theory, capable of generating non-deterministic paths that satisfy predetermined performance requirements in the face of uncertainty surrounding the actions of the hostile element(s) and/or the environment. This type of path-planner will inherently make use of the time-tested security technique of varying paths and changing routines while taking into account the current state estimate of the environment and the uncertainties associated with it.

  5. Distributed Queuing in Dynamic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokarna Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of forming a distributed queue in the adversarial dynamic network model of Kuhn, Lynch, and Oshman (STOC 2010 in which the network topology changes from round to round but the network stays connected. This is a synchronous model in which network nodes are assumed to be fixed, the communication links for each round are chosen by an adversary, and nodes do not know who their neighbors are for the current round before they broadcast their messages. Queue requests may arrive over rounds at arbitrary nodes and the goal is to eventually enqueue them in a distributed queue. We present two algorithms that give a total distributed ordering of queue requests in this model. We measure the performance of our algorithms through round complexity, which is the total number of rounds needed to solve the distributed queuing problem. We show that in 1-interval connected graphs, where the communication links change arbitrarily between every round, it is possible to solve the distributed queueing problem in O(nk rounds using O(log n size messages, where n is the number of nodes in the network and k 0 is the concurrency level parameter that captures the minimum number of active queue requests in the system in any round. These results hold in any arbitrary (sequential, one-shot concurrent, or dynamic arrival of k queue requests in the system. Moreover, our algorithms ensure correctness in the sense that each queue request is eventually enqueued in the distributed queue after it is issued and each queue request is enqueued exactly once. We also provide an impossibility result for this distributed queuing problem in this model. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first solutions to the distributed queuing problem in adversarial dynamic networks.

  6. Final report and documentation for the security enabled programmable switch for protection of distributed internetworked computers LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Robertson, Perry J.; Durgin, Nancy Ann; Toole, Timothy J.; Kucera, Brent D.; Campbell, Philip LaRoche; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-02-01

    An increasing number of corporate security policies make it desirable to push security closer to the desktop. It is not practical or feasible to place security and monitoring software on all computing devices (e.g. printers, personal digital assistants, copy machines, legacy hardware). We have begun to prototype a hardware and software architecture that will enforce security policies by pushing security functions closer to the end user, whether in the office or home, without interfering with users' desktop environments. We are developing a specialized programmable Ethernet network switch to achieve this. Embodied in this device is the ability to detect and mitigate network attacks that would otherwise disable or compromise the end user's computing nodes. We call this device a 'Secure Programmable Switch' (SPS). The SPS is designed with the ability to be securely reprogrammed in real time to counter rapidly evolving threats such as fast moving worms, etc. This ability to remotely update the functionality of the SPS protection device is cryptographically protected from subversion. With this concept, the user cannot turn off or fail to update virus scanning and personal firewall filtering in the SPS device as he/she could if implemented on the end host. The SPS concept also provides protection to simple/dumb devices such as printers, scanners, legacy hardware, etc. This report also describes the development of a cryptographically protected processor and its internal architecture in which the SPS device is implemented. This processor executes code correctly even if an adversary holds the processor. The processor guarantees both the integrity and the confidentiality of the code: the adversary cannot determine the sequence of instructions, nor can the adversary change the instruction sequence in a goal-oriented way.

  7. Evaluating Moving Target Defense with PLADD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Stephen T. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Outkin, Alexander V. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gearhart, Jared Lee [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hobbs, Jacob Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Siirola, John Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Phillips, Cynthia A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Verzi, Stephen Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tauritz, Daniel [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulder, Samuel A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Naugle, Asmeret Bier [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of moving target defense (MTD) techniques using a new game we have designed, called PLADD, inspired by the game FlipIt [28]. PLADD extends FlipIt by incorporating what we believe are key MTD concepts. We have analyzed PLADD and proven the existence of a defender strategy that pushes a rational attacker out of the game, demonstrated how limited the strategies available to an attacker are in PLADD, and derived analytic expressions for the expected utility of the game’s players in multiple game variants. We have created an algorithm for finding a defender’s optimal PLADD strategy. We show that in the special case of achieving deterrence in PLADD, MTD is not always cost effective and that its optimal deployment may shift abruptly from not using MTD at all to using it as aggressively as possible. We believe our effort provides basic, fundamental insights into the use of MTD, but conclude that a truly practical analysis requires model selection and calibration based on real scenarios and empirical data. We propose several avenues for further inquiry, including (1) agents with adaptive capabilities more reflective of real world adversaries, (2) the presence of multiple, heterogeneous adversaries, (3) computational game theory-based approaches such as coevolution to allow scaling to the real world beyond the limitations of analytical analysis and classical game theory, (4) mapping the game to real-world scenarios, (5) taking player risk into account when designing a strategy (in addition to expected payoff), (6) improving our understanding of the dynamic nature of MTD-inspired games by using a martingale representation, defensive forecasting, and techniques from signal processing, and (7) using adversarial games to develop inherently resilient cyber systems.

  8. Within a Stone's Throw: Proximal Geolocation of Internet Users via Covert Wireless Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Nathanael R [ORNL; Shue, Craig [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester; Taylor, Curtis [Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester

    2013-01-01

    While Internet users may often believe they have anonymity online, a culmination of technologies and recent research may allow an adversary to precisely locate an online user s geophysical location. In many cases, such as peer-to-peer applications, an adversary can easily use a target s IP address to quickly obtain the general geographical location of the target. Recent research has scoped this general area to a 690m (0.43 mile) radius circle. In this work, we show how an adversary can exploit Internet communication for geophysical location by embedding covert signals in communication with a target on a remote wireless local area network. We evaluated the approach in two common real-world settings: a residential neighborhood and an apartment building. In the neighborhood case, we used a single-blind trial in which an observer located a target network to within three houses in less than 40 minutes. Directional antennas may have allowed even more precise geolocation. This approach had only a 0.38% false positive rate, despite 24,000 observed unrelated packets and many unrelated networks. This low rate allowed the observer to exclude false locations and continue searching for the target. Our results enable law enforcement or copyright holders to quickly locate online Internet users without requiring time-consuming subpoenas to Internet Service Providers. Other privacy use cases include rapidly locating individuals based on their online speech or interests. We hope to raise awareness of these issues and to spur discussion on privacy and geolocating techniques.

  9. Enhance Confidentiality of Threshold Signature for MANET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Wei; XIONG Zhongwei

    2006-01-01

    The participating wireless mobile node that mobile ad hoc network (MANET) communications need to forward may be malicious. That means not only adversary might be able to acquire some sensitive information of the threshold signatures from the compromised node, but also the partial signatures may be fabricated by malicious node, the advantages of threshold signatures would disappear. Signing and encrypting the sensitive information of the threshold signatures, and only the specified receiver can recover it, which will improve the confidentiality of threshold signatures. The security analysis shows the method is suitable for the secure characteristic of MANET that has the malicious nodes, and the message transmission is secure can against the attack.

  10. Meeting the Press: A Media Survival Guide for the Defense Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    democratic system , public servants have to meet the press from time to time as part of their responsibilities. Freedom of the press is, of course, one of the freedoms everyone in the Department of Defense is sworn to protect, but it can translate into an unpleasant experience for any defense manager unprepared for the encounter. The public official who relies on luck, intuition, and charm may be in for a rude awakening in a stressful, perhaps adversarial, brush with the media. Prudent defense managers count among their executive skills the ability to communicate

  11. Upconversion-based receivers for quantum hacking-resistant quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin; Kanter, Gregory S.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a novel upconversion (sum frequency generation)-based quantum-optical system design that can be employed as a receiver (Bob) in practical quantum key distribution systems. The pump governing the upconversion process is produced and utilized inside the physical receiver, making its access or control unrealistic for an external adversary (Eve). This pump facilitates several properties which permit Bob to define and control the modes that can participate in the quantum measurement. Furthermore, by manipulating and monitoring the characteristics of the pump pulses, Bob can detect a wide range of quantum hacking attacks launched by Eve.

  12. Structured Assessment Approach: a procedure for the assessment of fuel cycle safeguard systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parziale, A.A.; Patenaude, C.J.; Renard, P.A.; Sacks, I.J.

    1980-03-06

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed and tested for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission a procedure for the evaluation of Material Control and Accounting (MC and A) Systems at Nuclear Fuel Facilities. This procedure, called the Structured Assessment Approach, SAA, subjects the MC and A system at a facility to a series of increasingly sophisticated adversaries and strategies. A fully integrated version of the computer codes which assist the analyst in this assessment was made available in October, 1979. The concepts of the SAA and the results of the assessment of a hypothetical but typical facility are presented.

  13. The attack navigator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Probst, Christian W.; Willemson, Jan; Pieters, Wolter

    2016-01-01

    -technical system, the attack navigator identifies routes to an attacker goal. Specific attacker properties such as skill or resources can be included through attacker profiles. This enables defenders to explore attack scenarios and the effectiveness of defense alternatives under different threat conditions....... that are caused by the strategic behaviour of adversaries. Therefore, technology-supported methods are needed to help us identify and manage these risks. In this paper, we describe the attack navigator: a graph-based approach to security risk assessment inspired by navigation systems. Based on maps of a socio...

  14. Device-independent two-party cryptography secure against sequential attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniewski, Jedrzej; Wehner, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    -storage model by sending more signals than the adversary can store in a certain time frame. Here, we initiate the study of device-independent (DI) protocols for two-party cryptography in the noisy-storage model. Specifically, we present a relatively easy to implement protocol for a cryptographic building block...... the case of memoryless devices (for which sequential attacks are optimal) and the case of sequential attacks for arbitrary devices. The key ingredient of the proof, which might be of independent interest, is an explicit (and tight) relation between the violation of the Clauser–Horne–Shimony–Holt inequality...

  15. The Army and the Need for an Amphibious Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    perform detailed rehearsals and integration activities, and then conduct operations when and where desired.”2 Anti-access and area denial (A2/AD), the...entering a theater of operations.4 The Joint Force’s counter to the A2/AD threat is the Joint Concept for Access and Maneuver in the Global Commons...A2/AD environment is an environment where adversaries incorporate strategies aimed “to prevent US forces from entry into a theater of operations

  16. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  17. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  18. Separating Random Oracle Proofs from Complexity Theoretic Proofs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2002-01-01

    We show that there exists a natural protocol problem which has a simple solution in the random-oracle (RO) model and which has no solution in the complexity-theoretic (CT) model, namely the problem of constructing a non-interactive communication protocol secure against adaptive adversaries a.......k.a. non-interactive non-committing encryption. This separation between the models is due to the so-called programability of the random oracle. We show this by providing a formulation of the RO model in which the oracle is not programmable, and showing that in this model, there does not exist non...

  19. Privacy-Preserving Matching of Spatial Datasets with Protection against Background Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghinita, Gabriel; Vicente, Carmen Ruiz; Shang, Ning

    2010-01-01

    circuits that evaluate the matching condition without revealing anything else other than the matching outcome. However, existing solutions have at least one of the following drawbacks: (i) they fail to protect against adversaries with background knowledge on data distribution, (ii) they compromise privacy...... two distance evaluation metrics in the transformed space, namely L2 and L1, and show how the metric used can control the trade-off between privacy and the amount of returned false positives. We provide an extensive experimental evaluation to validate the precision and efficiency of our approach....

  20. Classical Knowledge for Quantum Security

    CERN Document Server

    D'Hondt, Ellie

    2008-01-01

    We propose a decision procedure for analysing security of quantum cryptographic protocols, combining a classical algebraic rewrite system for knowledge with an operational semantics for quantum distributed computing. As a test case, we use our procedure to reason about security properties of a recently developed quantum secret sharing protocol that uses graph states. We analyze three different scenarios based on the safety assumptions of the classical and quantum channels and discover the path of an attack in the presence of an adversary. The epistemic analysis that leads to this and similar types of attacks is purely based on our classical notion of knowledge.

  1. Bounded Tamper Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Faust, Sebastian; Mukherjee, Pratyay

    2013-01-01

    Related key attacks (RKAs) are powerful cryptanalytic attacks where an adversary can change the secret key and observe the effect of such changes at the output. The state of the art in RKA security protects against an a-priori unbounded number of certain algebraic induced key relations, e...... in case of arbitrary key relations, as otherwise a generic attack of Gennaro et al. (TCC 2004) shows how to recover the key of almost any cryptographic primitive. We describe our contributions in more detail below. We show that standard ID and signature schemes constructed from a large class of Σ...

  2. Beeping a Maximal Independent Set

    OpenAIRE

    Afek, Yehuda; Alon, Noga; Bar-Joseph, Ziv; Cornejo, Alejandro; Haeupler, Bernhard; Kuhn, Fabian

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing a maximal independent set (MIS) in an extremely harsh broadcast model that relies only on carrier sensing. The model consists of an anonymous broadcast network in which nodes have no knowledge about the topology of the network or even an upper bound on its size. Furthermore, it is assumed that an adversary chooses at which time slot each node wakes up. At each time slot a node can either beep, that is, emit a signal, or be silent. At a particular time slot...

  3. 基于BLS签名的弹性泄露签名方案(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Digital signature,one of the most important cryptographic primitives,has been commonly used in information systems,and thus enhancing the security of a signature scheme can benefit such an application.Currently,leakage-resilient cryptography is a very hot topic in cryptographic research.A leakage-resilient cryptographic primitive is said to be secure if arbitrary but bounded information about the signer's secret key(involving other states) is leaked to an adversary.Obviously,the leakage-resilient signature ...

  4. Scalable Multiparty Computation with Nearly Optimal Work and Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Krøigaard, Mikkel; Ishai, Yuval;

    2008-01-01

    We present the first general protocol for secure multiparty computation in which the total amount of work required by n players to compute a function f grows only polylogarithmically with n (ignoring an additive term that depends on n but not on the complexity of f). Moreover, the protocol is als...... nearly optimal in terms of resilience, providing computational security against an active, adaptive adversary corrupting a (1/2 − ε) fraction of the players, for an arbitrary ε> 0....

  5. EVALUATION METHODOLOGY FOR PROLIFERATION RESISTANCE AND PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF GENERATION IV NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEMS: AN OVERVIEW.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARI, R.; ET AL.

    2006-03-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: (1) System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. (2) Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. (3) Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  6. Evaluation Methodology For Proliferation Resistance And Physical Protection Of Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems: An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Bjornard; R. Bari; R. Nishimura; P. Peterson; J. Roglans; D. Bley; J. Cazalet; G.G.M. Cojazzi; P. Delaune; M. Golay; G. Rendad; G. Rochau; M. Senzaki; I. Therios; M. Zentner

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology approach developed by the Generation IV International Forum Expert Group on Proliferation Resistance & Physical Protection for evaluation of Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection robustness of Generation IV nuclear energy systems options. The methodology considers a set of alternative systems and evaluates their resistance or robustness to a collection of potential threats. For the challenges considered, the response of the system to these challenges is assessed and expressed in terms of outcomes. The challenges to the system are given by the threats posed by potential proliferant States and sub-national adversaries on the nuclear systems. The characteristics of the Generation IV systems, both technical and institutional, are used to evaluate their response to the threats and determine their resistance against the proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and theft threats. System response encompasses three main elements: 1.System Element Identification. The nuclear energy system is decomposed into smaller elements (subsystems) at a level amenable to further analysis. 2.Target Identification and Categorization. A systematic process is used to identify and select representative targets for different categories of pathways, within each system element, that actors (proliferant States or adversaries) might choose to use or attack. 3.Pathway Identification and Refinement. Pathways are defined as potential sequences of events and actions followed by the proliferant State or adversary to achieve its objectives (proliferation, theft or sabotage). For each target, individual pathway segments are developed through a systematic process, analyzed at a high level, and screened where possible. Segments are connected into full pathways and analyzed in detail. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of PR&PP measures. Measures are high-level characteristics of a pathway that include

  7. A Stronger LP Bound for Formula Size Lower Bounds via Clique Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Ueno, Kenya

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new technique proving formula size lower bounds based on the linear programming bound originally introduced by Karchmer, Kushilevitz and Nisan [11] and the theory of stable set polytope. We apply it to majority functions and prove their formula size lower bounds improved from the classical result of Khrapchenko [13]. Moreover, we introduce a notion of unbalanced recursive ternary majority functions motivated by a decomposition theory of monotone self-dual functions and give integrally matching upper and lower bounds of their formula size. We also show monotone formula size lower bounds of balanced recursive ternary majority functions improved from the quantum adversary bound of Laplante, Lee and Szegedy [15].

  8. Graph Coarsening for Path Finding in Cybersecurity Graphs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, Emilie A.; Johnson, John R.; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2013-01-01

    n the pass-the-hash attack, hackers repeatedly steal password hashes and move through a computer network with the goal of reaching a computer with high level administrative privileges. In this paper we apply graph coarsening in network graphs for the purpose of detecting hackers using this attack or assessing the risk level of the network's current state. We repeatedly take graph minors, which preserve the existence of paths in the graph, and take powers of the adjacency matrix to count the paths. This allows us to detect the existence of paths as well as find paths that have high risk of being used by adversaries.

  9. Scalable and Unconditionally Secure Multiparty Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2007-01-01

    We present a multiparty computation protocol that is unconditionally secure against adaptive and active adversaries, with communication complexity O(Cn)k+O(Dn^2)k+poly(nk), where C is the number of gates in the circuit, n is the number of parties, k is the bit-length of the elements of the field...... over which the computation is carried out, D is the multiplicative depth of the circuit, and κ is the security parameter. The corruption threshold is t security the corruption threshold is t secure......, the protocol has so called everlasting security....

  10. Linux Security Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Daniel J; Byrnes, Robert G

    2003-01-01

    Computer security is an ongoing process, a relentless contest between system administrators and intruders. A good administrator needs to stay one step ahead of any adversaries, which often involves a continuing process of education. If you're grounded in the basics of security, however, you won't necessarily want a complete treatise on the subject each time you pick up a book. Sometimes you want to get straight to the point. That's exactly what the new Linux Security Cookbook does. Rather than provide a total security solution for Linux computers, the authors present a series of easy-to-fol

  11. Effectiveness of qualified riflemen archery in control exercises with difficult conditions performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Sergej Vasil'evich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the study options adversarial exercise of archery with the abnormal conditions of a control to determine the specific training of athletes. It is found no differences between the absolute values of the results of the exercise of options sitting on a chair and standing on the platform and their difference from the values in the exercise with eyes closed. To set available of correlation relationships of varying strength between the results of the exercise of options sitting on a chair, standing on the platform with eyes closed, indicators of tension bow, qualifications and gender athletes.

  12. Security intelligence a practitioner's guide to solving enterprise security challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Identify, deploy, and secure your enterprise Security Intelligence, A Practitioner's Guide to Solving Enterprise Security Challenges is a handbook for security in modern times, against modern adversaries. As leaders in the design and creation of security products that are deployed globally across a range of industries and market sectors, authors Qing Li and Gregory Clark deliver unparalleled insight into the development of comprehensive and focused enterprise security solutions. They walk you through the process of translating your security goals into specific security technology domains, fo

  13. Practical results from a mathematical analysis of guard patrols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indusi, Joseph P.

    1978-12-01

    Using guard patrols as a primary detection mechanism is not generally viewed as a highly efficient detection method when compared to electronic means. Many factors such as visibility, alertness, and the space-time coincidence of guard and adversary presence all have an effect on the probability of detection. Mathematical analysis of the guard patrol detection problem is related to that of classical search theory originally developed for naval search operations. The results of this analysis tend to support the current practice of using guard forces to assess and respond to previously detected intrusions and not as the primary detection mechanism. 6 refs.

  14. Establishing an Information Security System related to Physical Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Sung Soon; Yoo, Ho Sik [Korea Institute of Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    A physical protection system (PPS) integrates people, procedures and equipment for the protection of assets or facilities against theft, sabotage or other malevolent attacks. In the physical protection field, it is important the maintain confidentiality of PPS related information, such as the alarm system layout, detailed maps of buildings, and guard schedules. In this abstract, we suggest establishing a methodology for an information security system. The first step in this methodology is to determine the information to protect and possible adversaries. Next, system designers should draw all possible paths to the information and arrange appropriate protection elements. Finally he/she should analyze and upgrade their information security system.

  15. Advice Complexity of the Online Induced Subgraph Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komm, Dennis; Královič, Rastislav; Královič, Richard;

    2016-01-01

    mainly in networking and scheduling, where the decision of the algorithm is not completely irreversible. In particular, the algorithm may discard some vertices previously assigned to the constructed set, but discarded vertices cannot be reinserted into the set. We show that, for the maximum induced......, the vertices of the graph are presented in an adversarial order, and with each vertex, the online algorithm must irreversibly decide whether to include it into the constructed subgraph, based only on the subgraph induced by the vertices presented so far. We study the properties that are common to all...

  16. A Global Space Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    a “space war” has been predicted in blue ribbon com- mission reports and congressional testimony, and the chances of con- flict with an adversary...commander and in- creases the reaction time available to Blue forces. For that reason, we should give preference to those options stated in the...thediplomat.com/2013/10/lifting-the-veil-on-chinas-carrier-killer/. 5. Jean -Michel Stoullig, “Rumsfeld Commission Warns against ‘Space Pearl Harbor,’ ” Space

  17. Anonymous Quantum Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Gilles; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Gambs, Sébastien; Tapp, Alain

    We introduce the first protocol for the anonymous transmission of a quantum state that is information-theoretically secure against an active adversary, without any assumption on the number of corrupt participants. The anonymity of the sender and receiver is perfectly preserved, and the privacy of the quantum state is protected except with exponentially small probability. Even though a single corrupt participant can cause the protocol to abort, the quantum state can only be destroyed with exponentially small probability: if the protocol succeeds, the state is transferred to the receiver and otherwise it remains in the hands of the sender (provided the receiver is honest).

  18. La importación de mecanismos consensuales del proceso estadounidense, en las reformas procesales latinoamericanas

    OpenAIRE

    Anitua, Gabriel Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    En este artículo se analiza el sistema de la plea barganining y su adopción por parte de algunos países europeos y latinoamericanos, en las reformas de sus leyes procesales penales. Con este fin, puntua el movimiento de reforma por el que pasaron algunos países europeos y latinoamericanos, señalando una motivación de política criminal para justificar la importación del Instituto, característico del modelo adversarial estadounidense, y conclui tratarse de una práctica que, para facilitar la ac...

  19. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War.

  20. VOLUME 31: HTA'S EVOLUTION: FROM CONSUMER TO HONEST BROKER TO ENGAGED COLLABORATOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    In this issue, Facey and colleagues have eloquently summarized the product of the February 2015 HTAi Policy Forum discussion-the need for health technology assessment (HTA) to shift from a historically reactive role in both evaluating current evidence and requesting additional evidence generation to a more proactive role engaging with stakeholders to ensure that evidence produced is appropriate for any given intervention at different stages of the clinical development program. This makes logical a priori sense, of course, as proactive and engaged discussion is always superior to reactive and potentially adversarial interaction.