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Sample records for advancing fundamental physics

  1. Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ydri, Badis

    2016-01-01

    This book includes my lectures, together with their problem sets and solutions, on 1) classical mechanics (one semester), 2) thermodynamics and statistical mechanics (one semester), and 3) quantum mechanics (one semester), which I have been giving to graduate students of theoretical physics at Annaba University since 2010 .

  2. New Discoveries in Cosmology and Fundamental Physics through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Brickhouse, AAS WGLA: Nancy; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the Cosmology and Fundamental Physics (CFP) panel is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of the early universe, the microwave background, the reionization and galaxy formation up to virialization of protogalaxies, large scale structure, the intergalactic medium, the determination of cosmological parameters, dark matter, dark energy, tests of gravity, astronomically determined physical constants, and high energy physics using astronomical messengers. Central to the progress in these areas are the corresponding advances in laboratory astrophysics which are required for fully realizing the CFP scientific opportunities within the decade 2010-2020. Laboratory astrophysics comprises both theoretical and experimental studies of the underlying physics which produce the observed astrophysical processes. The 5 areas of laboratory astrophysics which we have identified as relevant to the C...

  3. Fundamentals of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-01-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  4. Advanced lasers laser physics and technology for applied and fundamental science

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhoivanov, Igor

    2015-01-01

    Presenting a blend of applied and fundamental research in highly interdisciplinary subjects of rapidly developing areas, this book contains contributions on the frontiers and hot topics of laser physics, laser technology and laser engineering, and covers a wide range of laser topics, from all-optical signal processing and chaotic optical communication to production of superwicking surfaces, correction of extremely high-power beams, and generation of ultrabroadband spectra. It presents both review-type contributions and well researched and documented case studies, and is intended for graduate students, young scientist, and emeritus scientist working/studying in laser physics, optoelectronics, optics, photonics, and adjacent areas. The book contains both experimental and theoretical studies, as well as combinations of these two, which is known to be a most useful and interesting form of reporting scientific results, allowing students to really learn from each contribution. The book contains over 130 illustratio...

  5. Fundamental Physics Microgravity Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    1998-01-01

    An introduction followed by a brief discussion about the sensitivity to microgravity environment disturbances for some recent and planned experiments in microgravity fundamental physics will be presented. In particular, correlation between gravity disturbances and the quality of science data sets measured by the Confined Helium Experiment (CHEX) during ground testing and during the November 1997 USMP-4 flight will be described.

  6. Fundamentals of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bittencourt, J A

    1986-01-01

    A general introduction designed to present a comprehensive, logical and unified treatment of the fundamentals of plasma physics based on statistical kinetic theory. Its clarity and completeness make it suitable for self-learning and self-paced courses. Problems are included.

  7. Fundamentals of nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the current understanding of the fundamentals of nuclear physics by referring to key experimental data and by providing a theoretical understanding of principal nuclear properties. It primarily covers the structure of nuclei at low excitation in detail. It also examines nuclear forces and decay properties. In addition to fundamentals, the book treats several new research areas such as non-relativistic as well as relativistic Hartree–Fock calculations, the synthesis of super-heavy elements, the quantum chromodynamics phase diagram, and nucleosynthesis in stars, to convey to readers the flavor of current research frontiers in nuclear physics. The authors explain semi-classical arguments and derivation of its formulae. In these ways an intuitive understanding of complex nuclear phenomena is provided. The book is aimed at graduate school students as well as junior and senior undergraduate students and postdoctoral fellows. It is also useful for researchers to update their knowledge of diver...

  8. GRBs and Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitjean, Patrick; Wang, F. Y.; Wu, X. F.; Wei, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are short and intense flashes at the cosmological distances, which are the most luminous explosions in the Universe. The high luminosities of GRBs make them detectable out to the edge of the visible universe. So, they are unique tools to probe the properties of high-redshift universe: including the cosmic expansion and dark energy, star formation rate, the reionization epoch and the metal evolution of the Universe. First, they can be used to constrain the history of cosmic acceleration and the evolution of dark energy in a redshift range hardly achievable by other cosmological probes. Second, long GRBs are believed to be formed by collapse of massive stars. So they can be used to derive the high-redshift star formation rate, which can not be probed by current observations. Moreover, the use of GRBs as cosmological tools could unveil the reionization history and metal evolution of the Universe, the intergalactic medium (IGM) properties and the nature of first stars in the early universe. But beyond that, the GRB high-energy photons can be applied to constrain Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) and to test Einstein's Equivalence Principle (EEP). In this paper, we review the progress on the GRB cosmology and fundamental physics probed by GRBs.

  9. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  10. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  11. Information physics fundamentals of nanophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruse, Makoto; Tate, Naoya; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2013-05-01

    Nanophotonics has been extensively studied with the aim of unveiling and exploiting light-matter interactions that occur at a scale below the diffraction limit of light, and recent progress made in experimental technologies--both in nanomaterial fabrication and characterization--is driving further advancements in the field. From the viewpoint of information, on the other hand, novel architectures, design and analysis principles, and even novel computing paradigms should be considered so that we can fully benefit from the potential of nanophotonics. This paper examines the information physics aspects of nanophotonics. More specifically, we present some fundamental and emergent information properties that stem from optical excitation transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions and the hierarchical properties inherent in optical near-fields. We theoretically and experimentally investigate aspects such as unidirectional signal transfer, energy efficiency and networking effects, among others, and we present their basic theoretical formalisms and describe demonstrations of practical applications. A stochastic analysis of light-assisted material formation is also presented, where an information-based approach provides a deeper understanding of the phenomena involved, such as self-organization. Furthermore, the spatio-temporal dynamics of optical excitation transfer and its inherent stochastic attributes are utilized for solution searching, paving the way to a novel computing paradigm that exploits coherent and dissipative processes in nanophotonics.

  12. Fundamental units: physics and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fundamental units is discussed in the context of achievements of both theoretical physics and modern metrology. On one hand, due to fascinating accuracy of atomic clocks, the traditional macroscopic standards of metrology (second, metre, kilogram) are giving way to standards based on fundamental units of nature: velocity of light $c$ and quantum of action $h$. On the other hand, the poor precision of gravitational constant $G$, which is widely believed to define the ``cube of theories'' and the units of the future ``theory of everything'', does not allow to use $G$ as a fundamental dimensional constant in metrology. The electromagnetic units in SI are actually based on concepts of prerelativistic classical electrodynamics such as ether, electric permitivity and magnetic permeability of vacuum. Concluding remarks are devoted to terminological confusion which accompanies the progress in basic physics and metrology.

  13. Status of Fundamental Physics Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark C.

    2003-01-01

    Update of the Fundamental Physics Program. JEM/EF Slip. 2 years delay. Reduced budget. Community support and advocacy led by Professor Nick Bigelow. Reprogramming led by Fred O Callaghan/JPL team. LTMPF M1 mission (DYNAMX and SUMO). PARCS. Carrier re baselined on JEM/EF.

  14. Astrophysical probes of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, C.J.A.P. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    I review the motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inaccessible to experiment. I highlight the current controversial evidence for varying couplings and present some new results. Finally I focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements might be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with some advantages over standard methods. In particular I discuss what can be achieved with future spectrographs such as ESPRESSO and CODEX.

  15. Fundamental physics in particle traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    This volume provides detailed insight into the field of precision spectroscopy and fundamental physics with particles confined in traps. It comprises experiments with electrons and positrons, protons and antiprotons, antimatter and highly charged ions, together with corresponding theoretical background. Such investigations represent stringent tests of quantum electrodynamics and the Standard model, antiparticle and antimatter research, test of fundamental symmetries, constants, and their possible variations with time and space. They are key to various aspects within metrology such as mass measurements and time standards, as well as promising to further developments in quantum information processing. The reader obtains a valuable source of information suited for beginners and experts with an interest in fundamental studies using particle traps.

  16. Fundamentals of estuarine physical oceanography

    CERN Document Server

    Bruner de Miranda, Luiz; Kjerfve, Björn; Castro Filho, Belmiro Mendes de

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the complex system functions, variability and human interference in ecosystem between the continent and the ocean. It focuses on circulation, transport and mixing of estuarine and coastal water masses, which is ultimately related to an understanding of the hydrographic and hydrodynamic characteristics (salinity, temperature, density and circulation), mixing processes (advection and diffusion), transport timescales such as the residence time and the exposure time. In the area of physical oceanography, experiments using these water bodies as a natural laboratory and interpreting their circulation and mixing processes using theoretical and semi-theoretical knowledge are of fundamental importance. Small-scale physical models may also be used together with analytical and numerical models. The book highlights the fact that research and theory are interactive, and the results provide the fundamentals for the development of the estuarine research.

  17. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam S; Ostriker, Jeremiah P

    2014-02-18

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  18. Astronomical reach of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Adam S.; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2014-02-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples, we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by nature between disparate realms of the universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  19. Astrophysical Probes of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martins, C J A P

    2006-01-01

    I review the theoretical motivation for varying fundamental couplings and discuss how these measurements can be used to constrain a number of fundamental physics scenarios that would otherwise be inacessible to experiment. As a case study I will focus on the relation between varying couplings and dark energy, and explain how varying coupling measurements can be used to probe the nature of dark energy, with important advantages over the standard methods. Assuming that the current observational evidence for varying $\\alpha$ and $\\mu$ is correct, a several-sigma detection of dynamical dark energy is feasible within a few years, using currently operational ground-based facilities. With forthcoming instruments like CODEX, a high-accuracy reconstruction of the equation of state may be possible all the way up to redshift $z\\sim4$.

  20. Fundamentals of condensed matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Marvin L

    2016-01-01

    Based on an established course and covering the fundamentals, central areas, and contemporary topics of this diverse field, Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics is a much-needed textbook for graduate students. The book begins with an introduction to the modern conceptual models of a solid from the points of view of interacting atoms and elementary excitations. It then provides students with a thorough grounding in electronic structure as a starting point to understand many properties of condensed matter systems - electronic, structural, vibrational, thermal, optical, transport, magnetic and superconductivity - and methods to calculate them. Taking readers through the concepts and techniques, the text gives both theoretically and experimentally inclined students the knowledge needed for research and teaching careers in this field. It features 200 illustrations, 40 worked examples and 150 homework problems for students to test their understanding. Solutions to the problems for instructors are available at w...

  1. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics.  The next bo...

  2. Fundamentals of Cosmological Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Khlopov, Maxim Yu

    2012-01-01

    This current updated and expanded (this is an up-dated English translation of Prof. Khlopov's book "Osnovy kosmomikrofiziki", URSS, 2004) text reflects the large number of scientific advances, both theoretical and experimental, within the discipline of cosmic particle physics in the last 10 years. Some of the topics that have been added or updated include but are not limited to: HND or CMD+HND scenarios being implemented into sterile neutrino scenarios, the ramifications of extending the forms of dark matter with respect to our view of neutrinos, the origin of baryon matter and the need for nonbaryonic matter in current theories, problems the existence of dark matter raises with respect to cosmic particle physics and the relationship with (meta) stable (super) weakly interacting particles predicted by the extension of the standard model, restrictions on baryon and lepton photons, as well as problems associated with expansion, just to name a few. These and many other topics are readdressed in light of recent b...

  3. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  4. Fundamental neutron physics at LANSCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.

    1995-10-01

    Modern neutron sources and science share a common origin in mid-20th-century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for studying condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and justified) as tools for neutron scattering and materials science research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities performed at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high-flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high-power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for continuing this research.

  5. Fundamentals of Physics, Student's Solutions Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-07-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  6. Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  7. Fundamentals of Physics, Problem Supplement No. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2000-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  8. Fundamentals of Nuclear Reactor Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, E E

    2008-01-01

    This new streamlined text offers a one-semester treatment of the essentials of how the fission nuclear reactor works, the various approaches to the design of reactors, and their safe and efficient operation. The book includes numerous worked-out examples and end-of-chapter questions to help reinforce the knowledge presented. This textbook offers an engineering-oriented introduction to nuclear physics, with a particular focus on how those physics are put to work in the service of generating nuclear-based power, particularly the importance of neutron reactions and neutron behavior. Engin

  9. New horizons in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Mirko

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents the state-of-the-art in selected topics across modern nuclear physics, covering fields of central importance to research and illustrating their connection to many different areas of physics. It describes recent progress in the study of superheavy and exotic nuclei, which is pushing our knowledge to ever heavier elements and neutron-richer isotopes. Extending nuclear physics to systems that are many times denser than even the core of an atomic nucleus, one enters the realm of the physics of neutron stars and possibly quark stars, a topic that is intensively investigated with many ground-based and outer-space research missions as well as numerous theoretical works. By colliding two nuclei at very high ultra-relativistic energies one can create a fireball of extremely hot matter, reminiscent of the universe very shortly after the big bang, leading to a phase of melted hadrons and free quarks and gluons, the so-called quark-gluon plasma. These studies tie up with effects of crucial importance...

  10. Fundamentals of Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marvin L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2016-05-01

    Part I. Basic Concepts: Electrons and Phonons: 1. Concept of a solid: qualitative introduction and overview; 2. Electrons in crystals; 3. Electronic energy bands; 4. Lattice vibrations and phonons; Part II. Electron Intercations, Dynamics and Responses: 5. Electron dynamics in crystals; 6. Many-electron interactions: the interacting electron gas and beyond; 7. Density functional theory; 8. The dielectric function for solids; Part III. Optical and Transport Phenomena: 9. Electronic transitions and optical properties of solids; 10. Electron-phonon interactions; 11. Dynamics of crystal electrons in a magnetic field; 12. Fundamentals of transport phenomena in solids; Part IV. Superconductivity, Magnetism, and Lower Dimensional Systems: 13. Using many-body techniques; 14. Superconductivity; 15. Magnetism; 16. Reduced-dimensional systems and nanostructures; Index.

  11. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series presents contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study o

  12. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2012-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of chemical physics. This volume explores: Quantum Dynamical Resonances in Ch

  13. Advances in chemical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  14. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2011-01-01

    The Advances in Chemical Physics series-the cutting edge of research in chemical physics The Advances in Chemical Physics series provides the chemical physics and physical chemistry fields with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Filled with cutting-edge research reported in a cohesive manner not found elsewhere in the literature, each volume of the Advances in Chemical Physics series offers contributions from internationally renowned chemists and serves as the perfect supplement to any advanced graduate class devoted to the study of che

  15. Particle physics: Quantum simulation of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Erez

    2016-06-01

    Gauge theories underpin the standard model of particle physics, but are difficult to study using conventional computational methods. An experimental quantum system opens up fresh avenues of investigation. See Letter p.516

  16. [Reduction of biology to fundamental physics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okhonin, V A

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that, while interpreting life as a physical phenomenon, fundamental physics allows for the following alternatives: relativity of animate and inanimate upon canonical transformations; the impossibility of the change from animate to inanimate state of isolated systems; the abandonment of attempts to reduce biology to the physics of isolated systems. The possibility of reducing biology to phenomenological physics was considered. A number of equations for the general phenomenological dynamics of density matrix was proposed.

  17. Fundamentals and advanced techniques in derivatives hedging

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the theory of derivatives pricing and hedging as well as techniques used in mathematical finance. The authors use a top-down approach, starting with fundamentals before moving to applications, and present theoretical developments alongside various exercises, providing many examples of practical interest. A large spectrum of concepts and mathematical tools that are usually found in separate monographs are presented here. In addition to the no-arbitrage theory in full generality, this book also explores models and practical hedging and pricing issues. Fundamentals and Advanced Techniques in Derivatives Hedging further introduces advanced methods in probability and analysis, including Malliavin calculus and the theory of viscosity solutions, as well as the recent theory of stochastic targets and its use in risk management, making it the first textbook covering this topic. Graduate students in applied mathematics with an understanding of probability theory and stochastic calculus will find this b...

  18. The fundamental constants a mystery of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    2009-01-01

    The speed of light, the fine structure constant, and Newton's constant of gravity — these are just three among the many physical constants that define our picture of the world. Where do they come from? Are they constant in time and across space? In this book, physicist and author Harald Fritzsch invites the reader to explore the mystery of the fundamental constants of physics in the company of Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, and a modern-day physicist

  19. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-05-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  20. Advances in chemical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Physics is the only series of volumes available that explores the cutting edge of research in chemical physics. This is the only series of volumes available that presents the cutting edge of research in chemical physics.Includes contributions from experts in this field of research.Contains a representative cross-section of research that questions established thinking on chemical solutions.Structured with an editorial framework that makes the book an excellent supplement to an advanced graduate class in physical chemistry or chemical physics.

  1. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    1996-01-01

    Fundamentals of Semiconductors attempts to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic Theories are presented to explain experimental results This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors The explanations are based on physical insights Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures and problems Many of these problems 'lead the student by the hand' to arrive at the results

  2. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2010-01-01

    This fourth edition of the well-established Fundamentals of Semiconductors serves to fill the gap between a general solid-state physics textbook and research articles by providing detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. The approach is physical and intuitive rather than formal and pedantic. Theories are presented to explain experimental results. This textbook has been written with both students and researchers in mind. Its emphasis is on understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors. The explanations are based on physical insights. Each chapter is enriched by an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems. Many of these problems "lead the student by the hand" to arrive at the results. The major changes made in the fourth edition include: an extensive appendix about the important and by now well-established deep center known as the DX center, additional problems...

  3. The Astronomical Reach of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Using basic physical arguments, we derive by dimensional and physical analysis the characteristic masses and sizes of important objects in the Universe in terms of just a few fundamental constants. This exercise illustrates the unifying power of physics and the profound connections between the small and the large in the Cosmos we inhabit. We focus on the minimum and maximum masses of normal stars, the corresponding quantities for neutron stars, the maximum mass of a rocky planet, the maximum mass of a white dwarf, and the mass of a typical galaxy. To zeroth order, we show that all these masses can be expressed in terms of either the Planck mass or the Chandrasekar mass, in combination with various dimensionless quantities. With these examples we expose the deep interrelationships imposed by Nature between disparate realms of the Universe and the amazing consequences of the unifying character of physical law.

  4. Environment-Dependent Fundamental Physical Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Terazawa, Hidezumi

    2012-01-01

    A theory of special inconstancy, in which some fundamental physical constants such as the fine-structure and gravitational constants may vary, is proposed in pregeometry. In the special theory of inconstancy, the \\alpha-G relation of \\alpha=3\\pi/[16ln(4\\pi/5GM_W^2)] between the varying fine-structure and gravitaional constants (where M_W is the charged weak boson mass) is derived from the hypothesis that both of these constants are related to the same fundamental length scale in nature. Furthermore, it leads to the prediction of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(-0.8\\pm2.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} from the most precise limit of dot{G}/G=(-0.6\\pm2.0)\\times10^{-12}yr^{-1} by Thorsett, which is not only consistent with the recent observation of dot{{\\alpha}}/\\alpha=(0.5\\pm0.5)\\times10^{-14}yr^{-1} by Webb et al. but also feasible for future experimental tests. Also a theory of general inconstancy, in which any fundamental physical constants may vary, is proposed in "more general relativity", by assuming that the space-time is ...

  5. The Role of Renormalization Group in Fundamental Theoretical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Shirkov, Dmitri V.

    1997-01-01

    General aspects of fundamental physics are considered. We comment the Wigner's logical scheme and modify it to adjust to modern theoretical physics. Then, we discuss the role and indicate the place of renormalization group in the logic of fundamental physics.

  6. Calculations in fundamental physics mechanics and heat

    CERN Document Server

    Heddle, T

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Fundamental Physics, Volume I: Mechanics and Heat focuses on the mechanisms of heat. The manuscript first discusses motion, including parabolic, angular, and rectilinear motions, relative velocity, acceleration of gravity, and non-uniform acceleration. The book then discusses combinations of forces, such as polygons and resolution, friction, center of gravity, shearing force, and bending moment. The text looks at force and acceleration, energy and power, and machines. Considerations include momentum, horizontal or vertical motion, work and energy, pulley systems, gears and chai

  7. Fundamental constraints on two-time physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piceno, E.; Rosado, A.; Sadurní, E.

    2016-10-01

    We show that generalizations of classical and quantum dynamics with two times lead to a fundamentally constrained evolution. At the level of classical physics, Newton's second law is extended and exactly integrated in a (1 + 2) -dimensional space, leading to effective single-time evolution for any initial condition. The cases 2 + 2 and 3 + 2 are also analyzed. In the domain of quantum mechanics, we follow strictly the hypothesis of probability conservation by extending the Heisenberg picture to unitary evolution with two times. As a result, the observability of two temporal axes is constrained by a generalized uncertainty relation involving level spacings, total duration of the effect and Planck's constant.

  8. Exploring fundamental physics with neutron stars

    CERN Document Server

    Pizzochero, Pierre M

    2016-01-01

    In this lecture, we give a first introduction to neutron stars, based on fundamental physical principles. After outlining their outstanding macroscopic properties, as obtained from observations, we infer the extreme conditions of matter in their interiors. We then describe two crucial physical phenomena which characterize compact stars, namely the gravitational stability of strongly degenerate matter and the neutronization of nuclear matter with increasing density, and explain how the formation and properties of neutron stars are a direct consequence of the extreme compression of matter under strong gravity. Finally, we describe how multi-wavelength observations of different external macroscopic features (e.g. maximum mass, surface temperature, pulsar glitches) can give invaluable information about the exotic internal microscopic scenario: super-dense, isospin-asymmetric, superfluid, bulk hadronic matter (probably deconfined in the most central regions) which can be found nowhere else in the Universe. Indeed,...

  9. The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Lecture in English, with simultaneous interpreting into French It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications. Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Roentgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of particle accelerators used to cure tumours. The time is well chosen because the year 2014 marks the 60th anniversary of CERN, the largest particle Physics laboratory in the world, and of the first cancer treatment with protons done at Berkeley. ------ Conférence en...

  10. Fundamentals of physics II electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shankar, R

    2016-01-01

    R. Shankar, a well-known physicist and contagiously enthusiastic educator, was among the first to offer a course through the innovative Open Yale Course program. His popular online video lectures on introductory physics have been viewed over a million times. In this second book based on his online Yale course, Shankar explains essential concepts, including electromagnetism, optics, and quantum mechanics. The book begins at the simplest level, develops the basics, and reinforces fundamentals, ensuring a solid foundation in the principles and methods of physics. It provides an ideal introduction for college-level students of physics, chemistry, and engineering; for motivated AP Physics students; and for general readers interested in advances in the sciences.

  11. Astronomers Gain Clues About Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    An international team of astronomers has looked at something very big -- a distant galaxy -- to study the behavior of things very small -- atoms and molecules -- to gain vital clues about the fundamental nature of our entire Universe. The team used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test whether the laws of nature have changed over vast spans of cosmic time. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for GBT gallery) "The fundamental constants of physics are expected to remain fixed across space and time; that's why they're called constants! Now, however, new theoretical models for the basic structure of matter indicate that they may change. We're testing these predictions." said Nissim Kanekar, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), in Socorro, New Mexico. So far, the scientists' measurements show no change in the constants. "We've put the most stringent limits yet on some changes in these constants, but that's not the end of the story," said Christopher Carilli, another NRAO astronomer. "This is the exciting frontier where astronomy meets particle physics," Carilli explained. The research can help answer fundamental questions about whether the basic components of matter are tiny particles or tiny vibrating strings, how many dimensions the Universe has, and the nature of "dark energy." The astronomers were looking for changes in two quantities: the ratio of the masses of the electron and the proton, and a number physicists call the fine structure constant, a combination of the electron charge, the speed of light and the Planck constant. These values, considered fundamental physical constants, once were "taken as time independent, with values given once and forever" said German particle physicist Christof Wetterich. However, Wetterich explained, "the viewpoint of modern particle theory has changed in recent years," with ideas such as

  12. Fundamental Neutron Physics: Theory and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Vladimir [South Carolina Research Foundation, Columbia, SC (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The goal of the proposal was to study the possibility of searching for manifestations of new physics beyond the Standard model in fundamental neutron physics experiments. This involves detailed theoretical analyses of parity and time reversal invariance violating processes in neutron induced reactions, properties of neutron β-decay, and the precise description of properties of neutron interactions with nuclei. To describe neutron-nuclear interactions, we use both the effective field theory approach and the theory of nuclear reaction with phenomenological nucleon potentials for the systematic description of parity and time reversal violating effects in the consistent way. A major emphasis of our research during the funding period has been the study of parity violation (PV) and time reversal invariance violation (TRIV) in few-body systems. We studied PV effects in non-elastic processes in three nucleon system using both ”DDH-like” and effective field theory (EFT) approaches. The wave functions were obtained by solving three-body Faddeev equations in configuration space for a number of realistic strong potentials. The observed model dependence for the DDH approach indicates intrinsic difficulty in the description of nuclear PV effects and it could be the reason for the observed discrepancies in the nuclear PV data analysis. It shows that the DDH approach could be a reasonable approach for analysis of PV effects only if exactly the same strong and weak potentials are used in calculating all PV observables in all nuclei. However, the existing calculations of nuclear PV effects were performed using different potentials; therefore, strictly speaking, one cannot compare the existing results of these calculations among themselves.

  13. Early universe cosmology and tests of fundamental physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas Albrecht, Joshua A. Frieman and Mark Trodden

    2002-03-04

    This is the report of the Working Group on Early Universe Cosmology and tests of Fundamental Physics, group P4.8 of the of the Snowmass 2001 conference. Here we summarize the impressive array of advances that have taken place in this field, and identify opportunities for even greater progress in the future. Topics include Dark Energy, Cosmic Acceleration, Inflation, Phase Transitions, Baryogenesis, and String/M-theory Cosmology. The introductory section gives an executive summary with six key open questions on which we can expect to make significant progress.

  14. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  15. The physical world an inspirational tour of fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manton, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    The Physical World offers a grand vision of the essential unity of physics that will enable the reader to see the world through the eyes of a physicist and understand their thinking. The text follows Einstein's dictum that 'explanations should be made as simple as possible, but no simpler', to give an honest account of how modern physicists understand their subject, including the shortcomings of current theory. The result is an up-to-date and engaging portrait of physics that contains concise derivations of the important results in a style where every step in a derivation is clearly explained, so that anyone with the appropriate mathematical skills will find the text easy to digest. It is over half a century since The Feynman Lectures in Physics were published. A new authoritative account of fundamental physics covering all branches of the subject is now well overdue. The Physical World has been written to satisfy this need. The book concentrates on the conceptual principles of each branch of physics and sho...

  16. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Adam B

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects.

  17. An integration of integrated information theory with fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Adam B.

    2014-01-01

    To truly eliminate Cartesian ghosts from the science of consciousness, we must describe consciousness as an aspect of the physical. Integrated Information Theory states that consciousness arises from intrinsic information generated by dynamical systems; however existing formulations of this theory are not applicable to standard models of fundamental physical entities. Modern physics has shown that fields are fundamental entities, and in particular that the electromagnetic field is fundamental. Here I hypothesize that consciousness arises from information intrinsic to fundamental fields. This hypothesis unites fundamental physics with what we know empirically about the neuroscience underlying consciousness, and it bypasses the need to consider quantum effects. PMID:24550877

  18. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  19. Fundamentals and advances in magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périgo, E. A.; Hemery, G.; Sandre, O.; Ortega, D.; Garaio, E.; Plazaola, F.; Teran, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, magnetic hyperthermia constitutes a complementary approach to cancer treatment. The use of magnetic particles as heating mediators, proposed in the 1950s, provides a novel strategy for improving tumor treatment and, consequently, patient's quality of life. This review reports a broad overview about several aspects of magnetic hyperthermia addressing new perspectives and the progress on relevant features such as the ad hoc preparation of magnetic nanoparticles, physical modeling of magnetic heating, methods to determine the heat dissipation power of magnetic colloids including the development of experimental apparatus and the influence of biological matrices on the heating efficiency.

  20. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  1. Advanced Fencing; Physical Education: 5551.54.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Marjorie

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 8-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Strategy, tactics, principles, and fundamentals of advanced fencing skills. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The contents are divided into seven areas, which are Course Guidelines, Course Description and Broad Goal, Course of Study Behavioral Objectives, Course Content, Learning Activities and…

  2. Fundamental Thermal Fluid Physics of High Temperature Flows in Advanced Reactor Systems - Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Program Interoffice Work Order (IWO) MSF99-0254 Final Report for Period 1 August 1999 to 31 December 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEligot, D.M.; Condie, K.G.; Foust, T.D.; McCreery, G.E.; Pink, R.J.; Stacey, D.E. (INEEL); Shenoy, A.; Baccaglini, G. (General Atomics); Pletcher, R.H. (Iowa State U.); Wallace, J.M.; Vukoslavcevic, P. (U. Maryland); Jackson, J.D. (U. Manchester, UK); Kunugi, T. (Kyoto U., Japan); Satake, S.-i. (Tokyo U. Science, Japan)

    2002-12-31

    The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of advanced reactors for higher efficiency and enhanced safety and for deployable reactors for electrical power generation, process heat utilization and hydrogen generation. While key applications would be advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGCRs) using the closed Brayton cycle (CBC) for higher efficiency (such as the proposed Gas Turbine - Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR) of General Atomics [Neylan and Simon, 1996]), results of the proposed research should also be valuable in reactor systems with supercritical flow or superheated vapors, e.g., steam. Higher efficiency leads to lower cost/kwh and reduces life-cycle impacts of radioactive waste (by reducing waters/kwh). The outcome will also be useful for some space power and propulsion concepts and for some fusion reactor concepts as side benefits, but they are not the thrusts of the investigation. The objective of the project is to provide fundamental thermal fluid physics knowledge and measurements necessary for the development of the improved methods for the applications.

  3. Noise in state of the art clocks and their impact for fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, L.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper a review of the use of advanced atomic clocks in testing the fundamental physical laws will be presented. Noise sources of clocks will be discussed, together with an outline their characterization based on current models. The paper will conclude with a discussion of recent attempts to reduce the fundamental, as well as technical noise in atomic clocks.

  4. Fundamental Physics Program and the NASA Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    The accomplishments of Physics, the increasing power of its instruments, and its expanding reach into other sciences have generated an unprecedented set of scientific opportunities. The committee has identified six such Grand Challenges listed below in no particular order: Developing quantum technologies. Creating new materials. Understanding complex systems. Unifying the forces of Nature. Exploring the universe Applying Physics to Biology.

  5. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Soldner, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the European Spallation Source ESS is ongoing in Lund, Sweden. This new high power spallation source with its long-pulse structure opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. This paper focusses on two proposals for fundamental physics at the ESS: The ANNI...

  6. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Soldner, Torsten

    The construction of the European Spallation Source ESS is ongoing in Lund, Sweden. This new high power spallation source with its long-pulse structure opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. This paper focusses on two proposals for fundamental physics at the ESS: The ANNI...

  7. Fundamentals of Physics, Probeware Lab Manual/Student Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  8. Fundamentals of Physics, Instructor Lab Manual with CD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-09-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving.

  9. 12th International Symposium on Frontiers of Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Michelini, Marisa; Santi, Lorenzo; FFP12; Frontiers of fundamental physics and physics education research

    2014-01-01

    In a knowledge-based society, research into fundamental physics plays a vital role not only in the enhancement of human knowledge but also in the development of new technology that affects everday life.The international symposium series Frontiers of Fundamental Physics (FFP) regularly brings together eminent scholars and researchers working in various areas in physics to exchange expertise, ideas, results, and new research perspectives. The twelfth such symposium, FFP12, took place at the University of Udine, Italy, and covered diverse fields of research: astrophysics, high energy physics and particle physics, theoretical physics, gravitation and cosmology, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, computational physics, and mathematical physics. Importantly, it also devoted a great deal of attention to physics education research, teacher training in modern physics, and popularization of physics. The high scientific level of FFP12 was guaranteed by the careful selection made by scientific coordinators fr...

  10. Fundamentals of semiconductors physics and materials properties

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Peter Y

    2005-01-01

    Provides detailed explanations of the electronic, vibrational, transport, and optical properties of semiconductors. This textbook emphasizes understanding the physical properties of Si and similar tetrahedrally coordinated semiconductors and features an extensive collection of tables of material parameters, figures, and problems.

  11. Fundamental mathematics and physics of medical imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Authored by a leading educator, this book is ideal for medical imaging courses. Rather than focus on imaging modalities the book delves into the mechanisms of image formation and image quality common to all imaging systems: contrast mechanisms, noise, and spatial and temporal resolution. This is an extensively revised new edition of The Physics of Medical X-Ray Imaging by Bruce Hasegawa (Medical Physics Publishing, 1991). A wide range of modalities are covered including X-ray CT, MRI and SPECT.

  12. Fundamental concepts in Particle Physics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The course will provide an introduction to some of the basic theoretical techniques used to describe the fundamental particles and their interactions. Of central importance to our understanding of these forces are the underlying symmetries of nature and I will review the nature of these symmetries and how they are used to build a predictive theory. I discuss how the combination of quantum mechanics and relativity leads to the quantum field theory (QFT) description of the states of matter and their interactions. The Feynman rules used to determine the QFT predictions for experimentally measurable processes are derived and applied to the calculation of decay widths and cross sections.

  13. Energy and Entropy as the Fundaments of Theoretical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pharis E. Williams

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Einstein's article titled, "The Fundaments of Theoretical Physics", from Science, Washington, D.C., May 24, 1940, is presented in its entirety as it is an outstanding presentation of the history and status of the foundations of theoretical physics as it stood in 1940. Further, it provides the background for discussing the new view of the fundaments of theoretical physics provided by the energy and entropy foundation of the Dynamic Theory.

  14. Fundamentals of physics student solutions manual

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Sen-Ben

    2014-01-01

    This book arms engineers with the tools to apply key physics concepts in the field. A number of the key figures in the new edition are revised to provide a more inviting and informative treatment. The figures are broken into component parts with supporting commentary so that they can more readily see the key ideas.

  15. Space-Based Research in Fundamental Physics and Quantum Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava G.; Israelsson, Ulf E.; Shao, Michael; Yu, Nan; Kusenko, Alexander; Wright, Edward L.; Everitt, C. W. Francis; Kasevich, Mark; Lipa, John A.; Mester, John C.; Reasenberg, Robert D.; Walsworth, Ronald L.; Ashby, Neil; Gould, Harvey; Paik, Ho Jung

    Space offers unique experimental conditions and a wide range of opportunities to explore the foundations of modern physics with an accuracy far beyond that of ground-based experiments. Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for investigations in precision cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research in fundamental physics as one of its focus areas. We recommend establishing an Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee's interagency "Fundamental Physics Task Force" to assess the status of both ground- and space-based efforts in the field, to identify the most important objectives, and to suggest the best ways to organize the work of several federal agencies involved. We also recommend establishing a new NASA-led interagency program in fundamental physics that will consolidate new technologies, prepare key instruments for future space missions, and build a strong scientific and engineering community. Our goal is to expand NASA's science objectives in space by including "laboratory research in fundamental physics" as an element in the agency's ongoing space research efforts.

  16. Accreting Millisecond Pulsars and Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod

    2005-01-01

    X-ray emission from the surfaces of rapidly rotating neutron stars encodes information about their global properties as well as physical conditions locally. Detailed modelling of, for example, the energy dependent pulse profiles observed from accreting millisecond pulsars and thermonuclear burst oscillations can be used to derive constraints on the masses and radii of neutron stars. These measurements provide direct information on the properties of the dense matter equation of state of the supranuclear density matter in their interiors. Study of absorption lines created in the surface layers can also provide measurements of masses and radii, and may be able to probe aspects of relativistic gravity, such as frame dragging. I will discuss the results of recent efforts to carry out such measurements and their implications for the properties of dense matter.

  17. Contemporary state of fundamental physical research

    CERN Document Server

    Lokajicek, Milos V

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary scientific and technological progress has been given fully by the results of classical mechanics from the 19th century when the so called European values were accepted practically by the whole educated world. The given results and conclusions were gained on the basis of causal ontological approach proposed in principle by Socrates and developed further by Aristotle. This approach has been, however, fully extruded by phenomenological approach in the 20th century, which has disallowed practically any other actually scientific progress; three very different theories having been applied to physical reality now: classical mechanics in standard macroscopic region, Copenhagen quantum mechanics in microscopic region, and special theory of reality in both the regions in the case of systems consisting of objects having higher velocity values. Any explanation or description of transitions between different regions and between different theories have not been provided until now. The corresponding evoluti...

  18. Cosmic Acceleration, Dark Energy and Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, Michael Stanley

    2007-01-01

    A web of interlocking observations has established that the expansion of the Universe is speeding up and not slowing, revealing the presence of some form of repulsive gravity. Within the context of general relativity the cause of cosmic acceleration is a highly elastic (p\\sim -rho), very smooth form of energy called ``dark energy'' accounting for about 75% of the Universe. The ``simplest'' explanation for dark energy is the zero-point energy density associated with the quantum vacuum; however, all estimates for its value are many orders-of-magnitude too large. Other ideas for dark energy include a very light scalar field or a tangled network of topological defects. An alternate explanation invokes gravitational physics beyond general relativity. Observations and experiments underway and more precise cosmological measurements and laboratory experiments planned for the next decade will test whether or not dark energy is the quantum energy of the vacuum or something more exotic, and whether or not general relati...

  19. Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Capitelli, Mario; Colonna, Gianpiero; Esposito, Fabrizio; Gorse, Claudine; Hassouni, Khaled; Laricchiuta, Annarita; Longo, Savino

    2016-01-01

    Describing non-equilibrium "cold" plasmas through a chemical physics approach, this book uses the state-to-state plasma kinetics, which considers each internal state as a new species with its own cross sections. Extended atomic and molecular master equations are coupled with Boltzmann and Monte Carlo methods to solve the electron energy distribution function. Selected examples in different applied fields, such as microelectronics, fusion, and aerospace, are presented and discussed including the self-consistent kinetics in RF parallel plate reactors, the optimization of negative ion sources and the expansion of high enthalpy flows through nozzles of different geometries. The book will cover the main aspects of the state-to-state kinetic approach for the description of nonequilibrium cold plasmas, illustrating the more recent achievements in the development of kinetic models including the self-consistent coupling of master equations and Boltzmann equation for electron dynamics. To give a complete portrayal, the...

  20. Fundamentals of Atmospheric Physics for Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Cionco, Rodolfo G

    2012-01-01

    We present the proposal of an elective for engineering courses, designed to train professionals with a solid foundation in Physics of the Atmosphere interested in environmental and sustainability issues broadly. We propose four chapters that contain a variety of topics but strongly interrelated, which correspond to three main areas: nature of the atmosphere and meteorology relevant to contaminant transport, the dispersion of air pollutants and climate in general. We conclude that it is possible train engineers who understand the basic mechanisms that led to the current atmosphere, atmospheric processes related to local and global climate, the dispersion of air pollutants and key concepts such as solar activity, climatic change and climatic variability, even in one semester. It also discusses the relationship with other subjects and proposes and illustrates a method of course approval based on the performance of work directly applicable to engineering problems.

  1. Space-based research in fundamental physics and quantum technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G; Shao, M; Yu, N; Kusenko, A; Wright, E L; Everitt, C W F; Kasevich, M A; Lipa, J A; Mester, J C; Reasenberg, R D; Walsworth, R L; Ashby, N; Gould, H; Paik, H -J

    2007-01-01

    Space-based experiments today can uniquely address important questions related to the fundamental laws of Nature. In particular, high-accuracy physics experiments in space can test relativistic gravity and probe the physics beyond the Standard Model; they can perform direct detection of gravitational waves and are naturally suited for precision investigations in cosmology and astroparticle physics. In addition, atomic physics has recently shown substantial progress in the development of optical clocks and atom interferometers. If placed in space, these instruments could turn into powerful high-resolution quantum sensors greatly benefiting fundamental physics. We discuss the current status of space-based research in fundamental physics, its discovery potential, and its importance for modern science. We offer a set of recommendations to be considered by the upcoming National Academy of Sciences' Decadal Survey in Astronomy and Astrophysics. In our opinion, the Decadal Survey should include space-based research ...

  2. Innovative quantum technologies for microgravity fundamental physics and biological research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierk, I. K.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a new technology program, within the fundamental physics, focusing on four quantum technology areas: quantum atomics, quantum optics, space superconductivity and quantum sensor technology, and quantum field based sensor and modeling technology.

  3. Role of Fundamental Physics in Human Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turyshev, Slava

    2004-01-01

    This talk will discuss the critical role that fundamental physics research plays for the human space exploration. In particular, the currently available technologies can already provide significant radiation reduction, minimize bone loss, increase crew productivity and, thus, uniquely contribute to overall mission success. I will discuss how fundamental physics research and emerging technologies may not only further reduce the risks of space travel, but also increase the crew mobility, enhance safety and increase the value of space exploration in the near future.

  4. Fundamental math and physics for scientists and engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Yevick, David

    2014-01-01

    This text summarizes the core undergraduate physics curriculum together with the mathematics frequently encountered in engineering and physics calculations, focusing on content relevant to practical applications.Covers  major undergraduate physics topics including the complete Physics GRE subject examination syllabusOverview of key results in undergraduate applied mathematics and introduces scientific programmingPresents simple, coherent derivations and illustrations of fundamental concepts

  5. Fundamental Particles and Interactions. A Wall Chart of Modern Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achor, William T.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses a wall chart, "The Standard Model of Fundamental Particles and Interactions," for use in introductory physics courses at either high school or college level. Describes the chart development process, introduction and terminology of particle physics, components of the chart, and suggestions for using the chart, booklet, and…

  6. Fundamentals of Physics, Extended, Chapters 1 - 45 , Enhanced Problems Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other book on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style the book offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  7. Fundamental Physics With Cosmic High-Energy Gamma Rays

    CERN Document Server

    De Angelis, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    High-energy photons (above the MeV) are a powerful probe for astrophysics and for fundamental physics under extreme conditions. During the recent years, our knowledge of the high-energy gamma-ray sky has impressively progressed thanks to the advent of new detectors for cosmic gamma rays, at ground (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, VERITAS, HAWC) and in space (AGILE, Fermi). This presentation reviews the present status of the studies of fundamental physics problems with high-energy gamma rays, and discusses the expected experimental developments.

  8. Adaptive Review of Three Fundamental Questions in Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Daei Kasmaei, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    principle. Included in the sub quantum scale, where quantum interactions between photons and gravitons done. Hidden and dark side of modern physics is also a place where charged particles absorb and emit energy quanta, without any description of the mechanism of absorption and emission by charged particles...... the different results, we need to change our thoughts and scientific beliefs. In this paper, by a new viewpoint to the basic laws of physics, three fundamental questions in physics has been discussed and analyzed in hidden parts of the standard model and physical theories....

  9. Advances in nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Erich

    1975-01-01

    Review articles on three topics of considerable current interest make up the present volume. The first, on A-hypernuclei, was solicited by the editors in order to provide nuclear physicists with a general description of the most recent developments in a field which this audience has largely neglected or, perhaps, viewed as a novelty in which a bizarre nuclear system gave some information about the lambda-nuclear intersection. That view was never valid. The very recent developments reviewed here-particularly those pertaining to hypernuclear excitations and the strangeness exchange reactions-emphasize that this field provides important information about the models and central ideas of nuclear physics. The off-shell behavior of the nucleon-nucleon interaction is a topic which was at first received with some embarrassment, abuse, and neglect, but it has recently gained proper attention in many nuclear problems. Interest was first focused on it in nuclear many-body theory, but it threatened nuclear physicists'comf...

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Student Study Guide, Extended 7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2004-06-01

    No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.

  11. On the fundamental role of dynamics in quantum physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Holger F.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum theory expresses the observable relations between physical properties in terms of probabilities that depend on the specific context described by the "state" of a system. However, the laws of physics that emerge at the macroscopic level are fully deterministic. Here, it is shown that the relation between quantum statistics and deterministic dynamics can be explained in terms of ergodic averages over complex valued probabilities, where the fundamental causality of motion is expressed by an action that appears as the phase of the complex probability multiplied with the fundamental constant ħ. Importantly, classical physics emerges as an approximation of this more fundamental theory of motion, indicating that the assumption of a classical reality described by differential geometry is merely an artefact of an extrapolation from the observation of macroscopic dynamics to a fictitious level of precision that does not exist within our actual experience of the world around us. It is therefore possible to completely replace the classical concepts of trajectories with the more fundamental concept of action phase probabilities as a universally valid description of the deterministic causality of motion that is observed in the physical world.

  12. Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I. Academic year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Course corresponding to the subject "Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I" that is taught in the first year of the "Degree in Sound and Image, in Telecommunications" of the Polytechnic School at the University of Alicante. This course includes guides of the units, summaries of the units and problems proposed.

  13. Fundamental physics possibilities at the European Spallation Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkby, Esben Bryndt; Batkov, Konstantin; Mezei, Ferenc;

    2016-01-01

    The construction of the European Spallation has recently started in Lund, Sweden.In addition to the neutron scattering instruments the ESS is designed to serve, the constructionof a new spallation source opens up new possibilities for fundamental physics experiments. Inthis paper some of the poss...

  14. Workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier

    CERN Document Server

    Hewett, J L; Brock, R; Butler, J N; Casey, B C K; Collar, J; de Gouvea, A; Essig, R; Grossman, Y; Haxton, W; Jaros, J A; Jung, C K; Lu, Z T; Pitts, K; Ligeti, Z; Patterson, J R; Ramsey-Musolf, M; Ritchie, J L; Roodman, A; Scholberg, K; Wagner, C E M; Zeller, G P; Aefsky, S; Afanasev, A; Agashe, K; Albright, C; Alonso, J; Ankenbrandt, C; Aoki, M; Arguelles, C A; Arkani-Hamed, N; Armendariz, J R; Armendariz-Picon, C; Diaz, E Arrieta; Asaadi, J; Asner, D M; Babu, K S; Bailey, K; Baker, O; Balantekin, B; Baller, B; Bass, M; Batell, B; Beacham, J; Behr, J; Berger, N; Bergevin, M; Berman, E; Bernstein, R; Bevan, A J; Bishai, M; Blanke, M; Blessing, S; Blondel, A; Blum, T; Bock, G; Bodek, A; Bonvicini, G; Bossi, F; Boyce, J; Breedon, R; Breidenbach, M; Brice, S J; Briere, R A; Brodsky, S; Bromberg, C; Bross, A; Browder, T E; Bryman, D A; Buckley, M; Burnstein, R; Caden, E; Campana, P; Carlini, R; Carosi, G; Castromonte, C; Cenci, R; Chakaberia, I; Chen, M C; Cheng, C H; Choudhary, B; Christ, N H; Christensen, E; Christy, M E; Chupp, T E; Church, E; Cline, D B; Coan, T E; Coloma, P; Comfort, J; Coney, L; Cooper, J; Cooper, R J; Cowan, R; Cowen, D F; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Datta, A; Davies, G S; Demarteau, M; DeMille, D P; Denig, A; Dermisek, R; Deshpande, A; Dewey, M S; Dharmapalan, R; Dhooghe, J; Dietrich, M R; Diwan, M; Djurcic, Z; Dobbs, S; Duraisamy, M; Dutta, B; Duyang, H; Dwyer, D A; Eads, M; Echenard, B; Elliott, S R; Escobar, C; Fajans, J; Farooq, S; Faroughy, C; Fast, J E; Feinberg, B; Felde, J; Feldman, G; Fierlinger, P; Perez, P Fileviez; Filippone, B; Fisher, P; Flemming, B T; Flood, K T; Forty, R; Frank, M J; Freyberger, A; Friedland, A; Gandhi, R; Ganezer, K S; Garcia, A; Garcia, F G; Gardner, S; Garrison, L; Gasparian, A; Geer, S; Gehman, V M; Gershon, T; Gilchriese, M; Ginsberg, C; Gogoladze, I; Gonderinger, M; Goodman, M; Gould, H; Graham, M; Graham, P W; Gran, R; Grange, J; Gratta, G; Green, J P; Greenlee, H; Guardincerri, E; Gudkov, V; Guenette, R; Haas, A; Hahn, A; Han, T; Handler, T; Hardy, J C; Harnik, R; Harris, D A; Harris, F A; Harris, P G; Hartnett, J; He, B; Heckel, B R; Heeger, K M; Henderson, S; Hertzog, D; Hill, R; Hinds, E A; Hitlin, D G; Holt, R J; Holtkamp, N; Horton-Smith, G; Huber, P; Huelsnitz, W; Imber, J; Irastorza, I; Jaeckel, J; Jaegle, I; James, C; Jawahery, A; Jensen, D; Jessop, C P; Jones, B; Jostlein, H; Junk, T; Kagan, A L; Kalita, M; Kamyshkov, Y; Kaplan, D M; Karagiorgi, G; Karle, A; Katori, T; Kayser, B; Kephart, R; Kettell, S; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirch, K; Klein, J; Kneller, J; Kobach, A; Kohl, M; Kopp, J; Kordosky, M; Korsch, W; Kourbanis, I; Krisch, A D; Krizan, P; Kronfeld, A S; Kulkarni, S; Kumar, K S; Kuno, Y; Kutter, T; Lachenmaier, T; Lamm, M; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lane, C; Lang, K; Langacker, P; Lazarevic, S; Le, T; Lee, K; Lesko, K T; Li, Y; Lindgren, M; Lindner, A; Link, J; Lissauer, D; Littenberg, L S; Littlejohn, B; Liu, C Y; Loinaz, W; Lorenzon, W; Louis, W C; Lozier, J; Ludovici, L; Lueking, L; Lunardini, C; MacFarlane, D B; Machado, P A N; Mackenzie, P B; Maloney, J; Marciano, W J; Marsh, W; Marshak, M; Martin, J W; Mauger, C; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; McLaughlin, G; McKeen, D; McKeown, R; Meadows, B T; Mehdiyev, R; Melconian, D; Merkel, H; Messier, M; Miller, J P; Mills, G; Minamisono, U K; Mishra, S R; Mocioiu, I; Sher, S Moed; Mohapatra, R N; Monreal, B; Moore, C D; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Moustakas, L A; Mueller, G; Mueller, P; Muether, M; Mumm, H P; Munger, C; Murayama, H; Nath, P; Naviliat-Cuncin, O; Nelson, J K; Neuffer, D; Nico, J S; Norman, A; Nygren, D; Obayashi, Y; O'Connor, T P; Okada, Y; Olsen, J; Orozco, L; Orrell, J L; Osta, J; Pahlka, B; Paley, J; Papadimitriou, V; Papucci, M; Parke, S; Parker, R H; Parsa, Z; Partyka, K; Patch, A; Pati, J C; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Paz, G; Perdue, G N; Perevalov, D; Perez, G; Petti, R; Pettus, W; Piepke, A; Pivovaroff, M; Plunkett, R; Polly, C C; Pospelov, M; Povey, R; Prakesh, A; Purohit, M V; Raby, S; Raaf, J L; Rajendran, R; Rajendran, S; Rameika, G; Ramsey, R; Rashed, A; Ratcliff, B N; Rebel, B; Redondo, J; Reimer, P; Reitzner, D; Ringer, F; Ringwald, A; Riordan, S; Roberts, B L; Roberts, D A; Robertson, R; Robicheaux, F; Rominsky, M; Roser, R; Rosner, J L; Rott, C; Rubin, P; Saito, N; Sanchez, M; Sarkar, S; Schellman, H; Schmidt, B; Schmitt, M; Schmitz, D W; Schneps, J; Schopper, A; Schuster, P; Schwartz, A J; Schwarz, M; Seeman, J; Semertzidis, Y K; Seth, K K; Shafi, Q; Shanahan, P; Sharma, R; Sharpe, S R; Shiozawa, M; Shiltsev, V; Sigurdson, K; Sikivie, P; Singh, J; Sivers, D; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N; Sobczyk, J; Sobel, H; Soderberg, M; Song, Y H; Soni, A; Souder, P; Sousa, A; Spitz, J; Stancari, M; Stavenga, G C; Steffen, J H; Stepanyan, S; Stoeckinger, D; Stone, S; Strait, J; Strassler, M; Sulai, I A; Sundrum, R; Svoboda, R; Szczerbinska, B; Szelc, A; Takeuchi, T; Tanedo, P; Taneja, S; Tang, J; Tanner, D B; Tayloe, R; Taylor, I; Thomas, J; Thorn, C; Tian, X; Tice, B G; Tobar, M; Tolich, N; Toro, N; Towner, I S; Tsai, Y; Tschirhart, R; Tunnell, C D; Tzanov, M; Upadhye, A; Urheim, J; Vahsen, S; Vainshtein, A; Valencia, E; Van de Water, R G; Van de Water, R S; Velasco, M; Vogel, J; Vogel, P; Vogelsang, W; Wah, Y W; Walker, D; Weiner, N; Weltman, A; Wendell, R; Wester, W; Wetstein, M; White, C; Whitehead, L; Whitmore, J; Widmann, E; Wiedemann, G; Wilkerson, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilson, P; Wilson, R J; Winter, W; Wise, M B; Wodin, J; Wojcicki, S; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wongjirad, T; Worcester, E; Wurtele, J; Xin, T; Xu, J; Yamanaka, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yavin, I; Yeck, J; Yeh, M; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Young, A; Zimmerman, E; Zioutas, K; Zisman, M; Zupan, J; Zwaska, R

    2012-01-01

    The Proceedings of the 2011 workshop on Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier. Science opportunities at the intensity frontier are identified and described in the areas of heavy quarks, charged leptons, neutrinos, proton decay, new light weakly-coupled particles, and nucleons, nuclei, and atoms.

  15. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Fundamental and Applied Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Maksimenko, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the most relevant and recent results in the study of “Nanoelectromagnetics”, a recently born fascinating research discipline, whose popularity is fast arising with the intensive penetration of nanotechnology in the world of electronics applications. Studying nanoelectromagnetics means describing the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and quantum mechanical low-dimensional systems: this requires a full interdisciplinary approach, the reason why this book hosts contributions from the fields of fundamental and applied electromagnetics, of chemistry and technology of nanostructures and nanocomposites, of physics of nano-structures systems, etc. The book is aimed at providing the reader with the state of the art in Nanoelectromagnetics, from theoretical modelling to experimental characterization, from design to synthesis, from DC to microwave and terahertz applications, from the study of fundamental material properties to the analysis of complex systems and devices, from commercia...

  16. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  17. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, B

    2006-01-01

    The present volume 45 of Advances in Solid-State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft in the World Year of Physics 2005, the Einstein Year, which was held from 4 - 11 March 2005 in Berlin, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The book presents, to some extent, the status of the field of solid-state physics in 2005 not only in Germany but also internationally. It is ''nanoscience'', namely the physics of quantum dots and wires, electrical transport, optical properties, spin transport in nanostructures, and magnetism on the nanoscale, that is of central interest to the physics community. Also, soft matter and biological systems are covered.

  18. New Quasar Studies Keep Fundamental Physical Constant Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Very Large Telescope sets stringent limit on possible variation of the fine-structure constant over cosmological time Summary Detecting or constraining the possible time variations of fundamental physical constants is an important step toward a complete understanding of basic physics and hence the world in which we live. A step in which astrophysics proves most useful. Previous astronomical measurements of the fine structure constant - the dimensionless number that determines the strength of interactions between charged particles and electromagnetic fields - suggested that this particular constant is increasing very slightly with time. If confirmed, this would have very profound implications for our understanding of fundamental physics. New studies, conducted using the UVES spectrograph on Kueyen, one of the 8.2-m telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope array at Paranal (Chile), secured new data with unprecedented quality. These data, combined with a very careful analysis, have provided the strongest astronomical constraints to date on the possible variation of the fine structure constant. They show that, contrary to previous claims, no evidence exist for assuming a time variation of this fundamental constant. PR Photo 07/04: Relative Changes with Redshift of the Fine Structure Constant (VLT/UVES) A fine constant To explain the Universe and to represent it mathematically, scientists rely on so-called fundamental constants or fixed numbers. The fundamental laws of physics, as we presently understand them, depend on about 25 such constants. Well-known examples are the gravitational constant, which defines the strength of the force acting between two bodies, such as the Earth and the Moon, and the speed of light. One of these constants is the so-called "fine structure constant", alpha = 1/137.03599958, a combination of electrical charge of the electron, the Planck constant and the speed of light. The fine structure constant describes how electromagnetic forces hold

  19. Fundamentals of Physics, 6th Edition Enhanced Problems Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2002-04-01

    No other text on the market today can match the success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics. This text continues to outperform the competition year after year, and the new edition will be no exception. Intended for Calculus-based Physics courses, the 6th edition of this extraordinary text is a major redesign of the best-selling 5th edition, which still maintains many of the elements that led to its enormous success. Jearl Walker adds his unique style to this edition with the addition of new problems designed to capture, and keep, students' attention. Nearly all changes are based on suggestions from instructors and students using the 5th edition, from reviewer comments, and from research done on the process of learning. The primary goal of this text is to provide students with a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and to help them apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. The principal goal of Halliday-Resnick-Walker is to provide instructors with a tool by which they can teach students how to effectively read scientific material and successfully reason through scientific questions. To sharpen this tool, the Enhanced Problems Version of the sixth edition of Fundamentals of Physics contains over 1000 new, high-quality problems that require thought and reasoning rather than simplistic plugging of data into formulas.

  20. Nuclear physics with neutrons - fundamental and applied researches

    CERN Document Server

    Furman, V I

    2001-01-01

    The investigations in the field of the nuclear neutron physics in JINR are discussed briefly. The following problems are considered: realization of the project of a new source of resonance neutrons (IREN); development and testing the new perspective techniques for experiments at IREN; studying the symmetry breaking in fundamental interactions in nuclei and obtaining the actual technological nuclear data. The neutron energy is in the range of 10 sup - sup 9 eV-10 MeV

  1. A brief geometric derivation of some fundamental physics

    OpenAIRE

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Several fundamental results in physics are derived from the simple starting point of two commuting orthogonal unit vectors. The combination of these unit vectors leads to spherical harmonics and Schwinger's expression of the second-quantized angular momentum states in terms of bosonic operators. Commuting unit vectors can be turned into anticommuting ones by the restriction to a single unit vector. This leads to Pauli spin matrices. By including hyperbolic rotations, vectors can be given a fi...

  2. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    The present volume 46 of Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written versions of selected invited lectures from the spring meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft which was held from 27 to 31 March 2006 in Dresden, Germany. Many topical talks given at the numerous symposia are included. Most of these were organized collaboratively by several of the divisions of the Arbeitskreis. The topis range from zero-dimensional physics in quantum dots, molecules and nanoparticles over one-dimensional physics in nanowires and 1d systems to more applied subjects like optoelectronics and materials science in thin films. The contributions span the whole width of solid-state physics from truly basic science to applications.

  3. NASA/JPL Plans for Fundamental Physics Research in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaelsson, Ulf E.; Lee, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, about 100 researchers met twice to develop plans for the future in this research area. The results of these meetings have been collected in a package titled "A Roadmap for Fundamental Physics in Space". A summary of the Roadmap will be presented along with an overview of the current program. Research is being performed in Low Temperature and Condensed Matter Physics, Laser Cooling and Atomic Physics, and Gravitational and Relativistic Physics. There are currently over 50 investigators in the program of which 8 are being evaluated as potential flight experiments. The number of investigators is expected to grow further during the next selection cycle, planned to start toward the end of this year. In the near future, our investigators will be able to take advantage of long duration experimentation in Space using a suite of different carriers under development.

  4. Diffusion and Perfusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging:Fundamentals and Advances

    CERN Document Server

    Assili, Sanam

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few decades, magnetic resonance imaging has been utilized as a powerful imaging modality to evaluate the structure and function of various organs in the human body,such as the brain. Additionally, diffusion and perfusion MR imaging have been increasingly used in neurovascular clinical applications. In diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the mobility of water molecules is explored in order to obtain information about the microscopic behavior of the tissues. In contrast, perfusion weighted imaging uses tracers to exploit hemodynamic status, which enables researchers and clinicians to consider this imaging modality as an early biomarker of certain brain diseases. In this review, the fundamentals of physics for diffusion and perfusion MR imaging both of which are highly sensitive to microenvironmental alterations at the cellular level as well as their application in the treatment of aging, Alzheimer's disease, brain tumors and cerebral ischemic injury were discussed.

  5. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    The present volume 47 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2007 Spring Meeting of the Arbeitskreis Festkörperphysik which was held in Regensburg, Germany, from March 26 to 30, 2007 in conjunction with the 71st Annual Meeting of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft.It gives an overview of the present status of solid state physics where low-dimensional systems such as quantum dots and quantum wires are dominating. The importance of magnetic materials is reflected by the large number of contributions in the part dealing with ferromagnetic films and particles. One of the most exciting achievements of the last couple of years is the successful application of electrical contacts to and the investigation of single layers of graphene. This exciting physics is covered in Part IV of this book. Terahertz physics is another rapidly moving field which is presented here by five contributions. Achievements in solid state physics are only rarely...

  6. Advances in Solid State Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Haug, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    The present volume 48 of the Advances in Solid State Physics contains the written version of a large number of the invited talks of the 2008 Spring Meeting of the DPG section Condensed Matter Physics (Sektion kondensierte Materie der DPG) which was held in Berlin, Germany, and gives a nice overview of the present status of condensed matter physics. Low-dimensional systems are dominating the field and especially nanowires and quantum dots. In recent years one learned how to produce nanowires directly during a growth process. Therefore, a number of articles is related to such nanowires. In nanoparticles and quantum dots, the dimensionality is further reduced and we learn more and more how to produce such systems in a defined way and what effects result from the confinement in all three dimensions. Spin effects and magnetism is another important field of present-day research in solid state physics. The third chapter covers this physics. The growing interest into organic materials and biological systems is reflec...

  7. Comparison of ultracold neutron sources for fundamental physics measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bison, G; Kirch, K; Lauss, B; Ries, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G; Brenner, T; Geltenbort, P; Jenke, T; Zimmer, O; Beck, M; Heil, W; Kahlenberg, J; Karch, J; Ross, K; Eberhardt, K; Geppert, C; Karpuk, S; Reich, T; Siemensen, C; Sobolev, Y; Trautmann, N

    2016-01-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) are key for precision studies of fundamental parameters of the neutron and in searches for new CP violating processes or exotic interactions beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The most prominent example is the search for a permanent electric dipole moment of the neutron (nEDM). We have performed an experimental comparison of the leading UCN sources currently operating. We have used a 'standard' UCN storage bottle with a volume of 32 liters, comparable in size to nEDM experiments, which allows us to compare the UCN density available at a given beam port.

  8. The Multiverse--Emerging New View in Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Yasunori

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe has led to the dramatic new view that our universe may be one of the many universes in which low energy physical laws take different forms: the multiverse. I explain why/how this view is supported both observationally and theoretically, especially by string theory and eternal inflation. I then describe impacts this new view has on future observations and our fundamental understanding of spacetime and gravity. The topics discussed include an emerging new picture of general relativistic spacetime, especially the crucial role quantum mechanics plays at the largest distance scales, and possible signals of the multiverse in future cosmological observations.

  9. Pre-Big Bang, fundamental Physics and noncyclic cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres L.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed analyses of WMAP and Planck data can have significant implications for noncyclic pre-Big Bang approaches incorporating a new fundamental scale beyond the Planck scale and, potentially, new ultimate constituents of matter with unconventional basic properties as compared to standard particles. Cosmic-ray experiments at the highest energies can also yield relevant information. Hopefully, future studies will be able to deal with alternatives: i to standard physics for the structure of the physical vacuum, the nature of space-time, the validity of quantum field theory and conventional symmetries, the interpretation of string-like theories...; ii to standard cosmology concerning the origin and evolution of our Universe, unconventional solutions to the cosmological constant problem, the validity of inflationary scenarios, the need for dark matter and dark energy... Lorentz-like symmetries for the properties of matter can then be naturally stable space-time configurations resulting from more general primordial scenarios that incorporate physics beyond the Planck scale and describe the formation and evolution of the physical vacuum. A possible answer to the question of the origin of half-integer spins can be provided by a primordial spinorial space-time with two complex coordinates instead of the conventional four real ones, leading to a really new cosmology. We discuss basic questions and phenomenological topics concerning noncyclic pre-Big Bang cosmologies and potentially related physics.

  10. On the conception of fundamental time asymmetries in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfarth, Daniel

    2013-02-05

    The investigation is divided in 7 chapters and aims to argue for the realizability of a new conception of 'fundamental time asymmetries' in physics. After an introduction (chapter 1) in the field of interest, the investigation continues by developing a conception of fundamentality for time asymmetries in chapter 2. Chapter 3 shows that this conception is realized in classical cosmology and chapter 4 demonstrates, by taking in to account the result from chapter 3, that classical electrodynamics is understandable as a time asymmetric theory. Chapter 5 focuses on time asymmetries in quantum cosmology as well as quantum thermodynamics and demonstrates - as in the classical case - that a fundamental time asymmetry is imbedded in those fields. The considerations, contained in chapter 6, are focused on non relativistic quantum mechanics (NRQM). Here the main aim is to demonstrate that NRQM can be understood as a time asymmetric theory - even without using the measurement-process for that purpose. Chapter 7 summarized the main arguments and conclusions.

  11. Probes of Fundamental Physics using X-ray Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of X-ray polarimetry as an astronomical discipline is on the near horizon. Prospects of Explorer class missions currently under study in the NASA SMEX program, the Xipe mission under ESA study in Europe, and beyond to initiatives under development in Asia, indicate that the worldwide high energy astrophysics community view this as a high priority. The focal goal of X-ray polarization measurements is often to discern the geometry of a source, for example an accreting black hole, pulsing neutron star or a relativistic jet; these are addressed in other talks in this HEAD special session. In this talk, I discuss a parallel agenda, to employ X-ray polarimetry to glean insights into fundamental physics that is presently difficult or impossible to test in laboratory settings. Much of this is centered around neutron stars, and I willaddress theoretically-expected signatures of vacuum birefringence and photon splitting, predictions of QED theory in the strong magnetic fields possessed by pulsars and magnetars. Of particular note is that time-dependent polarimetry coupled with spectroscopy can help disentangle purely geometrical effects and fundamental physics ones. A brief discussion of possible tests of Lorentz invariance violation, expected in some theories of quantum gravity, will also be presented. Instrument requirements to realize such science goals will also be briefly covered.

  12. Radio Pulsars: The Neutron Star Population & Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaspi, Victoria M

    2016-01-01

    Radio pulsars are unique laboratories for a wide range of physics and astrophysics. Understanding how they are created, how they evolve and where we find them in the Galaxy, with or without binary companions, is highly constraining of theories of stellar and binary evolution. Pulsars' relationship with a recently discovered variety of apparently different classes of neutron stars is an interesting modern astrophysical puzzle which we consider in Part I of this review. Radio pulsars are also famous for allowing us to probe the laws of nature at a fundamental level. They act as precise cosmic clocks and, when in a binary system with a companion star, provide indispensable venues for precision tests of gravity. The different applications of radio pulsars for fundamental physics will be discussed in Part II. We finish by making mention of the newly discovered class of astrophysical objects, the Fast Radio Bursts, which may or may not be related to radio pulsars or neutron stars, but which were discovered in obser...

  13. Physical properties of organic and biomaterials: Fundamentals and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Eden

    Silk materials are natural protein-based materials with an exceptional toughness. In addition to their toughness, silk materials also possess complex physical properties and functions resulting from a particular set of amino-acid arrangement that produces structures with crystalline beta-sheets connected by amorphous chains. Extensive studies have been performed to study their structure-function relationship leading to recent advancements in bio-integrated devices. Applications to fields other than textiles and biomedicine, however, have been scarce. In this dissertation, an investigation of the electronic properties, functionalization, and role of silk materials (spider silk and Bombyx mori cocoon silk) in the field of organic materials research is presented. The investigation is conducted from an experimental physics point of view where correlations with charge transport mechanisms in disordered, semiconducting, and insulating materials are made when appropriate. First, I present the electronic properties of spider silk fibers under ambient, humidified, iodized, polar solvent exposure, and pyrolized conditions. The conductivity is exponentially dependent on relative humidity changes and the solvent polarity. Iodine doping increases the conductivity only slightly but has pronounced effects on the pyrolization process, increasing the yield and flexibility of the pyrolized silk fibers. The iodized samples were further studied using magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) revealing non-homogenous iodine doping and I2 induced hydrogenation that are responsible for the minimal conductivity improvement and the pyrolization effects, respectively. Next, I present the investigation of silk fiber functionalization with gold and its role in electrical measurements. The gold functionalized silk fiber (Au-SS) is metallic down to cryogenic temperatures, has a certain amount of flexibility, and possesses

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Marco

    1998-04-01

    Professor Kenro Miyamoto, already well known for his textbook Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion (MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1976; revised edition 1989), has now published a new book entitled Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (Iwanami Book Service Center, Tokyo, 1997). To a large extent, the new book is a somewhat shortened and well reorganized version of its predecessor. The style, concise and matter of fact, clearly shows the origin of the text in lectures given by the author to graduate students. As announced by the title, the book is divided into two parts: the first part (about 250 pages) is a general introduction to the physics of plasmas, while the second, somewhat shorter, part (about 150 pages), is devoted to a description of the most important experimental approaches to achieving controlled thermonuclear fusion. Even in the first part, moreover, the choice of subjects is consistently oriented towards the needs of fusion research. Thus, the introduction to the behaviour of charged particles (particle motion, collisions, etc.) and to the collective description of plasmas is quite short, although the reader will get a flavour of all the most important topics and will find a number of examples chosen for their relevance to fusion applications (only the presentation of the Vlasov equation, in the second section of Chapter 4, might be criticized as so concise as to be almost misleading, since the difference between microscopic and macroscopic fields is not even mentioned). Considerably more space is devoted to the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of equilibrium and stability. This part includes the solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation for circular tokamaks, a brief discussion of Pfirsch-Schlüter, neoclassical and anomalous diffusion, and two relatively long chapters on the most important ideal and resistive MHD instabilities of toroidal plasmas; drift and ion temperature gradient driven instabilities are also briefly presented. The

  15. Eagleworks Laboratories: Advanced Propulsion Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Harold; March, Paul; Williams, Nehemiah; ONeill, William

    2011-01-01

    NASA/JSC is implementing an advanced propulsion physics laboratory, informally known as "Eagleworks", to pursue propulsion technologies necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system over the next 50 years, and enabling interstellar spaceflight by the end of the century. This work directly supports the "Breakthrough Propulsion" objectives detailed in the NASA OCT TA02 In-space Propulsion Roadmap, and aligns with the #10 Top Technical Challenge identified in the report. Since the work being pursued by this laboratory is applied scientific research in the areas of the quantum vacuum, gravitation, nature of space-time, and other fundamental physical phenomenon, high fidelity testing facilities are needed. The lab will first implement a low-thrust torsion pendulum (physics and engineering models can be explored and understood in the lab to allow scaling to power levels pertinent for human spaceflight, 400kW SEP human missions to Mars may become a possibility, and at power levels of 2MW, 1-year transit to Neptune may also be possible. Additionally, the lab is implementing a warp field interferometer that will be able to measure spacetime disturbances down to 150nm. Recent work published by White [1] [2] [3] suggests that it may be possible to engineer spacetime creating conditions similar to what drives the expansion of the cosmos. Although the expected magnitude of the effect would be tiny, it may be a "Chicago pile" moment for this area of physics.

  16. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. Continuation order customers for either of the original Advances will receiveVolume 90, the first combined volume.

  17. A brief geometric derivation of some fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Several fundamental results in physics are derived from the simple starting point of two commuting orthogonal unit vectors. The combination of these unit vectors leads to spherical harmonics and Schwinger's expression of the second-quantized angular momentum states in terms of bosonic operators. Commuting unit vectors can be turned into anticommuting ones by the restriction to a single unit vector. This leads to Pauli spin matrices. By including hyperbolic rotations, vectors can be given a finite norm and results from special relativity and Dirac's equation are found. The assumption that the change in four-momentum is due to the change in four-potential leads to the electromagnetic field tensor and the Lorentz force. Mawell's equations are obtained by viewing the four-potential as an harmonic oscillator driven by the four-current. The Schr\\"odinger equation is obtained from the nonrelativistic limit of the four-momentum.

  18. The role of orbital mechanics in fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exertier, Pierre; Metris, Gilles

    The contribution of space techniques to fundamental physics is at two levels. First, very interesting results have been obtained using precise tracking and orbitography of natural bodies or space probes not initially designed for this aim; this is the case, for example, of the precise estimation of the GM gravitational constant and of some PPN parameters, of the confirmation of the Lense-Thirring effect, and of the test of the strong Equivalence Principle. Second, dedicated missions have been settled to perform in space, experiments which cannot be realized on the ground, at least at the same level of precision; this is in particular the case of the time transfer experiment T2L2 and of the MicroSCOPE mission for the test of the weak EP.

  19. THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION AT BNCC: CONCEPTIONS AND POLITICAL AND PEDAGOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Adriana Pacifico Martineli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the physical education curricular component in the preliminary versions of the National Common Curricular Basis (NCCB. Our goals are to understand the philosophical foundations of the physical education, the education roles, the students training, and the education content implicit in learning objectives in the document. The document analysis revealed the physical education conception   , enrich the human subjectivity and the individual, thereby the citizen education to work, subordinating the action of the teacher. In general, this conception converges with the international organizations and their politic fundamentals for education e culture. In times of a worldwide economic crises, and neoconservative political advance in Brazil, the NCCB and the physical education curricular component with their learning objectives comes to reinforce and disseminates productive restructuring necessary values and principles; and in each version, is aligned to arbitrary government politics in place.

  20. Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Art

    2017-01-01

    Everybody has heard that we live in a world made of atoms. But far more fundamentally, we live in a universe made of quanta. Many things are not made of atoms: light, radio waves, electric current, magnetic fields, Earth's gravitational field, not to mention exotica such a neutron stars, black holes, dark energy, and dark matter. But everything, including atoms, is made of highly unified or "coherent" bundles of energy called "quanta" that (like everything else) obey certain rules. In the case of the quantum, these rules are called "quantum physics." This is a book about quanta and their unexpected, some would say peculiar, behavior--tales, if you will, of the quantum. The quantum has developed the reputation of being capricious, bewildering, even impossible to understand. The peculiar habits of quanta are certainly not what we would have expected to find at the foundation of physical reality, but these habits are not necessarily bewildering and not at all impossible or paradoxical. This book explains those h...

  1. Leibniz--Mach foundations for GR and fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, E

    2004-01-01

    Consider the configuration space Q for some physical system, and a continuous group of transformations G whose action on the configurations is declared to be physically irrelevant. Implement G indirectly by adjoining 1 auxiliary g per independent generator of G to Q, by writing the system's action in an arbitrary G-frame (G-AF), and then passing to the quotient Q/G thanks to the constraints encoded by g-variation. I show that this G-AF principle supercedes (and indeed leads to a derivation of) the Barbour--Bertotti (BB) best matching principle. My other consideration is that absolute external time is meaningless for the universe as a whole. For various choices of Q and G, these lead to BB's proposed absolute structure free replacement of Newtoninan mechanics, to Gauge Theory and to the 3-space approach (TSA) formulation of GR. For the latter with matter fields, I discuss the SR postulates, Principle of Equivalence (POE) and simplicity postulates. I explain how a full enough set of fundamental matter fields to...

  2. Understanding Femtosecond-Pulse Laser Damage through Fundamental Physics Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert A., III

    It did not take long after the invention of the laser for the field of laser damage to appear. For several decades researchers have been studying how lasers damage materials, both for the basic scientific understanding of highly nonequilibrium processes as well as for industrial applications. Femtosecond pulse lasers create little collateral damage and a readily reproducible damage pattern. They are easily tailored to desired specifications and are particularly powerful and versatile tools, contributing even more industrial interest in the field. As with most long-standing fields of research, many theoretical tools have been developed to model the laser damage process, covering a wide range of complexities and regimes of applicability. However, most of the modeling methods developed are either too limited in spatial extent to model the full morphology of the damage crater, or incorporate only a small subset of the important physics and require numerous fitting parameters and assumptions in order to match values interpolated from experimental data. Demonstrated in this work is the first simulation method capable of fundamentally modeling the full laser damage process, from the laser interaction all the way through to the resolidification of the target, on a large enough scale that can capture the full morphology of the laser damage crater so as to be compared directly to experimental measurements instead of extrapolated values, and all without any fitting parameters. The design, implementation, and testing of this simulation technique, based on a modified version of the particle-in-cell (PIC) method, is presented. For a 60 fs, 1 mum wavelength laser pulse with fluences of 0.5 J/cm 2, 1.0 J/cm2, and 2.0 J/cm2 the resulting laser damage craters in copper are shown and, using the same technique applied to experimental crater morphologies, a laser damage fluence threshold is calculated of 0.15 J/cm2, consistent with current experiments performed under conditions similar

  3. Advances in imaging and electron physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mulvey, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Academic Press is pleased to announce the creation of Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics. This serial publication results from the merger of two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical & Electron Microscopy. Advances in Imaging & Electron Physics will feature extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies,microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains.

  4. Advances in chemical physics advances in liquid crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Prigogine, Ilya; Vij, Jagdish K

    2009-01-01

    Prigogine and Rice's highly acclaimed series, Advances in Chemical Physics, provides a forum for critical, authoritative reviews of current topics in every area of chemical physics. Edited by J.K. Vij, this volume focuses on recent advances in liquid crystals with significant, up-to-date chapters authored by internationally recognized researchers in the field.

  5. 167th International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" : Strangeness and Spin in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bressani, T; Feliciello, A; Ratcliffe, Ph G

    2008-01-01

    Strangeness and Spin in Fundamental Physics is dedicated to the discussion of the role played by two subtle and somehow puzzling quantum numbers, the strangeness and the spin, in fundamental physics. They both relate to basic properties of the fundamental quantum field theories describing strong and electro-weak interactions and to their phenomenological applications. In some instances, like the partonic spin structure of the proton, they are deeply correlated. The many puzzling results recently obtained by measuring several spin asymmetries have stimulated gigantic progresses in the study of the spin structure of protons and neutrons. Intense theoretical activity has discovered new features of non-perturbative QCD, like strong correlations between the spin and the intrinsic motions of quarks inside the nucleons. The purpose of this publication is that of providing a complete, updated and critical account of the most recent and relevant discoveries in the above fields, both from the experimental and theoretic...

  6. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Amendola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Euclid is a European Space Agency medium-class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and red-shifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to provide a guide to the scientific themes that will underlie the activity of the group during the preparation of the Euclid mission.

  7. Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, Luca; Avgoustidis, Anastasios; Bacon, David; Baker, Tessa; Baldi, Marco; Bartolo, Nicola; Blanchard, Alain; Bonvin, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Burrage, Clare; Camera, Stefano; Carbone, Carmelita; Casarini, Luciano; Cropper, Mark; de Rham, Claudia; Dietrich, Joerg P; Di Porto, Cinzia; Durrer, Ruth; Ealet, Anne; Ferreira, Pedro G; Finelli, Fabio; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Guzzo, Luigi; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Hollenstein, Lukas; Holmes, Rory; Horst, Ole; Hwang, Zhiqi; Jahnke, Knud; Kitching, Thomas D; Koivisto, Tomi; Kunz, Martin; La Vacca, Giuseppe; Linder, Eric; March, Marisa; Marra, Valerio; Martins, Carlos; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Markovic, Dida; Marsh, David; Marulli, Federico; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Montanari, Francesco; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson J; Percival, Will; Pettorino, Valeria; Porciani, Cristiano; Quercellini, Claudia; Read, Justin; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sapone, Domenico; Sawicki, Ignacy; Scaramella, Roberto; Skordis, Constantinos; Simpson, Fergus; Taylor, Andy; Thomas, Shaun; Trotta, Roberto; Verde, Licia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Vollmer, Adrian; Wang, Yun; Weller, Jochen; Zlosnik, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium class mission selected for launch in 2020 within the Cosmic Vision 2015 2025 program. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to prov...

  8. Wireless avionics for space applications of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linna; Zeng, Guiming

    2016-07-01

    Fundamental physics (FP) research in space relies on a strong support of spacecraft. New types of spacecraft including reusable launch vehicles, reentry space vehicles, long-term on-orbit spacecraft or other new type of spacecraft will pave the way for FP missions. In order to test FP theories in space, flight conditions have to be controlled to a very high precision, data collection and handling abilities have to be improved, real-time and reliable communications in critical environments are needed. These challenge the existing avionics of spacecraft. Avionics consists of guidance, navigation & control, TT&C, the vehicle management, etc. Wireless avionics is one of the enabling technologies to address the challenges. Reasons are expatiated of why it is of great advantage. This paper analyses the demands for wireless avionics by reviewing the FP missions and on-board wireless systems worldwide. Main types of wireless communication are presented. Preliminary system structure of wireless avionics are given. The characteristics of wireless network protocols and wireless sensors are introduced. Key technologies and design considerations for wireless avionics in space applications are discussed.

  9. Cosmology and fundamental physics with the Euclid satellite

    CERN Document Server

    Amendola, Luca; Bacon, David; Baker, Tessa; Baldi, Marco; Bartolo, Nicola; Blanchard, Alain; Bonvin, Camille; Borgani, Stefano; Branchini, Enzo; Burrage, Clare; Camera, Stefano; Carbone, Carmelita; Casarini, Luciano; Cropper, Mark; deRham, Claudia; di Porto, Cinzia; Ealet, Anne; Ferreira, Pedro G; Finelli, Fabio; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Giannantonio, Tommaso; Guzzo, Luigi; Heavens, Alan; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Heymans, Catherine; Hoekstra, Henk; Hollenstein, Lukas; Holmes, Rory; Horst, Ole; Jahnke, Knud; Kitching, Thomas D; Koivisto, Tomi; Kunz, Martin; La Vacca, Giuseppe; March, Marisa; Majerotto, Elisabetta; Markovic, Katarina; Marsh, David; Marulli, Federico; Massey, Richard; Mellier, Yannick; Mota, David F; Nunes, Nelson; Percival, Will; Pettorino, Valeria; Porciani, Cristiano; Quercellini, Claudia; Read, Justin; Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Sapone, Domenico; Scaramella, Roberto; Skordis, Constantinos; Simpson, Fergus; Taylor, Andy; Thomas, Shaun; Trotta, Roberto; Verde, Licia; Vernizzi, Filippo; Vollmer, Adrian; Wang, Yun; Weller, Jochen; Zlosnik, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Euclid is a European Space Agency medium class mission selected for launch in 2019 within the Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme. The main goal of Euclid is to understand the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Euclid will explore the expansion history of the Universe and the evolution of cosmic structures by measuring shapes and redshifts of galaxies as well as the distribution of clusters of galaxies over a large fraction of the sky. Although the main driver for Euclid is the nature of dark energy, Euclid science covers a vast range of topics, from cosmology to galaxy evolution to planetary research. In this review we focus on cosmology and fundamental physics, with a strong emphasis on science beyond the current standard models. We discuss five broad topics: dark energy and modified gravity, dark matter, initial conditions, basic assumptions and questions of methodology in the data analysis. This review has been planned and carried out within Euclid's Theory Working Group and is meant to pr...

  10. Fundamentals of Physics, Part 2 (Chapters 12-20)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl

    2003-12-01

    Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review & Summary Questions Problems. Appendices. A The International System of Units (SI). B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C Some Astronomical Data. D Conversion Factors. E Mathematical Formulas. F Properties of the Elements. G Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  11. Fundamentals of Physics, Volume 1, (Chapters 1 - 21)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jearl

    2004-01-01

    steam inside a railroad tank car cause the car to be crushed? 19-1 What Is Physics? 19-2 Avogadro's Number. 19-3 Ideal Gases. 19-4 Pressure, Temperature, and RMS Speed. 19-5 Translational Kinetic Energy. 19-6 Mean Free Path. 19-7 The Distribution of Molecular Speeds. 19-8 The Molar Speci.c Heats of an Ideal Gas. 19-9 Degrees of Freedom and Molar Speci.c Heats. 19-10 A Hint of Quantum Theory. 19-11 The Adiabatic Expansion of an Ideal Gas. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Chapter 20. Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Why is the popping of popcorn irreversible? 20-1 What Is Physics? 20-2 Irreversible Processes and Entropy. 20-3 Change in Entropy. 20-4 The Second Law of Thermodynamics. 20-5 Entropy in the Real World: Engines. 20-6 Entropy in the Real World: Refrigerators. 20-7 The Ef.ciencies of Real Engines. 20-8 A Statistical View of Entropy. Review & Summary. Questions. Problems. Appendices. A The International System of Units (SI). B Some Fundamental Constants of Physics. C Some Astronomical Data. D Conversion Factors. E Mathematical Formulas. F Properties of the Elements. G Periodic Table of the Elements. Answers to Checkpoints and Odd-Numbered Questions and Problems. Index.

  12. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, R

    2002-05-09

    include: (1) Leadership of the Laboratory's Physical Data Research Program that provides fundamental physics information for the Stockpile Stewardship Program. (2) Development of the handheld Microbead Immunoassay Dipstick System that will allow relatively untrained first-responders to run sophisticated onsite diagnostics for pathogens, including those associated with biowarfare agents, by using a simple, one-step measurement. (3) Major advances in target design for inertial fusion energy research using both laser and ion-beam drivers. (4) Development of the Advanced Technology Kill Vehicle concept for use as a high-performance interceptor in a broad range of missile defense programs. Over the course of the past decade, the Laboratory has seen its major program evolve from weapons research, development, and testing, to Stockpile Stewardship. Today, the country's national security priorities are changing rapidly: nuclear security is becoming a broader set of missions, and the Laboratory is being asked to contribute to a range of new mission areas from countering bioterrorism to ensuring information security. As we embark on the twenty-first century, the new PAT Directorate is poised to help lead the Laboratory's response to the country's changing national security needs.

  13. Astrometric Gravitation Probe: a space mission concept for fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiato, Alberto; Fienga, Agnes; Gai, Mario; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Riva, Alberto; Busonero, Deborah

    2015-08-01

    Modern technological developments have pushed the accuracy of astrometric measurements in the visible band down to the micro-arcsec level. This allows to test theories of gravity in the weak field limit to unprecedented level, with possible consequences spanning from the validity of fundamental physics principles, to tests of theories describing cosmological and galactic dynamics without resorting to Dark Matter and Dark Energy.This is the main goal of Astrometric Gravitation Probe (AGP) mission, which will be achieved by highly accurate astrometric determination of light deflection (as a modern rendition of the Dyson, Eddington, and Robertson eclipse experiment of 1919), aberration, and of the orbits of selected Solar System objects, with specific reference to the excess shift of the pericentre effect.The AGP concept was recently proposed for the recent call for ESA M4 missions as a collaboration among several scientists coming from many different European and US institutions. Its payload is based on a 1.15 m diameter telescope fed through a coronagraphic system by four fields, two set in symmetric positions around the Sun, and two in the opposite direction, all imaged on a CCD detector. Large parts of the instrument are common mode to all fields. The baseline operation mode is the scan of the ±1.13 deg Ecliptic strip, repeated for a minimum of 3 years and up to an optimal duration of 5 years. Operations and calibrations are simultaneous, defined in order to ensure common mode instrumental effects, identified and removed in data reduction. The astrometric and coronagraphic technologies build on the heritage of Gaia and Solar Orbiter.We review the mission concept and its science case, and discuss how this measurement concepts can be scaled to different mission implementations.

  14. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, established in 1965, continues its tradition of excellence with Volume 32, published in honor of Founding Editor Sir David Bates upon his retirement as editorof the series. This volume presents reviews of topics related to the applications of atomic and molecular physics to atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

  15. Use of international space station for fundamental physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, U.; Lee, M. C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's research plans aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are discussed. Experiments in low temperature physics and atomic physics are planned to commence in late 2005. Experiments in gravitational physics are planned to begin in 2007. A low temperature microgravity physics facility is under development for the low temperature and gravitation experiments.

  16. Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I (Problems proposed). Academic year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Problems proposed: Course "Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2015-2016.

  17. Current Status of the Problem of Cosmological Variability of Fundamental Physical Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshslovich, D.A.; Ivanchik, A.V.; Orlov, A.V.; Potekhin, A.Y.; Petitjean, P.

    We review the current status of the problem of cosmological variability of fundamental physical constants, provided by modern laboratory experiments, Oklo phenomena analysis, and especially astronomical observations.

  18. Handbook explaining the fundamentals of nuclear and atomic physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlen, D. F.; Morse, W. J.

    1969-01-01

    Indoctrination document presents nuclear, reactor, and atomic physics in an easy, straightforward manner. The entire subject of nuclear physics including atomic structure ionization, isotopes, radioactivity, and reactor dynamics is discussed.

  19. Tales of the quantum understanding physics' most fundamental theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hobson, Art

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the quanta that make up our universe--the highly unified bundles of energy of which everything is made. It explains wave-particle duality, randomness, quantum states, non-locality, Schrodinger's cat, quantum jumps, and more, in everyday language for non-scientists and scientists who wish to fathom science's most fundamental theory.

  20. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  1. Advanced man-machine interaction. Fundamentals and implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraiss, K.F. (ed.) [Aachen Technische Hochschule (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Informatik und Computerwissenschaften

    2006-07-01

    Man-machine interaction is the gateway providing access to functions and services, which, due to the ever increasing complexity of smart systems, threatens to become a bottleneck. This book therefore introduces not only advanced interfacing concepts, but also gives insight into the related theoretical background.This refers mainly to the realization of video-based multimodal interaction via gesture, mimics, and speech, but also to interacting with virtual object in virtual environments, cooperating with local or remote robots, and user assistance. While most publications in the field of human factors engineering focus on interface design, this book puts special emphasis on implementation aspects. To this end it is accompanied by software development environments for image processing, classification, and virtual environment implementation. In addition a test data base is included for gestures, head pose, facial expressions, full-body person recognition, and people tracking. These data are used for the examples throughout the book, but are also meant to encourage the reader to start experimentation on his own. Thus the book may serve as a self-contained introduction both for researchers and developers of man-machine interfaces. It may also be used for graduate-level university courses. (orig.)

  2. BlackHoleCam: fundamental physics of the Galactic center

    CERN Document Server

    Goddi, C; Kramer, M; Rezzolla, L; Brinkerink, C; Bronzwaer, T; Deane, R; De Laurentis, M; Desvignes, G; Davelaar, J R J; Eisenhauer, F; Eatough, R; Fraga-Encinas, R; Fromm, C M; Gillessen, S; Grenzebach, A; Issaoun, S; Janßen, M; Konoplya, R; Krichbaum, T P; Laing, R; Liu, K; Lu, R -S; Mizuno, Y; Moscibrodzka, M; Müller, C; Olivares, H; Porth, O; Pfuhl, O; Ros, E; Roelofs, F; Schuster, K; Tilanus, R; Torne, P; van Bemmel, I; van Langevelde, H J; Wex, N; Younsi, Z; Zhidenko, A

    2016-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GR) successfully describes gravity. The most fundamental predictions of GR are black holes (BHs), but in spite of many convincing BH candidates in the Universe, there is no conclusive experimental proof of their existence using astronomical observations. Are BHs real astrophysical objects? Does GR hold in its most extreme limit or are alternatives needed? The prime target to address these fundamental questions is in the center of our own Galaxy, which hosts the closest and best-constrained supermassive BH candidate in the Universe, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). Three different types of experiments hold the promise to test GR in a strong-field regime using observations of Sgr A* with new-generation instruments. The first experiment aims to image the relativistic plasma emission which surrounds the event horizon and forms a "shadow" cast against the background, whose predicted size (~50 microarcseconds) can now be resolved by upcoming VLBI experiments at mm-waves such as the ...

  3. Advanced Physics Lab at TCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarles, C. A.

    2009-04-01

    The one semester, one credit hour Modern Physics Lab is viewed as a transition between the structured Physics 1 and 2 labs and junior/senior research. The labs focus on a variety of experiments built around a multichannel analyzer, various alpha, beta and gamma ray detectors and weak radioactive sources. Experiments include radiation safety and detection with a Geiger counter and NaI detector, gamma ray spectroscopy with a germanium detector, beta spectrum, alpha energy loss, gamma ray absorption, Compton effect, nuclear and positron annihilation lifetime, speed of gamma rays. Other experiments include using the analog oscilloscope, x-ray diffraction of diamond and using an SEM/EDX. Error analysis is emphasized throughout. The semester ends with an individual project, often an extension of one of the earlier experiments, and students present their results as a paper and an APS style presentation to the department.

  4. Confronting Cosmology and New Physics with Fundamental Constants

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Rodger I

    2013-01-01

    The values of the fundamental constants such as $\\mu = m_P/m_e$, the proton to electron mass ratio and $\\alpha$, the fine structure constant, are sensitive to the product $\\sqrt{\\zeta_x^2(w+1)}$ where $\\zeta_x$ is a coupling constant between a rolling scalar field responsible for the acceleration of the expansion of the universe and the electromagnetic field with x standing for either $\\mu$ or $\\alpha$. The dark energy equation of state $w$ can assume values different than $-1$ in cosmologies where the acceleration of the expansion is due to a scalar field. In this case the value of both $\\mu$ and $\\alpha$ changes with time. The values of the fundamental constants, therefore, monitor the equation of state and are a valuable tool for determining $w$ as a function of redshift. In fact the rolling of the fundamental constants is one of the few definitive discriminators between acceleration due to a cosmological constant and acceleration due to a quintessence rolling scalar field. $w$ is often given in parameteri...

  5. Advanced analysis methods in particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C.; /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous - more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  6. Advanced Analysis Methods in Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab

    1900-01-01

    Each generation of high energy physics experiments is grander in scale than the previous – more powerful, more complex and more demanding in terms of data handling and analysis. The spectacular performance of the Tevatron and the beginning of operations of the Large Hadron Collider, have placed us at the threshold of a new era in particle physics. The discovery of the Higgs boson or another agent of electroweak symmetry breaking and evidence of new physics may be just around the corner. The greatest challenge in these pursuits is to extract the extremely rare signals, if any, from huge backgrounds arising from known physics processes. The use of advanced analysis techniques is crucial in achieving this goal. In this review, I discuss the concepts of optimal analysis, some important advanced analysis methods and a few examples. The judicious use of these advanced methods should enable new discoveries and produce results with better precision, robustness and clarity.

  7. The Belle II experiment: fundamental physics at the flavor frontier

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Ivan Heredia

    2016-01-01

    After the major success of B-factories to establish the CKM mechanism and its proven potential to search for new physics, the Belle II experiment will continue exploring the physics at the flavor frontier over the next years. Belle II will collect 50 times more data than its predecessor, Belle, and allow for various precision measurements and searches of rare decays and particles. This paper introduces the B-factory concept and the flavor frontier approach to search for new physics. It then describes the SuperKEKB accelerator and the Belle II detector, as well as some of the physics that will be analyzed in Belle II, concluding with the experiment status and schedule.

  8. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2014*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Peter J.; Newell, David B.; Taylor, Barry N.

    2016-12-01

    This paper gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment that takes into account all data available up to 31 December 2014. Details of the data selection and methodology of the adjustment are described. The recommended values may also be found at http://physics.nist.gov/constants.

  9. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2014

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J; Taylor, Barry N

    2015-01-01

    This report gives the 2014 self-consistent set of values of the constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). These values are based on a least-squares adjustment that takes into account all data available up to 31 December 2014. The recommended values may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.

  10. New Mexico Center for Particle Physics: Studies of fundamental interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, J.A.J.

    1992-01-01

    The New Mexico Center/UNM group research program includes the CDF experiment at Fermilab and the SDC experiment at the SSC. In both experiments the UNM group research focuses on silicon strip tracking systems. The present research goals are to develop and utilize precision silicon tracking to increase significantly the physics reach of the Tevatron, and to make possible the study of high-P[sub t] physics at the SSC. The search for the t-quark in CDF is the primary goal of the upcoming Tevatron runs. This Progress Report summarizes our research accomplishments from the last year.

  11. Fundamentals of many-body physics principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nolting, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    This textbook addresses the special physics of many-particle systems, especially those dominated by correlation effects. It develops modern methods to treat such systems and demonstrates their application through numerous appropriate exercises, mainly from the field of solid state physics. The book is written in a tutorial style appropriate for those who want to learn many-body theory and eventually to use this to do research work in this field. The exercises, together with full solutions for evaluating one's performance, help to deepen understanding of the main aspects of many-particle systems.

  12. The fundamental importance of discourse in theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fellman, Philip V; Carmichael, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the following paper is to demonstrate that the "limits of physics" are in a very important way determined by the conceptual framework and language of discourse that we use to describe physical reality. In this paper we examine three areas where the structure of discourse has been particularly difficult. In this regard we examine three problems, the problem of time (which is discussed in two sections of the paper), the problem of non-locality in quantum mechanics and some related general difficulties of interpretation specific to the Copenhagen school, and the concept of maximality as it is employed with respect to cosmic inflation in general relativity and quantum cosmology.

  13. A study guide to accompany Fundamentals of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    This book arms engineers with the tools to apply key physics concepts in the field. A number of the key figures in the new edition are revised to provide a more inviting and informative treatment. The figures are broken into component parts with supporting commentary so that they can more readily see the key ideas.

  14. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  15. Physics at the biomolecular interface fundamentals for molecular targeted therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses primarily on the role of interfacial forces in understanding biological phenomena at the molecular scale. By providing a suitable statistical mechanical apparatus to handle the biomolecular interface, the book becomes uniquely positioned to address core problems in molecular biophysics. It highlights the importance of interfacial tension in delineating a solution to the protein folding problem, in unravelling the physico-chemical basis of enzyme catalysis and protein associations, and in rationally designing molecular targeted therapies. Thus grounded in fundamental science, the book develops a powerful technological platform for drug discovery, while it is set to inspire scientists at any level in their careers determined to address the major challenges in molecular biophysics. The acknowledgment of how exquisitely the structure and dynamics of proteins and their aqueous environment are related attests to the overdue recognition that biomolecular phenomena cannot be effectively understood w...

  16. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A. (High Energy Physics); ( PHY); (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center); (Univ. of Michigan); (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)

    2012-06-05

    new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own

  17. Advanced Summer School in Physics 2005 : Frontiers in Contemporary Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Carbajal, Mauricio; Miranda, Omar; EAV05; Frontiers in Contemporary Physics

    2006-01-01

    These proceedings include lecture notes from eleven courses in modern physics, including astrophysics and mathematical, statistical, medical, and solid state physics. The coherent states of Glauber (Nobel Prize 2005), for instance, are shown to have a clear physical meaning by themselves (with applications in quantum optics, optoelectronics, and communication devices), while they can also be used as an excellent tool to solve many problems in theoretical physics. Lectures on astroparticle physics include descriptions of the construction and implementation of detectors, telescopes, and instruments designed to help explain the origin of the Universe. Cosmic rays and neutrinos are discussed as a motivation for searching for dark matter and for learning about the nature of dark energy. The reader will also find lecture notes on the use of semiconductor solid-state detectors in medical imaging. A lecture on the fundamentals of spintronics in semiconductors discusses the design of semiconductor devices for the inve...

  18. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Advanced Physical Oceanographic Numerical Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    1986-01-01

    This book is a direct result of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held in Banyuls-sur-mer, France, June 1985. The Institute had the same title as this book. It was held at Laboratoire Arago. Eighty lecturers and students from almost all NATO countries attended. The purpose was to review the state of the art of physical oceanographic numerical modelling including the parameterization of physical processes. This book represents a cross-section of the lectures presented at the ASI. It covers elementary mathematical aspects through large scale practical aspects of ocean circulation calculations. It does not encompass every facet of the science of oceanographic modelling. We have, however, captured most of the essence of mesoscale and large-scale ocean modelling for blue water and shallow seas. There have been considerable advances in modelling coastal circulation which are not included. The methods section does not include important material on phase and group velocity errors, selection of grid structures, advanc...

  19. Fundamental Physics Changes in Response to Evolving NASA Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    Change continues in the NASA environment. The need for access to space for physicists is growing if we are to fruitfully address today s challenging questions. A new Roadmap is required to demonstrate the importance of our program to stakeholders. Our investigators must continue to advocate the benefits of our program: a) To NASA and Congress; b) To the scientific community; c) To students; d) To the general public. Our investigators must seek ways to use their advanced technology to support a human presence in space and to develop improved Earth applications.

  20. Liquid-state physical chemistry fundamentals, modeling, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de With, Gijsbertus

    2013-01-01

    For many processes and applications in science and technology a basic knowledge of liquids and solutions is a must. Gaining a better understanding of the behavior and properties of pure liquids and solutions will help to improve many processes and to advance research in many different areas. This book provides a comprehensive, self-contained and integrated survey of this topic and is a must-have for many chemists, chemical engineers and material scientists,ranging from newcomers in the field to more experienced researchers. The author offers a clear, well-structured didactic approach and pr

  1. Advanced Propulsion Physics Lab: Eagleworks Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scogin, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Eagleworks Laboratory is an advanced propulsions physics laboratory with two primary investigations currently underway. The first is a Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster (QVPT or Q-thrusters), an advanced electric propulsion technology in the development and demonstration phase. The second investigation is in Warp Field Interferometry (WFI). This is an investigation of Dr. Harold "Sonny" White's theoretical physics models for warp field equations using optical experiments in the Electro Optical laboratory (EOL) at Johnson Space Center. These investigations are pursuing technology necessary to enable human exploration of the solar system and beyond.

  2. CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J; Newell, David B

    2012-01-01

    This paper gives the 2010 self-consistent set of values of the basic constants and conversion factors of physics and chemistry recommended by the Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) for international use. The 2010 adjustment takes into account the data considered in the 2006 adjustment as well as the data that became available from 1 January 2007, after the closing date of that adjustment, until 31 December 2010, the closing date of the new adjustment. Further, it describes in detail the adjustment of the values of the constants, including the selection of the final set of input data based on the results of least-squares analyses. The 2010 set replaces the previously recommended 2006 CODATA set and may also be found on the World Wide Web at physics.nist.gov/constants.

  3. Symmetry and fundamental physics : Tom Kibble at 80

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Tom Kibble is an inspirational theoretical physicist who has made profound contributions to our understanding of the physical world. To celebrate his 80th birthday a one-day symposium was held on March 13, 2013 at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London. This important volume is a compilation of papers based on the presentations that were given at the symposium. The symposium profiled various aspects of Tom's long scientific career. The tenor of the meeting was set in the first talk given by Neil Turok, director of the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, who described Tom as our guru and example . He gave a modern overview of cosmological theories, including a discussion of Tom's pioneering work on how topological defects might have formed in the early universe during symmetry-breaking phase transitions. Wojciech Zurek of Los Alamos National Laboratory continued with this theme, surveying analogous processes within the context of condensed matter systems and explaining the Kibble Zurek sc...

  4. Constraining fundamental constants of physics with quasar absorption line systems

    CERN Document Server

    Petitjean, Patrick; Chand, Hum; Ivanchik, Alexander; Noterdaeme, Pasquier; Gupta, Neeraj

    2009-01-01

    We summarize the attempts by our group and others to derive constraints on variations of fundamental constants over cosmic time using quasar absorption lines. Most upper limits reside in the range 0.5-1.5x10-5 at the 3sigma level over a redshift range of approximately 0.5-2.5 for the fine-structure constant, alpha, the proton-to-electron mass ratio, mu, and a combination of the proton gyromagnetic factor and the two previous constants, gp(alpha^2/mu)^nu, for only one claimed variation of alpha. It is therefore very important to perform new measurements to improve the sensitivity of the numerous methods to at least <0.1x10-5 which should be possible in the next few years. Future instrumentations on ELTs in the optical and/or ALMA, EVLA and SKA pathfinders in the radio will undoutedly boost this field by allowing to reach much better signal-to-noise ratios at higher spectral resolution and to perform measurements on molecules in the ISM of high redshift galaxies.

  5. Fundamental Physics with the Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G; Lämmerzahl, C; Theil, S; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Foerstner, R; Johann, U; Klioner, S A; Soffel, M H; Dachwald, B; Seboldt, W; Perlick, V; Sandford, M C W; Bingham, R; Kent, B; Sumner, T J; Bertolami, O; Páramos, J; Christophe, B; Foulon, B; Touboul, P; Bouyer, P; Damour, T; Salomon, C; Reynaud, S; Brillet, A; Bondu, F; Mangin, J F; Samain, E; Bertotti, B; Iess, L; Erd, C; Grenouilleau, J C; Izzo, D; Rathke, A; Asmar, S W; Colavita, M; Gursel, Y; Hemmati, H; Shao, M; Williams, J G; Nordtvedt, K L; Shapiro, I; Reasenberg, R; Drever, R W P; Degnan, J; Plowman, J E; Hellings, R; Murphy, T W; Rovisco Pais, A; Copernic, A N; Favata, F; Turyshev, Slava G.; Dittus, Hansjoerg

    2005-01-01

    The Laser Astrometric Test Of Relativity (LATOR) is a European-U.S. Michelson-Morley-type experiment designed to test the pure tensor metric nature of gravitation - the fundamental postulate of Einstein's theory of general relativity. By using a combination of independent time-series of highly accurate gravitational deflection of light in the immediate proximity to the Sun along with measurements of the Shapiro time delay on the interplanetary scales (to a precision respectively better than 0.1 picoradians and 1 cm), LATOR will significantly improve our knowledge of relativistic gravity. The primary mission objective is to i) measure the key post-Newtonian Eddington parameter \\gamma with accuracy of a part in 10^9. (1-\\gamma) is a direct measure for presence of a new interaction in gravitational theory, and, in its search, LATOR goes a factor 30,000 beyond the present best result, Cassini's 2003 test. The mission will also provide: ii) first measurement of gravity's non-linear effects on light to ~0.01% accur...

  6. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  7. Thermonuclear burst oscillations: where firestorms meet fundamental physics.

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Neutron stars offer a unique environment in which to develop and test theories of the strong force. Densities in neutron star cores can reach up to ten times the density of a normal atomic nucleus, and the stabilising effect of gravitational confinement permits long-timescale weak interactions. This generates matter that is neutron-rich, and opens up the possibility of stable states of strange matter, something that can only exist in neutron stars. Strong force physics is encoded in the Equation of State (EOS), the pressure-density relation, which links to macroscopic observables such as mass M and radius R via the stellar structure equations. By measuring and inverting the M-R relation we can recover the EOS and diagnose the underlying dense matter physics. One very promising technique for simultaneous measurement of M and R exploits hotspots (burst oscillations) that form on the neutron star surface when material accreted from a companion star undergoes a thermonuclear explosion (a Type I X-ray burst). As ...

  8. High temperature strain of metals and alloys. Physical fundamentals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitin, V. [National Technical Univ., Zaporozhye (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    The author shows how new in-situ X-ray investigations and transmission electron microscope studies lead to novel explanations of high-temperature deformation and creep in pure metals, solid solutions and super alloys. This approach is the first to find unequivocal and quantitative expressions for the macroscopic deformation rate by means of three groups of parameters: substructural characteristics, physical material constants and external conditions. Creep strength of the studied uptodate single crystal super alloys is greatly increased over conventional polycrystalline super alloys. The contents of this book include: macroscopic characteristics of strain at high temperatures; experimental equipment and technique of in situ X-ray investigations; experimental data and structural parameters in deformed metals; sub-boundaries as dislocation sources and obstacles; the physical mechanism of creep and the quantitative structural model; simulation of the parameters evolution; system of differential equations; high-temperature deformation of industrial super alloys; single crystals of super alloys; effect of composition, orientation and temperature on properties; and creep of some refractory metals.

  9. Classification of inflationary models and constraints on fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pieroni, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    This work is focused on the study of early time cosmology and in particular on the study of inflation. After an introduction on the standard Big Bang theory, we discuss the physics of CMB and we explain how its observations can be used to set constraints on cosmological models. We introduce inflation and we carry out its simplest realization by presenting the observables and the experimental constraints that can be set on inflationary models. The possibility of observing primordial gravitational waves (GWs) produced during inflation is discussed. We present the reasons to define a classification of inflationary models and introduce the \\beta-function formalism for inflation by explaining why in this framework we can naturally define a set of universality classes for inflationary models. Theoretical motivations to support the formulation of inflation in terms of this formalism are presented. Some generalized models of inflation are introduced and the extension of the \\beta-function formalism for inflation to t...

  10. Cold antihydrogen: a new frontier in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, N

    2010-01-01

    The year 2002 heralded a breakthrough in antimatter research when the first low energy antihydrogen atoms were produced. Antimatter has inspired both science and fiction writers for many years, but detailed studies have until now eluded science. Antimatter is notoriously difficult to study as it does not readily occur in nature, even though our current understanding of the laws of physics have us expecting that it should make up half of the universe. The pursuit of cold antihydrogen is driven by a desire to solve this profound mystery. This paper will motivate the current effort to make cold antihydrogen, explain how antihydrogen is currently made, and how and why we are attempting to trap it. It will also discuss what kind of measurements are planned to gain new insights into the unexplained asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.

  11. Cold antihydrogen: a new frontier in fundamental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Niels

    2010-08-13

    The year 2002 heralded a breakthrough in antimatter research when the first low energy antihydrogen atoms were produced. Antimatter has inspired both science and fiction writers for many years, but detailed studies have until now eluded science. Antimatter is notoriously difficult to study as it does not readily occur in nature, even though our current understanding of the laws of physics have us expecting that it should make up half of the universe. The pursuit of cold antihydrogen is driven by a desire to solve this profound mystery. This paper will motivate the current effort to make cold antihydrogen, explain how antihydrogen is currently made, and how and why we are attempting to trap it. It will also discuss what kind of measurements are planned to gain new insights into the unexplained asymmetry between matter and antimatter in the universe.

  12. Fundamental Physics and the Future of Mobile Communications

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Speaker bio:As President and Co-CEO of Research In Motion (RIM), a company Mr. Lazaridis founded while a student at the University of Waterloo, he is responsible for product strategy, research and development, product development, and manufacturing. RIM are manufacturers of the renowned BlackBerry handheld wireless device, Mr. Lazaridis is also a leader in his community and a passionate advocate for education and scientific research. Mr. Lazaridis is also a long-standing member of the Board of Governors of the University of Waterloo and, in May 2003, was installed as its chancellor. Mr. Lazaridis supports his community and country through generous philanthropic gifts made possible by his success in business. He has donated 50 million dollars to the University of Waterloo to help establish an Institute for Quantum Computing. His most noted gift of 100 million dollars established Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics. Since its opening in 2001, Perimeter has attracted the attention of the world's scientif...

  13. Teacher's Handbook for Advanced Physical Science 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Everett

    This handbook is an adjunct to the "Laboratory Manual for Advanced Physical Science 2," and is intended to assist teachers in organizing laboratory experiences. Information for each experiment includes (1) Introduction, (2) Scheduling, (3) Time required, (4) Materials needed , (5) Precautions, (6) Laboratory hints, (7) Sample data, and…

  14. Advances in atomic physics an overview

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive overview of the spectacular advances seen in atomic physics during the last 50 years. The authors explain how such progress was possible by highlighting connections between developments that occurred at different times. They discuss the new perspectives and the new research fields that look promising. The emphasis is placed, not on detailed calculations, but rather on physical ideas. Combining both theoretical and experimental considerations, the book will be of interest to a wide range of students, teachers and researchers in quantum and atomic physics.

  15. Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I (Unit guides). Academic year 2013-2014

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Guides to the units of course "Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2013-2014.

  16. Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I (Unit guides). Academic year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Guides to the units of course "Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2015-2016.

  17. Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I (Summaries of the units). Academic year 2015-2016

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Summaries of the units of course "Fundamentals of Engineering Physics I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2015-2016.

  18. Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I (Unit guides). Academic year 2014-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Guides to the units of course "Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2014-2015.

  19. Biennial African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 Report

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, B S; Darve, C; Ellis, J; Muanza, S; Tabrizi, R; Yu, J

    2012-11-29

    The second African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications was held in Kumasi, Ghana on July 15 – August 8, 2012. The organisation of the school and the feedback from the students are presented.

  20. Fundamental Physics with the ASI Lunar Mission MAGIA (Phase A Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, S.; Currie, D.; Delle Monache, G.; Vittori, R.; Bellettini, G.; March, R.; Tauraso, R.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; Martini, M.; Prosperi, C.

    2008-07-01

    MAGIA is a mission selected by ASI for Phase A study for the planetology science and fundamental physics measurements: Gravitational Redshift; Precursor test of Proposal LLRRA-21 (NASA LSSO); Measurement of the Selenocenter.

  1. Waves and particles two essays on fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Roger G

    2014-01-01

    The book consists of two separate parts, the first part is on waves and the second part on particles. In part 1, after describing the awesome power of tsunami and the history of their occurrences, the book turns to the history of explaining phenomena by means of mathematical equations. Then it describes other wave phenomena and the laws governing them: the vibration of strings and drums in musical instruments, the sound waves making them audible, ultrasound and its uses, sonar, and shock waves; electromagnetic waves: light waves, refraction, diffraction, why the sky is blue, the rainbow, and the glory; microwaves and radio waves: radar, radio astronomy, the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation, microwave ovens and how a radio works, lasers and masers; waves in modern physics: the Schrödinger wave function and gravitational waves in general relativity; water waves in the ocean, tides and tidal waves, and the quite different solitary waves, solitons discovered in canals. Finally we return to ...

  2. Fundamentals of the Physics of Solids Volume 2: Electronic Properties

    CERN Document Server

    Sólyom, Jenő

    2009-01-01

    This book is the second of a single-authored, three-volume series that aims to deliver a comprehensive and self-contained account of the vast field of solid-state physics. It goes far beyond most classic texts in the presentation of the properties of solids and experimentally observed phenomena, along with the basic concepts and theoretical methods used to understand them and the essential features of various experimental techniques. The first volume deals with the atomic and magnetic structure and dynamics of solids, the second with those electronic properties that can be understood in the one-particle approximation, and the third with the effects due to interactions and correlations between electrons. This volume is devoted to the electronic properties of metals and semiconductors in the independent-electron approximation. After a brief discussion of the free-electron models by Drude and Sommerfeld, the methods for calculating and measuring the band structure of Bloch electrons moving in the periodic potent...

  3. Fundamental Distinctions in Physics underlying Nonsteady Forcings of Wind Turbine Power vs. Drivetrain by Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, James; Lavely, Adam; Nandi, Tarak

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the primary function of a wind turbine (WT) is the generation of electricity, wind farm profitability is decreased both by integrated losses in power and increases in premature failures of drivetrain components resulting from energetic nonsteady aerodynamic forcings of WT rotors by atmospheric and wake turbulence. Here we contrast the physics underlying dominant nonsteady atmospheric turbulence forcings of the bending moments in the WT rotor plane (torque/power) vs. the out-of-plane bending moments (OPBM) that underlie premature drivetrain component failure. Using an advanced actuator line model of the 5 MW NREL and the 1.5 MW GE wind turbine rotors embedded within a high-fidelity spectral LES of a typical daytime convective atmospheric boundary layer, we show that (1) the physics underlying large torque vs. OBPM fluctuations are associated with fundamentally different turbulence eddy characteristics and (2) nonsteady response centers on 4 characteristic time scales associated advection of eddies and load response of blades cutting through internal turbulence eddy structure. Supported by DOE. Computer resources by NSF/XSEDE.

  4. Advanced Physical Chemistry of Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Pandey, Gaind P.

    2015-04-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of exciting research and applications of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) stimulated by deeper understanding of their fundamental properties and increasing production capability. The intrinsic properties of various CNTs were found to strongly depend on their internal microstructures. This review summarizes the fundamental structure-property relations of seamless tube-like single- and multiwalled CNTs and conically stacked carbon nanofibers, as well as the organized architectures of these CNTs (including randomly stacked thin films, parallel aligned thin films, and vertically aligned arrays). It highlights the recent development of CNTs as key components in selected applications, including nanoelectronics, filtration membranes, transparent conductive electrodes, fuel cells, electrical energy storage devices, and solar cells. Particular emphasis is placed on the link between the basic physical chemical properties of CNTs and the organized CNT architectures with their functions and performance in each application.

  5. CMS Young Researchers Award 2013 and Fundamental Physics Scholars Award from the CMS Experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Lapka, Marzena

    2014-01-01

    Photo 2: CMS Fundamental Physics Scholars (FPSs) 1st prize: Joosep Pata, from Estonian National Institue of Chemical Physics and Biophysics / Photo 1 and 3: CMS Young Researchers Award. From left to right: Guido Tonelli, Colin Bernet, Andre David, Oliver Gutsche, Dmytro Kovalskyi, Andrea Petrucci, Joe Incandela and Jim Virdee

  6. Radiation oncology: physics advances that minimize morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Ron R; Patel, Rajen M; McLawhorn, Robert A

    2014-12-01

    Radiation therapy has become an ever more successful treatment for many cancer patients. This is due in large part from advances in physics including the expanded use of imaging protocols combined with ever more precise therapy devices such as linear and particle beam accelerators, all contributing to treatments with far fewer side effects. This paper will review current state-of-the-art physics maneuvers that minimize morbidity, such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volummetric arc therapy, image-guided radiation, radiosurgery and particle beam treatment. We will also highlight future physics enhancements on the horizon such as MRI during treatment and intensity-modulated hadron therapy, all with the continued goal of improved clinical outcomes.

  7. Resource Letter ANP-1: Advances in Neutrino Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Maury C.

    2016-12-01

    Three of the twelve fundamental fermions in particle physics are neutrinos. It was long thought that neutrinos might be massless, but we now know through the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations that neutrinos have mass. This resource letter will cover the history of the growth in our knowledge about neutrinos since they were first proposed in the 1930s, and also covers some up the upcoming experiments which will further our understanding of neutrino properties. Results from experiments are described that use various sources of neutrinos including nuclear reactors, cosmic rays, accelerators, and supernovae. In this resource letter, the resources that can be used to trace the past, present, and anticipated future advances in neutrino physics are reviewed.

  8. Fundamental physics at the intensity frontier. Report of the workshop held December 2011 in Rockville, MD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hewett, J.L.; Weerts, H.; Brock, R.; Butler, J.N.; Casey, B.C.K.; Lu, Z.T.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Dietrich, M.R.; Djurcic, Z.; Goodman, M.; Green, J.P.; Holt, R.J.; Mueller, P.; Paley, J.; Reimer, P.; Singh, J.; Upadhye, A. (High Energy Physics); ( PHY); (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center); (Univ. of Michigan); (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory)

    2012-06-05

    new sources of CP violation? Is there CP violation in the leptonic sector? Are neutrinos their own antiparticles? Do the forces unify? Is there a weakly coupled hidden sector that is related to dark matter? Do new symmetries exist at very high energy scales? To identify the most compelling science opportunities in this area, the workshop Fundamental Physics at the Intensity Frontier was held in December 2011, sponsored by the Office of High Energy Physics in the US Department of Energy Office of Science. Participants investigated the most promising experiments to exploit these opportunities and described the knowledge that can be gained from such a program. The workshop generated much interest in the community, as witnessed by the large and energetic participation by a broad spectrum of scientists. This document chronicles the activities of the workshop, with contributions by more than 450 authors. The workshop organized the intensity frontier science program along six topics that formed the basis for working groups: experiments that probe (i) heavy quarks, (ii) charged leptons, (iii) neutrinos, (iv) proton decay, (v) light, weakly interacting particles, and (vi) nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. The conveners for each working group included an experimenter and a theorist working in the field and an observer from the community at large. The working groups began their efforts well in advance of the workshop, holding regular meetings and soliciting written contributions. Specific avenues of exploration were identified by each working group. Experiments that study rare strange, charm, and bottom meson decays provide a broad program of measurements that are sensitive to new interactions. Charged leptons, particularly muons and taus, provide a precise probe for new physics because the Standard Model predictions for their properties are very accurate. Research at the intensity frontier can reveal CP violation in the lepton sector, and elucidate whether neutrinos are their own

  9. Student Solutions Manual to accompany Fundamentals of Physics,7th Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl; Christman, J. Richard

    2004-06-01

    Work more effectively and check solutions as you go along with the text! This Student Solutions Manual that accompanies Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition, provides readers with complete, worked-out solutions to 30% of the end-of-chapter problems. These problems are indicated in the text by an ssm icon. No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! In a breezy, easy-to-understand style this Seventh Edition offers a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, and helps readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving. This book offers a unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications.

  10. Rapid penetration into granular media visualizing the fundamental physics of rapid earth penetration

    CERN Document Server

    Iskander, Magued

    2015-01-01

    Rapid Penetration into Granular Media: Visualizing the Fundamental Physics of Rapid Earth Penetration introduces readers to the variety of methods and techniques used to visualize, observe, and model the rapid penetration of natural and man-made projectiles into earth materials. It provides seasoned practitioners with a standard reference that showcases the topic's most recent developments in research and application. The text compiles the findings of new research developments on the subject, outlines the fundamental physics of rapid penetration into granular media, and assembles a com

  11. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Paul R; Arimondo, Ennio

    2006-01-01

    Volume 54 of the Advances Series contains ten contributions, covering a diversity of subject areas in atomic, molecular and optical physics. The article by Regal and Jin reviews the properties of a Fermi degenerate gas of cold potassium atoms in the crossover regime between the Bose-Einstein condensation of molecules and the condensation of fermionic atom pairs. The transition between the two regions can be probed by varying an external magnetic field. Sherson, Julsgaard and Polzik explore the manner in which light and atoms can be entangled, with applications to quantum information processing

  12. Student Variability in Learning Advanced Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sampson, T

    2013-01-01

    Learning of advanced physics, requires a combination of empirical, conceptual and theoretical understanding. Students use a combination of these approaches to learn new material. Each student has different prior knowledge and will master new material at a different pace. However, conventional classroom teaching usually does not accommodate the different learning paces of students. To both, study and address this issue, we developed an iterative Online Learning Machine (iOLM), which provides new learning content to each student based on their individual learning pace and tracks their progress individually. The iOLM learning module was implemented using server side web software (php) to supplement the undergraduate course in electromagnetic waves for majors in physics in their second year. This approach follows the hybrid online learning model. Students had to complete a section of the course using iOLM, which was only presented online. The data obtained for this class showed a wide spread of learning paces, ra...

  13. Statistical Physics An Advanced Approach with Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Honerkamp, Josef

    2012-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to physics is essential. This unique book on statistical physics offers an advanced approach with numerous applications to the modern problems students are confronted with. Therefore the text contains more concepts and methods in statistics than the student would need for statistical mechanics alone. Methods from mathematical statistics and stochastics for the analysis of data are discussed as well. The book is divided into two parts, focusing first on the modeling of statistical systems and then on the analysis of these systems. Problems with hints for solution help the students to deepen their knowledge. The third edition has been updated and enlarged with new sections deepening the knowledge about data analysis. Moreover, a customized set of  problems with solutions is accessible on the Web at extras.springer.com.

  14. Attack Detection and Identification in Cyber-Physical Systems -- Part I: Models and Fundamental Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bullo, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, communication, and physical capabilities to interact with the physical world and humans. Besides failures of components, cyber-physical systems are prone to malignant attacks, and specific analysis tools as well as monitoring mechanisms need to be developed to enforce system security and reliability. This paper proposes a unified framework to analyze the resilience of cyber-physical systems against attacks cast by an omniscient adversary. We model cyber-physical systems as linear descriptor systems, and attacks as exogenous unknown inputs. Despite its simplicity, our model captures various real-world cyber-physical systems, and it includes and generalizes many prototypical attacks, including stealth, (dynamic) false-data injection and replay attacks. First, we characterize fundamental limitations of static, dynamic, and active monitors for attack detection and identification. Second, we provide constructive algebraic conditions to cast undetectable and unidentifia...

  15. Opening a New Window to Fundamental Physics and Astrophysics: X-ray Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, E; Soffitta, P; Persio, G; Feroci, M; Morelli, E; Muleri, F; Pacciani, L; Rubini, A; Baldini, L; Bitti, F; Brez, A; Cavalca, F; Latronico, L; Massai, M M; Omodei, N; Sgro', C; Spandre, G; Matt, G; Perola, G C; Santangelo, A; Celotti, A; Barret, D; Vilhu, O; Piro, L; Fraser, G; Courvoisier, T J L; Barcons, X

    2006-01-01

    An extensive theoretical literature predicts that X-ray Polarimetry can directly determine relevant physical and geometrical parameters of astrophysical sources, and discriminate between models further than allowed by spectral and timing data only. X-ray Polarimetry can also provide tests of Fundamental Physics. A high sensitivity polarimeter in the focal plane of a New Generation X-ray telescope could open this new window in the High Energy Sky.

  16. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  17. Fundamentals of Physics in Engineering I: course in OCW-UA (academic year 2012-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Course published in the OpenCourseWare-UA corresponding to the subject "Fundamentals of Physics in Engineering I" that is taught in the first year of the "Degree in Sound and Image, in Telecommunications" of the Polytechnic School at the University of Alicante. This course includes topics guides, summaries and proposed problems.

  18. Does Weight Status Influence Associations between Children's Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Clare; Okely, Anthony; Bagley, Sarah; Telford, Amanda; Booth, Michael; Crawford, David; Salmon, Jo

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether weight status influences the association among children's fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA). Two hundred forty-eight children ages 9-12 years participated. Proficiency in three object-control skills and two locomotor skills was examined. Accelerometers objectively assessed physical…

  19. 3D Printed Potential and Free Energy Surfaces for Teaching Fundamental Concepts in Physical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakin, Danil S.; Zaari, Ryan R.; Varganov, Sergey A.

    2015-01-01

    Teaching fundamental physical chemistry concepts such as the potential energy surface, transition state, and reaction path is a challenging task. The traditionally used oversimplified 2D representation of potential and free energy surfaces makes this task even more difficult and often confuses students. We show how this 2D representation can be…

  20. FOREWORD: International Scientific Seminars on "Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Stanislav; Ryzhii, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics'' were held in Bauman Moscow State Technical University (BMSTU) in May - June 2014. The idea of the Seminars was to organize a series of meetings between young scientists and discuss actual problems and the latest results in Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics. There were eight Sessions: Modern Problems of Condensed Matter Physics; Laser Physics; Spectroscopy of Condensed Matter; Terahertz Optical Technology; Optical Signals Processing; Physics of Optical Strong Correlated Systems; Complex Dusty Plasma Physics; Biomediacal Applications of Photonics. Seminars were organized by the young group of scientists and students from Research and Educational Center ''Photonics and Infrared Technology'' at BMSTU. It brought a significant contribution to the development of youth science in the field of Physics and Photonics in Russia. More than 100 young scientists and students participated in the Seminars in spring - summer 2014. The International Scientific Seminars were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant # 14-08-06030-g). This volume contains proceedings of the International Scientific Seminars ''Fundamental and Applied Problems of Photonics and Condensed Matter Physics''. Stanislav Yurchenko and Viktor Ryzhii Bauman Moscow State Technical University

  1. Subtask 2.13 - Advanced Hybrid Particulate Collector-Fundamental Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley Miller

    2007-07-01

    Under the Power Plant Improvement Initiative Program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, a full-scale Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was installed at the Big Stone Plant, with start-up in October 2002. The Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter was retrofitted into Fields 2-4 of the old Big Stone electrostatic precipitator (ESP). While many aspects of the operation were satisfactory, pressure drop was higher than expected. To achieve acceptable pressure drop and successfully demonstrate the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter technology, the first fields of the ESP were also converted into an Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter in 2005. However, since start-up in June 2005, the first fields have been inoperable for multiple reasons. The fundamental cause of the dysfunctional performance of the first fields was attributed to spacing and alignment problems, which led to excessive sparking and shutdown of the high-voltage power. In spite of attempts to correct the problems, satisfactory performance of the first fields was never achieved. Because of the uncertainties of how to achieve acceptable performance with a new technology, the Big Stone Plant made the decision to convert the entire Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter housing into a pulse-jet fabric filter.

  2. An Economic Research Inspired by the Fundamental Principles of the Quantum Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie BADAR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the XX-th century, after a glorious history of about two centuries, the Newton’s classical physics enters into a great conceptual crisis, marked by the famous findings, which have subsequently represented the fundamentals of the quantum theory. They have thrown out the visions of the classical physics on the main laws of Universe development, the role of the human being and of knowledge in its functioning. Therefore, the quantum theory, confusing the traditional picture of its origin and evolution, gave birth to multiple conceptual issues related not only to physics, but disposing of obvious philosophical, ontological, cognitive and, more recently, economic aspects...

  3. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Owen D

    2013-01-01

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to ...

  4. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    CERN Document Server

    Hayano, R S

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series B Vol. 86 (2010) No. 1 P 1-10 Language: Next Article http://dx.doi.org/10.2183/pjab.86.1 JST.JSTAGE/pjab/86.1 Reviews Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants Ryugo S. HAYANO1) 1) Department of Physics, The University of Tokyo Released 2010/01/14 Keywords: antiproton, CERN, fundamental physical constants, laser spectroscopy Full Text PDF [1604K] Abstracts References(25) Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended val...

  5. Fundamentals and advances in the development of remote welding fabrication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapakis, J. E.; Masubuchi, K.; Von Alt, C.

    1986-01-01

    Operational and man-machine issues for welding underwater, in outer space, and at other remote sites are investigated, and recent process developments are described. Probable remote welding missions are classified, and the essential characteristics of fundamental remote welding tasks are analyzed. Various possible operational modes for remote welding fabrication are identified, and appropriate roles for humans and machines are suggested. Human operator performance in remote welding fabrication tasks is discussed, and recent advances in the development of remote welding systems are described, including packaged welding systems, stud welding systems, remotely operated welding systems, and vision-aided remote robotic welding and autonomous welding systems.

  6. Applied Physics of Carbon Nanotubes Fundamentals of Theory, Optics and Transport Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rotkin, Slava V

    2005-01-01

    The book describes the state-of-the-art in fundamental, applied and device physics of nanotubes, including fabrication, manipulation and characterization for device applications; optics of nanotubes; transport and electromechanical devices and fundamentals of theory for applications. This information is critical to the field of nanoscience since nanotubes have the potential to become a very significant electronic material for decades to come. The book will benefit all all readers interested in the application of nanotubes, either in their theoretical foundations or in newly developed characterization tools that may enable practical device fabrication.

  7. Discrete or continuous? the quest for fundamental length in modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Hagar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The idea of infinity plays a crucial role in our understanding of the universe, with the infinite spacetime continuum perhaps the best-known example - but is spacetime really continuous? Throughout the history of science, many have felt that the continuum model is an unphysical idealization, and that spacetime should be thought of as 'quantized' at the smallest of scales. Combining novel conceptual analysis, a fresh historical perspective, and concrete physical examples, this unique book tells the story of the search for the fundamental unit of length in modern physics, from early classical electrodynamics to current approaches to quantum gravity. Novel philosophical theses, with direct implications for theoretical physics research, are presented and defended in an accessible format that avoids complex mathematics. Blending history, philosophy, and theoretical physics, this refreshing outlook on the nature of spacetime sheds light on one of the most thought-provoking topics in modern physics.

  8. Crossdisciplinary fundamental research--the seed for scientific advance and technological innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroto, Harold

    2011-12-28

    As it was earlier in the 1980's, so it is now, fundamental science research is under threat as decisions are made on science funding by people who do not do fundamental research, seem congenitally incapable of understanding what it is and furthermore in the face of countless examples seem blind to how important it has been to the technologies that govern our modern life and will be to the future technologies that we desperately need to develop to survive. In this article some general observations are made on how the fascination for what happens in space and stars was the key trigger that gave birth to Science itself and a particular case is outlined which indicates that this same fascination is still the catalyst of some fundamental breakthroughs today. This article also outlines an archetypal example of the way major breakthroughs are often made by the synergy that comes from cross-disciplinary research in a way which is totally surprising. In this case it started from a curiosity about the quantum mechanical description of molecular dynamics and involved pioneering advances in synthetic organic chemistry which led to the suprising discovery that some exotic carbon molecules were abundant in space and stars. These results initiated an experiment using a new technology that represented a major breakthrough in cluster science. The upshot was totally unpredictable, the birth of a whole new field of Chemistry as well as a paradigm shift in major areas of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.

  9. Device physics vis-à-vis fundamental physics in Cold War America: the case of quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Joan Lisa

    2006-06-01

    Historians have convincingly shown the close ties U.S. physicists had with the military during the Cold War and have raised the question of whether this alliance affected the content of physics. Some have asserted that it distorted physics, shifting attention from fundamental problems to devices. Yet the papers of physicists in quantum electronics and quantum optics, fields that have been exemplary for those who hold the distortion thesis, show that the same scientists who worked on military devices simultaneously pursued fundamental and foundational topics. This essay examines one such physicist, Marlan O. Scully, with attention to both his extensive foundational studies and the way in which his applied and basic researches played off each other.

  10. Explaining Phenomenologically Observed Space-time Flatness Requires New Fundamental Scale Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, D

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenologically observed flatness - or near flatness - of spacetime cannot be understood as emerging from continuum Planck (or sub-Planck) scales using known physics. Using dimensional arguments it is demonstrated that any immaginable action will lead to Christoffel symbols that are chaotic. We put forward new physics in the form of fundamental fields that spontaneously break translational invariance. Using these new fields as coordinates we define the metric in such a way that the Riemann tensor vanishes identically as a Bianchi identity. Hence the new fundamental fields define a flat space. General relativity with curvature is recovered as an effective theory at larger scales at which crystal defects in the form of disclinations come into play as the sources of curvature.

  11. The fundamental principles of the physical protection, the group of six point of view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claeys, M.; Carnas, L.; Robeyns, G. [Federal Agency for Nuclear Control (Belgium); Rommevaux, G. [Controle des Matieres Nucleaires, CMN (France); Venot, R. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Fechner, J.B. [Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (Germany); Hagemann, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Cologne (Germany); Fontaneda Gonzalez, A. [Nuclear Energy Div., Directorate General of Energy, Policy and Mines Ministry of Economy (Spain); Gimenez Gonzalez, S. [Nuclear Safety Council (Spain); Isaksson, S.G. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (Sweden); Wager, K. [Dept. of Trade and Industry (United Kingdom); Price, C. [Office for Civil Nuclear Security (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint experience of the Group of Six in the field of physical protection against the theft or unauthorized removal of nuclear material and against the sabotage of nuclear material and nuclear facilities, which emerged from the joint discussion. Several fundamental principles stem from this experience. Of course the particular terms and conditions of the implementation of these principles are specific to each country. (authors)

  12. Social Synergetics, Social Physics and Research of Fundamental Laws in Social Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Yi-Fang

    2009-01-01

    We proposed social synergetics and the four basic theorems, in which theorem of perfect correlation on humanity is researched mathematically. Generally, we discuss the four variables and the eight aspects in social physics. We search social thermodynamics and the five fundamental laws of social complex systems. Then we research different relations among social elements and applications of the nonlinear sociology, for example, for the economic systems. Finally, we discuss the evolutional equation of system and the educational equation.

  13. Development of physical fundamentals and computer design of technology of ion implantation of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolobov, Yu.P.; Sharkeev, Yu.P.; Abdrashitov, V.G.; Kashin, O.A

    2001-07-01

    The unique possibilities of controlled modification of the chemical composition, structure and properties of thin surface films of metals and alloys are offered by the method of high-dose ion implantation (Hll). Modification of the surface of materials by ion implantation has been used on an increasing scale as an industrial technology of ensuring a large increase of the service life of components and tools. It is urgent to investigate the physical fundamentals of this promising technology.

  14. The Shelter Island Conferences Revisited: "Fundamental" Physics in the Decade 1975-1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweber, S. S.

    2016-04-01

    The focus of this broad historical overview of "the steady evolution of theoretical ideas" from Shelter Island I in 1947 to Shelter Island II in 1983 is some of the developments in "fundamental" physics after the establishment of the standard model, in particular, the adoption of the view that all present day field theories are "effective field theories" based on the gauge concept; taking seriously big bang cosmology, grand unified field theories (GUTs), and inflation; and the emergence of a new symbiosis of physics and mathematics.

  15. Proceedings of the 2003 NASA/JPL Workshop on Fundamental Physics in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strayer, Don (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2003 Fundamental Physics workshop included presentations ranging from forces acting on RNA to properties of clouds of degenerate Fermi atoms, to techniques to probe for a added space-time dimensions, and to flight hardware for low temperature experiments, amongst others. Mark Lee from NASA Headquarters described the new strategic plan that NASA has developed under Administrator Sean O'Keefe's leadership. Mark explained that the Fundamental Physics community now needs to align its research program and the roadmap describing the long-term goals of the program with the NASA plan. Ulf Israelsson of JPL discussed how the rewrite of the roadmap will be implemented under the leadership of the Fundamental Physics Discipline Working Group (DWG). Nick Bigelow, chair of the DWG, outlined how investigators can contribute to the writing of the roadmap. Results of measurements on very cold clouds of Fermi atoms near a Feshbach resonance were described by three investigators. Also, new measurements relating to tests of Einstein equivalence were discussed. Investigators also described methods to test other aspects of Einstein's relativity theories.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Fundamental and Technological Aspects of Organo-f-Element Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fragalà, Ignazio

    1985-01-01

    The past decade has seen a dramatic acceleration of activity and interest in phenomena surrounding lanthanide and actinide organo­ metallic compounds. Around the world, active research in organo-f­ element synthesis, chemistry, catalysis, crystallography, and quantum chemistry is in progress. This activity has spanned a remarkably wide range of disciplines, from synthetic/mechanistic inorganic and organic chemistry to radiochemistry, catalytic chemistry, spectroscopy (vibra­ tional, optical, magnetic resonance, photoelectron, Mossbauer), X-ray and neutron diffraction structural analysis, as well as to crystal field and molecular orbital theoretical studies at the interface of chemistry and physics. These investigations have been motivated both by fundamental and applied goals. The evidence that f-element organo­ metallic compounds have unique chemical and physical properties which cannot be duplicated by organometallic compounds of d-block elements has suggested many new areas of endeavor and application....

  17. Interactive fundamental physics. [THE REAL STUFF: The New Expanded Media Physics Course for secondary school students

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-11-24

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton's first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered hypermedia'' structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have declined'' to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal.

  18. Talk | The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine by Ugo Amaldi | 10 April

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    The impact of fundamental Physics on Medicine, by Ugo Amaldi, TERA Foundation and Technische Universität München.   Thursday 10 April 2014, at 7.30 p.m. Globe of Science and Innovation Route de Meyrin, 1211 Genève Talk in English with French translation. Abstract: It is clear to anybody who visits a hospital that Physics applications are everywhere. Medical doctors use Physics when they measure blood pressure, when they perform an ultrasound scan to determine the sex of an unborn child, when they take a radiography or a CT scan. Fundamental physics, which aims at understanding how particles and forces act in the subatomic world and are organized to form everything we observe around us, has numerous medical applications.  Everything started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen, who was using the best particle accelerator of the time. In the lecture the theme of the title will be presented by following the 120 years long story of par...

  19. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  20. ADVANCING THE FUNDAMENTAL UNDERSTANDING AND SCALE-UP OF TRISO FUEL COATERS VIA ADVANCED MEASUREMENT AND COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Pratim; Al-Dahhan, Muthanna

    2012-11-01

    Tri-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particle coating is critical for the future use of nuclear energy produced byadvanced gas reactors (AGRs). The fuel kernels are coated using chemical vapor deposition in a spouted fluidized bed. The challenges encountered in operating TRISO fuel coaters are due to the fact that in modern AGRs, such as High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGRs), the acceptable level of defective/failed coated particles is essentially zero. This specification requires processes that produce coated spherical particles with even coatings having extremely low defect fractions. Unfortunately, the scale-up and design of the current processes and coaters have been based on empirical approaches and are operated as black boxes. Hence, a voluminous amount of experimental development and trial and error work has been conducted. It has been clearly demonstrated that the quality of the coating applied to the fuel kernels is impacted by the hydrodynamics, solids flow field, and flow regime characteristics of the spouted bed coaters, which themselves are influenced by design parameters and operating variables. Further complicating the outlook for future fuel-coating technology and nuclear energy production is the fact that a variety of new concepts will involve fuel kernels of different sizes and with compositions of different densities. Therefore, without a fundamental understanding the underlying phenomena of the spouted bed TRISO coater, a significant amount of effort is required for production of each type of particle with a significant risk of not meeting the specifications. This difficulty will significantly and negatively impact the applications of AGRs for power generation and cause further challenges to them as an alternative source of commercial energy production. Accordingly, the proposed work seeks to overcome such hurdles and advance the scale-up, design, and performance of TRISO fuel particle spouted bed coaters. The overall objectives of the proposed work are

  1. Physical-chemical fundamentals and the application of fluid chromatography (SFC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasen, U. van; Swaid, I.; Schneider, G.M.

    1980-08-01

    In super fluid chromatography chromatography (SFC), highly condensed gases in the critical temperature region are used as mobile phases. This method has considerable advantages in the analytical or preparative separation of particularly difficultly volatile or thermally unstable substances compared to gas chromatography. It competes with HPLC and gel chromatography in certain special applications and preparative separations, e.g. in petroleum industry and the separation of oligomers. It is also of great interest for basic investigations of fluid extraction and determination of physical-chemical parameters of fluid systems. The most important physical-chemical, methodical and apparative fundamentals of SFC are discussed in summary form; characteristic physical-chemical examples of application are the determination of capacity ratios, distribution quotients, partial mole volumes, mixed virial coefficients and diffusion coefficients.

  2. Solid state physics. Introduction to the fundamentals. 7. ed.; Festkoerperphysik. Einfuehrung in die Grundlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibach, Harald; Lueth, Hans [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Bio- und Nanosysteme; Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule (RWTH), Aachen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The present seventh edition of solid-state physics accomodates to the trend to nanophysics in research and teaching. The book applies to studying and teachings of physics, material science, as well as micro- and nanoelectronics. It treats equally experiment and theory. Tables with fundamental experiments, preparation methods, and special physical effects as well as exercise problems round the book off. [German] Die vorliegende siebte Auflage der Festkoerperphysik traegt dem Trend zur Nanophysik in Forschung und Lehre Rechnung. Das Buch wendet sich an Studierende und Lehrende der Physik, der Materialwissenschaft sowie der Mikro- und Nanoelektronik. Es behandelt gleichwertig Experiment und Theorie. Tafeln mit grundlegenden Experimenten, Praeparationsmethoden und speziellen physikalischen Effekten sowie Uebungsaufgaben runden das Buch ab. (orig.)

  3. Physics and Advanced Technologies 2003 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A; Sketchley, J

    2005-01-20

    The Physics and Advanced Technologies (PAT) Directorate overcame significant challenges in 2003 to deliver a wealth of scientific and programmatic milestones, and move toward closer alignment with programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. We acted aggressively in enabling the PAT Directorate to contribute to future, growing Lawrence Livermore missions in homeland security and at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). We made heavy investments to bring new capabilities to the Laboratory, to initiate collaborations with major Laboratory programs, and to align with future Laboratory directions. Consistent with our mission, we sought to ensure that Livermore programs have access to the best science and technology, today and tomorrow. For example, in a move aimed at revitalizing the Laboratory's expertise in nuclear and radiation detection, we brought the talented Measurement Sciences Group to Livermore from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, after its mission there had diminished. The transfer to our I Division entailed significant investment by PAT in equipment and infrastructure required by the group. In addition, the move occurred at a time when homeland security funding was expected, but not yet available. By the end of the year, though, the group was making crucial contributions to the radiation detection program at Livermore, and nearly every member was fully engaged in programmatic activities. Our V Division made a move of a different sort, relocating en masse from Building 121 to the NIF complex. This move was designed to enhance interaction and collaboration among high-energy-density experimental scientists at the Laboratory, a goal that is essential to the effective use of NIF in the future. Since then, V Division has become increasingly integrated with NIF activities. Division scientists are heavily involved in diagnostic development and fielding and are poised to perform equation-of-state and high-temperature hohlraum experiments in 2004

  4. Lessons from the GP-B Experience for Future Fundamental Physics Missions in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2006-01-01

    Gravity Probe B launched in April 2004 and completed its science data collection in September 2005, with the objective of sub-milliarcsec measurement of two General Relativistic effects on the spin axis orientation of orbiting gyroscopes. Much of the technology required by GP-B has potential application in future missions intended to make precision measurements. The philosophical approach and experiment design principles developed for GP-B are equally adaptable to these mission concepts. This talk will discuss GP-B's experimental approach and the technological and philosophical lessons learned that apply to future experiments in fundamental physics. Measurement of fundamental constants to high precision, probes of short-range forces, searches for equivalence principle violations, and detection of gravitational waves are examples of concepts and missions that will benefit kern GP-B's experience.

  5. Lorenz, G\\"{o}del and Penrose: New perspectives on geometry and determinism in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, T N

    2013-01-01

    Meteorologist Ed Lorenz, pioneer of chaos theory, is well known for his demonstration of `the butterfly effect'. More fundamentally, however, Lorenz's research established a profound link between space-time calculus and state-space fractal geometry. Amazingly, properties of Lorenz's fractal invariant set can be shown to relate space-time calculus to deep areas of mathematics associated with Wiles' proof of Fermat's Last Theorem and G\\"{o}del's Incompleteness Theorem. Motivated by this, it is proposed that our theories of fundamental physics should also be framed in terms of state-space geometry rather than the traditional space-time calculus. To develop these ideas more concretely, it is supposed that the universe U is itself a deterministic dynamical system evolving on a fractal invariant set I_U in its state space. Symbolic representations of I_U are constructed explicitly based on permutation representations of quaternions. The resulting `Invariant Set Theory' provides a conspiracy-free causal perspective ...

  6. Fundamental Physics from the Sky: Cosmic Rays, Gamma Rays and the Hunt for Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Can we learn about New Physics with astronomical and astro-particle data? Understanding how this is possible is key to unraveling one of the most pressing mysteries at the interface of cosmology and particle physics: the fundamental nature of dark matter. I will discuss some of the recent puzzling findings in cosmic-ray electron-positron data and in gamma-ray observations that might be related to dark matter. I will argue that recent cosmic-ray data, most notably from the Pamela and Fermi satellites, indicate that previously unaccounted-for powerful sources in the Galaxy inject high-energy electrons and positrons. Interestingly, this new source class might be related to new fundamental particle physics, and specifically to pair-annihilation or decay of galactic dark matter. This exciting scenario is directly constrained by Fermi gamma-ray observations, which also inform us on astrophysical source counterparts that could also be responsible for the high-energy electron-positron excess. Observations of gamma-ra...

  7. The ultimate constituents of the material world in search of an ontology for fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhlmann, Meinard

    2010-01-01

    Today, quantum field theory (QFT)-the mathematical and conceptual framework for contemporary elementary particle physics-is the best starting point for analysing the fundamental building blocks of the material world. QFT if taken seriously in its metaphysical implications yields a picture of the world that is at variance with central classical conceptions. The core of Kuhlmann's investigation consists in the analysis of various ontological interpretations of QFT, e.g. substance ontologies as well as a process-ontological approach. Eventually, Kuhlmann proposes a dispositional trope ontology, a

  8. Fundamental Physical Processes in Coronae: Waves, Turbulence, Reconnection, and Particle Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J

    2007-01-01

    Our understanding of fundamental processes in the solar corona has been greatly progressed based on the space observations of SMM, Yohkoh, Compton GRO, SOHO, TRACE, RHESSI, and STEREO. We observe now acoustic waves, MHD oscillations, turbulence-related line broadening, magnetic configurations related to reconnection processes, and radiation from high-energy particles on a routine basis. We review a number of key observations in EUV, soft X-rays, and hard X-rays that innovated our physical understanding of the solar corona, in terms of hydrodynamics, MHD, plasma heating, and particle acceleration processes.

  9. The HAWC Gamma-Ray Observatory: Dark Matter, Cosmology, and Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Abeysekara, A U; Alvarez, C; Álvarez, J D; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, J C; Solares, H A Ayala; Barber, A S; Baughman, B M; Bautista-Elivar, N; Belmont, E; BenZvi, S Y; Berley, D; Rosales, M Bonilla; Braun, J; Caballero-Lopez, R A; Caballero-Mora, K S; Carramiñana, A; Castillo, M; Cotti, U; Cotzomi, J; de la Fuente, E; De León, C; DeYoung, T; Hernandez, R Diaz; Díaz-Vélez, J C; Dingus, B L; DuVernois, M A; Ellsworth, R W; Fernandez, A; Fiorino, D W; Fraija, N; Galindo, A; Garfias, F; González, L X; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Grabski, V; Gussert, M; Hampel-Arias, Z; Hui, C M; Hüntemeyer, P; Imran, A; Iriarte, A; Karn, P; Kieda, D; Kunde, G J; Lara, A; Lauer, R J; Lee, W H; Lennarz, D; Vargas, H León; Linares, E C; Linnemann, J T; Longo, M; Luna-GarcIa, R; Marinelli, A; Martinez, H; Martinez, O; Martínez-Castro, J; Matthews, J A J; Miranda-Romagnoli, P; Moreno, E; Mostafá, M; Nava, J; Nellen, L; Newbold, M; Noriega-Papaqui, R; Oceguera-Becerra, T; Patricelli, B; Pelayo, R; Pérez-Pérez, E G; Pretz, J; Rivière, C; Rosa-González, D; Salazar, H; Salesa, F; Sanchez, F E; Sandoval, A; Santos, E; Schneider, M; Silich, S; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sparks, K; Springer, R W; Taboada, I; Toale, P A; Tollefson, K; Torres, I; Ukwatta, T N; Villaseñor, L; Weisgarber, T; Westerhoff, S; Wisher, I G; Wood, J; Yodh, G B; Younk, P W; Zaborov, D; Zepeda, A; Zhou, H

    2013-01-01

    The High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Gamma Ray Observatory (HAWC) is designed to perform a synoptic survey of the TeV sky. The high energy coverage of the experiment will enable studies of fundamental physics beyond the Standard Model, and the large field of view of the detector will enable detailed studies of cosmologically significant backgrounds and magnetic fields. We describe the sensitivity of the full HAWC array to these phenomena in five contributions shown at the 33rd International Cosmic Ray Conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (July 2013).

  10. Physical Mechanism and Fundamental Performance Limits on Graphene Non-Volatile Memory Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Emil Beom

    2012-01-01

    Non–volatile memory (NVM) constitutes a vital portion in electronics to retain information for both archiving and data processing. Limitations encountered in flash technology upon increasing density and reducing cost by scaling necessitates alternative memory structures beyond complementary–metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS). The single atomic two–dimensional profile and the superior physical properties of graphene allow advancements in a variety of memory metrics ...

  11. Recent Advances in Analytical Methods in Mathematical Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer, Teoman; Taranov, Vladimir B.; Smirnov, Roman G.; Klemas, Thomas J.; Thamburaja, Prakash; Wijesinghe, Sanith; Polat, Burak

    2012-01-01

    This special issue of the journal Advances in Mathematical Physics was planned to focus on the most recent advances in analytical techniques of particular use to researchers in the field of mathematical physics that covers a very wide area of topics and has a key role in interdisciplinary studies including mathematics, mechanics, and physics. In this special issue, we were particularly interested in receiving novel contributions detailing analytical methods together with approp...

  12. Use of coated silicon field emitters as neutralisers for fundamental physics missions in space

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, K L; Collingwood, C M; Wang, L; Stevens, R; Huq, S E; Malik, A

    2005-01-01

    Spacecraft neutralisers are required as part of the ion propulsion system for accurate station keeping in fundamental physics missions. A silicon field emitter neutraliser is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. Thin layers of insulating materials as coatings for the gated field emitter array structure are described, which are postulated to reduce power consumption and reduce overheating. The power consumption and lifetime of aluminium nitrude and amorphous hydrogen diamond-like carbon coatings were promising, performing better in endurance tests than uncoated samples, but further work is required to characterise the coating's physical properties and its effects on field emission. The thermal conductivity of the coating material appeared to have little effect on the sample lifetimes. Aluminium nitride had reduced power consumption compared to diamond-like carbon coated and uncoated samples. A thin (~5nm)layer was optimal, meeting European Space Agency specifications for the neutraliser eng...

  13. Fundamental Problems of Neutron Physics at the Spallation Neutron Source at the ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir Gudkov

    2008-07-16

    We propose to provide theoretical support for the experimental program in fundamental neutron physics at the SNS. This includes the study of neutron properties, neutron beta-decay, parity violation effects and time reversal violation effects. The main purpose of the proposed research is to work on theoretical problems related to experiments which have a high priority at the SNS. Therefore, we will make a complete analysis of beta-decay process including calculations of radiative corrections and recoil corrections for angular correlations for polarized neutron decay, with an accuracy better that is supposed to be achieved in the planning experiments. Based on the results of the calculations, we will provide analysis of sensitivity of angular correlations to be able to search for the possible extensions of the Standard model. Also we will help to plan other experiments to address significant problems of modern physics and will work on their theoretical support.

  14. Enhancing the public impact of the Higgs discovery and other fundamental physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidstrom, Suzy; Read, Alex; Parke, Stephen; Allen, Roland; Goldfarb, Steven; Mehlhase, Sascha; Ekelof, Tord; Walker, Alan

    2014-03-01

    The recent experimental discovery of a Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the LHC, together with the awarding of the 2013 Nobel Prize for its theoretical prediction, has presented an exceptional opportunity for public outreach regarding the goals and importance of fundamental research in physics. We discuss novel avenues for further extending this outreach in all areas. These range from tutorial papers addressing students and teachers to internet resources and presentations to unconventional, but captivating, educational materials such as musical videos and LEGO models. Interaction with active scientists can be particularly stimulating. We account how this was encouraged (by means such as badges inviting questions from the public) during Nobel week and afterwards. The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physics explained Physica Scripta, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

  15. Use of the Berkeley Physics Laboratory to Teach an Advanced Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, James David

    1973-01-01

    Discusses a course, centered around 32 experiments taught for advanced students, designed to develop a laboratory strongly suggestive of contemporary research using relatively sophisticated apparatus. Its unique advantage lies in enriching advanced physics curriculum. (DF)

  16. Base units of the SI, fundamental constants and modern quantum physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordé, Christian J

    2005-09-15

    Over the past 40 years, a number of discoveries in quantum physics have completely transformed our vision of fundamental metrology. This revolution starts with the frequency stabilization of lasers using saturation spectroscopy and the redefinition of the metre by fixing the velocity of light c. Today, the trend is to redefine all SI base units from fundamental constants and we discuss strategies to achieve this goal. We first consider a kinematical frame, in which fundamental constants with a dimension, such as the speed of light c, the Planck constant h, the Boltzmann constant k(B) or the electron mass m(e) can be used to connect and redefine base units. The various interaction forces of nature are then introduced in a dynamical frame, where they are completely characterized by dimensionless coupling constants such as the fine structure constant alpha or its gravitational analogue alpha(G). This point is discussed by rewriting the Maxwell and Dirac equations with new force fields and these coupling constants. We describe and stress the importance of various quantum effects leading to the advent of this new quantum metrology. In the second part of the paper, we present the status of the seven base units and the prospects of their possible redefinitions from fundamental constants in an experimental perspective. The two parts can be read independently and they point to these same conclusions concerning the redefinitions of base units. The concept of rest mass is directly related to the Compton frequency of a body, which is precisely what is measured by the watt balance. The conversion factor between mass and frequency is the Planck constant, which could therefore be fixed in a realistic and consistent new definition of the kilogram based on its Compton frequency. We discuss also how the Boltzmann constant could be better determined and fixed to replace the present definition of the kelvin.

  17. Washing Up with Hot and Cold Running Neutrons: Tests of Fundamental Physical Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, Steve K.

    2005-05-01

    The properties of the Neutron and its interactions with matter have been long applied to tests of fundamental physical principles. An example of such an application is a test of the stability of the fundamental constants of physics based on possible changes in low energy absorption resonances and the isotopic composition of a prehistoric natural reactor that operated two billion years ago in equatorial Africa. A recent re-analysis of this event indicates that some fundamental constants have changed. The focus of the presentation will be on the uses of cold and ultracold neutrons (UCNs), and in particular, the experimental search for the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) which would be evidence for time reversal asymmetry in the microscopic interactions within the neutron. Ultracold neutrons are neutrons with kinetic energy sufficiently low that they can be reflected from material surfaces for all angles of incidence, allowing UCNs to be stored in material bottles for times approaching the beta decay lifetime of the neutron. Vagaries associated with the production, transport, and storage of UCNs will be described, and an overview progress on development of a new neutron EDM experiment to be operated at LANSCE will be presented. This new experiment has potential to improve the measurement sensitivity by a factor of 100. Although an EDM has not be observed for any elementary particle, experimental limits have been crucial for testing extensions to the so-called Standard Model of Electroweak Interactions. Our anticipated sensitivity will be sufficient to address questions regarding the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Universe.

  18. Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain; Greg M.

    2009-04-13

    The original funding under this project number was awarded for a period 12/1999 until 12/2002 under the project title Diamond and Hydrogenated Carbons for Advanced Batteries and Fuel Cells: Fundamental Studies and Applications. The project was extended until 06/2003 at which time a renewal proposal was awarded for a period 06/2003 until 06/2008 under the project title Metal/Diamond Composite Thin-Film Electrodes: New Carbon Supported Catalytic Electrodes. The work under DE-FG02-01ER15120 was initiated about the time the PI moved his research group from the Department of Chemistry at Utah State University to the Department of Chemistry at Michigan State University. This DOE-funded research was focused on (i) understanding structure-function relationships at boron-doped diamond thin-film electrodes, (ii) understanding metal phase formation on diamond thin films and developing electrochemical approaches for producing highly dispersed electrocatalyst particles (e.g., Pt) of small nominal particle size, (iii) studying the electrochemical activity of the electrocatalytic electrodes for hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction and (iv) conducting the initial synthesis of high surface area diamond powders and evaluating their electrical and electrochemical properties when mixed with a Teflon binder.

  19. Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam

    This study addresses questions about particle physics that focus on the nature of electrons. Speculations as to whether they are more like particles or waves or like neither illustrate the difficulties with which students are confronted when trying to incorporate the concepts of quantum physics into their overall conceptual framework. Such…

  20. Geometry of the fundamental interactions on Riemann's legacy to high energy physics and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Maia, M D

    2011-01-01

    The Yang-Mills theory of gauge interactions is a prime example of interdisciplinary mathematics and advanced physics. Its historical development is a fascinating window into the ongoing struggle of mankind to understand nature. The discovery of gauge fields and their properties is the most formidable landmark of modern physics. The expression of the gauge field strength as the curvature associated to a given connection, places quantum field theory in the same geometrical footing as the gravitational field of general relativity which is naturally written in geometrical terms. The understanding of such geometrical property may help one day to write a unified field theory starting from symmetry principles. Of course, there are remarkable differences between the standard gauge fields and the gravitational field, which must be understood by mathematicians and physicists before attempting such unification. In particular, it is important to understand why gravitation is not a standard gauge field. This book presents...

  1. Relations between nonlinear Riccati equations and other equations in fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Dieter

    2014-10-01

    Many phenomena in the observable macroscopic world obey nonlinear evolution equations while the microscopic world is governed by quantum mechanics, a fundamental theory that is supposedly linear. In order to combine these two worlds in a common formalism, at least one of them must sacrifice one of its dogmas. Linearizing nonlinear dynamics would destroy the fundamental property of this theory, however, it can be shown that quantum mechanics can be reformulated in terms of nonlinear Riccati equations. In a first step, it will be shown that the information about the dynamics of quantum systems with analytical solutions can not only be obtainable from the time-dependent Schrödinger equation but equally-well from a complex Riccati equation. Comparison with supersymmetric quantum mechanics shows that even additional information can be obtained from the nonlinear formulation. Furthermore, the time-independent Schrödinger equation can also be rewritten as a complex Riccati equation for any potential. Extension of the Riccati formulation to include irreversible dissipative effects is straightforward. Via (real and complex) Riccati equations, other fields of physics can also be treated within the same formalism, e.g., statistical thermodynamics, nonlinear dynamical systems like those obeying a logistic equation as well as wave equations in classical optics, Bose- Einstein condensates and cosmological models. Finally, the link to abstract "quantizations" such as the Pythagorean triples and Riccati equations connected with trigonometric and hyperbolic functions will be shown.

  2. Development of multi-representation learning tools for the course of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, C.; Siswanto, J.; Kurniawan, A. F.; Nuroso, H.

    2016-08-01

    This research is aimed at designing a learning tool based on multi-representation that can improve problem solving skills. It used the research and development approach. It was applied for the course of Fundamental Physics at Universitas PGRI Semarang for the 2014/2015 academic year. Results show gain analysis value of 0.68, which means some medium improvements. The result of t-test is shows a calculated value of 27.35 and a table t of 2.020 for df = 25 and α = 0.05. Results of pre-tests and post-tests increase from 23.45 to 76.15. Application of multi-representation learning tools significantly improves students’ grades.

  3. Astrophysical black holes as natural laboratories for fundamental physics and strong-field gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Berti, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Astrophysical tests of general relativity belong to two categories: 1) "internal", i.e. consistency tests within the theory (for example, tests that astrophysical black holes are indeed described by the Kerr solution and its perturbations), or 2) "external", i.e. tests of the many proposed extensions of the theory. I review some ways in which astrophysical black holes can be used as natural laboratories for both "internal" and "external" tests of general relativity. The examples provided here (ringdown tests of the black hole "no-hair" theorem, bosonic superradiant instabilities in rotating black holes and gravitational-wave tests of massive scalar-tensor theories) are shamelessly biased towards recent research by myself and my collaborators. Hopefully this colloquial introduction aimed mainly at astrophysicists will convince skeptics (if there are any) that space-based detectors will be crucial to study fundamental physics through gravitational-wave observations.

  4. Comments on redefinition of SI units based on fundamental physical constants with fixed values

    CERN Document Server

    Khruschov, V V

    2011-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of fixation of fundamental physical constants' values for definition of SI units are considered. The case with a new definition of the mass unit on the base of a fixed value of the Avogadro constant is studied in detail. Criteria on choosing of a optimum FPC set with fixed values for the redefinition of the SI units are suggested. The minimal optimum FPC set that is consistent with the criteria is presented. The set comprises the speed of light, the constant of the ground state hyperfine transition of the caesium-133 atom, the Avogadro constant, the mass of the carbon-12 atom and the absolute magnitude of the electron charge. Comment on the redefinition of the kelvin is also made.

  5. Dosimetric validation of the Acuros XB Advanced Dose Calculation algorithm: fundamental characterization in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Medical Physics Unit, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Mancosu, Pietro, E-mail: afc@iosi.ch [Istituto Clinico Humanitas, Radio-Oncology Department, Milan-Rozzano (Italy)

    2011-03-21

    A new algorithm, Acuros (registered) XB Advanced Dose Calculation, has been introduced by Varian Medical Systems in the Eclipse planning system for photon dose calculation in external radiotherapy. Acuros XB is based on the solution of the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE). The LBTE describes the macroscopic behaviour of radiation particles as they travel through and interact with matter. The implementation of Acuros XB in Eclipse has not been assessed; therefore, it is necessary to perform these pre-clinical validation tests to determine its accuracy. This paper summarizes the results of comparisons of Acuros XB calculations against measurements and calculations performed with a previously validated dose calculation algorithm, the Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA). The tasks addressed in this paper are limited to the fundamental characterization of Acuros XB in water for simple geometries. Validation was carried out for four different beams: 6 and 15 MV beams from a Varian Clinac 2100 iX, and 6 and 10 MV 'flattening filter free' (FFF) beams from a TrueBeam linear accelerator. The TrueBeam FFF are new beams recently introduced in clinical practice on general purpose linear accelerators and have not been previously reported on. Results indicate that Acuros XB accurately reproduces measured and calculated (with AAA) data and only small deviations were observed for all the investigated quantities. In general, the overall degree of accuracy for Acuros XB in simple geometries can be stated to be within 1% for open beams and within 2% for mechanical wedges. The basic validation of the Acuros XB algorithm was therefore considered satisfactory for both conventional photon beams as well as for FFF beams of new generation linacs such as the Varian TrueBeam.

  6. Advances in Measurement Technology at NIST's Physical Measurement Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmer, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The NIST mission is to promote U.S. innovation and industrial competitiveness by advancing measurement science, standards, and technology. The Physical Measurement Laboratory (PML) has responsibility for maintaining national standards for two dozen physical quantities needed for international trade; and, importantly, it carries out advanced research at the frontiers of measurement science to enable extending innovation into new realms and new markets. This talk will highlight advances being made across several sectors of technology; and it will describe how PML interacts with its many collaborators and clients in industry, government, and academe.

  7. Advanced Computing Tools and Models for Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryne, Robert; Ryne, Robert D.

    2008-06-11

    This paper is based on a transcript of my EPAC'08 presentation on advanced computing tools for accelerator physics. Following an introduction I present several examples, provide a history of the development of beam dynamics capabilities, and conclude with thoughts on the future of large scale computing in accelerator physics.

  8. New trends in atomic and molecular physics advanced technological applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) has reached significant advances in high–precision experimental measurement techniques. The area covers a wide spectrum ranging from conventional to new emerging multi-disciplinary areas like physics of highly charged ions (HCI), molecular physics, optical science, ultrafast laser technology etc. This book includes the important topics of atomic structure, physics of atomic collision, photoexcitation, photoionization processes, Laser cooling and trapping, Bose Einstein condensation and advanced technology applications of AMP in the fields of astronomy , astrophysics , fusion, biology and nanotechnology. This book is useful for researchers, professors, graduate, post graduate and PhD students dealing with atomic and molecular physics. The book has a wide scope with applications in neighbouring fields like plasma physics, astrophysics, cold collisions, nanotechnology and future fusion energy sources like ITER (international Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) To...

  9. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1995-01-01

    Praise for Previous Volumes"This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated"- M.S. CHILD in PHYSICS BULLETIN"Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the series are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended."- G. HERZBERG in AMERICAN SCIENTIST

  10. Advances in atomic, molecular, and optical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bederson, Benjamin

    1997-01-01

    Praise for the Series""This volume maintains the authoritative standards of the series...The editors and publishers are to be congratulated.""--M.S. Child in Physics Bulletin""Maintains the high standards of earlier volumes in the series...All the articles are written by experts in the field, and their summaries are most timely...Strongly recommended.""--G. Herzberg in American Scientist

  11. Questioning the foundations of physics which of our fundamental assumptions are wrong?

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Brendan; Merali, Zeeya

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book look at way in which the fundaments of physics might need to be changed in order to make progress towards a unified theory. They are based on the prize-winning essays submitted to the FQXi essay competition “Which of Our Basic Physical Assumptions Are Wrong?”, which drew over 270 entries. As Nobel Laureate physicist Philip W. Anderson realized, the key to understanding nature’s reality is not anything “magical”, but the right attitude, “the focus on asking the right questions, the willingness to try (and to discard) unconventional answers, the sensitive ear for phoniness, self-deception, bombast, and conventional but unproven assumptions.” The authors of the eighteen prize-winning essays have, where necessary, adapted their essays for the present volume so as to (a) incorporate the community feedback generated in the online discussion of the essays, (b) add new material that has come to light since their completion and (c) to ensure accessibility to a broad audience of re...

  12. Towards physical cosmology: geometrical interpretation of Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Inflation without fundamental sources

    CERN Document Server

    Buchert, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We outline the key-steps towards the construction of a physical, fully relativistic cosmology, in which we aim to trace Dark Energy and Dark Matter back to physical properties of space. The influence of inhomogeneities on the effective evolution history of the Universe is encoded in backreaction terms and expressed through spatially averaged geometrical invariants. These are absent and interpreted as missing dark fundamental sources in the standard model. In the inhomogeneous case they can be interpreted as energies of an emerging scalar field (the morphon). These averaged invariants vanish for a homogeneous geometry, where the morphon is in an unstable equilibrium state. If this state is perturbed, the morphon can act as a classical inflaton in the Early Universe and its de-balanced energies can mimic the dark sources in the Late Universe, depending on spatial scale as Dark Energy or as Dark Matter, respectively. We lay down a line of arguments that is qualitatively conclusive, and we outline open problems o...

  13. Physics of thin films advances in research and development

    CERN Document Server

    Hass, Georg; Vossen, John L

    2013-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 12 reviews advances that have been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films. This volume covers a wide range of preparative approaches, physics phenomena, and applications related to thin films. This book is comprised of four chapters and begins with a discussion on metal coatings and protective layers for front surface mirrors used at various angles of incidence from the ultraviolet to the far infrared. Thin-film materials and deposition conditions suitable for minimizing reflectance changes with

  14. Project for the Institution of an Advanced Course in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorani, M.; Nobili, G.

    2006-06-01

    A project for an advanced course in physics at the master level, is presented in great detail. The goal of this project is to create a specific and rigorous training for those who want to carry out experimental and theoretical research on "anomalies" in physical science, especially from the point of view of atmospheric physics, plasma physics, photonic physics, biophysics, astronomy and astrophysics. A specific training in powering mental skills is planned as well. The planned teaching program is presented as a two-year course where the following subjects are intended to be taught: cognitive techniques (I and II), radiation physics (I and II), biophysics (I and II), bioastronomy (I and II), history of physics (I and II), didactics of physics, physics of atmospheric plasmas, physics of non-stationary photonic events, physics of non-linear processes, complements of quantum mechanics, quantum informatics, research methodology in physics and astronomy, computer science methods in physics and astronomy, optoelectronics, radioelectronics. Detailed teaching programs, didactics methods, and performance evaluation, are presented for each subject. The technical content of this project is preceded by an ample introduction that shows all the reasons of this kind of physics course, particularly aimed at innovation in physical science.

  15. Advances of Accelerator Physics and Technologies

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    This volume, consisting of articles written by experts with international repute and long experience, reviews the state of the art of accelerator physics and technologies and the use of accelerators in research, industry and medicine. It covers a wide range of topics, from basic problems concerning the performance of circular and linear accelerators to technical issues and related fields. Also discussed are recent achievements that are of particular interest (such as RF quadrupole acceleration, ion sources and storage rings) and new technologies (such as superconductivity for magnets and RF ca

  16. Advanced Software Methods for Physics Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, L.

    2006-01-01

    Unprecedented data analysis complexity is experienced in modern High Energy Physics experiments. The complexity arises from the growing size of recorded data samples, the large number of data analyses performed by different users in each single experiment, and the level of complexity of each single analysis. For this reason, the requirements on software for data analysis impose a very high level of reliability. We present two concrete examples: the former from BaBar experience with the migration to a new Analysis Model with the definition of a new model for the Event Data Store, the latter about a toolkit for multivariate statistical and parametric Monte Carlo analysis developed using generic programming.

  17. Fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology with the MAGIA lunar orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Agnello, Simone; Lops, Caterina; Delle Monache, Giovanni O.; Currie, Douglas G.; Martini, Manuele; Vittori, Roberto; Coradini, Angioletta; Dionisio, Cesare; Garattini, Marco; Boni, Alessandro; Cantone, Claudio; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Tauraso, Roberto; Maiello, Mauro; Porcelli, Luca; Berardi, Simone; Intaglietta, Nicola

    2011-10-01

    MAGIA is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard MAGIA we propose to perform several fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments: VESPUCCI, an improved test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity; MoonLIGHT-P, a precursor test of a second generation Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) payload for precision gravity and lunar science measurements under development for NASA, ASI and robotic missions of the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN); Selenocenter (the center of mass of the Moon), the determination of the position of the Moon center of mass with respect to the International Terrestrial Reference Frame/System (ITRF/ITRS); this will be compared to the one from Apollo and Lunokhod retroreflectors on the surface; MapRef, the absolute referencing of MAGIA's lunar altimetry, gravity and geochemical maps with respect to the ITRF/ITRS. The absolute positioning of MAGIA will be achieved thanks to: (1) the laboratory characterization of the retroreflector performance at INFN-LNF; (2) the precision tracking by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), which gives two fundamental contributions to the ITRF/ITRS, i.e. the metrological definition of the geocenter (the Earth center of mass) and of the scale of length; (3) the radio science and accelerometer payloads; (4) support by the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy. Future ILN geodetic nodes equipped with MoonLIGHT and the Apollo/Lunokhod retroreflectors will become the first realization of the International Moon Reference Frame (IMRF), the lunar analog of the ITRF.

  18. Radiation Protection in Medical Physics : Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Radiation Protection in Medical Physics Activities

    CERN Document Server

    Lemoigne, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This book introduces the fundamental aspects of Radiation Protection in Medical Physics and covers three main themes: General Radiation Protection Principles; Radiobiology Principles; Radiation Protection in Hospital Medical Physics. Each of these topics is developed by analysing the underlying physics principles and their implementation, quality and safety aspects, clinical performance and recent advances in the field. Some issues specific to the individual techniques are also treated, e.g. calculation of patient dose as well as that of workers in hospital, optimisation of equipment used, shielding design of radiation facilities, radiation in oncology such as use of brachytherapy in gynecology or interventional procedures. All topics are presented with didactical language and style, making this book an appropriate reference for students and professionals seeking a comprehensive introduction to the field as well as a reliable overview of the most recent developments.

  19. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences.

  20. ALPhA: The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Eric; McCann, Lowell; Reichert, Jonathan; Spalding, Gabe; Essick, John; van Baak, David; Wonnell, Steve

    2011-03-01

    The Advanced Laboratory Physics Association (ALPhA) is a group of people with a shared interest in teaching physics labs at the advanced undergraduate or graduate level. ALPhA works closely with the American Physical Society (APS), the Optical Society of America (OSA), and the American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) to develop new methods for teaching modern experimental physics. In the summer of 2010 we initiated the ALPhA Immersion Program, a three-day short course where instructors visit a lab, do one or more of the local experiments (home-built or commercial) with the local instructor, and learn the experiments well enough to incorporate them into their own programs. These immersions were very well received, with attendees filling up all available slots. In this talk I will describe ALPhA and the Immersions Program and solicit input from the broader community.

  1. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Christophe, Bruno; Anderson, John D; André, Nicolas; Asmar, Sami W; Aurnou, Jonathan; Banfield, Don; Barucci, Antonella; Bertolami, Orfeu; Bingham, Robert; Brown, Patrick; Cecconi, Baptiste; Courty, Jean-Michel; Dittus, Hansjörg; Fletcher, Leigh N; Foulon, Bernard; Francisco, Frederico; Gil, Paulo J S; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Grundy, Will; Hansen, Candice; Helbert, Jörn; Helled, Ravit; Hussmann, Hauke; Lamine, Brahim; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Lamy, Laurent; Lenoir, Benjamin; Levy, Agnès; Orton, Glenn; Páramos, Jorge; Poncy, Joël; Postberg, Frank; Progrebenko, Sergei V; Reh, Kim R; Reynaud, Serge; Robert, Clélia; Samain, Etienne; Saur, Joachim; Sayanagi, Kunio M; Schmitz, Nicole; Selig, Hanns; Sohl, Frank; Spilker, Thomas R; Srama, Ralf; Stephan, Katrin; Touboul, Pierre; Wolf, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere and found four rings and evidence of ring arcs above Neptune. Benefiting from a greatly improved instrumentation, it will result in a striking advance in the study of the farthest planet of the Solar System. Furthermore, OSS will provide a unique opportunity to visit a selected Kuiper Belt object subsequent to the passage of the Neptunian system. It will consolidate the hypothesis of the origin of Triton as a KBO captured by Neptune, and improve our knowledge on the formation of the Solar system. The probe will embark inst...

  2. Time Domain Science and Fundamental Physics with the Next-generation Very Large Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demorest, Paul; Bower, Geoffrey C.; ngVLA Time Domain/Physics Science Working Group

    2017-01-01

    The Next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is a design concept for a future large-area radio telescope under development by the NRAO and interested members of the scientific community. The approximate ngVLA specifications call for a frequency range of ~1--116 GHz, ten times the effective collecting area and moderately increased field of view versus the current VLA, and an array configuration consisting of a dense (~km-scale) array core with some baselines extending out to hundreds of km. This instrument will enable new discoveries in many diverse areas of research relevant to modern astronomy; our group has explored the impact the ngVLA will have in time domain astronomy and fundamental physics.Here we present several key science topics considered as part of this work. These include: Searching for and timing radio pulsars at the galactic center -- the frequency coverage and sensitivity of the ngVLA will allow detection of highly-scattered pulsars near Sgr A*. Monitoring these sources will permit unprecedented tests of general relativity. Detecting and characterizing explosive transient sources -- electromagnetic observations of gravitational-wave sources provide complementary information to the GW signals themselves. Observations across the wide frequency range spanned by the ngVLA are critical for energy calorimetry of these events. Finally, with sufficient long-baseline coverage, novel astrometric approaches to cosmology become possible, by watching the expansion of the universe in real time through correlated proper motions of many extragalactic radio sources.

  3. Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA): New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    CERN Document Server

    Geiger, R; Bertoldi, A; Canuel, B; Chaibi, W; Danquigny, C; Dutta, I; Fang, B; Gaffet, S; Gillot, J; Holleville, D; Landragin, A; Merzougui, M; Riou, I; Savoie, D; Bouyer, P

    2015-01-01

    The MIGA project aims at demonstrating precision measurements of gravity with cold atom sensors in a large scale instrument and at studying the associated powerful applications in geosciences and fundamental physics. The firt stage of the project (2013-2018) will consist in building a 300-meter long optical cavity to interrogate atom interferometers and will be based at the low noise underground laboratory LSBB based in Rustrel, France. The second stage of the project (2018-2023) will be dedicated to science runs and data analyses in order to probe the spatio-temporal structure of the local gravity field of the LSBB region, which represents a generic site of hydrological interest. MIGA will also assess future potential applications of atom interferometry to gravitational wave detection in the frequency band 0.1-10 Hz hardly covered by future long baseline optical interferometers. This paper presents the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the instrument and the motivation for the...

  4. Your Higgs number - how fundamental physics is connected to technology and societal revolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidström, Suzy; Allen, Roland E.

    2015-03-01

    Fundamental physics, as exemplified by the recently discovered Higgs boson, often appears to be completely disconnected from practical applications and ordinary human life. But this is not really the case, because science, technology, and human affairs are profoundly integrated in ways that are not immediately obvious. We illustrate this by defining a ``Higgs number'' through overlapping activities. Following three different paths, which end respectively in applications of the World Wide Web, digital photography, and modern electronic devices, we find that most people have a Higgs number of no greater than 3. Specific examples chosen for illustration, with their assigned Higgs numbers, are: LHC experimentalists employing the Worldwide Computing Grid (0) - Timothy Berners-Lee (1) - Marissa Mayer, of Google and Yahoo, and Sheryl Sandberg, of Facebook (2) - users of all web-based enterprises (3). CMS and ATLAS experimentalists (0) - particle detector developers (1) - inventors of CCDs and active-pixel sensors (2) - users of digital cameras and camcorders (3). Philip Anderson (0) - John Bardeen (1) - Jack Kilby (2) - users of personal computers, mobile phones, and all other modern electronic devices (3).

  5. New results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Light Source is the world's first low-energy third-generation synchrotron radiation source. It has been running reliably and exceeding design specifications since it began operation in October 1993. It is available to a wide community of researchers in many scientific fields, including atomic and molecular science and chemistry. Here, new results in atomic physics at the Advanced Light Source demonstrate the opportunities available in atomic and molecular physics at this synchrotron light source. The unprecedented brightness allows experiments with high flux, high spectral resolution, and nearly 100% linear polarization.

  6. Fundamental properties of fracture and seismicity in a non extensive statistical physics framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianatos, Filippos

    2010-05-01

    A fundamental challenge in many scientific disciplines concerns upscaling, that is, of determining the regularities and laws of evolution at some large scale, from those known at a lower scale. Earthquake physics is no exception, with the challenge of understanding the transition from the laboratory scale to the scale of fault networks and large earthquakes. In this context, statistical physics has a remarkably successful work record in addressing the upscaling problem in physics. It is natural then to consider that the physics of many earthquakes has to be studied with a different approach than the physics of one earthquake and in this sense we can consider the use of statistical physics not only appropriate but necessary to understand the collective properties of earthquakes [see Corral 2004, 2005a,b,c;]. A significant attempt is given in a series of works [Main 1996; Rundle et al., 1997; Main et al., 2000; Main and Al-Kindy, 2002; Rundle et al., 2003; Vallianatos and Triantis, 2008a] that uses classical statistical physics to describe seismicity. Then a natural question arises. What type of statistical physics is appropriate to commonly describe effects from fracture level to seismicity scale?? The application of non extensive statistical physics offers a consistent theoretical framework, based on a generalization of entropy, to analyze the behavior of natural systems with fractal or multi-fractal distribution of their elements. Such natural systems where long - range interactions or intermittency are important, lead to power law behavior. We note that this is consistent with a classical thermodynamic approach to natural systems that rapidly attain equilibrium, leading to exponential-law behavior. In the frame of non extensive statistical physics approach, the probability function p(X) is calculated using the maximum entropy formulation of Tsallis entropy which involves the introduction of at least two constraints (Tsallis et al., 1998). The first one is the

  7. Testing fundamental physics with laser ranged satellites: perspectives and goals of the LARASE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, David; Anselmo, Luciano; Pardini, Carmen; Peron, Roberto; Pucacco, Giuseppe; Visco, Massimo

    Passive laser-ranged satellites, launched for geodynamics and geophysics purposes, not only have contributed to significant measurements in space geodesy that enabled, among several aspects, a deeper knowledge of the Earth's geopotential (both in its static and dynamic behavior), as well as of the geocenter motion and GM value up to the definition of the terrestrial reference frame, but they also provided an outstanding test bench to fundamental physics, as in the case of the first measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession on the combined nodes of the two LAGEOS satellites, or in the case of the total relativistic precession of the argument of pericenter of LAGEOS II. Indeed, the physical characteristics of such satellites -- such as their low area-to-mass ratio -- as well as those of their orbits, and the availability of high-quality tracking data provided by the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS), allow for precise tests of gravitational theories. The aim of LARASE (LAser RAnged Satellites Experiment) is to go a step further in the tests of the gravitational interaction in the field of Earth, i.e. in the weak-field and-slow motion limit of general relativity, by the joint analysis of the orbits of the two LAGEOS satellites and that of the most recent LARES satellite. One of the key ingredients to reach such a goal is to provide high-quality updated models for the perturbing non-gravitational forces acting on the surface of such satellites. A large amount of Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) data of LAGEOS and LAGEOS II has been analyzed using a set of dedicated models for satellite dynamics, and the related post-fit residuals have been analyzed. A parallel work is on-going in the case of LARES that, due to its much lower altitude, is subject to larger gravitational and non-gravitational effects; the latter are mitigated in part by its much lower area-to-mass ratio. Recent work on the data analysis of the orbit of such satellites will be presented together

  8. 2004 Physics and Advanced Technologies In the News

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A

    2005-11-01

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technology Directorate in 2004 were featured in ''Science & Technology Review'', the monthly publication of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2004.

  9. Teaching Physics at Advanced Level: A Question of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Leonard; Rogers, Laurence

    1996-01-01

    Questions whether didactic methods employed for teaching physics at the advanced level can adequately match the variety of needs of students in the contemporary context. Offers a framework for promoting a style of teaching that is responsive and versatile. Contains 14 references. (Author/JRH)

  10. 2005 Physics and Advanced Technologies in the News

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2006-12-19

    Several outstanding research activities in the Physics and Advanced Technologies Directorate in 2005 were featured in ''Science and Technology Review'', the monthly publication of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Reprints of those articles accompany this report. Here we summarize other science and technology highlights, as well as the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2005. As part of the World Year of Physics commemorating the 100th anniversary of Einstein's ''miraculous year'', we also highlight ongoing physics research that would not be possible without Einstein's pioneering accomplishments.

  11. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of Accelerator Physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  12. CERN Accelerator School: Registration open for Advanced Accelerator Physics course

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Registration is now open for the CERN Accelerator School’s Advanced Accelerator Physics course to be held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.   The course will be of interest to physicists and engineers who wish to extend their knowledge of accelerator physics. The programme offers core lectures on accelerator physics in the mornings and a practical course with hands-on tuition in the afternoons.  Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/Poland2015/Warsaw-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/361988/

  13. Fundamental Advances in Inverse Mechanics Towards Self-Aware and Intrinsically Adaptable Structural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    parameters and objectives was considered. As shown in Figure 2, the smart link consisted of a 20mm ⇥ 5mm ⇥ 1mm homogeneous rectangular prism composed...Date 06/30/2014 Abstract The objective of this project was to advance computational methods for solving inverse problems related to smart morphable...peer-reviewed journal publications, then Dist. A. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The objective of this project was to advance computational

  14. Can Fundamental Movement Skill Mastery Be Increased via a Six Week Physical Activity Intervention to Have Positive Effects on Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Bryant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous research has suggested a positive relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS mastery and physical activity (PA level. Research conducted on interventions to improve FMS mastery is equivocal and further research is needed. Methods: An intervention group of 82 children (35 boys and 47 girls and a control group of 83 children (42 boys and 41 girls were recruited from Years 4 and 5 (mean age ± SD = 8.3 ± 0.4 years of two schools in Central England. The intervention included a combination of circuits and dancing to music. Pre and post intervention tests were conducted. Tests included: subjective assessment of eight FMS; objective measurement of two FMS; four day pedometer step count recording; height and mass for Body Mass Index (BMI; and the completion of Harter et al.’s (1982 self-perception questionnaire. Results: Following a two (pre to post by two (intervention and control group mixed-model ANOVA it was highlighted that the intervention group improved mastery in all eight FMS, and increased both daily steps and physical self-perception. Conclusions: It can be concluded that focussing one Physical Education (PE lesson per week on the development of FMS has had a positive benefit on FMS, PA level and physical self-perception for the children in this study.

  15. A Grounded Theory Approach to Physical Activity and Advanced Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya S. Lowe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity has demonstrated benefits in cancer-related fatigue and physical functioning in early-stage cancer patients, however the role of physical activity at the end stage of cancer has not been established. To challenge positivist–empiricist assumptions, I am seeking to develop a new theoretical framework that is grounded in the advanced cancer patient’s experience of activity. Aim: To gain an in-depth understanding of the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients. Objectives: (1 To explore the meaning of activity for advanced cancer patients in the context of their day-to-day life, (2 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ perceptions of activity with respect to their quality of life, and (3 to elicit advanced cancer patients’ views of barriers and facilitators to activity in the context of their day-to-day life. Study Design: A two-phase, cross-sectional, qualitative study will be conducted through the postpositivist lens of subtle realism and informed by the principles of grounded theory methods. Study Methods: Advanced cancer patients will be recruited through the outpatient department of a tertiary cancer center. For Phase one, participants will wear an activPAL™ activity monitor and fill out a daily record sheet for seven days duration. For Phase two, the activity monitor output and daily record sheets will be used as qualitative probes for face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Concurrent coding, constant comparative analysis, and theoretical sampling will continue with the aim of achieving as close as possible to theoretical saturation. Ethics and Discussion: Ethical and scientific approval will be obtained by all local institutional review boards prior to study commencement. The findings will generate new mid-level theory about the experience of activity and quality of life in advanced cancer patients and aid in the development of a new theoretical framework for designing

  16. Amphiphile nanoarchitectonics: from basic physical chemistry to advanced applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Muruganathan; Shrestha, Lok Kumar; Mori, Taizo; Ji, Qingmin; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2013-07-14

    Amphiphiles, either synthetic or natural, are structurally simple molecules with the unprecedented capacity to self-assemble into complex, hierarchical geometries in nanospace. Effective self-assembly processes of amphiphiles are often used to mimic biological systems, such as assembly of lipids and proteins, which has paved a way for bottom-up nanotechnology with bio-like advanced functions. Recent developments in nanostructure formation combine simple processes of assembly with the more advanced concept of nanoarchitectonics. In this perspective, we summarize research on self-assembly of amphiphilic molecules such as lipids, surfactants or block copolymers that are a focus of interest for many colloid, polymer, and materials scientists and which have become increasingly important in emerging nanotechnology and practical applications, latter of which are often accomplished by amphiphile-like polymers. Because the fundamental science of amphiphiles was initially developed for their solution assembly then transferred to assemblies on surfaces as a development of nanotechnological techniques, this perspective attempts to mirror this development by introducing solution systems and progressing to interfacial systems, which are roughly categorized as (i) basic properties of amphiphiles, (ii) self-assembly of amphiphiles in bulk phases, (iii) assembly on static surfaces, (iv) assembly at dynamic interfaces, and (v) advanced topics from simulation to application. This progression also represents the evolution of amphiphile science and technology from simple assemblies to advanced assemblies to nanoarchitectonics.

  17. Addressing fundamental architectural challenges of an activity-based intelligence and advanced analytics (ABIAA) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Kevin; Albert, Thomas; Brower, Bernard V.; Pellechia, Matthew F.

    2015-06-01

    The domain of Geospatial Intelligence Analysis is rapidly shifting toward a new paradigm of Activity Based Intelligence (ABI) and information-based Tipping and Cueing. General requirements for an advanced ABIAA system present significant challenges in architectural design, computing resources, data volumes, workflow efficiency, data mining and analysis algorithms, and database structures. These sophisticated ABI software systems must include advanced algorithms that automatically flag activities of interest in less time and within larger data volumes than can be processed by human analysts. In doing this, they must also maintain the geospatial accuracy necessary for cross-correlation of multi-intelligence data sources. Historically, serial architectural workflows have been employed in ABIAA system design for tasking, collection, processing, exploitation, and dissemination. These simpler architectures may produce implementations that solve short term requirements; however, they have serious limitations that preclude them from being used effectively in an automated ABIAA system with multiple data sources. This paper discusses modern ABIAA architectural considerations providing an overview of an advanced ABIAA system and comparisons to legacy systems. It concludes with a recommended strategy and incremental approach to the research, development, and construction of a fully automated ABIAA system.

  18. Complex-Dynamical Solution to Many-Body Interaction Problem and Its Applications in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kirilyuk, Andrei P

    2012-01-01

    We review the recently proposed unreduced, complex-dynamical solution to many-body problem with arbitrary interaction and its application to unified solution of fundamental problems, including foundations of causally complete quantum mechanics, relativity, particle properties and cosmology. We first analyse the universal properties of many-body problem solution without any perturbative reduction and show that the emerging new quality of fundamental dynamic multivaluedness (or redundance) of resulting system configuration leads to universal concept of dynamic complexity, chaoticity and fractality of any real system behaviour. We then consider unified features of this complex dynamics. Applications of that universal description to systems at various complexity levels have been performed and in this paper we review those at the lowest, fundamental complexity levels leading to causal understanding of unified origins of quantum mechanics, relativity (special and general), elementary particles, their intrinsic prop...

  19. Plans and Preliminary Results of Fundamental Studies of Ice Crystal Icing Physics in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Bartkus, Tadas

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes plans and preliminary results for using the NASA Propulsion Systems Lab (PSL) to experimentally study the fundamental physics of ice-crystal ice accretion. NASA is evaluating whether this facility, in addition to full-engine and motor-driven-rig tests, can be used for more fundamental ice-accretion studies that simulate the different mixed-phase icing conditions along the core flow passage of a turbo-fan engine compressor. The data from such fundamental accretion tests will be used to help develop and validate models of the accretion process. This paper presents data from some preliminary testing performed in May 2015 which examined how a mixed-phase cloud could be generated at PSL using evaporative cooling in a warmer-than-freezing environment.

  20. Fundamental Studies of the Role of Grain Boundaries on Uniform Corrosion of Advanced Nuclear Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taheri, Mitra [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Marquis, Emmanuelle [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-05-20

    The main objective of this proposal is to develop fundamental understanding of the role of grain boundaries in stable oxide growth. To understand the process of oxide layer destabilization, it is necessary to observe the early stages of corrosion. During conventional studies in which a sample is exposed and examined after removal from the autoclave, the destabilization process will normally have already taken place, and is only examined post facto. To capture the instants of oxide destabilization, it is necessary to observe it in situ; however, significant questions always arise as to the influence of the corrosion geometry and conditions on the corrosion process. Thus, a combination of post facto examinations and in situ studies is proposed, which also combines state-of-the-art characterization techniques to derive a complete understanding of the destabilization process and the role of grain boundaries.

  1. CAS - CERN Accelerator School: Advanced Accelerator Physics Course

    CERN Document Server

    Herr, W

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the Course on Advanced Accelerator Physics organized by the CERN Accelerator School. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway from 18 to 29 August 2013, in collaboration with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Its syllabus was based on previous courses and in particular on the course held in Berlin 2003 whose proceedings were published as CERN Yellow Report CERN- 2006-002. The field has seen significant advances in recent years and some topics were presented in a new way and other topics were added. The lectures were supplemented with tutorials on key topics and 14 hours of hands on courses on Optics Design and Corrections, RF Measurement Techniques and Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics. These courses are a key element of the Advanced Level Course.

  2. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10

  3. A perfect time to harness advanced molecular technologies to explore the fundamental biology of Toxocara species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Robin B

    2013-04-15

    Toxocarosis is of major canine health and socioeconomic importance worldwide. Although many studies have given insights into toxocarosis, to date, there has been limited exploration of the molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, epidemiology and ecology of Toxocara species as well as parasite-host interactions using '-omic' technologies. The present article gives a background on Toxocara species and toxocarosis, describes molecular tools for specific identification and genetic analysis, and provides a prospective view of the benefits that advanced molecular technologies will have towards better understanding the parasites and disease. Tackling key biological questions employing a 'systems biology' approach should lead to new and improved strategies for the treatment, diagnosis and control of toxocarosis.

  4. Advances in graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysts for solar energy conversion: fundamentals and materials engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiuqiang; Kretschmer, Katja; Wang, Guoxiu

    2015-08-01

    Graphene-based semiconductor photocatalysis has been regarded as a promising technology for solar energy storage and conversion. In this review, we summarized recent developments of graphene-based photocatalysts, including preparation of graphene-based photocatalysts, typical key advances in the understanding of graphene functions for photocatalytic activity enhancement and methodologies to regulate the electron transfer efficiency in graphene-based composite photocatalysts, by which we hope to offer enriched information to harvest the utmost fascinating properties of graphene as a platform to construct efficient graphene-based composite photocatalysts for solar-to-energy conversion.

  5. Fundamental Research on Percussion Drilling: Improved rock mechanics analysis, advanced simulation technology, and full-scale laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-12-31

    This report summarizes the research efforts on the DOE supported research project Percussion Drilling (DE-FC26-03NT41999), which is to significantly advance the fundamental understandings of the physical mechanisms involved in combined percussion and rotary drilling, and thereby facilitate more efficient and lower cost drilling and exploration of hard-rock reservoirs. The project has been divided into multiple tasks: literature reviews, analytical and numerical modeling, full scale laboratory testing and model validation, and final report delivery. Literature reviews document the history, pros and cons, and rock failure physics of percussion drilling in oil and gas industries. Based on the current understandings, a conceptual drilling model is proposed for modeling efforts. Both analytical and numerical approaches are deployed to investigate drilling processes such as drillbit penetration with compression, rotation and percussion, rock response with stress propagation, damage accumulation and failure, and debris transportation inside the annulus after disintegrated from rock. For rock mechanics modeling, a dynamic numerical tool has been developed to describe rock damage and failure, including rock crushing by compressive bit load, rock fracturing by both shearing and tensile forces, and rock weakening by repetitive compression-tension loading. Besides multiple failure criteria, the tool also includes a damping algorithm to dissipate oscillation energy and a fatigue/damage algorithm to update rock properties during each impact. From the model, Rate of Penetration (ROP) and rock failure history can be estimated. For cuttings transport in annulus, a 3D numerical particle flowing model has been developed with aid of analytical approaches. The tool can simulate cuttings movement at particle scale under laminar or turbulent fluid flow conditions and evaluate the efficiency of cutting removal. To calibrate the modeling efforts, a series of full-scale fluid hammer

  6. Einstein Gravity Explorer–a medium-class fundamental physics mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiller, S.; Tino, G.M.; Gill, E.; et al.

    2008-01-01

    The Einstein Gravity Explorer mission (EGE) is devoted to a precise measurement of the properties of space-time using atomic clocks. It tests one of the most fundamental predictions of Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity, the gravitational redshift, and thereby searches for hints of quantum effe

  7. OSS (Outer Solar System): A fundamental and planetary physics mission to Neptune, Triton and the Kuiper Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe, Bruno; Spilker, Linda J.; Anderson, John D.; André, Nicolas; Asmar, Sami W.; Aurnou, Jonathan; Banfield, Don; Barucci, Antonella; Bertolami, Orfeu; Bingham, Robert; Brown, Patrick; Cecconi, Baptiste; Courty, Jean-Michel; Dittus, Hansjörg; Fletcher, Leigh N.

    2011-01-01

    The present OSS mission continues a long and bright tradition by associating the communities of fundamental physics and planetary sciences in a single mission with ambitious goals in both domains. OSS is an M-class mission to explore the Neptune system almost half a century after flyby of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. Several discoveries were made by Voyager 2, including the Great Dark Spot (which has now disappeared) and Triton's geysers. Voyager 2 revealed the dynamics of Neptune's atmosphere a...

  8. Fundamentals of Physics for Engineering I (problems proposed). Academic year 2014-2015

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Problems proposed: Course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image in Telecommunication Engineering. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante. Academic year 2014-2015.

  9. The Quest for a Fundamental Theory of Physics - Rise and Demise of the Field Paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Quite remarkably, the two physical theories that describe extremely well physical phenomena on the largest and smallest distance scales in our universe, viz. general relativity and quantum theory, respectively, are radically disparate. Both theories are now almost a century old and have passed with

  10. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - English subtitles

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…

  11. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu

    2011-01-01

    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  12. Advances and Applications of Rock Physics for Hydrocarbon Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle-Molina C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration of the geological and geophysical information with different scale and features is the key point to establish relationships between petrophysical and elastic characteristics of the rocks in the reservoir. It is very important to present the fundamentals and current methodologies of the rock physics analyses applied to hydrocarbons exploration among engineers and Mexican students. This work represents an effort to capacitate personnel of oil exploration through the revision of the subjects of rock physics. The main aim is to show updated improvements and applications of rock physics into seismology for exploration. Most of the methodologies presented in this document are related to the study the physical and geological mechanisms that impact on the elastic properties of the rock reservoirs based on rock specimens characterization and geophysical borehole information. Predictions of the rock properties (litology, porosity, fluid in the voids can be performed using 3D seismic data that shall be properly calibrated with experimental measurements in rock cores and seismic well log data

  13. Revisiting the fundamental physical chemistry in heterogeneous photocatalysis: its thermodynamics and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Bunsho

    2014-02-01

    Although the history of photocatalysis research is not so long, many researchers have studied photocatalysis and a large number of papers on photocatalysis have been published. The objectives of this review paper are to revisit the fundamentals of photocatalysis, especially its thermodynamics and kinetics, which have not been reexamined in recent studies, to clarify the problems, if any, that prevent developments in the field of photocatalysis, and to present insights for future progress.

  14. The Fundamental Principles of Existence and the Origin of Physical Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Grandpierre, A

    2002-01-01

    In this essay the ontological structure of reality is explored. The question of reducibility of biology to physics is considered in the context of their ultimate principles. It is shown that biology is an ontologically autonomous science and is based on its own, independent ultimate principle that is independent from that of physics. In the next step it is shown that self-consciousness represents a separate realm with its own, ontologically autonomous, ultimate principle. Understanding that reality is based on ultimate principles, a new possibility arises to interpret the origin of physical laws.

  15. The Fundamental Principles of the Universe and the Origin of Physical Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandpierre, Attila

    In this essay the ontological structure of reality is explored. The question of reducibility of biology to physics is considered in the context of their ultimate principles. It is shown that biology is an ontologically autonomous science and is based on its own, independent ultimate principle that is independent from that of physics. In the next step it is shown that self-consciousness represents a separate realm with its own, ontologically autonomous, ultimate principle. Understanding that reality is based on ultimate principles, a new possibility arises to interpret the origin of physical laws.

  16. Sarcopenia and physical function in overweight patients with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Carla M M; Lieffers, Jessica R; Bowthorpe, Lindsay; Baracos, Vickie E; Mourtzakis, Marina; McCargar, Linda J

    2013-01-01

    Advanced cancer is associated with numerous metabolic abnormalities that may lead to significant body composition changes, particularly muscle loss or sarcopenia. Sarcopenia in cancer has been associated with poor clinical outcomes, including poor physical function. Accurate tools to assess body composition are expensive and not readily available in clinical settings. Unfortunately, little is known about the efficacy of affordable and portable techniques to assess functional status in patients with cancer. We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with different portable and low-cost functional status measurement tools (i.e., handgrip strength testing, a two-minute walking test, and a self-report questionnaire) in overweight/obese patients (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m²) with advanced cancer. Twenty-eight patients (68% men) aged 64.5 ± 9.5 years with advanced lung or colorectal cancer were included. Sarcopenia was assessed by measuring appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) adjusted by height (ASM index), using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Approximately 36% of patients had sarcopenia. Average handgrip strength was greater in men without sarcopenia than in men with it (p=0.035). In men, ASM index was positively correlated with average (r=0.535, p=0.018) and peak handgrip strength (r=0.457, p=0.049). No differences were observed among female patients. Handgrip strength was associated with sarcopenia in male patients with advanced cancer, and therefore it may be used as a portable and simple nutritional screening tool.

  17. Emotions beyond the laboratory: theoretical fundaments, study design, and analytic strategies for advanced ambulatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Frank H; Grossman, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Questionnaire and interview assessment can provide reliable data on attitudes and self-perceptions on emotion, and experimental laboratory assessment can examine functional relations between stimuli and reactions under controlled conditions. On the other hand, ambulatory assessment is less constrained and provides naturalistic data on emotion in daily life, with the potential to (1) assure external validity of laboratory findings, (2) provide normative data on prevalence, quality and intensity of real-life emotion and associated processes, (3) characterize previously unidentified emotional phenomena, and (4) model real-life stimuli for representative laboratory research design. Technological innovations now allow for detailed ambulatory study of emotion across domains of subjective experience, overt behavior and physiology. However, methodological challenges abound that may compromise attempts to characterize biobehavioral aspects of emotion in the real world. For example, emotional effects can be masked by social engagement, mental and physical workloads, as well as by food intake and circadian and quasi-random variation in metabolic activity. The complexity of data streams and multitude of factors that influence them require a high degree of context specification for meaningful data interpretation. We consider possible solutions to typical and often overlooked issues related to ambulatory emotion research, including aspects of study design decisions, recording devices and channels, electronic diary implementation, and data analysis.

  18. Transitioning a Fundamental Research Program to Align with the NASA Exploration Initiative-Perspectives from Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2004-01-01

    A new Vision for Space Exploration was announced earlier this year by U.S. President George W. Bush. NASA has evaluated on-going programs for strategic alignment with this vision. The evaluation proceeded at a rapid pace and is resulting in changes to the scope and focus of experimental research that will be conducted in support of the new vision. The existing network of researchers in the physical sciences - a highly capable, independent, and loosely knitted community - typically have shared conclusions derived from their work within appropriate discipline-specific peer reviewed journals and publications. The initial result of introducing this Vision for Space Exploration has been to shift research focus from a broad coverage of numerous, widely varying topics into a research program focused on a nearly-singular set of supporting research objectives to enable advances in space exploration. Two of these traditional physical science research disciplines, Combustion Science and Fluid Physics, are implementing a course adjustment from a portfolio dominated by "Fundamental Science Research" to one focused nearly exclusively on supporting the Exploration Vision. Underlying scientific and engineering competencies and infrastructure of the Microgravity Combustion Science and Fluid Physics disciplines do provide essential research capabilities to support the contemporary thrusts of human life support, radiation countermeasures, human health, low gravity research for propulsion and materials and, ultimately, research conducted on the Moon and Mars. A perspective on how these two research disciplines responded to the course change will be presented. The relevance to the new NASA direction is provided, while demonstrating through two examples how the prior investment in fundamental research is being brought to bear on solving the issues confronting the successful implementation of the exploration goals.

  19. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Diercksen, Geerd

    1992-01-01

    This volume records the lectures given at a NATO Advanced Study Institute on Methods in Computational Molecular Physics held in Bad Windsheim, Germany, from 22nd July until 2nd. August, 1991. This NATO Advanced Study Institute sought to bridge the quite considerable gap which exist between the presentation of molecular electronic structure theory found in contemporary monographs such as, for example, McWeeny's Methods 0/ Molecular Quantum Mechanics (Academic Press, London, 1989) or Wilson's Electron correlation in moleeules (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1984) and the realization of the sophisticated computational algorithms required for their practical application. It sought to underline the relation between the electronic structure problem and the study of nuc1ear motion. Software for performing molecular electronic structure calculations is now being applied in an increasingly wide range of fields in both the academic and the commercial sectors. Numerous applications are reported in areas as diverse as catalysi...

  20. Developing Tutorials for Advanced Physics Students: Processes and Lessons Learned

    CERN Document Server

    Baily, Charles; Pollock, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    When education researchers describe newly developed curricular materials, they typically concentrate on the research base behind their design, and the efficacy of the final products, but do not highlight the initial stages of creating the actual materials. With the aim of providing useful information for faculty engaged in similar projects, we describe here our development of a set of in-class tutorials for advanced undergraduate electrodynamics students, and discuss factors that influenced their initial design and refinement. Among the obstacles to be overcome was the investigation of student difficulties within the short time frame of our project, and devising ways for students to engage in meaningful activities on advanced-level topics within a single 50-minute class period. We argue for a process that leverages faculty experience and classroom observations, and present several guidelines for tutorial development and implementation in upper-division physics classrooms.

  1. The CODEX-ESPRESSO experiment: cosmic dynamics, fundamental physics, planets and much more..

    CERN Document Server

    Cristiani, S; Bonifacio, P; Bouchy, F; Carswell, B; D'Odorico, S; D'Odorico, V; Delabre, B; Dekker, H; Dessauges, M; Dimarcantonio, P; Garcia-Lopez, R; Grazian, A; Haehnelt, M; Herreros, J M; Israelian, G; Levshakov, S; Liske, J; Lovis, C; Manescau, A; Martin, E; Mayor, M; Mégevand, D; Molaro, P; Murphy, M; Pasquini, L; Pepe, F; Pérez, J; Queloz, D; Rebolo, R; Santin, P; Shaver, P; Span, P; Udry, S; Vanzella, E; Viel, M; Zapatero, M R; Zerbi, F; Zucker, S

    2007-01-01

    CODEX, a high resolution, super-stable spectrograph to be fed by the E-ELT, the most powerful telescope ever conceived, will for the first time provide the possibility of directly measuring the change of the expansion rate of the Universe with time and much more, from the variability of fundamental constants to the search for other earths. A study for the implementation at the VLT of a precursor of CODEX, dubbed ESPRESSO, is presently carried out by a collaboration including ESO, IAC, INAF, IoA Cambridge and Observatoire de Geneve. The present talk is focused on the cosmological aspects of the experiment.

  2. The CODEX-ESPRESSO experiment: Cosmic dynamics, fundamental physics, planets and much more...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiani, S.; Avila, G.; Bonifacio, P.; Bouchy, F.; Carswell, B.; D'Odorico, S.; D'Odorico, V.; Delabre, B.; Dekker, H.; Dessauges, M.; Dimarcantonio, P.; Garcia-Lopez, R.; Grazian, A.; Haehnelt, M.; Herreros, J. M.; Israelian, G.; Levshakov, S.; Liske, J.; Lovis, C.; Manescau, A.; Martin, E.; Mayor, M.; Megevand, D.; Molaro, P.; Murphy, M.; Pasquini, L.; Pepe, F.; Perez, J.; Queloz, D.; Rebolo, R.; Santin, P.; Shaver, P.; Spanò, P.; Udry, S.; Vanzella, E.; Viel, M.; Zapatero, M. R.; Zerbi, F.; Zucker, S.

    2007-09-01

    CODEX, a high resolution, super-stable spectrograph to be fed by the E-ELT, the most powerful telescope ever conceived, will for the first time provide the possibility of directly measuring the change of the expansion rate of the Universe with time and much more, from the variability of fundamental constants to the search for other earths. A study for the implementation at the VLT of a precursor of CODEX, dubbed ESPRESSO, is presently carried out by a collaboration including ESO, IAC, INAF, IoA Cambridge and Observatoire de Geneve. The present talk is focused on the cosmological aspects of the experiment.

  3. Physical limitations and fundamental factors affecting performance of liquid crystal tunable lenses with concentric electrode rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Bryant, Doug; van Heugten, Tony; Bos, Philip J

    2013-03-20

    A comprehensive analysis of fundamental factors and their effects on the performance of liquid crystal (LC)-based lenses is given. The analysis adopts numerical LC director and electric field simulation, as well as scalar diffraction theory for calculating the lens performance considering different variable factors. A high-efficiency LC lens with concentric electrode rings is fabricated for verifying and enriching the analysis. The measurement results are in close agreement with the analysis, and a summary of key factors is given with their quantitative contributions to the efficiency.

  4. Fundamental neutron physics at a 1 MW long pulse spallation neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, G.L.

    1995-12-31

    Modern neutron sources and modern neutron science share a common origin in mid twentieth century scientific investigations concerned with the study of the fundamental interactions between elementary particles. Since the time of that common origin, neutron science and the study of elementary particles have evolved into quite disparate disciplines. The neutron became recognized as a powerful tool for the study of condensed matter with modern neutron sources being primarily used (and primarily justified) as tools for condensed matter research. The study of elementary particles has, of course, led to the development of rather different tools and is now dominated by activities carried out at extremely high energies. Notwithstanding this trend, the study of fundamental interactions using neutrons has continued and remains a vigorous activity at many contemporary neutron sources. This research, like neutron scattering research, has benefited enormously by the development of modern high flux neutron facilities. Future sources, particularly high power spallation sources, offer exciting possibilities for the continuation of this program of research.

  5. Revealing Fundamental Physics from the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment using Deep Neural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Racah, Evan; Sadowski, Peter; Bhimji, Wahid; Tull, Craig; Oh, Sang-Yun; Baldi, Pierre; Prabhat,

    2016-01-01

    Experiments in particle physics produce enormous quantities of data that must be analyzed and interpreted by teams of physicists. This analysis is often exploratory, where scientists are unable to enumerate the possible types of signal prior to performing the experiment. Thus, tools for summarizing, clustering, visualizing and classifying high-dimensional data are essential. In this work, we show that meaningful physical content can be revealed by transforming the raw data into a learned high-level representation using deep neural networks, with measurements taken at the Daya Bay Neutrino Experiment as a case study. We further show how convolutional deep neural networks can provide an effective classification filter with greater than 97% accuracy across different classes of physics events, significantly better than other machine learning approaches.

  6. Improving fundamental abilities of atomic force microscopy for investigating quantitative nanoscale physical properties of complex biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X.

    Measurements of local material properties of complex biological systems (e.g. live cells and viruses) in their respective physiological conditions are extremely important in the fields of biophysics, nanotechnology, material science, and nanomedicine. Yet, little is known about the structure-function-property relationship of live cells and viruses. In the case of live cells, the measurements of progressive variations in viscoelastic properties in vitro can provide insight to the mechanistic processes underpinning morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, motility, metastasis, and many more fundamental cellular processes. In the case of living viruses, the relationship between capsid structural framework and the role of the DNA molecule interaction within viruses influencing their stiffness, damping and electrostatic properties can shed light in virological processes like protein subunits assembly/dissassembly, maturation, and infection. The study of mechanics of live cells and viruses has been limited in part due to the lack of technology capable of acquiring high-resolution (nanoscale, subcellular) images of its heterogeneous material properties which vary widely depending on origin and physical interaction. The capabilities of the atomic force microscope (AFM) for measuring forces and topography with sub-nm precision have greatly contributed to research related to biophysics and biomechanics during the past two decades. AFM based biomechanical studies have the unique advantage of resolving/mapping spatially the local material properties over living cells and viruses. However, conventional AFM techniques such as force-volume and quasi-static force-distance curves are too low resolution and low speed to resolve interesting biophysical processes such as cytoskeletal dynamics for cells or assembly/dissasembly of viruses. To overcome this bottleneck, a novel atomic force microscopy mode is developed, that leads to sub-10-nm resolution and sub-15-minutes mapping of local

  7. Recent results and perspectives on cosmology and fundamental physics from microwave surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burigana, Carlo; Battistelli, Elia Stefano; Benetti, Micol

    2016-01-01

    surveys, and their cross-correlations are presented. Looking at fine signatures in the CMB, such as the lack of power at low multipoles, the primordial power spectrum (PPS) and the bounds on non-Gaussianities, complemented by galaxy surveys, we discuss inflationary physics and the generation of primordial...... perturbations in the early universe. Three important topics in particle physics, the bounds on neutrinos masses and parameters, on thermal axion mass and on the neutron lifetime derived from cosmological data are reviewed, with attention to the comparison with laboratory experiment results. Recent results from...

  8. Fundamental Principles of the Physics of Magnetism and the Problem of Localized and Itinerant Electronic States

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzemsky, A L

    2000-01-01

    Some of the remarkably and recently observed features of complex transition metal and rare-earth metal oxides, compounds and alloys concerning mainly of their magnetic behaviour are reviewed in the context of slow neutron scattering. These includes variety of the new class of materials with unusual properties: high Tc superconductors, heavy fermion compounds, perovskite manganites, magnetic d and f transition metals, diluted magnetic semiconductors, etc. Contrary to simple metals where the fundamentals very well known and the electrons can be represented in a way such that they weakly interact with each other, in these materials the electrons interact strongly and moreover their spectra are complex, i.e. have many branches, etc. The behaviour and the true nature of the electronic states are of central importance to the understanding of unusual transport and magnetic properties of this class of materials. We argue that interesting electronic and magnetic properties of these substances are intimately related wi...

  9. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  10. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of New Laser Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Arecchi, F; Mooradian, Aram; Sona, Alberto

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures and seminars presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Physics of New Laser Sources", the twelfth course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics, held under the supervision of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society. The Institute was held at Centro "I Cappuccini" San Miniato, Tuscany, July 11-21, 1984. The Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics was started in 1970 with the aim of providing instruction for young researchers and advanced students already engaged in the area of quantum electronics or for those wishing to switch into this area after working previously in other areas. From the outset, the School has been under the direction of Prof. F. T. Arecchi, then at the University of Pavia, now at the University of Florence, and Dr. D. Roess of Heraeus, Hanau. In 1981, Prof. H. Walther, University of Munich and Max-Planck Institut fur Quantenoptik joined as co-director. Each year the Directors choose a subj~ct of particular int...

  11. Recent results and perspectives on cosmology and fundamental physics from microwave surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Burigana, Carlo; Benetti, Micol; Cabass, Giovanni; De Bernardis, Paolo; Alighieri, Sperello Di Serego; Di Valentino, Eleonora; Gerbino, Martina; Giusarma, Elena; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Liguori, Michele; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Rosati, Piero; Salvati, Laura; Trombetti, Tiziana; Vielva, Patricio

    2016-01-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background data in temperature and polarization have reached high precision in estimating all the parameters that describe the current so-called standard cosmological model. Recent results about the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect from cosmic microwave background anisotropies, galaxy surveys, and their cross-correlations are presented. Looking at fine signatures in the cosmic microwave background, such as the lack of power at low multipoles, the primordial power spectrum and the bounds on non-Gaussianities, complemented by galaxy surveys, we discuss inflationary physics and the generation of primordial perturbations in the early Universe. Three important topics in particle physics, the bounds on neutrinos masses and parameters, on thermal axion mass and on the neutron lifetime derived from cosmological data are reviewed, with attention to the comparison with laboratory experiment results. Recent results from cosmic polarization rotation analyses aimed at testing the Einstein equivalence ...

  12. Fundamental Physics and Model Assumptions in Turbulent Combustion Models for Aerospace Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Mach number form of the thermal energy equation in order to capture the sub-grid heat release and the composition field. (Note that LEM uses the full...pressure- dilatation correlation in compressible flows, Phys. Fluids 4, 2674 1992. 42O. Zeman, Dilatation dissipation: The concept and application in...speeds – High pressures – Compressible physics - shocks, dilatation , baroclinic – Acoustics-combustion-turbulence interactions • Validation criteria

  13. The African School of Fundamental Physics and its Applications 2012 - French subtitles

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2012-01-01

    Quarante-neuf étudiants de 15 pays africains et un étudiant iranien participent actuellement à l’African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. Cette école, organisée pour la deuxième fois, constitue une occasion unique pour les étudiants africains de se former à la recherche de pointe en physique. Écoutons ce qu’ils en disent…

  14. Interactive fundamental physics. [Final report], April 15, 1992--November 14, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, E.L.

    1992-11-24

    THE REAL STUFF is an Expanded Media Physics Course aimed at students still in the formative early years of secondary school. Its consists of a working script for an interactive multimedia study unit in basic concepts of physics. The unit begins with a prologue on the Big Bang that sets the stage, and concludes with a lesson on Newton`s first law of motion. The format is interactive, placing the individual student in control of a layered ``hypermedia`` structure that enables him or her to find a level of detail and difficulty that is comfortable and meaningful. The intent is to make physics relevant, intellectually accessible and fun. On-screen presenters and demonstrators will be females and males of various ages, ethnicities and backgrounds, and will include celebrities and physicists of note. A lean, layered design encourages repeated, cumulative study and makes the material useful for self-directed Teaming even by college students. THE REAL STUFF introduces a new science teaching paradigm, a way to teach science that will engage even students who have ``declined`` to be interested in science in the past. Increased participation in science by women, African-Americans and Spanish-speaking students is a particular goal.

  15. Iron-oxide colloidal nanoclusters: from fundamental physical properties to diagnosis and therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Athanasia; Brintakis, Konstantinos; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Angelakeris, Mavroeidis; Vasilakaki, Marianna; Trohidou, Kalliopi; Douvalis, Alexios P.; Psycharakis, Stylianos; Ranella, Anthi; Manna, Liberato; Lappas, Alexandros

    2014-03-01

    Research on magnetic nanocrystals attracts wide-spread interest because of their challenging fundamental properties, but it is also driven by problems of practical importance to the society, ranging from electronics (e.g. magnetic recording) to biomedicine. In that respect, iron oxides are model functional materials as they adopt a variety of oxidation states and coordinations that facilitate their use. We show that a promising way to engineer further their technological potential in diagnosis and therapy is the assembly of primary nanocrystals into larger colloidal entities, possibly with increased structural complexity. In this context, elevated-temperature nanochemistry (c.f. based on a polyol approach) permitted us to develop size-tunable, low-cytotoxicity iron-oxide nanoclusters, entailing iso-oriented nanocrystals, with enhanced magnetization. Experimental (magnetometry, electron microscopy, Mössbauer and NMR spectroscopies) results supported by Monte Carlo simulations are reviewed to show that such assemblies of surface-functionalized iron oxide nanocrystals have a strong potential for innovation. The clusters' optimized magnetic anisotropy (including microscopic surface spin disorder) and weak ferrimagnetism at room temperature, while they do not undermine colloidal stability, endow them a profound advantage as efficient MRI contrast agents and hyperthermic mediators with important biomedical potential.

  16. Physics of the fundamental limits of nonlinear optics: A theoretical perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lytel, Rick

    2016-01-01

    The theory of the fundamental limits (TFL) of nonlinear optics is a powerful tool for experimentalists seeking to create molecules and materials with large responses, and for theorists who are seeking to understand how the basic elements of quantum theory delineate the boundaries within which these searches should be conducted. On a practical level, the TFL provides a metric for measuring the performance or 'goodness' of new molecules, relative to what is possible. Explorations of large sets of structures within the theory provide insight into new design rules for creating more active molecules. This article is a review of the TFL, starting with a history of its development and its first use to discover that all molecules as of the year 2000 fell a factor of 30 below the limits, and continuing to the present day where the theory continues to provide research opportunities and challenges. The review focuses on off-resonant nonlinear optics in order to sharply focus on the key elements of the TFL, but pointers ...

  17. Physics of the fundamental limits of nonlinear optics: a theoretical perspective [Invited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytel, Rick

    2016-12-01

    The theory of the fundamental limits (TFL) of nonlinear optics is a powerful tool for experimentalists seeking to create molecules and materials with large responses, and for theorists who are seeking to understand how the basic elements of quantum theory delineate the boundaries within which these searches should be conducted. On a practical level, the TFL provides a metric for measuring the performance or 'goodness' of new molecules, relative to what is possible. Explorations of large sets of structures within the theory provide insight into new design rules for creating more active molecules. This article is a review of the TFL, starting with a history of its development and its first use to discover that all molecules as of the year 2000 fell a factor of 30 below the limits, and continuing to the present day where the theory continues to provide research opportunities and challenges. The review focuses on off-resonant nonlinear optics in order to sharply focus on the key elements of the TFL, but pointers are provided to the literature for near- and on-resonance applications.

  18. Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance Physics Models For Diagnostics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The project will use high-fidelity physics models and simulations to simulate real-time operations of cryogenic and systems and calculate the status/health of the systems. The project enables the delivery of system health advisories to ground system operators. The capability will also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenic system operations. This project will develop and implement high-fidelity physics-based modeling techniques tosimulate the real-time operation of cryogenics and other fluids systems and, when compared to thereal-time operation of the actual systems, provide assessment of their state. Physics-modelcalculated measurements (called “pseudo-sensors”) will be compared to the system real-timedata. Comparison results will be utilized to provide systems operators with enhanced monitoring ofsystems' health and status, identify off-nominal trends and diagnose system/component failures.This capability can also be used to conduct planning and analysis of cryogenics and other fluidsystems designs. This capability will be interfaced with the ground operations command andcontrol system as a part of the Advanced Ground Systems Maintenance (AGSM) project to helpassure system availability and mission success. The initial capability will be developed for theLiquid Oxygen (LO2) ground loading systems.

  19. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Errard, Josquin; Peiris, Hiranya V; Jaffe, Andrew H

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the result...

  20. Recent results and perspectives on cosmology and fundamental physics from microwave surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burigana, Carlo; Battistelli, Elia Stefano; Benetti, Micol; Cabass, Giovanni; de Bernardis, Paolo; di Serego Alighieri, Sperello; di Valentino, Eleonora; Gerbino, Martina; Giusarma, Elena; Gruppuso, Alessandro; Liguori, Michele; Masi, Silvia; Norgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Rosati, Piero; Salvati, Laura; Trombetti, Tiziana; Vielva, Patricio

    2016-04-01

    Recent cosmic microwave background (CMB) data in temperature and polarization have reached high precision in estimating all the parameters that describe the current so-called standard cosmological model. Recent results about the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect from CMB anisotropies, galaxy surveys, and their cross-correlations are presented. Looking at fine signatures in the CMB, such as the lack of power at low multipoles, the primordial power spectrum (PPS) and the bounds on non-Gaussianities, complemented by galaxy surveys, we discuss inflationary physics and the generation of primordial perturbations in the early universe. Three important topics in particle physics, the bounds on neutrinos masses and parameters, on thermal axion mass and on the neutron lifetime derived from cosmological data are reviewed, with attention to the comparison with laboratory experiment results. Recent results from cosmic polarization rotation (CPR) analyses aimed at testing the Einstein equivalence principle (EEP) are presented. Finally, we discuss the perspectives of next radio facilities for the improvement of the analysis of future CMB spectral distortion experiments.

  1. The Neutron, a Tool and an Object for Fundamental and Nuclear Physics Studies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) is an international research institute which operates the currently most powerful source of neutrons in the world, a 58 MW reactor. The neutron beams provided by the reactor feed a broad range of instruments which are dedicated to a wide variety of research activities. The majority of instruments are dedicated to the study of solid-state physics, materials science, chemistry, the biosciences, and earth sciences. However, nuclear and low energy particle physics studies are also vigorously pursued with the aid of neutrons. The talk will mainly concentrate on this latter aspect. We make use of hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons with velocities of between a few kilometers and a few meters per second, corresponding to kinetic energies in the electronvolt-to-nanoelectronvolt range. It will be briefly discussed how thermal neutrons can be used to investigate the structure and behavior of nuclei by generating excited nuclear states. The main part of the talk will be dedicated...

  2. Fundamental and functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures with examples in physics, cell biology, and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalay, Ziya

    2011-08-01

    How small can a macroscopic object be made without losing its intended function? Obviously, the smallest possible size is determined by the size of an atom, but it is not so obvious how many atoms are required to assemble an object so small, and yet that performs the same function as its macroscopic counterpart. In this review, we are concerned with objects of intermediate nature, lying between the microscopic and the macroscopic world. In physics and chemistry literature, this regime in-between is often called mesoscopic, and is known to bear interesting and counterintuitive features. After a brief introduction to the concept of mesoscopic systems from the perspective of physics, we discuss the functional aspects of mesoscopic architectures in cell biology, and supramolecular chemistry through many examples from the literature. We argue that the biochemistry of the cell is largely regulated by mesoscopic functional architectures; however, the significance of mesoscopic phenomena seems to be quite underappreciated in biological sciences. With this motivation, one of our main purposes here is to emphasize the critical role that mesoscopic structures play in cell biology and biochemistry.

  3. Fundamentals of quantum physics. Textbook for students of science and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereyra Padilla, Pedro [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico City (Mexico). Fisica Teorica y Materia Condensada

    2012-07-01

    A clearly written basic textbook with a good balance between basic explanations and applications. Supplies new views on eigenvalues and eigenfunctions in quantum mechanics. Gives background needed to understand quantum cryptography, teleportation and computation. Provides a clear and consistent understanding of quantum concepts and quantum phenomenology. This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schroedinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, introduced at a tutorial level. This book is a textbook for upper undergraduate physics and electronic engineering students.

  4. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1981-December 1982. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-12-01

    This document is the twelfth Annual Report of our Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry Program. Scientifically, the work of the program deals with aspects of the physics and chemistry of molecules related to their interactions with photons, electrons, and other external agents. We chose these areas of study in view of our matic goals; that is to say, we chose them so that the eventual outcome of our work meets some of the needs of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and of other government agencies that support our research. First, we endeavor to determine theoretically and experimentally cross sections for electron and photon interactions with molecules, because those cross sections are indispensable for detailed microscopic analyses of the earliest processes of radiation action on any molecular substance, including biological materials. Those analyses in turn provide a sound basis for radiology and radiation dosimetry. Second, we study the spectroscopy of certain molecules and of small clusters of molecules because this topic is fundamental to the full understanding of atmospheric-pollutant chemistry.

  5. Fundamentals of Quantum Physics Textbook for Students of Science and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pereyra, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive course of quantum mechanics for undergraduate and graduate students. After a brief outline of the innovative ideas that lead up to the quantum theory, the book reviews properties of the Schrödinger equation, the quantization phenomena and the physical meaning of wave functions. The book discusses, in a direct and intelligible style, topics of the standard quantum formalism like the dynamical operators and their expected values, the Heisenberg and matrix representation, the approximate methods, the Dirac notation, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum and hydrogen atom, the spin-field and spin-orbit interactions, identical particles and Bose-Einstein condensation etc. Special emphasis is devoted to study the tunneling phenomena, transmission coefficients, phase coherence, energy levels splitting and related phenomena, of interest for quantum devices and heterostructures. The discussion of these problems and the WKB approximation is done using the transfer matrix method, intr...

  6. Comparison of fundamental physical properties of the model cells (protocells) and the living cells reveals the need in protophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    A hypothesis is proposed about potassium ponds being the cradles of life enriches the gamut of ideas about the possible conditions of pre-biological evolution on the primeval Earth, but does not bring us closer to solving the real problem of the origin of life. The gist of the matter lies in the mechanism of making a delimitation between two environments - the intracellular environment and the habitat of protocells. Since the sodium-potassium pump (Na+/K+-ATPase) was discovered, no molecular model has been proposed for a predecessor of the modern sodium pump. This has brought into life the idea of the potassium pond, wherein protocells would not need a sodium pump. However, current notions of the operation of living cells come into conflict with even physical laws when trying to use them to explain the origin and functioning of protocells. Thus, habitual explanations of the physical properties of living cells have become inapplicable to explain the corresponding properties of Sidney Fox's microspheres. Likewise, existing approaches to solving the problem of the origin of life do not see the need for the comparative study of living cells and cell models, assemblies of biological and artificial small molecules and macromolecules under physical conditions conducive to the origin of life. The time has come to conduct comprehensive research into the fundamental physical properties of protocells and create a new discipline - protocell physiology or protophysiology - which should bring us much closer to solving the problem of the origin of life.

  7. 2nd International Conference on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors, Physics and Technology, Fundamental and Applied Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Graul, Jürgen

    1971-01-01

    In recent years great progress has been made in the field of ion implantation, particularly with respect to applications in semiconductors. It would be impos­ sible not to note the growing interest in this field, both by research groups and those directly concerned with production of devices. Furthermore, as several papers have pointed out, ion implantation and its associated technologies promise exciting advances in the development of new kinds of devices and provide power­ ful new tools for materials investigations. It was, therefore, appropriate to arrange the II. International Conference on Ion Implantation in Semiconductors within the rather short time of one year since the first conference was held in 1970 in Thousand Oaks, California. Although ori­ ginally planned on a small scale with a very limited number of participants, more than two hundred scientists from 15 countries participated in the Conference which was held May 24 - 28, 1971 at the Congress Center in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. This volume c...

  8. Reflection on problem solving in introductory and advanced physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Andrew J.

    Reflection is essential in order to learn from problem solving. This thesis explores issues related to how reflective students are and how we can improve their capacity for reflection on problem solving. We investigate how students naturally reflect in their physics courses about problem solving and evaluate strategies that may teach them reflection as an integral component of problem-solving. Problem categorization based upon similarity of solution is a strategy to help them reflect about the deep features of the problems related to the physics principles involved. We find that there is a large overlap between the introductory and graduate students in their ability to categorize. Moreover, introductory students in the calculus-based courses performed better categorization than those in the algebra-based courses even though the categorization task is conceptual. Other investigations involved exploring if reflection could be taught as a skill on individual and group levels. Explicit self-diagnosis in recitation investigated how effectively students could diagnose their own errors on difficult problems, how much scaffolding was necessary for this purpose, and how effective transfer was to other problems employing similar principles. Difficulty in applying physical principles and difference between the self-diagnosed and transfer problems affected performance. We concluded that a sustained intervention is required to learn effective problem-solving strategies. Another study involving reflection on problem solving with peers suggests that those who reflected with peers drew more diagrams and had a larger gain from the midterm to final exam. Another study in quantum mechanics involved giving common problems in midterm and final exams and suggested that advanced students do not automatically reflect on their mistakes. Interviews revealed that even advanced students often focus mostly on exams rather than learning and building a robust knowledge structure. A survey was

  9. CAS course on Advanced Accelerator Physics in Warsaw

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ) recently organised a course on Advanced Accelerator Physics. The course was held in Warsaw, Poland from 27 September to 9 October 2015.    The course followed an established format with lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 34 lectures, supplemented by private study, tutorials and seminars. The practical courses provided ‘hands-on’ experience of three topics: ‘Beam Instrumentation and Diagnostics’, ‘RF Measurement Techniques’ and ‘Optics Design and Corrections’. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed their chosen topic throughout the duration of the school. Sixty-six students representing 18 nationalities attended this course, with most participants coming from European counties, but also from South Korea, Taiwan and Russia. Feedback from th...

  10. CAS course on advanced accelerator physics in Trondheim, Norway

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) recently organised a course on advanced accelerator physics. The course was held in Trondheim, Norway, from 18 to 29 August 2013. Accommodation and lectures were at the Hotel Britannia and practical courses were held at the university.   The course's format included lectures in the mornings and practical courses in the afternoons. The lecture programme consisted of 32 lectures supplemented by discussion sessions, private study and tutorials. The practical courses provided "hands-on" experience in three topics: RF measurement techniques, beam instrumentation and diagnostics, and optics design and corrections. Participants selected one of the three courses and followed the chosen topic throughout the course. The programme concluded with seminars and a poster session.  70 students representing 21 nationalities were selected from over 90 applicants, with most participa...

  11. The Relationships among Fundamental Motor Skills, Health-Related Physical Fitness, and Body Fatness in South Korean Adolescents with Mental Retardation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John T.; Harvey, Stephen; Chun, Hae-Ja; Kim, So-Yeun

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the relationships among the latent constructs of fundamental motor skills (FMS), health-related physical fitness (HRF), and observed body fatness in South Korean adolescents with mental retardation (MR); (b) the indirect effect of fundamental motor skills on body fatness when mediated by…

  12. Gamma-ray lines from neutron stars as probes of fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, K.

    1978-01-01

    The detection of gamma-ray lines produced at the surface of neutron stars will serve to test both the strong and gravitational interactions under conditions unavailable in terrestrial laboratories. Observation of a single redshifted gamma-ray line, combined with an estimate of the mass of the star will serve as a strong constraint on allowable equations of state of matter at supernuclear densities. Detection of two redshifted lines arising from different physical processes at the neutron star surface can provide a test of the strong principle of equivalence. Expected fluxes of nuclear gamma-ray lines from accreting neutron stars were calculated, including threshold, radiative transfer and redshift effects. The most promising probes of neutron star structure are the deuterium formation line and the positron annihilation line. Detection of sharp redshifted gamma-ray lines from X-ray sources such as Cyg X-1 would argue strongly in favor of a neutron star rather than black hole identification for the object.

  13. Fundamental Study to New Evaluation Method Based on Physical and Psychological Load in Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Inoue

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Japan and developed countries, it has become aged society, and wide variety welfare device or system have been developed. But these evaluation methods of welfare device or system are limited only stability, intensity and partial operability. Because of, it is not clear to determine the standard to evaluation for welfare device or system of usefulness. Therefore, we will attempt to establish the standard for evaluation about usefulness for objectively and quantitatively for including non-verbal cognition. We examine the relationship between human movements and brain activity, and consider the evaluation method of welfare devices and systems to measure the load and fatigue which were felt by human. In this paper, we measure the load for sitting and standing movement using NISR. We tried to make sure for the possibility of the quantitatively estimation for physical or psychological load or fatigue by measuring of brain activity using NIRS(Near Infra Red Spectroscopy. As results, when subjects perform the movement task, the statistical significant difference was shown in the specific part of the brain region.

  14. 64 International conference "NUCLEUS-2014" Fundamental problems of nuclear physics, atomic power engineering and nuclear technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Vlasnikov, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    Тезисы 64 международной конференции «ЯДРО-2014» (Фундаментальные проблемы ядерной физики, атомной энергетики и ядерных технологий), БГУ, Минск, 1 – 4 июля 2014 года. The scientific program of the conference covers almost all problems in nuclear physics and its applications such as: neutron-rich nuclei, nuclei far from stability valley, giant resonances, many-phonon and many-quasiparticle states in nuclei, high-spin and super-deformed states in nuclei, synthesis of super-heavy elements, ...

  15. Science with the ASTRI mini-array for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: blazars and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnoli, Giacomo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Giuliani, Andrea; Bigongiari, Ciro; Di Pierro, Federico; Stamerra, Antonio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Vercellone, Stefano; ASTRI Collaboration; CTA Consortium

    2016-05-01

    ASTRI (“Astronomia a Specchi con Tecnologia Replicante Italiana”) is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Research (MIUR), devoted to the realization, operation and scientific validation of an end-to-end prototype for the Small Size Telescope (SST) envisaged to become part of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The ASTRI SST-2M telescope prototype is characterized by a dual mirror, Schwarzschild-Couder optical design and a compact camera based on silicon photo-multipliers. It will be sensitive to multi-TeV very high energy (VHE) gamma rays up to 100 TeV, with a PSF ~ 6’ and a wide (9.6°) unaberrated optical field of view. Right after validation of the design in single-dish observations at the Serra La Nave site (Sicily, Italy) during 2015, the ASTRI collaboration will be able to start deployment, at the final CTA southern site, of the ASTRI mini-array, proposed to constitute the very first CTA precursor. Counting 9 ASTRI SST-2M telescopes, the ASTRI mini-array will overtake current IACT systems in differential sensitivity above 5 TeV, thus allowing unprecedented observations of known and predicted bright TeV emitters in this band, including some extragalactic sources such as extreme high-peaked BL Lacs with hard spectra. We exploited the ASTRI scientific simulator ASTRIsim in order to understand the feasibility of observations tackling blazar and cosmic ray physics, including discrimination of hadronic and leptonic scenarios for the VHE emission from BL Lac relativistic jets and indirect measurements of the intergalactic magnetic field and of the extragalactic background light. We selected favorable targets, outlining observation modes, exposure times, multi-wavelength coverage needed and the results expected. Moreover, the perspectives for observation of effects due to the existence of axion-like particles or to Lorentz invariance violations have been investigated.

  16. Possible determination of the physical parameters of the first living cells based on the fundamental physical constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2016-12-01

    Here is developed the hypothesis that the cell parameters of unicellular organisms (Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes) are determined by the gravitational constant (G, N.m2 /kg2), Planck constant (h, J.s) and growth rate of cells. By scaling analyses it was shown that the growth rate vgr(m/s) of unicellular bacteria and protozoa is relatively constant parameter, ranging in a narrow window of 10-12 - 10-10 m/s, in comparison to the diapason of cell mass, ranging 10 orders of magnitudes from 10-17 kg in bacteria to 10-7 kg in amoebas. By dimensional analyses it was shown that the combination between the growth rate of cells, gravitational constant and Planck constant gives equations with dimension of mass M(vgr)=(h.vgr/G)½ in kg, length L(v gr)=(hṡG/vgr3)1/2 in meter, time T(vgr)=(hṡG/vgr5)1/2 in seconds, and density ρ ((vgr)=vgr.3.5/hG2 in kg/m3 . For growth rate vgr in diapason of 1×10-11 m/s - 1×10-9.5 m/s the calculated numerical values for mass (3×10-18 -1×10-16 kg), length (5×10-8 -1×10-5 m), time (1×102 -1×106 s) and density (1×10-1 - 1×104 kg/m3) overlaps with diapason of experimentally measured values for cell mass (3×10-18 -1×10-15 kg), volume to surface ratio (1×10-7 -1×10-4 m), doubling time (1×103 -1×107 s), and density (1050 - 1300 kg/m3) in bacteria and protozoa. These equations show that appearance of the first living cells could be mutually connected to the physical constants.

  17. PREFACE: 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, Liliana; Britton, David; Glover, Nigel; Heinrich, Gudrun; Lauret, Jérôme; Naumann, Axel; Speer, Thomas; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    ACAT2011 This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 14th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2011) which took place on 5-7 September 2011 at Brunel University, UK. The workshop series, which began in 1990 in Lyon, France, brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields in order to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. It is a forum for the exchange of ideas among the fields, exploring and promoting cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques in fundamental physics research. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 100 participants from all over the world. 14 invited speakers presented key topics on computing ecosystems, cloud computing, multivariate data analysis, symbolic and automatic theoretical calculations as well as computing and data analysis challenges in astrophysics, bioinformatics and musicology. Over 80 other talks and posters presented state-of-the art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. Panel and round table discussions on data management and multivariate data analysis uncovered new ideas and collaboration opportunities in the respective areas. This edition of ACAT was generously sponsored by the Science and Technology Facility Council (STFC), the Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology (IPPP) at Durham University, Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA and Dell. We would like to thank all the participants of the workshop for the high level of their scientific contributions and for the enthusiastic participation in all its activities which were, ultimately, the key factors in the

  18. The associations among fundamental movement skills, self-reported physical activity and academic performance during junior high school in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Timo; Hillman, Charles; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the longitudinal associations between (1) fundamental movement skills (FMSs) and academic performance, and (2) self-reported physical activity and academic performance through junior high school in Finland. The participants of the study were 325 Finnish students (162 girls and 163 boys), who were 13 years old at the beginning of the study at Grade 7. Students performed three FMS tests and responded to a self-reported physical activity questionnaire at Grades 7 and 8. Marks in Finnish language, mathematics and history from Grades 7, 8 and 9 were collected. Structural equation modelling with multigroup method demonstrated that in the boys' group, a correlation (0.17) appeared between FMS and academic performance measured at Grade 7. The results also indicated that FMS collected at Grade 8 were significantly but weakly (path coefficient 0.14) associated with academic performance at Grade 9 for both gender groups. Finally, the results of this study demonstrated that self-reported physical activity was not significantly related to academic performance during junior high school. The findings of this study suggest that mastery of FMS may contribute to better student achievement during junior high school.

  19. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  20. From CODEX to ESPRESSO to HIRES@E-ELT: a view on cosmology and fundamental physics from the IGM perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiani, S.; Cupani, G.; D'Odorico, V.; Di Marcantonio, P.; Haehnelt, M.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Martins, C.; Mégevand, D.; Molaro, P.; Murphy, M. T.; Origlia, L.; Pepe, F.

    The Italian community, thanks to the strong technological and scientific tradition in the field of high-resolution spectroscopy and the study of the Intergalactic Medium, has played a key role in the conception of a high-resolution spectrograph for the new generation of giant telescopes (initially focused on the COsmic Dynamics EXperiment at OWL). This expertise is being exploited in the construction of a precursor: the ESPRESSO instrument that will start operations at the ESO VLT in 2017 and will pave the way to the HIRES instrument at the E-ELT. Here we discuss the role that the (evolving) scientific themes of cosmology and fundamental physics - from the Intergalactic Medium perspective - have played and are playing to shape the E-ELT high resolution instrument.

  1. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and novice understanding. Quantitative assessment is an important area in PER. Developing research-based effective assessment instruments and making meaningful inferences based on these instruments have always been important goals of the PER community. Quantitative studies are often conducted to provide bases for test development and result interpretation. Statistics are frequently used in quantitative studies. The selection of statistical methods and interpretation of the results obtained by these methods shall be connected to the education background. In this connecting process, the issues of educational models are often raised. Many widely used statistical methods do not make assumptions on the mental structure of subjects, nor do they provide explanations tailored to the educational audience. There are also other methods that consider the mental structure and are tailored to provide strong connections between statistics and education. These methods often involve model assumption and parameter estimation, and are complicated mathematically. The dissertation provides a practical view of some advanced quantitative assessment methods. The common feature of these methods is that they all make educational/psychological model assumptions beyond the minimum mathematical model. The purpose of the study is to provide a comparison between these advanced methods and the pure mathematical methods. The comparison is based on the performance of the two types of methods under physics education settings. In particular, the comparison uses both physics content assessments and scientific ability assessments. The dissertation includes three

  2. PET/CT: underlying physics, instrumentation, and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Espallardo, I

    2017-01-12

    Since it was first introduced, the main goal of PET/CT has been to provide both PET and CT images with high clinical quality and to present them to radiologists and specialists in nuclear medicine as a fused, perfectly aligned image. The use of fused PET and CT images quickly became routine in clinical practice, showing the great potential of these hybrid scanners. Thanks to this success, manufacturers have gone beyond considering CT as a mere attenuation corrector for PET, concentrating instead on design high performance PET and CT scanners with more interesting features. Since the first commercial PET/CT scanner became available in 2001, both the PET component and the CT component have improved immensely. In the case of PET, faster scintillation crystals with high stopping power such as LYSO crystals have enabled more sensitive devices to be built, making it possible to reduce the number of undesired coincidence events and to use time of flight (TOF) techniques. All these advances have improved lesion detection, especially in situations with very noisy backgrounds. Iterative reconstruction methods, together with the corrections carried out during the reconstruction and the use of the point-spread function, have improved image quality. In parallel, CT instrumentation has also improved significantly, and 64- and 128-row detectors have been incorporated into the most modern PET/CT scanners. This makes it possible to obtain high quality diagnostic anatomic images in a few seconds that both enable the correction of PET attenuation and provide information for diagnosis. Furthermore, nowadays nearly all PET/CT scanners have a system that modulates the dose of radiation that the patient is exposed to in the CT study in function of the region scanned. This article reviews the underlying physics of PET and CT imaging separately, describes the changes in the instrumentation and standard protocols in a combined PET/CT system, and finally points out the most important

  3. Fundamental Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, Hannu; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl Johan

    2007-01-01

    Fundamental Astronomy gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The fifth edition of this successful undergraduate textbook has been extensively modernized and extended in the parts dealing with the Milky Way, extragalactic astronomy and cosmology as well as with extrasolar planets and the solar system (as a consequence of recent results from satellite missions and the new definition by the International Astronomical Union of planets, dwarf planets and small solar-system bodies). Furthermore a new chapter on astrobiology has been added. Long considered a standard text for physical science majors, Fundamental Astronomy is also an excellent reference and entrée for dedicated amateur astronomers.

  4. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Catherine M. Capio; Cindy H.P. Sit; Kathlynne F. Egui; Bruce Abernethy; Richard S.W. Masters

    2015-01-01

    Background: A positive association between fundamental movement skills (FMS) and physical activity (PA) has been shown in previous research of children with and without disability. This pilot study explored a causal mechanism for such relationship, and hypothesized that when FMS proficiency is improved, enhanced PA uptake will be found in children with and without disability. It was further hypothesized that improving FMS proficiency will have a greater impact on children with disability than those without disability. Methods:Participants include typically developing (TD) children without disability and children with cerebral palsy (CP), who were allocated to FMS training groups (CP-FMS n=12, TD-FMS n=13) and control groups (CP-C n=12, TD-C n=13). Training groups practiced five FMS (run, jump, kick, throw, catch) in weekly 45-min sessions for 4 weeks. Control groups had their regular physiotherapy (CP) or physical education (TD) sessions. FMS were evaluated using process-and product-oriented measures, and PA was measured using accelerometers, before and after training. Results:It was verified that training groups gained improvements in FMS while control groups did not. No significant changes in weekday PA were found. Increased weekend moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was found in the CP-FMS group, while decreased weekend sedentary time was found in the CP-FMS and TD-FMS groups. The percentages of participants who exceeded the minimum detectable change (MDC90) in MVPA and sedentary time were larger in children with CP than in children without disability. Conclusion:The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  5. Advancing reservoir operation description in physically based hydrological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghileri, Daniela; Giudici, Federico; Castelletti, Andrea; Burlando, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Last decades have seen significant advances in our capacity of characterizing and reproducing hydrological processes within physically based models. Yet, when the human component is considered (e.g. reservoirs, water distribution systems), the associated decisions are generally modeled with very simplistic rules, which might underperform in reproducing the actual operators' behaviour on a daily or sub-daily basis. For example, reservoir operations are usually described by a target-level rule curve, which represents the level that the reservoir should track during normal operating conditions. The associated release decision is determined by the current state of the reservoir relative to the rule curve. This modeling approach can reasonably reproduce the seasonal water volume shift due to reservoir operation. Still, it cannot capture more complex decision making processes in response, e.g., to the fluctuations of energy prices and demands, the temporal unavailability of power plants or varying amount of snow accumulated in the basin. In this work, we link a physically explicit hydrological model with detailed hydropower behavioural models describing the decision making process by the dam operator. In particular, we consider two categories of behavioural models: explicit or rule-based behavioural models, where reservoir operating rules are empirically inferred from observational data, and implicit or optimization based behavioural models, where, following a normative economic approach, the decision maker is represented as a rational agent maximising a utility function. We compare these two alternate modelling approaches on the real-world water system of Lake Como catchment in the Italian Alps. The water system is characterized by the presence of 18 artificial hydropower reservoirs generating almost 13% of the Italian hydropower production. Results show to which extent the hydrological regime in the catchment is affected by different behavioural models and reservoir

  6. Advances in chemical physics, advancing theory for kinetics and dynamics of complex, many-dimensional systems clusters and proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Rice, Stuart A; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki; Berry, R Stephen; Leitner, David M; Rice, Stuart A; Berry, R Stephen Stephen; Leitner, David M M

    2011-01-01

    This series provides the chemical physics field with a forum for critical, authoritative evaluations of advances in every area of the discipline. Volume 145 in the series continues to report recent advances with significant, up-to-date chapters by internationally recognized researchers.

  7. Testing the Standard Model and Fundamental Symmetries in Nuclear Physics with Lattice QCD and Effective Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker-Loud, Andre [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2016-10-14

    The research supported by this grant is aimed at probing the limits of the Standard Model through precision low-energy nuclear physics. The work of the PI (AWL) and additional personnel is to provide theory input needed for a number of potentially high-impact experiments, notably, hadronic parity violation, Dark Matter direct detection and searches for permanent electric dipole moments (EDMs) in nucleons and nuclei. In all these examples, a quantitative understanding of low-energy nuclear physics from the fundamental theory of strong interactions, Quantum Chromo-Dynamics (QCD), is necessary to interpret the experimental results. The main theoretical tools used and developed in this work are the numerical solution to QCD known as lattice QCD (LQCD) and Effective Field Theory (EFT). This grant is supporting a new research program for the PI, and as such, needed to be developed from the ground up. Therefore, the first fiscal year of this grant, 08/01/2014-07/31/2015, has been spent predominantly establishing this new research effort. Very good progress has been made, although, at this time, there are not many publications to show for the effort. After one year, the PI accepted a job at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, so this final report covers just a single year of five years of the grant.

  8. [Aspheric optics: physical fundamentals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Büeler, M

    2008-03-01

    Especially regarding intraocular lenses and refractive corneal surgery, one finds numerous concepts on how to improve the optical quality of the human eye through aspheric optics. Aspheric optics consists of optical surfaces in which at least one surface (for example, the corneal surface) deviates from the spherical shape. An aspheric (that is, not spherical) surface enables the correction of aberrations, especially the spherical aberration, by freely shaping the optical surface. The optical aberrations of the human eye can theoretically be minimized through the use of aspheric optics; however, the results are always affected by the optical properties of the cornea and the lens. Aspheric intraocular lenses allow a reduction of postoperative spherical aberrations of the patient's eye, but an optimal individualized conformation can result only when the shape of the cornea (asphericity) is considered. By the same token, the ideal corneal asphericity after refractive surgery for an individual eye cannot be defined without knowing the optical properties of the intraocular structure. Theoretical observations of aspheric optics in refractive surgery show that with aspheric approaches, a higher optical quality for the human eye can be attained. These theoretical advantages must, however, prove themselves in everyday clinical routine.

  9. The Physics Basis For An Advanced Physics And Advanced Technology Tokamak Power Plant Configuration, ARIES-ACT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Kessel, et al

    2014-03-05

    The advanced physics and advanced technology tokamak power plant ARIES-ACT1 has a major radius of 6.25 m at aspect ratio of 4.0, toroidal field of 6.0 T, strong shaping with elongation of 2.2 and triangularity of 0.63. The broadest pressure cases reached wall stabilized βN ~ 5.75, limited by n=3 external kink mode requiring a conducting shell at b/a = 0.3, and requiring plasma rotation, feedback, and or kinetic stabilization. The medium pressure peaking case reached βN = 5.28 with BT = 6.75, while the peaked pressure case reaches βN < 5.15. Fast particle MHD stability shows that the alpha particles are unstable, but this leads to redistribution to larger minor radius rather than loss from the plasma. Edge and divertor plasma modeling show that about 75% of the power to the divertor can be radiated with an ITER-like divertor geometry, while over 95% can be radiated in a stable detached mode with an orthogonal target and wide slot geometry. The bootstrap current fraction is 91% with a q95 of 4.5, requiring about ~ 1.1 MA of external current drive. This current is supplied with 5 MW of ICRF/FW and 40 MW of LHCD. EC was examined and is most effective for safety factor control over ρ ~ 0.2-0.6 with 20 MW. The pedestal density is ~ 0.9x1020 /m3 and the temperature is ~ 4.4 keV. The H98 factor is 1.65, n/nGr = 1.0, and the net power to LH threshold power is 2.8- 3.0 in the flattop.

  10. TIMSS Advanced 2015 and Advanced Placement Calculus & Physics. A Framework Analysis. Research in Review 2016-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzaro, Christopher; Jones, Lee; Webb, David C.; Grover, Ryan; Di Giacomo, F. Tony; Marino, Katherine Adele

    2016-01-01

    This report will determine to what degree the AP Physics 1 and 2 and AP Calculus AB and BC frameworks are aligned with the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) Advanced Physics and Mathematics frameworks. This will enable an exploration of any differences in content coverage and levels of complexity, and will set the stage…

  11. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); McGrady, Sean [Univ. of New Brunswick, Fredericton NB (Canada); Severa, Godwin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Eliseo, Jennifer [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Chong, Marina [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2013-05-31

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH3), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH3 and γ-AlD3. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190 º C). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the

  12. Final Report: DE- FC36-05GO15063, Fundamental Studies of Advanced High-Capacity, Reversible Metal Hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Craig [University of Hawaii; McGrady, Sean [University of New Brunswick; Severa, Godwin [University of Hawaii; Eliseo, Jennifer [University of Hawaii; Chong, Marina [University of Hawaii

    2015-02-08

    The project was component of the US DOE, Metal Hydride Center of Excellence (MHCoE). The Sandia National Laboratory led center was established to conduct highly collaborative and multi-disciplinary applied R&D to develop new reversible hydrogen storage materials that meet or exceed DOE/FreedomCAR 2010 and 2015 system targets for hydrogen storage materials. Our approach entailed a wide variety of activities ranging from synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of new candidate hydrogen storage materials; screening of catalysts for high capacity materials requiring kinetics enhancement; development of low temperature methods for nano-confinement of hydrides and determining its effects on the kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrides; and development of novel processes for the direct re-hydrogenation of materials. These efforts have resulted in several advancements the development of hydrogen storage materials. We have greatly extended the fundamental knowledge about the highly promising hydrogen storage carrier, alane (AlH₃), by carrying out the first crystal structure determinations and the first determination of the heats of dehydrogenation of β–AlH₃ and γ-AlD₃. A low-temperature homogenous organometallic approach to incorporation of Al and Mg based hydrides into carbon aerogels has been developed that that allows high loadings without degradation of the nano-porous scaffold. Nano-confinement was found to significantly improve the dehydrogenation kinetics but not effect the enthalpy of dehydrogenation. We conceived, characterized, and synthesized a novel class of potential hydrogen storage materials, bimetallic borohydrides. These novel compounds were found to have many favorable properties including release of significant amounts of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (75-190ºC). However, in situ IR studies in tandem with thermal gravimetric analysis have shown that about 0.5 equivalents of diborane are released during the dehydrogenation making re

  13. Fundamentals of thermodynamics and applications with historical annotations and many citations from Avogadro to Zermelo

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    2009-01-01

    Here is a systematic introduction into the fundamental ideas of thermodynamics at a somewhat advanced level. The book details many applications of the theory in the fields of engineering, physics, chemistry, physical chemistry, and materials science.

  14. Time of flight of ultra-relativistic particles in a realistic Universe: a viable tool for fundamental physics?

    CERN Document Server

    Fanizza, G.; Marozzi, G.; Veneziano, G.

    2016-01-01

    Including the metric fluctuations of a realistic cosmological geometry we reconsider an earlier suggestion that measuring the relative time-of-flight of ultra-relativistic particles can provide interesting constraints on fundamental cosmological and/or particle parameters. Using convenient properties of the geodetic light-cone gauge we first compute, to leading order in the Lorentz factor and for a generic (inhomogeneous, anisotropic) space-time, the relative arrival times of two ultra-relativistic particles as a function of their masses and energies as well as of the details of the large-scale geometry. Remarkably, the result can be written as an integral over the unperturbed line-of-sight of a simple function of the local, inhomogeneous redshift. We then evaluate the irreducible scatter of the expected data-points due to first-order metric perturbations, and discuss, for an ideal source of ultra-relativistic particles, the resulting attainable precision on the determination of different physical parameters.

  15. Time of flight of ultra-relativistic particles in a realistic Universe: A viable tool for fundamental physics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanizza, G., E-mail: Giuseppe.Fanizza@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Via G. Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Gasperini, M., E-mail: maurizio.gasperini@ba.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Bari, Via G. Amendola 173, 70126 Bari (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Marozzi, G., E-mail: giovanni.marozzi@gmail.com [Université de Genève, Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, Urca, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Veneziano, G., E-mail: Gabriele.Veneziano@cern.ch [Collège de France, 11 Place M. Berthelot, 75005 Paris (France); CERN, Theory Unit, Physics Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma La Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-10

    Including the metric fluctuations of a realistic cosmological geometry we reconsider an earlier suggestion that measuring the relative time-of-flight of ultra-relativistic particles can provide interesting constraints on fundamental cosmological and/or particle parameters. Using convenient properties of the geodetic light-cone coordinates we first compute, to leading order in the Lorentz factor and for a generic (inhomogeneous, anisotropic) space–time, the relative arrival times of two ultra-relativistic particles as a function of their masses and energies as well as of the details of the large-scale geometry. Remarkably, the result can be written as an integral over the unperturbed line-of-sight of a simple function of the local, inhomogeneous redshift. We then evaluate the irreducible scatter of the expected data-points due to first-order metric perturbations, and discuss, for an ideal source of ultra-relativistic particles, the resulting attainable precision on the determination of different physical parameters.

  16. Who cares about physics today? A marketing strategy for the survival of fundamental science and the benefit of society

    CERN Document Server

    Cannella, Umberto

    2012-01-01

    It would seem that the present dry economic times impose a very precise focus for science in general and physics in particular: research, possibly of applied type. However in doing so two basic pillars of a healthy future for science are being undermined: fundamental research and public engagement. The first is what makes applications possible in the first place, many times with a path from inception to implementation that is as long and indirect as poorly advertised. The second pillar, public engagement, is mostly regarded as a commodity: if there is good level of funding scientists can consider spending money for public relations otherwise this is the first thing scientists cut because it is the least necessary. On the contrary, public engagement in science is very much needed, at the very least because the public is either an enemy or an ally, as testified respectively by the climate change denial and the 2009 Shuttle mission that people wanted in order to service the Hubble Space Telescope for the last ti...

  17. Whispering gallery states of neutrons and anti-hydrogen atoms and their applications to fundamental and surface physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvizhevsky, Valery

    2013-03-01

    The `whispering gallery' effect has been known since ancient times for sound waves in air, later in water and more recently for a broad range of electromagnetic waves: radio, optics, Roentgen and so on. It is intensively used and explored due to its numerous crucial applications. It consists of wave localization near a curved reflecting surface and is expected for waves of various natures, for instance, for neutrons and (anti)atoms. For (anti)matter waves, it includes a new feature: a massive particle is settled in quantum states, with parameters depending on its mass. In this talk, we present the first observation of the quantum whispering-gallery effect for matter particles (cold neutrons) 1-2. This phenomenon provides an example of an exactly solvable problem analogous to the `quantum bouncer'; it is complementary to recently discovered gravitational quantum states of neutrons3. These two phenomena provide a direct demonstration of the weak equivalence principle for a massive particle in a quantum state. Deeply bound long-living states are weakly sensitive to surface potential; highly excited short-living states are very sensitive to the wall nuclear potential shape. Therefore, they are a promising tool for studying fundamental neutron-matter interactions, quantum neutron optics and surface physics effects. Analogous phenomena could be measured with atoms and anti-atoms 4-5.

  18. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Nishio, Katsuhisa; Orlandi, Riccard; Sako, Hiroyuki; Pikuz, Tatiana A; Faenov, Anatory Ya; Esirkepov, Timur Zh; Pirozhkov, Alexander S; Matsukawa, Kenya; Sagisaka, Akito; Ogura, Koichi; Kanasaki, Masato; Kiriyama, Hiromitsu; Fukuda, Yuji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kando, Masaki; Yamauchi, Tomoya; Watanabe, Yukinobu; Bulanov, Sergei V; Kondo, Kiminori; Imai, Kenichi; Nagamiya, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of properties of exotic nuclei, essential for fundamental nuclear physics, now confronts a formidable challenge for contemporary radiofrequency accelerator technology. A promising option can be found in the combination of state-of-the-art high-intensity short pulse laser system and nuclear measurement techniques. We propose a novel Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method (LENex): a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly-charged nuclear reaction products. Here a proof-of-principle experiment of LENex is presented: a few hundred-terawatt laser focused onto an aluminum foil, with a small amount of iron simulating nuclear reaction products, extracts almost fully stripped iron nuclei and accelerate them up to 0.9 GeV. Our experiments and numerical simulations show that short-lived, heavy exotic nuclei, with a much larger charge-to-mass ratio than in conventional technology, can ...

  19. Near-Infrared Imaging of Early-Type Galaxies; 4, The Physical Origins of the Fundamental Plane Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Pahre, M A; Djorgovski, S G

    1998-01-01

    The physical origins of the Fundamental Plane (FP) scaling relations are investigated for early-type galaxies observed at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. The slope for the FP is shown to increase systematically with wavelength from the U-band through the K-band. A distance-independent construction of the observables is described which provides an accurate measurement of the change in the FP slope between any pair of bandpasses. The variation of the FP slope with wavelength is strong evidence of systematic variations in stellar content along the elliptical galaxy sequence. The intercept of the diagnostic relationship between log(D_K/D_V) and log(sigma_0) shows no significant dependence on environment within the uncertainties of the Galactic extinction corrections, demonstrating the universality of the stellar populations contributions at the level of Delta(V-K)=0.03 mag to the zero-point of the global scaling relations. Several other constraints on the properties of early-type galaxies --- the slope of ...

  20. Lasers and optoelectronics fundamentals, devices and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maini, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    With emphasis on the physical and engineering principles, this book provides a comprehensive and highly accessible treatment of modern lasers and optoelectronics. Divided into four parts, it explains laser fundamentals, types of lasers, laser electronics & optoelectronics, and laser applications, covering each of the topics in their entirety, from basic fundamentals to advanced concepts. Key features include: exploration of technological and application-related aspects of lasers and optoelectronics, detailing both existing and emerging applications in industry, medical diag

  1. Fundamentally updating fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gail; Barton, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Recent educational research indicates that the six competencies of the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses initiative are best introduced in early prelicensure clinical courses. Content specific to quality and safety has traditionally been covered in senior level courses. This article illustrates an effective approach to using quality and safety as an organizing framework for any prelicensure fundamentals of nursing course. Providing prelicensure students a strong foundation in quality and safety in an introductory clinical course facilitates early adoption of quality and safety competencies as core practice values.

  2. NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor for 3-D viscous code assessment and fundamental flow physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, M. D.; Wood, J. R.; Wasserbauer, C. A.

    1991-01-01

    A low speed centrifugal compressor facility recently built by the NASA Lewis Research Center is described. The purpose of this facility is to obtain detailed flow field measurements for computational fluid dynamic code assessment and flow physics modeling in support of Army and NASA efforts to advance small gas turbine engine technology. The facility is heavily instrumented with pressure and temperature probes, both in the stationary and rotating frames of reference, and has provisions for flow visualization and laser velocimetry. The facility will accommodate rotational speeds to 2400 rpm and is rated at pressures to 1.25 atm. The initial compressor stage being tested is geometrically and dynamically representative of modern high-performance centrifugal compressor stages with the exception of Mach number levels. Preliminary experimental investigations of inlet and exit flow uniformly and measurement repeatability are presented. These results demonstrate the high quality of the data which may be expected from this facility. The significance of synergism between computational fluid dynamic analysis and experimentation throughout the development of the low speed centrifugal compressor facility is demonstrated.

  3. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aart, I. van; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  4. Relations among basic psychological needs, PE-motivation and fundamental movement skills in 9–12-year-old boys and girls in Physical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9–12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades

  5. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry, June 1975--September 1976. [Summaries of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-01-01

    A summary of research activities in the fundamental molecular physics and chemistry section at Argonne National Laboratory from July 1975 to September 1976 is presented. Of the 40 articles and abstracts given, 24 have been presented at conferences or have been published and will be separately abstracted. Abstracts of the remaining 16 items appear in this issue of ERA. (JFP)

  6. The Development of Fundamental Motor Skills of Four- to Five-Year-Old Preschool Children and the Effects of a Preschool Physical Education Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iivonen, S.; Saakslahti, A.; Nissinen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Altogether 38 girls and 46 boys aged four to five years were studied to analyse the linear and non-linear development of fundamental motor skills. The children were grouped into one experimental and one control group to study the effects of an eight-month preschool physical education curriculum. In the course of one year, the balance skills of the…

  7. Relations among Basic Psychological Needs, PE-Motivation and Fundamental Movement Skills in 9-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aart, I.; Hartman, E.; Elferink-Gemser, M.; Mombarg, R.; Visscher, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Many children aged 9-12 appear to have low levels of fundamental movement skills (FMS). Physical education (PE) is important because PE-teachers can teach children a variety of FMS and can influence PE-motivation. However, declined levels of PE-motivation are reported in the final grades of elementary school. Therefore, more insight in…

  8. Advances in the physics basis for the European DEMO design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenninger, R.; Arbeiter, F.; Aubert, J.; Aho-Mantila, L.; Albanese, R.; Ambrosino, R.; Angioni, C.; Artaud, J.-F.; Bernert, M.; Fable, E.; Fasoli, A.; Federici, G.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Jenko, F.; Maget, P.; Mattei, M.; Maviglia, F.; Poli, E.; Ramogida, G.; Reux, C.; Schneider, M.; Sieglin, B.; Villone, F.; Wischmeier, M.; Zohm, H.

    2015-06-01

    In the European fusion roadmap, ITER is followed by a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO), for which a conceptual design is under development. This paper reports the first results of a coherent effort to develop the relevant physics knowledge for that (DEMO Physics Basis), carried out by European experts. The program currently includes investigations in the areas of scenario modeling, transport, MHD, heating & current drive, fast particles, plasma wall interaction and disruptions.

  9. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, David

    1991-01-01

    The explosion of the science of mesoscopic structures is having a great impact on physics and electrical engineering because of the possible applications of these structures in microelectronic and optoelectronic devices of the future. This volume of Solid State Physics consists of two comprehensive and authoritative articles that discuss most of the physical problems that have so far been identified as being of importance in semiconductor nanostructures. Much of the volume is tutorial in characture--while at the same time time presenting current and vital theoretical and experimental results and a copious reference list--so it will be essential reading to all those taking a part in the research and development of this emerging technology.

  10. Physics-based simulation models for EBSD: advances and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A.; Nolze, G.; Vos, M.; Salvat-Pujol, F.; Werner, W. S. M.

    2016-02-01

    EBSD has evolved into an effective tool for microstructure investigations in the scanning electron microscope. The purpose of this contribution is to give an overview of various simulation approaches for EBSD Kikuchi patterns and to discuss some of the underlying physical mechanisms.

  11. Solid state physics advances in research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrenreich, Henry

    1994-01-01

    The latest volume in the world renowned Solid State Physics series marks the fruition of Founding Editor David Turnbull''s outstanding tenure as series editor. Volume 47 presents five articles written by leadingexperts on areas including crystal-melt interfacial tension, order-disorder transformation in alloys, brittle matrix composites, surfaces and interfaces, and magnetoresistance.

  12. Advanced Quantitative Measurement Methodology in Physics Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2009-01-01

    The ultimate goal of physics education research (PER) is to develop a theoretical framework to understand and improve the learning process. In this journey of discovery, assessment serves as our headlamp and alpenstock. It sometimes detects signals in student mental structures, and sometimes presents the difference between expert understanding and…

  13. Recent advances in understanding physical properties of metallurgical slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Dong Joon; Tsukihashi, Fumitaka

    2017-01-01

    Present-day knowledge of the structure and physical properties of metallurgical slags is summarized to address structure-property and inter-property relationships. Physical properties of slags including viscosity, electrical conductivity, and surface tension is reviewed focusing on the effect of slag structure, which is comprehensively evaluated using FT-IT, Raman, and MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The effect of the slag composition on slag structure and property is reviewed in detail: Compositional effect encompasses traditional concepts of basicity, network-forming behaviors of anions, and secondary impact of network-modifying cations. Secondary objective of this review is elucidating the mutual relationship between physical properties of slags. For instance, the relationship between slag viscosity and electrical conductivity is suggested by Walden's rule and discussed based on the experimental results. Slag foaming index is also introduced as a comprehensive understanding method of physical properties of slags. The dimensional analysis was made to address the effect of viscosity, density, and surface tension on the foaming index of slags.

  14. 18th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The 18th edition of ACAT will bring together experts to explore and confront the boundaries of computing, automated data analysis, and theoretical calculation technologies, in particle and nuclear physics, astronomy and astrophysics, cosmology, accelerator science and beyond. ACAT provides a unique forum where these disciplines overlap with computer science, allowing for the exchange of ideas and the discussion of cutting-edge computing, data analysis and theoretical calculation technologies in fundamental physics research.

  15. Advanced physical-chemical life support systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanich, Peggy L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed NASA space research and technology development program will provide adequate data for designing closed loop life support systems for long-duration manned space missions. This program, referred to as the Pathfinder Physical-Chemical Closed Loop Life Support Program, is to identify and develop critical chemical engineering technologies for the closure of air and water loops within the spacecraft, surface habitats or mobility devices. Computerized simulation can be used both as a research and management tool. Validated models will guide the selection of the best known applicable processes and in the development of new processes. For the integration of the habitat system, a biological subsystem would be introduced to provide food production and to enhance the physical-chemical life support functions on an ever-increasing basis.

  16. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Molecular Physics and Hypersonic Flows bridges the gap between the fluid dynamics and molecular physics communities, emphasizing the role played by elementary processes in hypersonic flows. In particular, the work is primarily dedicated to filling the gap between microscopic and macroscopic treatments of the source terms to be inserted in the fluid dynamics codes. The first part of the book describes the molecular dynamics of elementary processes both in the gas phase and in the interaction with surfaces by using quantum mechanical and phenomenological approaches. A second group of contributions describes thermodynamics and transport properties of air components, with special attention to the transport of internal energy. A series of papers is devoted to the experimental and theoretical study of the flow of partially ionized gases. Subsequent contributions treat modern computational techniques for 3-D hypersonic flow. Non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics are then described, together with the coupling of vibra...

  17. Advanced reactor physics methods for heterogeneous reactor cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven A.

    To maintain the economic viability of nuclear power the industry has begun to emphasize maximizing the efficiency and output of existing nuclear power plants by using longer fuel cycles, stretch power uprates, shorter outage lengths, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel and more aggressive operating strategies. In order to accommodate these changes, while still satisfying the peaking factor and power envelope requirements necessary to maintain safe operation, more complexity in commercial core designs have been implemented, such as an increase in the number of sub-batches and an increase in the use of both discrete and integral burnable poisons. A consequence of the increased complexity of core designs, as well as the use of MOX fuel, is an increase in the neutronic heterogeneity of the core. Such heterogeneous cores introduce challenges for the current methods that are used for reactor analysis. New methods must be developed to address these deficiencies while still maintaining the computational efficiency of existing reactor analysis methods. In this thesis, advanced core design methodologies are developed to be able to adequately analyze the highly heterogeneous core designs which are currently in use in commercial power reactors. These methodological improvements are being pursued with the goal of not sacrificing the computational efficiency which core designers require. More specifically, the PSU nodal code NEM is being updated to include an SP3 solution option, an advanced transverse leakage option, and a semi-analytical NEM solution option.

  18. Magnetic Geometry and Physics of Advanced Divertors: The X-Divertor and the Snowflake

    CERN Document Server

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2013-01-01

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust - the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL). A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical "metric", the Divertor Index DI, that quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics - the Standard Divertor (SD, DI = 1), and two advanced geometries: the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (SFD, DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent NSTX and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes.

  19. Theoretical Advanced Study Institute in Elementary Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    The program will consist of a pedagogical series of lectures and seminars. Lectures will be given over a four-week period, three or four lectures per day, Monday through Friday. The audience will be composed primarily of advanced theoretical graduate students. Experimentalists with a strong background in theory are also encouraged to apply. Some post-doctoral fellows will be admitted, but preference will be given to applicants who will not have received their Ph.D. before 2017. The minimum background needed to get full benefit of TASI is a knowledge of quantum field theory (including RGEs) and familiarity with the Standard Model. Some familiarity with SUSY would be helpful. We hope to provide some subsidy, but students will need partial support from other sources. Rooms, meals, and access to all facilities will be provided at reasonable rates in beautifully located dormitories at the University of Colorado.

  20. An overview of the fundamentals of the chemistry of silica with relevance to biosilicification and technological advances

    OpenAIRE

    Belton, David J.; Deschaume, Olivier; Perry, Carole C.

    2012-01-01

    Biomineral formation is widespread in Nature and occurs in bacteria, single-celled protists, plants, invertebrates and vertebrates. Minerals formed in the biological environment often show unusual physical properties (e.g., strength, degree of hydration) and often have structures that exhibit order on many length scales. Biosilica, found in single cell organisms through to higher plants and primitive animals (sponges) is formed from an environment that is undersaturated with respect to silico...

  1. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physics of Submicron Semiconductor Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David; Jacoboni, C

    1988-01-01

    The papers contained in the volume represent lectures delivered as a 1983 NATO ASI, held at Urbino, Italy. The lecture series was designed to identify the key submicron and ultrasubmicron device physics, transport, materials and contact issues. Nonequilibrium transport, quantum transport, interfacial and size constraints issues were also highlighted. The ASI was supported by NATO and the European Research Office. H. L. Grubin D. K. Ferry C. Jacoboni v CONTENTS MODELLING OF SUB-MICRON DEVICES.................. .......... 1 E. Constant BOLTZMANN TRANSPORT EQUATION... ... ...... .................... 33 K. Hess TRANSPORT AND MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR SUBMICRON DEVICES. . .. . . . . .. . . . .. . .. . .... ... .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 45 H. L. Grubin EPITAXIAL GROWTH FOR SUB MICRON STRUCTURES.................. 179 C. E. C. Wood INSULATOR/SEMICONDUCTOR INTERFACES.......................... 195 C. W. Wilms en THEORY OF THE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF SEMICONDUCTOR SURFACES AND INTERFACES...................

  2. Fine coal circuitry using advanced physical cleaning processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Ho, K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carterville, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Recent investigations have found that enhanced gravity separators (EGS) and flotation columns are highly efficient for cleaning fine coal. The test results presented in this publication show that a circuit comprised of two advanced gravity separators, i.e., a hindered-bed classifier and an EGS, and a flotation column provides an enhanced cleaning efficiency for the treatment of {minus}16 mesh coal. From in-plant experiments, the hindered-bed classifier was found to be a more efficient separation device (E{sub p} = 0.12) than coal spirals (E{sub p} = 0.18) for the treatment of a nominally 16 x 100 mesh coal. Since its efficiency declines for particle sizes less than 48 mesh, the hindered-bed classifier overflow was screened to produce a final +48 mesh concentrate and a {minus}48 mesh fraction that was subsequently treated by circuits incorporating the EGS and flotation column in combination and separately. The best overall circuits in terms of both ash and total sulfur reductions for treating the -16 mesh coal was found to be the Hindered Bed-EGS-EGS and Hindered Bed-EGS-Column circuits. Both circuits rejected over 70% of the ash and over 60% of the pyritic sulfur while recovering over 85% of the combustible material.

  3. Cognitive Mapping of Advanced Level Physics Students' Conceptions of Quantum Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhadi, Azam; Woolnough, Brian

    This paper presents findings from a study that investigated students' understanding of quantum phenomena and focused on how students incorporate the ideas of quantum physics into their overall cognitive framework. The heuristic metaphor of the map is used to construct graphic representations of students' understanding of quantum physics. The…

  4. Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists Fundamental Principles and Applications for Biologists, Chemists, Computer Scientists, and Nanotechnologists

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghera, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Presenting quantum physics for the non-physicists, Quantum Physics for Scientists and Technologists is a self-contained, cohesive, concise, yet comprehensive, story of quantum physics from the fields of science and technology, including computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology. The authors explain the concepts and phenomena in a practical fashion with only a minimum amount of math. Examples from, and references to, computer science, biology, chemistry, and nanotechnology throughout the book make the material accessible to biologists, chemists, computer scientists, and non-techn

  5. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  6. Advances in computed radiography systems and their physical imaging characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, A R; Davies, A G; Kengyelics, S M

    2007-12-01

    Radiological imaging is progressing towards an all-digital future, across the spectrum of medical imaging techniques. Computed radiography (CR) has provided a ready pathway from screen film to digital radiography and a convenient entry point to PACS. This review briefly revisits the principles of modern CR systems and their physical imaging characteristics. Wide dynamic range and digital image enhancement are well-established benefits of CR, which lend themselves to improved image presentation and reduced rates of repeat exposures. However, in its original form CR offered limited scope for reducing the radiation dose per radiographic exposure, compared with screen film. Recent innovations in CR, including the use of dual-sided image readout and channelled storage phosphor have eased these concerns. For example, introduction of these technologies has improved detective quantum efficiency (DQE) by approximately 50 and 100%, respectively, compared with standard CR. As a result CR currently affords greater scope for reducing patient dose, and provides a more substantive challenge to the new solid-state, flat-panel, digital radiography detectors.

  7. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, October 1978-September 1979. Part I. Fundamental molecular physics and chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Research on the chemical physics of atoms and molecules, especially their interaction with external agents such as photons and electrons is reported. Abstracts of seven individual items from the report were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  8. BOOK REVIEW: New Understanding Physics for Advanced Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Jim

    2000-09-01

    Breithaupt's new book is big: at 727 pages, it will be a hefty addition to any student's bag. According to the preface, the book is designed to help students achieve the transition from GCSE to A-level and to succeed well at this level. It also aims to cover the requirements of the compulsory parts of all new syllabuses and to cover most of the optional material, too. The book is organized into seven themes along traditional lines: mechanics, materials, fields, waves, electricity, inside the atom, and physics in medicine. Each theme begins with a colourful title page that outlines what the theme is about, lists the applications that students will meet in their reading, identifies prior learning from GCSE and gives a checklist of what students should be able to do once they have finished their reading of the theme. This is all very useful. The text of the book is illustrated with many colourful photographs, pictures and cartoons, but despite this it looks very dense. There are a lot of words on every page in a small font that makes them seem very unfriendly, and although the book claims to be readable I rather doubt that the layout will encourage voluntary reading of the text. Each chapter ends with a useful summary and a selection of short questions that allow students to test their understanding. Each theme has a set of multiple choice and long questions. Some of the questions have an icon referring the student to the accompanying CD (more of this later). There is much up-to-date material in the book. For example, the section on cosmology gives a brief description of the inflationary scenario within the Big Bang model of the origin of the universe, although no mechanism for the inflation is given, which might prove unsatisfying to some students. I do have some reservations about the presentation of some topics within the book: the discussion of relativistic mass, for example, states that `Einstein showed that the mass ... is given by the formula ...' and quotes

  9. Where the girls aren't: High school girls and advanced placement physics enrollment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Susan O'brien

    During the high school years, when many students first have some choice in course selection, research indicates that girls choose to enroll in more math and science courses, take more advanced placement courses, and take more honors courses in English, biology, chemistry, mathematics, and foreign languages than ever before. Yet, not only are boys more likely to take all of the three core science courses (biology, chemistry, and physics), boys enroll in advanced placement physics approximately three times as often as do girls. This study examines the perceptions, attitudes, and aspirations of thirty high school girls enrolled in senior-level science electives in an attempt to understand their high school science course choices, and what factors were influencing them. This is a qualitative investigation employing constructivist grounded theory methods. There are two main contributions of this study. First, it presents a new conceptual and analytical framework to investigate the problem of why some high school girls do not enroll in physics coursework. This framework is grounded in the data and is comprised of three existing feminist perspectives along the liberal/radical continuum of feminist thought. Second, this study illuminates a complex set of reasons why participants avoided high school physics (particularly advanced placement physics) coursework. These reasons emerged as three broad categories related to: (a) a lack of connectedness with physics curriculum and instruction; (b) prior negative experiences with physics and math classroom climates; and (c) future academic goals and career aspirations. Taken together, the findings of this study indicate that the problem of high school girls and physics enrollment---particularly advanced placement physics enrollment---is a problem that cannot be evaluated or considered from one perspective.

  10. Mathematical Physics of Complex Coevolutionary Systems: Theoretical Advances and Applications to Multiscale Hydroclimate Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigão, Rui A. P.

    2016-04-01

    The fundamental stochastic-dynamic coevolution laws governing complex coevolutionary systems are introduced in a mathematical physics framework formally unifying nonlinear stochastic physics with fundamental deterministic interaction laws among spatiotemporally distributed processes. The methodological developments are then used to shed light onto fundamental interactions underlying complex spatiotemporal behaviour and emergence in multiscale hydroclimate dynamics. For this purpose, a mathematical physics framework is presented predicting evolving distributions of hydrologic quantities under nonlinearly coevolving geophysical processes. The functional formulation is grounded on first principles regulating the dynamics of each system constituent and their interactions, therefore its applicability is general and data-independent, not requiring local calibrations. Moreover, it enables the dynamical estimation of hydroclimatic variations in space and time from knowledge at different spatiotemporal conditions, along with the associated uncertainties. This paves the way for a robust physically based prediction of hydroclimatic changes in unsupervised areas (e.g. ungauged basins). Validation is achieved by producing, with the mathematical physics framework, a comprehensive spatiotemporal legacy consistent with the observed distributions along with their statistic-dynamic relations. The similarity between simulated and observed distributions is further assessed with novel robust nonlinear information-theoretic diagnostics. The present study brings to light emerging signatures of structural change in hydroclimate dynamics arising from nonlinear synergies across multiple spatiotemporal scales, and contributes to a better dynamical understanding and prediction of spatiotemporal regimes, transitions, structural changes and extremes in complex coevolutionary systems. This study further sheds light onto a diversity of emerging properties from harmonic to hyper-chaotic in general

  11. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  12. Modern measurements fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petri, D; Carbone, P; Catelani, M

    2015-01-01

    This book explores the modern role of measurement science for both the technically most advanced applications and in everyday and will help readers gain the necessary skills to specialize their knowledge for a specific field in measurement. Modern Measurements is divided into two parts. Part I (Fundamentals) presents a model of the modern measurement activity and the already recalled fundamental bricks. It starts with a general description that introduces these bricks and the uncertainty concept. The next chapters provide an overview of these bricks and finishes (Chapter 7) with a more general and complex model that encompasses both traditional (hard) measurements and (soft) measurements, aimed at quantifying non-physical concepts, such as quality, satisfaction, comfort, etc. Part II (Applications) is aimed at showing how the concepts presented in Part I can be usefully applied to design and implement measurements in some very impor ant and broad fields. The editors cover System Identification (Chapter 8...

  13. Proceedings of the 1992 topical meeting on advances in reactor physics. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This document, Volume 2, presents proceedings of the 1992 Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics on March 8--11, 1992 at Charleston, SC. Session topics were as follows: Transport Theory; Fast Reactors; Plant Analyzers; Integral Experiments/Measurements & Analysis; Core Computational Systems; Reactor Physics; Monte Carlo; Safety Aspects of Heavy Water Reactors; and Space-Time Core Kinetics. The individual reports have been cataloged separately. (FI)

  14. Probing the Scale of New Physics by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO

    CERN Document Server

    Dev, P S Bhupal

    2016-01-01

    We show that if the new physics beyond the Standard Model is associated with a first-order phase transition around $10^7$ GeV, the energy density stored in the resulting stochastic gravitational waves and the corresponding peak frequency are within the projected final sensitivity of the advanced LIGO/VIRGO detectors. We discuss some possible new physics scenarios that could arise at such energies, and in particular, the consequences for Peccei-Quinn and supersymmetry breaking scales.

  15. Fundamental movement skills training to promote physical activity in children with and without disability: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Capio

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings suggest that improved FMS proficiency could potentially contribute to heightened PA and decreased sedentary time during weekends for children. Such effect of improved FMS proficiency on PA appears to be greater in those with physical disability than in those without disability. It is recommended that the findings of this pilot study should be further examined in future research.

  16. Building an advanced climate model: Program plan for the CHAMMP (Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics) Climate Modeling Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The issue of global warming and related climatic changes from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has received prominent attention during the past few years. The Computer Hardware, Advanced Mathematics, and Model Physics (CHAMMP) Climate Modeling Program is designed to contribute directly to this rapid improvement. The goal of the CHAMMP Climate Modeling Program is to develop, verify, and apply a new generation of climate models within a coordinated framework that incorporates the best available scientific and numerical approaches to represent physical, biogeochemical, and ecological processes, that fully utilizes the hardware and software capabilities of new computer architectures, that probes the limits of climate predictability, and finally that can be used to address the challenging problem of understanding the greenhouse climate issue through the ability of the models to simulate time-dependent climatic changes over extended times and with regional resolution.

  17. How gender and reformed introductory physics impacts student success in advanced physics courses and continuation in the physics major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Potvin, Geoff; Kramer, Laird H.

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] Active-learning approaches to teaching introductory physics have been found to improve student learning and affective gains on short-term outcomes [S. Freeman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111, 8410 (2014)]; however, whether or not the benefits of active learning impact women to the same degree as men has been a point of concern [A. Madsen, S. B. McKagan, and E. C. Sayre, Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 9, 020121 (2013)]. Further, the long-term impacts of active-learning experiences are also understudied. At Florida International University, a Hispanic-majority institution, we have implemented Modeling Instruction (MI) and the Integrated Science Learning Environment (ISLE) in introductory physics classes for the past decade. In this empirical paper, we report on a longitudinal investigation of student performance and persistence in upper level physics courses after having previously experienced MI or ISLE in their introductory physics courses, and disaggregate students by gender. Using survival analysis methods, we find women who declare physics as a major are more likely than men to graduate with a physics degree. Women are also just as likely as men to pass through the upper division courses, with the highest failure risk for both men and women occurring in the first semester of upper-division course taking. These results reinforce the need to expand considerations of performance outcomes to be longitudinal to measure the effectiveness of the entire physics experience.

  18. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives.

  19. Nitride semiconductor devices fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Morkoç, Hadis

    2013-01-01

    This book gives a clear presentation of the necessary basics of semiconductor and device physics and engineering. It introduces readers to fundamental issues that will enable them to follow the latest technological research. It also covers important applications, including LED and lighting, semiconductor lasers, high power switching devices, and detectors. This balanced and up-to-date treatment makes the text an essential educational tool for both advanced students and professionals in the electronics industry.

  20. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  1. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  2. Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic nuclei extraction-acceleration for fundamental physics and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2016-04-01

    A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic nuclei properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic Nuclei extraction-acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged short-lived heavy exotic nuclei created in the target via nuclear reactions.

  3. Frontiers of Optical Spectroscopy Investigating Extreme Physical Conditions with Advanced Optical Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Baldassare

    2005-01-01

    Advanced spectroscopic techniques allow the probing of very small systems and very fast phenomena, conditions that can be considered "extreme" at the present status of our experimentation and knowledge. Quantum dots, nanocrystals and single molecules are examples of the former and events on the femtosecond scale examples of the latter. The purpose of this book is to examine the realm of phenomena of such extreme type and the techniques that permit their investigations. Each author has developed a coherent section of the program starting at a somewhat fundamental level and ultimately reaching the frontier of knowledge in the field in a systematic and didactic fashion. The formal lectures are complemented by additional seminars.

  4. Strategies for Advancing Women in Physics and other Sciences in an Undergraduate Hispanic Institution (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Idalia

    2009-04-01

    For the past 15 years, University of Puerto Rico at Humacao (UPRH) has implemented various efforts to increase participation and promote advancement of women in physics and other sciences. The strategies used include mentoring, collaborating, forming women's organizations, and offering training workshops. The physics program at UPRH is the largest in Puerto Rico with approximately 95 undergraduates. Since 1995, female students in the program have increased from 17% to 32%. Efforts to integrate women in undergraduate research as early as possible in their studies show promising results, with the percentage of women in research increasing from 13% to 60% in the last 13 years. The Faculty in Training (FIT) program, begun in 2003, has supported talented women students interested in academic careers. The first FIT physics student will obtain her PhD in 2009. At the faculty level, UPRH received a first-round US National Science Foundation ADVANCE Institutional Transformation Award in 2001. The ADVANCE legacy at UPRH is evident at levels ranging from changes in individual behaviors to the adoption of institutional policies. A strong network of women in science and their supporters continues to advance this legacy.

  5. Views of a devil`s advocate -- Fundamental challenges to effective field theory treatments of nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, T.D.

    1998-04-01

    The physics goals of the effective field theory program for nuclear phenomena are outlined. It is pointed out that there are multiple schemes for implementing EFT and it is presently not clear if any of these schemes is viable. Most of the applications of effective field theory ideas have been on nucleon-nucleon scattering. It is argued that this is little more than curve fitting and that other quantities need to be calculated to test the ideas. It is shown that EFT methods work well for certain bound state properties of the deuteron electric form factor. However, it is also shown that this success depends sensitively on the fact that the majority of the probability of the deuteron`s wave function is beyond the range of the potential. This circumstance is special to the deuteron suggesting that it will be very difficult to achieve the same kinds of success for tightly bound nuclei.

  6. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances: Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Harry W.K.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    This mini-course gives an introduction to the techniques used in experimental particle physics with an emphasis on the impact of technological advances. The basic detector types and particle accelerator facilities will be briefly covered with examples of their use and with comparisons. The mini-course ends with what can be expected in the near future from current technology advances. The mini-course is intended for graduate students and post-docs and as an introduction to experimental techniques for theorists.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, R.H.

    1997-04-25

    The goal of this project is engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. Its scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by design and construction of a 2 t/h process development unit (PDU). Large lots of clean coal are to be produced in the PDU from three project coals. Investigation of the near-term applicability of the two advanced fine coal cleaning processes in an existing coal preparation plant is another goal of the project and is the subject of this report.

  8. Reactor Physics and Criticality Benchmark Evaluations for Advanced Nuclear Fuel - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Anderson; James Tulenko; Bradley Rearden; Gary Harms

    2008-09-11

    The nuclear industry interest in advanced fuel and reactor design often drives towards fuel with uranium enrichments greater than 5 wt% 235U. Unfortunately, little data exists, in the form of reactor physics and criticality benchmarks, for uranium enrichments ranging between 5 and 10 wt% 235U. The primary purpose of this project is to provide benchmarks for fuel similar to what may be required for advanced light water reactors (LWRs). These experiments will ultimately provide additional information for application to the criticality-safety bases for commercial fuel facilities handling greater than 5 wt% 235U fuel.

  9. Organization of the advanced study of students of physical culture faculties of higher pedagogical institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods are considered teaching, stimulant independent creative and scientific work of students. The analysis of 10-years-old teaching work is conducted on the faculty of physical education on organization of the advanced study of students. Methods, arousal cognitive activity of students and their capacity for independent creative work, are offered. Analysable methods touch the features of presentation of printing phototypograph development of visual aids, methods of organization of the advanced study of students as integral system of institute of higher.

  10. The potential of the variable DA white dwarf G117-B15A as a tool for Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Corsico, A H; Althaus, L G; Isern, J; García-Berro, E

    1996-01-01

    White dwarfs are well studied objects. The relative simplicity of their physics allows to obtain very detailed models which can be ultimately compared with their observed properties. Among white dwarfs there is a specific class of stars, known as ZZ-Ceti objects, which have a hydrogen-rich envelope and show periodic variations in their light curves. G117-B15A belongs to this particular set of stars. The luminosity variations have been successfully explained as due to g-mode pulsations. G117-B15A has been recently claimed to be the most stable optical clock ever found, being the rate of change of its 215.2 s period very small: \\dot{P}= (2.3 +- 1.4)x10^{-15} s s^-1, with a stability comparable to that of the most stable millisecond pulsars. The rate of change of the period is closely related to its cooling timescale, which can be accurately computed. In this paper we study the pulsational properties of G117-B15A and we use the observed rate of change of the period to impose constraints on the axion emissivity a...

  11. Who cares about physics today? A marketing strategy for the survival of fundamental science and the benefit of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannella, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    It is often said that the major stumbling block for doing scientific outreach is money because of funding issues. Ignoring that the true issue is the lack of time and/or inclination on the part of practicing scientists, this statement is too generic to be quantitative or even complete: in fact, as for every project or investment, the discussion should be based on context and impact. Initiatives are at hand to do outreach that cost nothing more than the budget already in place for a University, its Departments and its scientific research groups: it is more a matter of capitalizing existing assets at a University in a concerted way and taking full advantage of these assets by means of synergetic collaborations. I will describe one such collaboration among the School of Dance and the Astronomy and Physics Departments at the University of Maryland: the dance performance ``Gravity,'' inspired by gravitational-wave astronomy. Similar types of partnerships represent new promising ways of doing science communications according to what can be rightly called a marketing strategy (http://arxiv.org.abs/1210.0082).

  12. I-Love-Q Relations in Neutron Stars and their Applications to Astrophysics, Gravitational Waves and Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Yagi, Kent

    2013-01-01

    The exterior gravitational field of a slowly-rotating neutron star can be characterized by its multipole moments, the first few being the neutron star mass, moment of inertia, and quadrupole moment. In principle, all of these quantities depend on the neutron star's internal structure, and thus, on unknown nuclear physics at supra-nuclear energy densities. We here find relations between the moment of inertia, the Love numbers and the quadrupole moment (I-Love-Q relations) that do not depend sensitively on the neutron star's internal structure. Such universality may arise for two reasons: (i) these relations depend most sensitively on the internal structure far from the core, where all realistic equations of state mostly approach each other; (ii) as the NS compactness increases, the I-Love-Q trio approaches that of a BH, which does not have an internal-structure dependence. Three important consequences derive from these I-Love-Q relations. On an observational astrophysics front, the measurement of a single memb...

  13. Fundamental Physics with the Hubble Frontier Fields: Constraining Dark Matter Models with the Abundance of Extremely Faint and Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menci, N.; Merle, A.; Totzauer, M.; Schneider, A.; Grazian, A.; Castellano, M.; Sanchez, N. G.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the measured abundance of ultra-faint lensed galaxies at z≈ 6 in the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) provides stringent constraints on the parameter space of (i) dark matter models based on keV sterile neutrinos; (ii) “fuzzy” wavelike dark matter models, based on Bose–Einstein condensates of ultra-light particles. For the case of sterile neutrinos, we consider two production mechanisms: resonant production through mixing with active neutrinos and the decay of scalar particles. For the former model, we derive constraints for the combination of sterile neutrino mass {m}ν and mixing parameter {\\sin }2(2θ ) which provide the tightest lower bounds on the mixing angle (and hence on the lepton asymmetry) derived so far by methods independent of baryonic physics. For the latter we compute the allowed combinations of the scalar mass, its coupling to the Higgs field, and the Yukawa coupling of scalar to sterile neutrinos. We compare our results to independent existing astrophysical bounds on sterile neutrinos in the same mass range. For the case of “fuzzy” dark matter, we show that the observed number density ≈ 1/{{Mpc}}3 of high-redshift galaxies in the HFF sets a lower limit {m}\\psi ≥slant 8\\cdot {10}-22 eV (at the 3-σ confidence level) on the particle mass, a result that strongly disfavors wavelike bosonic dark matter as a viable model for structure formation. We discuss the impact on our results of uncertainties due to systematics in the selection of highly magnified, faint galaxies at high redshift.

  14. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    P. Sphicas

    There have been three physics meetings since the last CMS week: “physics days” on March 27-29, the Physics/ Trigger week on April 23-27 and the most recent physics days on May 22-24. The main purpose of the March physics days was to finalize the list of “2007 analyses”, i.e. the few topics that the physics groups will concentrate on for the rest of this calendar year. The idea is to carry out a full physics exercise, with CMSSW, for select physics channels which test key features of the physics objects, or represent potential “day 1” physics topics that need to be addressed in advance. The list of these analyses was indeed completed and presented in the plenary meetings. As always, a significant amount of time was also spent in reviewing the status of the physics objects (reconstruction) as well as their usage in the High-Level Trigger (HLT). The major event of the past three months was the first “Physics/Trigger week” in Apri...

  15. Physics of thin films advances in research and development, v.6

    CERN Document Server

    Francombe, Maurice H

    1971-01-01

    Physics of Thin Films: Advances in Research and Development, Volume 6 reviews the rapid progress that has been made in research and development concerning the physics of thin films, with emphasis on metallic films. Topics covered include anodic oxide films, thin metal films and wires, and multilayer magnetic films. This volume is comprised of five chapters and begins with a discussion on the dielectric properties and the technique of plasma anodization which are relevant to the applications of anodic oxide films in electronic devices. Conduction, polarization, and dielectric breakdown effects

  16. Physical sciences and engineering advances in life sciences and oncology a WTEC global assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Fletcher, Daniel; Gerecht, Sharon; Levine, Ross; Mallick, Parag; McCarty, Owen; Munn, Lance; Reinhart-King, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an Assessment of Physical Sciences and Engineering Advances in Life Sciences and Oncology (APHELION) by a panel of experts. It covers the status and trends of applying physical sciences and engineering principles to oncology research in leading laboratories and organizations in Europe and Asia. The book elaborates on the six topics identified by the panel that have the greatest potential to advance understanding and treatment of cancer, each covered by a chapter in the book. The study was sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institute of Health (NIH), the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the NIH in the US under a cooperative agreement with the World Technology Evaluation Center (WTEC).

  17. DAWN (Design Assistant Workstation) for advanced physical-chemical life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mary R.; Cantwell, Elizabeth R.; Robinson, Peter I.; Shenk, Timothy W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a project supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (NASA-OAST) under the Advanced Life Support Development Program. It is an initial attempt to integrate artificial intelligence techniques (via expert systems) with conventional quantitative modeling tools for advanced physical-chemical life support systems. The addition of artificial intelligence techniques will assist the designer in the definition and simulation of loosely/well-defined life support processes/problems as well as assist in the capture of design knowledge, both quantitative and qualitative. Expert system and conventional modeling tools are integrated to provide a design workstation that assists the engineer/scientist in creating, evaluating, documenting and optimizing physical-chemical life support systems for short-term and extended duration missions.

  18. Conditions for building a community of practice in an advanced physics laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Irving, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the theory of communities of practice in the context of a physics college course and in particular the classroom environment of an advanced laboratory. We introduce the idea of elements of a classroom community being able to provide students with the opportunity to have an accelerated trajectory towards being a more central participant of the community of practice of physicists. This opportunity is a result of structural features of the course and a primary instructional choice which result in the development of a learning community with several elements that encourage students to engage in more authentic practices of a physicist. A jump in accountable disciplinary knowledge is also explored as a motivation for enculturation into the community of practice of physicists. In the advanced laboratory what students are being assessed on as counting as physics is significantly different and so they need to assimilate in order to succeed.

  19. Advances in Methane Activation Studies at Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Following successful implementation of selective oxida-tion of methane into methanol at low temperature (80℃) through setting up a circulating system of multiple electron pairs the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics (DICP) has made new stride in the fundamental research on direct acti-vation of methane. This institute by means of collaboration with the US West Pacific National Laboratory has acquired the complete information on the structure of active centers of solid catalysts with the relevant results published in the latest issue of Journal of American Chemical Society.

  20. Computational physics

    CERN Document Server

    Newman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    A complete introduction to the field of computational physics, with examples and exercises in the Python programming language. Computers play a central role in virtually every major physics discovery today, from astrophysics and particle physics to biophysics and condensed matter. This book explains the fundamentals of computational physics and describes in simple terms the techniques that every physicist should know, such as finite difference methods, numerical quadrature, and the fast Fourier transform. The book offers a complete introduction to the topic at the undergraduate level, and is also suitable for the advanced student or researcher who wants to learn the foundational elements of this important field.

  1. Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks: Advances and Future Trends in Physical, MAC and Routing Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Climent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current researchon underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communicationstack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art onthe physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threadsand surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances inunderwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and

  2. What is Fundamental?

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Discussing what is fundamental in a variety of fields, biologist Richard Dawkins, physicist Gerardus 't Hooft, and mathematician Alain Connes spoke to a packed Main Auditorium at CERN 15 October. Dawkins, Professor of the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University, explained simply the logic behind Darwinian natural selection, and how it would seem to apply anywhere in the universe that had the right conditions. 't Hooft, winner of the 1999 Physics Nobel Prize, outlined some of the main problems in physics today, and said he thinks physics is so fundamental that even alien scientists from another planet would likely come up with the same basic principles, such as relativity and quantum mechanics. Connes, winner of the 1982 Fields Medal (often called the Nobel Prize of Mathematics), explained how physics is different from mathematics, which he described as a "factory for concepts," unfettered by connection to the physical world. On 16 October, anthropologist Sharon Traweek shared anecdotes from her ...

  3. Physical fundamentals for the functional simulation of the ionization transmission chamber in X-ray diagnostics; Physikalische Grundlagen fuer die Funktionssimulation der Ionisations-Durchstrahlkammer in der Roentgendiagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Horst

    2012-11-01

    The presentation of the physical fundamentals for the functional simulation of the ionization transmission chamber in X-ray diagnostics covers the mathematical description of the interaction of photons with solid materials in Mote Carlo compliable way, including Rayleigh and Compton scattering and photoabsorption. The energy dependence of the emitted secondary electrons is described according the Coulomb and Moeller scattering theory. The simulation is aimed to determine the spectral electron flux density in the air-filled measuring space of the ionization chamber for the defined X-ray energy spectrum dependent on the voltage at the X-ray tube. The influence of geometry and materials on the spectral energy flux density provides hints for the construction of the ionization transmission chamber. The differential energy loss of the secondary electrons in air is determined allowing the calculation of the ionization rate. The ionization of air is described, providing the conditions for a linear relation between ionization rate and ionic current.

  4. Radiology fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Harjit

    2011-01-01

    ""Radiology Fundamentals"" is a concise introduction to the dynamic field of radiology for medical students, non-radiology house staff, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, radiology assistants, and other allied health professionals. The goal of the book is to provide readers with general examples and brief discussions of basic radiographic principles and to serve as a curriculum guide, supplementing a radiology education and providing a solid foundation for further learning. Introductory chapters provide readers with the fundamental scientific concepts underlying the medical use of imag

  5. Mathematical competencies and the role of mathematics in physics education: A trend analysis of TIMSS Advanced 1995 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trude Nilsen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As students advance in their learning of physics over the course of their education, the requirement of mathematical applications in physics-related tasks increases, especially so in upper secondary school and in higher education. Yet there is little empirical work (particularly large-scale or longitudinal on the application of mathematics in physics education compared with the research related to the conceptual knowledge of physics. In order to clarify the nature of mathematics in physics education, we developed a theoretical framework for mathematical competencies pertinent to various physics tasks based on theoretical frameworks from mathematics and physics education. We used this synthesis of frameworks as a basis to create a model for physics competence. The framework also served as a tool for analyzing and categorizing trend items from the international large-scale survey, TIMSS Advanced 1995 and 2008. TIMSS Advanced assessed students in upper secondary school with special preparation in advanced physics and mathematics. We then investigated the changes in achievements on these categorized items across time for nations who participated in both surveys. The results from our analysis indicate that students whose overall physics achievement declined struggled the most with items requiring mathematics, especially items requiring them to handle symbols, such as manipulating equations. This finding suggests the importance of collaboration between mathematics and physics education as well as the importance of traditional algebra for physics education.

  6. Mathematical competencies and the role of mathematics in physics education: A trend analysis of TIMSS Advanced 1995 and 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Trude Nilsen; Carl Angell; Liv Sissel Grønmo

    2013-01-01

    As students advance in their learning of physics over the course of their education, the requirement of mathematical applications in physics-related tasks increases, especially so in upper secondary school and in higher education. Yet there is little empirical work (particularly large-scale or longitudinal) on the application of mathematics in physics education compared with the research related to the c...

  7. Technical Basis for Physical Fidelity of NRC Control Room Training Simulators for Advanced Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minsk, Brian S.; Branch, Kristi M.; Bates, Edward K.; Mitchell, Mark R.; Gore, Bryan F.; Faris, Drury K.

    2009-10-09

    The objective of this study is to determine how simulator physical fidelity influences the effectiveness of training the regulatory personnel responsible for examination and oversight of operating personnel and inspection of technical systems at nuclear power reactors. It seeks to contribute to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) understanding of the physical fidelity requirements of training simulators. The goal of the study is to provide an analytic framework, data, and analyses that inform NRC decisions about the physical fidelity requirements of the simulators it will need to train its staff for assignment at advanced reactors. These staff are expected to come from increasingly diverse educational and experiential backgrounds.

  8. Laser-fundamentals and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinagl, W.

    1982-09-01

    The survey article gives an introduction to laser technology. Fundamentals and physical aspects are discussed at large. After a brief historical review and a discussion of the physical fundamentals, important types of laser, characteristics of laser radiation and its applications in medicine are discussed.

  9. Fundamental interactions involving neutrons and neutrinos: reactor-based studies led by Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute') [PNPI (NRC KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrov, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    Neutrons of very low energy ( ˜ 10-7 eV), commonly known as ultracold, are unique in that they can be stored in material and magnetic traps, thus enhancing methodical opportunities to conduct precision experiments and to probe the fundamentals of physics. One of the central problems of physics, of direct relevance to the formation of the Universe, is the violation of time invariance. Experiments searching for the nonzero neutron electric dipole moment serve as a time invariance test, and the use of ultracold neutrons provides very high measurement precision. Precision neutron lifetime measurements using ultracold neutrons are extremely important for checking ideas on the early formation of the Universe. This paper discusses problems that arise in studies using ultracold neutrons. Also discussed are the currently highly topical problem of sterile neutrinos and the search for reactor antineutrino oscillations at distances of 6-12 meters from the reactor core. The field reviewed is being investigated at multiple facilities globally. The present paper mainly concentrates on the results of PNPI-led studies at WWR-M PNPI (Gatchina), ILL (Grenoble), and SM-3 (Dimitrovgrad) reactors, and also covers the results obtained during preparation for research at the PIK reactor which is under construction.

  10. Configuration Spaces in Fundamental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2015-01-01

    I consider configuration spaces for $N$-body problems, gauge theories and for GR in both geometrodynamical and Ashtekar variables forms, including minisuperspace and inhomogeneous perturbations thereabout in the former case. These include many interesting spaces of shapes (with and without whichever of local or global notions of scale). In considering reduced configuration spaces, stratified manifolds arise. Three strategies to deal with these are `excise', `unfold' and `accept'. I show that spaces of triangles arising from various interpretations of 3-body problems already serve as model arena for all three. I furthermore argue in favour of the `accept' strategy on relational grounds. Sheaf methods then become relevant in this case, as does the stratifold construct that pairs some well-behaved stratified manifolds with sheaves. I apply arguing against `excise' and `unfold' to GR's superspace and thin sandwich, and to the removal of collinear configurations in mechanics. Non-redundant configurations are also ...

  11. Short animation movies as advance organizers in physics teaching: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscianski, André; João Ribeiro, Rafael; Carvalho Rutz da Silva, Sani

    2012-11-01

    Background : Advance organizers are instructional materials that help students use previous knowledge to make links with new information. Short animation movies are a possible format and are well suited for physics, as they can portray dynamic phenomena and represent abstract concepts. Purpose : The study aimed to determine guidelines for the construction of an instructional short animation movie, with the role of an advance organizer. A film was created in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the approach, making part of a physics lesson and concerning the subject 'moment of a force'. Sample : The study took place in a Brazilian school in the city of Arapoti, in the south region of the country. Thirty-eight students participated, having an average age of 16 and following the third year of high school. Design and methods : Criteria drawn from a literature review directed the construction of the movie and the lesson. Data were collected using pre- and post-tests; registers of oral comments were also done during the class. The post-test included open-ended questions, allowing students to write remarks concerning the lesson and the animation. Conclusions : The article describes steps and guidelines to orient the process of designing an animation movie with the role of advance organizer. Data indicated that the movie facilitated the construction of links between pre-existent knowledge and the new information presented in the lesson. The proposed methodology can be considered a valid framework to derive similar approaches.

  12. Integration of Advanced Probabilistic Analysis Techniques with Multi-Physics Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; none,; Flanagan, George F. [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P. [ORNL; Muhlheim, Michael David [ORNL

    2014-07-30

    An integrated simulation platform that couples probabilistic analysis-based tools with model-based simulation tools can provide valuable insights for reactive and proactive responses to plant operating conditions. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the benefits of a partial implementation of the Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) Detailed Framework Specification through the coupling of advanced PRA capabilities and accurate multi-physics plant models. Coupling a probabilistic model with a multi-physics model will aid in design, operations, and safety by providing a more accurate understanding of plant behavior. This represents the first attempt at actually integrating these two types of analyses for a control system used for operations, on a faster than real-time basis. This report documents the development of the basic communication capability to exchange data with the probabilistic model using Reliability Workbench (RWB) and the multi-physics model using Dymola. The communication pathways from injecting a fault (i.e., failing a component) to the probabilistic and multi-physics models were successfully completed. This first version was tested with prototypic models represented in both RWB and Modelica. First, a simple event tree/fault tree (ET/FT) model was created to develop the software code to implement the communication capabilities between the dynamic-link library (dll) and RWB. A program, written in C#, successfully communicates faults to the probabilistic model through the dll. A systems model of the Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor–Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (ALMR-PRISM) design developed under another DOE project was upgraded using Dymola to include proper interfaces to allow data exchange with the control application (ConApp). A program, written in C+, successfully communicates faults to the multi-physics model. The results of the example simulation were successfully plotted.

  13. Development of Advanced Suite of Deterministic Codes for VHTR Physics Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kang Seog; Cho, J. Y.; Lee, K. H. (and others)

    2007-07-15

    Advanced Suites of deterministic codes for VHTR physics analysis has been developed for detailed analysis of current and advanced reactor designs as part of a US-ROK collaborative I-NERI project. These code suites include the conventional 2-step procedure in which a few group constants are generated by a transport lattice calculation, and the reactor physics analysis is performed by a 3-dimensional diffusion calculation, and a whole core transport code that can model local heterogeneities directly at the core level. Particular modeling issues in physics analysis of the gas-cooled VHTRs were resolved, which include a double heterogeneity of the coated fuel particles, a neutron streaming in the coolant channels, a strong core-reflector interaction, and large spectrum shifts due to changes of the surrounding environment, temperature and burnup. And the geometry handling capability of the DeCART code were extended to deal with the hexagonal fuel elements of the VHTR core. The developed code suites were validated and verified by comparing the computational results with those of the Monte Carlo calculations for the benchmark problems.

  14. Fundamental Metallurgy of Solidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiedje, Niels

    2004-01-01

    The text takes the reader through some fundamental aspects of solidification, with focus on understanding the basic physics that govern solidification in casting and welding. It is described how the first solid is formed and which factors affect nucleation. It is described how crystals grow from ...

  15. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies: Froth flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    A study conducted by Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of sulfur emissions from about 1,300 United States coal-fired utility boilers indicated that half of the emissions were the result of burning coals having greater than 1.2 pounds of SO[sub 2] per million BTU. This was mainly attributed to the high pyritic sulfur content of the boiler fuel. A significant reduction in SO[sub 2] emissions could be accomplished by removing the pyrite from the coals by advanced physical fine coal cleaning. An engineering development project was prepared to build upon the basic research effort conducted under a solicitation for research into Fine Coal Surface Control. The engineering development project is intended to use general plant design knowledge and conceptualize a plant to utilize advanced froth flotation technology to process coal and produce a product having maximum practical pyritic sulfur reduction consistent with maximum practical BTU recovery.

  16. PREFACE: 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiong

    2014-06-01

    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 15th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2013) which took place on 16-21 May 2013 at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China. The workshop series brings together computer science researchers and practitioners, and researchers from particle physics and related fields to explore and confront the boundaries of computing and of automatic data analysis and theoretical calculation techniques. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 120 participants from all over the world. 18 invited speakers presented key topics on the universe in computer, Computing in Earth Sciences, multivariate data analysis, automated computation in Quantum Field Theory as well as computing and data analysis challenges in many fields. Over 70 other talks and posters presented state-of-the-art developments in the areas of the workshop's three tracks: Computing Technologies, Data Analysis Algorithms and Tools, and Computational Techniques in Theoretical Physics. The round table discussions on open-source, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration stimulate us to think over the issue in the respective areas. ACAT 2013 was generously sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), National Natural Science Foundation of China (NFSC), Brookhaven National Laboratory in the USA (BNL), Peking University (PKU), Theoretical Physics Cernter for Science facilities of CAS (TPCSF-CAS) and Sugon. We would like to thank all the participants for their scientific contributions and for the en- thusiastic participation in all its activities of the workshop. Further information on ACAT 2013 can be found at http://acat2013.ihep.ac.cn. Professor Jianxiong Wang Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Science Details of committees and sponsors are available in the PDF

  17. Underwater acoustic wireless sensor networks: advances and future trends in physical, MAC and routing layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, Salvador; Sanchez, Antonio; Capella, Juan Vicente; Meratnia, Nirvana; Serrano, Juan Jose

    2014-01-01

    This survey aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the current research on underwater wireless sensor networks, focusing on the lower layers of the communication stack, and envisions future trends and challenges. It analyzes the current state-of-the-art on the physical, medium access control and routing layers. It summarizes their security threads and surveys the currently proposed studies. Current envisioned niches for further advances in underwater networks research range from efficient, low-power algorithms and modulations to intelligent, energy-aware routing and medium access control protocols.

  18. The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

    2014-10-01

    Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  19. Interest and preferences for using advanced physical activity tracking devices: results of a national cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Guertler, Diana; Jennings, Cally; Duncan, Mitch J; Vandelanotte, Corneel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pedometers are an effective self-monitoring tool to increase users' physical activity. However, a range of advanced trackers that measure physical activity 24 hours per day have emerged (eg, Fitbit). The current study aims to determine people's current use, interest and preferences for advanced trackers. Design and participants A cross-sectional national telephone survey was conducted in Australia with 1349 respondents. Outcome measures Regression analyses were used to determine wh...

  20. Physical Properties of Nanosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Bonca, Janez

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in nanoscience have demonstrated that fundamentally new physical phenomena are found when systems are reduced to sizes comparable to the fundamental microscopic length scales of the material investigated. There has been great interest in this research due, in particular, to its role in the development of spintronics, molecular electronics and quantum information processing. The contributions to this volume describe new advances in many of these fundamental and fascinating areas of nanophysics, including carbon nanotubes, graphene, magnetic nanostructures, transport through coupled quantum dots, spintronics, molecular electronics, and quantum information processing.

  1. Marketing fundamentals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, W H

    2001-01-01

    This chapter outlines current marketing practice from a managerial perspective. The role of marketing within an organization is discussed in relation to efficiency and adaptation to changing environments. Fundamental terms and concepts are presented in an applied context. The implementation of marketing plans is organized around the four P's of marketing: product (or service), promotion (including advertising), place of delivery, and pricing. These are the tools with which marketers seek to better serve their clients and form the basis for competing with other organizations. Basic concepts of strategic relationship management are outlined. Lastly, alternate viewpoints on the role of advertising in healthcare markets are examined.

  2. Opportunities for Regenerative Rehabilitation and Advanced Technologies in Physical Therapy: Perspective From Academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norland, Ryan; Muchnick, Matthew; Harmon, Zachary; Chin, Tiffany; Kakar, Rumit Singh

    2016-04-01

    As rehabilitation specialists, physical therapists must continue to stay current with advances in technologies to provide appropriate rehabilitation protocols, improve patient outcomes, and be the preferred clinician of choice. To accomplish this vision, the physical therapy profession must begin to develop a culture of lifelong learning at the early stages of education and clinical training in order to embrace cutting-edge advancements such as stem cell therapies, tissue engineering, and robotics, to name a few. The purposes of this article are: (1) to provide a current perspective on faculty and graduate student awareness of regenerative rehabilitation concepts and (2) to advocate for increased integration of these emerging technologies within the doctor of physical therapy (DPT) curriculum. An online survey was designed to gauge awareness of principles in regenerative rehabilitation and to determine whether the topic was included and assessed in doctoral curricula. The survey yielded 1,006 responses from 82 DPT programs nationwide and indicated a disconnect in familiarity with the term "regenerative rehabilitation" and awareness of the inclusion of this material in the curriculum. To resolve this disconnect, the framework of the curriculum can be used to integrate new material via guest lecturers, interdisciplinary partnerships, and research opportunities. Successfully mentoring a generation of clinicians and rehabilitation scientists who incorporate new medical knowledge and technology into their own clinical and research practice depends greatly on sharing the responsibility among graduate students, professors, the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), and DPT programs. Creating an interdisciplinary culture and integrating regenerative medicine and rehabilitation concepts into the curriculum will cultivate individuals who will be advocates for interprofessional behaviors and will ensure that the profession meets the goals stated in APTA Vision 2020.

  3. PREFACE: 16th International workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in physics research (ACAT2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, L.; Lokajicek, M.; Tumova, N.

    2015-05-01

    This volume of the IOP Conference Series is dedicated to scientific contributions presented at the 16th International Workshop on Advanced Computing and Analysis Techniques in Physics Research (ACAT 2014), this year the motto was ''bridging disciplines''. The conference took place on September 1-5, 2014, at the Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. The 16th edition of ACAT explored the boundaries of computing system architectures, data analysis algorithmics, automatic calculations, and theoretical calculation technologies. It provided a forum for confronting and exchanging ideas among these fields, where new approaches in computing technologies for scientific research were explored and promoted. This year's edition of the workshop brought together over 140 participants from all over the world. The workshop's 16 invited speakers presented key topics on advanced computing and analysis techniques in physics. During the workshop, 60 talks and 40 posters were presented in three tracks: Computing Technology for Physics Research, Data Analysis - Algorithms and Tools, and Computations in Theoretical Physics: Techniques and Methods. The round table enabled discussions on expanding software, knowledge sharing and scientific collaboration in the respective areas. ACAT 2014 was generously sponsored by Western Digital, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Hewlett Packard, DataDirect Networks, M Computers, Bright Computing, Huawei and PDV-Systemhaus. Special appreciations go to the track liaisons Lorenzo Moneta, Axel Naumann and Grigory Rubtsov for their work on the scientific program and the publication preparation. ACAT's IACC would also like to express its gratitude to all referees for their work on making sure the contributions are published in the proceedings. Our thanks extend to the conference liaisons Andrei Kataev and Jerome Lauret who worked with the local contacts and made this conference possible as well as to the program

  4. Neutrons and Fundamental Symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Bradley [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-11

    The research supported by this project addressed fundamental open physics questions via experiments with subatomic particles. In particular, neutrons constitute an especially ideal “laboratory” for fundamental physics tests, as their sensitivities to the four known forces of nature permit a broad range of tests of the so-called “Standard Model”, our current best physics model for the interactions of subatomic particles. Although the Standard Model has been a triumphant success for physics, it does not provide satisfactory answers to some of the most fundamental open questions in physics, such as: are there additional forces of nature beyond the gravitational, electromagnetic, weak nuclear, and strong nuclear forces?, or why does our universe consist of more matter than anti-matter? This project also contributed significantly to the training of the next generation of scientists, of considerable value to the public. Young scientists, ranging from undergraduate students to graduate students to post-doctoral researchers, made significant contributions to the work carried out under this project.

  5. The UVES Large Program for Testing Fundamental Physics II: Constraints on a Change in {\\mu} Towards Quasar HE 0027-1836

    CERN Document Server

    Rahmani, H; Srianand, R; Noterdaeme, P; Petitjean, P; Molaro, P; Whitmore, J B; Murphy, M T; Centurion, M; Fathivavsari, H; D'Odorico, S; Evans, T M; Levshakov, S A; Lopez, S; Martins, C J A P; Reimers, D; Vladilo, G

    2013-01-01

    We present an accurate analysis of the H2 absorption lines from the zabs ~ 2.4018 damped Ly{\\alpha} system towards HE 0027-1836 observed with the Very Large Telescope Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (VLT/UVES) as a part of the European Southern Observatory Large Programme "The UVES large programme for testing fundamental physics" to constrain the variation of proton-to-electron mass ratio, {\\mu} = mp/me. We perform cross-correlation analysis between 19 individual exposures taken over three years and the combined spectrum to check the wavelength calibration stability. We notice the presence of a possible wavelength dependent velocity drift especially in the data taken in 2012. We use available asteroids spectra taken with UVES close to our observations to confirm and quantify this effect. We consider single and two component Voigt profiles to model the observed H2 absorption profiles. We use both linear regression analysis and Voigt profile fitting where {\\Delta}{\\mu}/{\\mu} is explicitly considered...

  6. X-Ray Comb Generation from Nuclear-Resonance-Stabilized X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Oscillator for Fundamental Physics and Precision Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, B. W.; Kim, K. -J.

    2015-03-31

    An x-ray free-electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is a next-generation x-ray source, similar to free-electron laser oscillators at VUV and longer wavelengths but using crystals as high-reflectivity x-ray mirrors. Each output pulse from an XFELO is fully coherent with high spectral purity. The temporal coherence length can further be increased drastically, from picoseconds to microseconds or even longer, by phase-locking successive XFELO output pulses, using the narrow nuclear resonance lines of nuclei such as Fe-57 as a reference. We show that the phase fluctuation due to the seismic activities is controllable and that due to spontaneous emission is small. The fluctuation of electron-bunch spacing contributes mainly to the envelope fluctuation but not to the phase fluctuation. By counting the number of standing-wave maxima formed by the output of the nuclear-resonance-stabilized (NRS) XFELO over an optically known length, the wavelength of the nuclear resonance can be accurately measured, possibly leading to a new length or frequency standard at x-ray wavelengths. A NRS-XFELO will be an ideal source for experimental x-ray quantum optics as well as other fundamental physics. The technique can be refined for other, narrower resonances such as Ta-181 or Sc-45.

  7. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-08-28

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction and operation of 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). This report represents the findings of the PDU Advanced Column Flotation Testing and Evaluation phase of the program and includes a discussion of the design and construction of the PDU. Three compliance steam coals, Taggart, Indiana VII and Hiawatha, were processed in the PDU to determine performance and design parameters for commercial production of premium fuel by advanced flotation. Consistent, reliable performance of the PDU was demonstrated by 72-hr production runs on each of the test coals. Its capacity generally was limited by the dewatering capacity of the clean coal filters during the production runs rather than by the flotation capacity of the Microcel column. The residual concentrations of As, Pb, and Cl were reduced by at least 25% on a heating value basis from their concentrations in the test coals. The reduction in the concentrations of Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Mn, Hg, Ni and Se varied from coal to coal but the concentrations of most were greatly reduced from the concentrations in the ROM parent coals. The ash fusion temperatures of the Taggart and Indiana VII coals, and to a much lesser extent the Hiawatha coal, were decreased by the cleaning.

  8. Advanced Mesh-Enabled Monte carlo capability for Multi-Physics Reactor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Paul; Evans, Thomas; Tautges, Tim

    2012-12-24

    This project will accumulate high-precision fluxes throughout reactor geometry on a non- orthogonal grid of cells to support multi-physics coupling, in order to more accurately calculate parameters such as reactivity coefficients and to generate multi-group cross sections. This work will be based upon recent developments to incorporate advanced geometry and mesh capability in a modular Monte Carlo toolkit with computational science technology that is in use in related reactor simulation software development. Coupling this capability with production-scale Monte Carlo radiation transport codes can provide advanced and extensible test-beds for these developments. Continuous energy Monte Carlo methods are generally considered to be the most accurate computational tool for simulating radiation transport in complex geometries, particularly neutron transport in reactors. Nevertheless, there are several limitations for their use in reactor analysis. Most significantly, there is a trade-off between the fidelity of results in phase space, statistical accuracy, and the amount of computer time required for simulation. Consequently, to achieve an acceptable level of statistical convergence in high-fidelity results required for modern coupled multi-physics analysis, the required computer time makes Monte Carlo methods prohibitive for design iterations and detailed whole-core analysis. More subtly, the statistical uncertainty is typically not uniform throughout the domain, and the simulation quality is limited by the regions with the largest statistical uncertainty. In addition, the formulation of neutron scattering laws in continuous energy Monte Carlo methods makes it difficult to calculate adjoint neutron fluxes required to properly determine important reactivity parameters. Finally, most Monte Carlo codes available for reactor analysis have relied on orthogonal hexahedral grids for tallies that do not conform to the geometric boundaries and are thus generally not well

  9. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  10. Infrared thermal imaging fundamentals, research and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This richly illustrated hands-on guide is designed for researchers, teachers and practitioners. The huge selection of examples taken from science, basic teaching of physics, practical applications in industry and a variety of other disciplines spanning the range from medicine to volcano research allows readers to pick those that come closest to their own individual task at hand. Following a look at the fundamentals of IR thermal imaging, properties of the imaging systems, as well as basic and advanced methods, the book goes on to discuss IR imaging applications in teaching, research and indust

  11. Mathematics for natural scientists fundamentals and basics

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-01-01

    This book, the first in a two part series, covers a course of mathematics tailored specifically for physics, engineering and chemistry students at the undergraduate level. It is unique in that it begins with logical concepts of mathematics first encountered at A-level and covers them in thorough detail, filling in the gaps in students' knowledge and reasoning. Then the book aids the leap between A-level and university-level mathematics, with complete proofs provided throughout and all complex mathematical concepts and techniques presented in a clear and transparent manner. Numerous examples and problems (with answers) are given for each section and, where appropriate, mathematical concepts are illustrated in a physics context. This text gives an invaluable foundation to students and a comprehensive aid to lecturers. Mathematics for Natural Scientists: Fundamentals and Basics is the first of two volumes. Advanced topics and their applications in physics are covered in the second volume.

  12. Plasma Astrophysics, Part I Fundamentals and Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2006-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  13. Fundamental astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kröger, Pekka; Oja, Heikki; Poutanen, Markku; Donner, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Now in its sixth edition this successful undergraduate textbook gives a well-balanced and comprehensive introduction to the topics of classical and modern astronomy. While emphasizing both the astronomical concepts and the underlying physical principles, the text provides a sound basis for more profound studies in the astronomical sciences. The chapters on galactic and extragalactic astronomy as well as cosmology were extensively modernized in the previous edition. In this new edition they have been further revised to include more recent results. The long chapter on the solar system has been split into two parts: the first one deals with the general properties, and the other one describes individual objects. A new chapter on exoplanets has been added to the end of the book next to the chapter on astrobiology. In response to the fact that astronomy has evolved enormously over the last few years, only a few chapters of this book have been left unmodified. Long considered a standard text for physical science maj...

  14. Fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wittkowski, M

    2004-01-01

    I present a discussion of fundamental stellar parameters and their observational determination in the context of interferometric measurements with current and future optical/infrared interferometric facilities. Stellar parameters and the importance of their determination for stellar physics are discussed. One of the primary uses of interferometry in the field of stellar physics is the measurement of the intensity profile across the stellar disk, both as a function of position angle and of wavelength. High-precision fundamental stellar parameters are also derived by characterizations of binary and multiple system using interferometric observations. This topic is discussed in detail elsewhere in these proceedings. Comparison of observed spectrally dispersed center-to-limb intensity variations with models of stellar atmospheres and stellar evolution may result in an improved understanding of key phenomena in stellar astrophysics such as the precise evolutionary effects on the main sequence, the evolution of meta...

  15. PREFACE: FLUIDOS 2010: XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Italo; Cabeza, Cecilia; Martí, Arturo C.; Sarasúa, Gustavo

    2011-04-01

    The papers published in this volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series were selected from the manuscripts submitted to the XI Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications (FLUIDOS2010), which was held in Colonia del Sacramento, Uruguay, 3-5 November 2010. FLUIDOS takes place every two years, usually in November, with the aim of gathering together researchers from all areas of the Physics of Fluids, to update themselves on the latest technical developments and applications, share knowledge and stimulate new ideas. This 11th meeting continues the successful experience of the previous ones which were held in different Argentinian cities. For the first time, the meeting was celebrated in Uruguay, more specifically, in the peaceful town of Colonia del Sacramento, designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. The conference presented an outstanding program of papers covering the most recent advances in Physics of Fluids in the following areas: General Fluid Dynamics General and non-Newtonian Flows Magnetohydrodynamics Electrohydrodynamics and Plasmas Hydraulics, Thermohydraulics and Multiple Phase Flows A website with full details of the conference program, abstracts and other information can be found at http://fluidos2010.fisica.edu.uy. We would like to thank all the participants, especially those who contributed with talks, posters and manuscripts, for making FLUDOS2010 such a successful conference. Our thanks also go to our colleagues for their support and encouragement, particularly in the refereeing of papers. We would like to acknowledge additional financial support from Comisión Sectorial de Investigación Científica (Universidad de la República, Uruguay), Programa de Desarrollo de las Ciencias Básicas (Uruguay) and the Centro Latinoamericano de Física (CLAF). Our thanks are extended to the local government of Colonia del Sacramento. The next FLUIDOS conference will be held in November 2013, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We

  16. Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - A class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025

    CERN Document Server

    Appourchaux, Thierry; Chen, Yanbei; Cruise, Michael; Dittus, Hansjoerg; Foulon, Bernard; Gill, Patrick; Gizon, Laurent; Klein, Hugh; Klioner, Sergei; Kopeikin, Sergei; Krueger, Hans; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Lobo, Alberto; Luo, Xinlian; Margolis, Helen; Ni, Wei-Tou; Paton, Antonio Pulido; Peng, Qiuhe; Peters, Achim; Rasel, Ernst; Ruediger, Albrecht; Samain, Etienne; Selig, Hanns; Shaul, Diana; Sumner, Timothy; Theil, Stephan; Touboul, Pierre; Turyshev, Slava; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Li; Wen, Linqing; Wicht, Andreas; Wu, Ji; Zhang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Cheng

    2008-01-01

    ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test General Relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over 3 orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, thereby probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is an international project, with major contributions from Europe and China and is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTRO...

  17. Numerical investigation and experimental validation of physically based advanced GTN model for DP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansi, Joseph, E-mail: jfansi@doct.ulg.ac.be [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Balan, Tudor [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); Lemoine, Xavier [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Maire, Eric; Landron, Caroline [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Matériaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, Evry Cedex 91003 (France); Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed [Ensicaen, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Marie Habraken, Anne [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium)

    2013-05-01

    This numerical investigation of an advanced Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model is an extension of the original work of Ben Bettaiebet al. (2011 [18]). The model has been implemented as a user-defined material model subroutine (VUMAT) in the Abaqus/explicit FE code. The current damage model extends the previous version by integrating the three damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Physically based void nucleation and growth laws are considered, including an effect of the kinematic hardening. These new contributions are based and validated on experimental results provided by high-resolution X-ray absorption tomography measurements. The current damage model is applied to predict the damage evolution and the stress state in a tensile notched specimen experiment.

  18. Quantum mechanics I the fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals provides a graduate-level account of the behavior of matter and energy at the molecular, atomic, nuclear, and sub-nuclear levels. It covers basic concepts, mathematical formalism, and applications to physically important systems.

  19. Validation of physics and thermalhydraulic computer codes for advanced Candu reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wren, D.J.; Popov, N.; Snell, V.G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd, (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is developing an Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) that is an evolutionary advancement of the currently operating Candu 6 reactors. The ACR is being designed to produce electrical power for a capital cost and at a unit-energy cost significantly less than that of the current reactor designs. The ACR retains the modular Candu concept of horizontal fuel channels surrounded by a heavy water moderator. However, ACR uses slightly enriched uranium fuel compared to the natural uranium used in Candu 6. This achieves the twin goals of improved economics (via large reductions in the heavy water moderator volume and replacement of the heavy water coolant with light water coolant) and improved safety. AECL has developed and implemented a software quality assurance program to ensure that its analytical, scientific and design computer codes meet the required standards for software used in safety analyses. Since the basic design of the ACR is equivalent to that of the Candu 6, most of the key phenomena associated with the safety analyses of ACR are common, and the Candu industry standard tool-set of safety analysis codes can be applied to the analysis of the ACR. A systematic assessment of computer code applicability addressing the unique features of the ACR design was performed covering the important aspects of the computer code structure, models, constitutive correlations, and validation database. Arising from this assessment, limited additional requirements for code modifications and extensions to the validation databases have been identified. This paper provides an outline of the AECL software quality assurance program process for the validation of computer codes used to perform physics and thermal-hydraulics safety analyses of the ACR. It describes the additional validation work that has been identified for these codes and the planned, and ongoing, experimental programs to extend the code validation as required to address specific ACR design

  20. Using Recent Planetary Science Data to Develop Advanced Undergraduate Physics and Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckloff, Jordan; Lindell, Rebecca

    2016-10-01

    Teaching science by having students manipulate real data is a popular trend in astronomy and planetary science education. However, many existing activities simply couple this data with traditional "cookbook" style verification labs. As with most topics within science, this instructional technique does not enhance the average students' understanding of the phenomena being studied. Here we present a methodology for developing "science by doing" activities that incorporate the latest discoveries in planetary science with up-to-date constructivist pedagogy to teach advanced concepts in Physics and Astronomy. In our methodology, students are first guided to understand, analyze, and plot real raw scientific data; develop and test physical and computational models to understand and interpret the data; finally use their models to make predictions about the topic being studied and test it with real data.To date, two activities have been developed according to this methodology: Understanding Asteroids through their Light Curves (hereafter "Asteroid Activity"), and Understanding Exoplanetary Systems through Simple Harmonic Motion (hereafter "Exoplanet Activity"). The Asteroid Activity allows students to explore light curves available on the Asteroid Light Curve Database (ALCDB) to discover general properties of asteroids, including their internal structure, strength, and mechanism of asteroid moon formation. The Exoplanet Activity allows students to investigate the masses and semi-major axes of exoplanets in a system by comparing the radial velocity motion of their host star to that of a coupled simple harmonic oscillator. Students then explore how noncircular orbits lead to deviations from simple harmonic motion. These activities will be field tested during the Fall 2016 semester in an advanced undergraduate mechanics and astronomy courses at a large Midwestern STEM-focused university. We will present the development methodologies for these activities, description of the

  1. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED PHYSICAL FINE COAL CLEANING FOR PREMIUM FUEL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1997-06-01

    Bechtel, together with Amax Research and Development Center (Amax R&D), has prepared this study which provides conceptual cost estimates for the production of premium quality coal-water slurry fuel (CWF) in a commercial plant. Two scenarios are presented, one using column flotation technology and the other the selective agglomeration to clean the coal to the required quality specifications. This study forms part of US Department of Energy program "Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications," (Contract No. DE-AC22- 92PC92208), under Task 11, Project Final Report. The primary objective of the Department of Energy program is to develop the design base for prototype commercial advanced fine coal cleaning facilities capable of producing ultra-clean coals suitable for conversion to stable and highly loaded CWF. The fuels should contain less than 2 lb ash/MBtu (860 grams ash/GJ) of HHV and preferably less than 1 lb ash/MBtu (430 grams ash/GJ). The advanced fine coal cleaning technologies to be employed are advanced column froth flotation and selective agglomeration. It is further stipulated that operating conditions during the advanced cleaning process should recover not less than 80 percent of the carbon content (heating value) in the run-of-mine source coal. These goals for ultra-clean coal quality are to be met under the constraint that annualized coal production costs does not exceed $2.5 /MBtu ($ 2.37/GJ), including the mine mouth cost of the raw coal. A further objective of the program is to determine the distribution of a selected suite of eleven toxic trace elements between product CWF and the refuse stream of the cleaning processes. Laboratory, bench-scale and Process Development Unit (PDU) tests to evaluate advanced column flotation and selective agglomeration were completed earlier under this program with selected coal samples. A PDU with a capacity of 2 st/h was designed by Bechtel and installed at Amax R

  2. IBPRO - A Novel Short-Duration Teaching Course in Advanced Physics and Biology Underlying Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Michael C; Tracey, Monica W; Kacin, Sara E; Burmeister, Jay W

    2017-03-22

    This article provides a summary and status report of the ongoing advanced education program IBPRO - Integrated course in Biology and Physics of Radiation Oncology. IBPRO is a five-year program funded by NCI. It addresses the recognized deficiency in the number of mentors available who have the required knowledge and skill to provide the teaching and training that is required for future radiation oncologists and researchers in radiation sciences. Each year, IBPRO brings together 50 attendees typically at assistant professor level and upwards, who are already qualified/certified radiation oncologists, medical physicists or biologists. These attendees receive keynote lectures and activities based on active learning strategies, merging together the clinical, biological and physics underpinnings of radiation oncology, at the forefront of the field. This experience is aimed at increasing collaborations, raising the level and amount of basic and applied research undertaken in radiation oncology, and enabling attendees to confidently become involved in the future teaching and training of researchers and radiation oncologists.

  3. A theoretical approach to thermal noise caused by an inhomogeneously distributed loss -- Physical insight by the advanced modal expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Ando, Masaki; Kawabe, Keita; Tsubono, Kimio

    2006-01-01

    We modified the modal expansion, which is the traditional method used to calculate thermal noise. This advanced modal expansion provides physical insight about the discrepancy between the actual thermal noise caused by inhomogeneously distributed loss and the traditional modal expansion. This discrepancy comes from correlations between the thermal fluctuations of the resonant modes. The thermal noise spectra estimated by the advanced modal expansion are consistent with the results of measurem...

  4. Nanomachines fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    This first-hand account by one of the pioneers of nanobiotechnology brings together a wealth of valuable material in a single source. It allows fascinating insights into motion at the nanoscale, showing how the proven principles of biological nanomotors are being transferred to artificial nanodevices.As such, the author provides engineers and scientists with the fundamental knowledge surrounding the design and operation of biological and synthetic nanomotors and the latest advances in nanomachines. He addresses such topics as nanoscale propulsions, natural biomotors, molecular-scale machin

  5. Advances in Galactic Dynamics: Classical Physics in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinski, John

    2007-04-01

    During the past 2 decades, there have been tremendous advances in computational power and algorithmic efficiency in the numerical N-body problem. Despite the vast scale of the universe, the original Newtonian equations of motion along with the inverse-square law of gravity still provide an adequate physical framework for studying many of the complexities of the dynamic universe. The relativistic limit in the macroscopic universe is only reached on the extreme scales of the entire observable universe and the event horizons of black holes. Here I will review some of the recent advances in parallel computational algorithms for application to the collisionless N-body problem with the main applications to the problem of the dynamics of galaxies and cosmological structure formation. The cosmological paradigm of cold dark matter with a cosmological constant is now so well-constrained that in principle detailed predictions of the dynamical behavior of galaxies can be tested against observation. I will describe two recent studies that use realistic, self-consistent N-body models of disk galaxies to study the effects of two cosmological predictions: dark matter halo triaxiality and substructure. The reaction of a stellar disk to these dark matter characteristics leads to triggering of the bar instability at random times in a given galaxy's life history and so can help explain the observed fraction and incidence of bars in the spiral galaxy population. I will also present some recent work on high-resolution computer animation of galactic dynamics that originated as a way to illustrate and develop intuition about dynamical processes but has since developed into a means of artistic expression through the beauty of complex gravitating systems.

  6. Physics of condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Misra, Prasanta K

    2012-01-01

    Physics of Condensed Matter is designed for a two-semester graduate course on condensed matter physics for students in physics and materials science. While the book offers fundamental ideas and topic areas of condensed matter physics, it also includes many recent topics of interest on which graduate students may choose to do further research. The text can also be used as a one-semester course for advanced undergraduate majors in physics, materials science, solid state chemistry, and electrical engineering, because it offers a breadth of topics applicable to these majors. The book be

  7. Investigation of the Flow Physics Driving Stall-Side Flutter in Advanced Forward Swept Fan Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Albert J.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Bakhle, Milind A.; Stefko, George; Srivastava, Rakesh

    2003-01-01

    Flutter-free operation of advanced transonic fan designs continues to be a challenging task for the designers of aircraft engines. In order to meet the demands of increased performance and lighter weight, these modern fan designs usually feature low-aspect ratio shroudless rotor blade designs that make the task of achieving adequate flutter margin even more challenging for the aeroelastician. This is especially true for advanced forward swept designs that encompass an entirely new design space compared to previous experience. Fortunately, advances in unsteady computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques over the past decade now provide an analysis capability that can be used to quantitatively assess the aeroelastic characteristics of these next generation fans during the design cycle. For aeroelastic applications, Mississippi State University and NASA Glenn Research Center have developed the CFD code TURBO-AE. This code is a time-accurate three-dimensional Euler/Navier-Stokes unsteady flow solver developed for axial-flow turbomachinery that can model multiple blade rows undergoing harmonic oscillations with arbitrary interblade phase angles, i.e., nodal diameter patterns. Details of the code can be found in Chen et al. (1993, 1994), Bakhle et al. (1997, 1998), and Srivastava et al. (1999). To assess aeroelastic stability, the work-per-cycle from TURBO-AE is converted to the critical damping ratio since this value is more physically meaningful, with both the unsteady normal pressure and viscous shear forces included in the work-per-cycle calculation. If the total damping (aerodynamic plus mechanical) is negative, then the blade is unstable since it extracts energy from the flow field over the vibration cycle. TURBO-AE is an integral part of an aeroelastic design system being developed at Honeywell Engines, Systems & Services for flutter and forced response predictions, with test cases from development rig and engine tests being used to validate its predictive

  8. On Discrete Physics: a Perfect Deterministic Structure for Reality - And "A (Direct) Logical Derivation of the Laws Governing the Fundamental Forces of Nature"

    OpenAIRE

    Zahedi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    In part I (pp. 1-10) of this article, I provide an analysis and overview of some notable definitions, works and thoughts concerning discrete physics (a.k.a. digital philosophy, digital physics or digital cosmology) that propose discrete, finite and deterministic characteristics for the physical world. Particular attention is given to theories which suggest cellular automata as the basis of a mathematical deterministic model for the physical reality. In part II (the main part, pp.11-97, Ref...

  9. Fundamentals of differential beamforming

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Pan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a systematic study of the fundamental theory and methods of beamforming with differential microphone arrays (DMAs), or differential beamforming in short. It begins with a brief overview of differential beamforming and some popularly used DMA beampatterns such as the dipole, cardioid, hypercardioid, and supercardioid, before providing essential background knowledge on orthogonal functions and orthogonal polynomials, which form the basis of differential beamforming. From a physical perspective, a DMA of a given order is defined as an array that measures the differential acoustic pressure field of that order; such an array has a beampattern in the form of a polynomial whose degree is equal to the DMA order. Therefore, the fundamental and core problem of differential beamforming boils down to the design of beampatterns with orthogonal polynomials. But certain constraints also have to be considered so that the resulting beamformer does not seriously amplify the sensors’ self noise and the mism...

  10. A physical description of fission product behavior fuels for advanced power reactors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganas, G.; Rest, J.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Florida International Univ.

    2007-10-18

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) is considering a list of reactors and nuclear fuels as part of its chartered initiative. Because many of the candidate materials have not been explored experimentally under the conditions of interest, and in order to economize on program costs, analytical support in the form of combined first principle and mechanistic modeling is highly desirable. The present work is a compilation of mechanistic models developed in order to describe the fission product behavior of irradiated nuclear fuel. The mechanistic nature of the model development allows for the possibility of describing a range of nuclear fuels under varying operating conditions. Key sources include the FASTGRASS code with an application to UO{sub 2} power reactor fuel and the Dispersion Analysis Research Tool (DART ) with an application to uranium-silicide and uranium-molybdenum research reactor fuel. Described behavior mechanisms are divided into subdivisions treating fundamental materials processes under normal operation as well as the effect of transient heating conditions on these processes. Model topics discussed include intra- and intergranular gas-atom and bubble diffusion, bubble nucleation and growth, gas-atom re-solution, fuel swelling and ?scion gas release. In addition, the effect of an evolving microstructure on these processes (e.g., irradiation-induced recrystallization) is considered. The uranium-alloy fuel, U-xPu-Zr, is investigated and behavior mechanisms are proposed for swelling in the {alpha}-, intermediate- and {gamma}-uranium zones of this fuel. The work reviews the FASTGRASS kinetic/mechanistic description of volatile ?scion products and, separately, the basis for the DART calculation of bubble behavior in amorphous fuels. Development areas and applications for physical nuclear fuel models are identified.

  11. Using an Advanced Computational Laboratory Experiment to Extend and Deepen Physical Chemistry Students' Understanding of Atomic Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary G.

    2015-01-01

    A computational laboratory experiment is described, which involves the advanced study of an atomic system. The students use concepts and techniques typically covered in a physical chemistry course but extend those concepts and techniques to more complex situations. The students get a chance to explore the study of atomic states and perform…

  12. PHYSICS

    CERN Multimedia

    Darin Acosta

    2010-01-01

    The collisions last year at 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV provided the long anticipated collider data to the CMS physics groups. Quite a lot has been accomplished in a very short time. Although the delivered luminosity was small, CMS was able to publish its first physics paper (with several more in preparation), and commence the commissioning of physics objects for future analyses. Many new performance results have been approved in advance of this CMS Week. One remarkable outcome has been the amazing agreement between out-of-the-box data with simulation at these low energies so early in the commissioning of the experiment. All of this is testament to the hard work and preparation conducted beforehand by many people in CMS. These analyses could not have happened without the dedicated work of the full collaboration on building and commissioning the detector, computing, and software systems combined with the tireless work of many to collect, calibrate and understand the data and our detector. To facilitate the efficien...

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Painlevé Transcendents, their Asymptotics and Physical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Winternitz, Pavel; Painlevé Transcendents, their Asymptotics and Physical Applications

    1992-01-01

    The NATO Advanced Research Workshop "Painleve Transcendents, their Asymp­ totics and Physical Applications", held at the Alpine Inn in Sainte-Adele, near Montreal, September 2 -7, 1990, brought together a group of experts to discuss the topic and produce this volume. There were 41 participants from 14 countries and 27 lectures were presented, all included in this volume. The speakers presented reviews of topics to which they themselves have made important contributions and also re­ sults of new original research. The result is a volume which, though multiauthored, has the character of a monograph on a single topic. This is the theory of nonlinear ordinary differential equations, the solutions of which have no movable singularities, other than poles, and the extension of this theory to partial differential equations. For short we shall call such systems "equations with the Painleve property". The search for such equations was a very topical mathematical problem in the 19th century. Early work concent...

  14. On the physical interconnection of Seismic Electric Signals with seismicity: Recent advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarlis, Nicholas; Skordas, Efthimios; Lazaridou, Mary; Varotsos, Panayiotis

    2013-04-01

    We review the recent advances on Seismic Electric Signals (SES) which are low frequency (˜ 1Hz) signals that precede earthquakes [1-3]. Since the 1980's Varotsos and Alexopoulos proposed [4] that SES are generated in the future focal area when the stress reaches a critical value, thus causing a cooperative orientation of the electric dipoles that anyhow exist in the focal area due to lattice imperfections in the ionic constituents of the rocks. A series of such signals within a short time are termed SES activity [5] and usually appear before major earthquakes. The combination of their physical properties enable the determination of the epicentral region and the magnitude well in advance. Natural time analysis introduced a decade ago [6, 7] may uncover novel dynamic features hidden behind time series in complex systems [8]. By employing this analysis, several advances have been made towards a better understanding of the SES properties. For example, it has been found [6, 8] that the natural time analysis of the seismicity subsequent to the initiation of a SES activity enables the determination of the occurrence time of an impending major mainshock within a time window of around one week. On this basis, predictions -including the magnitude, epicenter and time window of the expected event- have been documented well in advance for all five mainshocks with M_w×6.4 in Greece since 2001 [8, 9]. In addition, by applying natural time analysis to the time series of earthquakes, we recently found [10] that the order parameter of seismicity exhibits a unique change approximately at the date at which SES activities have been reported to initiate. This is the first time that before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two different geophysical observables. 1. P. Varotsos and K. Alexopoulos, Tectonophysics 110, 73-98, 1984a. 2. P. Varotsos and K. Alexopoulos, Tectonophysics 110, 99-125, 1984b. 3. P.A. Varotsos, N

  15. Fundamentals of Cavitation

    CERN Document Server

    Franc, Jean-Pierre

    2005-01-01

    The present book is aimed at providing a comprehensive presentation of cavitation phenomena in liquid flows. It is further backed up by the experience, both experimental and theoretical, of the authors whose expertise has been internationally recognized. A special effort is made to place the various methods of investigation in strong relation with the fundamental physics of cavitation, enabling the reader to treat specific problems independently. Furthermore, it is hoped that a better knowledge of the cavitation phenomenon will allow engineers to create systems using it positively. Examples in the literature show the feasibility of this approach.

  16. The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Physics, Nuclear Physics and Cosmology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The sixth Conference on Advanced Topics in the Interdisciplinary Fields of Particle Paysics.Nuclear Paysic8and Cosmology was held on July 22-27,2007 in Lijiang,Yunan Province.Over 70 scientists who were activelv working in the fields attended the conference and 42 physicists gave talks.9 papers have been selected to be published in the proceedings.

  17. The consequences of using advanced physical assessment skills in medical and surgical nursing: A hermeneutic pragmatic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambas, Shelaine I.; Smythe, Elizabeth A.; Koziol-Mclain, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to explore the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills on medical and surgical wards. Background Appropriate, accurate, and timely assessment by nurses is the cornerstone of maintaining patient safety in hospitals. The inclusion of “advanced” physical assessment skills such as auscultation, palpation, and percussion is thought to better prepare nurses for complex patient presentations within a wide range of clinical situations. Design This qualitative study used a hermeneutic pragmatic approach. Method Unstructured interviews were conducted with five experienced medical and surgical nurses to obtain 13 detailed narratives of assessment practice. Narratives were analyzed using Van Manen's six-step approach to identify the consequences of the nurse's use of advanced assessment skills. Results The consequences of using advanced assessment skills include looking for more, challenging interpretations, and perseverance. The use of advanced assessment skills directs what the nurse looks for, what she sees, interpretation of the findings, and her response. It is the interpretation of what is seen, heard, or felt within the full context of the patient situation, which is the advanced skill. Conclusion Advanced assessment skill is the means to an accurate interpretation of the clinical situation and contributes to appropriate diagnosis and medical management in complex patient situations. Relevance to clinical practice The nurse's use of advanced assessment skills enables her to contribute to diagnostic reasoning within the acute medical and surgical setting. PMID:27607193

  18. The Interdependence of Advanced Cancer Patients’ and Their Family Caregivers’ Mental Health, Physical Health, and Self-Efficacy Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Trace; Ellis, Katrina R.; Yoon, Hyojin; Schafenacker, Ann; Katapodi, Maria; Northouse, Laurel

    2016-01-01

    Background The challenges of advanced cancer have health implications for patients and their family caregivers from diagnosis through end-of-life. The nature of the patient/caregiver experience suggests that their mental and physical health may be interdependent, but limited empirical evidence exists. Purpose This study used Social Cognitive Theory as a framework to investigate individual and interpersonal influences on patients’ and their family caregivers’ mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy as individuals to manage the challenges of advanced disease over time. Methods Patients and caregivers (484 patient-caregiver dyads) completed surveys at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Longitudinal dyadic analysis techniques were used to examine (i) the influence that patients and caregivers had on their own mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy (actor effects) and (ii) the influence that they had on each other’s health outcomes (partner effects). We also examined the influence of self-efficacy on mental and physical health over time. Results Consistent with our hypotheses, each person’s mental health, physical health, and self-efficacy had significant effects on their own outcomes over time (actor effects). Patients and caregivers influenced one another’s mental and physical health (partner effects), but not their self-efficacy. In addition, patients and caregivers with higher self-efficacy had better mental health, and their partners had better physical health. Conclusions Patient and caregiver mental and physical health were interdependent. Each person’s cancer-related self-efficacy influenced their own mental and physical health. However, a person’s self-efficacy did not influence the other person’s self-efficacy. PMID:26489843

  19. Influence of various physics phenomena on fast-wave current drive in advanced tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Jaeger, E.F.; Carter, M.D.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Stallings, D.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-12-31

    The need for some type of noninductive current drive in advanced tokamaks has been recognized for some time. In reactor-grade plasmas, as envisioned in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), high density and temperature may limit the penetration of lower hybrid (LH) waves to only the outer layers of the plasma. Fast waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF), however, can easily penetrate to the center of such high-density plasmas. With sufficient directivity in the launched wave spectrum, currents can be driven by combined damping of the fast waves on resonant electrons through electron Landau damping (ELD) and transit-time magnetic pumping (TTMP). Experiments to study the feasibility of fast-wave current drive (FWCD) have only recently begun, but theoretical predictions look promising. In this paper we analyze the influence of the relevant physics phenomena, which are not necessarily independent, on current drive performance. Such phenomena include diffraction and other nongeometrical optics processes, k{sub ||} modification, single-pass absorption, and antenna characteristics, such as poloidal extent and poloidal location. To do this, we apply a two-and-one-half dimensional (2 1/2-D), full-wave code (PICES) for modeling ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and current drive based on the poloidal mode expansion method and the reduced-order expansion. By 2 1/2-D, we mean that 3-D wave fields are calculated in axisymmetric geometry (2-D solution domain - r, {theta}), while the correct toroidal dependence of the antenna source currents is obtained from a 2-D (r, {phi}) recessed antenna code. The model includes the poloidal and toroidal structure of the antennas, the modification of the k{sub ||} spectrum due to the poloidal magnetic field, and a nonperturbative solution for E{sub ||}. A semianalytical model for current drive, including trapped electron effects, is employed. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Lanthanide-doped luminescent nanomaterials from fundamentals to bioapplications

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xueyuan; Tu, Datao

    2014-01-01

    Lanthanide-Doped Luminescent Nanomaterials reviews the latest advances in the development of lanthanide-doped luminescent inorganic nanoparticles for potential bioapplications. This book covers the chemical and physical fundamentals of these nanoparticles, such as the controlled synthesis methodology, surface modification chemistry, optical physics, and their promising applications in diverse bioassays, with an emphasis on heterogeneous and homogeneous in-vitro biodetection of tumor biomarkers. This book is intended for those readers who are interested in systematically understanding the materials design strategy, optical behavior of lanthanide ions, and practical bioapplications of lanthanide nanoparticles. It primarily focuses on the interdisciplinary frontiers in chemistry, physics and biological aspects of luminescent nanomaterials. All chapters were written by scientists active in this field and for a broad audience, providing both beginners and advanced researchers with comprehensive information on the ...

  1. Particle and nuclear physics

    CERN Document Server

    Faessler, Amand

    1971-01-01

    Progress in Particle and Nuclear Physics, Volume 26 covers the significant advances in understanding the fundamentals of particle and nuclear physics. This volume is divided into four chapters, and begins with a brief overview of the various possible ideas beyond the standard model, the problem they address and their experimental tests. The next chapter deals with the basic physics of neutrino mass based on from a gauge theoretic point of view. This chapter considers the various extensions of the standard electroweak theory, along with their implications for neutrino physics. The discussio

  2. Advances in Bio-Imaging From Physics to Signal Understanding Issues State-of-the-Art and Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Racoceanu, Daniel; Gouaillard, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    Advances in Imaging Devices and Image processing stem from cross-fertilization between many fields of research such as Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics and Computer Sciences. This BioImaging Community feel the urge to integrate more intensively its various results, discoveries and innovation into ready to use tools that can address all the new exciting challenges that Life Scientists (Biologists, Medical doctors, ...) keep providing, almost on a daily basis. Devising innovative chemical probes, for example, is an archetypal goal in which image quality improvement must be driven by the physics of acquisition, the image processing and analysis algorithms and the chemical skills in order to design an optimal bioprobe. This book offers an overview of the current advances in many research fields related to bioimaging and highlights the current limitations that would need to be addressed in the next decade to design fully integrated BioImaging Device.

  3. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  4. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning for premium fuel applications. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.; Shields, G.L.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1997-12-31

    The primary goal of this project is the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope includes laboratory research and bench-scale testing on six coals to optimize these processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). Accomplishments during the quarter are described on the following tasks and subtasks: Development of near-term applications (engineering development and dewatering studies); Engineering development of selective agglomeration (bench-scale testing and process scale-up); PDU and advanced column flotation module (coal selection and procurement and advanced flotation topical report); Selective agglomeration module (module operation and clean coal production with Hiawatha, Taggart, and Indiana 7 coals); Disposition of the PDU; and Project final report. Plans for next quarter are discussed and agglomeration results of the three tested coals are presented.

  5. Effects of melatonin on physical fatigue and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer receiving palliative care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Klee Olsen, Marc; Thit Johnsen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced cancer often experience fatigue and other symptoms that negatively impact their quality of life. The current trial investigated the effect of melatonin on fatigue and other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer. METHODS: Patients who were aged ≥18 years, had...... a histologically confirmed stage IV cancer (TNM Classification), and who reported feeling significantly tired were recruited from the palliative care unit at the study institution. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Patients received 1 week of melatonin at a dose of 20 mg...... the placebo and melatonin periods were found for physical fatigue, secondary outcomes, or explorative outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the current study, oral melatonin at a dose of 20 mg was not found to improve fatigue or other symptoms in patients with advanced cancer....

  6. Removal mechanisms for endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment - physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activity at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. Within the past few decades, more and more target chemicals were monitored as the source of estrogenic or androgenic activity in wastewater, and great endeavors have been done on the removal of EDCs in wastewater. This article reviewed removal of EDCs from three aspects, that is, physical means, biodegradation, and chemical advanced oxidation (CAO).

  7. Reviews CD-ROM: Scientific American—The Amateur Scientist 3.0 Book: The New Resourceful Physics Teacher Equipment: DynaKar Book: The Fundamentals of Imaging Book: Teaching Secondary Physics Book: Novel Materials and Smart Applications Equipment: Cryptic disk Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    WE RECOMMEND Scientific American—The Amateur Scientist 3.0 Article collection spans the decades DynaKar DynaKar drives dynamics experiments The Fundamentals of Imaging Author covers whole imaging spectrum Teaching Secondary Physics Effective teaching is all in the approach Novel Materials and Smart Applications/Novel materials sample pack Resources kit samples smart materials WORTH A LOOK Cryptic disk Metal disk spins life into discussions about energy, surfaces and kinetics HANDLE WITH CARE The New Resourceful Physics Teacher Book brings creativity to physics WEB WATCH Apps for tablets and smartphones can aid physics teaching

  8. Fundamentals of Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisacane, Vincent L.

    2005-06-01

    Fundamentals of Space Systems was developed to satisfy two objectives: the first is to provide a text suitable for use in an advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate course in both space systems engineering and space system design. The second is to be a primer and reference book for space professionals wishing to broaden their capabilities to develop, manage the development, or operate space systems. The authors of the individual chapters are practicing engineers that have had extensive experience in developing sophisticated experimental and operational spacecraft systems in addition to having experience teaching the subject material. The text presents the fundamentals of all the subsystems of a spacecraft missions and includes illustrative examples drawn from actual experience to enhance the learning experience. It included a chapter on each of the relevant major disciplines and subsystems including space systems engineering, space environment, astrodynamics, propulsion and flight mechanics, attitude determination and control, power systems, thermal control, configuration management and structures, communications, command and telemetry, data processing, embedded flight software, survuvability and reliability, integration and test, mission operations, and the initial conceptual design of a typical small spacecraft mission.

  9. PREFACE: X Meeting on Recent Advances in the Physics of Fluids and their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saita, Fernando Adolfo; Giavedoni, María Delia

    2009-07-01

    The X Meeting on Recent Advances in Physics of Fluids and Related Applications (Fluids 2008) was held in Santa Fe, Argentina, on 19-21 November 2008. It belongs to a series of meetings that started in 1989 and has continued - except for just one occasion - every other year. Thus, the first meeting took place in the city of Tandil in 1989 followed by three events in the city of La Plata (1991-93-95), Tunuyán (Mendoza) in 1997, Paraná (Entre Rios) in 1999, Buenos Aires in 2001, Tandil in 2003 and Mendoza in 2006. These meetings gather together most of the people working in Fluid Mechanics and related problems in Argentina. The objective of the meetings is to provide a forum to facilitate the interactions between participants in a friendly academic atmosphere. This goal is achieved by means of lectures and technical presentations on different subjects and from different points of view, the only constraint being the current academic/technical interest. Applications usually deal with problems of local interest. In the present meeting a variety of lecture topics were presented, among them we might mention Capillary Hydrodynamics, Wetting, Density Currents, Instabilities, Elastic-Dynamics, Flows in Porous Media, Sediment Transport, Plasma Dynamics, etc. In particular, we would like to highlight the specially invited lectures given by Dr Ramon Cerro (Chemical and Material Engineering Department University of Alabama in Huntsville, USA), Dr David Quéré (Physique et Mécanique des Milieux Hétérogènes ESPCI, FRANCE), Dr Marcelo García (College of Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign) and Dr Víctor Calo (Earth and Environmental Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) and Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences (ICES), University of Texas at Austin). In addition, we had 18 invited talks and more than fifty contributions that were presented in poster sessions. On behalf of both the Honorary

  10. Testing Our Fundamental Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Science is all about testing the things we take for granted including some of the most fundamental aspects of how we understand our universe. Is the speed of light in a vacuum the same for all photons regardless of their energy? Is the rest mass of a photon actually zero? A series of recent studies explore the possibility of using transient astrophysical sources for tests!Explaining Different Arrival TimesArtists illustration of a gamma-ray burst, another extragalactic transient, in a star-forming region. [NASA/Swift/Mary Pat Hrybyk-Keith and John Jones]Suppose you observe a distant transient astrophysical source like a gamma-ray burst, or a flare from an active nucleus and two photons of different energies arrive at your telescope at different times. This difference in arrival times could be due to several different factors, depending on how deeply you want to question some of our fundamental assumptions about physics:Intrinsic delayThe photons may simply have been emitted at two different times by the astrophysical source.Delay due to Lorentz invariance violationPerhaps the assumption that all massless particles (even two photons with different energies) move at the exact same velocity in a vacuum is incorrect.Special-relativistic delayMaybe there is a universal speed for massless particles, but the assumption that photons have zero rest mass is wrong. This, too, would cause photon velocities to be energy-dependent.Delay due to gravitational potentialPerhaps our understanding of the gravitational potential that the photons experience as they travel is incorrect, also causing different flight times for photons of different energies. This would mean that Einsteins equivalence principle, a fundamental tenet of general relativity (GR), is incorrect.If we now turn this problem around, then by measuring the arrival time delay between photons of different energies from various astrophysical sources the further away, the better we can provide constraints on these

  11. AINSE Plasma Science and Technology Conference and Elizabeth and Frederick White Workshop on Fundamental Problems in the Physics of Magnetically Confined Plasmas: Conference handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    The handbook contains abstracts of papers and posters presented at the conference. The main topics relate to plasma physics and fusion, plasma processing and uses as well as specific fusion devices and experiments. Eighty-four out of ninety-two presentations were considered to be in the INIS subject scope and have been separately indexed.

  12. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report: Fundamental Molecular Physics and Chemistry, October 1977-September 1978. [Summary of research activities at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowland, R. E.; Inokuti, Mitio [eds.

    1978-01-01

    Research presented includes 32 papers, six of which have appeared previously in ERA, and 26 appear in this issue of ERA. Molecular physics and chemistry including photoionization, molecular properties, oscillator strengths, scattering, shape resonances, and photoelectrons are covered. A list of publications is included. (JFP)

  13. Investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarov, Ivan [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project was investigation of fundamental limits to beam brightness available from photoinjectors. This basic research in accelerator physics spanned over 5 years aiming to extend the fundamental understanding of high average current, low emittance sources of relativistic electrons based on photoemission guns, a necessary prerequisite for a new generation of coherent X-ray synchrotron radiation facilities based on continuous duty superconducting linacs. The program focused on two areas critical to making advances in the electron source performance: 1) the physics of photocathodes for the production of low emittance electrons and 2) control of space charge forces in the immediate vicinity to the cathode via 3D laser pulse shaping.

  14. Beyond advanced mechatronics: new design challenges of social-cyber-physical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, I.

    2012-01-01

    In the last two decades, an intense shift Irom advanced mechatronics systems to cyberphysical systems is taking place. The former systems, which integrate mechanical, electronics, computing, control and situated reasoning components, are typically implemented as closed, predefined, controlled, and d

  15. FUNDAMENTALS OF BIOMECHANICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Knudson

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION This book provides a broad and in-depth theoretical and practical description of the fundamental concepts in understanding biomechanics in the qualitative analysis of human movement. PURPOSE The aim is to bring together up-to-date biomechanical knowledge with expert application knowledge. Extensive referencing for students is also provided. FEATURES This textbook is divided into 12 chapters within four parts, including a lab activities section at the end. The division is as follows: Part 1 Introduction: 1.Introduction to biomechanics of human movement; 2.Fundamentals of biomechanics and qualitative analysis; Part 2 Biological/Structural Bases: 3.Anatomical description and its limitations; 4.Mechanics of the musculoskeletal system; Part 3 Mechanical Bases: 5.Linear and angular kinematics; 6.Linear kinetics; 7.Angular kinetics; 8.Fluid mechanics; Part 4 Application of Biomechanics in Qualitative Analysis :9.Applying biomechanics in physical education; 10.Applying biomechanics in coaching; 11.Applying biomechanics in strength and conditioning; 12.Applying biomechanics in sports medicine and rehabilitation. AUDIENCE This is an important reading for both student and educators in the medicine, sport and exercise-related fields. For the researcher and lecturer it would be a helpful guide to plan and prepare more detailed experimental designs or lecture and/or laboratory classes in exercise and sport biomechanics. ASSESSMENT The text provides a constructive fundamental resource for biomechanics, exercise and sport-related students, teachers and researchers as well as anyone interested in understanding motion. It is also very useful since being clearly written and presenting several ways of examples of the application of biomechanics to help teach and apply biomechanical variables and concepts, including sport-related ones

  16. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  17. Fundamentals of phosphors

    CERN Document Server

    Yen, William M; Yamamoto, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Drawing from the second edition of the best-selling Handbook of Phosphors, Fundamentals of Phosphors covers the principles and mechanisms of luminescence in detail and surveys the primary phosphor materials as well as their optical properties. The book addresses cutting-edge developments in phosphor science and technology including oxynitride phosphors and the impact of lanthanide level location on phosphor performance.Beginning with an explanation of the physics underlying luminescence mechanisms in solids, the book goes on to interpret various luminescence phenomena in inorganic and organic materials. This includes the interpretation of the luminescence of recently developed low-dimensional systems, such as quantum wells and dots. The book also discusses the excitation mechanisms by cathode-ray and ionizing radiation and by electric fields to produce electroluminescence. The book classifies phosphor materials according to the type of luminescence centers employed or the class of host materials used and inte...

  18. Fundamentals of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2017-01-01

    Fundamentals of Quantum Mechanics, Third Edition is a clear and detailed introduction to quantum mechanics and its applications in chemistry and physics. All required math is clearly explained, including intermediate steps in derivations, and concise review of the math is included in the text at appropriate points. Most of the elementary quantum mechanical models-including particles in boxes, rigid rotor, harmonic oscillator, barrier penetration, hydrogen atom-are clearly and completely presented. Applications of these models to selected “real world” topics are also included. This new edition includes many new topics such as band theory and heat capacity of solids, spectroscopy of molecules and complexes (including applications to ligand field theory), and small molecules of astrophysical interest.

  19. Lasers Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Thyagarajan, K

    2010-01-01

    Lasers: Fundamentals and Applications, serves as a vital textbook to accompany undergraduate and graduate courses on lasers and their applications. Ever since their invention in 1960, lasers have assumed tremendous importance in the fields of science, engineering and technology because of their diverse uses in basic research and countless technological applications. This book provides a coherent presentation of the basic physics behind the way lasers work, and presents some of their most important applications in vivid detail. After reading this book, students will understand how to apply the concepts found within to practical, tangible situations. This textbook includes worked-out examples and exercises to enhance understanding, and the preface shows lecturers how to most beneficially match the textbook with their course curricula. The book includes several recent Nobel Lectures, which will further expose students to the emerging applications and excitement of working with lasers. Students who study lasers, ...

  20. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...... for empirical aspects of the subject of fire; Analyses ignition of liquids and the importance of evaporation including heat and mass transfer; Features the stages of fire in compartments, and the role of scale modelling in fire. The book is written by Prof. James G. Quintiere from University of Maryland...